WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey iii global

  1. Global Positioning System III (GPS III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-292 Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 23, 2016 16:15:29 UNCLASSIFIED GPS III December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 16:15:29 UNCLASSIFIED 2...Document OSD - Office of the Secretary of Defense O&S - Operating and Support PAUC - Program Acquisition Unit Cost GPS III December 2015 SAR March 23

  2. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. IV. Global properties of C III] emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseda, Michael V.; Brinchmann, Jarle; Franx, Marijn; Bacon, Roland; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Boogaard, Leindert A.; Contini, Thierry; Feltre, Anna; Inami, Hanae; Kollatschny, Wolfram; Marino, Raffaella A.; Richard, Johan; Verhamme, Anne; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2017-11-01

    The C III] λλ1907, 1909 emission doublet has been proposed as an alternative to Lyman-α in redshift confirmations of galaxies at z ≳ 6 since it is not attenuated by the largely neutral intergalactic medium at these redshifts and is believed to be strong in the young, vigorously star-forming galaxies present at these early cosmic times. We present a statistical sample of 17 C III]-emitting galaxies beyond z 1.5 using 30 h deep VLT/MUSE integral field spectroscopy covering 2 square arcminutes in the Hubble Deep Field South (HDFS) and Ultra Deep Field (UDF), achieving C III] sensitivities of 2 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 in the HDFS and 7 × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 in the UDF. The rest-frame equivalent widths range from 2 to 19 Å. These 17 galaxies represent 3% of the total sample of galaxies found between 1.5 ≲ z ≲ 4. They also show elevated star formation rates, lower dust attenuation, and younger mass-weighted ages than the general population of galaxies at the same redshifts. Combined with deep slitless grism spectroscopy from the HST/WFC3 in the UDF, we can tie the rest-frame ultraviolet C III] emission to rest-frame optical emission lines, namely [O III] λ5007, finding a strong correlation between the two. Down to the flux limits that we observe ( 1 × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 with the grism data in the UDF), all objects with a rest-frame [O III] λλ4959, 5007 equivalent width in excess of 250 Å, the so-called extreme emission line galaxies, have detections of C III] in our MUSE data. More detailed studies of the C III]-emitting population at these intermediate redshifts will be crucial to understand the physical conditions in galaxies at early cosmic times and to determine the utility of C III] as a redshift tracer. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program IDs 60.A-9100(C), 094.A-2089(B), 095.A-0010(A), 096.A-0045(A), and 096.A-0045(B). This work is also based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble

  3. Treating Globalization in History Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Peter N.

    2003-01-01

    Globalization provides history teachers with an opportunity to link past to present in new ways and to test historical thinking. This is particularly true in world history surveys, but has relevance to Western civilization or United States history surveys as well. For globalization in turn, the historical perspective offers opportunities for more…

  4. 2007 Global Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauzon, Jean-Claude; Preng, Richard; Sutton, Bob; Pavlovic, Bojan

    2007-06-15

    The World Energy Council (WEC), in partnership with Korn/Ferry International undertook a survey focussing on the topic ''Tackling the Three S's: Sustainability, Security and Strategy.'' More than 50 senior executives from the world's leading energy companies and their strategic suppliers were interviewed by Korn/Ferry International.

  5. Surveying the global virome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels K H; Simmonds, Peter; Kapoor, Amit

    2015-01-01

    for understanding animal disease, the origin and evolution of human viruses, as well as zoonotic reservoirs for emerging infections. Although the human hepacivirus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), was identified 25years ago, its origin has remained elusive. In 2011, the first HCV homolog was reported in dogs...... but subsequent studies showed the virus to be widely distributed in horses. This indicated a wider hepacivirus host range and paved the way for identification of rodent, bat and non-human primate hepaciviruses. The equine non-primate hepacivirus (NPHV) remains the closest relative of HCV and is so far the best......, their genetic relationship and characterization and the potential use of animal hepaciviruses as models to study hepaciviral infection, immunity and pathogenesis. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Hepatitis C: Next steps toward global eradication."...

  6. Surveys in differential-algebraic equations III

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The present volume comprises survey articles on various fields of Differential-Algebraic Equations (DAEs), which have widespread applications in controlled dynamical systems, especially in mechanical and electrical engineering and a strong relation to (ordinary) differential equations. The individual chapters provide reviews, presentations of the current state of research and new concepts in - Flexibility of DAE formulations - Reachability analysis and deterministic global optimization - Numerical linear algebra methods - Boundary value problems The results are presented in an accessible style, making this book suitable not only for active researchers but also for graduate students (with a good knowledge of the basic principles of DAEs) for self-study.

  7. Global thunderstorm activity research survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroniti, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    The published literature on the subject of the monitoring of global thunderstorm activity by instrumented satellites was reviewed. A survey of the properties of selected physical parameters of the thunderstorm is presented. The concepts used by satellites to identify and to measure terrestrial lightning pulses are described. The experimental data acquired by satellites are discussed. The scientific achievements of the satellites are evaluated against the needs of scientists and the potential requirements of user agencies. The performances of the satellites are rated according to their scientific and operational achievements.

  8. Global Properties of M31’s Stellar Halo from the SPLASH Survey. III. Measuring the Stellar Velocity Dispersion Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Karoline M.; Tollerud, Erik; Beaton, Rachael L.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Bullock, James S.; Chiba, Masashi; Kalirai, Jason S.; Kirby, Evan N.; Majewski, Steven R.; Tanaka, Mikito

    2018-01-01

    We present the velocity dispersion of red giant branch stars in M31’s halo, derived by modeling the line-of-sight velocity distribution of over 5000 stars in 50 fields spread throughout M31’s stellar halo. The data set was obtained as part of the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda’s Stellar Halo (SPLASH) Survey, and covers projected radii of 9 to 175 kpc from M31’s center. All major structural components along the line of sight in both the Milky Way (MW) and M31 are incorporated in a Gaussian Mixture Model, including all previously identified M31 tidal debris features in the observed fields. The probability that an individual star is a constituent of M31 or the MW, based on a set of empirical photometric and spectroscopic diagnostics, is included as a prior probability in the mixture model. The velocity dispersion of stars in M31’s halo is found to decrease only mildly with projected radius, from 108 km s‑1 in the innermost radial bin (8.2 to 14.1 kpc) to ∼80 to 90 km s‑1 at projected radii of ∼40–130 kpc, and can be parameterized with a power law of slope ‑0.12 ± 0.05. The quoted uncertainty on the power-law slope reflects only the precision of the method, although other sources of uncertainty we consider contribute negligibly to the overall error budget. The data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  9. Global Management Education Graduate Survey, 2011. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    Each year for the past 12 years, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) has conducted a survey of graduate management education students in their final year of business school. This Global Management Education Graduate Survey is distributed to students at participating business schools. The survey allows students to express their…

  10. 2012 Global Management Education Graduate Survey. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Each year for the past 13 years, the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) has conducted a survey of graduate management education students in their final year of business school. The Global Management Education Graduate Survey is distributed to students at participating schools. The survey allows students to express their opinions about…

  11. MMT hypervelocity star survey. III. The complete survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We describe our completed spectroscopic survey for unbound hypervelocity stars (HVSs) ejected from the Milky Way. Three new discoveries bring the total number of unbound late B-type stars to 21. We place new constraints on the nature of the stars and on their distances using moderate resolution MMT spectroscopy. Half of the stars are fast rotators; they are certain 2.5-4 M {sub ☉} main sequence stars at 50-120 kpc distances. Correcting for stellar lifetime, our survey implies that unbound 2.5-4 M {sub ☉} stars are ejected from the Milky Way at a rate of 1.5 × 10{sup –6} yr{sup –1}. These unbound HVSs are likely ejected continuously over the past 200 Myr and do not share a common flight time. The anisotropic spatial distribution of HVSs on the sky remains puzzling. Southern hemisphere surveys like SkyMapper will soon allow us to map the all-sky distribution of HVSs. Future proper motion measurements with Hubble Space Telescope and Gaia will provide strong constraints on origin. Existing observations are all consistent with HVS ejections from encounters with the massive black hole in the Galactic center.

  12. MMT hypervelocity star survey. III. The complete survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe our completed spectroscopic survey for unbound hypervelocity stars (HVSs) ejected from the Milky Way. Three new discoveries bring the total number of unbound late B-type stars to 21. We place new constraints on the nature of the stars and on their distances using moderate resolution MMT spectroscopy. Half of the stars are fast rotators; they are certain 2.5-4 M ☉ main sequence stars at 50-120 kpc distances. Correcting for stellar lifetime, our survey implies that unbound 2.5-4 M ☉ stars are ejected from the Milky Way at a rate of 1.5 × 10 –6 yr –1 . These unbound HVSs are likely ejected continuously over the past 200 Myr and do not share a common flight time. The anisotropic spatial distribution of HVSs on the sky remains puzzling. Southern hemisphere surveys like SkyMapper will soon allow us to map the all-sky distribution of HVSs. Future proper motion measurements with Hubble Space Telescope and Gaia will provide strong constraints on origin. Existing observations are all consistent with HVS ejections from encounters with the massive black hole in the Galactic center.

  13. QUEST1 VARIABILITY SURVEY. III. LIGHT CURVE CATALOG UPDATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengstorf, A. W.; Thompson, D. L.; Mufson, S. L.; Honeycutt, R. K.; Adams, B.; Baltay, C.; Gebhard, M.; Andrews, P.; Coppi, P.; Emmet, W.; Vivas, A. K.; Abad, C.; Bongiovanni, A.; Briceno, C.; Bruzual, G.; Prugna, F. Della; Hernandez, J.; Bailyn, C.; Ferrin, I.; Fuenmayor, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an update to the QUEST1 (QUasar Equatorial Survey Team, Phase 1) Variability Survey (QVS) light curve catalog, which links QVS instrumental magnitude light curves to Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) objects and photometry. In the time since the original QVS catalog release, the overlap between publicly available SDSS data and QVS data has increased by 8% in sky coverage and 16,728 in number of matched objects. The astrometric matching and the treatment of SDSS masks have been refined for the updated catalog. We report on these improvements and present multiple bandpass light curves, global variability information, and matched SDSS photometry for 214,941 QUEST1 objects.

  14. Target Selection for the SDSS-III MARVELS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paegert, Martin; Stassun, Keivan G.; De Lee, Nathan; Pepper, Joshua; Fleming, Scott W.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Mack, Claude E., III; Dhital, Saurav; Hebb, Leslie; Ge, Jian

    2015-06-01

    We present the target selection process for the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanets Large-area Survey (MARVELS), which is part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) III. MARVELS is a medium-resolution (R ∼ 11,000) multi-fiber spectrograph capable of obtaining radial velocities for 60 objects at a time in order to find brown dwarfs and giant planets. The survey was configured to target dwarf stars with effective temperatures approximately between 4500 and 6250 K. For the first 2 years MARVELS relied on low-resolution spectroscopic pre-observations to estimate the effective temperature and log (g) for candidate stars and then selected suitable dwarf stars from this pool. Ultimately, the pre-observation spectra proved ineffective at filtering out giant stars; many giants were incorrectly classified as dwarfs, resulting in a giant contamination rate of ∼30% for the first phase of the MARVELS survey. Thereafter, the survey instead applied a reduced proper motion cut to eliminate giants and used the Infrared Flux Method to estimate effective temperatures, using only extant photmetric and proper-motion catalog information. The target selection method introduced here may be useful for other surveys that need to rely on extant catalog data for selection of specific stellar populations.

  15. The World Fertility Survey: charting global childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightbourne R; Singh, S; Green, C P

    1982-03-01

    Interviewing some 350,000 women in 42 developing countries and 20 developed countries representing nearly 40% of the world's population, the World Fertility Survey (WFS) is in a unique position to document the historic 1970s slowdown in global population growth. This Bulletin describes efforts begun in 1972 to ensure high quality, internationally comparable, accessible data, the data's importance for policymakers, planners and researchers, and major findings available by early 1982 from directly assisted WFS surveys in 29 developing countries and contraceptive use data from WFS-type surveys in 16 developed countries. Marital fertility has declined in all developing regions except Africa but still averages from 4.6 children/woman in Latin America to 6.7 in Africa, while preferred family size ranges from 3.0 children in Turkey to 8.9 in Senegal--far above the average 2.2-2.5 children/woman needed to end developing countries' population growth in the long run. However, women ages 15-19 prefer nearly 2 children fewer than the oldest women ages 45-49; 3.8 vs. 5.7 on the average. Nearly 1/2 (48%) of married women surveyed in 27 countreis said they wanted no more children. Preventing all unwanted births would reduce birth rates up to 15 births/1000 population in these countries. Overall, 32% of married, fecund women in developing countries are using contraception compared to an average 72% in 16 developed countries. Education, literacy, and more available family planning services increase contraceptive use. Age at marriage is rising in Asia, but this factor alone has little effect on fertility. Infant mortality is higher in many developing countries than previously thought. Breastfeeding is an important restraint on fertility in most developing countries but is declining among more educated, employed, and urban women which could raise fertility if not compensated for by gains in contraceptive use.

  16. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  17. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  18. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Asao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%–12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles.

  19. Leptin Level and Skipping Breakfast: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Keiko; Marekani, Amandine Sambira; VanCleave, Jessica; Rothberg, Amy E

    2016-02-25

    Skipping breakfast is a common dietary habit considered to be unhealthy. However, the mechanisms underlying skipping breakfast have not been fully explored. Leptin is a hormone that regulates food intake and energy storage and secretes in a diurnal rhythm with lowest levels in the morning. We examined the association between the serum leptin level and skipping breakfast in 5714 adults in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994. We defined breakfast as any food or beverage consumed between 5:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. using a single 24-h recall. Skipped breakfast was seen in 13.1%. In the logistic regression models with and without adjusting for adiposity and sex, leptin levels were not associated with skipping breakfast. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and time of venipuncture, the association remained insignificant. After further adjusting for potential confounders: physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes and after further adjusting for: dietary factors, insulin and glucose levels, there was a 9% and 11%-12%, respectively, statistically significantly higher likelihood of skipping breakfast if the leptin level was more than 50% greater. Further investigation into the biological reasons for skipping breakfast may be useful for promoting healthy lifestyles.

  20. 75 FR 54086 - Global Intellectual Property Academy Program Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Global Intellectual Property Academy Program... Global Intellectual Property Academy Program Survey comment'' in the subject line of the message. Fax... Manager, Global Intellectual Property Academy, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450...

  1. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2011. The GYTS is a school-based survey that collects data on students aged 13–15 years using a standardized methodology for constructing the sample frame,...

  2. THE ALI/III GLOBAL PRINCIPLES PROJECT IF Fletcher* 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    4 The author served as an adviser to the Project from 1999 onwards. For accounts of the work of the ALI Insolvency Project during its successive phases, see Westbrook and .... taken into account in the course of the Global Principles Project.11. 3.1 First steps in ..... matured and payable prior to a certain date), then Article 6.

  3. Business Cycle Volatility and Globalization: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia M. Buch

    2002-01-01

    The globalization of capital and product markets has many implications for economic welfare. Countries can specialize in the production of goods for which they have comparative advantages, and capital is allocated more efficiently. However, one potentially adverse effect of globalization is the possibility that business cycle volatility might increase. Rapid and badly co-ordinated capital account liberalization has been blamed for enhancing the vulnerability of emerging markets to unstable in...

  4. Essays and surveys in global optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Audet, Charles; Savard, Giles

    2005-01-01

    Global optimization aims at solving the most general problems of deterministic mathematical programming. In addition, once the solutions are found, this methodology is also expected to prove their optimality. With these difficulties in mind, global optimization is becoming an increasingly powerful and important methodology. This book is the most recent examination of its mathematical capability, power, and wide ranging solutions to many fields in the applied sciences.

  5. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2011. The GYTS is a school-based survey that collects data on students aged 13–15 years using a standardized methodology for constructing the sample frame,...

  6. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor - Canada Survey | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding entrepreneurship on a global scale allows researchers to analyze trends in policies and practice, and identify lessons for improving entrepreneurship. This three-year study will generate valuable information about entrepreneurship in Canada, complementing similar studies underway in developing countries ...

  7. Internationalizing the Business School: A Global Survey in 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Chuck C Y Kwok; Jeffrey S Arpan

    2002-01-01

    We summarize the major findings of the sixth global survey of business school internationalization sponsored by the Academy of International Business (AIB). The survey covers various aspects of internationalization including: objectives, organizational issues, curriculum and faculty internationalization, foreign institutional arrangements, and satisfaction with progress achieved. The empirical results indicate that, across all dimensions, significant progress continued to be made in the inter...

  8. National Youth Survey US: Wave III (NYS-1978)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the third wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this data collection, which includes data for youth interviewed in 1979 about events and...

  9. A global magnetic topology model for magnetic clouds. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    In two previous papers, we presented a global model for the analysis of magnetic clouds (MCs), where the three components of the magnetic field were fitted to the corresponding Geocentric Solar Ecliptic experimental data, obtaining reliable information, for example, about the orientation of these events in the interplanetary medium. That model, due to its non-force-free character, (∇p ≠ 0), could be extended to determine the plasma behavior. In the present work, we develop that extension, now including the plasma behavior inside the cloud through the analysis of the plasma pressure, and define a fitting procedure where the pressure and the magnetic field components are fitted simultaneously. After deducing the magnetic field topology and the current density components of the model, we calculate the expression of the pressure tensor and, in particular, its trace. In light of the results, we conclude that incorporating the plasma behavior in the analysis of the MCs can give us a better scenario in which to understand the physical mechanisms involved in the evolution of such magnetic structures in the interplanetary medium.

  10. Global Land Survey Impervious Mapping Project Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeColstoun, Eric Brown; Phillips, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The Global Land Survey Impervious Mapping Project (GLS-IMP) aims to produce the first global maps of impervious cover at the 30m spatial resolution of Landsat. The project uses Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat data as its base but incorporates training data generated from very high resolution commercial satellite data and using a Hierarchical segmentation program called Hseg. The web site contains general project information, a high level description of the science, examples of input and output data, as well as links to other relevant projects.

  11. Global Energetics of Solar Flares. III. Nonthermal Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Holman, Gordon; O'Flannagain, Aidan; Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2016-11-01

    This study entails the third part of a global flare energetics project, in which Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) data of 191 M and X-class flare events from the first 3.5 years of the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission are analyzed. We fit a thermal and a nonthermal component to RHESSI spectra, yielding the temperature of the differential emission measure (DEM) tail, the nonthermal power-law slope and flux, and the thermal/nonthermal cross-over energy e co. From these parameters, we calculate the total nonthermal energy E nt in electrons with two different methods: (1) using the observed cross-over energy e co as low-energy cutoff, and (2) using the low-energy cutoff e wt predicted by the warm thick-target bremsstrahlung model of Kontar et al. Based on a mean temperature of T e = 8.6 MK in active regions, we find low-energy cutoff energies of {e}{wt}=6.2+/- 1.6 {keV} for the warm-target model, which is significantly lower than the cross-over energies {e}{co}=21+/- 6 {keV}. Comparing with the statistics of magnetically dissipated energies E mag and thermal energies E th from the two previous studies, we find the following mean (logarithmic) energy ratios with the warm-target model: {E}{nt}=0.41 {E}{mag}, {E}{th}=0.08 {E}{mag}, and {E}{th}=0.15 {E}{nt}. The total dissipated magnetic energy exceeds the thermal energy in 95% and the nonthermal energy in 71% of the flare events, which confirms that magnetic reconnection processes are sufficient to explain flare energies. The nonthermal energy exceeds the thermal energy in 85% of the events, which largely confirms the warm thick-target model.

  12. Global Energetics of Solar Flares. Part III; Nonthermal Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Holman, Gordon; O'Flannagain, Aidan; Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2016-01-01

    This study entails the third part of a global flare energetics project, in which Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) data of 191 M and X-class flare events from the first 3.5 years of the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission are analyzed. We fit a thermal and a nonthermal component to RHESSI spectra, yielding the temperature of the differential emission measure (DEM) tail, the nonthermal power-law slope and flux, and the thermal nonthermal cross-over energy eco. From these parameters, we calculate the total nonthermal energy E(sub nt) in electrons with two different methods: (1) using the observed cross-over energy e(sub co) as low-energy cutoff, and (2) using the low-energy cut off e(sub wt) predicted by the warm thick-target bremsstrahlung model of Kontar et al. Based on a mean temperature of T(sub e) = 8.6 MK in active regions, we find low-energy cutoff energies of e(sub wt) = 6.2 +/-1.6 keV for the warm-target model, which is significantly lower than the cross-over energies e(sub co) = 21 +/- 6 keV. Comparing with the statistics of magnetically dissipated energies E(sub mag) and thermal energies E(sub th) from the two previous studies, we find the following mean (logarithmic) energy ratios with the warm-target model: E(sub nt) = 0.41E(sub mag), E(sub th) = 0.08 E(sub mag), and E(sub th) = 0.15 E(sub nt). The total dissipated magnetic energy exceeds the thermal energy in 95% and the nonthermal energy in 71% of the flare events, which confirms that magnetic reconnection processes are sufficient to explain flare energies. The nonthermal energy exceeds the thermal energy in 85% of the events, which largely confirms the warm thick-target model.

  13. Global health in general surgery residency: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Sudha P; Ayzengart, Alexander L; Goetz, Laura H; Ozgediz, Doruk; Farmer, Diana L

    2009-03-01

    Interest in global health during postgraduate training is increasing across disciplines. There are limited data from surgery residency programs on their attitudes and scope of activities in this area. This study aims to understand how global health education fits into postgraduate surgical training in the US. In 2007 to 2008, we conducted a nationwide survey of program directors at all 253 US general surgery residencies using a Web-based questionnaire modified from a previously published survey. The goals of global health activities, type of activity (ie, clinical versus research), and challenges to establishing these programs were analyzed. Seventy-three programs responded to the survey (29%). Of the respondents, 23 (33%) offered educational activities in global health and 86% (n = 18) of these offered clinical rotations abroad. The primary goals of these activities were to prepare residents for a career in global health and to improve resident recruitment. The greatest barriers to establishing these activities were time constraints for faculty and residents, lack of approval from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and Residency Review Committee, and funding concerns. Lack of interest at the institution level was listed by only 5% of program directors. Of the 47 programs not offering such activities, 57% (n = 27) were interested in establishing them. Few general surgery residency programs currently offer clinical or other educational opportunities in global health. Most residencies that responded to our survey are interested in such activities but face many barriers, including time constraints, Residency Review Committee restrictions, and funding.

  14. THE BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF SDSS-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Kyle S.; Ahn, Christopher P.; Bolton, Adam S.; Schlegel, David J.; Bailey, Stephen; Anderson, Scott F.; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Aubourg, Éric; Bautista, Julian E.; Barkhouser, Robert H.; Beifiori, Alessandra; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Blake, Cullen H.; Blanton, Michael R.; Blomqvist, Michael; Borde, Arnaud; Bovy, Jo; Brandt, W. N.

    2013-01-01

    The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) is designed to measure the scale of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the clustering of matter over a larger volume than the combined efforts of all previous spectroscopic surveys of large-scale structure. BOSS uses 1.5 million luminous galaxies as faint as i = 19.9 over 10,000 deg 2 to measure BAO to redshifts z A to an accuracy of 1.0% at redshifts z = 0.3 and z = 0.57 and measurements of H(z) to 1.8% and 1.7% at the same redshifts. Forecasts for Lyα forest constraints predict a measurement of an overall dilation factor that scales the highly degenerate D A (z) and H –1 (z) parameters to an accuracy of 1.9% at z ∼ 2.5 when the survey is complete. Here, we provide an overview of the selection of spectroscopic targets, planning of observations, and analysis of data and data quality of BOSS.

  15. Global Connectedness and Global Migration: Insights from the International Changing Academic Profession Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Michelle K.; Ratkovic, Snežana; Wolhunter, Charl C.

    2013-01-01

    The Changing Academic Profession (CAP) international survey was designed in part to consider the effects of globalization on the work context and activities of academics in 19 countries or regions around the world. This paper draws from a subset of these data to explore the extent to which academics are globally connected in their research and…

  16. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  17. Groups of galaxies. III. the CfA survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, M.J.; Huchra, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    We present a statistically homogeneous group catalog (CfA) based on the CfA redshift survey (Huchra et al.). Groups in the catalog are all density enhancements in redshift space of a factor greater than 20. Group members are identified according to the procedure described in our previous study (Huchra and Geller) of a shallower whole-sky sample. All groups contain at least three members. Of the 176 groups in the CfA catalog, 102 have been identified in one or more previous studies. Because our algorithm searches for volume rather than surface density enhancements, the groups in a given region generally change only through the addition of fainter members when the magnitude limit of the galaxy catalog increases. In the region of overlap, agreement between our shallow catalog and the CfA catalog is excellent

  18. Analysis of noise bother by survey method | MENKITI | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 3 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Analysis of noise bother by survey method.

  19. THE OPTICALLY UNBIASED GRB HOST (TOUGH) SURVEY. III. REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsson, P.; Chapman, R.; Vreeswijk, P. M. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, B. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Tanvir, N. R.; Starling, R. L. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Letawe, G. [Departement d' Astrophysique, Geophysique et Oceanographie, ULg, Allee du 6 aout, 17-Bat. B5c B-4000 Liege (Sart-Tilman) (Belgium)

    2012-06-10

    We present 10 new gamma-ray burst (GRB) redshifts and another five redshift limits based on host galaxy spectroscopy obtained as part of a large program conducted at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The redshifts span the range 0.345 {<=} z {approx}< 2.54. Three of our measurements revise incorrect values from the literature. The homogeneous host sample researched here consists of 69 hosts that originally had a redshift completeness of 55% (with 38 out of 69 hosts having redshifts considered secure). Our project, including VLT/X-shooter observations reported elsewhere, increases this fraction to 77% (53/69), making the survey the most comprehensive in terms of redshift completeness of any sample to the full Swift depth, analyzed to date. We present the cumulative redshift distribution and derive a conservative, yet small, associated uncertainty. We constrain the fraction of Swift GRBs at high redshift to a maximum of 14% (5%) for z > 6 (z > 7). The mean redshift of the host sample is assessed to be (z) {approx}> 2.2, with the 10 new redshifts reducing it significantly. Using this more complete sample, we confirm previous findings that the GRB rate at high redshift (z {approx}> 3) appears to be in excess of predictions based on assumptions that it should follow conventional determinations of the star formation history of the universe, combined with an estimate of its likely metallicity dependence. This suggests that either star formation at high redshifts has been significantly underestimated, for example, due to a dominant contribution from faint, undetected galaxies, or that GRB production is enhanced in the conditions of early star formation, beyond that usually ascribed to lower metallicity.

  20. Sodium iron (III) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid synthesis to reduce iron deficiency globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, Du T; van Lieshout, M; Lieshout, M V; Lachmann, G

    2007-02-01

    Despite major interest in sodium iron (III) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid's (EDTA) potential use in food fortification programs in potentially curbing the global problem of iron deficiency and its anemia, synthesis methods of stable isotope-labeled sodium iron (III) EDTA for use in human bioavailability studies are incomplete, incorrect or totally lacking. Owing to a number of clinical research groups requiring this compound in bioavailability studies, in both developing and already developed countries, we simplified and optimized the synthesis of sodium iron (III) EDTA from a block of isotopically enriched iron metal, in order that it be easily reproduced, cheaply, using simple basic laboratory apparatus. The resulting product is of high purity (>99.0%), and may be used for human stable isotope bioavailability studies. The simplicity of this method allows for the many research groups, currently doing such studies, to perform their own syntheses. Additionally, more uniformity in this synthesis will reduce the variation observed between such studies.

  1. Barriers to global health development: An international quantitative survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahr Weiss

    Full Text Available Global health's goal of reducing low-and-middle-income country versus high-income country health disparities faces complex challenges. Although there have been discussions of barriers, there has not been a broad-based, quantitative survey of such barriers.432 global health professionals were invited via email to participate in an online survey, with 268 (62% participating. The survey assessed participants' (A demographic and global health background, (B perceptions regarding 66 barriers' seriousness, (C detailed ratings of barriers designated most serious, (D potential solutions.Thirty-four (of 66 barriers were seen as moderately or more serious, highlighting the widespread, significant challenges global health development faces. Perceived barrier seriousness differed significantly across domains: Resource Limitations mean = 2.47 (0-4 Likert scale, Priority Selection mean = 2.20, Corruption, Lack of Competence mean = 1.87, Social and Cultural Barriers mean = 1.68. Some system-level predictors showed significant but relatively limited relations. For instance, for Global Health Domain, HIV and Mental Health had higher levels of perceived Social and Cultural Barriers than other GH Domains. Individual-level global health experience predictors had small but significant effects, with seriousness of (a Corruption, Lack of Competence, and (b Priority Selection barriers positively correlated with respondents' level of LMIC-oriented (e.g., weeks/year spent in LMIC but Academic Global Health Achievement (e.g., number of global health publications negatively correlated with overall barrier seriousness.That comparatively few system-level predictors (e.g., Organization Type were significant suggests these barriers may be relatively fundamental at the system-level. Individual-level and system-level effects do have policy implications; e.g., Priority Selection barriers were among the most serious, yet effects on seriousness of how LMIC-oriented a professional

  2. Barriers to global health development: An international quantitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Bahr; Pollack, Amie Alley

    2017-01-01

    Global health's goal of reducing low-and-middle-income country versus high-income country health disparities faces complex challenges. Although there have been discussions of barriers, there has not been a broad-based, quantitative survey of such barriers. 432 global health professionals were invited via email to participate in an online survey, with 268 (62%) participating. The survey assessed participants' (A) demographic and global health background, (B) perceptions regarding 66 barriers' seriousness, (C) detailed ratings of barriers designated most serious, (D) potential solutions. Thirty-four (of 66) barriers were seen as moderately or more serious, highlighting the widespread, significant challenges global health development faces. Perceived barrier seriousness differed significantly across domains: Resource Limitations mean = 2.47 (0-4 Likert scale), Priority Selection mean = 2.20, Corruption, Lack of Competence mean = 1.87, Social and Cultural Barriers mean = 1.68. Some system-level predictors showed significant but relatively limited relations. For instance, for Global Health Domain, HIV and Mental Health had higher levels of perceived Social and Cultural Barriers than other GH Domains. Individual-level global health experience predictors had small but significant effects, with seriousness of (a) Corruption, Lack of Competence, and (b) Priority Selection barriers positively correlated with respondents' level of LMIC-oriented (e.g., weeks/year spent in LMIC) but Academic Global Health Achievement (e.g., number of global health publications) negatively correlated with overall barrier seriousness. That comparatively few system-level predictors (e.g., Organization Type) were significant suggests these barriers may be relatively fundamental at the system-level. Individual-level and system-level effects do have policy implications; e.g., Priority Selection barriers were among the most serious, yet effects on seriousness of how LMIC-oriented a professional was

  3. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume III, Part I. Cultural Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Artemisia nova) but also include cliffrose (Cowania mexicana ) and broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothreae) as dominant species. Other species include... CULTURA Ale ~~REOUC SURVEYa AREASczCAvE L CU 11U CUUI 3-2 E-TR-48-III-I 69 was used because it is considered intensive by the Bureau of Land Management and

  4. Methodology of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey - 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Morton, Jeremy; Hsia, Jason; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira; Talley, Brandon; Caixeta, Roberta D; Fouad, Heba; Khoury, Rula N; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Rarick, James; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Pujari, Sameer; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2016-06-01

    In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization developed the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), an instrument to monitor global tobacco use and measure indicators of tobacco control. GATS, a nationally representative household survey of persons aged 15 years or older, was conducted for the first time during 2008-2010 in 14 low- and middle-income countries. In each country, GATS used a standard core questionnaire, sample design, and procedures for data collection and management and, as needed, added country-specific questions that were reviewed and approved by international experts. The core questionnaire included questions about various characteristics of the respondents, their tobacco use (smoking and smokeless), and a wide range of tobacco-related topics (cessation; secondhand smoke; economics; media; and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions). In each country, a multistage cluster sample design was used, with households selected proportionate to the size of the population. Households were chosen randomly within a primary or secondary sampling unit, and one respondent was selected at random from each household to participate in the survey. Interviewers administered the survey in the country's local language(s) using handheld electronic data collection devices. Interviews were conducted privately, and same-sex interviewers were used in countries where mixed-sex interviews would be culturally inappropriate. All 14 countries completed the survey during 2008-2010. In each country, the ministry of health was the lead coordinating agency for GATS, and the survey was implemented by national statistical organizations or surveillance institutes. This article describes the background and rationale for GATS and includes a comprehensive description of the survey methods and protocol. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Arecibo Pulsar Survey Using ALFA. III. Precursor Survey and Population Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swiggum, J.K.; Lorimer, D.R.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Bates, S.D.; Champion, D.J.; Ransom, S.M.; Lazarus, P.; Brazier, A.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Nice, D.J.; Ellis, J.; Senty, T.R.; Allen, B.; Bhat, N.D.R.; Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J.M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.S.; Freire, P.C.C.; Jenet, F.A.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V.M.; Knispel, B.; Lee, K.J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lynch, R.; Lyne, A.G.; Scholz, P.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I.H.; Stappers, B.W.; Stovall, K.; Venkataraman, A.; Zhu, W.W.

    2014-01-01

    The Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) Survey uses the ALFA 7-beam receiver to search both inner and outer Galactic sectors visible from Arecibo (32° lsim ℓ lsim 77° and 168° lsim ℓ lsim 214°) close to the Galactic plane (|b| lsim 5°) for pulsars. The PALFA survey is sensitive to sources

  6. Current practice in the management of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint dislocations-National survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domos, Peter; Sim, Frank; Dunne, Mike; White, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to conduct this survey among consultant shoulder surgeons in the United Kingdom to document the current management of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) injuries. British Elbow and Shoulder Society Research Committee-approved online survey was used and 137 responses were collected within 3 months. One hundred percent of responders would treat type III injuries conservatively initially. Routine physiotherapy would be offered by 86% of surgeons. The patient's factors that influence the decision to consider surgery are pre-injury functional demand, current functional deficit, pain and patient request for surgery. Across all groups the mean time to surgical intervention from injury was 3.8 months. About 45% of all consultants would use the same technique for all cases and there were differences between the varieties of techniques used by surgeons, depending on their degree of experience. LockDown was the most widely used technique in all groups of patients. This was followed by Ligament Augmentation & Reconstruction System (LARS), hook plate and Arthroscopic TightRope/DogBone technique for acute injuries. LARS, modified Weaver-Dunn and ACJ resection were used most commonly after LockDown for delayed cases. Our survey revealed the current trends in clinical practice to treat symptomatic Rockwood type III ACJ injuries, but it also confirmed the controversial and complex management differences, which vary among shoulder surgeons in the United Kingdom.

  7. Methodology of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), Malaysia, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Azahadi; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd; Hiong, Tee Guat; Aris, Tahir; Morton, Jeremy; Pujari, Sameer

    Malaysia participated in the second phase of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 2011. GATS, a new component of the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, is a nationally representative household survey of adults 15 years old or above. The objectives of GATS Malaysia were to (i) systematically monitor tobacco use among adults and track key indicators of tobacco control and (ii) track the implementation of some of the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC)-recommended demand related policies. GATS Malaysia 2011 was a nationwide cross-sectional survey using multistage stratified sampling to select 5112 nationally representative households. One individual aged 15 years or older was randomly chosen from each selected household and interviewed using handheld device. GATS Core Questionnaire with optional questions was pre-tested and uploaded into handheld devices after repeated quality control processes. Data collectors were trained through a centralized training. Manuals and picture book were prepared to aid in the training of data collectors and during data collection. Field-level data were aggregated on a daily basis and analysed twice a week. Quality controls were instituted to ensure collection of high quality data. Sample weighting and analysis were conducted with the assistance of researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA. GATS Malaysia received a total response rate of 85.3% from 5112 adults surveyed. Majority of the respondents were 25-44 years old and Malays. The robust methodology used in the GATS Malaysia provides national estimates for tobacco used classified by socio-demographic characteristics and reliable data on various dimensions of tobacco control.

  8. A Statistical Study of Brown Dwarf Companions from the SDSS-III MARVELS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Nolan; Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil; Ma, Bo; De Lee, Nathan M.; Lee, Brian L.; Fleming, Scott W.; Sithajan, Sirinrat; Varosi, Frank; Liu, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Li, Rui; Agol, Eric; MARVELS Team

    2016-01-01

    We present 23 new Brown Dwarf (BD) candidates from the Multi-object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III). The BD candidates were selected from the processed MARVELS data using the latest University of Florida 2D pipeline, which shows significant improvement and reduction of systematic errors over the 1D pipeline results included in the SDSS Data Release 12. This sample is the largest BD yield from a single radial velocity survey. Of the 23 candidates, 18 are around main sequence stars and 5 are around giant stars. Given a giant contamination rate of ~24% for the MARVELS survey, we find a BD occurrence rate around main sequence stars of ~0.7%, which agrees with previous studies and confirms the BD desert, while the BD occurrence rate around the MARVELS giant stars is ~0.6%. Preliminary results show that our new candidates around solar type stars support a two population hypothesis, where BDs are divided at a mass of ~42.5 MJup. BDs less massive than 42.5 MJup have eccentricity distributions consistent with planet-planet scattering models, where BDs more massive than 42.5 MJup have both period and eccentricity distributions similar to that of stellar binaries. Special Brown Dwarf systems such as multiple BD systems and highly eccentric BDs will also be presented.

  9. THE ELM SURVEY. III. A SUCCESSFUL TARGETED SURVEY FOR EXTREMELY LOW MASS WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos, E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: callende@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2012-01-10

    Extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs (WDs) with masses < 0.25 M{sub Sun} are rare objects that result from compact binary evolution. Here, we present a targeted spectroscopic survey of ELM WD candidates selected by color. The survey is 71% complete and has uncovered 18 new ELM WDs. Of the seven ELM WDs with follow-up observations, six are short-period binaries and four have merger times less than 5 Gyr. The most intriguing object, J1741+6526, likely has either a pulsar companion or a massive WD companion making the system a possible supernova Type Ia or an Ia progenitor. The overall ELM survey has now identified 19 double degenerate binaries with <10 Gyr merger times. The significant absence of short orbital period ELM WDs at cool temperatures suggests that common envelope evolution creates ELM WDs directly in short period systems. At least one-third of the merging systems are halo objects, thus ELM WD binaries continue to form and merge in both the disk and the halo.

  10. THE SDSS-III BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: THE QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM DATA RELEASE NINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Nicholas P.; White, Martin; Bailey, Stephen; McGreer, Ian D.; Richards, Gordon T.; Myers, Adam D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe; Strauss, Michael A.; Anderson, Scott F.; Shen, Yue; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Aubourg, Éric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J.; Bovy, Jo; DeGraf, Colin; Di Matteo, Tiziana

    2013-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the optical quasar luminosity function (QLF), using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III: Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS-III: BOSS). From the SDSS-III Data Release Nine, a uniform sample of 22,301 i ∼ 2 , with confirmed spectroscopic redshifts between 2.2 i (z = 2.2) ≈ –24.5 and see a clear break in the QLF at all redshifts up to z = 3.5. A log-linear relation (in log Φ* – M*) for a luminosity evolution and density evolution model is found to adequately describe our data within the range 2.2 < z < 3.5; across this interval the break luminosity increases by a factor of ∼2.6 while Φ* declines by a factor of ∼8. At z ∼< 2.2 our data are reasonably well fit by a pure luminosity evolution model, and only a weak signature of ''AGN downsizing'' is seen, in line with recent studies of the hard X-ray luminosity function. We compare our measured QLF to a number of theoretical models and find that models making a variety of assumptions about quasar triggering and halo occupation can fit our data over a wide range of redshifts and luminosities

  11. Forward Global Photometric Calibration of the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, D. L.; Rykoff, E. S.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Bernstein, G. M.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Finley, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; James, D. J.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lasker, J.; Li, T. S.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, J.; Tucker, D. L.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gruen, D.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.

    2017-12-28

    Many scientific goals for the Dark Energy Survey (DES) require calibration of optical/NIR broadband $b = grizY$ photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the celestial sky to one percent or better. It is also necessary to limit to similar accuracy systematic uncertainty in the calibrated broadband magnitudes due to uncertainty in the spectrum of the source. Here we present a "Forward Global Calibration Method (FGCM)" for photometric calibration of the DES, and we present results of its application to the first three years of the survey (Y3A1). The FGCM combines data taken with auxiliary instrumentation at the observatory with data from the broad-band survey imaging itself and models of the instrument and atmosphere to estimate the spatial- and time-dependence of the passbands of individual DES survey exposures. "Standard" passbands are chosen that are typical of the passbands encountered during the survey. The passband of any individual observation is combined with an estimate of the source spectral shape to yield a magnitude $m_b^{\\mathrm{std}}$ in the standard system. This "chromatic correction" to the standard system is necessary to achieve sub-percent calibrations. The FGCM achieves reproducible and stable photometric calibration of standard magnitudes $m_b^{\\mathrm{std}}$ of stellar sources over the multi-year Y3A1 data sample with residual random calibration errors of $\\sigma=5-6\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$ per exposure. The accuracy of the calibration is uniform across the $5000\\,\\mathrm{deg}^2$ DES footprint to within $\\sigma=7\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$. The systematic uncertainties of magnitudes in the standard system due to the spectra of sources are less than $5\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$ for main sequence stars with $0.5

  12. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P < 0·001). Median total attack duration was 5·0 h and 9·0 h for patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II, respectively. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  13. Progress Towards a Global Understanding of Plankton Dynamics: The Global Alliance of CPR Surveys (GACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, S.; Richardson, A.; Melrose, C.; Muxagata, E.; Hosie, G.; Verheye, H.; Hall, J.; Edwards, M.; Koubbi, P.; Abu-Alhaija, R.; Chiba, S.; Wilson, W.; Nagappa, R.; Takahashi, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) was first used in 1931 to routinely sample plankton and its continued deployment now sustains the longest-running, and spatially most extensive marine biological sampling programme in the world. Towed behind, for the most part commercial, ships it collects plankton samples from the surface waters that are subsequently analysed to provide taxonomically-resolved abundance data on a broad range of planktonic organisms from the size of coccolithophores to euphausiids. Plankton appear to integrate changes in the physical environment and by underpinning most marine food-webs, pass on this variability to higher trophic levels which have societal value. CPRs are deployed increasingly around the globe in discrete regional surveys that until recently interacted in an informal way. In 2011 the Global Alliance of CPR Surveys (GACS) was launched to bring these surveys together to collaborate more productively and address issues such as: methodological standardization, data integration, capacity building, and data analysis. Early products include a combined global database and regularly-released global marine ecological status reports. There are, of course, limitations to the exploitation of CPR data as well as the current geographic coverage. A current focus of GACS is integration of the data with models to meaningfully extrapolate across time and space. In this way the output could be used to provide more robust synoptic representations of key plankton variables. Recent years have also seen the CPR used as a platform in itself with the inclusion of additional sensors and water samplers that can sample the microplankton. The archive of samples has already been used for some molecular investigations and curation of samples is maintained for future studies. Thus the CPR is a key element of any regional to global ocean observing system of biodiversity.

  14. Simulation and curriculum design: a global survey in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S; Burrow, M F; Leung, W K; Bridges, S M

    2017-12-01

    Curriculum reforms are being driven by globalization and international standardization. Although new information technologies such as dental haptic virtual reality (VR) simulation systems have provided potential new possibilities for clinical learning in dental curricula, infusion into curricula requires careful planning. This study aimed to identify current patterns in the role and integration of simulation in dental degree curricula internationally. An original internet survey was distributed by invitation to clinical curriculum leaders in dental schools in Asia, Europe, North America, and Oceania (Australia and New Zealand). The results (N = 62) showed Asia, Europe and Oceania tended towards integrated curriculum designs with North America having a higher proportion of traditional curricula. North America had limited implementation of haptic VR simulation technology but reported the highest number of scheduled simulation hours. Australia and New Zealand were the most likely regions to incorporate haptic VR simulation technology. This survey indicated considerable variation in curriculum structure with regionally-specific preferences being evident in terms of curriculum structure, teaching philosophies and motivation for incorporation of VR haptic simulation into curricula. This study illustrates the need for an improved evidence base on dental simulations to inform curriculum designs and psychomotor skill learning in dentistry. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  15. The SDSS-III APOGEE radial velocity survey of M dwarfs. I. Description of the survey and science goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, R.; Bender, C. F.; Mahadevan, S.; Terrien, R. C.; Schneider, D. P.; Fleming, S. W. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Blake, C. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Carlberg, J. K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Zasowski, G.; Hearty, F. [University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Crepp, J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Rajpurohit, A. S.; Reylé, C. [Institut UTINAM, CNRS UMR 6213, Observatoire des Sciences de l' Univers THETA Franche-Comt é-Bourgogne, Université de Franche Comté, Observatoire de Besançon, BP 1615, F-25010 Besançon Cedex (France); Nidever, D. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Prieto, C. Allende; Hernández, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bizyaev, D. [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Ebelke, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298840, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Frinchaboy, P. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Ge, J. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); and others

    2013-12-01

    We are carrying out a large ancillary program with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, SDSS-III, using the fiber-fed multi-object near-infrared APOGEE spectrograph, to obtain high-resolution H-band spectra of more than 1200 M dwarfs. These observations will be used to measure spectroscopic rotational velocities, radial velocities, physical stellar parameters, and variability of the target stars. Here, we describe the target selection for this survey, as well as results from the first year of scientific observations based on spectra that will be publicly available in the SDSS-III DR10 data release. As part of this paper we present radial velocities and rotational velocities of over 200 M dwarfs, with a vsin i precision of ∼2 km s{sup –1} and a measurement floor at vsin i = 4 km s{sup –1}. This survey significantly increases the number of M dwarfs studied for rotational velocities and radial velocity variability (at ∼100-200 m s{sup –1}), and will inform and advance the target selection for planned radial velocity and photometric searches for low-mass exoplanets around M dwarfs, such as the Habitable Zone Planet Finder, CARMENES, and TESS. Multiple epochs of radial velocity observations enable us to identify short period binaries, and adaptive optics imaging of a subset of stars enables the detection of possible stellar companions at larger separations. The high-resolution APOGEE spectra, covering the entire H band, provide the opportunity to measure physical stellar parameters such as effective temperatures and metallicities for many of these stars. At the culmination of this survey, we will have obtained multi-epoch spectra and radial velocities for over 1400 stars spanning the spectral range M0-L0, providing the largest set of near-infrared M dwarf spectra at high resolution, and more than doubling the number of known spectroscopic vsin i values for M dwarfs. Furthermore, by modeling telluric lines to correct for small instrumental radial velocity shifts, we

  16. Mapping Impervious Surfaces Globally at 30m Resolution Using Global Land Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeColstoun, Eric Brown; Huang, Chengquan; Tan, Bin; Smith, Sarah Elizabeth; Phillips, Jacqueline; Wang, Panshi; Ling, Pui-Yu; Zhan, James; Li, Sike; Taylor, Michael P.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Impervious surfaces, mainly artificial structures and roads, cover less than 1% of the world's land surface (1.3% over USA). Regardless of the relatively small coverage, impervious surfaces have a significant impact on the environment. They are the main source of the urban heat island effect, and affect not only the energy balance, but also hydrology and carbon cycling, and both land and aquatic ecosystem services. In the last several decades, the pace of converting natural land surface to impervious surfaces has increased. Quantitatively monitoring the growth of impervious surface expansion and associated urbanization has become a priority topic across both the physical and social sciences. The recent availability of consistent, global scale data sets at 30m resolution such as the Global Land Survey from the Landsat satellites provides an unprecedented opportunity to map global impervious cover and urbanization at this resolution for the first time, with unprecedented detail and accuracy. Moreover, the spatial resolution of Landsat is absolutely essential to accurately resolve urban targets such a buildings, roads and parking lots. With long term GLS data now available for the 1975, 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010 time periods, the land cover/use changes due to urbanization can now be quantified at this spatial scale as well. In the Global Land Survey - Imperviousness Mapping Project (GLS-IMP), we are producing the first global 30 m spatial resolution impervious cover data set. We have processed the GLS 2010 data set to surface reflectance (8500+ TM and ETM+ scenes) and are using a supervised classification method using a regression tree to produce continental scale impervious cover data sets. A very large set of accurate training samples is the key to the supervised classifications and is being derived through the interpretation of high spatial resolution (approx. 2 m or less) commercial satellite data (Quickbird and Worldview2) available to us through the unclassified

  17. Mapping Impervious Surfaces Globally at 30m Resolution Using Landsat Global Land Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown de Colstoun, E.; Huang, C.; Wolfe, R. E.; Tan, B.; Tilton, J.; Smith, S.; Phillips, J.; Wang, P.; Ling, P.; Zhan, J.; Xu, X.; Taylor, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Impervious surfaces, mainly artificial structures and roads, cover less than 1% of the world's land surface (1.3% over USA). Regardless of the relatively small coverage, impervious surfaces have a significant impact on the environment. They are the main source of the urban heat island effect, and affect not only the energy balance, but also hydrology and carbon cycling, and both land and aquatic ecosystem services. In the last several decades, the pace of converting natural land surface to impervious surfaces has increased. Quantitatively monitoring the growth of impervious surface expansion and associated urbanization has become a priority topic across both the physical and social sciences. The recent availability of consistent, global scale data sets at 30m resolution such as the Global Land Survey from the Landsat satellites provides an unprecedented opportunity to map global impervious cover and urbanization at this resolution for the first time, with unprecedented detail and accuracy. Moreover, the spatial resolution of Landsat is absolutely essential to accurately resolve urban targets such a buildings, roads and parking lots. With long term GLS data now available for the 1975, 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010 time periods, the land cover/use changes due to urbanization can now be quantified at this spatial scale as well. In the Global Land Survey - Imperviousness Mapping Project (GLS-IMP), we are producing the first global 30 m spatial resolution impervious cover data set. We have processed the GLS 2010 data set to surface reflectance (8500+ TM and ETM+ scenes) and are using a supervised classification method using a regression tree to produce continental scale impervious cover data sets. A very large set of accurate training samples is the key to the supervised classifications and is being derived through the interpretation of high spatial resolution (~2 m or less) commercial satellite data (Quickbird and Worldview2) available to us through the unclassified

  18. Global Health Education in Gastroenterology Fellowship: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapinyo, Pichamol; Hunt, Rachel S; Tabak, Ying P; Proctor, Deborah D; Makrauer, Frederick L

    2016-12-01

    Interest in global health (GH) education is increasing across disciplines. To assess exposure to and perception of GH training among gastroenterology fellows and program directors across the USA. Design: Electronic survey study. The questionnaire was circulated to accredited US gastroenterology fellowship programs, with the assistance of the American Gastroenterological Association. Gastroenterology program directors and fellows. The questionnaire was returned by 127 respondents (47 program directors, 78 fellows) from 55 training programs (36 % of all training programs). 61 % of respondents had prior experience in GH. 17 % of programs offered GH curriculum with international elective (13 %), didactic (9 %), and research activity (7 %) being the most common. Fellows had adequate experience managing hepatitis B (93 %), cholangiocarcinoma (84 %), and intrahepatic duct stones (84 %). 74, 69 and 68 % reported having little to no experience managing hepatitis E, tuberculosis mesenteritis, or epidemic infectious enteritis, respectively. Most fellows would participate in an elective in an underserved area locally (81 %) or a 4-week elective abroad (71 %), if available. 44 % of fellows planned on working or volunteering abroad after fellowship. Barriers to establishing GH curriculum included funding (94 %), scheduling (88 %), and a lack of standardized objectives (78 %). Lack of interest, however, was not a concern. Fellows (49 %), more than faculty (29 %) (χ 2  = 21.9; p = 0.03), believed that GH education should be included in fellowship curriculum. Program directors and trainees recognize the importance of GH education. However, only 17 % of ACGME-approved fellowship programs offer the opportunity. Global health curriculum may enhance gastroenterology training.

  19. Brazil Geologic Basic Survey Program - Barbacena - Sheet SF.23-X-C-III -Minas Gerais State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandalise, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The present report refers to the Barbacena sheet (SF.23-X-C-III) systematic geological mapping, on the 1:10,000 scale, related to the Levantamentos Geologicos Basicos do Brasil Program - PLGB, carried out by CPRM for the DNPM. Integrated to geochemical and geophysical surveys, the geological mapping not only yielded geophysical and geochemical maps but a consistent to the 1:100.000 scale Metallogenetic/Provisional one as well. The geological mapping carried out during the Project has really evidenced that samples of distinct stratigraphic units had been employed to define the one and only isochrone. However geochronologic Rb/Sr dating performed during the geological mapping phase evidenced Archean ages for rocks of the Sao Bento dos Torres Metamorphic Suite (2684 ± 110 m.y.) and ages of about 2000 m.y. for the Ressaquinha Complex rocks. An analysis of crustal evolution patterns based on geological mapping, gravimetric survey data, aeromagnetometry and available geochronologic data is given in the Chapter 6, Part II, in the test. Major element oxides, trace-elements and rare-earths elements were analysed to establish parameters for the rocks environment elucidation. Geochemical survey was carried out with base on pan concentrated and stream sediments distributed throughout the sheet. (author)

  20. Early Giant Planet Candidates from the SDSS-III MARVELS Planet Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil; Ge, J.; Li, R.; Sithajan, S.; Chen, Y.; Shi, J.; Ma, B.; Liu, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first discoveries of giant planet candidates from the SDSS-III MARVELS survey. These candidates are found using the new MARVELS data pipeline developed at UF from scratch over the past two years. Unlike the old data pipeline, this pipeline carefully corrects most of the instrument effects (such as trace, slant, distortion, drifts and dispersion) and observation condition effects (such as illumination profile). The result is long-term RV precisions that approach the photon limits in many cases and has yielded four giant planet candidates of ~1-6 Jupiter mass from only the initial fraction of data processed with the new techniques. More survey data is being processed which will likely lead to discoveries of additional giant planet candidates that will be verified and characterized with follow-up observations by the MARVELS team. The MARVELS survey has produced the largest homogeneous RV measurements of 3300 V=7.6-12 FGK stars with well defined cadence 27 RV measurements over 2 years). The MARVELS RV data and other follow-up data (photometry, high contrast imaging, high resolution spectroscopy and RV measurements) will explore the diversity of giant planet companion formation and evolution around stars with a broad range in metallicity ([Fe/H -1.5-0.5), mass ( 0.6-2.5M(sun)), and environment (thin disk and thick disk), and will help to address the key scientific questions identified for the MARVELS survey including, but not limited to: Do metal poor stars obey the same trends for planet occurrence as metal rich stars? What is the distribution of giant planets around intermediate-mass stars and binaries? Is the “planet desert” within 0.6 AU in the planet orbital distribution of intermediate-mass stars real?

  1. Investigation of global particulate nitrate from the AeroCom phase III experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of global particulate nitrate and ammonium aerosol based on simulations from nine models participating in the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom phase III study is presented. A budget analysis was conducted to understand the typical magnitude, distribution, and diversity of the aerosols and their precursors among the models. To gain confidence regarding model performance, the model results were evaluated with various observations globally, including ground station measurements over North America, Europe, and east Asia for tracer concentrations and dry and wet depositions, as well as with aircraft measurements in the Northern Hemisphere mid-to-high latitudes for tracer vertical distributions. Given the unique chemical and physical features of the nitrate occurrence, we further investigated the similarity and differentiation among the models by examining (1 the pH-dependent NH3 wet deposition; (2 the nitrate formation via heterogeneous chemistry on the surface of dust and sea salt particles or thermodynamic equilibrium calculation including dust and sea salt ions; and (3 the nitrate coarse-mode fraction (i.e., coarse/total. It is found that HNO3, which is simulated explicitly based on full O3-HOx-NOx-aerosol chemistry by all models, differs by up to a factor of 9 among the models in its global tropospheric burden. This partially contributes to a large difference in NO3−, whose atmospheric burden differs by up to a factor of 13. The atmospheric burdens of NH3 and NH4+ differ by 17 and 4, respectively. Analyses at the process level show that the large diversity in atmospheric burdens of NO3−, NH3, and NH4+ is also related to deposition processes. Wet deposition seems to be the dominant process in determining the diversity in NH3 and NH4+ lifetimes. It is critical to correctly account for contributions of heterogeneous chemical production of nitrate on dust and sea salt, because this process

  2. Exploring the brown dwarf desert: new substellar companions from the SDSS-III MARVELS survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Nolan; Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil; Ma, Bo; Sithajan, Sirinrat; Ghezzi, Luan; Kimock, Ben; Willis, Kevin; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian; Fleming, Scott W.; Agol, Eric; Troup, Nicholas; Paegert, Martin; Schneider, Donald P.; Stassun, Keivan; Varosi, Frank; Zhao, Bo; Jian, Liu; Li, Rui; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Pan, Kaike; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Santiago, Basílio X.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; del Peloso, E. F.

    2017-06-01

    Planet searches using the radial velocity technique show a paucity of companions to solar-type stars within ˜5 au in the mass range of ˜10-80 MJup. This deficit, known as the brown dwarf desert, currently has no conclusive explanation. New substellar companions in this region help assess the reality of the desert and provide insight to the formation and evolution of these objects. Here, we present 10 new brown dwarf and 2 low-mass stellar companion candidates around solar-type stars from the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III. These companions were selected from processed MARVELS data using the latest University of Florida Two Dimensional pipeline, which shows significant improvement and reduction of systematic errors over previous pipelines. The 10 brown dwarf companions range in mass from ˜13 to 76 MJup and have orbital radii of less than 1 au. The two stellar companions have minimum masses of ˜98 and 100 MJup. The host stars of the MARVELS brown dwarf sample have a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.03 ± 0.08 dex. Given our stellar sample we estimate the brown dwarf occurrence rate around solar-type stars with periods less than ˜300 d to be ˜0.56 per cent.

  3. The Eighth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Data from SDSS-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) started a new phase in August 2008, with new instrumentation and new surveys focused on Galactic structure and chemical evolution, measurements of the baryon oscillation feature in the clustering of galaxies and the quasar Lyα forest, and a radial velocity search for planets around ∼8000 stars. This paper describes the first data release of SDSS-III (and the eighth counting from the beginning of the SDSS). The release includes 5-band imaging of roughly 5200 deg 2 in the Southern Galactic Cap, bringing the total footprint of the SDSS imaging to 14,555 deg 2 , or over a third of the Celestial Sphere. All the imaging data have been reprocessed with an improved sky-subtraction algorithm and a final, self-consistent recalibration and flat-field determination. This release also includes all data from the second phase of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Evolution (SEGUE-2), consisting of spectroscopy of approximately 118,000 stars at both high and low Galactic latitudes. All the more than half a million stellar spectra obtained with the SDSS spectrograph have been reprocessed through an improved stellar parameters pipeline, which has better determination of metallicity for high metallicity stars.

  4. THE EIGHTH DATA RELEASE OF THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY: FIRST DATA FROM SDSS-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aihara, Hiroaki; Allende Prieto, Carlos; An, Deokkeun; Anderson, Scott F.; Aubourg, Eric; Busca, Nicolas G.; Balbinot, Eduardo; Beers, Timothy C.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bickerton, Steven J.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, J.; Blanton, Michael R.; Bovy, Jo; Bochanski, John J.; Brandt, W. N.; Bolton, Adam S.; Brown, Peter J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Campbell, Heather

    2011-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) started a new phase in 2008 August, with new instrumentation and new surveys focused on Galactic structure and chemical evolution, measurements of the baryon oscillation feature in the clustering of galaxies and the quasar Lyα forest, and a radial velocity search for planets around ∼8000 stars. This paper describes the first data release of SDSS-III (and the eighth counting from the beginning of the SDSS). The release includes five-band imaging of roughly 5200 deg 2 in the southern Galactic cap, bringing the total footprint of the SDSS imaging to 14,555 deg 2 , or over a third of the Celestial Sphere. All the imaging data have been reprocessed with an improved sky-subtraction algorithm and a final, self-consistent photometric recalibration and flat-field determination. This release also includes all data from the second phase of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE-2), consisting of spectroscopy of approximately 118,000 stars at both high and low Galactic latitudes. All the more than half a million stellar spectra obtained with the SDSS spectrograph have been reprocessed through an improved stellar parameter pipeline, which has better determination of metallicity for high-metallicity stars.

  5. The Eighth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Data from SDSS-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, Hiroaki; /Tokyo U.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; /Laguna U., Tenerife; An, Deokkeun; /Ewha Women' s U., Seoul; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Aubourg, Eric; /APC, Paris /DAPNIA, Saclay; Balbinot, Eduardo; /Rio Grande do Sul U. /Rio de Janeiro Observ.; Beers, Timothy C.; /Michigan State U.; Berlind, Andreas A.; /Vanderbilt U.; Bickerton, Steven J.; /Princeton U.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; /Apache Point Observ.; Blanton, Michael R.; /New York U., CCPP /Penn State U.

    2011-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) started a new phase in August 2008, with new instrumentation and new surveys focused on Galactic structure and chemical evolution, measurements of the baryon oscillation feature in the clustering of galaxies and the quasar Ly{alpha} forest, and a radial velocity search for planets around {approx}8000 stars. This paper describes the first data release of SDSS-III (and the eighth counting from the beginning of the SDSS). The release includes 5-band imaging of roughly 5200 deg{sup 2} in the Southern Galactic Cap, bringing the total footprint of the SDSS imaging to 14,555 deg{sup 2}, or over a third of the Celestial Sphere. All the imaging data have been reprocessed with an improved sky-subtraction algorithm and a final, self-consistent recalibration and flat-field determination. This release also includes all data from the second phase of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Evolution (SEGUE-2), consisting of spectroscopy of approximately 118,000 stars at both high and low Galactic latitudes. All the more than half a million stellar spectra obtained with the SDSS spectrograph have been reprocessed through an improved stellar parameters pipeline, which has better determination of metallicity for high metallicity stars.

  6. “Cultural Policy”: Towards a Global Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhishthir Raj Isar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The field of “cultural policy” has acquired sufficient purchase internationally to warrant a comparative global survey. This article examines questions that arise preliminary to such an endeavour. It looks first at the problems posed by the divided nature of “cultural policy” research: on the one hand policy advisory work that is essentially pragmatic, and on the other so-called “theoretical” analysis which has little or no purchase on policy-making. In both cases, key elements are missed. A way out of the quandary would be to privilege a line of inquiry that analyzes the “arts and heritage” both in relation to the institutional terms and objectives of these fields but also as components of a broader “cultural system” whose dynamics can only be properly grasped in terms of the social science or “ways of life” paradigm. Such a line of inquiry would address: the ways in which subsidized cultural practice interacts with or is impacted by social, economic and political forces; the domains of public intervention where the cultural in the broader social science sense elicits policy stances and policy action; the nature of public intervention in both categories; whether and how the objects and practices of intervention are conceptualised in a holistic way. A second set of interrogations concerns axes for the comparison of “cultural policy” trans-nationally. One possible axis is provided by different state stances with respect to Raymond Williams’ categories of national aggrandizement, economic reductionism, public patronage of the arts, media regulation and the negotiated construction of cultural identity. Another avenue would be to unpack interpretations of two leading current agendas, namely “cultural diversity” and the “cultural and/or creative industries”.

  7. Implications of a global survey of venusian impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Robert R.; Phillips, Roger J.

    1994-01-01

    We present a global survey of the areal distribution, size-frequency distribution, and morphometric properties of the venusian impact cratering record. We explore the resurfacing history of Venus, crater degradation, ejecta emplacement, and cratering mechanics. The number of volcanically embayed and tectonically deformed craters from 0.5 to 1.0 km above mean planetary radius is disproportionately high for an otherwise crater-deficient elevation range. More resurfacing occurred in this range, an elevation range dominated by volcanic rises, rifts, and coronae, than elsewhere on Venus. Although the majority of craters appear to be relatively undisturbed and have intact ejecta blankets, some craters appear particularly `fresh' because thay have radar-bright floors, a radar-dark halo surrounding the ejecta blanket, and a west facing parabola of low radar return; 20, 35, and 8%, respectively, of craters with diameters greater than 22.6 km have these features. Characteristics of ejecta deposits for venusian craters change substantially with size, particularly at 20 km crater diameter, which marks the transition at which the boundaries of ejecta blankets go from ragged to lobate and the slope of the ejecta distance vs diameter curve steepens. Secondary craters are a ubiquitous part of the ejecta blanket for craters over 50 km but occur infrequently as isolated rays about smaller craters. Comparison of complex craters found on Venus with those of other planets gave results that were consistent with the idea that interplanetary differences in complex crater shape are controlled by interplanetary differences in gravity and crustal strength. The interplanetary comparison indicates that Venus, the Moon, and Mercury appear to have stronger crusts than do Mars and Ganymede/Callisto.

  8. CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth; Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Seo, Hee-Jong; De Putter, Roland; Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Saito, Shun; Schlafly, Eddie; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Blanton, Michael; Skibba, Ramin; Schneider, Don; Mena, Olga; Viel, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    spectra give consistent constraints on cosmological models when compared with pre-systematic correction power spectra in the angular scales of interest. The SDSS-III Data Release 8 (SDSS-III DR8) Angular Clustering Data allow a wide range of investigations into the cosmological model, cosmic expansion (via BAO), Gaussianity of initial conditions, and neutrino masses. Here, we refer to our companion papers for further investigations using the clustering data. Our calculation of the survey selection function, systematics maps, and likelihood function for the COSMOMC package will be released at http://portal.nersc.gov/project/boss/galaxy/photoz/.

  9. CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 50R-5045, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); De Putter, Roland [ICC, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Saito, Shun [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, CA (United States); Schlafly, Eddie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden St. MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos [Centro de Estudios de Fisica del Cosmos de Aragon (CEFCA), Plaza de San Juan 1, planta 2, E-44001 Teruel (Spain); Sanchez, Ariel G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Blanton, Michael [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Skibba, Ramin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Schneider, Don [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mena, Olga [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC (Spain); Viel, Matteo, E-mail: cwho@lbl.gov [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2012-12-10

    surveys such as the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7) and WiggleZ. We also find that systematic-corrected power spectra give consistent constraints on cosmological models when compared with pre-systematic correction power spectra in the angular scales of interest. The SDSS-III Data Release 8 (SDSS-III DR8) Angular Clustering Data allow a wide range of investigations into the cosmological model, cosmic expansion (via BAO), Gaussianity of initial conditions, and neutrino masses. Here, we refer to our companion papers for further investigations using the clustering data. Our calculation of the survey selection function, systematics maps, and likelihood function for the COSMOMC package will be released at http://portal.nersc.gov/project/boss/galaxy/photoz/.

  10. SDSS-III: MASSIVE SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEYS OF THE DISTANT UNIVERSE, THE MILKY WAY, AND EXTRA-SOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Weinberg, David H.; Agol, Eric; Anderson, Scott F.; Aihara, Hiroaki; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Arns, James A.; Aubourg, Eric; Bailey, Stephen; Balbinot, Eduardo; Barkhouser, Robert; Beers, Timothy C.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bickerton, Steven J.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanton, Michael R.; Bochanski, John J.; Bolton, Adam S.

    2011-01-01

    Building on the legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I and II), SDSS-III is a program of four spectroscopic surveys on three scientific themes: dark energy and cosmological parameters, the history and structure of the Milky Way, and the population of giant planets around other stars. In keeping with SDSS tradition, SDSS-III will provide regular public releases of all its data, beginning with SDSS Data Release 8 (DR8), which was made public in 2011 January and includes SDSS-I and SDSS-II images and spectra reprocessed with the latest pipelines and calibrations produced for the SDSS-III investigations. This paper presents an overview of the four surveys that comprise SDSS-III. The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey will measure redshifts of 1.5 million massive galaxies and Lyα forest spectra of 150,000 quasars, using the baryon acoustic oscillation feature of large-scale structure to obtain percent-level determinations of the distance scale and Hubble expansion rate at z 5 evolved, late-type stars, measuring separate abundances for ∼15 elements per star and creating the first high-precision spectroscopic survey of all Galactic stellar populations (bulge, bar, disks, halo) with a uniform set of stellar tracers and spectral diagnostics. The Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) will monitor radial velocities of more than 8000 FGK stars with the sensitivity and cadence (10-40 m s -1 , ∼24 visits per star) needed to detect giant planets with periods up to two years, providing an unprecedented data set for understanding the formation and dynamical evolution of giant planet systems. As of 2011 January, SDSS-III has obtained spectra of more than 240,000 galaxies, 29,000 z ≥ 2.2 quasars, and 140,000 stars, including 74,000 velocity measurements of 2580 stars for MARVELS.

  11. The global burden of mental disorders : An update from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Chatterji, Somnath; Lee, Sing; Ormel, Johan; Uestuen, T. Bedirhan; Wang, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims - The paper reviews recent findings from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys oil the global burden of mental disorders. Methods - The WMH surveys are representative community surveys in 28 countries throughout the world aimed at providing information to mental health policy makers about

  12. Methods of practice and guidelines for using survey-grade global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to establish vertical datum in the United States Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.; Densmore, Brenda K.

    2012-01-01

    flexibility regarding efficiency and quality of data collection. Quality assurance of survey-grade global positioning is often overlooked or not understood and perceived uncertainties can be misleading. GNSS users can benefit from a blueprint of data collection standards used to ensure consistency among USGS mission areas. A classification of GNSS survey qualities provide the user with the ability to choose from the highest quality survey used to establish objective points with low uncertainties, identified as a Level I, to a GNSS survey for general topographic control without quality assurance, identified as a Level IV. A Level I survey is strictly limited to post-processed methods, whereas Level II, Level III, and Level IV surveys integrate variations of a RT approach. Among these classifications, techniques involving blunder checks and redundancy are important, and planning that involves the assessment of the overall satellite configuration, as well as terrestrial and space weather, are necessary to ensure an efficient and quality campaign. Although quality indicators and uncertainties are identified in post-processed methods using CORS, the accuracy of a GNSS survey is most effectively expressed as a comparison to a local benchmark that has a high degree of confidence. Real-time and post-processed methods should incorporate these "trusted" benchmarks as a check during any campaign. Global positioning surveys are expected to change rapidly in the future. The expansion of continuously operating reference stations, combined with newly available satellite signals, and enhancements to the conterminous geoid, are all sufficient indicators for substantial growth in real-time positioning and quality thereof.

  13. Giant Planet Candidates, Brown Dwarfs, and Binaries from the SDSS-III MARVELS Planet Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil; Ge, Jian; Li, Rui; de Lee, Nathan M.; Heslar, Michael; Ma, Bo; SDSS-Iii Marvels Team

    2015-01-01

    We report the discoveries of giant planet candidates, brown dwarfs, and binaries from the SDSS-III MARVELS survey. The finalized 1D pipeline has provided 18 giant planet candidates, 16 brown dwarfs, and over 500 binaries. An additional 96 targets having RV variability indicative of a giant planet companion are also reported for future investigation. These candidates are found using the advanced MARVELS 1D data pipeline developed at UF from scratch over the past three years. This pipeline carefully corrects most of the instrument effects (such as trace, slant, distortion, drifts and dispersion) and observation condition effects (such as illumination profile, fiber degradation, and tracking variations). The result is long-term RV precisions that approach the photon limits in many cases for the ~89,000 individual stellar observations. A 2D version of the pipeline that uses interferometric information is nearing completion and is demonstrating a reduction of errors to half the current levels. The 2D processing will be used to increase the robustness of the detections presented here and to find new candidates in RV regions not confidently detectable with the 1D pipeline. The MARVELS survey has produced the largest homogeneous RV measurements of 3300 V=7.6-12 FGK stars with a well defined cadence of 27 RV measurements over 2 years. The MARVELS RV data and other follow-up data (photometry, high contrast imaging, high resolution spectroscopy and RV measurements) will explore the diversity of giant planet companion formation and evolution around stars with a broad range in metallicity (Fe/H -1.5-0.5), mass ( 0.6-2.5M(sun)), and environment (thin disk and thick disk), and will help to address the key scientific questions identified for the MARVELS survey including, but not limited to: Do metal poor stars obey the same trends for planet occurrence as metal rich stars? What is the distribution of giant planets around intermediate-mass stars and binaries? Is the 'planet desert

  14. The Ninth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Spectroscopic Data from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Christopher P.; Alexandroff, Rachael; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Anderson, Scott F.; Anderton, Timothy; Andrews, Brett H.; Aubourg, Éric; Bailey, Stephen; Balbinot, Eduardo; Barnes, Rory; Bautista, Julian; Beers, Timothy C.; Beifiori, Alessandra; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blake, Cullen H.; Blanton, Michael R.; Blomqvist, Michael; Bochanski, John J.; Bolton, Adam S.; Borde, Arnaud; Bovy, Jo; Brandt, W. N.; Brinkmann, J.; Brown, Peter J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Busca, N. G.; Carithers, William; Carnero, Aurelio R.; Carr, Michael A.; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Chen, Yanmei; Chiappini, Cristina; Comparat, Johan; Connolly, Natalia; Crepp, Justin R.; Cristiani, Stefano; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Cuesta, Antonio J.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Davenport, James R. A.; Dawson, Kyle S.; de Putter, Roland; De Lee, Nathan; Delubac, Timothée; Dhital, Saurav; Ealet, Anne; Ebelke, Garrett L.; Edmondson, Edward M.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Escoffier, S.; Esposito, Massimiliano; Evans, Michael L.; Fan, Xiaohui; Femenía Castellá, Bruno; Fernández Alvar, Emma; Ferreira, Leticia D.; Filiz Ak, N.; Finley, Hayley; Fleming, Scott W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Pérez, A. E. García; Ge, Jian; Génova-Santos, R.; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Girardi, Léo; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Grebel, Eva K.; Gunn, James E.; Guo, Hong; Haggard, Daryl; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Harris, David W.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hearty, Frederick R.; Ho, Shirley; Hogg, David W.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Honscheid, Klaus; Huehnerhoff, J.; Ivans, Inese I.; Ivezić, Željko; Jacobson, Heather R.; Jiang, Linhua; Johansson, Jonas; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Kirkby, David; Kirkpatrick, Jessica A.; Klaene, Mark A.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Leauthaud, Alexie; Lee, Khee-Gan; Lee, Young Sun; Long, Daniel C.; Loomis, Craig P.; Lucatello, Sara; Lundgren, Britt; Lupton, Robert H.; Ma, Bo; Ma, Zhibo; MacDonald, Nicholas; Mack, Claude E.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Majewski, Steven R.; Makler, Martin; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Manchado, A.; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Manera, Marc; Maraston, Claudia; Margala, Daniel; Martell, Sarah L.; McBride, Cameron K.; McGreer, Ian D.; McMahon, Richard G.; Ménard, Brice; Meszaros, Sz.; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Montesano, Francesco; Morrison, Heather L.; Muna, Demitri; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Myers, Adam D.; Neto, A. F.; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Nichol, Robert C.; Nidever, David L.; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Nuza, Sebastián E.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Oravetz, Daniel J.; Owen, Russell; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John K.; Parihar, Prachi; Pâris, Isabelle; Pattarakijwanich, Petchara; Pepper, Joshua; Percival, Will J.; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Petitjean, Patrick; Pforr, Janine; Pieri, Matthew M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Prada, Francisco; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Raddick, M. Jordan; Rebolo, Rafael; Rich, James; Richards, Gordon T.; Robin, Annie C.; Rocha-Pinto, Helio J.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Roe, Natalie A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rossi, Graziano; Rubiño-Martin, J. A.; Samushia, Lado; Sanchez Almeida, J.; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Santiago, Basílio; Sayres, Conor; Schlegel, David J.; Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Schultheis, Mathias; Schwope, Axel D.; Scóccola, C. G.; Seljak, Uros; Sheldon, Erin; Shen, Yue; Shu, Yiping; Simmerer, Jennifer; Simmons, Audrey E.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Slosar, A.; Sobreira, Flavia; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Steele, Oliver; Steinmetz, Matthias; Strauss, Michael A.; Streblyanska, Alina; Suzuki, Nao; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tal, Tomer; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Thomas, Daniel; Thompson, Benjamin A.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Tremonti, Christy A.; Vargas Magaña, M.; Verde, Licia; Viel, Matteo; Vikas, Shailendra K.; Vogt, Nicole P.; Wake, David A.; Wang, Ji; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Weinberg, David H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; West, Andrew A.; White, Martin; Wilson, John C.; Wisniewski, John P.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Yanny, Brian; Yèche, Christophe; York, Donald G.; Zamora, O.; Zasowski, Gail; Zehavi, Idit; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Zheng, Zheng; Zhu, Guangtun; Zinn, Joel C.

    2012-11-19

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) presents the first spectroscopic data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). This ninth data release (DR9) of the SDSS project includes 535,995 new galaxy spectra (median z=0.52), 102,100 new quasar spectra (median z=2.32), and 90,897 new stellar spectra, along with the data presented in previous data releases. These spectra were obtained with the new BOSS spectrograph and were taken between 2009 December and 2011 July. In addition, the stellar parameters pipeline, which determines radial velocities, surface temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities of stars, has been updated and refined with improvements in temperature estimates for stars with T_eff<5000 K and in metallicity estimates for stars with [Fe/H]>-0.5. DR9 includes new stellar parameters for all stars presented in DR8, including stars from SDSS-I and II, as well as those observed as part of the SDSS-III Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration-2 (SEGUE-2). The astrometry error introduced in the DR8 imaging catalogs has been corrected in the DR9 data products. The next data release for SDSS-III will be in Summer 2013, which will present the first data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) along with another year of data from BOSS, followed by the final SDSS-III data release in December 2014.

  15. THE HETDEX PILOT SURVEY. III. THE LOW METALLICITIES OF HIGH-REDSHIFT Lyα GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Papovich, Casey; Tran, Kim-Vy; Hill, Gary J.; Gebhardt, Karl; Adams, Joshua; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Schneider, Donald P.; Drory, Niv; Gawiser, Eric

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of Keck/NIRSPEC spectroscopic observations of three Lyα emitting galaxies (LAEs) at z∼ 2.3 discovered with the HETDEX pilot survey. We detect Hα, [O III], and Hβ emission from two galaxies at z= 2.29 and 2.49, designated HPS194 and HPS256, respectively, representing the first detection of multiple rest-frame optical emission lines in galaxies at high redshift selected on the basis of their Lyα emission. We find that the redshifts of the Lyα emission from these galaxies are offset redward of the systemic redshifts (derived from the Hα and [O III] emission) by Δv = 162 ± 37 (photometric) ± 42 (systematic) km s -1 for HPS194 and Δv = 36 ± 35 ± 18 km s -1 for HPS256. An interpretation for HPS194 is that a large-scale outflow may be occurring in its interstellar medium. This outflow is likely powered by star-formation activity, as examining emission line ratios implies that neither LAE hosts an active galactic nucleus. Using the upper limits on the [N II] emission, we place meaningful constraints on the gas-phase metallicities in these two LAEs of Z sun (1σ). Measuring the stellar masses of these objects via spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting (∼10 10 and 6 x 10 8 M sun , respectively), we study the nature of LAEs in a mass-metallicity plane. At least one of these two LAEs appears to be more metal poor than continuum-selected star-forming galaxies at the same redshift and stellar mass, implying that objects exhibiting Lyα emission may be systematically less chemically enriched than the general galaxy population. We use the SEDs of these two galaxies to show that neglecting the contribution of the measured emission line fluxes when fitting stellar population models to the observed photometry can result in overestimates of the population age by orders of magnitude and the stellar mass by a factor of ∼2. This effect is particularly important at z∼> 7, where similarly strong emission lines may masquerade in the photometry

  16. The HETDEX Pilot Survey. III. The Low Metallicities of High-redshift Lyα Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Hill, Gary J.; Gebhardt, Karl; Adams, Joshua; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Papovich, Casey; Ciardullo, Robin; Drory, Niv; Gawiser, Eric; Gronwall, Caryl; Schneider, Donald P.; Tran, Kim-Vy

    2011-03-01

    We present the results of Keck/NIRSPEC spectroscopic observations of three Lyα emitting galaxies (LAEs) at z~ 2.3 discovered with the HETDEX pilot survey. We detect Hα, [O III], and Hβ emission from two galaxies at z= 2.29 and 2.49, designated HPS194 and HPS256, respectively, representing the first detection of multiple rest-frame optical emission lines in galaxies at high redshift selected on the basis of their Lyα emission. We find that the redshifts of the Lyα emission from these galaxies are offset redward of the systemic redshifts (derived from the Hα and [O III] emission) by Δv = 162 ± 37 (photometric) ± 42 (systematic) km s-1 for HPS194 and Δv = 36 ± 35 ± 18 km s-1 for HPS256. An interpretation for HPS194 is that a large-scale outflow may be occurring in its interstellar medium. This outflow is likely powered by star-formation activity, as examining emission line ratios implies that neither LAE hosts an active galactic nucleus. Using the upper limits on the [N II] emission, we place meaningful constraints on the gas-phase metallicities in these two LAEs of ZLAEs in a mass-metallicity plane. At least one of these two LAEs appears to be more metal poor than continuum-selected star-forming galaxies at the same redshift and stellar mass, implying that objects exhibiting Lyα emission may be systematically less chemically enriched than the general galaxy population. We use the SEDs of these two galaxies to show that neglecting the contribution of the measured emission line fluxes when fitting stellar population models to the observed photometry can result in overestimates of the population age by orders of magnitude and the stellar mass by a factor of ~2. This effect is particularly important at zgsim 7, where similarly strong emission lines may masquerade in the photometry as a 4000 Å break. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory from telescope time allocated to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through

  17. Preliminary results of the global forest biomass survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Healey; E. Lindquist

    2014-01-01

    Many countries do not yet have well-established national forest inventories, and among those that do, significant methodological differences exist, particularly in the estimation of standing forest biomass. Global space-based LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) from NASA’s now-completed ICESat mission provided consistent, high-quality measures of canopy height and...

  18. Factor analysis in hydrochemical survey | Ephraim | Global Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Geological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  19. THE NINTH DATA RELEASE OF THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY: FIRST SPECTROSCOPIC DATA FROM THE SDSS-III BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Christopher P.; Anderton, Timothy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Alexandroff, Rachael; Blake, Cullen H. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), C/Via Lactea, s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Anderson, Scott F.; Barnes, Rory; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bochanski, John J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Andrews, Brett H. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Aubourg, Eric; Bautista, Julian [APC, University of Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, F-75205 Paris (France); Bailey, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Balbinot, Eduardo [Instituto de Fisica, UFRGS, Caixa Postal 15051, Porto Alegre, RS-91501-970 (Brazil); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Beifiori, Alessandra [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Berlind, Andreas A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Blanton, Michael R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Blomqvist, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); and others

    2012-12-15

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) presents the first spectroscopic data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). This ninth data release (DR9) of the SDSS project includes 535,995 new galaxy spectra (median z {approx} 0.52), 102,100 new quasar spectra (median z {approx} 2.32), and 90,897 new stellar spectra, along with the data presented in previous data releases. These spectra were obtained with the new BOSS spectrograph and were taken between 2009 December and 2011 July. In addition, the stellar parameters pipeline, which determines radial velocities, surface temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities of stars, has been updated and refined with improvements in temperature estimates for stars with T{sub eff} < 5000 K and in metallicity estimates for stars with [Fe/H] > -0.5. DR9 includes new stellar parameters for all stars presented in DR8, including stars from SDSS-I and II, as well as those observed as part of the SEGUE-2. The astrometry error introduced in the DR8 imaging catalogs has been corrected in the DR9 data products. The next data release for SDSS-III will be in Summer 2013, which will present the first data from the APOGEE along with another year of data from BOSS, followed by the final SDSS-III data release in 2014 December.

  20. Rising to the Challenge: Developing a Survey of Workplace Skills, Civic Engagement, and Global Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, Judith A.; Pike, Gary R.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the ongoing development of a survey of students' workplace skills, civic engagement, and global awareness that colleges and universities can use to document their contributions to the public good. The student growth survey currently under development offers colleges and universities an opportunity to refocus the attention of…

  1. The eleventh and twelfth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Final data from SDSS-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Shadab; Albareti, Franco D.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Anders, F.; Anderson, Scott F.; Anderton, Timothy; Andrews, Brett H.; Armengaud, Eric; Aubourg, Éric; Bailey, Stephen; Basu, Sarbani; Bautista, Julian E.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Beers, Timothy C.; Bender, Chad F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Beutler, Florian; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Bird, Jonathan C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blake, Cullen H.; Blanton, Michael R.; Blomqvist, Michael; Bochanski, John J.; Bolton, Adam S.; Bovy, Jo; Bradley, A. Shelden; Brandt, W. N.; Brauer, D. E.; Brinkmann, J.; Brown, Peter J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Burden, Angela; Burtin, Etienne; Busca, Nicolás G.; Cai, Zheng; Capozzi, Diego; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Carr, Michael A.; Carrera, Ricardo; Chambers, K. C.; Chaplin, William James; Chen, Yen-Chi; Chiappini, Cristina; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Clerc, Nicolas; Comparat, Johan; Covey, Kevin; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Cunha, Katia; Costa, Luiz N. da; Rio, Nicola Da; Davenport, James R. A.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Lee, Nathan De; Delubac, Timothée; Deshpande, Rohit; Dhital, Saurav; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Dwelly, Tom; Ealet, Anne; Ebelke, Garrett L.; Edmondson, Edward M.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Ellsworth, Tristan; Elsworth, Yvonne; Epstein, Courtney R.; Eracleous, Michael; Escoffier, Stephanie; Esposito, Massimiliano; Evans, Michael L.; Fan, Xiaohui; Fernández-Alvar, Emma; Feuillet, Diane; Ak, Nurten Filiz; Finley, Hayley; Finoguenov, Alexis; Flaherty, Kevin; Fleming, Scott W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Foster, Jonathan; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Galbraith-Frew, J. G.; García, Rafael A.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Pérez, Ana E. García; Gaulme, Patrick; Ge, Jian; Génova-Santos, R.; Georgakakis, A.; Ghezzi, Luan; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Girardi, Léo; Goddard, Daniel; Gontcho, Satya Gontcho A.; Hernández, Jonay I. González; Grebel, Eva K.; Green, Paul J.; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Grieves, Nolan; Gunn, James E.; Guo, Hong; Harding, Paul; Hasselquist, Sten; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hayden, Michael; Hearty, Fred R.; Hekker, Saskia; Ho, Shirley; Hogg, David W.; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Holtzman, Jon A.; Honscheid, Klaus; Huber, Daniel; Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Ivans, Inese I.; Jiang, Linhua; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Kirkby, David; Kitaura, Francisco; Klaene, Mark A.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Koenig, Xavier P.; Lam, Charles R.; Lan, Ting-Wen; Lang, Dustin; Laurent, Pierre; Goff, Jean-Marc Le; Leauthaud, Alexie; Lee, Khee-Gan; Lee, Young Sun; Licquia, Timothy C.; Liu, Jian; Long, Daniel C.; López-Corredoira, Martín; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Lucatello, Sara; Lundgren, Britt; Lupton, Robert H.; III, Claude E. Mack; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Majewski, Steven R.; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Manchado, A.; Manera, Marc; Mao, Qingqing; Maraston, Claudia; Marchwinski, Robert C.; Margala, Daniel; Martell, Sarah L.; Martig, Marie; Masters, Karen L.; Mathur, Savita; McBride, Cameron K.; McGehee, Peregrine M.; McGreer, Ian D.; McMahon, Richard G.; Ménard, Brice; Menzel, Marie-Luise; Merloni, Andrea; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Miller, Adam A.; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Miyatake, Hironao; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; More, Surhud; Morganson, Eric; Morice-Atkinson, Xan; Morrison, Heather L.; Mosser, Benôit; Muna, Demitri; Myers, Adam D.; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Neyrinck, Mark; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Nichol, Robert C.; Nidever, David L.; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Nuza, Sebastián E.; O’Connell, Julia E.; O’Connell, Robert W.; O’Connell, Ross; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Oravetz, Audrey E.; Oravetz, Daniel J.; Osumi, Keisuke; Owen, Russell; Padgett, Deborah L.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Paegert, Martin; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John K.; Pâris, Isabelle; Park, Changbom; Pattarakijwanich, Petchara; Pellejero-Ibanez, M.; Pepper, Joshua; Percival, Will J.; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Pe´rez-Ra`fols, Ignasi; Petitjean, Patrick; Pieri, Matthew M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Mello, Gustavo F. Porto de; Prada, Francisco; Prakash, Abhishek; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Protopapas, Pavlos; Raddick, M. Jordan; Rahman, Mubdi; Reid, Beth A.; Rich, James; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robin, Annie C.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Rodrigues, Thaíse S.; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Roe, Natalie A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rossi, Graziano; Ruan, John J.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Salvato, Mara; Samushia, Lado; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Santiago, Basílio; Sayres, Conor; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Schlegel, David J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Schultheis, Mathias; Schwope, Axel D.; Scóccola, C. G.; Scott, Caroline; Sellgren, Kris; Seo, Hee-Jong; Serenelli, Aldo; Shane, Neville; Shen, Yue; Shetrone, Matthew; Shu, Yiping; Aguirre, V. Silva; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Skrutskie, M. F.; Slosar, Anže; Smith, Verne V.; Sobreira, Flávia; Souto, Diogo; Stassun, Keivan G.; Steinmetz, Matthias; Stello, Dennis; Strauss, Michael A.; Streblyanska, Alina; Suzuki, Nao; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tan, Jonathan C.; Tayar, Jamie; Terrien, Ryan C.; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Thomas, Daniel; Thomas, Neil; Thompson, Benjamin A.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Troup, Nicholas W.; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Vazquez, Jose A.; Verde, Licia; Viel, Matteo; Vogt, Nicole P.; Wake, David A.; Wang, Ji; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Weinberg, David H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; White, Martin; Wilson, John C.; Wisniewski, John P.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Ye`che, Christophe; York, Donald G.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Zamora, O.; Zasowski, Gail; Zehavi, Idit; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Zheng, Zheng; Zhou (周旭), Xu; Zhou (周志民), Zhimin; Zou (邹虎), Hu; Zhu, Guangtun

    2015-07-20

    The third generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) took data from 2008 to 2014 using the original SDSS wide-field imager, the original and an upgraded multi-object fiber-fed optical spectrograph, a new near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph, and a novel optical interferometer. All of the data from SDSS-III are now made public. In particular, this paper describes Data Release 11 (DR11) including all data acquired through 2013 July, and Data Release 12 (DR12) adding data acquired through 2014 July (including all data included in previous data releases), marking the end of SDSS-III observing. Relative to our previous public release (DR10), DR12 adds one million new spectra of galaxies and quasars from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) over an additional 3000 deg2 of sky, more than triples the number of H-band spectra of stars as part of the Apache Point Observatory (APO) Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), and includes repeated accurate radial velocity measurements of 5500 stars from the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The APOGEE outputs now include the measured abundances of 15 different elements for each star. In total, SDSS-III added 5200 deg2 of ugriz imaging; 155,520 spectra of 138,099 stars as part of the Sloan Exploration of Galactic Understanding and Evolution 2 (SEGUE-2) survey; 2,497,484 BOSS spectra of 1,372,737 galaxies, 294,512 quasars, and 247,216 stars over 9376 deg2; 618,080 APOGEE spectra of 156,593 stars; and 197,040 MARVELS spectra of 5513 stars. Since its first light in 1998, SDSS has imaged over 1/3 of the Celestial sphere in five bands and obtained over five million astronomical spectra.

  2. THE ELEVENTH AND TWELFTH DATA RELEASES OF THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY: FINAL DATA FROM SDSS-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Shadab; Albareti, Franco D.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Anders, F.; Anderson, Scott F.; Anderton, Timothy; Andrews, Brett H.; Armengaud, Eric; Aubourg, Éric; Bautista, Julian E.; Bailey, Stephen; Basu, Sarbani; Beaton, Rachael L.; Beers, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    The third generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) took data from 2008 to 2014 using the original SDSS wide-field imager, the original and an upgraded multi-object fiber-fed optical spectrograph, a new near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph, and a novel optical interferometer. All of the data from SDSS-III are now made public. In particular, this paper describes Data Release 11 (DR11) including all data acquired through 2013 July, and Data Release 12 (DR12) adding data acquired through 2014 July (including all data included in previous data releases), marking the end of SDSS-III observing. Relative to our previous public release (DR10), DR12 adds one million new spectra of galaxies and quasars from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) over an additional 3000 deg 2 of sky, more than triples the number of H-band spectra of stars as part of the Apache Point Observatory (APO) Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), and includes repeated accurate radial velocity measurements of 5500 stars from the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The APOGEE outputs now include the measured abundances of 15 different elements for each star. In total, SDSS-III added 5200 deg 2 of ugriz imaging; 155,520 spectra of 138,099 stars as part of the Sloan Exploration of Galactic Understanding and Evolution 2 (SEGUE-2) survey; 2,497,484 BOSS spectra of 1,372,737 galaxies, 294,512 quasars, and 247,216 stars over 9376 deg 2 ; 618,080 APOGEE spectra of 156,593 stars; and 197,040 MARVELS spectra of 5513 stars. Since its first light in 1998, SDSS has imaged over 1/3 of the Celestial sphere in five bands and obtained over five million astronomical spectra

  3. Parametric Modelling of Potential Evapotranspiration: A Global Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Aristoteles Tegos; Nikolaos Malamos; Andreas Efstratiadis; Ioannis Tsoukalas; Alexandros Karanasios; Demetris Koutsoyiannis

    2017-01-01

    We present and validate a global parametric model of potential evapotranspiration (PET) with two parameters that are estimated through calibration, using as explanatory variables temperature and extraterrestrial radiation. The model is tested over the globe, taking advantage of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO CLIMWAT) database that provides monthly averaged values of meteorological inputs at 4300 locations worldwide. A preliminary analysis of these data allows for explaining the ma...

  4. Science and technology related global problems: An international survey of science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.; Mau, Teri

    This survey evaluated one aspect of the Science-Technology-Society theme, namely, the teaching of global problems related to science and technology. The survey was conducted during spring 1984. Two hundred sixty-two science educators representing 41 countries completed the survey. Response was 80%. Findings included a ranking of twelve global problems (the top six were: World Hunger and Food Resources, Population Growth, Air Quality and Atmosphere, Water Resources, War Technology, and Human Health and Disease). Science educators generally indicated the following: the science and technology related global problems would be worse by the year 2000; they were slightly or moderately knowledgeable about the problems; print, audio-visual media, and personal experiences were their primary sources of information; it is important to study global problems in schools; emphasis on global problems should increase with age/grade level; an integrated approach should be used to teach about global problems; courses including global problems should be required of all students; most countries are in the early stages of developing programs including global problems; there is a clear trend toward S-T-S; there is public support for including global problems; and, the most significant limitations to implementation of the S-T-S theme (in order of significance) are political, personnel, social, psychological, economic, pedagogical, and physical. Implications for research and development in science education are discussed.

  5. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume III, Part II. Cultural Resources Survey, Pine and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    others), cacti, especially prickly pear ( Opuntia basilaris and others), saltbrush (Atriplex canescens), shadscale Ert r E-TR-48- III-II 17 (Atriplex...supplies were depleted by the settlers through plowing and hunting, and the slave trade, disease , and indentured servitude to the Mormons decimated the

  6. SDSS-III: Massive Spectroscopic Surveys of the Distant Universe, the Milky Way Galaxy, and Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Weinberg, David H.; Agol, Eric; Aihara, Hiroaki; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Anderson, Scott F.; Arns, James A.; Aubourg, Eric; Bailey, Stephen; Balbinot, Eduardo; Barkhouser, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Building on the legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I and II), SDSS-III is a program of four spectroscopic surveys on three scientific themes: dark energy and cosmological parameters, the history and structure of the Milky Way, and the population of giant planets around other stars. The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) will measure redshifts of 1.5 million massive galaxies and Lyα forest spectra of 150,000 quasars, using the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature of large scale structure to obtain percent-level determinations of the distance scale and Hubble expansion rate at z 5 evolved, late-type stars, measuring separate abundances for ∼ 15 elements per star and creating the first high-precision spectroscopic survey of all Galactic stellar populations (bulge, bar, disks, halo) with a uniform set of stellar tracers and spectral diagnostics. The Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Large-area Survey (MARVELS) will monitor radial velocities of more than 8000 FGK stars with the sensitivity and cadence (10-40 m s -1 , ∼ 24 visits per star) needed to detect giant planets with periods up to two years, providing an unprecedented data set for understanding the formation and dynamical evolution of giant planet systems. As of January 2011, SDSS-III has obtained spectra of more than 240,000 galaxies, 29,000 z (ge) 2.2 quasars, and 140,000 stars, including 74,000 velocity measurements of 2580 stars for MARVELS. In keeping with SDSS tradition, SDSS-III will provide regular public releases of all its data, beginning with SDSS Data Release 8 (DR8) in January 2011.

  7. Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Kishor; Gehlot, Sangeeta; Singh, Girish; Rathore, H C S

    2010-01-01

    In the present day scenario, Ayurveda is globally being perceived in several contradictory ways. Poor quality of Ayurveda graduates produced as a result of poorly structured and poorly regulated education system is at least one of the important factors responsible for this scenario. The present study was carried out to evaluate the 'Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education' and is based on the responses of Ayurvedic students and Ayurvedic teachers from various educational institutions of India to a methodically validated questionnaire. As the study indicates, the poor standard of Ayurvedic education in India is definitely a cause of concern. The curriculum of Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (BAMS) course of studies is required to be reviewed and restructured. The syllabi are required to be updated with certain relevant topics like laws governing the intellectual property rights, basic procedures of standardization of medicinal products, fundamental methods of evaluating the toxicity of the medicinal products, essentials of healthcare management and the basics of cultivation and marketing of medicinal plants. Furthermore, the study suggests that the Ayurvedic academicians are required to be trained in standard methods of research and documentation skills, and the educational institutions are required to be encouraged to contribute their share in building up the evidence base for Ayurveda in the form of quality education and research.

  8. Survey on sedation in paediatric dentistry: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen; Alcaino, Eduardo A

    2011-09-01

    Paediatric dentists receive training in sedation during their advanced education training, but evidence suggests that this training varies widely. The purpose of this study was to survey members of the International Association of Paediatric Dentistry (IAPD) and the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) on their opinion on pharmacological and other behavioural management techniques and their training related to provision of oral health care of paediatric patients in the dental setting. A request was made for access to the IAPD and EAPD membership email addresses. The responses were recorded anonymously and data uploaded into spss (version 9) and analysed using descriptive analysis and chi-square with and without tabulation processes. A total of 311 respondents of 1973 targeted individuals answered the survey. The response rate was 16%. The majority of the respondents came from the continent of Europe, Asia, and the Americas. The most frequent type of sedation was general anaesthesia (52% of the respondents), followed by nitrous oxide (46%) and then oral sedation (44%). At least 91% of the respondents indicated that they were interested in the development of continuing education on the topic of sedation. Paediatric dentists around the world use relatively few behaviour management techniques, including pharmacological management. There is a definite interest in continuing education in the area of sedation. The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. KMTNet: A Cold Exoplanet Census Through a Global Microlensing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Calen B.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Han, Cheongho; Nataf, David; Skowron, Jan; Penny, Matthew; Gould, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The unique sensitivity of gravitational microlensing to low-mass planets near and beyond the snow line makes it an indispensable tool for understanding the distribution and formation mechanisms of exoplanets. The Korean Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) consists of three 1.6m telescopes each with a 4 deg2 field of view and will be dedicated to monitoring the Galactic Bulge in order to detect exoplanets via gravitational microlensing. With its relatively large aperture, large field of view, high (~10-minute) cadence, and near-complete longitudinal coverage of the Galactic Bulge for 8 months a year, KMTNet is expected to increase the the annual detection rate of exoplanets via microlensing by a factor of ~5 over current surveys, pushing down to the mass of Earth for bound and unbound planets. I will summarize the predicted yields of KMTNet's survey based on detailed simulations, highlighting its sensitivity to low-mass planets and its expected haul of free-floating planets. I will also describe the prospects for characterization of the exoplanetary systems KMTNet will detect, focusing on the variety of techniques current and future high-resolution facilities such as VLT, GMT, and JWST can use to measure the flux from the host stars and ultimately derive planet masses.

  10. Parametric Modelling of Potential Evapotranspiration: A Global Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristoteles Tegos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present and validate a global parametric model of potential evapotranspiration (PET with two parameters that are estimated through calibration, using as explanatory variables temperature and extraterrestrial radiation. The model is tested over the globe, taking advantage of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO CLIMWAT database that provides monthly averaged values of meteorological inputs at 4300 locations worldwide. A preliminary analysis of these data allows for explaining the major drivers of PET over the globe and across seasons. The model calibration against the given Penman-Monteith values was carried out through an automatic optimization procedure. For the evaluation of the model, we present global maps of optimized model parameters and associated performance metrics, and also contrast its performance against the well-known Hargreaves-Samani method. Also, we use interpolated values of the optimized parameters to validate the predictive capacity of our model against monthly meteorological time series, at several stations worldwide. The results are very encouraging, since even with the use of abstract climatic information for model calibration and the use of interpolated parameters as local predictors, the model generally ensures reliable PET estimations. Exceptions are mainly attributed to irregular interactions between temperature and extraterrestrial radiation, as well as because the associated processes are influenced by additional drivers, e.g., relative humidity and wind speed. However, the analysis of the residuals shows that the model is consistent in terms of parameters estimation and model validation. The parameter maps allow for the direct use of the model wherever in the world, providing PET estimates in case of missing data, that can be further improved even with a short term acquisition of meteorological data.

  11. Global GPS data analysis at the National Geodetic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, William G.; Dulaney, Robert L.; Griffiths, Jake; Hilla, Stephen; Ray, Jim; Rohde, James

    2009-03-01

    NOAA’s National Geodetic Survey (NGS) has been one of the Analysis Centers (ACs) of the International GNSS Service (IGS) since its inception in 1994. Solutions for daily GPS orbits and Earth orientation parameters are regularly contributed to the IGS Rapid and Final products, as well as solutions of weekly station positions. These solutions are combined with those of the other ACs and then the resultant IGS products are distributed to users. To perform these tasks, NGS has developed and refined the Program for the Adjustment of GPS EphemerideS (PAGES) software. Although PAGES has continuously evolved over the past 15 years, recent efforts have focused mostly on updating models and procedures to conform more closely to IGS and the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) conventions. Details of our processing updates and demonstrations of the improvements will be provided.

  12. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industry technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    A global CO2 recycling system which combines utilization of natural energy and CO2 recovered from combustion of fossil fuel is studied. In the model, CO2 recovered at the place of energy demand is transported to the place where energy is produced, and from the CO2 fuels are synthesized by use of solar energy and transported to the place of energy demand. Facilities worth a large amount of money are required to transmit electric power generated by the photovoltaic power generation in the desert to the fuel synthesizing plant. Therefore, production of electrolytic hydrogen by the on-site power generation and transport by pipe may be considered. As a synthetic fuel being sent back by ocean transport, methanol is considered, and synthetic methane (LNG) can also be a candidate. CO2 is recovered as liquid carbon dioxide. Possibility of CO2 recycling is dependent on development of the desert solar base, as well as depletion of fossil fuel and price increase, CO2 penalty. It has still been difficult to say which of the fuel synthesis, CO2 tanker or securing of the solar base becomes a bottleneck. Entry of recycling fuels to the market will be possible in proportion to restrictions on fossil fuels, and evaluation of the system depends almost on the rate of energy arriving from the energy-producing region.

  13. Epidemiology of travelers' diarrhea: details of a global survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Robert; Tornieporth, Nadia; Clemens, Sue-Ann Costa; Chatterjee, Santanu; Cavalcanti, Ana-Maria; Collard, Françoise; De Clercq, Norbert; DuPont, Herbert L; von Sonnenburg, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic data on travelers' diarrhea (TD) are essential for the evaluation of conventional and future prophylactic and therapeutic measures. To determine the epidemiology, including risk factors, impact and quality-of-life evaluation of TD, a cross-sectional survey was conducted over 12 months at the airports of Mombasa (Kenya), Goa (India), Montego Bay (Jamaica) and Fortaleza (Brazil) by distributing questionnaires to visitors just prior to their flying home. The study period was March 1996 to July 1998. Overall, 73,630 short-term visitors completed a questionnaire. The total diarrhea attack rate varied between a high of 54.6% in Mombasa and a low of 13.6% in Fortaleza, but only between 31.5% and 5.4% of all travelers had classic TD. The 14-day incidence rates varied between 19.5% and 65.7%. Few travelers meticulously avoided potentially dangerous food items, although in India and Kenya most travelers avoided those considered most dangerous. Risk factors were stays exceeding 1 week, age between 15 and 30 years, and residence in the UK. The impact, measured as incapacity or quality-of-life scores, was very considerable. TD continues to affect vacationers and business travelers as frequently as it did some 20 years ago. Compliance with recommendations to reduce exposure to pathogens by avoiding dangerous food items is poor among travelers from all countries. Implementation of food safety education programs may be difficult to achieve.

  14. Basel III Global Liquidity Standards: Critical Discussion and Impact onto the European Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bučková

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Together with the Basel III regulatory equity rules, two liquidity ratios have been published. Resulting from the illiquidity of some banks during the financial crisis in 2008, these ratios shall help to prevent further crisis in the European banking sector. But do they really fulfill their aim? This article presents the new liquidity ratios, the actual liquidity situation in banks and describes the consequences for banks at a simplified example. It has to be stated that implementing more detailed liquidity frameworks into the banking supervision process is necessary. The financial crisis in 2008 showed that several banks did not have adequate liquidity risk models and processes to prevent illiquidity. But the LCR and the NSFR seem to be wrong methods. Both ratios will increase. The implementation of both ratios has to be done very carefully in order to prevent this.

  15. Global impact of Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA on host cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenal-Muñoz, Elena, E-mail: e_cardenal@us.es; Gutiérrez, Gabriel, E-mail: ggpozo@us.es; Ramos-Morales, Francisco, E-mail: framos@us.es

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • We analyzed HeLa cells transcriptome in response to Salmonella SteA. • Significant differential expression was detected for 58 human genes. • They are involved in ECM organization and regulation of some signaling pathways. • Cell death, cell adhesion and cell migration were decreased in SteA-expressing cells. • These results contribute to understand the role of SteA during infections. - Abstract: Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, bacteremia and typhoid fever in several animal species including humans. Its virulence is greatly dependent on two type III secretion systems, encoded in pathogenicity islands 1 and 2. These systems translocate proteins called effectors into eukaryotic host cell. Effectors interfere with host signal transduction pathways to allow the internalization of pathogens and their survival and proliferation inside vacuoles. SteA is one of the few Salmonella effectors that are substrates of both type III secretion systems. Here, we used gene arrays and bioinformatics analysis to study the genetic response of human epithelial cells to SteA. We found that constitutive synthesis of SteA in HeLa cells leads to induction of genes related to extracellular matrix organization and regulation of cell proliferation and serine/threonine kinase signaling pathways. SteA also causes repression of genes related to immune processes and regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis and pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation. In addition, a cell biology approach revealed that epithelial cells expressing steA show altered cell morphology, and decreased cytotoxicity, cell–cell adhesion and migration.

  16. Bayesian galaxy shape measurement for weak lensing surveys - III. Application to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.; Heymans, C.; Kitching, T. D.; van Waerbeke, L.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Mellier, Y.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Coupon, J.; Dietrich, J. P.; Fu, L.; Harnois-Déraps, J.; Hudson, M. J.; Kilbinger, M.; Kuijken, K.; Schrabback, T.; Semboloni, E.; Vafaei, S.; Velander, M.

    2013-03-01

    A likelihood-based method for measuring weak gravitational lensing shear in deep galaxy surveys is described and applied to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). CFHTLenS comprises 154 deg2 of multi-colour optical data from the CFHT Legacy Survey, with lensing measurements being made in the i' band to a depth i'AB noise ratio νSN ≳ 10. The method is based on the lensfit algorithm described in earlier papers, but here we describe a full analysis pipeline that takes into account the properties of real surveys. The method creates pixel-based models of the varying point spread function (PSF) in individual image exposures. It fits PSF-convolved two-component (disc plus bulge) models to measure the ellipticity of each galaxy, with Bayesian marginalization over model nuisance parameters of galaxy position, size, brightness and bulge fraction. The method allows optimal joint measurement of multiple, dithered image exposures, taking into account imaging distortion and the alignment of the multiple measurements. We discuss the effects of noise bias on the likelihood distribution of galaxy ellipticity. Two sets of image simulations that mirror the observed properties of CFHTLenS have been created to establish the method's accuracy and to derive an empirical correction for the effects of noise bias.

  17. The European large area ISO survey - III. 90-mu m extragalactic source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    2000-01-01

    We present results and source counts at 90 mum extracted from the preliminary analysis of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). The survey covered about 12 deg(2) of the sky in four main areas and was carried out with the ISOPHOT instrument onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). The ...

  18. A Global Survey of International Business Education in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Chuck C Y Kwok; Jeffrey Arpan; William R Folks

    1994-01-01

    This article presents the major findings of the fifth global curriculum survey of the Academy of International Business (AIB)—an examination of the status and trends in international business education around the world as of the early 1990s. The survey's findings, based on responses from more than 500 business schools, encompass different goals and methods of internationalization, international linkages and experiential activities, organizational issues, amounts of internationalization progre...

  19. Chronic pain and pattern of health care utilization among Malaysian elderly population: National Health and Morbidity Survey III (NHMS III, 2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Zaki, Lily R; Hairi, Noran N

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to report prevalence of chronic pain and to examine whether chronic pain influence healthcare usage among elderly Malaysian population. This was a sub-population analysis of the elderly sample in the Malaysia's Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) 2006, a nation-wide population based survey. A subset of 4954 elderly aged 60 years and above was used in the analysis. Chronic pain, pain's interference and outcome variables of healthcare utilization (hospital admission and ambulatory care service) were all measured and determined by self-report. Prevalence of chronic pain among elderly Malaysian was 15.2% (95% CI: 14.5, 16.8). Prevalence of chronic pain increased with advancing age, and the highest prevalence was seen among the old-old group category (21.5%). Across young-old and old-old groups, chronic pain was more prevalent among females, Indian ethnicity, widows/widowers, rural residency and those with no educational background. Our study showed that chronic pain alone increased hospitalization but not visits to ambulatory facilities. Presence of chronic pain was significantly associated with the frequency of hospitalization (aIRR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02, 1.38) but not ambulatory care service. Chronic pain is a prevalent health problem among the elderly in Malaysia and is associated with higher hospitalization rate among the elderly population. This study provides insight into the distribution of chronic pain among the elderly and its relationship with the patterns of healthcare utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DSM-5 Tobacco Use Disorder and Sleep Disturbance: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayley, Amie C; Stough, Con; Downey, Luke A

    2017-12-06

    The DSM-5 Tobacco use disorder diagnosis incorporates tobacco misuse, addictive behaviors and withdrawal symptomology. Tobacco use is bidirectionally associated with sleep pathology; however, no epidemiological studies have yet evaluated the associations between DSM-5 Tobacco use disorder and self-reported sleep disturbance. The current study aimed to evaluate health, medical and sleep-related factors among individuals within this diagnostic stratum. A total of N = 36,177 adults who participated in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III) were included for analyses. The adjusted odd ratios (AOR) for individual classifications of DSM-5 Tobacco use disorder among those with subjective sleep disturbances were used as the primary outcome measure and relevant demographic, clinical and medical factors were considered in all univariate and multivariable analyses. Current and lifetime DSM-5 tobacco use disorder diagnoses were associated with poorer health and medical outcomes and higher rates of subjective sleep disturbances (all p DSM-5 tobacco use disorder and subjective sleep disturbances were maintained in multivariable analyses following adjustment for a range of health, lifestyle, and psychiatric factors (adjusted OR 1.11, 95%CI 1.00-1.23 and adjusted OR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.15-1.34, respectively); however, these relationships were fully explained by diagnoses of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. Data from this large, representative survey indicate that the association between DSM-5 Tobacco use disorder and sleep disturbance is explained by underlying diagnoses of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. Multifaceted substance abuse treatment protocols may improve treatment outcomes for affected patient groups.

  1. HP2 survey. III. The California Molecular Cloud: A sleeping giant revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lada, Charles J.; Lewis, John A.; Lombardi, Marco; Alves, João

    2017-10-01

    suggesting that cloud structure plays a major role in setting the global star formation rates in GMCs HP2 (Herschel-Planck-2MASS) survey is a continuation of the series originally entitled "Herschel-Planck dust opacity and column density maps" (Lombardi et al. 2014, Zari et al. 2016).The reduced Herschel and Planck map and the column density and temperature maps are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/606/A100

  2. A survey of Type III restriction-modification systems reveals numerous, novel epigenetic regulators controlling phase-variable regulons; phasevarions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atack, John M; Yang, Yuedong; Jennings, Michael P

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Many bacteria utilize simple DNA sequence repeats as a mechanism to randomly switch genes on and off. This process is called phase variation. Several phase-variable N6-adenine DNA-methyltransferases from Type III restriction-modification systems have been reported in bacterial pathogens. Random switching of DNA methyltransferases changes the global DNA methylation pattern, leading to changes in gene expression. These epigenetic regulatory systems are called phasevarions — phase-variable regulons. The extent of these phase-variable genes in the bacterial kingdom is unknown. Here, we interrogated a database of restriction-modification systems, REBASE, by searching for all simple DNA sequence repeats in mod genes that encode Type III N6-adenine DNA-methyltransferases. We report that 17.4% of Type III mod genes (662/3805) contain simple sequence repeats. Of these, only one-fifth have been previously identified. The newly discovered examples are widely distributed and include many examples in opportunistic pathogens as well as in environmental species. In many cases, multiple phasevarions exist in one genome, with examples of up to 4 independent phasevarions in some species. We found several new types of phase-variable mod genes, including the first example of a phase-variable methyltransferase in pathogenic Escherichia coli. Phasevarions are a common epigenetic regulation contingency strategy used by both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. PMID:29554328

  3. SDSS-III: Massive Spectroscopic Surveys of the Distant Universe, the Milky Way Galaxy, and Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Harvard U., Phys. Dept.; Weinberg, David H.; /Ohio State U.; Agol, Eric; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Aihara, Hiroaki; /Tokyo U.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; /Laguna U., Tenerife; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Arns, James A.; /Michigan U.; Aubourg, Eric; /APC, Paris /DAPNIA, Saclay; Bailey, Stephen; /LBL, Berkeley; Balbinot, Eduardo; /Rio Grande do Sul U. /Rio de Janeiro Observ.; Barkhouser, Robert; /Johns Hopkins U. /Michigan State U.

    2011-01-01

    Building on the legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I and II), SDSS-III is a program of four spectroscopic surveys on three scientific themes: dark energy and cosmological parameters, the history and structure of the Milky Way, and the population of giant planets around other stars. The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) will measure redshifts of 1.5 million massive galaxies and Ly{alpha} forest spectra of 150,000 quasars, using the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature of large scale structure to obtain percent-level determinations of the distance scale and Hubble expansion rate at z < 0.7 and at z {approx} 2.5. SEGUE-2, a now-completed continuation of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration, measured medium-resolution (R = {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} 1800) optical spectra of 118,000 stars in a variety of target categories, probing chemical evolution, stellar kinematics and substructure, and the mass profile of the dark matter halo from the solar neighborhood to distances of 100 kpc. APOGEE, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment, will obtain high-resolution (R {approx} 30,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N {ge} 100 per resolution element), H-band (1.51 {micro}m < {lambda} < 1.70 {micro}m) spectra of 10{sup 5} evolved, late-type stars, measuring separate abundances for {approx} 15 elements per star and creating the first high-precision spectroscopic survey of all Galactic stellar populations (bulge, bar, disks, halo) with a uniform set of stellar tracers and spectral diagnostics. The Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Large-area Survey (MARVELS) will monitor radial velocities of more than 8000 FGK stars with the sensitivity and cadence (10-40 m s{sup -1}, {approx} 24 visits per star) needed to detect giant planets with periods up to two years, providing an unprecedented data set for understanding the formation and dynamical evolution of giant planet systems. As of January 2011, SDSS-III has obtained

  4. The Heart of Great Teaching: Pearson Global Survey of Educator Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Katherine; Graybeal, John; Yarbro, Jessica; Graybeal, Lacey

    2016-01-01

    To contribute to the global discussion about what makes an effective teacher, Pearson surveyed students ages 15-19, teachers, principals, education researchers, education policymakers, and parents of school-aged children in 23 countries (Canada, U.S., Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Finland, Germany, Poland, England, Morocco, Egypt, South Africa,…

  5. The Philippines Is Marlboro Country for Youth Smoking: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine cigarette brand preference trends and differences in Marlboro smokers in smoking-related attitudes and behaviors from smokers of other brands. This study analyzed data from 25,027 adolescents represented in the 2000, 2003, and 2007 Philippine Global Youth Tobacco Surveys. Results indicated that from 2000…

  6. Now what do people know about global climate change? Survey studies of educated laypeople.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Travis William; Bostrom, Ann; Read, Daniel; Morgan, M Granger

    2010-10-01

    In 1992, a mental-models-based survey in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, revealed that educated laypeople often conflated global climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion, and appeared relatively unaware of the role of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in global warming. This study compares those survey results with 2009 data from a sample of similarly well-educated laypeople responding to the same survey instrument. Not surprisingly, following a decade of explosive attention to climate change in politics and in the mainstream media, survey respondents in 2009 showed higher awareness and comprehension of some climate change causes. Most notably, unlike those in 1992, 2009 respondents rarely mentioned ozone depletion as a cause of global warming. They were also far more likely to correctly volunteer energy use as a major cause of climate change; many in 2009 also cited natural processes and historical climatic cycles as key causes. When asked how to address the problem of climate change, while respondents in 1992 were unable to differentiate between general "good environmental practices" and actions specific to addressing climate change, respondents in 2009 have begun to appreciate the differences. Despite this, many individuals in 2009 still had incorrect beliefs about climate change, and still did not appear to fully appreciate key facts such as that global warming is primarily due to increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and the single most important source of this carbon dioxide is the combustion of fossil fuels. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Results of Global Youth Tobacco Surveys in Public Schools in Bogota, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Constanza; Pineros, Marion; Jones, Nathan R.; Warren, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this paper is to use data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Bogota, Colombia, in 2001 and 2007 to examine changes in tobacco use among youth 13-15 years of age. The current tobacco control effort in Bogota will be accessed relative to Colombia ratifying the World Health Organization Framework…

  8. The Gould's Belt Very Large Array Survey. III. The Orion Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee; Loinard, Laurent; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Dzib, Sergio A.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; Torres, Rosa M.; Boden, Andrew F.; Evans, Neal J., II; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John

    2014-07-01

    We present results from a high-sensitivity (60 μJy), large-scale (2.26 deg2) survey obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array as part of the Gould's Belt Survey program. We detected 374 and 354 sources at 4.5 and 7.5 GHz, respectively. Of these, 148 are associated with previously known young stellar objects (YSOs). Another 86 sources previously unclassified at either optical or infrared wavelengths exhibit radio properties that are consistent with those of young stars. The overall properties of our sources at radio wavelengths such as their variability and radio to X-ray luminosity relation are consistent with previous results from the Gould's Belt Survey. Our detections provide target lists for follow-up Very Long Baseline Array radio observations to determine their distances as YSOs are located in regions of high nebulosity and extinction, making it difficult to measure optical parallaxes.

  9. The European large area ISO survey - III. 90-mu m extragalactic source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    2000-01-01

    We present results and source counts at 90 mum extracted from the preliminary analysis of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). The survey covered about 12 deg(2) of the sky in four main areas and was carried out with the ISOPHOT instrument onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). The ...... or small groups of galaxies, suggesting that the sample may include a significant fraction of luminous infrared galaxies. The source counts extracted from a reliable subset of the detected sources are in agreement with strongly evolving models of the starburst galaxy population....

  10. Factors influencing healthcare provider respondent fatigue answering a globally administered in-app survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas N. O’Reilly-Shah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Respondent fatigue, also known as survey fatigue, is a common problem in the collection of survey data. Factors that are known to influence respondent fatigue include survey length, survey topic, question complexity, and open-ended question type. There is a great deal of interest in understanding the drivers of physician survey responsiveness due to the value of information received from these practitioners. With the recent explosion of mobile smartphone technology, it has been possible to obtain survey data from users of mobile applications (apps on a question-by-question basis. The author obtained basic demographic survey data as well as survey data related to an anesthesiology-specific drug called sugammadex and leveraged nonresponse rates to examine factors that influenced respondent fatigue. Methods Primary data were collected between December 2015 and February 2017. Surveys and in-app analytics were collected from global users of a mobile anesthesia calculator app. Key independent variables were user country, healthcare provider role, rating of importance of the app to personal practice, length of time in practice, and frequency of app use. Key dependent variable was the metric of respondent fatigue. Results Provider role and World Bank country income level were predictive of the rate of respondent fatigue for this in-app survey. Importance of the app to the provider and length of time in practice were moderately associated with fatigue. Frequency of app use was not associated. This study focused on a survey with a topic closely related to the subject area of the app. Respondent fatigue rates will likely change dramatically if the topic does not align closely. Discussion Although apps may serve as powerful platforms for data collection, responses rates to in-app surveys may differ on the basis of important respondent characteristics. Studies should be carefully designed to mitigate fatigue as well as powered with the

  11. Global modeling of land water and energy balances. Part III: Interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmakin, A.B.; Milly, P.C.D.; Dunne, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Land Dynamics (LaD) model is tested by comparison with observations of interannual variations in discharge from 44 large river basins for which relatively accurate time series of monthly precipitation (a primary model input) have recently been computed. When results are pooled across all basins, the model explains 67% of the interannual variance of annual runoff ratio anomalies (i.e., anomalies of annual discharge volume, normalized by long-term mean precipitation volume). The new estimates of basin precipitation appear to offer an improvement over those from a state-of-the-art analysis of global precipitation (the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation, CMAP), judging from comparisons of parallel model runs and of analyses of precipitation-discharge correlations. When the new precipitation estimates are used, the performance of the LaD model is comparable to, but not significantly better than, that of a simple, semiempirical water-balance relation that uses only annual totals of surface net radiation and precipitation. This implies that the LaD simulations of interannual runoff variability do not benefit substantially from information on geographical variability of land parameters or seasonal structure of interannual variability of precipitation. The aforementioned analyses necessitated the development of a method for downscaling of long-term monthly precipitation data to the relatively short timescales necessary for running the model. The method merges the long-term data with a reference dataset of 1-yr duration, having high temporal resolution. The success of the method, for the model and data considered here, was demonstrated in a series of model-model comparisons and in the comparisons of modeled and observed interannual variations of basin discharge.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Global energetics of solar flares. III. (Aschwanden+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, M. J.; Holman, G.; O'Flannagain, A.; Caspi, A.; McTiernan, J. M.; Kontar, E. P.

    2017-02-01

    This study entails the third part of a global flare energetics project, in which Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) data of 191 M and X-class flare events from the first 3.5yrs of the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission are analyzed. We fit a thermal and a nonthermal component to RHESSI spectra, yielding the temperature of the differential emission measure (DEM) tail, the nonthermal power-law slope and flux, and the thermal/nonthermal cross-over energy eco. From these parameters, we calculate the total nonthermal energy Ent in electrons with two different methods: (1) using the observed cross-over energy eco as low-energy cutoff, and (2) using the low-energy cutoff ewt predicted by the warm thick-target bremsstrahlung model of Kontar et al. Based on a mean temperature of Te=8.6MK in active regions, we find low-energy cutoff energies of ewt=6.2+/-1.6keV for the warm-target model, which is significantly lower than the cross-over energies eco=21+/-6keV. Comparing with the statistics of magnetically dissipated energies Emag and thermal energies Eth from the two previous studies, we find the following mean (logarithmic) energy ratios with the warm-target model: Ent=0.41Emag, Eth=0.08Emag, and Eth=0.15Ent. The total dissipated magnetic energy exceeds the thermal energy in 95% and the nonthermal energy in 71% of the flare events, which confirms that magnetic reconnection processes are sufficient to explain flare energies. The nonthermal energy exceeds the thermal energy in 85% of the events, which largely confirms the warm thick-target model. (1 data file).

  13. Non-auditory effects of noise in industry. III. Secondary analysis of a national survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, J. H.; van Dijk, F. J.; de Vries, F. F.

    1986-01-01

    A secondary analysis of data from a national survey was carried out in order to assess the number of industrial workers exposed to noise and other adverse working conditions. This permitted us to study correlations with parameters of health. More than half of the male blue collar workers in industry

  14. The Pristine survey - III. Spectroscopic confirmation of an efficient search for extremely metal-poor stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youakim, K.; Starkenburg, E.; Aguado, D. S.; Martin, N. F.; Fouesneau, M.; González Hernández, J. I.; Allende Prieto, C.; Bonifacio, P.; Gentile, M.; Kielty, C.; Côté, P.; Jablonka, P.; McConnachie, A.; Sánchez Janssen, R.; Tolstoy, E.; Venn, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Pristine survey is a narrow-band, photometric survey focused around the wavelength region of the Ca II H&K absorption lines, designed to efficiently search for extremely metal-poor stars. In this work, we use the first results of a medium-resolution spectroscopic follow-up to refine the selection criteria for finding extremely metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] ≤ -3.0) in the Pristine survey. We consider methods by which stars can be selected from available broad-band and infrared photometry plus the additional Pristine narrow-band photometry. The sample consists of 205 stars in the magnitude range 14 cuts the sample down to 149 stars, and from these we report a success rate of 70 per cent for finding stars with [Fe/H] ≤ -2.5 and 22 per cent for finding stars with [Fe/H] ≤ -3.0. These statistics compare favourably with other surveys that search for extremely metal-poor stars, namely an improvement by a factor of ∼4 - 5 for recovering stars with [Fe/H] ≤ -3.0. In addition, Pristine covers a fainter magnitude range than its predecessors and can thus probe deeper into the Galactic halo.

  15. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. III. Second public data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Benito, R.; Zibetti, S.; Sánchez, S. F.; Husemann, B.; de Amorim, A. L.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Ellis, S. C.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Galbany, L.; Gil de Paz, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; López-Fernandez, R.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Mendoza, M. A.; Pérez, E.; Vale Asari, N.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Ascasibar, Y.; Bekerait*error*ė, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Bomans, D. J.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cortijo, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Demleitner, M.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Díaz, A. I.; Florido, E.; Gallazzi, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Gomes, J. M.; Holmes, L.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Jahnke, K.; Kalinova, V.; Kehrig, C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Meidt, S. E.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Morisset, C.; del Olmo, A.; Papaderos, P.; Pérez, I.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Roth, M. M.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Singh, R.; Spekkens, K.; Stanishev, V.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; van de Ven, G.; Vilchez, J. M.; Walcher, C. J.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Ziegler, B.; Alves, J.; Barrado, D.; Quintana, J. M.; Aceituno, J.

    This paper describes the Second Public Data Release (DR2) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. The data for 200 objects are made public, including the 100 galaxies of the First Public Data Release (DR1). Data were obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak

  16. Moving on From Representativeness: Testing the Utility of the Global Drug Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica J Barratt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A decline in response rates in traditional household surveys, combined with increased internet coverage and decreased research budgets, has resulted in increased attractiveness of web survey research designs based on purposive and voluntary opt-in sampling strategies. In the study of hidden or stigmatised behaviours, such as cannabis use, web survey methods are increasingly common. However, opt-in web surveys are often heavily criticised due to their lack of sampling frame and unknown representativeness. In this article, we outline the current state of the debate about the relevance of pursuing representativeness, the state of probability sampling methods, and the utility of non-probability, web survey methods especially for accessing hidden or minority populations. Our article has two aims: (1 to present a comprehensive description of the methodology we use at Global Drug Survey (GDS, an annual cross-sectional web survey and (2 to compare the age and sex distributions of cannabis users who voluntarily completed (a a household survey or (b a large web-based purposive survey (GDS, across three countries: Australia, the United States, and Switzerland. We find that within each set of country comparisons, the demographic distributions among recent cannabis users are broadly similar, demonstrating that the age and sex distributions of those who volunteer to be surveyed are not vastly different between these non-probability and probability methods. We conclude that opt-in web surveys of hard-to-reach populations are an efficient way of gaining in-depth understanding of stigmatised behaviours and are appropriate, as long as they are not used to estimate drug use prevalence of the general population.

  17. Moving on From Representativeness: Testing the Utility of the Global Drug Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Monica J; Ferris, Jason A; Zahnow, Renee; Palamar, Joseph J; Maier, Larissa J; Winstock, Adam R

    2017-01-01

    A decline in response rates in traditional household surveys, combined with increased internet coverage and decreased research budgets, has resulted in increased attractiveness of web survey research designs based on purposive and voluntary opt-in sampling strategies. In the study of hidden or stigmatised behaviours, such as cannabis use, web survey methods are increasingly common. However, opt-in web surveys are often heavily criticised due to their lack of sampling frame and unknown representativeness. In this article, we outline the current state of the debate about the relevance of pursuing representativeness, the state of probability sampling methods, and the utility of non-probability, web survey methods especially for accessing hidden or minority populations. Our article has two aims: (1) to present a comprehensive description of the methodology we use at Global Drug Survey (GDS), an annual cross-sectional web survey and (2) to compare the age and sex distributions of cannabis users who voluntarily completed (a) a household survey or (b) a large web-based purposive survey (GDS), across three countries: Australia, the United States, and Switzerland. We find that within each set of country comparisons, the demographic distributions among recent cannabis users are broadly similar, demonstrating that the age and sex distributions of those who volunteer to be surveyed are not vastly different between these non-probability and probability methods. We conclude that opt-in web surveys of hard-to-reach populations are an efficient way of gaining in-depth understanding of stigmatised behaviours and are appropriate, as long as they are not used to estimate drug use prevalence of the general population.

  18. Report of Class III Survey and Testing of Cultural Resources at Cuchillo, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    least at the survey level. The need for systematic dating by radiocarbon, archaeomagnetic , and dendrochronolo- gical analyses is clear; moreover, the... archaeomagnetic or radiocarbon dating for floor hearths is therefore only assumed. % VV -l_ -S; %- 1,- 1Ma a "w -*- ś _C -67- Distinguishable roof fall...Site C-14 Archaeomagnetic Dendrochron- Hydration escent Dating Dating ological Dating Dating Dating MA235F-1/LA53479 ? ? ? ? ? MA235F-2/LA50548 19 6

  19. Sexual and reproductive health and human rights of women living with HIV: a global community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Manjulaa; Orza, Luisa; Welbourn, Alice; Bewley, Susan; Crone, Tyler; Vazquez, Marijo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the sexual and reproductive health priorities of women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to allow the values and preferences of such women to be considered in the development of new guidelines. A core team created a global reference group of 14 women living with HIV and together they developed a global community online survey. The survey, which contained mandatory and optional questions, was based on an appreciative enquiry approach in which the life-cycle experiences of women living with HIV were investigated. The same set of questions was also used in focus group discussions led by the global reference group. The study covered 945 women (832 in the survey and 113 in the focus groups) aged 15-72 years in 94 countries. Among the respondents to the optional survey questions, 89.0% (427/480) feared or had experienced gender-based violence, 56.7% (177/312) had had an unplanned pregnancy, 72.3% (227/314) had received advice on safe conception and 58.8% (489/832) had suffered poor mental health after they had discovered their HIV-positive status. The sexual and reproductive health needs and rights of women living with HIV are complex and require a stronger response from the health sector. The online survey placed the voices of women living with HIV at the start of the development of new global guidelines. Although not possible in some contexts and populations, a similar approach would merit replication in the development of guidelines for many other health considerations.

  20. The global and local stellar mass assembly histories of galaxies from the MaNGA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Medel, Hétor J.; Sánchez,, Sebastián F.; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Hernández-Toledo, Héctor M., J.; González, J. Jesús; Drory, Niv; Bundy, Kevin; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cano-Díaz, Mariana; Malanushenko, Elena; Pan, Kaike; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Thomas, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    By means of the fossil record method implemented through Pipe3D we reconstruct the global and radial stellar mass growth histories (MGHs) of a large sample of galaxies in the mass range 10^{8.5}M⊙-10^{11.5}M⊙ from the MaNGA survey. We find that: (1) The main driver of the global MGHs is mass, with more massive galaxies assembling their masses earlier (downsizing). (2) For most galaxies in their late evolutionary stages, the innermost regions formed earlier than the outermost ones (inside-out). This behaviour is stronger for blue/late-type galaxies.

  1. Polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids⋆. III. Results for 33 X-type objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañada-Assandri, M.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Benavidez, P.

    2012-06-01

    Aims: We present results of a polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Casleo), San Juan, Argentina. The aims of this survey are to increase the database of asteroid polarimetry, to estimate diversity in polarimetric properties of asteroids that belong to different taxonomic classes, and to search for objects that exhibit anomalous polarimetric properties. Methods: The data were obtained with the Torino and CASPROF polarimeters at the 2.15 m telescope. The Torino polarimeter is an instrument that allows the simultaneous measurement of polarization in five different bands, and the CASPROF polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation. Results: The survey began in 2003, and up to 2009 data of a sample of more than 170 asteroids were obtained. In this paper the results for 33 X-type objects are presented, several of them are being polarimetrically observed for the first time. Using these data we found polarization curves and polarimetric parameters for different groups among this taxonomic class and that there are objects with very different albedo in the sub-classes of the X taxonomic complex. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/542/A11

  2. Behavioral symptoms of eating disorders in Native Americans: results from the ADD Health Survey Wave III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Rosselli, Francine; Holtzman, Niki; Dierker, Lisa; Becker, Anne E; Swaney, Gyda

    2011-09-01

    To examine prevalence and correlates (gender, Body Mass Index) of disordered eating in American Indian/Native American (AI/NA) and white young adults. We examined data from the 10,334 participants (mean age 21.93 years, SD = 1.8) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health) Wave III for gender differences among AI/NA participants (236 women, 253 men) and ethnic group differences on measures of eating pathology. Among AI/NA groups, women were significantly more likely than men to report loss of control and embarrassment due to overeating. In gender-stratified analyses, a significantly higher prevalence of AI/NA women reported disordered eating behaviors compared with white women; there were no between group differences in prevalence for breakfast skipping or having been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Among men, disordered eating behaviors were uncommon and no comparison was statistically significant. Our study offers a first glimpse into the problem of eating pathology among AI/NA individuals. Gender differences among AI/NA participants are similar to results reported in white samples. That AI/NA women were as likely as white women to have been diagnosed with an eating disorder is striking in light of well documented under-utilization of mental health care among AI/NA individuals. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. THE GALACTIC O-STAR SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY (GOSSS). III. 142 ADDITIONAL O-TYPE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apellániz, J. Maíz [Centro de Astrobiología, CSIC-INTA, campus ESAC, camino bajo del castillo s/n, E-28 692 Madrid (Spain); Sota, A.; Alfaro, E. J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18 008 Granada (Spain); Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de La Serena, Av. Cisternas 1200 Norte, La Serena (Chile); Walborn, N. R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21 218 (United States); Simón-Díaz, S.; Herrero, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38 200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Negueruela, I.; Marco, A. [DFISTS, EPS, Universidad de Alicante, carretera San Vicente del Raspeig s/n, E-03 690 Alicante (Spain); Leão, J. R. S. [Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Norte—UFRN, Caixa Postal 1524, CEP 59 078-970, Natal—RN (Brazil); Gamen, R. C., E-mail: jmaiz@cab.inta-csic.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (CONICET, UNLP), Paseo del Bosque s/n, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-05-01

    This is the third installment of the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS), a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R  ∼ 2500 digital observations selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog. In this paper, we present 142 additional stellar systems with O stars from both hemispheres, bringing the total of O-type systems published within the project to 590. Among the new objects, there are 20 new O stars. We also identify 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 6 of which are of O+O type and 5 of O+B type, and an additional new tripled-lined spectroscopic binary of O+O+B type. We also revise some of the previous GOSSS classifications, present some egregious examples of stars erroneously classified as O-type in the past, introduce the use of luminosity class IV at spectral types O4-O5.5, and adapt the classification scheme to the work of Arias et al.

  4. The 6-GHz Multibeam Maser Survey - III. Comparison between the MMB and HOPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, S. L.; Contreras, Y.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Green, J. A.; Walsh, A. J.; Avison, A.; Longmore, S. N.; Fuller, G. A.; Voronkov, M. A.; Horton, J.; Kroon, A.

    2018-03-01

    We have compared the occurrence of 6.7- and 12.2-GHz methanol masers with 22-GHz water masers and 6035-MHz excited-state OH masers in the 100 deg2 region of the southern Galactic plane common to the Methanol Multibeam and H2O southern Galactic Plane Surveys. We find the most populous star formation species to be 6.7-GHz methanol, followed by water, then 12.2-GHz and, finally, excited-state OH masers. We present association statistics, flux density (and luminosity where appropriate) and velocity range distributions across the largest, fully surveyed portion of the Galactic plane for four of the most common types of masers found in the vicinity of star formation regions. Comparison of the occurrence of the four maser types with far-infrared dust temperatures shows that sources exhibiting excited-state OH maser emission are warmer than sources showing any of the other three maser types. We further find that sources exhibiting both 6.7- and 12.2-GHz methanol masers are warmer than sources exhibiting just 6.7-GHz methanol maser emission. These findings are consistent with previously made suggestions that both OH and 12.2-GHz methanol masers generally trace a later stage of star formation compared to other common maser types.

  5. THE TIME-DOMAIN SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: UNDERSTANDING THE OPTICALLY VARIABLE SKY WITH SEQUELS IN SDSS-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Davenport, James R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Green, Paul J.; Morganson, Eric [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Eracleous, Michael; Brandt, William N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy 3905, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Badenes, Carles [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center (PITT-PACC), University of Pittsburgh (United States); Bershady, Matthew A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Chambers, Kenneth C.; Flewelling, Heather; Kaiser, Nick [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Dawson, Kyle S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Heckman, Timothy M. [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Isler, Jedidah C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Kneib, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire d’astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Observatoire de Sauverny, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Ross, Nicholas P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Paris, Isabelle, E-mail: jruan@astro.washington.edu [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2016-07-10

    The Time-Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS) is an SDSS-IV eBOSS subproject primarily aimed at obtaining identification spectra of ∼220,000 optically variable objects systematically selected from SDSS/Pan-STARRS1 multi-epoch imaging. We present a preview of the science enabled by TDSS, based on TDSS spectra taken over ∼320 deg{sup 2} of sky as part of the SEQUELS survey in SDSS-III, which is in part a pilot survey for eBOSS in SDSS-IV. Using the 15,746 TDSS-selected single-epoch spectra of photometrically variable objects in SEQUELS, we determine the demographics of our variability-selected sample and investigate the unique spectral characteristics inherent in samples selected by variability. We show that variability-based selection of quasars complements color-based selection by selecting additional redder quasars and mitigates redshift biases to produce a smooth quasar redshift distribution over a wide range of redshifts. The resulting quasar sample contains systematically higher fractions of blazars and broad absorption line quasars than from color-selected samples. Similarly, we show that M dwarfs in the TDSS-selected stellar sample have systematically higher chromospheric active fractions than the underlying M-dwarf population based on their H α emission. TDSS also contains a large number of RR Lyrae and eclipsing binary stars with main-sequence colors, including a few composite-spectrum binaries. Finally, our visual inspection of TDSS spectra uncovers a significant number of peculiar spectra, and we highlight a few cases of these interesting objects. With a factor of ∼15 more spectra, the main TDSS survey in SDSS-IV will leverage the lessons learned from these early results for a variety of time-domain science applications.

  6. THE TIME-DOMAIN SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: UNDERSTANDING THE OPTICALLY VARIABLE SKY WITH SEQUELS IN SDSS-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Davenport, James R. A.; Green, Paul J.; Morganson, Eric; Eracleous, Michael; Brandt, William N.; Myers, Adam D.; Badenes, Carles; Bershady, Matthew A.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Flewelling, Heather; Kaiser, Nick; Dawson, Kyle S.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Isler, Jedidah C.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Paris, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The Time-Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS) is an SDSS-IV eBOSS subproject primarily aimed at obtaining identification spectra of ∼220,000 optically variable objects systematically selected from SDSS/Pan-STARRS1 multi-epoch imaging. We present a preview of the science enabled by TDSS, based on TDSS spectra taken over ∼320 deg 2 of sky as part of the SEQUELS survey in SDSS-III, which is in part a pilot survey for eBOSS in SDSS-IV. Using the 15,746 TDSS-selected single-epoch spectra of photometrically variable objects in SEQUELS, we determine the demographics of our variability-selected sample and investigate the unique spectral characteristics inherent in samples selected by variability. We show that variability-based selection of quasars complements color-based selection by selecting additional redder quasars and mitigates redshift biases to produce a smooth quasar redshift distribution over a wide range of redshifts. The resulting quasar sample contains systematically higher fractions of blazars and broad absorption line quasars than from color-selected samples. Similarly, we show that M dwarfs in the TDSS-selected stellar sample have systematically higher chromospheric active fractions than the underlying M-dwarf population based on their H α emission. TDSS also contains a large number of RR Lyrae and eclipsing binary stars with main-sequence colors, including a few composite-spectrum binaries. Finally, our visual inspection of TDSS spectra uncovers a significant number of peculiar spectra, and we highlight a few cases of these interesting objects. With a factor of ∼15 more spectra, the main TDSS survey in SDSS-IV will leverage the lessons learned from these early results for a variety of time-domain science applications.

  7. The International Per Oral Endoscopic Myotomy Survey (IPOEMS): a snapshot of the global POEM experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Stavros N; Modayil, Rani J; Friedel, David; Savides, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) represents a Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) approach to Heller myotomy. Even though we are now entering an exponential phase of growth with a large number of centers interested in POEM, published data to guide them are limited. As part of the July 2012 NOSCAR meeting, a conference was organized to review POEM and develop a consensus document. Authors SNS and TS who chaired the NOSCAR panel recognized the dearth of published data, which also may lag the rapid developments in POEM. Therefore, they undertook a survey of early POEM adopters around the world to rapidly obtain global, extensive, and current data on POEM. The raw survey data were made available to NOSCAR panel participants to assist with their presentations. We summarize the salient findings of the survey. A comprehensive POEM survey was created and tested. The final survey instrument consisted of 197 questions that covered all aspects of POEM, including operator discipline, prior training, patient selection, setting, technique preference, results, adverse events, regulatory requirements, and perspectives on the future. An automated online response collector was used. The International Per Oral Endoscopic Myotomy Survey (IPOEMS) involved 16 expert centers, 7 in North America, 5 in Asia, 4 in Europe, including all high-volume centers (≥30 POEMs per center), as of July 2012. These centers had performed 841 POEMs. There were modest variations among centers in technique and periprocedural management, but all centers uniformly reported excellent efficacy and safety outcomes. The international POEM survey provides a "global snapshot" of the experience of early adopters. The excellent outcomes over a large cumulative volume of procedures are in line with those of published small series and lend further support to the notion that POEM represents a paradigm shift in the treatment of achalasia.

  8. Phenomenological survey on the potential profile evolution in III-V binary compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mendoza Álvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el cambio en el perfil de eficacia potencial de algunos compuestos cuando el bandmixing de huecos ligeros y pesados se altera. Se obtuvieron mediante la aplicación de este teorema generalizado Shur a un problema de valores propios cuadrática obtenidos a partir de un sistema con N ecuaciones de segundo orden, junto en el contexto de la aproximación de masa efectiva multibanda. Se consideraron los valores de energía incidente que fue menor, igual y superior a la altura de la barrera de dispersión potencial de diferentes compuestos de semiconductores III-V binario. La mayoría de las propiedades estándar de los compuestos binarios en este estudio están garantizados, pero no todos los materiales que elegimos, han puesto de manifiesto la evolución que se espera en su perfil de potencial efectivo: algunos de los que constituyen los pozos cuánticos (QW en aplicaciones tecnológicas sólo convertirse en efectiva barrera (B las conductas de los agujeros de luz (LH cuando están en la energía incidente diferente (E se extiende y bandmixing diferentes presentes. Ninguno de los compuestos que constituyen barreras para las aplicaciones tecnológicas en este estudio se convierte en eficaz comportamientos QW válido tanto para la LH y HH. Sorprendentemente, todos los compuestos en este estudio que constituyen barreras estándar en las aplicaciones tecnológicas, las transiciones presente desde CS a B para la LH en el rango donde el valor de E es mayor que la altura de la barrera.

  9. State of global pediatric neurosurgery outreach: survey by the International Education Subcommittee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew C; Rocque, Brandon G; Singhal, Ash; Ridder, Thomas; Pattisapu, Jogi V; Johnston, James M

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Neurosurgical services are increasingly recognized as essential components of surgical care worldwide. The degree of interest among neurosurgeons regarding international work, and the barriers to involvement in global neurosurgical outreach, are largely unexplored. The authors distributed a survey to members of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Congress of Neurological Surgeons (AANS/CNS) Joint Section on Pediatric Neurosurgery to assess the state of global outreach among its members and to identify barriers to involvement. METHODS An internet-based questionnaire was developed by the International Education Subcommittee of the AANS/CNS Joint Section on Pediatric Neurosurgery and distributed to pediatric neurosurgeons via the AANS/CNS Joint Section email contact list. Participants were surveyed on their involvement in global neurosurgical outreach, geographic location, nature of the participation, and barriers to further involvement. RESULTS A 35.3% response rate was obtained, with 116 respondents completing the survey. Sixty-one percent have performed or taught neurosurgery in a developing country, and 49% travel at least annually. Africa was the most common region (54%), followed by South America (30%), through 29 separate organizing entities. Hydrocephalus was the most commonly treated condition (88%), followed by spinal dysraphism (74%), and tumor (68%). Most respondents obtained follow-up through communications from local surgeons (77%). Seventy-one percent believed the international experience improved their practice, and 74% were very or extremely interested in working elsewhere. Interference with current practice (61%), cost (44%), and difficulty identifying international partners (43%) were the most commonly cited barriers to participation. CONCLUSIONS Any coordinated effort to expand global neurosurgical capacity begins with appreciation for the current state of outreach efforts. Increasing participation in global outreach will

  10. State of Global Pediatric Neurosurgery Outreach: Survey by the International Education Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew C.; Rocque, Brandon G.; Singhal, Ash; Ridder, Tom; Pattisapu, Jogi V.; Johnston, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Object Neurosurgical services are increasingly recognized as essential components of surgical care worldwide. Degree of interest among neurosurgeons regarding international work, and barriers to involvement in global neurosurgical outreach, are largely unexplored. We distributed a survey to members of the AANS/CNS Joint Section on Pediatric Neurosurgery to assess the state of global outreach among its members and identify barriers to involvement. Methods An internet-based questionnaire was developed by the International Education Subcommittee of the AANS/CNS Joint Section on Pediatric Neurosurgery, and distributed to pediatric neurosurgeons via the AANS/CNS Joint Section email contact list. Participants were surveyed on involvement in global neurosurgical outreach, geographic location, nature of participation, and barriers to further involvement. Results A 35.3% response rate was obtained, with 116 respondents completed the survey. 61% performed or taught neurosurgery in a developing country, 49% traveling at least annually. Africa was the most common region (54%), followed by South America (30%), through 29 separate organizing entities. Hydrocephalus was the most commonly treated condition (88%), followed by spinal dysraphism (74%) and tumor (68%). Most respondents obtained follow-up through communication from local surgeons (77%). 71% believed the international experience improved their practice, and 74% were very or extremely interested in working elsewhere. Interference with current practice (61%), cost (44%), and difficulty identifying international partners (43%) were the most commonly cited barriers to participation. Conclusion Any coordinated effort to expand global neurosurgical capacity begins with appreciation for the current state of outreach efforts. Increasing participation in global outreach will require addressing both real and perceived barriers to involvement. Creation and curation of a centralized online database of ongoing projects to facilitate

  11. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. III. KINEMATIC DISTANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Bania, T. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Balser, Dana S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Rood, Robert T., E-mail: Loren.Anderson@mail.wvu.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903-0818 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    Using the H I emission/absorption method, we resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity and derive distances for 149 of 182 (82%) H II regions discovered by the Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS). The HRDS is an X-band (9 GHz, 3 cm) GBT survey of 448 previously unknown H II regions in radio recombination line and radio continuum emission. Here, we focus on HRDS sources from 67 Degree-Sign {>=} l {>=} 18 Degree-Sign , where kinematic distances are more reliable. The 25 HRDS sources in this zone that have negative recombination line velocities are unambiguously beyond the orbit of the Sun, up to 20 kpc distant. They are the most distant H II regions yet discovered. We find that 61% of HRDS sources are located at the far distance, 31% at the tangent-point distance, and only 7% at the near distance. 'Bubble' H II regions are not preferentially located at the near distance (as was assumed previously) but average 10 kpc from the Sun. The HRDS nebulae, when combined with a large sample of H II regions with previously known distances, show evidence of spiral structure in two circular arc segments of mean Galactocentric radii of 4.25 and 6.0 kpc. We perform a thorough uncertainty analysis to analyze the effect of using different rotation curves, streaming motions, and a change to the solar circular rotation speed. The median distance uncertainty for our sample of H II regions is only 0.5 kpc, or 5%. This is significantly less than the median difference between the near and far kinematic distances, 6 kpc. The basic Galactic structure results are unchanged after considering these sources of uncertainty.

  12. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, physical activity and tobacco use in Argentine youth: Global School-Based Student Health Survey and Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Daniel; Linetzky, Bruno; Ponce, Miguel; Goldberg, Lucila; Konfino, Jonathan; Laspiur, Sebastián

    2014-12-01

    In 2007 and 2012, the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) and the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) were implemented to estimate the prevalence of risk behaviors and protection factors among 13 to 15 year-old adolescents. To assess changes in dietary, body weight, tobacco and physical activity indicators in the past five years. Cross-sectional study. A randomized, two-stage sampling with 600 schools selected at a national level was used. Students from randomly selected courses were invited to answer a self-administered questionnaire (either the GSHS or the GYTS). In 2012, the GSHS was completed by 20 697 students from 544 schools, while the GYTS was completed by 2062 students from 73 schools. Between 2007 and 2012, overweight and obesity prevalence significantly increased (overweight: 24.5% in 2007, 28.6% in 2012; obesity 4.4% in 2007, 5.9% in 2012), while the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food remained high. A slight improvement was observed in the level of physical activity (12.7% in 2007, 16.7% in 2012), although it remains below what is recommended. The prevalence of tobacco use was reduced (24.5% in 2007, 19.6% in 2012), but access to tobacco products and exposure to secondhand smoke remains high in public places, including schools. The spread of the overweight and obesity epidemic calls for a need to consolidate actions tending towards a healthy diet and physical activity. Despite a decrease in the prevalence of tobacco use, it is necessary to continue strengthening tobacco control actions.

  13. Stellar substructures in the solar neighbourhood. III. Kinematic group 2 in the Geneva-Copenhagen survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ženovienė, R.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Nordström, B.; Stonkutė, E.

    2014-03-01

    Context. From correlations between orbital parameters, several new coherent groups of stars were recently identified in the Galactic disc and suggested to correspond to remnants of disrupted satellites. To reconstruct their origin at least three main observational parameters - kinematics, chemical composition and age - must be known. Aims: We determine detailed elemental abundances in stars belonging to the so-called Group 2 of the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey and compare the chemical composition with Galactic thin- and thick-disc stars, as well as with the Arcturus and AF06 streams (Arifyanto & Fuchs 2006, A&A, 449, 533). The aim is to search for chemical signatures that might give information about the formation history of this kinematic group of stars. Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, and were analysed with a differential model atmosphere method. Comparison stars were observed and analysed with the same method. Results: The average value of [Fe/H] for the 32 stars of Group 2 is - 0.42 ± 0.10 dex. The investigated group consists mainly of two 8- and 12-Gyr-old stellar populations. Abundances of oxygen, α-elements, and r-process-dominated elements are higher than in Galactic thin-disc dwarfs. This elemental abundance pattern has similar characteristics as that of the Galactic thick-disc. Conclusions: The similarity in chemical composition of stars in Group 2 with that in stars of the thick-disc might suggest that their formation histories are linked. The chemical composition together with the kinematic properties and ages of stars in the stars investigated provides evidence of their common origin and possible relation to an ancient merging event. A gas-rich satellite merger scenario is proposed as the most likely origin. Groups 2 and 3 of the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey might have originated in the same merging event. Tables 4 and 5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. The GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS). III. Metallicity distributions and kinematics of 26 Galactic bulge fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, M.; Vasquez, S.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Valenti, E.; Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Minniti, J.; Rejkuba, M.; Minniti, D.; McWilliam, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Hill, V.; Renzini, A.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Several recent studies have demonstrated that the Galactic bulge hosts two components with different mean metallicities, and possibly different spatial distribution and kinematics. As a consequence, both the metallicity distribution and the radial velocity of bulge stars vary across different lines of sight. Aims: We present here the metallicity distribution function of red clump stars in 26 fields spread across a wide area of the bulge, with special emphasis on fields close to Galactic plane, at latitudes b = -2° and b = -1°, that have not been explored before. Methods: This paper includes new metallicities from a sample of approximately 5000 K giant stars, observed at spectral resolution R 6500, in the Calcium II Triplet region. These represent the main dataset from the GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey. As part of the same survey we have previously published results for a sample of approximately 600 K giant stars, at latitude b -4°, derived from higher resolution spectra (R = 22 500). Results: The combined sample allows us to trace and characterize the metal poor and metal rich bulge populations down to the inner bulge. We present a density map for each of the two components. Contrary to expectations from previous works, we found the metal poor population to be more centrally concentrated than the metal rich one, and with a more axisymmetric spatial distribution. The metal rich population, on the other hand, is arranged in a boxy distribution, consistent with an edge-on bar. By coupling metallicities and radial velocities we show that the metal poor population has a velocity dispersion that varies rather mildly with latitude. On the contrary, the metal rich population has a low velocity dispersion far from the plane (b = -8.5°), yet has a steeper gradient with latitude, becoming higher than the metal poor one in the innermost field (b = -1°). Conclusions: This work provides new observational constraints on the actual chemodynamical properties of the

  15. On the limitations of statistical absorption studies with the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys I-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ting-Wen; Ménard, Brice; Baron, Dalya; Johnson, Sean; Poznanski, Dovi; Prochaska, J. Xavier; O'Meara, John M.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the limitations of statistical absorption measurements with the SDSS optical spectroscopic surveys. We show that changes in the data reduction strategy throughout different data releases have led to a better accuracy at long wavelengths, in particular for sky line subtraction, but a degradation at short wavelengths with the emergence of systematic spectral features with an amplitude of about one percent. We show that these features originate from inaccuracy in the fitting of modeled F-star spectra used for flux calibration. The best-fit models for those stars are found to systematically over-estimate the strength of metal lines and under-estimate that of Lithium. We also identify the existence of artifacts due to masking and interpolation procedures at the wavelengths of the hydrogen Balmer series leading to the existence of artificial Balmer α absorption in all SDSS optical spectra. All these effects occur in the rest-frame of the standard stars and therefore present Galactic longitude variations due to the rotation of the Galaxy. We demonstrate that the detection of certain weak absorption lines reported in the literature are solely due to calibration effects. Finally, we discuss new strategies to mitigate these issues.

  16. Serum Phosphorus Concentrations in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Ian H.; Rue, Tessa C.; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Background Higher serum phosphorus concentrations within the normal laboratory range have been associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in large prospective cohort studies of individuals with and without kidney disease. Reasons for interindividual variation in steady-state serum phosphorus concentrations are largely unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 15,513 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Predictors Demographic data, dietary intake measured by means of 24-hour dietary recall and food-frequency questionnaire, and established cardiovascular risk factors. Outcome & Measurements Serum phosphorus concentration. Results Mean serum phosphorus concentrations were significantly greater in women (+0.16 mg/dL versus men; P phosphorus and phosphorus-rich foods were associated only weakly with circulating serum phosphorus concentrations, if at all. Higher serum phosphorus levels were associated with lower calculated Framingham coronary heart disease risk scores, which are based on traditional atherosclerosis risk factors. In aggregate, demographic, nutritional, cardiovascular, and kidney function variables explained only 12% of the variation in circulating serum phosphorus concentrations. Limitations Results may differ with advanced kidney disease. Conclusions Serum phosphorus concentration is weakly related to dietary phosphorus and not related to a diverse array of phosphorus-rich foods in the general population. Factors determining serum phosphorus concentration are largely unknown. Previously observed associations of serum phosphorus concentrations with cardiovascular events are unlikely to be a result of differences in dietary intake or traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18992979

  17. THE DiskMass SURVEY. III. STELLAR KINEMATICS VIA CROSS-CORRELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new cross-correlation (CC) approach used by our survey to derive stellar kinematics from galaxy-continuum spectroscopy. This approach adopts the formal error analysis derived by Statler, but properly handles spectral masks. Thus, we address the primary concerns regarding application of the CC method to censored data, while maintaining its primary advantage by consolidating kinematic and template-mismatch information toward different regions of the CC function. We identify a systematic error in the nominal CC method of approximately 10% in velocity dispersion incurred by a mistreatment of detector-censored data, which is eliminated by our new method. We derive our approach from first principles, and we use Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate its efficacy. An identical set of Monte Carlo simulations performed using the well-established penalized-pixel-fitting code of Cappellari and Emsellem compares favorably with the results from our newly implemented software. Finally, we provide a practical demonstration of this software by extracting stellar kinematics from SparsePak spectra of UGC 6918.

  18. Sloan Digital Sky Survey III photometric quasar clustering: probing the initial conditions of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Shirley; Agarwal, Nishant; Lyons, Richard; Disbrow, Ashley; O'Connell, Ross; Myers, Adam D.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Schlegel, David; Ross, Nicholas P.; Ross, Ashley; Hirata, Christopher; Huff, Eric; Weinberg, David; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Slosar, Anže; Strauss, Michael; Bahcall, Neta; Schneider, Donald P.; Brinkmann, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has surveyed 14,555 square degrees of the sky, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present the large-scale clustering of 1.6 million quasars between z=0.5 and z=2.5 that have been classified from this imaging, representing the highest density of quasars ever studied for clustering measurements. This data set spans 0∼ 11,00 square degrees and probes a volume of 80 h −3 Gpc 3 . In principle, such a large volume and medium density of tracers should facilitate high-precision cosmological constraints. We measure the angular clustering of photometrically classified quasars using an optimal quadratic estimator in four redshift slices with an accuracy of ∼ 25% over a bin width of δ l  ∼ 10−15 on scales corresponding to matter-radiation equality and larger (0ℓ ∼ 2−3). Observational systematics can strongly bias clustering measurements on large scales, which can mimic cosmologically relevant signals such as deviations from Gaussianity in the spectrum of primordial perturbations. We account for systematics by employing a new method recently proposed by Agarwal et al. (2014) to the clustering of photometrically classified quasars. We carefully apply our methodology to mitigate known observational systematics and further remove angular bins that are contaminated by unknown systematics. Combining quasar data with the photometric luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample of Ross et al. (2011) and Ho et al. (2012), and marginalizing over all bias and shot noise-like parameters, we obtain a constraint on local primordial non-Gaussianity of f NL  = −113 +154 −154  (1σ error). We next assume that the bias of quasar and galaxy distributions can be obtained independently from quasar/galaxy-CMB lensing cross-correlation measurements (such as those in Sherwin et al. (2013)). This can be facilitated by spectroscopic observations of the sources, enabling the redshift distribution to be completely determined, and

  19. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. III. Testing photometric redshifts to 30th magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinchmann, J.; Inami, H.; Bacon, R.; Contini, T.; Maseda, M.; Chevallard, J.; Bouché, N.; Boogaard, L.; Carollo, M.; Charlot, S.; Kollatschny, W.; Marino, R. A.; Pello, R.; Richard, J.; Schaye, J.; Verhamme, A.; Wisotzki, L.

    2017-11-01

    We tested the performance of photometric redshifts for galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep field down to 30th magnitude. We compared photometric redshift estimates from three spectral fitting codes from the literature (EAZY, BPZ and BEAGLE) to high quality redshifts for 1227 galaxies from the MUSE integral field spectrograph. All these codes can return photometric redshifts with bias |(zMUSE-pz) / (1 + zMUSE)| 3 they are systematically biased high by up to (zMUSE-pz) / (1 + zMUSE) = 0.05, an offset that can in part be explained by adjusting the amount of intergalactic absorption applied. In agreement with previous studies we find little difference in the performance of the different codes, but in contrast to those we find that adding extensive ground-based and IRAC photometry actually can worsen photo-z performance for faint galaxies. We find an outlier fraction, defined through |(zMUSE-pz) / (1 + zMUSE)| > 0.15, of 8% for BPZ and 10% for EAZY and BEAGLE, and show explicitly that this is a strong function of magnitude. While this outlier fraction is high relative to numbers presented in the literature for brighter galaxies, they are very comparable to literature results when the depth of the data is taken into account. Finally, we demonstrate that while a redshift might be of high confidence, the association of a spectrum to the photometric object can be very uncertain and lead to a contamination of a few percent in spectroscopic training samples that do not show up as catastrophic outliers, a problem that must be tackled in order to have sufficiently accurate photometric redshifts for future cosmological surveys.

  20. BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey - III. An Observed Link Between AGN Eddington Ratio and Narrow-Emission-Line Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyuseok; Schawinski, Kevin; Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Lamperti, Isabella; Ricci, Claudio; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Berney, Simon; Crenshaw, D. Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the observed relationship between black hole mass (M(sub BH)), bolometric luminosity (L(sub bol)) and Eddington ratio (lambda(sub Edd)) with optical emission-line ratios ([N II] lambda6583/Halpha, [S II]lambda-lamda6716, 6731/Halpha, [O I] lamda6300/Halpha, [O III] lamda5007/Hbeta, [Ne III] lamda3869/Hbeta and He II lamda4686/Hbeta) of hard X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey. We show that the [N II] lamda6583/Halpha ratio exhibits a significant correlation with lamda(sub Edd) (R(sub Pear) = -0.44, p-value 3 x 10(exp. -13) sigma = 0.28 dex), and the correlation is not solely driven by M(sub BH) or L(sub bol). The observed correlation between [N II] lamda6583/Halpha ratio and M(sub BH) is stronger than the correlation with L(sub bol), but both are weaker than the lamda(sub Edd) correlation. This implies that the large-scale narrow lines of AGN host galaxies carry information about the accretion state of the AGN central engine. We propose that [N II] lamda6583/Halpha is a useful indicator of Eddington ratio with 0.6 dex of rms scatter, and that it can be used to measure lambda(sub Edd) and thus M(sub BH) from the measured L(sub bol), even for high-redshift obscured AGN. We briefly discuss possible physical mechanisms behind this correlation, such as the mass-metallicity relation, X-ray heating, and radiatively driven outflows.

  1. [Global health education in Italian medical schools: survey from 2007 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, S; Silvestrini, G; Carovillano, S; Rinaldi, A; Civitelli, G; Frisicale, E; Marceca, M; Tarsitani, G; Ricciardi, W

    2011-01-01

    Global Health (GH) issues are becoming a common feature of Medical and Public Health Schools worldwide. In Italy the Network for Education on Global Health (RIISG) was created with the purpose of spreading the concept of GH. The aim of the study was to assess the availability of educational opportunities in Italian Health Faculties from 2007 to 2010. A survey was carried out using a questionnaire administered to Professors. A frequency distribution of GH elective courses, grouped by three Italian geographical areas (North, Centre, South and Islands), for each academic year was assessed. The features of the courses - consistent with the pattern of course, suggested by RIISG - were analysed through a score. From 2007 onwards, in chronological order the surveyed faculties were 40, 36, 36 and the main coverage of survey was 92%. The courses listed were 26, 22 and 40 respectively for each academic year considered. The average of the courses number highlighted an increasing trend: national mean rose from 0.65 (SD +/- 1.53) in 2007 to 1.11 (SD +/- 1.18) in 2010. Regarding the evaluation of consistency a national improvement was shown. The assessment revealed a limited educational offer and differences between macroareas. Further investigations are needed.

  2. Do Americans Understand That Global Warming Is Harmful to Human Health? Evidence From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W; Kreslake, Jennifer M; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Rosenthal, Seth; Feinberg, Geoff; Leiserowitz, Anthony A

    2015-01-01

    Global warming has significant negative consequences for human health, with some groups at greater risk than others. The extent to which the public is aware of these risks is unclear; the limited extant research has yielded discrepant findings. This paper describes Americans' awareness of the health effects of global warming, levels of support for government funding and action on the issue, and trust in information sources. We also investigate the discrepancy in previous research findings between assessments based on open- versus closed-ended questions. A nationally representative survey of US adults (N = 1275) was conducted online in October 2014. Measures included general attitudes and beliefs about global warming, affective assessment of health effects, vulnerable populations and specific health conditions (open- and closed-ended), perceived risk, trust in sources, and support for government response. Most respondents (61%) reported that, before taking the survey, they had given little or no thought to how global warming might affect people's health. In response to a closed-ended question, many respondents (64%) indicated global warming is harmful to health, yet in response to an open-ended question, few (27%) accurately named one or more specific type of harm. In response to a closed-ended question, 33% indicated some groups are more affected than others, yet on an open-ended question only 25% were able to identify any disproportionately affected populations. Perhaps not surprising given these findings, respondents demonstrated only limited support for a government response: less than 50% of respondents said government should be doing more to protect against health harms from global warming, and about 33% supported increased funding to public health agencies for this purpose. Respondents said their primary care physician is their most trusted source of information on this topic, followed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health

  3. Promoting oral health of children through schools--results from a WHO global survey 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, N; Petersen, P E

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the range of school-based approaches to oral health and describes what is meant by a Health Promoting School. The paper then reports the results of a World Health Organization global survey of school-based health promotion. Purposive sampling across 100 countries produced 108...... evaluations of school oral health projects spread across 61 countries around the globe. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion noted that schools can provide a supportive environment for promoting children's health. However, while a number of well-known strategies are being applied, the full range of health...... promoting actions is not being used globally. A greater emphasis on integrated health promotion is advised in place of narrower, disease- or project-specific approaches. Recommendations are made for improving this situation, for further research and for specifying an operational framework for sharing...

  4. Global innovation networks and university-firm interactions: an exploratory survey analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Britto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature on Global Innovation Networks has contributed to identify changes in the innovation activities of multinational corporations. Although university-firm interactions are seen as an important factor for the emergence of GINs, their role has received limited attention. This paper aims to fill this gap in two ways. First, it carries out an exploratory analysis of an original survey dataset, of firms in three industrial sectors from nine developed and developing countries. Second, the paper analyses whether the role of universities in global innovation networks is related to national systems of innovation with varying degrees of maturity. Multiple correspondence analysis and a Probit model are used to establish the relevance of key factors in driving GINs. The results identify distinctive profiles constructed mainly according to firm characteristics, but reflecting country specific patterns of association. The Probit model confirms that internationalization processes and the existence of local interactions substantially increase the probability of interactions with international institutions.

  5. Irritable Bowel Syndrome on the US Mexico Border: A Survey in an Indigent Population Using Rome III Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Marc J; Schmulson, Max J; Bashashati, Mohammad; Jia, Yi; Dwivedi, Alok; Ortiz, Melchor; Casner, Nancy; Byrd, Theresa; Shokar, Navkiran

    2017-08-04

    To investigate the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and its association with health perception and health care-seeking behavior in this Mexican American population. The prevalence of IBS ranges from 3% to 20.4% in the United States and 4.4% to 16% in Mexico, based on Rome III and II criteria. However, its epidemiological profile in the US Mexico border is unknown. We conducted a survey in a randomly selected indigent population (N=521) recruited into a colon cancer screening program (ACCION). The prevalence of IBS was estimated and a multivariable logistic regression was carried out to determine the associated risk factors. Results are summarized using odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 464 (89%) completed the survey (mean age, 56.7 y; female, 74.8%). Country of birth was Mexico in 90.5% and the United States in 8.2% and acculturation was more Spanish (94.8%) than English (5.2%). Overall, 5.6% (95% CI, 3.7-8.1) fulfilled criteria for IBS with a predominance among women (6.9%) versus men (1.7%) (P=0.03). On the basis of multivariable analysis, lower number of bowel movements/week (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-1.00), having a primary care physician: 4.09 (1.51-11.12), using herbal treatments: 2.76 (1.08-7.06) and a previous IBS diagnosis: 23.11 (3.44-155.45), were significantly associated with the presence of IBS. The prevalence of IBS on the US Mexico border is comparable with data obtained from studies in both countries. Consulting a primary care physician as an associated factor may reveal the high rate of health-care seeking in IBS patients, while herbal treatments may reflect a cultural influence.

  6. The Impact of Knowledge Management Practices on NPP Organizational Performance - Results of a Global Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA has been asked by Member States in the 2012 General Conference Resolutions to ''further increase the level of awareness of efforts in managing nuclear knowledge'' and to continue ''to further develop and disseminate guidance and methodologies for planning, designing, and implementing nuclear knowledge management programs''. The present report summarizes the results of empirical research on the relationship between KM practices in nuclear power plants, their impact on the quality of organizational knowledge processes and the resulting effects on the organizational effectiveness of nuclear power plants. It presents the basic findings of the ''IAEA Global Nuclear Power Plant Survey: Investigating the Link Between Knowledge Management Practices and Organizational Performance'', which was conducted in 2010. This benchmark survey of KM practices in nuclear power plants was developed using a standard research methodology. The survey was made available on a global basis to all nuclear power plant sites. Senior operations managers were asked to complete the survey with input, as required, from their plant management team. Data from individual survey responses were treated as confidential, and only aggregate findings were reported. A total of 124 station ''site organizations'' participated in the survey, representing a response rate of approximately 60%. The findings provide empirical evidence of the importance of KM practices in improving the organizational effectiveness of nuclear power plants. They provide information about the current state of the industry with respect to KM practices, illustrating the direct and tangible benefits of implementing such practices and justifying continued or further efforts to ensure that KM programmes and systems are strategically planned and implemented in operating nuclear power plants. The research provides insights into the mechanisms by which KM practices have an impact on organizational effectiveness and provides a basis for

  7. U.S. Geological Survey Global Seismographic Network - Five-Year Plan 2006-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, William S.; Gee, Lind S.; Hutt, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    The Global Seismographic Network provides data for earthquake alerting, tsunami warning, nuclear treaty verification, and Earth science research. The system consists of nearly 150 permanent digital stations, distributed across the globe, connected by a modern telecommunications network. It serves as a multi-use scientific facility and societal resource for monitoring, research, and education, by providing nearly uniform, worldwide monitoring of the Earth. The network was developed and is operated through a partnership among the National Science Foundation (http://www.nsf.gov), the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (http://www.iris.edu/hq/programs/gsn), and the U.S. Geological Survey (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/gsn).

  8. Open Data in Global Environmental Research: The Belmont Forum's Open Data Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Birgit; Gemeinholzer, Birgit; Treloar, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the Belmont Forum's survey on Open Data which targeted the global environmental research and data infrastructure community. It highlights users' perceptions of the term "open data", expectations of infrastructure functionalities, and barriers and enablers for the sharing of data. A wide range of good practice examples was pointed out by the respondents which demonstrates a substantial uptake of data sharing through e-infrastructures and a further need for enhancement and consolidation. Among all policy responses, funder policies seem to be the most important motivator. This supports the conclusion that stronger mandates will strengthen the case for data sharing.

  9. Open Data in Global Environmental Research: The Belmont Forum’s Open Data Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Birgit; Gemeinholzer, Birgit; Treloar, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the Belmont Forum’s survey on Open Data which targeted the global environmental research and data infrastructure community. It highlights users’ perceptions of the term “open data”, expectations of infrastructure functionalities, and barriers and enablers for the sharing of data. A wide range of good practice examples was pointed out by the respondents which demonstrates a substantial uptake of data sharing through e-infrastructures and a further need for enhancement and consolidation. Among all policy responses, funder policies seem to be the most important motivator. This supports the conclusion that stronger mandates will strengthen the case for data sharing. PMID:26771577

  10. The global burden of mental disorders: an update from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Chatterji, Somnath; Lee, Sing; Ormel, Johan; Ustün, T Bedirhan; Wang, Philip S

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews recent findings from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys on the global burden of mental disorders. The WMH surveys are representative community surveys in 28 countries throughout the world aimed at providing information to mental health policy makers about the prevalence, distribution, burden, and unmet need for treatment of common mental disorders. The first 17 WMH surveys show that mental disorders are commonly occurring in all participating countries. The inter-quartile range (IQR: 25th-75th percentiles) of lifetime DSM-IV disorder prevalence estimates (combining anxiety, mood, externalizing, and substance use disorders) is 18.1-36.1%. The IQR of 12-month prevalence estimates is 9.8-19.1%. Prevalence estimates of 12-month Serious Mental Illness (SMI) are 4-6.8% in half the countries, 2.3-3.6% in one-fourth, and 0.8-1.9% in one-fourth. Many mental disorders begin in childhood-adolescence and have significant adverse effects on subsequent role transitions in the WMH data. Adult mental disorders are found to be associated with such high role impairment in the WMH data that available clinical interventions could have positive cost-effectiveness ratios. Mental disorders are commonly occurring and often seriously impairing in many countries throughout the world. Expansion of treatment could be cost-effective from both employer and societal perspectives.

  11. Ethics Considerations in Global Mobile Phone-Based Surveys of Noncommunicable Diseases: A Conceptual Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Joseph; Labrique, Alain B; Gionfriddo, Kara; Pariyo, George; Gibson, Dustin G; Pratt, Bridget; Deutsch-Feldman, Molly; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-05-05

    Mobile phone coverage has grown, particularly within low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), presenting an opportunity to augment routine health surveillance programs. Several LMICs and global health partners are seeking opportunities to launch basic mobile phone-based surveys of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). The increasing use of such technology in LMICs brings forth a cluster of ethical challenges; however, much of the existing literature regarding the ethics of mobile or digital health focuses on the use of technologies in high-income countries and does not consider directly the specific ethical issues associated with the conduct of mobile phone surveys (MPS) for NCD risk factor surveillance in LMICs. In this paper, we explore conceptually several of the central ethics issues in this domain, which mainly track the three phases of the MPS process: predata collection, during data collection, and postdata collection. These include identifying the nature of the activity; stakeholder engagement; appropriate design; anticipating and managing potential harms and benefits; consent; reaching intended respondents; data ownership, access and use; and ensuring LMIC sustainability. We call for future work to develop an ethics framework and guidance for the use of mobile phones for disease surveillance globally. ©Joseph Ali, Alain B Labrique, Kara Gionfriddo, George Pariyo, Dustin G Gibson, Bridget Pratt, Molly Deutsch-Feldman, Adnan A Hyder. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 05.05.2017.

  12. Unrecorded alcohol use: a global modelling study based on nominal group assessments and survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Charlotte; Manthey, Jakob; Merey, Aaron; Rylett, Margaret; Rehm, Jürgen

    2018-01-27

    Alcohol use is among the most important risk factors for burden of disease globally. An estimated quarter of the total alcohol consumed globally is unrecorded. However, due partly to the challenges associated with its assessment, evidence concerning the magnitude of unrecorded alcohol use is sparse. This study estimated country-specific proportions of unrecorded alcohol used in 2015. A statistical model was developed for data prediction using data on the country-specific proportion of unrecorded alcohol use from nominal group expert assessments and secondary, nationally representative survey data and country-level covariates. Estimates were calculated for the country level, for four income groups and globally. A total of 129 participants from 49 countries were included in the nominal group expert assessments. The survey data comprised 66 538 participants from 16 countries. Experts completed a standardized questionnaire assessing the country-specific proportion of unrecorded alcohol. In the national surveys, the number of standard drinks of total and unrecorded alcohol use was assessed for the past 7 days. Based on predictions for 167 countries, a population-weighted average of 27.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 10.4-44.9%] of the total alcohol consumed in 2015 was unrecorded. The proportion of unrecorded alcohol was lower in high (9.4%, 95% CI = 2.4-16.4%) and upper middle-income countries (18.3%, 95% CI = 9.0-27.6%) and higher in low (43.1%, 95% CI = 26.5-59.7%) and lower middle-income countries (54.4%, 95% CI = 38.1-70.8%). This corresponded to 0.9 (high-income), 1.2 (upper middle-income), 3.2 (lower middle-income) and 1.8 (low-income) litres of unrecorded alcohol per capita. A new method for modelling the country-level proportion of unrecorded alcohol use globally showed strong variation among geographical regions and income groups. Lower-income countries were associated with a higher proportion of unrecorded alcohol than higher-income countries

  13. Surveillance of Human Rabies by National Authorities--A Global Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L H; Knopf, L

    2015-11-01

    Effective prevention of deaths due to human rabies is currently hampered by a lack of understanding of the scale of the problem, and the distribution of both animal and human cases across countries, regions and continents. Unfortunately, despite the severity of the disease, accurate data on which to assess these questions and to prioritize and direct public health interventions are not available for many parts of the world. This survey sought to understand the current global situation regarding the surveillance of human rabies. Data were collected from 91 countries across all continents and all categories of human rabies risk, generating the most complete and representative global data set currently available. Respondents were asked key questions about whether human rabies was a notifiable disease, how the surveillance system for human rabies operated and whether the respondent considered that the surveillance system was working effectively. Across the 91 countries from which data were collated, human rabies was a notifiable disease in all but eight. Despite international guidance, surveillance systems were very varied. Even where rabies is a notifiable disease, many countries had surveillance system judged to be ineffective, almost all of these being high and moderate rabies risk countries in Africa and Asia. Overall, 41% of the population covered by this survey (around 2.5 billion people) live in countries where there is no or ineffective rabies surveillance. The lack of robust surveillance is hindering rabies control efforts. However, whilst worldwide rabies surveillance would be improved if rabies were notifiable in all countries, many other challenges to the implementation of effective global human rabies surveillance systems remain. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Analyzing Personal Happiness from Global Survey and Weather Data: A Geospatial Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yi-Fan; Tang, Jia-Hong; Fu, Yang-chih; Fan, I-chun; Hor, Maw-Kae; Chan, Ta-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have shown that personal subjective happiness is associated with various macro- and micro-level background factors, including environmental conditions, such as weather and the economic situation, and personal health behaviors, such as smoking and exercise. We contribute to this literature of happiness studies by using a geospatial approach to examine both macro and micro links to personal happiness. Our geospatial approach incorporates two major global datasets: representative national survey data from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) and corresponding world weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). After processing and filtering 55,081 records of ISSP 2011 survey data from 32 countries, we extracted 5,420 records from China and 25,441 records from 28 other countries. Sensitivity analyses of different intervals for average weather variables showed that macro-level conditions, including temperature, wind speed, elevation, and GDP, are positively correlated with happiness. To distinguish the effects of weather conditions on happiness in different seasons, we also adopted climate zone and seasonal variables. The micro-level analysis indicated that better health status and eating more vegetables or fruits are highly associated with happiness. Never engaging in physical activity appears to make people less happy. The findings suggest that weather conditions, economic situations, and personal health behaviors are all correlated with levels of happiness.

  15. Child oral health from the professional perspective - a global ICF-CY survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulks, Denise; Molina, Gustavo; Eschevins, Caroline; Dougall, Alison

    2016-07-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Children and Youth version (ICF-CY) (WHO) may serve as a tool for the application of holistic models of oral health. The ICF-CY Global Oral Health Survey explored international professional opinion regarding factors relating to child oral health, including social environment, functioning, activity, and participation. Networking resulted in 514 professionals from 81 countries registering for a two-round Delphi survey online. Participants were pooled into 18 groups according to six WHO world regions and three professional groups. In a randomized stratification process, eight from each pool (n = 144) completed the survey. The first round consisted of eight open-ended questions. Open-expression replies were analysed for meaningful concepts and linked using established rules to the ICF-CY. In the second round, items were rated for their relevance to oral health (86% response rate). A total of 86 ICF-CY items and 31 other factors were considered relevant to child oral health and function by at least 80% of professionals. The ICF-CY can describe the holistic experience of oral health in children from the professional perspective. The data from this study will contribute to the development of an ICF-CY Core Set in Oral Health. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Global Positioning System surveys of storm-surge sensors deployed during Hurricane Ike, Seadrift, Texas, to Lake Charles, Louisiana, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jason; Woodward, Brenda K.; Storm, John B.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey installed a network of pressure sensors at 65 sites along the Gulf Coast from Seadrift, Texas, northeast to Lake Charles, Louisiana, to record the timing, areal extent, and magnitude of inland storm surge and coastal flooding caused by Hurricane Ike in September 2008. A Global Positioning System was used to obtain elevations of reference marks near each sensor. A combination of real-time kinematic (RTK) and static Global Positioning System surveys were done to obtain elevations of reference marks. Leveling relative to reference marks was done to obtain elevations of sensor orifices above the reference marks. This report summarizes the Global Positioning System data collected and processed to obtain reference mark and storm-sensor-orifice elevations for 59 storm-surge sensors recovered from the original 65 installed as a necessary prelude to computation of storm-surge elevations. National Geodetic Survey benchmarks were used for RTK surveying. Where National Geodetic Survey benchmarks were not within 12 kilometers of a sensor site, static surveying was done. Additional control points for static surveying were in the form of newly established benchmarks or reestablished existing benchmarks. RTK surveying was used to obtain positions and elevations of reference marks for 29 sensor sites. Static surveying was used to obtain positions and elevations of reference marks for 34 sensor sites; four sites were surveyed using both methods. Multiple quality checks on the RTK-survey and static-survey data were applied. The results of all quality checks indicate that the desired elevation accuracy for the surveys of this report, less than 0.1-meter error, was achieved.

  17. Sarcopenia exacerbates obesity-associated insulin resistance and dysglycemia: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Srikanthan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia often co-exists with obesity, and may have additive effects on insulin resistance. Sarcopenic obese individuals could be at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We performed a study to determine whether sarcopenia is associated with impairment in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in obese and non-obese individuals.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III data utilizing subjects of 20 years or older, non-pregnant (N = 14,528. Sarcopenia was identified from bioelectrical impedance measurement of muscle mass. Obesity was identified from body mass index. Outcomes were homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR, glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1C, and prevalence of pre-diabetes (6.0≤ HbA1C<6.5 and not on medication and type 2 diabetes. Covariates in multiple regression were age, educational level, ethnicity and sex.Sarcopenia was associated with insulin resistance in non-obese (HOMA IR ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.26 to 1.52 and obese individuals (HOMA-IR ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.18. Sarcopenia was associated with dysglycemia in obese individuals (HbA1C ratio 1.021, 95% CI 1.011 to 1.043 but not in non-obese individuals. Associations were stronger in those under 60 years of age. We acknowledge that the cross-sectional study design limits our ability to draw causal inferences.Sarcopenia, independent of obesity, is associated with adverse glucose metabolism, and the association is strongest in individuals under 60 years of age, which suggests that low muscle mass may be an early predictor of diabetes susceptibility. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, further research is urgently needed to develop interventions to prevent sarcopenic obesity and its metabolic consequences.

  18. Epidemiology of DSM-5 bipolar I disorder: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions - III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos; Compton, Wilson M; Saha, Tulshi D; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Ruan, W June; Huang, Boji; Grant, Bridget F

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present 12-month and lifetime prevalence, correlates, comorbidity, treatment and disability of DSM-5 bipolar I disorder. Nationally representative U.S. adult sample (N = 36,309), the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions - III. Prevalences of 12-month and lifetime DSM-5 bipolar I disorder were 1.5% and 2.1% and did not differ between men (1.6% and 2.2%) and women (1.5% and 2.0%). Prevalences of bipolar I disorder were greater among Native Americans, and lower among Blacks, Hispanics and Asians/Pacific Islanders than whites. Rates were also lower among younger than older individuals, those previously married than currently married and with lower education and income relative to higher education and income. Bipolar I disorder was more strongly related to borderline and schizotypal personality disorders (adjusted odds ratios (AORS) = 2.2-4.7)), than to anxiety disorders (AORs = 1.3-2.9), and substance use disorders (AORs = 1.3-2.1) overall and among men and women. Quality of life was lower among individuals with bipolar I disorder relative to those without the disorder. Treatment rates among individuals with bipolar I disorder were low in the total sample (46%, SE = 2.63), among men (36.7%, SE = 3.82) and among women (55.8%, SE = 3.32). Bipolar I disorder continues to be common disabling and highly comorbid disorder among men and women, contributing substantially to low quality of life and burden of disease in our society. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Global nuclear survey: Public support for new power plants remains tentative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    14 of the 18 countries - and pluralities in the remaining four countries - believes that the risk of terrorist acts involving radioactive materials and nuclear facilities is high because of insufficient protection. A majority of 54 percent across all countries surveyed believe the risk of nuclear terrorism to be high, while three in ten (28%) say that the risk is low; 3) People appreciate the value of nuclear technology. When asked to consider the peaceful uses of nuclear technology, people in all but three countries are most supportive, by far, of medical applications, followed by electricity generation. Across the 18 countries surveyed, respondents are most likely to choose the use of nuclear technology to treat human diseases as their preferred application (39%). This is followed by electricity generation (26%); 4) Stressing the climate benefits of nuclear energy positively influences one in ten people to be more supportive of expanding the role of nuclear power in the world, but there is still a general reluctance to build more nuclear plants; 5) Awareness of the IAEA among the general population is generally low. However, one in four citizens across the 18 countries surveyed say that they have heard or read 'a lot' or 'some' about the agency, with higher awareness in Asia and the Middle East. The full report, Global Public Opinion on Nuclear Issues and the IAEA - Final Report from 18 Countries, is being released today by the IAEA in Vienna. The countries surveyed included: Argentina, Australia, Cameroon, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Japan, Jordan, Mexico, Morocco, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, and the United States. (IAEA)

  20. LACERTA I AND CASSIOPEIA III. TWO LUMINOUS AND DISTANT ANDROMEDA SATELLITE DWARF GALAXIES FOUND IN THE 3π PAN-STARRS1 SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Morganson, Eric; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Tonry, John L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Price, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of two new dwarf galaxies, Lacerta I/Andromeda XXXI (Lac I/And XXXI) and Cassiopeia III/Andromeda XXXII (Cas III/And XXXII), in stacked Pan-STARRS1 r P1 - and i P1 -band imaging data. Both are luminous systems (M V ∼ –12) located at projected distances of 20.°3 and 10.°5 from M31. Lac I and Cas III are likely satellites of the Andromeda galaxy with heliocentric distances of 756 +44 -28 kpc and 772 +61 -56 kpc, respectively, and corresponding M31-centric distances of 275 ± 7 kpc and 144 +6 -4 kpc. The brightest of recent Local Group member discoveries, these two new dwarf galaxies owe their late discovery to their large sizes (r h = 4.2 +0.4 -0.5 arcmin or 912 +124 -93 pc for Lac I; r h = 6.5 +1.2 -1.0 arcmin or 1456 ± 267 pc for Cas III) and consequently low surface brightness (μ 0 ∼ 26.0 mag arcsec –2 ), as well as to the lack of a systematic survey of regions at large radii from M31, close to the Galactic plane. This latter limitation is now alleviated by the 3π Pan-STARRS1 survey, which could lead to the discovery of other distant Andromeda satellite dwarf galaxies.

  1. Peer Effects and Youth Smoking in the European Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikaj Silda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of peer smoking on individual smoking among youths in 10 countries that participated in the European Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS. I control for endogeneity in school selection and unobserved school-level characteristics through the use of school fixed-effects. I use instrumental variables to address the simultaneity in peer and individual behaviours. Identification arises by comparing students in different classes within the same school. On average, an increase in the share of classmates who smoke by 10 percentage points increases the probability that an individual in that class will smoke by 3 to 6.9 percentage points. The results imply that any policy intervention such as anti-smoking messages, smoking bans, or higher cigarette prices will be even more cost-effective because of the social multiplier effect of peers – policies affecting some individuals in a group will generate spillovers to others through the peer effect.

  2. Global spectroscopic survey of cloud thermodynamic phase at high spatial resolution, 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.; Kahn, Brian H.; Green, Robert O.; Chien, Steve A.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Tran, Daniel Q.

    2018-02-01

    The distribution of ice, liquid, and mixed phase clouds is important for Earth's planetary radiation budget, impacting cloud optical properties, evolution, and solar reflectivity. Most remote orbital thermodynamic phase measurements observe kilometer scales and are insensitive to mixed phases. This under-constrains important processes with outsize radiative forcing impact, such as spatial partitioning in mixed phase clouds. To date, the fine spatial structure of cloud phase has not been measured at global scales. Imaging spectroscopy of reflected solar energy from 1.4 to 1.8 µm can address this gap: it directly measures ice and water absorption, a robust indicator of cloud top thermodynamic phase, with spatial resolution of tens to hundreds of meters. We report the first such global high spatial resolution survey based on data from 2005 to 2015 acquired by the Hyperion imaging spectrometer onboard NASA's Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) spacecraft. Seasonal and latitudinal distributions corroborate observations by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). For extratropical cloud systems, just 25 % of variance observed at GCM grid scales of 100 km was related to irreducible measurement error, while 75 % was explained by spatial correlations possible at finer resolutions.

  3. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-08

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women).

  4. The effect of prices on cigarette use among youths in the global youth tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaj, Silda; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    We estimated the impact of cigarette prices on youth smoking in 38 countries with the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. We used a 2-part model of cigarette demand. In the first part, we estimated the impact of prices on the decision to smoke. Conditional on smoking, we then estimated the effect of price on the number of cigarettes smoked. We employed 2-way fixed effects to address country-level time-invariant heterogeneity and controlled for an array of local-level variables to address local-level heterogeneity. The estimated total price elasticity is -1.5 for a sample that contains both high-income and low- and middle-income countries. Constraining the sample to only low- and middle-income countries, we found a total price elasticity of -2.2, suggesting that smoking among youths in low-income countries is more responsive to cigarette price changes. Cigarette price increases are highly effective in reducing smoking prevalence and consumption among youths globally and particularly among youths in low- and middle-income countries.

  5. The global pediatric nephrology workforce: a survey of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Dorey; Ocegueda, Sophie; Nazareth, Meaghan; Zhong, Yi; Weinstein, Adam; Primack, William; Cochat, Pierre; Ferris, Maria

    2016-07-15

    The global pediatric nephrology workforce is poorly characterized. The objectives of our study were to assess pediatric nephrologists' perceptions of the adequacy of the pediatric nephrology workforce, and understand regional challenges to fellow recruitment and job acquisition. Perceptions regarding optimal length of training and research requirements were also queried. A 17-question web-based survey comprised of 14 close-ended and 3 open-ended questions was e-mailed to members of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed. We received 341 responses from members of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association from 71 countries. There was a high degree of overall perceived workforce inadequacy with 67 % of all respondents reporting some degree of shortage. Perceived workforce shortage ranged from 20 % in Australia/New Zealand to 100 % in Africa. Respondents from Africa (25 %) and North America (22.4 %) reported the greatest difficulty recruiting fellows. Respondents from Australia/New Zealand (53.3 %) and Latin America (31.3 %) reported the greatest perceived difficulty finding jobs as pediatric nephrologists after training. Low trainee interest, low salary, lack of government or institutional support, and few available jobs in pediatric nephrology were the most frequently reported obstacles to fellow recruitment and job availability. Globally, there is a high level of perceived inadequacy in the pediatric nephrology workforce. Regional variability exists in perceived workforce adequacy, ease of recruitment, and job acquisition. Interventions to improve recruitment targeted to specific regional barriers are suggested.

  6. Measuring global surgical disparities: a survey of surgical and anesthesia infrastructure in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Drake G; Dhar, Debashish; Sarkar, Md Imran H; Imran, T M Tanzil A; Kazi, Sayadat N; McQueen, K A Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Surgically treatable diseases weigh heavily on the lives of people in resource-poor countries. Though global surgical disparities are increasingly recognized as a public health priority, the extent of these disparities is unknown because of a lack of data. The present study sought to measure surgical and anesthesia infrastructure in Bangladesh as part of an international study assessing surgical and anesthesia capacity in low income nations. A comprehensive survey tool was administered via convenience sampling at one public district hospital and one public tertiary care hospital in each of the seven administrative divisions of Bangladesh. There are an estimated 1,200 obstetricians, 2,615 general and subspecialist surgeons, and 850 anesthesiologists in Bangladesh. These numbers correspond to 0.24 surgical providers per 10,000 people and 0.05 anesthesiologists per 10,000 people. Surveyed hospitals performed a large number of operations annually despite having minimal clinical human resources and inadequate physical infrastructure. Shortages in equipment and/or essential medicines were reported at all hospitals and these shortages were particularly severe at the district hospital level. In order to meet the immense demand for surgical care in Bangladesh, public hospitals must address critical shortages in skilled human resources, inadequate physical infrastructure, and low availability of equipment and essential medications. This study identified numerous areas in which the international community can play a vital role in increasing surgical and anesthesia capacity in Bangladesh and ensuring safe surgery for all in the country.

  7. Limited Resources, Limited Opportunities, and the Accumulation of Disadvantage: Evidence from the Global Survey of Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2012-03-01

    Using the results of the Global Survey of Physicists, which we conducted in collaboration with the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics Working Group on Women, we document the effect of limited resources and opportunities on women physicists' careers. We find that women respondents are less likely than men to report access to a variety of resources and opportunities that would be helpful in advancing a scientific career. These include access to funding, travel money, lab and office space, equipment, clerical support, and availability of employees or students to help with research. When asked about specific opportunities, women report fewer invited talks and overseas research opportunities. Women who responded are less likely to have been journal editors, acted as bosses or managers, advised graduate students, served on thesis or dissertation committees, and served on committees for grant agencies. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Women who responded are more likely than men to have changed their work situations upon becoming parents. Mothers are more likely than men and women without children to report that their careers have progressed more slowly than colleagues who finished their degrees at the same time. Furthermore, women are more likely than men to report that their careers affected the decisions they made about marriage and children. The results of this survey draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. 15,000 physicists in 130 countries answered this survey, and across all these countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

  8. Epidemiology of DSM-5 Drug Use Disorder: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Bridget F; Saha, Tulshi D; Ruan, W June; Goldstein, Risë B; Chou, S Patricia; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Smith, Sharon M; Pickering, Roger P; Huang, Boji; Hasin, Deborah S

    2016-01-01

    Current information on the prevalence and sociodemographic and clinical profiles of individuals in the general population with DSM-5 drug use disorder (DUD) is limited. Given the present societal and economic context in the United States and the new diagnostic system, up-to-date national information is needed from a single uniform data source. To present nationally representative findings on the prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, disability, and treatment of DSM-5 DUD diagnoses overall and by severity level. In-person interviews were conducted with 36,309 adults in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, a cross-sectional representative survey of the United States. The household response rate was 72%; person-level response rate, 84%; and overall response rate, 60.1%. Data were collected April 2012 through June 2013 and analyzed from February through March 2015. Twelve-month and lifetime DUD, based on amphetamine, cannabis, club drug, cocaine, hallucinogen, heroin, nonheroin opioid, sedative/tranquilizer, and/or solvent/inhalant use disorders. Prevalences of 12-month and lifetime DUD were 3.9% and 9.9%, respectively. Drug use disorder was generally greater among men, white and Native American individuals, younger and previously or never married adults, those with lower education and income, and those residing in the West. Significant associations were found between 12-month and lifetime DUD and other substance use disorders. Significant associations were also found between any 12-month DUD and major depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.09-1.64), dysthymia (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.09-2.02), bipolar I (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.06-2.05), posttraumatic stress disorder (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.27-2.10), and antisocial (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.11-1.75), borderline (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.41-2.24), and schizotypal (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.18-1.87) personality disorders. Similar associations were found for any lifetime DUD with the

  9. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  10. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  11. Antismoking messages and current cigarette smoking status in Somaliland: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Muula Adamson S; Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Siziya Seter

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death globally. There are limited reports on current cigarette smoking prevalence and its associated-antismoking messages among adolescents in conflict zones of the world. We, therefore, conducted secondary analysis of data to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, and to determine associations of antismoking messages with smoking status. Methods We used data from the Somaliland Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) of 2004 to esti...

  12. The global regulator Crc plays a multifaceted role in modulation of type III secretion system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Yi-Hu; Zhang, Xi-Fen; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2013-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells that subvert normal host cell functions to the benefit of the pathogen, and results in serious infections. T3SS in P. aeruginosa is controlled by a complex system of regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways. In this study, we described that Crc, an RNA-binding protein, exerts a positive impact on T3SS in P. aeruginosa, as evidenced by prom...

  13. The Impact of Economic Globalization on Higher Education. A Regional Project on the Global Economy and Higher Education in New England. Staff Paper Number III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groennings, Sven

    The third document in a series of special papers released by the Project on the Global Economy and Higher Education in New England is presented. The paper examines the causes and manifestations of change toward internationalization at New England colleges and universities and the extent to which change is linked to the coming of the global…

  14. Chinese version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey: cross-cultural instrument adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou Hung-Yi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking poses public health concerns because of its high risk for many chronic diseases. Most smokers begin using tobacco in their teens and recent reports indicate that smoking prevalence is climbing among youth. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS is a worldwide, school-based, tobacco-specific survey, but cross-cultural differences limit its effectiveness in international studies. Specifically, the GYTS assesses not only the prevalence of smoking, but also tobacco-related attitudes, school curricula, and advertisements, which are culturally influenced. Therefore, we conducted this study to develop a Chinese version of the GYTS for both national surveillance and international comparison. Methods The original English GYTS was translated and back translated using a cross-cultural adaptation process. The comprehensiveness and feasibility of using the Chinese-version GYTS were reviewed by a panel of 6 tobacco-control experts. The understandability and cultural relevance of the Chinese-version GYTS were discussed in a focus group of 5 schoolteachers and 8 students. The expert and focus group feedback was incorporated into a final Chinese version of the GYTS, which was administered to 382 students throughout Taiwan by multi-stage sampling from 10 randomly selected schools. Results The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha for the GYTS subscales (smoking susceptibility, attitude toward smoking, and media messages about smoking ranged from 0.70 to 0.94. The internal logical agreement of responses ranged from 85.3 to 99.2%. Conclusion The Chinese version of the GYTS has good reliability and validity and can serve as the foundation for international comparison and tobacco control in Chinese-speaking communities.

  15. Global Health Imaging in Radiology Residency: A Survey of Canadian Radiology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zener, Rebecca; Ross, Ian

    2017-11-01

    The study sought to determine Canadian radiology resident perception of and interest in global health imaging (GHI) and the barriers they encounter in pursuing GHI experiences during residency training. A peer-reviewed, online, anonymous, multiple-choice survey was distributed to Canadian radiology residents at English-language programs. Fifty residents responded to the survey (∼16% response rate); 72% of respondents perceived an unmet need for medical imaging in the developing world. A majority of residents (60%) would have been likely to participate in a GHI experience if one had been available during their residency; 65% planned on pursuing international outreach work as future radiologists, 81% of whom with on-site collaboration in education and training of local staff. However, 82% of respondents were uncertain or believed they would not be adequately prepared to help improve access and availability of medical imaging services in developing countries upon completion of residency. Overall, residents believed a GHI program would increase their knowledge of infectious diseases, increase their exposure to diseases at advanced stage presentation, enhance their knowledge of basic imaging modalities, and improve their cultural competence. Lack of information about opportunities, lack of funding, and lack of infrastructure were ranked as the most important barriers to participating in a radiology rotation in a developing country during residency. While many Canadian radiology residents are interested in participating in GHI, their preparation to do so may be inadequate. Formalizing international GHI rotations may alleviate barriers impeding their pursuit. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hardcore smoking in three South-East asian countries: results from the global adult tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Jugal; Jena, Pratap Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Chandan; Swain, Monali; Das, Sagarika; Banerjee, Indrani

    2013-01-01

    Hardcore smoking is represented by a subset of daily smokers with high nicotine dependence, inability to quit and unwillingness to quit. Estimating the related burden could help us in identifying a high risk population prone to tobacco induced diseases and improve cessation planning for them. This study assessed the prevalence and associated factors of hardcore smoking in three South-East Asian countries and discussed its implication for smoking cessation intervention in this region. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data of India, Bangladesh and Thailand were analyzed to quantify the hardcore smoking prevalence in the region. On the basis of review, an operational definition of hardcore smoking was adopted that includes (1) current daily smoker, (2) no quit attempt in the past 12 months of survey or last quit attempt of less than 24 hours duration, (3) no intention to quit in next 12 months or not interested in quitting, (4) time to first smoke within 30 minutes of waking up, and (5) knowledge of smoking hazards. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using hardcore smoking status as response variable and gender, type of residence, occupation, education, wealth index and age-group as possible predictors. There were 31.3 million hardcore smokers in the three Asian countries. The adult prevalence of hardcore smoking in these countries ranges between 3.1% in India to 6% in Thailand. These hardcore smokers constitute 18.3-29.7% of daily smokers. The logistic regression model indicated that age, gender, occupation and wealth index are the major predictors of hardcore smoking with varied influence across countries. Presence of a higher number of hardcore smoking populations in Asia is a major public health challenge for tobacco control and cancer prevention. There is need of intensive cessation interventions with due consideration of contextual predictors.

  17. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003 and 2006 data to tobacco control policy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Gupta, Prakash C; Reddy, K Srinath; Prasad, Vinayak M; Rahman, Khalilur; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2008-07-01

    India made 2 important policy statements regarding tobacco control in the past decade. First, the India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) was signed into law in 2003 with the goal to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Second, in 2005, India ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). During this same period, India conducted the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in 2003 and 2006 in an effort to track tobacco use among adolescents. The GYTS is a school-based survey of students aged 13-15 years. Representative national estimates for India in 2003 and 2006 were used in this study. In 2006, 3.8% of students currently smoked cigarettes and 11.9% currently used other tobacco products. These rates were not significantly different than those observed in 2003. Over the same period, exposure to SHS at home and in public places significantly decreased, whereas exposure to pro-tobacco ads on billboards and the ability to purchase cigarettes in a store did not change significantly. The ITCA and the WHO FCTC have had mixed impacts on the tobacco control effort for adolescents in India. The positive impacts have been the reduction in exposure to SHS, both at home and in public places. The negative impacts are seen with the lack of change in pro-tobacco advertising and ability to purchase cigarettes in stores. The Government of India needs to consider new and stronger provisions of the ITCA and include strong enforcement measures.

  18. Factors associated with exposure to antismoking information among adults in Vietnam, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang; Nga, Pham Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Quan, Nguyen The; Tong, Van T; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Hsia, Jason

    2013-09-12

    The media play a critical role in tobacco control. Knowledge about the exposure of a population to antismoking information can provide information for planning communication activities in tobacco control. We examined exposure to antismoking information associated with socioeconomic and demographic factors among adults (≥15 years) in Vietnam. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) is a nationally representative household survey of noninstitutionalized men and women aged 15 years or older and was conducted in Vietnam in 2010 (N = 9,925). We used GATS data on exposure to sources of antismoking information and analyzed associations among socioeconomic and demographic groups. An estimated 91.6% of the adult population was exposed to at least 1 source of antismoking information, and the mean number of sources of exposure was 3.7. Compared with their counterparts, respondents who were older, had higher education levels, higher economic status, and higher knowledge levels about the health consequences of smoking were more likely to be exposed to any source of antismoking information and to more informational sources. The most common source of exposure was television (85.9%). Respondents of higher social class (education, occupation, wealth) had more exposure through modern media sources (television), and respondents of lower social class were exposed to more traditional sources such as radio or loudspeakers. Exposure to at least 1 source of antismoking information is high in Vietnam, and the number and type of source varied by sociodemographic group. Use of multiple communication channels is recommended to reinforce antismoking messages and to reach different groups in the population.

  19. Tracking MPOWER in 14 countries: results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Asma, Samira; Morton, Jeremy; Talley, Brandon; Hsia, Jason; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Caixeta, Roberta; Fouad, Heba; Khoury, Rula; Sinha, Dhirendra; Rarick, James; Bettcher, Douglas; Peruga, Armando; Deland, Katherine; D'Espaignet, Edouard Tursan

    2016-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) MPOWER is a technical package of six tobacco control measures that assist countries in meeting their obligations of the WHO Framework Convention Tobacco Control and are proven to reduce tobacco use. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) systematically monitors adult tobacco use and tracks key tobacco control indicators. GATS is a nationally representative household survey of adults aged 15 and older, using a standard and consistent protocol across countries; it includes information on the six WHO MPOWER measures. GATS Phase I was conducted from 2008-2010 in 14 high-burden low- and middle-income countries. We selected one key indicator from each of the six MPOWER measures and compared results across 14 countries. Current tobacco use prevalence rates ranged from 16.1% in Mexico to 43.3% in Bangladesh. We found that the highest rate of exposure to secondhand smoke in the workplace was in China (63.3%). We found the highest 'smoking quit attempt' rates in the past 12 months among cigarette smokers in Viet Nam (55.3%) and the lowest rate was in the Russian Federation (32.1%). In five of the 14 countries, more than one-half of current smokers in those 5 countries said they thought of quitting because of health warning labels on cigarette packages. The Philippines (74.3%) and the Russian Federation (68.0%) had the highest percentages of respondents noticing any cigarette advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Manufactured cigarette affordability ranged from 0.6% in Russia to 8.0% in India. Monitoring tobacco use and tobacco control policy achievements is crucial to managing and implementing measures to reverse the epidemic. GATS provides internationally-comparable data that systematically monitors and tracks the progress of the other five MPOWER measures. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  1. Diffusional transport of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen in the interstitium of the globally ischaemic cat myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, N B; Sejrsen, P; Jensen, L T

    1996-01-01

    , no attention has yet been paid to the resistance to diffusion offered by the myocardial interstitium. We determined the diffusion coefficient of PIIINP in the interstitium of the globally ischaemic interstitium of the cat (D'37) by means of a "true transient diffusion' method, and compared with the free...

  2. Global Survey on Future Trends in Human Spaceflight: the Implications for Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtuna, O.; Garneau, S.

    2002-01-01

    With the much-publicized first ever space tourist flight, of Dennis Tito, and the announcement of the second space tourist flight to take place in April 2002, it is clear that an alternative motivation for human spaceflight has emerged. Human spaceflight is no longer only about meeting the priorities of national governments and space agencies, but is also about the tangible possibility of ordinary people seeing the Earth from a previously exclusive vantage point. It is imperative that major space players look beyond the existing human spaceflight rationale to identify some of the major driving forces behind space tourism, including the evolving market potential and developments in enabling technologies. In order to determine the influence of these forces on the future of commercial human spaceflight, the responses of a Futuraspace survey on future trends in human spaceflight are analyzed and presented. The motivation of this study is to identify sought-after space destinations, explore the expected trends in enabling technologies, and understand the future role of emerging space players. The survey will reflect the opinions of respondents from around the world including North America, Europe (including Russia) and Asia. The profiles of targeted respondents from space industry, government and academia are high-level executives/managers, senior researchers, as well as former and current astronauts. The survey instrument is a questionnaire which is validated by a pilot study. The sampling method is non-probabilistic, targeting as many space experts as possible who fit our intended respondent profile. Descriptive and comparative statistical analysis methods are implemented to investigate both global and regional perceptions of future commercial trends in human spaceflight. This study is not intended to be a formal market study of the potential viability of the space tourism market. Instead, the focus is on the future trends of human spaceflight, by drawing on the

  3. Perspectives on the Market Globalization of Korean Herbal Manufacturers: A Company-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsu; Ahn, Miyoung; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kwon, Soohyun; Park, Eun-Ji; Koo, Ki Hoon; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The growth of herbal markets has increased substantially in South Korea, but the worldwide market share remains small despite significant governmental efforts. This study aimed to characterize manufacturing employment and identify employees' general perceptions of market expansion. A survey study covering 567 companies was conducted using face-to-face interviews in 2012. Data were analyzed using comparisons among three manufacturing groups (i.e., the herbal dietary supplement manufacturing group, the herbal medicine manufacturing group, and the personal care product manufacturing group) or among the manufacturers themselves. We found that the majority of the manufacturing employee respondents were regular permanent and production workers. The domestic distributors were primarily chain stores/direct outlets or retailers/wholesalers, and the dominant product was red ginseng (hongsam). Although the responding companies exhibited a variety of perspectives, “advertisement/public relations” was cited as the most important factor in the development of the herbal industry. In contrast, “low manpower/seeking business partners” were the most crucial limiting and challenging factors for market globalization. Our results can be used to design a proper national plan by reducing the gaps in perspective between herbal product producers and policy makers. PMID:26199635

  4. Perspectives on the Market Globalization of Korean Herbal Manufacturers: A Company-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsu; Ahn, Miyoung; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kwon, Soohyun; Park, Eun-Ji; Koo, Ki Hoon; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The growth of herbal markets has increased substantially in South Korea, but the worldwide market share remains small despite significant governmental efforts. This study aimed to characterize manufacturing employment and identify employees' general perceptions of market expansion. A survey study covering 567 companies was conducted using face-to-face interviews in 2012. Data were analyzed using comparisons among three manufacturing groups (i.e., the herbal dietary supplement manufacturing group, the herbal medicine manufacturing group, and the personal care product manufacturing group) or among the manufacturers themselves. We found that the majority of the manufacturing employee respondents were regular permanent and production workers. The domestic distributors were primarily chain stores/direct outlets or retailers/wholesalers, and the dominant product was red ginseng (hongsam). Although the responding companies exhibited a variety of perspectives, "advertisement/public relations" was cited as the most important factor in the development of the herbal industry. In contrast, "low manpower/seeking business partners" were the most crucial limiting and challenging factors for market globalization. Our results can be used to design a proper national plan by reducing the gaps in perspective between herbal product producers and policy makers.

  5. Perspectives on the Market Globalization of Korean Herbal Manufacturers: A Company-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsu Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of herbal markets has increased substantially in South Korea, but the worldwide market share remains small despite significant governmental efforts. This study aimed to characterize manufacturing employment and identify employees’ general perceptions of market expansion. A survey study covering 567 companies was conducted using face-to-face interviews in 2012. Data were analyzed using comparisons among three manufacturing groups (i.e., the herbal dietary supplement manufacturing group, the herbal medicine manufacturing group, and the personal care product manufacturing group or among the manufacturers themselves. We found that the majority of the manufacturing employee respondents were regular permanent and production workers. The domestic distributors were primarily chain stores/direct outlets or retailers/wholesalers, and the dominant product was red ginseng (hongsam. Although the responding companies exhibited a variety of perspectives, “advertisement/public relations” was cited as the most important factor in the development of the herbal industry. In contrast, “low manpower/seeking business partners” were the most crucial limiting and challenging factors for market globalization. Our results can be used to design a proper national plan by reducing the gaps in perspective between herbal product producers and policy makers.

  6. Sustainability As A Success Factor In Global Operations: A Survey Of Car Manufacturing Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Pozo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, environmental issues have put companies under a growing pressure to reduce their environmental impact, especially in logistics operations. As a result, green supply chains have been gaining importance on the agendas of business executives seeking to create competitive distinction. Many companies have adopted a “green attitude,” seeking ways to integrate environmental dimensions into their business. Current research seeks to define green practices in each supply chain segment, to deepen the understanding of how companies formulate their green initiatives and to analyze the logistical bases and results connected with such decisions. The methodology used was a Survey with questions were based on patterns in green initiatives in the literature, this study’s sample was three large assembly companies in the automotive segment, with industrial plants located both in the southeast region of Brazil and globally. The results show that the wave of sustainability is a result of more than just the threat of negative publicity, and it is pushing enterprises into the green zone. At the same time, economic instability with oscillating growth is forcing enterprises to concentrate on improving efficiency to compensate for unstable demand and the price volatility of commodities, including water and energy.

  7. LACERTA I AND CASSIOPEIA III. TWO LUMINOUS AND DISTANT ANDROMEDA SATELLITE DWARF GALAXIES FOUND IN THE 3{pi} PAN-STARRS1 SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Laevens, Benjamin P. M. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Schlafly, Edward F.; Morganson, Eric; Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Finkbeiner, Douglas P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Tonry, John L.; Wainscoat, Richard J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Price, Paul A., E-mail: nicolas.martin@astro.unistra.fr [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We report the discovery of two new dwarf galaxies, Lacerta I/Andromeda XXXI (Lac I/And XXXI) and Cassiopeia III/Andromeda XXXII (Cas III/And XXXII), in stacked Pan-STARRS1 r{sub P1}- and i{sub P1}-band imaging data. Both are luminous systems (M{sub V} {approx} -12) located at projected distances of 20. Degree-Sign 3 and 10. Degree-Sign 5 from M31. Lac I and Cas III are likely satellites of the Andromeda galaxy with heliocentric distances of 756{sup +44}{sub -28} kpc and 772{sup +61}{sub -56} kpc, respectively, and corresponding M31-centric distances of 275 {+-} 7 kpc and 144{sup +6}{sub -4} kpc. The brightest of recent Local Group member discoveries, these two new dwarf galaxies owe their late discovery to their large sizes (r{sub h} = 4.2{sup +0.4}{sub -0.5} arcmin or 912{sup +124}{sub -93} pc for Lac I; r{sub h} = 6.5{sup +1.2}{sub -1.0} arcmin or 1456 {+-} 267 pc for Cas III) and consequently low surface brightness ({mu}{sub 0} {approx} 26.0 mag arcsec{sup -2}), as well as to the lack of a systematic survey of regions at large radii from M31, close to the Galactic plane. This latter limitation is now alleviated by the 3{pi} Pan-STARRS1 survey, which could lead to the discovery of other distant Andromeda satellite dwarf galaxies.

  8. Global Survey of the Frequency of Atrial Fibrillation-Associated Stroke: Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source Global Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perera, Kanjana S.; Vanassche, Thomas; Bosch, Jackie; Swaminathan, Balakumar; Mundl, Hardi; Giruparajah, Mohana; Barboza, Miguel A.; O'Donnell, Martin J.; Gomez-Schneider, Maia; Hankey, Graeme J.; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Roxas, Artemio; Lavallee, Philippa; Sargento-Freitas, Joao; Shamalov, Nikolay; Brouns, Raf; Gagliardi, Rubens J.; Kasner, Scott E.; Pieroni, Alessio; Vermehren, Philipp; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Wang, Yongjun; Muir, Keith; Coutinho, Jonathan M.; Connolly, Stuart J.; Hart, Robert G.; Czeto, K.; Kahn, M.; Mattina, K. R.; Ameriso, S. F.; Pujol-Lereis, V.; Hawkes, M.; Pertierra, L.; Perera, N.; de Smedt, A.; van Dyck, R.; van Hooff, R. J.; Yperzeele, L.; Gagliardi, V. D. B.; Cerqueir, L. G.; Yang, X.; Chen, W.; Amarenco, P.; Guidoux, C.; Ringleb, P. A.; Bereczki, D.; Vastagh, I.; Canavan, M.; Toni, D.; Anzini, A.; Colosimo, C.; de Michele, M.; Di Mascio, M. T.; Durastanti, L.; Falcou, A.; Fausti, S.; Mancini, A.; Mizumo, S.; Uchiyama, S.; Kim, C. K.; Jung, S.; Kim, Y.; Kim, J. A.; Jo, J. Y.; Arauz, A.; Quiroz-Compean, A.; Colin, J.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Marianito, V. P.; Cunha, L.; Santo, G.; Silva, F.; Coelho, J.; Kustova, M.; Meshkova, K.; Williams, G.; Siegler, J.; Zhang, C.; Gallatti, N.; Kruszewski, M.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasingly recognized as the single most important cause of disabling ischemic stroke in the elderly. We undertook an international survey to characterize the frequency of AF-associated stroke, methods of AF detection, and patient features. Consecutive patients

  9. Cardiovascular prevention guidelines in daily practice: a comparison of EUROASPIRE I, II, and III surveys in eight European countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kotseva, Kornelia

    2009-03-14

    The first and second EUROASPIRE surveys showed high rates of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease. The third EUROASPIRE survey was done in 2006-07 in 22 countries to see whether preventive cardiology had improved and if the Joint European Societies\\' recommendations on cardiovascular disease prevention are being followed in clinical practice.

  10. Locating REDD: A global survey and analysis of REDD readiness and demonstration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerbu, Gillian A.; Swallow, Brent M.; Thompson, Dara Y.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms that support reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD/REDD+) have potential to counteract a large share of global greenhouse gas emissions if implemented effectively across the tropics. In 2007 the conference of parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change called upon parties and international organizations to promote REDD through investments in capacity building and demonstration activities. This prompted many new actors to become involved in REDD activities at a variety of locations and scales. A global survey of REDD activities was undertaken in 2009 to enable better understanding of the intensity and geographic distribution of these activities. Existing compilations, literature review, web-based sources, face-to-face and telephone interviews, and e-mail questionnaires were used to compile data for the inventory. Inter alia, data were collected on the location of activities and official and unofficial factors influencing location choices. Inventory data were combined with secondary data to estimate a statistical count model (Poisson) of factors affecting the number of REDD activities undertaken in the 64 developing countries that experienced significant emissions from deforestation. The results show that there were at least 79 REDD readiness activities and 100 REDD demonstration activities as of October 2009. Of these, the largest shares of REDD readiness and demonstration activities were implemented in Indonesia (7 and 15 respectively) and Brazil (4 and 13 respectively), countries widely agreed to have the greatest potential for reducing forest-based emissions. The statistical results found no national characteristic to have a statistically-significant effect on the number of REDD readiness activities, but five national characteristics to have significant effects on the number of REDD demonstration projects. Baseline CO 2 emissions, forest carbon stock, number of threatened species, quality of

  11. A global epidemiological survey and strategy of treatment of military ocular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-nian ZHANG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the current global status of military ocular injury for the purpose of improving the level of domestic epidemiological investigation,in order to improve treatment strategies,and to prevent and reduce the incidence of military ocular injury in Chinese PLA.Methods The epidemiological literature concerning military ocular injury occurring in our country and abroad in recent five years was retrieved by information research;the problems and experiences in the aspects of epidemiological survey,registry,data collection,systematic treatment and prevention of military ocular injury existed in PLA were also summarized and analyzed.Results There were currently no systematic epidemiological data about ocular injury in PLA.A few articles about epidemiological study on ocular injury showed that servicemen were the high risk population of ocular injury.Both in peacetime or wartime the ocular injury was the primary cause leading to monocular blindness of soldiers.As to the ocular injury,in 51.55% of the patients,it occurred in the military operations and work,and 30.31% in military training.The incidence of ocular injury was different in various services,for example,the incidence in the internal security forces of armed police could be as high as 78.85% due to training of martial arts and boxing and wrestling.The deficiency of microsurgery equipments and untimely evacuation were the main causes affecting prognosis during treatment course in primary military hospitals.Conclusions Military affairs,physical training,military maneuver and defense constructions are the main causes of ocular injury in servicemen,and young male soldiers are the main group for prevention and treatment for military ocular injury.More attention should be paid to the epidemiological survey of military ocular injury to find out the causes leading to ocular injury,to improve treatment strategies,to formulate feasible protective measures and then military ocular

  12. Exploration of Global Trend on Biomedical Application of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA): A Patent Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnaiah, Paulraj; Vnoothenei, Nagiah; Chandramohan, Muruganandham; Thevarkattil, Mohamed Javad Pazhayakath

    2018-01-30

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates are bio-based, biodegradable naturally occurring polymers produced by a wide range of organisms, from bacteria to higher mammals. The properties and biocompatibility of PHA make it possible for a wide spectrum of applications. In this context, we analyze the potential applications of PHA in biomedical science by exploring the global trend through the patent survey. The survey suggests that PHA is an attractive candidate in such a way that their applications are widely distributed in the medical industry, drug delivery system, dental material, tissue engineering, packaging material as well as other useful products. In our present study, we explored patents associated with various biomedical applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates. Patent databases of European Patent Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office and World Intellectual Property Organization were mined. We developed an intensive exploration approach to eliminate overlapping patents and sort out significant patents. We demarcated the keywords and search criterions and established search patterns for the database request. We retrieved documents within the recent 6 years, 2010 to 2016 and sort out the collected data stepwise to gather the most appropriate documents in patent families for further scrutiny. By this approach, we retrieved 23,368 patent documents from all the three databases and the patent titles were further analyzed for the relevance of polyhydroxyalkanoates in biomedical applications. This ensued in the documentation of approximately 226 significant patents associated with biomedical applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates and the information was classified into six major groups. Polyhydroxyalkanoates has been patented in such a way that their applications are widely distributed in the medical industry, drug delivery system, dental material, tissue engineering, packaging material as well as other useful products. There are many avenues through which PHA & PHB could be

  13. Self- and other-directed forms of violence and their relationship with lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Thomas C; Chen, Chiung M; Kerridge, Bradley T; Grant, Bridget F

    2018-04-01

    A combined history of violence toward self and others has been reported in clinical and incarcerated populations. Psychiatric disorders have been implicated as risk factors. This study examines the lifetime prevalence of this combined violence in the general population and its associations with DSM-5 psychiatric disorders in comparison with other- and self-directed violence. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III) were analyzed, including 36,309 U.S. adults ages 18 and older. Violent behavior was defined by suicide attempts; recurrent suicidal behavior; gestures, threats, or self-mutilating behavior (self-directed); and multiple items of violence toward others (other-directed) in four categories: none, self-directed only, other-directed only, and combined self-/other-directed. Multinomial logistic regression examined these violence categories in association with sociodemographics and lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders. Results show that approximately 18.1% of adults reported violent behavior, including self-directed only (4.4%), other-directed only (10.9%), and combined self- and other-directed violence (2.8%). DSM-5 psychiatric disorders significantly associated with the violence typology include alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other drug use disorders; mood disorders; posttraumatic stress disorder; and schizotypal, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders. Findings extend the clinical literature regarding the co-occurrence of self- and other-directed violent behaviors to the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An emperor penguin population estimate: the first global, synoptic survey of a species from space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T; Larue, Michelle A; Morin, Paul; Kooyman, Gerald L; Wienecke, Barbara; Ratcliffe, Norman; Fox, Adrian J; Fleming, Andrew H; Porter, Claire; Trathan, Phil N

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to estimate the population of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes fosteri) using a single synoptic survey. We examined the whole continental coastline of Antarctica using a combination of medium resolution and Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite imagery to identify emperor penguin colony locations. Where colonies were identified, VHR imagery was obtained in the 2009 breeding season. The remotely-sensed images were then analysed using a supervised classification method to separate penguins from snow, shadow and guano. Actual counts of penguins from eleven ground truthing sites were used to convert these classified areas into numbers of penguins using a robust regression algorithm.We found four new colonies and confirmed the location of three previously suspected sites giving a total number of emperor penguin breeding colonies of 46. We estimated the breeding population of emperor penguins at each colony during 2009 and provide a population estimate of ~238,000 breeding pairs (compared with the last previously published count of 135,000-175,000 pairs). Based on published values of the relationship between breeders and non-breeders, this translates to a total population of ~595,000 adult birds.There is a growing consensus in the literature that global and regional emperor penguin populations will be affected by changing climate, a driver thought to be critical to their future survival. However, a complete understanding is severely limited by the lack of detailed knowledge about much of their ecology, and importantly a poor understanding of their total breeding population. To address the second of these issues, our work now provides a comprehensive estimate of the total breeding population that can be used in future population models and will provide a baseline for long-term research.

  15. WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health in Latin America: classifying caesarean sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faúndes Anibal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide with uncertain medical consequences. Auditing and analysing caesarean section rates and other perinatal outcomes in a reliable and continuous manner is critical for understanding reasons caesarean section changes over time. Methods We analyzed data on 97,095 women delivering in 120 facilities in 8 countries, collected as part of the 2004-2005 Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health in Latin America. The objective of this analysis was to test if the "10-group" or "Robson" classification could help identify which groups of women are contributing most to the high caesarean section rates in Latin America, and if it could provide information useful for health care providers in monitoring and planning effective actions to reduce these rates. Results The overall rate of caesarean section was 35.4%. Women with single cephalic pregnancy at term without previous caesarean section who entered into labour spontaneously (groups 1 and 3 represented 60% of the total obstetric population. Although women with a term singleton cephalic pregnancy with a previous caesarean section (group 5 represented only 11.4% of the obstetric population, this group was the largest contributor to the overall caesarean section rate (26.7% of all the caesarean sections. The second and third largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate were nulliparous women with single cephalic pregnancy at term either in spontaneous labour (group 1 or induced or delivered by caesarean section before labour (group 2, which were responsible for 18.3% and 15.3% of all caesarean deliveries, respectively. Conclusion The 10-group classification could be easily applied to a multicountry dataset without problems of inconsistencies or misclassification. Specific groups of women were clearly identified as the main contributors to the overall caesarean section rate. This classification could help health care

  16. Prevalence and determinants of tobacco use in India: evidence from recent Global Adult Tobacco Survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akansha Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco use in India is characterized by a high prevalence of smoking and smokeless tobacco use, with dual use also contributing a noticeable proportion. In the context of such a high burden of tobacco use, this study examines the regional variations, and socioeconomic, demographic and other correlates of smoking, smokeless tobacco and dual use of tobacco in India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed a cross sectional, nationally representative sample of individuals from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in India (2009-10, which covered 69,296 individuals aged 15 years and above. The current tobacco use in three forms, namely, smoking only, smokeless tobacco use only, and both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were considered as outcomes in this study. Descriptive statistics, cross tabulations and multinomial logistic regression analysis were adopted as analytical tools. Smokeless tobacco use was the major form of tobacco use in India followed by smoking and dual tobacco use. Tobacco use was higher among males, the less educated, the poor, and the rural population in India. Respondents lacking knowledge of health hazards of tobacco had higher prevalence of tobacco use in each form. The prevalence of different forms of tobacco use varies significantly by states. The prevalence of tobacco use increases concomitantly with age among females. Middle-aged adult males had higher prevalence of tobacco use. Age, education and region were found to be significant determinants of all forms of tobacco use. Adults from the poor household had significantly higher risk of consuming smokeless tobacco. Lack of awareness about the selected hazards of tobacco significantly affects tobacco use. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to curb the use of tobacco among the sub-groups of population with higher prevalence. Tobacco control policies in India should adopt a targeted, population-based approach to control and reduce tobacco consumption in the country.

  17. An emperor penguin population estimate: the first global, synoptic survey of a species from space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available Our aim was to estimate the population of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes fosteri using a single synoptic survey. We examined the whole continental coastline of Antarctica using a combination of medium resolution and Very High Resolution (VHR satellite imagery to identify emperor penguin colony locations. Where colonies were identified, VHR imagery was obtained in the 2009 breeding season. The remotely-sensed images were then analysed using a supervised classification method to separate penguins from snow, shadow and guano. Actual counts of penguins from eleven ground truthing sites were used to convert these classified areas into numbers of penguins using a robust regression algorithm.We found four new colonies and confirmed the location of three previously suspected sites giving a total number of emperor penguin breeding colonies of 46. We estimated the breeding population of emperor penguins at each colony during 2009 and provide a population estimate of ~238,000 breeding pairs (compared with the last previously published count of 135,000-175,000 pairs. Based on published values of the relationship between breeders and non-breeders, this translates to a total population of ~595,000 adult birds.There is a growing consensus in the literature that global and regional emperor penguin populations will be affected by changing climate, a driver thought to be critical to their future survival. However, a complete understanding is severely limited by the lack of detailed knowledge about much of their ecology, and importantly a poor understanding of their total breeding population. To address the second of these issues, our work now provides a comprehensive estimate of the total breeding population that can be used in future population models and will provide a baseline for long-term research.

  18. The Global Survey Method Applied to Ground-level Cosmic Ray Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A.; Eroshenko, E.; Yanke, V.; Oleneva, V.; Abunin, A.; Abunina, M.; Papaioannou, A.; Mavromichalaki, H.

    2018-04-01

    The global survey method (GSM) technique unites simultaneous ground-level observations of cosmic rays in different locations and allows us to obtain the main characteristics of cosmic-ray variations outside of the atmosphere and magnetosphere of Earth. This technique has been developed and applied in numerous studies over many years by the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation (IZMIRAN). We here describe the IZMIRAN version of the GSM in detail. With this technique, the hourly data of the world-wide neutron-monitor network from July 1957 until December 2016 were processed, and further processing is enabled upon the receipt of new data. The result is a database of homogeneous and continuous hourly characteristics of the density variations (an isotropic part of the intensity) and the 3D vector of the cosmic-ray anisotropy. It includes all of the effects that could be identified in galactic cosmic-ray variations that were caused by large-scale disturbances of the interplanetary medium in more than 50 years. These results in turn became the basis for a database on Forbush effects and interplanetary disturbances. This database allows correlating various space-environment parameters (the characteristics of the Sun, the solar wind, et cetera) with cosmic-ray parameters and studying their interrelations. We also present features of the coupling coefficients for different neutron monitors that enable us to make a connection from ground-level measurements to primary cosmic-ray variations outside the atmosphere and the magnetosphere. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the current version of the GSM as well as further possible developments and improvements. The method developed allows us to minimize the problems of the neutron-monitor network, which are typical for experimental physics, and to considerably enhance its advantages.

  19. The global regulator Crc plays a multifaceted role in modulation of type III secretion system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi-Hu; Zhang, Xi-Fen; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2013-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells that subvert normal host cell functions to the benefit of the pathogen, and results in serious infections. T3SS in P. aeruginosa is controlled by a complex system of regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways. In this study, we described that Crc, an RNA-binding protein, exerts a positive impact on T3SS in P. aeruginosa, as evidenced by promoter activity assays of several key T3SS genes, transcriptomics, RT-PCR, and immunoblotting in crc mutant. We further demonstrated that the regulatory function of Crc on the T3SS was mediated through the T3SS master regulator ExsA and linked to the Cbr/Crc signaling system. Expression profiling of the crc mutant revealed a downregulation of flagship T3SS genes as well as 16 other genes known to regulate T3SS gene expression in P. aeruginosa. On the basis of these data, we proposed that Crc may exert multifaceted control on the T3SS through various pathways, which may serve to fine-tune this virulence mechanism in response to environmental changes and nutrient sources. PMID:23292701

  20. The Vimos VLT deep survey. Global properties of 20,000 galaxies in the IAB < 22.5 WIDE survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garilli, B.; Le Fèvre, O.; Guzzo, L.; Maccagni, D.; Le Brun, V.; de la Torre, S.; Meneux, B.; Tresse, L.; Franzetti, P.; Zamorani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Gregorini, L.; Vergani, D.; Bottini, D.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Vettolani, G.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Gavignaud, I.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Lamareille, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zucca, E.; Blaizot, J.; Bongiorno, A.; Cucciati, O.; Mellier, Y.; Moreau, C.; Paioro, L.

    2008-08-01

    The VVDS-Wide survey has been designed to trace the large-scale distribution of galaxies at z ~ 1 on comoving scales reaching ~100~h-1 Mpc, while providing a good control of cosmic variance over areas as large as a few square degrees. This is achieved by measuring redshifts with VIMOS at the ESO VLT to a limiting magnitude IAB = 22.5, targeting four independent fields with sizes of up to 4 deg2 each. We discuss the survey strategy which covers 8.6 deg2 and present the general properties of the current redshift sample. This includes 32 734 spectra in the four regions, covering a total area of 6.1 deg2 with a sampling rate of 22 to 24%. This paper accompanies the public release of the first 18 143 redshifts of the VVDS-Wide survey from the 4 deg2 contiguous area of the F22 field at RA = 22^h. We have devised and tested an objective method to assess the quality of each spectrum, providing a compact figure-of-merit. This is particularly effective in the case of long-lasting spectroscopic surveys with varying observing conditions. Our figure of merit is a measure of the robustness of the redshift measurement and, most importantly, can be used to select galaxies with uniform high-quality spectra to carry out reliable measurements of spectral features. We also use the data available over the four independent regions to directly measure the variance in galaxy counts. We compare it with general predictions from the observed galaxy two-point correlation function at different redshifts and with that measured in mock galaxy surveys built from the Millennium simulation. The purely magnitude-limited VVDS Wide sample includes 19 977 galaxies, 304 type I AGNs, and 9913 stars. The redshift success rate is above 90% independent of magnitude. A cone diagram of the galaxy spatial distribution provides us with the current largest overview of large-scale structure up to z ~ 1, showing a rich texture of over- and under-dense regions. We give the mean N(z) distribution averaged over 6

  1. The SDSS-III DR12 MARVELS radial velocity data release: the first data release from the multiple object Doppler exoplanet survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian; Thomas, Neil B.; Li, Rui; Senan Seieroe Grieves, Nolan; Ma, Bo; de Lee, Nathan M.; Lee, Brian C.; Liu, Jian; Bolton, Adam S.; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Weaver, Benjamin; SDSS-Iii Marvels Team

    2015-01-01

    We present the first data release from the SDSS-III Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) through the SDSS-III DR12. The data include 181,198 radial velocity (RV) measurements for a total of 5520 different FGK stars with V~7.6-12, of which more than 80% are dwarfs and subdwarfs while remainders are GK giants, among a total of 92 fields nearly randomly spread out over the entire northern sky taken with a 60-object MARVELS dispersed fixed-delay interferometer instrument over four years (2008-2012). There were 55 fields with a total of 3300 FGK stars which had 14 or more observations over about 2-year survey window. The median number of observations for these plates is 27 RV measurements. This represents the largest homogeneous sample of precision RV measurements of relatively bright stars. In this first released data, a total of 18 giant planet candidates, 16 brown dwarfs, and over 500 binaries with additional 96 targets having RV variability indicative of a giant planet companion are reported. The released data were produced by the MARVELS finalized 1D pipeline. We will also report preliminary statistical results from the MARVELS 2D data pipeline which has produced a median RV precision of ~30 m/s for stable stars.

  2. Survey on the prevalence of GERD and FD based on the Montreal definition and the Rome III criteria among patients presenting with epigastric symptoms in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Shuichi; Kawano, Tatsuyuki; Kusano, Motoyasu; Kouzu, Teruo

    2011-05-01

    The present survey aimed to clarify the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and functional dyspepsia (FD) in patients presenting with epigastric symptoms in Japan based on the Montreal definition and the Rome III criteria, respectively, and to determine the degree of overlap between the two disease entities and the validity of using these Western-developed diagnostic criteria in Japan. Patients presenting with epigastric symptoms for whom the first upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was scheduled from April through August 2007 at 55 institutions were asked to complete a questionnaire to ascertain the type, frequency, and severity of epigastric symptoms. The prevalence of esophageal mucosal damage was also determined from endoscopic findings. A total of 1,076 patients were included in the analysis population. There was a high degree of coincidence for all symptoms, with the mean number of symptoms per patient of 2.8. With strict application of the Montreal and Rome III definitions, symptomatic GERD accounted for 15.6% (168 patients), whereas FD accounted for 10.3% (111 patients), and the overlap between GERD and FD symptoms was less than 10%. However, when frequency and severity alone were considered in more broadly defined criteria, the overlap between GERD and FD symptoms was 30-40%. A highly specific disease classification is possible when the Montreal definition and the Rome III criteria are strictly applied. On the other hand, the present survey highlighted a problem with the criteria whereby a definitive diagnosis could not be made in a substantial number of patients. This problem will require further research.

  3. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  4. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  5. Alcohol Marketing, Drunkenness, and Problem Drinking among Zambian Youth: Findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Swahn, Monica H.; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B.; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age ( = 2 2 5 7 ). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcoh...

  6. Self-reported health status of older adults in Malaysia and Singapore: evidence from the 2007 Global Ageing Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Hafiz T. A.; Flynn, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the correlates of self-reported health (SRH) among older adults in Malaysia and Singapore. The study uses data collected in the Global Ageing Study (GLAS) 2007, one of the largest surveys of its kind, specially designed to investigate attitudes towards later life, ageing and retirement. Data were collected from 1002 and 1004 respondents from Malaysia and Singapore respectively. The study found that Singaporeans report a healthier life than Malaysians. T...

  7. National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A): III. Concordance of DSM-IV/CIDI Diagnoses with Clinical Reassessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Green, Jennifer; Gruber, Michael J.; Guyer, Margaret; He, Yulei; Jin, Robert; Kaufman, Joan; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2009-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) diagnoses that was based on the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and implemented in the National comorbidity survey replication adolescent supplement is found to have good individual-level concordance with diagnosis based on blinded…

  8. The Westerbork HI Survey os spiral and irregular galaxies III : HI observations of early-type disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, E.; Hulst, J.M. van der; Sancisi, R.; Swaters, R.A.; Abada, T.S. van

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: We present HI observations of 68 early-type disk galaxies from the WHISP survey. They have morphological types between S0 and Sab and absolute B-band magnitudes between -14 and -22. These galaxies form the massive, high surface-brightness extreme of the disk galaxy population, few of which

  9. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : III. Structural parameters of galaxies using single Sersic fits star

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyos, Carlos; den Brok, Mark; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Carter, David; Balcells, Marc; Guzmán, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Graham, Alister W.; Hammer, Derek; Karick, Arna M.; Lucey, John R.; Matković, Ana; Merritt, David; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Valentijn, Edwin

    We present a catalogue of structural parameters for 8814 galaxies in the 25 fields of the Hubble Space Telescope/ACS Coma Treasury Survey. Parameters from Sersic fits to the two-dimensional surface brightness distributions are given for all galaxies from our published Coma photometric catalogue with

  10. Control of main risk factors after ischaemic stroke across Europe: data from the stroke-specific module of the EUROASPIRE III survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuschmann, Peter U; Kircher, Julia; Nowe, Tim; Dittrich, Ralf; Reiner, Zeljko; Cifkova, Renata; Malojcic, Branko; Mayer, Otto; Bruthans, Jan; Wloch-Kopec, Dorota; Prugger, Christof; Heidrich, Jan; Keil, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    Previous cross-sectional surveys in different European countries within the EUROASPIRE programme demonstrated a high prevalence of modifiable risk factors, unhealthy lifestyles and inadequate drug treatment in coronary heart disease patients. Comparable data for ischaemic stroke patients is lacking. A stroke-specific study module was added to the EUROASPIRE III core survey. This cross-sectional multicentre survey included consecutive patients with first-ever ischaemic stroke from four European countries. Data were obtained from medical records, patient interviews and patient examinations within 6-36 months after the stroke event. Control of modifiable risk factors after stroke was evaluated against contemporary European guidelines. A total of 881 patients was recruited. Median age was 66 years, 37.5% were female; average time from the stroke event to interview was 550 days. At the time of the interview, 17.6% of stroke patients smoked cigarettes, 35.5% had a body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2), 62.4% showed elevated blood pressure and 75.7% exhibited elevated LDL cholesterol levels. Antiplatelet drugs or oral anticoagulants were used by 87.2%, antihypertensive medication by 84.4% and statins by 56.8% of stroke patients. Among patients using antihypertensive drugs and lipid-lowering medication at the time of the interview, 34.3% and 34.4%, respectively, achieved target blood pressure and total cholesterol values according to current European guidelines. The EUROASPIRE III stroke-specific module shows that secondary prevention and risk factor control in patients after ischaemic stroke need to be improved in four European centres at the time of the study since about half of patients are not achieving risk factor targets defined in European guidelines. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  11. Determinants of Treatment Abandonment in Childhood Cancer: Results from a Global Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Friedrich

    Full Text Available Understanding and addressing treatment abandonment (TxA is crucial for bridging the pediatric cancer survival gap between high-income (HIC and low-and middle-income countries (LMC. In childhood cancer, TxA is defined as failure to start or complete curative cancer therapy and known to be a complex phenomenon. With rising interest on causes and consequences of TxA in LMC, this study aimed to establish the lay-of-the-land regarding determinants of TxA globally, perform and promote comparative research, and raise awareness on this subject.Physicians (medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation therapists, nurses, social workers, and psychologists involved in care of children with cancer were approached through an online survey February-May 2012. Queries addressed social, economic, and treatment-related determinants of TxA. Free-text comments were collected. Descriptive and qualitative analyses were performed. Appraisal of overall frequency, burden, and predictors of TxA has been reported separately.581 responses from 101 countries were obtained (contact rate = 26%, cooperation rate = 70%. Most respondents were physicians (86%, practicing pediatric hematology/oncology (86% for >10 years (54%. Providers from LMC considered social/economic factors (families' low socioeconomic status, low education, and long travel time, as most influential in increasing risk of TxA. Treatment-related considerations such as preference for complementary and alternative medicine and concerns about treatment adverse effects and toxicity, were perceived to play an important role in both LMC and HIC. Perceived prognosis seemed to mediate the role of other determinants such as diagnosis and treatment phase on TxA risk. For example, high-risk of TxA was most frequently reported when prognosis clearly worsened (i.e. lack of response to therapy, relapse, or conversely when the patient appeared improved (i.e. induction completed, mass removed, as well as before aggressive

  12. Teaching global public health in the undergraduate liberal arts: a survey of 50 colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David R; Ainsworth, Robert M; Partap, Uttara

    2012-07-01

    Undergraduate public health and global health studies are usually found at universities with graduate programs in the disciplines. Following the experience of teaching a short course in global health within the liberal arts, we reviewed global and public health offerings at 50 liberal arts colleges for the 2009-2010 academic year. Forty-two percent had a track, concentration, or program, and 30% had global or public health student organizations. All colleges listed at least one course in the fields, with the highest number in the social sciences. However, many colleges had not coordinated them into a theme. Values of a liberal arts education are found in the study of global and public health: social responsibility, critical thinking, ethical reasoning, and knowledge of the wider world. We propose identifying these programs within the undergraduate liberal arts as global public health. Capturing interest in global public health will enhance the curriculum and student experience.In this day and age, when the world is so fluid with regard to news and information, the knowledge that unnecessary deaths are occurring and that health care lags so far behind in some regions cannot be ignored. From the standpoint of basic human rights, suffering and inequity cannot be tolerated. Williams College student during a global health short course.

  13. Surveying the Need for Technology Management for Global Health Training Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Usha R.; Troyer, Lisa; Brands, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    Technology licensing office managers often need to evaluate profitability and commercial potential in their decision making. However, increased consideration of important global public health goals requires forging new collaborative relationships, incorporating creative licensing practices and embracing global public good within the academic and…

  14. A pilot study using global positioning systems (GPS) devices and surveys to ascertain older adults' travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Irene H; Leung, Cindy W; Lan, Mars; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Kayekjian, Karen C; Duru, O Kenrik

    2015-04-01

    Some studies indicate that older adults lead active lives and travel to many destinations including those not in their immediate residential neighborhoods. We used global positioning system (GPS) devices to track the travel patterns of 40 older adults (mean age: 69) in San Francisco and Los Angeles. Study participants wore the GPS devices for 7 days in fall 2010 and winter 2011. We collected survey responses concurrently about travel patterns. GPS data showed a mean of four trips/day, and a mean trip distance of 7.6 km. Survey data indicated that older adults commonly made trips for four activities (e.g., volunteering, work, visiting friends) at least once each week. Older adults regularly travel outside their residential neighborhoods. GPS can document the mode of travel, the path of travel, and the destinations. Surveys can document the purpose of the travel and the impressions or experiences in the specific locations. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA....... It thus explores the systems of reason that educational comparative practices carry through time; focusing on the way configurations are reproduced and transformed, forming the pre-school child as a central curricular variable....

  16. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey -- the OTAP2009 study. III. Vitamin intake of the Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugasi, Andrea; Bakacs, Márta; Zentai, Andrea; Kovács, Viktória Anna; Martos, Eva

    2012-07-15

    For the healthy status the adequate intake of vitamins is essential. The Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - joining to the European Health Interview Survey - studied the dietary habits of the Hungarian population. This work presents the vitamins intake. The intake of all water soluble vitamins, vitamin E and D were significantly higher in men than in women. Favourable phenomena were the increased β-carotene and vitamin C intakes in men and women compared to the earlier data. Intakes of vitamin C, B1-, B2-, B6- and B12, and niacin meet the recommendations. Crucially low intakes of vitamin D and folate were calculated in both genders, particularly in the elders, mainly in case of vitamin D. Imperfect intakes of panthotenic acid and biotin were also observed. For maintaining the adequate vitamin supply and for prevention of vitamin deficiency, diversified nutrition, information of the population on the basic principles of healthy nutrition and availability of healthy food are essential.

  17. The H alpha Galaxy Survey. III. Constraints on supernova progenitors from spatial correlations with H alpha emission

    OpenAIRE

    James, P. A.; Anderson, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: We attempt to constrain progenitors of the different types of supernovae from their spatial distributions relative to star formation regions in their host galaxies, as traced by H alpha + NII line emission. Methods: We analyse 63 supernovae which have occurred within galaxies from our H alpha survey of the local Universe. Three statistical tests are used, based on pixel statistics, H alpha radial growth curves, and total galaxy emission-line fluxes. Results: Many more type II supernovae...

  18. THE TENTH DATA RELEASE OF THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY: FIRST SPECTROSCOPIC DATA FROM THE SDSS-III APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY GALACTIC EVOLUTION EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Christopher P.; Anderton, Timothy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Alexandroff, Rachael [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Anders, Friedrich [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Anderson, Scott F.; Bhardwaj, Vaishali [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Andrews, Brett H. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Aubourg, Éric; Bautista, Julian E. [APC, University of Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris (France); Bailey, Stephen; Beutler, Florian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bastien, Fabienne A.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bird, Jonathan C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Beifiori, Alessandra [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bender, Chad F. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Blake, Cullen H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 219 S. 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); and others

    2014-04-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has been in operation since 2000 April. This paper presents the Tenth Public Data Release (DR10) from its current incarnation, SDSS-III. This data release includes the first spectroscopic data from the Apache Point Observatory Galaxy Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), along with spectroscopic data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) taken through 2012 July. The APOGEE instrument is a near-infrared R ∼ 22,500 300 fiber spectrograph covering 1.514-1.696 μm. The APOGEE survey is studying the chemical abundances and radial velocities of roughly 100,000 red giant star candidates in the bulge, bar, disk, and halo of the Milky Way. DR10 includes 178,397 spectra of 57,454 stars, each typically observed three or more times, from APOGEE. Derived quantities from these spectra (radial velocities, effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities) are also included. DR10 also roughly doubles the number of BOSS spectra over those included in the Ninth Data Release. DR10 includes a total of 1,507,954 BOSS spectra comprising 927,844 galaxy spectra, 182,009 quasar spectra, and 159,327 stellar spectra selected over 6373.2 deg{sup 2}.

  19. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: constraining modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Eva-Maria; Percival, Will; Linder, Eric; Alam, Shadab; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Beutler, Florian; Brinkmann, Jon

    2018-04-01

    We use baryon acoustic oscillation and redshift space distortion from the completed Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, corresponding to Data Release 12 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, combined sample analysis in combination with cosmic microwave background, supernova, and redshift space distortion measurements from additional spectroscopic surveys to test deviations from general relativity. We present constraints on several phenomenological models of modified gravity: First, we parametrize the growth of structure using the growth index γ, finding γ = 0.566 ± 0.058 (68 per cent C.L.). Secondly, we modify the relation of the two Newtonian potentials by introducing two additional parameters, GM and GL. In this approach, GM refers to modifications of the growth of structure whereas GL to modification of the lensing potential. We consider a power law to model the redshift dependence of GM and GL as well as binning in redshift space, introducing four additional degrees of freedom, GM(z 0.5), GL(z 0.5). At 68 per cent C.L., we measure GM = 0.980 ± 0.096 and GL = 1.082 ± 0.060 for a linear model, GM = 1.01 ± 0.36 and GL = 1.31 ± 0.19 for a cubic model as well as GM(z 0.5) = 0.986 ± 0.022, GL(z 0.5) = 1.037 ± 0.029. Thirdly, we investigate general scalar tensor theories of gravity, finding the model to be mostly unconstrained by current data. Assuming a one-parameter f(R) model, we can constrain B0 models we considered, we find good agreement with general relativity.

  20. Disclosure of funding sources and conflicts of interest in phase III surgical trials: survey of ten general surgery journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridoux, Valérie; Moutel, Grégoire; Schwarz, Lilian; Michot, Francis; Herve, Christian; Tuech, Jean-Jacques

    2014-10-01

    Discussions regarding disclosure of funding sources and conflicts of interest (COI) in published peer-reviewed journal articles are becoming increasingly more common and intense. The aim of the present study was to examine whether randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in leading surgery journals report funding sources and COI. All articles reporting randomized controlled phase III trials published January 2005 through December 2010 were chosen for review from ten international journals. We evaluated the number of disclosed funding sources and COI, and the factors associated with such disclosures. From a review of 657 RCT from the ten journals, we discovered that presence or absence of a funding source and COI was disclosed by 47 % (309) and 25.1 % (165), respectively. Most articles in "International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)-affiliated journals" did not disclose COI. Disclosure of funding was associated with a journal impact factor >3 (51.7 vs 41.6 %; p journal being ICMJE-affiliated (49.3 vs 40 %; p journal not being affiliated with ICMJE (36.9 vs 21.3 %; p < 0.001). Of the published studies we investigated, over half did not disclose funding sources (i.e., whether or not there was a funding source), and almost three quarters did not disclose whether COI existed. Our findings suggest the need to adopt best current practices regarding disclosure of competing interests to fulfill responsibilities to readers and, ultimately, to patients.

  1. OER use in the Global South: A baseline survey of higher education instructors

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira Neto, José Dutra; Pete, Judith; Daryono; Cartmill, Tess

    2017-01-01

    The research presented here provides baseline data regarding the use of Open Educational Resources (OER) by higher education instructors in the Global South (South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and South and Southeast Asia). It does so while attending to how such activity (or inactivity) is differentiated across continental regions and associated countries. The chapter addresses two questions: what proportion of instructors in the Global South have used OER, and which variables may account for...

  2. Searches for new Milky Way satellites from the first two years of data of the Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam survey: Discovery of Cetus III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Daisuke; Chiba, Masashi; Okamoto, Sakurako; Komiyama, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tanaka, Mikito; Ishigaki, Miho N.; Hayashi, Kohei; Arimoto, Nobuo; Garmilla, José A.; Lupton, Robert H.; Strauss, Michael A.; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    We present the results from a search for new Milky Way (MW) satellites from the first two years of data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) ˜300 deg2 and report the discovery of a highly compelling ultra-faint dwarf galaxy candidate in Cetus. This is the second ultra-faint dwarf we have discovered after Virgo I reported in our previous paper. This satellite, Cetus III, has been identified as a statistically significant (10.7 σ) spatial overdensity of star-like objects, which are selected from a relevant isochrone filter designed for a metal-poor and old stellar population. This stellar system is located at a heliocentric distance of 251^{+24}_{-11}kpc with a most likely absolute magnitude of MV = -2.4 ± 0.6 mag estimated from a Monte Carlo analysis. Cetus III is extended with a half-light radius of r_h = 90^{+42}_{-17}pc, suggesting that this is a faint dwarf satellite in the MW located beyond the detection limit of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Further spectroscopic studies are needed to assess the nature of this stellar system. We also revisit and update the parameters for Virgo I, finding M_V = -0.33^{+0.75}_{-0.87}mag and r_h = 47^{+19}_{-13}pc. Using simulations of Λ-dominated cold dark matter models, we predict that we should find one or two new MW satellites from ˜300 deg2 HSC-SSP data, in rough agreement with the discovery rate so far. The further survey and completion of HSC-SSP over ˜1400 deg2 will provide robust insights into the missing satellites problem.

  3. The OmegaWhite survey for short-period variable stars - III: follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, S. A.; Woudt, P. A.; Groot, P. J.; Ramsay, G.; Toma, R.; Motsoaledi, M.; Crause, L. A.; Gilbank, D. G.; O'Donoghue, D.; Potter, S. B.; Sickafoose, A. A.; van Gend, C.; Worters, H. L.

    2017-02-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations of short-period variables discovered in the OmegaWhite survey, a wide-field high-cadence g-band synoptic survey targeting the Galactic Plane. We have used fast photometry on the SAAO 1.0- and 1.9-m telescopes to obtain light curves of 27 variables, and use these results to validate the period and amplitude estimates from the OmegaWhite processing pipeline. Furthermore, 57 sources (44 unique, 13 with new light curves) were selected for spectroscopic follow-up using either the SAAO 1.9-m telescope or the Southern African Large Telescope. We find that many of these variables have spectra which are consistent with being δ Scuti-type pulsating stars. At higher amplitudes, we detect four possible pulsating white dwarf/subdwarf sources and an eclipsing cataclysmic variable. Due to their rarity, these targets are ideal candidates for detailed follow-up studies. From spectroscopy, we confirm the symbiotic binary star nature of two variables identified as such in the SIMBAD database. We also report what could possibly be the first detection of the `Bump Cepheid' phenomena in a δ Scuti star, with OW J175848.21-271653.7 showing a pronounced 22 per cent amplitude dip lasting 3 min during each pulsational cycle peak. However, the precise nature of this target is still uncertain as it exhibits the spectral features of a B-type star.

  4. Association between asthma and physical activity in Korean adolescents: the 3rd Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; So, Wi-Young; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2012-12-01

    Asthma is the leading chronic illness among children and adolescents in several nations. This study investigated the association between asthma and physical activity (PA). The findings in this study are based on the data obtained from the 2007 3rd Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (KYRBWS-III), a cross-sectional survey of health-risk behaviours among a representative sample of Korean middle- and high-school students aged 13-18 years. This survey is conducted annually by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The 72 943 study subjects were selected using the complex sampling design of the survey. The association between asthma and PA was assessed by conducting multiple logistic regression analyses of the data by using the statistical software SPSS 17.0 Complex Sample. Compared with the adolescents without current asthma, significantly fewer adolescents with current asthma had a sedentary time of 3 h or less per day (odds ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.97). Sedentary time was defined as time spent watching television, surfing the Internet, or playing computer games and excluded the time spent doing homework or study during leisure time. The analysis was adjusted for age, gender, family affluence level (FAL), obesity, allergic rhinitis, atopy and smoking. With regard to participation in adequate vigorous or moderate PA, strengthening exercise or physical education class, no significant differences were found between the adolescent students with current asthma and those without current asthma. In addition, it was found that all PA had no significant differences in their effects on asthma severity (medication, inability to work and absence from school). Our results show that the amount of sedentary time influenced asthma prevalence; however, PA did not influence asthma prevalence in Korean adolescents.

  5. Why do the biotechnology and the climate change debates hardly mix? Evidence from a global stakeholder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerni, Philipp

    2013-05-25

    Despite its potential to address climate change problems, the role of biotechnology is hardly ever touched upon in the global sustainability debate. We wanted to know why. For that purpose, we conducted a global online stakeholder survey on biotechnology and climate change. The relevant stakeholders and their representatives were selected by means of key informants that were familiar with either of the two debates. A self-assessment showed that a majority of respondents felt more familiar with the climate change than the biotechnology debate. Even though the survey results reveal that most respondents consider the potential of modern biotechnology to address climate change to be substantial, the policy network analysis revealed that one stakeholder who is not just considered to be relevant in both debates but also crucial in the formation of global public opinion, strongly rejects the view that biotechnology is a climate-friendly and therefore clean technology. This influential opposition seems to ensure that the biotechnology and the climate change debates do not mix. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Salience and Impact of Health Warning Label on Cigarette Packs in Vietnam: Findings From the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc Bich, Nguyen; Thu Ngan, Tran; Bao Giang, Kim; Thi Hai, Phan; Thi Thu Huyen, Doan; Ngoc Khue, Luong; Tuan Lam, Nguyen; Van Minh, Hoang; Thi Quynh Nga, Pham; The Quan, Nguyen; Loan, Vu Hoang

    2018-04-13

    Viet Nam is among the countries having highest rate of male smokers in the world. The country has joined the Global Tobacco Surveillance System since 2010. Under this system, two rounds of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) were conducted in 2010 and 2015. Those two surveys provide excellent comparable data on tobacco usage and its related aspects in Vietnam. This study using the data from GATS 2015 to examine the salience and impact of cigarette pack health warnings on quitting intention in Vietnam. The Vietnam GATS 2015 was a nationally representative survey in which 9,513 households were selected using two-stage random systematic sampling method. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the strongest predictor for quit intention because of health warnings was "ever made a quit attempt in the past 12 months" followed by "believes that tobacco smoking causes serious illness". Compared to GATS 2010, GATS 2015 observed the increase in salience of cigarette health warnings. However, the current pictorial health warnings are losing their impact on motivating intention to quit. The results highlight that it is time to start the rotation cycle to refresh the current health warning set. Actions to select a new and more impressive set of pictorial health warnings should be developed as soon as possible.

  7. THE SWIFT X-RAY TELESCOPE CLUSTER SURVEY. III. CLUSTER CATALOG FROM 2005-2012 ARCHIVAL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Teng; Wang, Jun-Xian; Tozzi, Paolo; Tundo, Elena; Moretti, Alberto; Rosati, Piero; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Campana, Sergio; Giavalisco, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    We present the Swift X-ray Cluster Survey (SWXCS) catalog obtained using archival data from the X-ray telescope (XRT) on board the Swift satellite acquired from 2005 February to 2012 November, extending the first release of the SWXCS. The catalog provides positions, soft fluxes, and, when possible, optical counterparts for a flux-limited sample of X-ray group and cluster candidates. We consider the fields with Galactic latitude |b| > 20° to avoid high H I column densities. We discard all of the observations targeted at groups or clusters of galaxies, as well as particular extragalactic fields not suitable to search for faint extended sources. We finally select ∼3000 useful fields covering a total solid angle of ∼400 deg 2 . We identify extended source candidates in the soft-band (0.5-2 keV) images of these fields using the software EXSdetect, which is specifically calibrated for the XRT data. Extensive simulations are used to evaluate contamination and completeness as a function of the source signal, allowing us to minimize the number of spurious detections and to robustly assess the selection function. Our catalog includes 263 candidate galaxy clusters and groups down to a flux limit of 7 × 10 –15 erg cm –2 s –1 in the soft band, and the logN-logS is in very good agreement with previous deep X-ray surveys. The final list of sources is cross-correlated with published optical, X-ray, and Sunyaev-Zeldovich catalogs of clusters. We find that 137 sources have been previously identified as clusters in the literature in independent surveys, while 126 are new detections. Currently, we have collected redshift information for 158 sources (60% of the entire sample). Once the optical follow-up and the X-ray spectral analysis of the sources are complete, the SWXCS will provide a large and well-defined catalog of groups and clusters of galaxies to perform statistical studies of cluster properties and tests of cosmological models

  8. The Swift X-Ray Telescope Cluster Survey. III. Cluster Catalog from 2005-2012 Archival Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Teng; Tozzi, Paolo; Tundo, Elena; Moretti, Alberto; Rosati, Piero; Wang, Jun-Xian; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Campana, Sergio; Giavalisco, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    We present the Swift X-ray Cluster Survey (SWXCS) catalog obtained using archival data from the X-ray telescope (XRT) on board the Swift satellite acquired from 2005 February to 2012 November, extending the first release of the SWXCS. The catalog provides positions, soft fluxes, and, when possible, optical counterparts for a flux-limited sample of X-ray group and cluster candidates. We consider the fields with Galactic latitude |b| > 20° to avoid high H I column densities. We discard all of the observations targeted at groups or clusters of galaxies, as well as particular extragalactic fields not suitable to search for faint extended sources. We finally select ~3000 useful fields covering a total solid angle of ~400 deg2. We identify extended source candidates in the soft-band (0.5-2 keV) images of these fields using the software EXSdetect, which is specifically calibrated for the XRT data. Extensive simulations are used to evaluate contamination and completeness as a function of the source signal, allowing us to minimize the number of spurious detections and to robustly assess the selection function. Our catalog includes 263 candidate galaxy clusters and groups down to a flux limit of 7 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 in the soft band, and the logN-logS is in very good agreement with previous deep X-ray surveys. The final list of sources is cross-correlated with published optical, X-ray, and Sunyaev-Zeldovich catalogs of clusters. We find that 137 sources have been previously identified as clusters in the literature in independent surveys, while 126 are new detections. Currently, we have collected redshift information for 158 sources (60% of the entire sample). Once the optical follow-up and the X-ray spectral analysis of the sources are complete, the SWXCS will provide a large and well-defined catalog of groups and clusters of galaxies to perform statistical studies of cluster properties and tests of cosmological models.

  9. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume III. Estuaries and coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupka, R.C.; Sharma, R.K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 32 power plants, located on estuaries and coastal waters has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  10. Histoplasmosis and Paracoccidioidomycosis in northwestern Argentina III. Epidemiological survey in Vipos, La Toma, and Choromoro - Trancas, Tucuman, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaid, Aida van Gelderen de; Duran, Estela; Kestelman, Isabel Borges de

    1999-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to obtain epidemiological data on the extent and distribution of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum and Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis diseases in the Vipos, La Toma and Choromoro areas. Skin test surveys with histoplasmin and paracoccidioidin were carried out in the permanent human population of those localities. Mycological sputum studies and serological tests were performed to skin test reactors to determine if there were signs or symptoms of active mycotic disease. La Toma and Choromoro are highly prevalent areas of histoplasmosis ( > 30% the histoplasmin positive individuals) whereas Vipos can be relatively considered a highly prevalent area (between 20-30% the histoplasmin reactors) according to the normally accepted range used to define an endemic disease [2]. Early Histoplasma capsulatum infection ( < 10 years old) is reported for Vipos and Choromoro. La Toma has the highest rate of previous exposure to P. brasiliensis detected in the studied area (10.2%). Vipos residents are not infected with P. brasiliensis

  11. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume III. Estuaries and coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupka, Richard C.; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 32 power plants, located on estuaries and coastal waters has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  12. Dimensionality of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder and its association with suicide attempts: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiung M; Yoon, Young-Hee; Harford, Thomas C; Grant, Bridget F

    2017-06-01

    Emerging confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) studies suggest that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is best characterized by seven factors, including re-experiencing, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, and anxious and dysphoric arousal. The seven factors, however, have been found to be highly correlated, suggesting that one general factor may exist to explain the overall correlations among symptoms. Using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, a large, national survey of 36,309 U.S. adults ages 18 and older, this study proposed and tested an exploratory bifactor hybrid model for DSM-5 PTSD symptoms. The model posited one general and seven specific latent factors, whose associations with suicide attempts and mediating psychiatric disorders were used to validate the PTSD dimensionality. The exploratory bifactor hybrid model fitted the data extremely well, outperforming the 7-factor CFA hybrid model and other competing CFA models. The general factor was found to be the single dominant latent trait that explained most of the common variance (~76%) and showed significant, positive associations with suicide attempts and mediating psychiatric disorders, offering support to the concurrent validity of the PTSD construct. The identification of the primary latent trait of PTSD confirms PTSD as an independent psychiatric disorder and helps define PTSD severity in clinical practice and for etiologic research. The accurate specification of PTSD factor structure has implications for treatment efforts and the prevention of suicidal behaviors.

  13. K1-95-HW, cruise report 1995: preliminary results. Phase III: sediment chemistry and biological sampling survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresan, M.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Barber, J.H.; Wong, F.L.

    1995-01-01

    Mamala Bay, off the south shore of the island of Oahu, has been used as a repository of dredged material primarily from Pearl and Honolulu Harbors for over a century. The U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are conducting an integrated study on the distribution and character of dredged materials as well as the effects of dredged material on the marine environment. A three phase study is providing information to evaluate the effects on seafloor substrate and the benthic fauna. The studies include geophysical profiling and imaging, bottom photography, sampling, chemical and physical analyses of sediment, and evaluations of the benthic population, population density, and adverse impacts to the benthic fauna. Phase 1, conducted in 1993, inventoried the seafloor via remote sensing. Sidescan sonar and subbottom profilers characterized the seafloor in and around the disposal sites, and the resulting products reveal the character and extent of the dredged material. These data were used to plan Phase 2 in 1994, a sampling program that employed subbottom profilers, video and still photography, and seafloor sampling to ground truth the sonar mosaic and identify the seafloor substrates responsible for the various acoustic signatures on the sonar images and subbottom profiles. Box coring provided the samples necessary to distinguish dredged material from native sediment, and for the chemical analyses used to determine contaminant concentrations. Phase 3 studies conducted in June of 1995 consisted of box core sampling for chemical and biological analyses. Specific studies include: infaunal taxonomy and population density, bioassay/bioaccumulation, sediment chemistry, and post-disposal resuspension and transport. The 1995 survey, conducted June 14 through 17, resulted in the collection of 39 box cores from 20 different stations. Multiple box cores were composited at 7 different locations occupied in 1994, to provide

  14. Serum Phosphorus and Mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III): Effect Modification by Fasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R.; Grams, Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum phosphorus levels have been associated with mortality in some but not all studies. Since dietary intake prior to measurement can affect serum phosphorus levels, we hypothesized that the association between serum phosphorus and mortality is strongest in those who have fasted for longer duration. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants Nationally representative sample of 12,984 participants aged 20 years or older in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Factors Serum phosphorus, fasting duration (dichotomized as ≥12 or phosphorus measured in a central laboratory and fasting duration recorded as amount of time since food or drink other than water was consumed. Results Individuals fasting ≥12 hours had lower serum phosphorus levels than those fasting phosphorus was associated with increased mortality in participants fasting ≥12 hours (adjusted HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.38–2.20; reference, lowest quartile) but not in participants fasting phosphorus levels were associated with increased mortality. Risk prognostication based on serum phosphorus may be improved using fasting levels. PMID:24935232

  15. Serum phosphorus and mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III): effect modification by fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R; Grams, Morgan E

    2014-10-01

    Serum phosphorus levels have been associated with mortality in some but not all studies. Because dietary intake prior to measurement can affect serum phosphorus levels, we hypothesized that the association between serum phosphorus level and mortality is strongest in those who have fasted longer. Prospective cohort study. Nationally representative sample of 12,984 participants 20 years or older in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Serum phosphorus level, fasting duration (dichotomized as ≥ 12 or fasting duration recorded as time since food or drink other than water was consumed. Individuals fasting 12 or more hours had lower serum phosphorus levels than those fasting less than 12 hours (3.34 vs 3.55 mg/dL; P fasting 12 or more hours (adjusted HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.38-2.20; reference, lowest quartile) but not in participants fasting less than 12 hours (adjusted HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.89-1.32; P for interaction = 0.002). Relationships were consistent using 8 hours as the fasting cutoff point or cardiovascular mortality as the outcome. Observational study, lack of fibroblast growth factor 23 or intact parathyroid hormone measurements. Fasting but not nonfasting serum phosphorus levels were associated with increased mortality. Risk prognostication based on serum phosphorus may be improved using fasting levels. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Surveying Geology Concepts in Education Standards for a Rapidly Changing Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffey, Sarah K.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Schleigh, Sharon P.; Slater, Timothy F.; Heyer, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Internationally much attention is being paid to which of a seemingly endless list of scientific concepts should be taught to schoolchildren to enable them to best participate in the global economy of the 21st Century. In regards to science education, the concepts framing the subject of geology holds exalted status as core scientific principles in…

  17. Global survey of anthropogenic neighborhood threats to conservation of grass-shrub and forest vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Timothy G. Wade; Peter Vogt

    2012-01-01

    The conservation value of natural vegetation is degraded by proximity to anthropogenic land uses. Previous global assessments focused primarily on the amount of land protected or converted to anthropogenic uses, and on forest vegetation. Comparative assessments of extant vegetation in terms of proximity to anthropogenic land uses are needed to better inform...

  18. The G8 global partnership - a survey of the German activities and their legal framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillbrandt, M.

    2006-01-01

    At the G8 summit in Kananaskis, Canada, in 2002, the G8 partners established the 'Global Partnership against the Proliferation of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction'. The Federal Republic of Germany and the Russian Federation at present cooperate in three areas within the framework of the G8 Global Partnership: (1) Destruction of chemical weapons. (2) Construction of a long-term interim store for the safe storage of irradiated reactor segments of decommissioned nuclear submarines. (3) Modernization of the physical protection of Russian nuclear material. The article mainly covers the 'Modernization of the Physical Protection of Russian Nuclear Material' project. The key part contains an explanation of the legal basis of the project. The main contents and functions of applicable bilateral and multilateral agreements are explained on the basis of the principles and guidelines adopted in connection with the declaration of the G8 Heads of State and Government about global partnership. It is shown that a complex set of rules and contracts are necessary to meet the requirements posed by projects of G8 Global Partnership. (orig.)

  19. Survey on the Impact of the Global Economic Crisis on Education Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forum on Education Abroad, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Forum on Education Abroad is a global membership association of nearly 400 institutions and organizations that together represent approximately 90% of the U.S. students that study abroad. The Forum is the only organization devoted exclusively to representing the field of education abroad and is designated the Standards Development Organization…

  20. U.S. Geological Survey assessment of global potash production and resources—A significant advancement for global development and a sustainable future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, Mark D.; Orris, Greta J.; Wynn, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    During the past 15 yr, the global requirement for fertilizers has grown considerably, mainly due to demand by a larger and wealthier world population for more and higher-quality food. The demand and price for potash as a primary fertilizer ingredient have increased in tandem, because of the necessity to increase the quantity and quality of food production on the decreasing amount of available arable land. The primary sources of potash are evaporates, which occur mainly in marine salt basins and a few brine-bearing continental basins. World potash resources are large, but distribution is inequitable and not presently developed in countries where population and food requirements are large and increasing. There is no known substitute for potash in fertilizer, so knowledge of the world’s potash resources is critical for a sustainable future. The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a global assessment of evaporite-hosted potash resources, which included a geographic information system–based inventory of known potash resources. This assessment included permissive areas or tracts for undiscovered resources at a scale of 1:1,000,000. Assessments of undiscovered potash resources were conducted for a number of the world’s evaporite-hosted potash basins. The data collected provide a major advance in our knowledge of global potash resources that did not exist prior to this study. The two databases include: (1) potash deposits and occurrences, and (2) potash tracts (basins that contain these deposits and occurrences and potentially undiscovered potash deposits). Data available include geology, mineralogy, grade, tonnage, depth, thickness, areal extent, and structure, as well as numerous pertinent references.

  1. Nosologic Comparisons of DSM-IV and DSM-5 Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Smith, Sharon M.; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Saha, Tulshi D.; Pickering, Roger P.; June Ruan, W.; Huang, Boji; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine prevalences and concordances between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), and Fifth Edition (DSM-5) substance use disorders (SUDs) in a newly completed U.S. epidemiologic survey. Method: The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III surveyed 36,309 civilian, noninstitutionalized adults. SUDs were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule–5. Concordances between DSM-IV and DSM-5 disorders were assessed using kappa statistics. Results: Prevalences of past-year substance-specific DSM-5 disorders (2+ criteria) were modestly higher than those of DSM-IV dependence and abuse combined for alcohol, sedatives/tranquilizers, opioids, and heroin, but lower for cannabis, cocaine, and stimulants. Lifetime prevalences were lower under DSM-5. Prevalences were similar between moderate to severe (4+ criteria) DSM-5 disorders and dependence, whereas prevalences of DSM-5 disorders at 3+ criteria (DSM-5 [3+]) were higher, particularly for cannabis. Past-year concordances were excellent for DSM-IV dependence and abuse combined versus any DSM-5 and DSM-IV dependence versus DSM-5 moderate to severe disorders; lifetime concordances were fair to excellent. Past-year concordances between DSM-IV and DSM-5 (3+) were generally similar to or modestly higher than those with any DSM-5 disorder; lifetime concordances were mostly lower. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with those informing the development of DSM-5. Future research should examine differences in patterns between past-year and lifetime disorders, particularly for cannabis. Other questions warranting investigation include whether different combinations of the same numbers of criteria carry different clinical or nosologic implications, whether changes innosology yield changes in treatment demand, and whether changes in characteristics of individuals with DSM-5 SUDs

  2. The VLA Nascent Disk And Multiplicity Survey of Perseus Protostars (VANDAM). III. Extended Radio Emission from Protostars in Perseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tychoniec, Łukasz; Tobin, John J.; Karska, Agata; Chandler, Claire; Dunham, Michael M.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Looney, Leslie W.; Segura-Cox, Dominique; Harris, Robert J.; Melis, Carl; Sadavoy, Sarah I.

    2018-01-01

    Centimeter continuum emission from protostars offers insight into the innermost part of the outflows, as shock-ionized gas produces free–free emission. We observed a complete population of Class 0 and I protostars in the Perseus molecular cloud at 4.1 and 6.4 cm with resolution and sensitivity superior to previous surveys. From a total of 71 detections, eight sources exhibit resolved emission at 4.1 cm and/or 6.4 cm. In this paper, we focus on this subsample, analyzing their spectral indices along the jet and their alignment with respect to the large-scale molecular outflow. Spectral indices for fluxes integrated toward the position of the protostar are consistent with free–free thermal emission. The value of the spectral index along a radio jet decreases with distance from the protostar. For six sources, emission is well aligned with the outflow central axis, showing that we observe the ionized base of the jet. This is not the case for two sources, where we note misalignment of the emission with respect to the large-scale outflow. This might indicate that the emission does not originate in the radio jet, but rather in an ionized outflow cavity wall or disk surface. For five of the sources, the spectral indices along the jet decrease well below the thermal free–free limit of ‑0.1 with > 2σ significance. This is indicative of synchrotron emission, meaning that high-energy electrons are being produced in the outflows close to the disk. This result can have far-reaching implications for the chemical composition of the embedded disks.

  3. Associations of metabolic syndrome with inflammation in CKD: results From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Kimmel, Paul L; Ramkumar, Nirupama; Cheung, Alfred K

    2005-10-01

    Although metabolic syndrome is associated with inflammation in the general population, it is unknown whether similar associations exist in patients with chronic kidney disease. +7 cross-sectional associations of metabolic syndrome and its component conditions (diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, abdominal obesity, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level) with inflammation (C-reactive protein level > 3 mg/L) were examined by using logistic regression models in groups with high (>90 mL/min/1.73 m2 [>1.50 mL/s]), moderate (45 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m2 [0.75 to 1.49 mL/s]), and low (creatinine clearances in 15,314 subjects participating in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Adjusted for demographics, smoking, history of myocardial infarction or stroke, exercise level, and use of cholesterol medications, the presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with greater odds for inflammation in the groups with high (odds ratio, 2.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99 to 3.27), moderate (odds ratio, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.81 to 2.60), and low (odds ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.56) creatinine clearances. When all 5 components of metabolic syndrome were included in the same model, only hypertension, abdominal obesity, and low high-density lipoprotein level were associated significantly with inflammation in all 3 groups. There also was a graded association between number of component conditions of metabolic syndrome and inflammation within each creatinine-clearance group. Metabolic syndrome is associated with inflammation in patients with varying levels of kidney function. Future studies are warranted to determine in patients with chronic kidney disease whether there is a synergistic effect of metabolic syndrome and inflammation on the incidence of atherosclerotic events and whether interventions targeted toward metabolic syndrome might modulate inflammation.

  4. On the interpretation of World Values Survey trust question - global expectations vs. local beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik

    How should we interpret the World Values Survey (WVS) trust question? We conduct an experiment in India - a low trust country, to correlate the WVS trust question with trust decisions in an incentivized Trust Game. Evidence supports findings from one strand of the fractured literature - the WVS t...

  5. A survey of snail farms in Cross River State, Nigeria | Ogogo | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence of snail in the wild has become threatened, and information on the efficiency and effectiveness of ex - situ management of snails in many areas is urgently needed for consistent supply of snails. This work, therefore surveyed the practice and adoption of snail farming technology in Cross River State, Nigeria.

  6. Determinants of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in Nepal and Sri Lanka: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, M. A.; Goh, Kim-Leng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate tobacco use behaviours and their correlates among secondary school students in Nepal and Sri Lanka together with cross-country comparisons. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods and Settings: The data were obtained from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), 2007. Current tobacco use was considered as…

  7. WHO/UNEP global surveys of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs in human milk and benefit-risk evaluation of breastfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08660466X; Kypke, Karin; Kotz, Alexander; Tritscher, Angelika; Lee, Seoung Yong; Magulova, Katarina; Fiedler, Heidelore; Malisch, Rainer

    Since 1987, the World Health Organization (WHO) carried out global surveys on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk. This study presents a review of the three most recent surveys from 2000 to 2010,

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of DSM-5 Cannabis Use Disorder, 2012–2013: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions – III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah S.; Kerridge, Bradley T.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Huang, Boji; Pickering, Roger; Smith, Sharon M.; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Grant, Bridget F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Attitudes towards marijuana are changing, the prevalence of DSM-IV cannabis use disorder has increased, and DSM-5 modified the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorders. Therefore, updated information is needed on the prevalence, demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, disability and treatment for DSM-5 cannabis use disorders in the US adult population. Method In 2012–2013, a nationally representative sample of 36,309 participants ≥18 years were interviewed in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III). Psychiatric and substance use disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5. Results Prevalence of 12-month and lifetime marijuana use disorder was 2.5% and 6.3%. Among those with 12-month and lifetime marijuana use disorder, marijuana use was frequent; mean days used per year was 225.3 (SE=5.69) and 274.2 (SE=3.76). Odds of 12-month and lifetime marijuana use disorder were higher for men, Native Americans, those unmarried, with low incomes, and young adults, (e.g., OR=7.2, 95% CI 5.5–9.5 for 12-month disorder among those 18–24 years compared to those ≥45 years). Marijuana use disorder was associated with other substance disorders, affective, anxiety and personality disorders. Twelve-month marijuana use disorder was associated with disability. As disorder severity increased, virtually all associations became stronger. Only 24.3% with lifetime marijuana use disorder participated in 12-step programs or professional treatment. Conclusions DSM-5 marijuana use disorder is prevalent, associated with comorbidity and disability, and often untreated. Findings suggest the need to improve prevention methods, and educate the public, professionals and policy makers about the harms associated with marijuana use disorders and available interventions. PMID:26940807

  9. The Impact of Entrepreneur-CEOs in Microfinance Institutions: A Global Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Randøy, Trond; Strøm, R. Øystein; Mersland, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Microfinance is a global high-growth industry, in which entrepreneurship is prevalent and substantial. Based on the theoretical argument that microfinance entrepreneur-CEOs are “motivated agents” with a unique ability to hire and socialize mission-oriented staff, we hypothesize that these CEOs produce more sustainable microfinance institutions with better social performance and lower costs. This study utilizes data from 295 microfinance institutions in 73 developing countries, assessed betwee...

  10. Twenty years of global groundwater research: A Science Citation Index Expanded-based bibliometric survey (1993-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Beibei; Loáiciga, Hugo A.; Wang, Zhen; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Hong, Song

    2014-11-01

    A bibliometric analysis was conducted to evaluate groundwater research from different perspectives in the period 1993-2012 based on the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) database. The bibliometric analysis summarizes output, categorical, geographical, and institutional patterns, as well as research hotspots in global groundwater studies. Groundwater research experienced notable growth in the past two decades. ;Environmental sciences;, ;water resources; and ;multidisciplinary geosciences; were the three major subject categories. The Journal of Hydrology published the largest number of groundwater-related publications in the surveyed period. Major author clusters and research regions are located in the United States, Western Europe, Eastern and Southern Asia, and Eastern Australia. The United States was a leading contributor to global groundwater research with the largest number of independent and collaborative papers, its dominance affirmed by housing 12 of the top 20 most active institutions reporting groundwater-related research. The US Geological Survey, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the USDA Agricultural Research Service were the three institutions with the largest number of groundwater-related publications. A keywords analysis revealed that groundwater quality and contamination, effective research technologies, and treatment technologies for water-quality improvement were the main research areas in the study period. Several keywords such as ;arsenic;, ;climate change;, ;fluoride;, ;groundwater management;, ;hydrogeochemistry;, ;uncertainty;, ;numerical modeling;, ;seawater intrusion;, ;adsorption;, ;remote sensing;, ;land use;, ;USA;(as study site), and ;water supply; received dramatically increased attention during the study period, possibly signaling future research trends.

  11. Large Area Scene Selection Interface (LASSI). Methodology of Selecting Landsat Imagery for the Global Land Survey 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Shannon; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Headley, Rachel M.; Gasch, John; Arvidson, Terry

    2009-01-01

    The Global Land Survey (GLS) 2005 is a cloud-free, orthorectified collection of Landsat imagery acquired during the 2004-2007 epoch intended to support global land-cover and ecological monitoring. Due to the numerous complexities in selecting imagery for the GLS2005, NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sponsored the development of an automated scene selection tool, the Large Area Scene Selection Interface (LASSI), to aid in the selection of imagery for this data set. This innovative approach to scene selection applied a user-defined weighting system to various scene parameters: image cloud cover, image vegetation greenness, choice of sensor, and the ability of the Landsat 7 Scan Line Corrector (SLC)-off pair to completely fill image gaps, among others. The parameters considered in scene selection were weighted according to their relative importance to the data set, along with the algorithm's sensitivity to that weight. This paper describes the methodology and analysis that established the parameter weighting strategy, as well as the post-screening processes used in selecting the optimal data set for GLS2005.

  12. Large area scene selection interface (LASSI): Methodology of selecting landsat imagery for The Global Land Survey 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, S.; Masek, J.G.; Headley, R.M.K.; Gasch, J.; Arvidson, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Global Land Survey (GLS) 2005 is a cloud-free, orthorec-tified collection of Landsat imagery acquired during the 2004 to 2007 epoch intended to support global land-cover and ecological monitoring. Due to the numerous complexities in selecting imagery for the GLS2005, NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sponsored the development of an automated scene selection tool, the Large Area Scene Selection Interface (LASSI), to aid in the selection of imagery for this data set. This innovative approach to scene selection applied a user-defined weighting system to various scene parameters: image cloud cover, image vegetation greenness, choice of sensor, and the ability of the Landsat-7 Scan Line Corrector (SLC)-off pair to completely fill image gaps, among others. The parameters considered in scene selection were weighted according to their relative importance to the data set, along with the algorithm’s sensitivity to that weight. This paper describes the methodology and analysis that established the parameter weighting strategy, as well as the post-screening processes used in selecting the optimal data set for GLS2005.

  13. A Global Oral Health Survey of professional opinion using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougall, Alison; Molina, Gustavo F; Eschevins, Caroline; Faulks, Denise

    2015-06-01

    The concept of oral health is frequently reduced to the absence of disease, despite existing conceptual models exploring the wider determinants of oral health and quality of life. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (WHO) is designed to qualify functional, social and environmental aspects of health. This survey aimed to reach a consensual description of adult oral health, derived from the ICF using international professional opinion. The Global Oral Health Survey involved a two-round, online survey concerning factors related to oral health including functioning, participation and social environment. Four hundred eighty-six oral health professionals from 74 countries registered online. Professionals were pooled into 18 groups of six WHO world regions and three professional groups. In a randomised stratification process, eight professionals from each pool (n=144) completed the survey. The first round consisted of eight open-ended questions. Open expression replies were analysed for meaningful concepts and linked using established rules to the ICF. In Round 2, items were rated for their relevance to oral health (88% response rate). Eighty-nine ICF items and 30 other factors were considered relevant by at least 80% of participants. International professionals reached consensus on a holistic description of oral health, which could be qualified and quantified using the ICF. These results represent the first step towards developing an ICF Core Set in Oral Health, which would provide a practical tool for reporting outcome measures in clinical practice, for research and epidemiology, and for the improvement of interdisciplinary communication regarding oral health. Professional consensus reached in this survey is the foundation stone for developing an ICF Core Set in Oral Health, allowing the holistic aspects of oral health to be qualified and quantified. This tool is necessary to widen our approach to clinical decision making

  14. Perspectives on the Market Globalization of Korean Herbal Manufacturers: A Company-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dongsu; Ahn, Miyoung; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kwon, Soohyun; Park, Eun-Ji; Koo, Ki Hoon; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The growth of herbal markets has increased substantially in South Korea, but the worldwide market share remains small despite significant governmental efforts. This study aimed to characterize manufacturing employment and identify employees’ general perceptions of market expansion. A survey study covering 567 companies was conducted using face-to-face interviews in 2012. Data were analyzed using comparisons among three manufacturing groups (i.e., the herbal dietary supplement manufacturing gr...

  15. Tenth Annual UCLA Survey of Business School Computer USage: A Global Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Frand, Jason L.; Britt, Julia A.; Ng, Alvin

    1993-01-01

    Business schools today are allocating a greater and greater portion of their overall budget to support information technology. When UCLA’s Anderson School first began its survey ten years ago, microcomputers were a rare commodity on college campuses. This year, the 180 schools responding reported an average of 239 microcomputers per school. This explosive growth represents a technological evolution of major proportion and creates an opportunity to change the nature of business education. ...

  16. Authors’ perspectives on academic publishing: initial observations from a large-scale global survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil D’Souza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Authors are at the heart of academic publishing, but their voices are underrepresented in discussions about improving the academic publishing system. To understand the viewpoints of authors on various aspects of academic publishing and the challenges they face, we developed a large-scale survey entitled “Author perspectives on the academic publishing process” and made it available in December 2016. The survey has received 8,795 responses; this paper is based on the interim results drawn from 5,293 survey responses, and presents some interesting and thought-provoking trends that were observed in the authors’ responses, such as their interpretation of plagiarism and decisive factors in journal selection, as well as their thoughts on what needs to change in the publishing system for it to be more author-friendly. Some of the most important findings of the survey were: (1 the majority of the authors found manuscript preparation to be the most challenging task in the publication process, (2 the impact factor of a journal was reported to be the most important consideration for journal selection, (3 most authors found journal guidelines to be incomplete, (4 major gaps existed in author-journal communication, and (5 although awareness of ethics was high, awareness of good publication practice standards was low. Moreover, more than half of the participants indicated that among areas for improvement in the publishing system, they would like to see changes in the time it takes to publish a paper, the peer review process, and the fairness and objectivity of the publication process. These findings indicate the necessity of making the journal publication process more author-centered and smoothing the way for authors to get published.

  17. Global Women's Health Education in Canadian Obstetrics and Gynaecology Residency Programs: A Survey of Program Directors and Senior Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Heather C; Randle, Elizabeth A; Scott, Heather M; Shaw, Dorothy; Kent, Nancy; Nakajima, Amy K; Spitzer, Rachel F

    2015-10-01

    To become culturally competent practitioners with the ability to care and advocate for vulnerable populations, residents must be educated in global health priorities. In the field of obstetrics and gynaecology, there is minimal information about global women's health (GWH) education and interest within residency programs. We wished to determine within obstetrics and gynaecology residency programs across Canada: (1) current GWH teaching and support, (2) the importance of GWH to residents and program directors, and (3) the level of interest in a national postgraduate GWH curriculum. We conducted an online survey across Canada of obstetrics and gynaecology residency program directors and senior obstetrics and gynaecology residents. Of 297 residents, 101 (34.0%) responded to the survey and 76 (26%) completed the full survey. Eleven of 16 program directors (68.8%) responded and 10/16 (62.5%) provided complete responses. Four of 11 programs (36.4%) had a GWH curriculum, 2/11 (18.2%) had a GWH budget, and 4/11 (36.4%) had a GWH chairperson. Nine of 10 program directors (90%) and 68/79 residents (86.1%) felt that an understanding of GWH issues is important for all Canadian obstetrics and gynaecology trainees. Only 1/10 program directors (10%) and 11/79 residents (13.9%) felt that their program offered sufficient education in these issues. Of residents in programs with a GWH curriculum, 12/19 (63.2%) felt that residents in their program who did not undertake an international elective would still learn about GWH, versus only 9/50 residents (18.0%) in programs without a curriculum (P education is important for all trainees and is currently insufficient. There is a high level of interest in a national postgraduate GWH educational module.

  18. Antismoking messages and current cigarette smoking status in Somaliland: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muula Adamson S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death globally. There are limited reports on current cigarette smoking prevalence and its associated-antismoking messages among adolescents in conflict zones of the world. We, therefore, conducted secondary analysis of data to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, and to determine associations of antismoking messages with smoking status. Methods We used data from the Somaliland Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS of 2004 to estimate the prevalence of smoking. We also assessed whether being exposed to anti-smoking media, education and having discussed with family members on the harmful effects of smoking were associated with smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess these associations. Current smoking was defined as having reported smoking cigarettes, even a single puff, in the last 30 days preceding the survey (main outcome. Results Altogether 1563 adolescents participated in the survey. However, 1122 had data on the main outcome. Altogether, 15.8% of the respondents reported having smoked cigarettes (10.3% among males, and 11.1% among females. Factors that were associated with reported non-smoking were: discussing harmful effects of smoking cigarettes with their family members (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.52, 0.71; being taught that smoking makes teeth yellow, causes wrinkles and smokers smell badly (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.52, 0.74; being taught that people of the respondent's age do not smoke (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.69, 0.95; and having reported that religious organizations discouraged young people smoking (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.60, 0.82. However, exposure to a lot many antismoking messages at social gatherings was associated with smoking. Exposure to antismoking print media was not associated with smoking status. Conclusion A combination of school and home based antismoking interventions may be effective in controlling adolescent smoking in Somaliland.

  19. The CALYMHA survey: Lyα luminosity function and global escape fraction of Lyα photons at z = 2.23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, David; Matthee, Jorryt; Best, Philip; Stroe, Andra; Röttgering, Huub; Oteo, Iván; Smail, Ian; Morabito, Leah; Paulino-Afonso, Ana

    2017-04-01

    We present the CAlibrating LYMan-α with Hα (CALYMHA) pilot survey and new results on Lyman α (Lyα) selected galaxies at z ˜ 2. We use a custom-built Lyα narrow-band filter at the Isaac Newton Telescope, designed to provide a matched volume coverage to the z = 2.23 Hα HiZELS survey. Here, we present the first results for the COSMOS and UDS fields. Our survey currently reaches a 3σ line flux limit of ˜4 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2, and a Lyα luminosity limit of ˜1042.3 erg s-1. We find 188 Lyα emitters over 7.3 × 105 Mpc3, but also find significant numbers of other line-emitting sources corresponding to He II, C III] and C IV emission lines. These sources are important contaminants, and we carefully remove them, unlike most previous studies. We find that the Lyα luminosity function at z = 2.23 is very well described by a Schechter function up to LLy α ≈ 1043 erg s-1 with L^{ast }=10^{42.59^{+0.16}_{-0.08}} erg s-1, φ ^{ast }=10^{-3.09^{+0.14}_{-0.34}} Mpc-3 and α = -1.75 ± 0.25. Above LLy α ≈ 1043 erg s-1, the Lyα luminosity function becomes power-law like, driven by X-ray AGN. We find that Lyα-selected emitters have a high escape fraction of 37 ± 7 per cent, anticorrelated with Lyα luminosity and correlated with Lyα equivalent width. Lyα emitters have ubiquitous large (≈40 kpc) Lyα haloes, ˜2 times larger than their Hα extents. By directly comparing our Lyα and Hα luminosity functions, we find that the global/overall escape fraction of Lyα photons (within a 13 kpc radius) from the full population of star-forming galaxies is 5.1 ± 0.2 per cent at the peak of the star formation history. An extra 3.3 ± 0.3 per cent of Lyα photons likely still escape, but at larger radii.

  20. The Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey (GGMFS: challenges and opportunities of a unique, large-scale collaboration for invasion biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand what makes some species successful invaders, it is critical to quantify performance differences between native and introduced regions, and among populations occupying a broad range of environmental conditions within each region. However, these data are not available even for the world’s most notorious invasive species. Here we introduce the Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey, a coordinated distributed field survey to collect performance data and germplasm from a single invasive species: garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata across its entire distribution using minimal resources. We chose this species for its ecological impacts, prominence in ecological studies of invasion success, simple life history, and several genetic and life history attributes that make it amenable to experimental study. We developed a standardised field survey protocol to estimate population size (area and density, age structure, plant size and fecundity, as well as damage by herbivores and pathogens in each population, and to collect representative seed samples. Across four years and with contributions from 164 academic and non-academic participants from 16 countries in North America and Europe thus far, we have collected 45,788 measurements and counts of 137,811 plants from 383 populations and seeds from over 5,000 plants. All field data and seed resources will be curated for release to the scientific community. Our goal is to establish A. petiolata as a model species for plant invasion biology and to encourage large collaborative studies of other invasive species.

  1. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The economic impact of poor sample quality in clinical chemistry laboratories: results from a global survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Erik P; Mitra, Debanjali; Khangulov, Victor S; Church, Stephen; Plokhoy, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Background Despite advances in clinical chemistry testing, poor blood sample quality continues to impact laboratory operations and the quality of results. While previous studies have identified the preanalytical causes of lower sample quality, few studies have examined the economic impact of poor sample quality on the laboratory. Specifically, the costs associated with workarounds related to fibrin and gel contaminants remain largely unexplored. Methods A quantitative survey of clinical chemistry laboratory stakeholders across 10 international regions, including countries in North America, Europe and Oceania, was conducted to examine current blood sample testing practices, sample quality issues and practices to remediate poor sample quality. Survey data were used to estimate costs incurred by laboratories to mitigate sample quality issues. Results Responses from 164 participants were included in the analysis, which was focused on three specific issues: fibrin strands, fibrin masses and gel globules. Fibrin strands were the most commonly reported issue, with an overall incidence rate of ∼3%. Further, 65% of respondents indicated that these issues contribute to analyzer probe clogging, and the majority of laboratories had visual inspection and manual remediation practices in place to address fibrin- and gel-related quality problems (55% and 70%, respectively). Probe maintenance/replacement, visual inspection and manual remediation were estimated to carry significant costs for the laboratories surveyed. Annual cost associated with lower sample quality and remediation related to fibrin and/or gel globules for an average US laboratory was estimated to be $100,247. Conclusions Measures to improve blood sample quality present an important step towards improved laboratory operations.

  3. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: cosmic flows and cosmic web from luminous red galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Metin; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Angulo, Raul E.; Ferraro, Simone; Gil-Marín, Hector; McDonald, Patrick; Hernández Monteagudo, Carlos; Müller, Volker; Yepes, Gustavo; Autefage, Mathieu; Baumgarten, Falk; Beutler, Florian; Brownstein, Joel R.; Burden, Angela; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Guo, Hong; Ho, Shirley; McBride, Cameron; Neyrinck, Mark; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Percival, Will J.; Prada, Francisco; Rossi, Graziano; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Schlegel, David; Schneider, Donald P.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Streblyanska, Alina; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magana, Mariana

    2017-06-01

    We present a Bayesian phase-space reconstruction of the cosmic large-scale matter density and velocity fields from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Baryon Oscillations Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 12 CMASS galaxy clustering catalogue. We rely on a given Λ cold dark matter cosmology, a mesh resolution in the range of 6-10 h-1 Mpc, and a lognormal-Poisson model with a redshift-dependent non-linear bias. The bias parameters are derived from the data and a general renormalized perturbation theory approach. We use combined Gibbs and Hamiltonian sampling, implemented in the argo code, to iteratively reconstruct the dark matter density field and the coherent peculiar velocities of individual galaxies, correcting hereby for coherent redshift space distortions. Our tests relying on accurate N-body-based mock galaxy catalogues show unbiased real space power spectra of the non-linear density field up to k ˜ 0.2 h Mpc-1, and vanishing quadrupoles down to r ˜ 20 h-1 Mpc. We also demonstrate that the non-linear cosmic web can be obtained from the tidal field tensor based on the Gaussian component of the reconstructed density field. We find that the reconstructed velocities have a statistical correlation coefficient compared to the true velocities of each individual light-cone mock galaxy of r ˜ 0.68 including about 10 per cent of satellite galaxies with virial motions (about r = 0.75 without satellites). The power spectra of the velocity divergence agree well with theoretical predictions up to k ˜ 0.2 h Mpc-1. This work will be especially useful to improve, for example, baryon acoustic oscillation reconstructions, kinematic Sunyaev-Zeldovich, integrated Sachs-Wolfe measurements or environmental studies.

  4. The Epidemiology of Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes in Adulthood: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B; Chou, S Patricia; Saha, Tulshi D; Smith, Sharon M; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Pickering, Roger P; Ruan, W June; Huang, Boji; Grant, Bridget F

    2017-01-01

    To present current, nationally representative US findings on prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, disability, and treatment of DSM-5 antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and adulthood antisocial behavioral syndrome without conduct disorder before 15 years of age (AABS). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with respondents (N = 36,309) in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. DSM-5 alcohol, nicotine, and specific drug use disorders and selected mood, anxiety, trauma-related, eating, and personality disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5. Prevalences of ASPD and AABS were 4.3% and 20.3%, respectively, and were highest among male, white, Native American, younger, and unmarried respondents, those with high school or less education, lower incomes, and Western residence. Both antisocial syndromes were significantly associated with 12-month and lifetime substance use, dysthymia/persistent depressive, bipolar I, posttraumatic stress, and borderline and schizotypal personality disorders (odds ratios [ORs] = 1.2-7.0). ASPD was additionally associated with 12-month agoraphobia and lifetime generalized anxiety disorder (ORs = 1.3-1.6); AABS, with 12-month and lifetime major depressive and 12-month generalized anxiety disorders (ORs = 1.2-1.3). Both were associated with significant disability (P antisocial survey respondents were untreated. One in 4 US adults exhibits syndromal antisocial behavior, with similar sociodemographic and psychiatric correlates and disability regardless of whether onset occurred before 15 years of age, illustrating the clinical and public health significance of both ASPD and AABS. In addition to laying groundwork for estimates of social and economic costs, and further etiologic and nosologic research, these findings highlight the urgency of effectively preventing and treating antisocial syndromes, including investigation of

  5. A global survey of HIV-positive people's attitudes towards cure research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, R; Kall, M; Collins, S; Cairns, G; Taylor, S; Nelson, M; Fidler, S; Porter, K; Fox, J

    2017-02-01

    Involvement of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the design of HIV cure studies is important, given the potential risks to participants. We present results of an international survey of PLHIV to define these issues and inform cure research. PLHIV were recruited in June-November 2014 through HIV websites, advocacy forums, social media and 12 UK HIV clinics. The survey included questions concerning demographics, HIV disease history, the desirability of types of cure and the patient's willingness to accept potential toxicity and treatment interruption (TI). We examined factors associated with TI and willingness to accept substantial risks. A total of 982 PLHIV completed the survey; 87% were male, 79% white and 81% men who have sex with men (MSM). Fifty-one per cent were aged 25-44 years and 69% were UK residents. The median time since diagnosis was 7 years [interquartile range (IQR) 2-17 years]. Eighty-eight per cent were receiving antiretrovirals (91% reported undetectable viral load). Health/wellbeing improvements (96%) and an inability to transmit HIV (90%) were more desirable cure characteristics than testing HIV-negative (69%). Ninety-five per cent were interested in participating in cure studies, and 59% were willing to accept substantial risks. PLHIV with a low CD4 count [201-350 cells/μL vs. ≥ 350 cells/μL; odds ratio (OR) 2.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-4.00] were more likely to accept risks, whereas those with limited knowledge of HIV treatments vs. excellent/good knowledge and those aged ≥ 65 years vs. 45-64 years were less likely to accept risks [OR 0.58 (95% CI 0.37-0.90) and OR 0.18 (95% CI 0.07-0.45), respectively]. TI was acceptable for 62% of participants, with the main concerns being becoming unwell (82%), becoming infectious (76%) and HIV spreading through the body (76%). Cure research was highly acceptable to the PLHIV surveyed. Most individuals would accept risks, including TI, even in the absence of personal benefit. An optimal cure

  6. Paediatricians’ perspectives on global health priorities for newborn care in a developing country: a national survey from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusanya Bolajoko O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the perception of paediatricians as key stakeholders in child healthcare delivery and the degree of congruence with current investment priorities is crucial in accelerating progress towards the attainment of global targets for child survival and overall health in developing countries. This study therefore elicited the views of paediatricians on current global priorities for newborn health in Nigeria as possible guide for policy makers. Methods Paediatric consultants and residents in the country were surveyed nationally between February and March 2011 using a questionnaire requiring the ranking of nine prominent and other neonatal conditions based separately on hospital admissions, mortality, morbidity and disability as well as based on all health indices in order of importance or disease burden. Responses were analysed with Friedman test and differences between subgroups of respondents with Mann-Whitney U test. Results Valid responses were received from 152 (65.8% of 231 eligible physicians. Preterm birth/low birthweight ranked highest by all measures except for birth asphyxia which ranked highest for disability. Neonatal jaundice ranked next to sepsis by all measures except for disability and above tetanus except mortality. Preterm birth/low birthweight, birth asphyxia, sepsis, jaundice and meningitis ranked highest by composite measures while jaundice had comparable rating with sepsis. Birth trauma was most frequently cited under other unspecified conditions. There were no significant differences in ranking between consultants and residents except for birth asphyxia in relation to hospital admissions and morbidity as well as sepsis and tetanus in relation to mortality. Conclusions Current global priorities for neonatal survival in Nigeria largely accord with paediatricians’ views except for neonatal jaundice which is commonly subsumed under “other“ or "miscellaneous" neonatal conditions. While the

  7. Association of respondent psychiatric comorbidity with family history of comorbidity: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeesun; Goldstein, Risë B; Grant, Bridget F

    2016-11-01

    Substance use disorders and major psychiatric disorders are common, highly comorbid with each other, and familial. However, the extent to which comorbidity is itself familial remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate associations between comorbidity among respondents with family history of comorbidity. We analyzed data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III to study the associations of family history (FH) of comorbidity among alcoholism, drug problems, depression, antisocial behavior, and anxiety disorders in parents and maternal and paternal grandparents with corresponding DSM-5 diagnostic comorbidity among respondents. We utilized multivariable multinomial logistic regression models controlling for age, sex, race, education, family income, marital status, and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). All comorbid associations of any two disorders with FH were statistically significant; almost all adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for respondent comorbidity in the presence of FH of the parallel comorbidity exceeded 10. ORs involving antisocial behavior in relatives and antisocial personality disorder in respondents were consistently larger than those for any other pairs of disorders. After further adjustment for ACEs, most patterns of association were similar but the ORs were reduced twofold to threefold. ACEs may be mediators in relationships between familial and respondent comorbidities. Further investigations of relationships among familial comorbidity, ACEs, and respondents' diagnoses may improve understanding of comorbidity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Lifetime and 1-year prevalence of homelessness in the US population: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack

    2018-03-01

    Homelessness remains a major public health problem in the USA but there have been few recent epidemiological studies in the general population. Using data from structured interviews with a nationally representative sample of 36 299 US adults from the 2012-13 Wave 3 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III), this study examined the lifetime and 1-year prevalence of homelessness, and its correlates. Lifetime and 1-year prevalence of homelessness in the US population was found to be 4.2 and 1.5%, respectively. Low income, debt, borderline personality disorder (PD), past-year tobacco use disorder, any history of suicidal attempts and being a victim of crime in the past year were all independently strongly associated with past-year homelessness (all OR > 1.5). Low income, debt, history of incarceration, antisocial PD and any history of suicidal attempts were all independently strongly associated with lifetime homelessness (all OR > 1.5). These findings provide an update to the original NESARC, suggesting a possible increase in lifetime homelessness (2.7-4.2%) in the past decade. Along with known economic and behavioral health conditions, special attention should be paid to PDs in efforts to prevent and end homelessness.

  9. Metals and organotins in multiple bivalve species in a one-off global survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Strand, Jakob; Christensen, Jan H.

    2011-01-01

    concentrations (BACs) agreed in the Oslo-Paris convention (OSPAR) for the North Sea, and at most harbours the concentrations were orders of magnitude above BACs. The lowest concentrations of Cd and Pb measured here suggest that the BACs should be lower in a worldwide context. The sources of metals were......The Galathea 3 expedition circumnavigated the globe in 2006-2007 and collected marine samples from six continents. Bivalves were collected from harbours, other impacted locations and reference sites, and samples from 57 sites were analyzed for metals and 47 for organotins, to assess current...... contamination levels on a global scale. Metal concentrations in nine bivalve species were normalised to the Mytilidae family using conversion factors based on cosampled species and literature bioconcentration factors. The lowest metal and tributyltin concentrations were below background assessment...

  10. IRSN 2011 opinion survey. The perception of risks and safety by French people. Global results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Like every year, this report presents and comments the results of an opinion survey on risks, and more particularly on nuclear and radiological risks. The first part addresses the current concerns of French people (the main concerns in the present society and with respect to the environment, how science is considered). The second part addresses the opinion on expertise (who should control a hazardous installation, the role and image of experts, the access to expertise files, the perception of pluralist bodies). The third part examines the reaction of people in front of 33 different hazardous situations (risks to which people feel being exposed, confidence in authorities, confidence in information on hazards, hierarchy of 33 situations and relationship with installation acceptability). The fourth part addresses the nuclear issue (nuclear risk, ability and credibility of nuclear actors, the Chernobyl accident, radioactive wastes, demand of information on the nuclear risk).

  11. IRSN 2014 opinion survey - The perception of risks and security by the French population. Global results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Jammal, Marie-Helene; Mur, Emmanuelle; Rollinger, Francois; Schuler, Matthieu; Tchernia, Jean-Francois

    2014-06-01

    A first and synthetic part of this report comments the most remarkable results of the opinion survey. It first addresses results related to a context of economic crisis (importance of the economic crisis and unemployment as major concerns for French people, environmental concerns) and then analyzes the different aspects of the nuclear risk, from the accident to nuclear safety: strong fears of a nuclear accident, Fukushima and Chernobyl are immediately present in people's mind, concerns about nuclear are also related to the environment and health, the actual benefit of nuclear is an economic one, nuclear safety is a major challenge on which French people doubt, French people wish a citizen look on nuclear safety, the opinion of French people on nuclear worsened in 2013. Then, this report, illustrated by several graphs, presents and discusses the results of an annual opinion survey on the present concerns of French people (in the present society, for the environment, and as far as science is concerned), the opinion of French people on expertise (about who must control a risky installation, about the role and image of scientific experts, about the diffusion and sharing of scientific expertise, and about the perception of pluralistic structures), on the attitude of French people in front of 33 risk situations (risks to which French people feel exposed to, confidence of French people in authorities to protect them, the truth of information on hazards, the hierarchy of 33 situations according to 3 aspects and their relationship with installation acceptability). The fourth part addresses more particularly the nuclear sector: expectations in terms of nuclear risk management, fear of a serious accident, benefits and drawbacks of nuclear energy, skill and credibility of interveners. Graphs notably present the evolution of opinions with respect to last year or over the past years

  12. The association between post-traumatic stress disorder and lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders among veterans: Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sharon M; Goldstein, Rise B; Grant, Bridget F

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the prevalence, correlates and psychiatric comorbidity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (n = 3119 veteran respondents). The overall prevalence of lifetime PTSD was 6.9%. Lifetime PTSD prevalence was higher among veterans who were female (13.2%), aged 18-29 years (15.3%), Native American (24.1%) or Black (11.0%), previously or never married (9.6% and 11.2, respectively), had incomes less than $70,000 (7.2%-10.1%) and had >2 traumatic events (5.2%-14.7%). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity between lifetime PTSD and other psychiatric disorders was highest for any personality disorder (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 11.1, 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7, 21.5), any mood disorder (AOR = 9.7, 95% CI, 4.6, 20.4) and any anxiety disorder (AOR = 9.6, 95% CI, 5.1, 17.7), followed by nicotine, drug, and alcohol use disorders (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI, 1.8, 6.5; AOR = 3.1, 95% CI, 2.0, 5.9; 2.1, 95% CI, 1.5, 3.1, respectively). Associations remained with any mood, anxiety, and personality disorders after controlling for other psychiatric disorders (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI, 1.2, 10.9; AOR = 3.5, 95% CI, 1.6, 7.4; AOR = 4.5, 95% CI, 2.3, 8.7, respectively). Veterans who sought treatment for PTSD had more comorbid conditions, although treatment was only associated with comorbid drug use disorder (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.0, 5.7). In U.S. veterans, PTSD is highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Although many veterans remain untreated, comorbidity may influence treatment seeking. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. MASSIV: Mass Assemby Survey with SINFONI in VVDS. I. Survey description and global properties of the 0.9 < z < 1.8 galaxy sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, T.; Garilli, B.; Le Fèvre, O.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Amram, P.; Epinat, B.; Moultaka, J.; Paioro, L.; Queyrel, J.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Perez-Montero, E.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: Understanding how galaxies evolve and assemble their mass across cosmic time is still a fundamental, unsolved issue. To get insight into the various processes of galaxy mass assembly, the Mass Assembly Survey with SINFONI in VVDS (MASSIV) aims at probing the kinematical and chemical properties of a significant and representative sample of high-redshift (0.9 ≤ z ≤ 1.8) star-forming galaxies. Methods: This paper presents the selection function, the observing strategy, and the global properties of the MASSIV sample. This sample contains 84 star-forming galaxies, selected from the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) and observed with the SINFONI integral-field spectrograph at the VLT. We present the redshift distribution, and derive the stellar masses and SED-based star formation rates (SFR). Integrated metallicities and the presence of type-2 AGNs are investigated using composite 1D spectra built from VIMOS and SINFONI observations. Results: The MASSIV selection function, based on star formation criteria ([O ii]λ3727 emission-line strength up to z ~ 1.5 and colors/UV absorption lines at higher redshifts), provides a good representation of "normal" star-forming galaxies with SED-based SFRs between 5 and 400 M⊙ yr-1 in the stellar mass regime 109 - 1011 M⊙. Analysis of typical emission-line ratios performed on composite spectra reveals that the contamination by type-2 AGNs is very low and that the integrated metallicity of the galaxies follows the well-known mass-metallicity relation. Conclusions: The MASSIV sample has been built upon a simple selection function, fully representative of the star-forming galaxy population at 0.9 global, volume averaged, galaxy kinematic, and chemical properties across the full mass and SFR range of the survey to derive robust conclusions for galaxy mass assembly on cosmological timescales. All the data published in this paper are publicly available at the time of publication following this link: type="uri" xlink:href="http

  14. Priority Medicines for Maternal and Child Health: A Global Survey of National Essential Medicines Lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Suzanne; Yang, Annie; Bero, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Background In April 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a list of “priority medicines” for maternal and child health based on 1) the global burden of disease and 2) evidence of efficacy and safety. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of these priority medicines on national essential medicines lists. Methods and Findings All essential medicines lists published since 1999 were selected from the WHO website collection. The most-up-to date list for each country was then selected, resulting in 89 unique country lists. Each list was evaluated for inclusion of medicines (chemical entity, concentration, and dosage form) on the Priority Medicines List. There was global variation in the listing of the Priority Medicines. The most frequently listed medicine was paracetamol, on 94% (84/89) of lists. Sodium chloride, gentamicin and oral rehydration solution were on 93% (83/89) of lists. The least frequently listed medicine was the children's antimalarial rectal artesunate, on 8% of lists (7/89); artesunate injection was on 16% (14/89) of lists. Pediatric artemisinin combination therapy, as dispersible tablets or flexible oral solid dosage form, appeared on 36% (32/89) of lists. Procaine benzylpenicillin, for treatment of pediatric pneumonia and neonatal sepsis, was on 50% (45/89) of the lists. Zinc, for treatment of diarrhoea in children, was included on only 15% (13/89) of lists. For prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage in women, oxytocin was more prevalent on the lists than misoprostol; they were included on 55 (62%) and 31 (35%) of lists, respectively. Cefixime, for treatment of uncomplicated anogenital gonococcal infection in woman was on 26% (23/89) of lists. Magnesium sulfate injection for treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia was on 50% (45/89) of the lists. Conclusions The findings suggest that countries need to urgently amend their lists to provide all priority medicines as part of the efforts to improve

  15. Insufficient global health education in European neurological post-graduate training: a European Association of Young Neurologists and Trainees survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbier, A; Macerollo, A; Györfi, O; Balicza, P; Moarcas, M; Papp, V; Zis, P; Klingelhoefer, L; Saifee, T; Struhal, W; Sellner, J

    2016-11-01

    The awareness of and demand for neurological expertise in global health (GH) have emerged over recent years and have become more relevant due to the increasing numbers of refugees from developing countries arriving in Europe. This study aimed to assess the provision of GH education and opportunities for international exchange during neurology post-graduate training with a focus on Europe. We developed a questionnaire covering different aspects of and interest in GH education on behalf of the European Association of Young Neurologists and Trainees. Residents in neurology and junior neurologists (RJN) were approached to complete this survey. Completed questionnaires were returned by 131 RJNs, of whom 65.7% were women and 84.0% were between 26 and 35 years old. In total, almost one-third (29.0%) of RJNs reported that their residency programs offered training in GH. Limited education was reported for women's or children's health and neurological disorders of immigrants and refugees, as only 22.1%, 25.2% and 22.1% of RJNs reported that such training was offered, respectively. The curriculum rarely included coverage of the global impact of neurological disorders. Definite plans to volunteer in a developing country were reported by 7.6%. The majority of the participants acknowledged the importance of GH training and international exchange during post-graduate education. This survey corroborates the interest in and appreciation of GH education by European RJNs. However, there are shortcomings in training and opportunities for international exchange. Academic neurology and international bodies, including the European Academy of Neurology, are requested to address this. © 2016 EAN.

  16. Treatment gap for anxiety disorders is global: Results of the World Mental Health Surveys in 21 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jordi; Liu, Zhaorui; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Sampson, Nancy; Chatterji, Somnath; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura H; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Cardoso, Graça; Cia, Alfredo; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep M; He, Yanling; de Jonge, Peter; Karam, Elie G; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Ten Have, Margreet; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C; Thornicroft, Graham

    2018-03-01

    Anxiety disorders are a major cause of burden of disease. Treatment gaps have been described, but a worldwide evaluation is lacking. We estimated, among individuals with a 12-month DSM-IV (where DSM is Diagnostic Statistical Manual) anxiety disorder in 21 countries, the proportion who (i) perceived a need for treatment; (ii) received any treatment; and (iii) received possibly adequate treatment. Data from 23 community surveys in 21 countries of the World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed (WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI 3.0). DSM-IV included posttraumatic stress disorder among anxiety disorders, while it is not considered so in the DSM-5. We asked if, in the previous 12 months, respondents felt they needed professional treatment and if they obtained professional treatment (specialized/general medical, complementary alternative medical, or nonmedical professional) for "problems with emotions, nerves, mental health, or use of alcohol or drugs." Possibly adequate treatment was defined as receiving pharmacotherapy (1+ months of medication and 4+ visits to a medical doctor) or psychotherapy, complementary alternative medicine or nonmedical care (8+ visits). Of 51,547 respondents (response = 71.3%), 9.8% had a 12-month DSM-IV anxiety disorder, 27.6% of whom received any treatment, and only 9.8% received possibly adequate treatment. Of those with 12-month anxiety only 41.3% perceived a need for care. Lower treatment levels were found for lower income countries. Low levels of service use and a high proportion of those receiving services not meeting adequacy standards for anxiety disorders exist worldwide. Results suggest the need for improving recognition of anxiety disorders and the quality of treatment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The increasing globalization of health librarianship: a brief survey of international trends and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madge, Bruce; Plutchak, T Scott

    2005-09-01

    Throughout his career, Leslie Morton was interested in international developments in health librarianship. In memory of the work he did in this field, the authors examine current developments in international health librarianship and describe some current themes. The authors draw from their combined experience in international activities and the published information available from selected library associations and related organizations. Although many of the major health library associations around the world are tackling agendas specific to their own country, issues of international concern are emerging in common. These are grouped around globalization, partnerships and co-operation, electronic access, especially open access, and working with the developing world in a number of different ways. Of course, the basis of all of these initiatives is to improve the health of the population by providing the best possible access to materials. Professional associations can provide a useful institutional infrastructure for addressing issues of international interest. Librarians should encourage their associations to develop these international initiatives and to seek out new and innovative ways to work together across international boundaries.

  18. Implementing Global Fund programs: a survey of opinions and experiences of the Principal Recipients across 69 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafula, Francis; Marwa, Charles; McCoy, David

    2014-03-24

    Principal Recipients (PRs) receive money from the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) to manage and implement programs. However, little research has gone into understanding their opinions and experiences. This survey set out to describe these, thereby providing a baseline against which changes in PR opinions and experiences can be assessed as the recently introduced new funding model is rolled out. An internet based questionnaire was administered to 315 PRs. A total of 115 responded from 69 countries in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America. The study was conducted between September and December 2012. Three quarters of PRs thought the progress update and disbursement request (PU/DR) system was a useful method of reporting grant progress. However, most felt that the grant negotiation processes were complicated, and that the grant rating system did not reflect performance.While nearly all PRs were happy with the work being done by sub-Recipients (92%) and Fund Portfolio Managers (86%), fewer were happy with the Office of the Inspector General (OIG). Non-government PRs were generally less happy with the OIG's work compared to government PRs.Most PRs thought the Global Fund's Voluntary Pooled Procurement system made procurement easier. However, only 29% said the system should be made compulsory.When asked which aspects of the Global Fund's operations needed improvement, most PRs said that the Fund should re-define and clarify the roles of different actors, minimize staff turnover at its Secretariat, and shorten the grant application and approval processes. All these are currently being addressed, either directly or indirectly, under a new funding model. Vigorous assessments should nonetheless follow the roll-out of the new model to ensure the areas that are most likely to affect PR performance realize sustained improvement. Opinions and experiences with the Global Fund were varied, with PRs having good communication with Fund

  19. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  20. Global variations in health: evaluating Wilkinson's income inequality hypothesis using the World Values Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Min Hua; Jones, Kelvyn; Johnston, Ron

    2009-02-01

    This international comparative study analyses individual-level data derived from the World Values Survey to evaluate Wilkinson's [(1996). Unhealthy societies: The afflictions of inequality. London: Routledge; (1998). Mortality and distribution of income. Low relative income affects mortality [letter; comment]. British Medical Journal, 316, 1611-1612] income inequality hypothesis regarding variations in health status. Random-coefficient, multilevel modelling provides a direct test of Wilkinson's hypothesis using micro-data on individuals and macro-data on income inequalities analysed simultaneously. This overcomes the ecological fallacy that has troubled previous research into links between individual self-rated health, individual income, country income and income inequality data. Logic regression analysis reveals that there are substantial differences between countries in self-rated health after taking account of age and gender, and individual income has a clear effect in that poorer people report experiencing worse health. The Wilkinson hypothesis is not supported, however, since there is no significant relationship between health and income inequality when individual factors are taken into account. Substantial differences between countries remain even after taking account of micro- and macro-variables; in particular the former communist countries report high levels of poor health.

  1. A global survey of CRM1-dependent nuclear export sequences in the human deubiquitinase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Santisteban, Iraia; Bañuelos, Sonia; Rodríguez, Jose A

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms that regulate the nucleocytoplasmic localization of human deubiquitinases remain largely unknown. The nuclear export receptor CRM1 binds to specific amino acid motifs termed NESs (nuclear export sequences). By using in silico prediction and experimental validation of candidate sequences, we identified 32 active NESs and 78 inactive NES-like motifs in human deubiquitinases. These results allowed us to evaluate the performance of three programs widely used for NES prediction, and to add novel information to the recently redefined NES consensus. The novel NESs identified in the present study reveal a subset of 22 deubiquitinases bearing motifs that might mediate their binding to CRM1. We tested the effect of the CRM1 inhibitor LMB (leptomycin B) on the localization of YFP (yellow fluorescent protein)- or GFP (green fluorescent protein)-tagged versions of six NES-bearing deubiquitinases [USP (ubiquitin-specific peptidase) 1, USP3, USP7, USP21, CYLD (cylindromatosis) and OTUD7B (OTU-domain-containing 7B)]. YFP-USP21 and, to a lesser extent, GFP-OTUD7B relocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the presence of LMB, revealing their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling capability. Two sequence motifs in USP21 had been identified during our survey as active NESs in the export assay. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we show that one of these motifs mediates USP21 nuclear export, whereas the second motif is not functional in the context of full-length USP21.

  2. IRSN 2017 opinion survey. The perception of risks and safety by French people. Global results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Jammal, Marie-Helene; Charron, Sylvie; Mur, Emmanuelle; Schuler, Matthieu; Tchernia, Jean-francois

    2017-07-01

    Like every year, this report presents and comments the results of an opinion survey on risks, and more particularly on risks related to nuclear and radiological activities. The first part addresses the current concerns of French people (main concerns in the present society, with respect to the environment, and risks related to industrial installations). The second part addresses the opinion on expertise (the role and image of experts, diffusion and sharing of scientific expertise, and the perception of pluralistic structures). The third part examines the reaction of people in front of 34 different hazardous situations (risks to which people feel being exposed, confidence people have in authorities to protect them, confidence in information on hazards, hierarchy of the 34 situations according to three different aspects, and relationship with installation acceptability). The fourth part addresses the nuclear domain: expectations related to the control of the nuclear risk, benefits and drawbacks of nuclear energy, fear of a severe accident, attention given by French people to nuclear energy, expertise and credibility of interveners in the nuclear sector

  3. IRSN 2016 opinion survey. The perception of risks and safety by French people. Global results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Jammal, Marie-Helene; Charron, Sylvie; Mur, Emmanuelle; Schuler, Matthieu; Tchernia, Jean-francois

    2016-07-01

    Like every year, this report presents and comments the results of an opinion survey on risks, and more particularly on risks related to nuclear and radiological activities. The first part addresses the current concerns of French people (main concerns in the present society, with respect to the environment, and risks related to industrial installations). The second part addresses the opinion on expertise (the role and image of experts, diffusion and sharing of scientific expertise, and the perception of pluralistic structures). The third part examines the reaction of people in front of 34 different hazardous situations (risks to which people feel being exposed, confidence people have in authorities to protect them, confidence in information on hazards, hierarchy of the 34 situations according to three different aspects, and relationship with installation acceptability). The fourth part addresses the nuclear domain: expectations related to the control of the nuclear risk, fear of a severe accident, benefits and drawbacks of nuclear energy, expertise and credibility of interveners in the nuclear sector, fear of serious nuclear accidents, perception of the two main nuclear accidents: Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011)

  4. IRSN 2015 opinion survey. The perception of risks and safety by French people. Global results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Jammal, Marie-Helene; Mur, Emmanuelle; Rollinger, Francois; Schuler, Matthieu; Tchernia, Jean-Francois

    2015-07-01

    Like every year, this report presents and comments the results of an opinion survey on risks, and more particularly on risks related to nuclear and radiological activities. The first part addresses the current concerns of French people (main concerns in the present society, with respect to the environment, and risks related to industrial installations). The second part addresses the opinion on expertise (the role and image of experts, diffusion and sharing of scientific expertise, and who should control a hazardous installation). The third part examines the reaction of people in front of 34 different hazardous situations (risks to which people feel being exposed, confidence people have in authorities to protect them, confidence in information on hazards, hierarchy of the 34 situations according to three different aspects, and relationship with installation acceptability). The fourth part addresses the nuclear domain: expectations related to the control of the nuclear risk, fear of a severe accident, benefits and drawbacks of nuclear energy, expertise and credibility of interveners in the nuclear sector. The fifth part addresses the presence of radon in dwellings (awareness of the risk, measures related to the control of radon in dwellings)

  5. Prevalence of tobacco smoking in Vietnam: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Ngoc, Nguyen Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thi Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Quan, Nguyen The; Xuyen, Nguyen Thi

    2017-02-01

    We report the prevalence of tobacco smoking among adult populations in Vietnam, 2015. The Vietnam GATS 2015 was a nationally representative survey. 9513 households were selected using two-stage random systematic sampling method. Handheld computers were used for capturing data. Data collection was carried-out by National Statistics Office of Vietnam in 2015. Weight was used in all estimates. The Vietnam GATS 2015 found that the prevalence of smoking in Vietnam was 22.5% overall, 45.3% among men, and 1.1% among women. The overall 2015-2010 reduction in prevalence of any tobacco product was 5.3%. However, the reduction was not statistically significant. The significant reduction in prevalence of tobacco smoking was found for any type of cigarette (-8.4%), and especially for hand-rolled cigarettes (-38.3%). The use of cigarettes significantly decreased in urban areas (-14.7%). The reduction in the prevalence of tobacco smoking in Vietnam during the last 5 years (2010-2015) has not been as high as expected, especially in rural areas. Further efforts are needed to continue to reduce the harms caused by tobacco smoking.

  6. Stakeholders' perceptions of 10years of the Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) - Results from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannei, Claudia; Goldin, Shoshanna; Torelli, Guido; Fatima, Hiba; Kumar, Kaveri; Bubb-Humfryes, Oliver; Stenson, Bo; Sparrow, Erin

    2016-10-26

    Ten years after the launch of the Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP), the World Health Organization (WHO) surveyed stakeholders to understand their perceptions of what the programme had achieved. This article provides a summary of the findings; the full report will be available on-line on the GAP website in November 2016 (http://www.who.int/influenza_vaccines_plan/en/). Seventy-seven responses were received from stakeholders including medical doctors, national influenza center officials, country immunization programme teams, surveillance and disease centers, policy-makers, researchers, vaccine manufacturers, and non-governmental organizations from 28 countries, representing all six WHO regions. Respondents cited GAP's biggest successes as capacity building in developing countries; raising international awareness of global needs in the event of a pandemic; and collaborative alignment of influenza stakeholders. The most commonly reported challenges were the limited progress in development of a broadly protective or universal vaccine and the perceived absence of a major increase in seasonal demand. These findings aligned with the perception that less global progress had been made under the third GAP objective, focused on research and development of better vaccines, than on increasing seasonal vaccine use (objective 1) and pandemic vaccine production capacity (objective 2). Respondents explained what they saw as the major challenges to development of better vaccines, including to development of a universal influenza vaccine. The majority of respondents agreed that the goal chosen at the GAP II consultation is still relevant. Results highlighted the importance of promoting research and development of better vaccines, both for facilitating uptake of seasonal vaccines and for ensuring timely vaccine availability in the event of a pandemic. As the GAP concludes its mandate this year, these findings will contribute to discussions on the impact of programme

  7. A cross-country study of cigarette prices and affordability: evidence from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Chaloupka, Frank J; Yurekli, Ayda; Ross, Hana; Cherukupalli, Rajeev; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

    2014-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of two primary determinants of cigarette consumption: cigarette affordability and the range of prices paid for cigarettes (and bidis, where applicable) in a set of 15 countries. From this cross-country comparison, identify places where opportunities may exist for reducing consumption through tax adjustments. Self-response data from 45,838 smokers from 15 countries, obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2008-2011. Using self-response data on individual cigarette expenditure and consumption, we construct a measure of the average cigarette price smokers pay for manufactured cigarettes (and bidis, where applicable) in 15 countries. We use these prices to evaluate cigarette affordability and the range of prices available in each country. These survey-derived measures of cigarette price and affordability are uniquely suited for cross-country comparison because they represent each country's distinctive mix of individual consumption characteristics such as brand choice, intensity of consumption, and purchasing behavior. In this sample of countries, cigarettes are most affordable in Russia, which has the most room for tobacco tax increase. Affordability is also relatively high in Brazil and China for cigarettes, and in India and Bangladesh for bidis. Although the affordability of cigarettes in India is relatively low, the range of cigarette prices paid is relatively high, providing additional evidence to support the call for simplifying the existing tax structure and reducing the width of price options. China has both high affordability and wide price ranges, suggesting multiple opportunities for reducing consumption through tax adjustments.

  8. National survey of international electives for global health in undergraduate medical education in Japan, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomio; Nishigori, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    Interest in global health in medical education is increasing in Western countries, whereas data from non-Western countries is scarce. Here, we conducted a nationwide study of international clinical electives at Japanese medical schools from 2011 to 2013. We constructed a 28-item cross-sectional survey in Japanese to investigate the rate and characteristics of both Japanese students going abroad and international students coming on exchange to Japan. The surveys were sent to the administrative offices of all 80 Japanese medical schools in each of the three years, through the Japan Medical Education Foundation. All 80 medical schools responded to the questionnaire (response rate, 100%). An average of 70 of the 80 medical universities provided exchange programs across the three years to allow students to travel abroad as part of the school curriculum and obtain academic credit. The schools provided support in the form of in- and outside-class preparatory programs, tuition fee exemptions and housing. The most popular destinations for Japanese students going abroad were Europe and North America, which may reflect the desire of Japanese students to acquire medical knowledge or experience through exposure to the English language. In contrast, the most common countries of origin of international exchange students coming to Japan were Asian countries such as South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan, with pediatrics being the most popular elective. Foreign exchange programs are becoming increasingly incorporated into the Japanese medical education curriculum and can help to strengthen international partnerships and collaborations.

  9. National survey of international electives for global health in undergraduate medical education in Japan, 2011–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomio; Nishigori, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interest in global health in medical education is increasing in Western countries, whereas data from non-Western countries is scarce. Here, we conducted a nationwide study of international clinical electives at Japanese medical schools from 2011 to 2013. We constructed a 28-item cross-sectional survey in Japanese to investigate the rate and characteristics of both Japanese students going abroad and international students coming on exchange to Japan. The surveys were sent to the administrative offices of all 80 Japanese medical schools in each of the three years, through the Japan Medical Education Foundation. All 80 medical schools responded to the questionnaire (response rate, 100%). An average of 70 of the 80 medical universities provided exchange programs across the three years to allow students to travel abroad as part of the school curriculum and obtain academic credit. The schools provided support in the form of in- and outside-class preparatory programs, tuition fee exemptions and housing. The most popular destinations for Japanese students going abroad were Europe and North America, which may reflect the desire of Japanese students to acquire medical knowledge or experience through exposure to the English language. In contrast, the most common countries of origin of international exchange students coming to Japan were Asian countries such as South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan, with pediatrics being the most popular elective. Foreign exchange programs are becoming increasingly incorporated into the Japanese medical education curriculum and can help to strengthen international partnerships and collaborations. PMID:29581617

  10. Global surveys of reservoirs and lakes from satellites and regional application to the Syrdarya river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-François, Crétaux; Adalbert, Arsen; Muriel, Bergé-Nguyen; Sylvain, Biancamaria; Mélanie, Becker

    2015-01-01

    Large reservoirs along rivers regulate downstream flows to generate hydropower but may also store water for irrigation and urban sectors. Reservoir management therefore becomes critical, particularly for transboundary basins, where coordination between riparian countries is needed. Reservoir management is even more important in semiarid regions where downstream water users may be totally reliant on upstream reservoir releases. If the water resources are shared between upstream and downstream countries, potentially opposite interests arise as is the case in the Syrdarya river in Central Asia. In this case study, remote sensing data (radar altimetry and optical imagery) are used to highlight the potential of satellite data to monitor water resources: water height, areal extent and storage variations. New results from 20 years of monitoring using satellites over the Syrdarya basin are presented. The accuracy of satellite data is 0.6 km 3 using a combination of MODIS data and satellite altimetry, and only 0.2 km 3 with Landsat images representing 2–4% of average annual reservoir volume variations in the reservoirs in the Syrdarya basin. With future missions such as Sentinel-3A (S3A), Sentinel-3B (S3B) and surface water and ocean topography (SWOT), significant improvement is expected. The SWOT mission’s main payload (a radar interferometer in Ka band) will furthermore provide 2D maps of water height, reservoirs, lakes, rivers and floodplains, with a temporal resolution of 21 days. At the global scale, the SWOT mission will cover reservoirs with areal extents greater than 250  ×  250 m with 20 cm accuracy. (letter)

  11. Global surveys of reservoirs and lakes from satellites and regional application to the Syrdarya river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-François, Crétaux; Sylvain, Biancamaria; Adalbert, Arsen; Muriel, Bergé-Nguyen; Mélanie, Becker

    2015-01-01

    Large reservoirs along rivers regulate downstream flows to generate hydropower but may also store water for irrigation and urban sectors. Reservoir management therefore becomes critical, particularly for transboundary basins, where coordination between riparian countries is needed. Reservoir management is even more important in semiarid regions where downstream water users may be totally reliant on upstream reservoir releases. If the water resources are shared between upstream and downstream countries, potentially opposite interests arise as is the case in the Syrdarya river in Central Asia. In this case study, remote sensing data (radar altimetry and optical imagery) are used to highlight the potential of satellite data to monitor water resources: water height, areal extent and storage variations. New results from 20 years of monitoring using satellites over the Syrdarya basin are presented. The accuracy of satellite data is 0.6 km3 using a combination of MODIS data and satellite altimetry, and only 0.2 km3 with Landsat images representing 2-4% of average annual reservoir volume variations in the reservoirs in the Syrdarya basin. With future missions such as Sentinel-3A (S3A), Sentinel-3B (S3B) and surface water and ocean topography (SWOT), significant improvement is expected. The SWOT mission’s main payload (a radar interferometer in Ka band) will furthermore provide 2D maps of water height, reservoirs, lakes, rivers and floodplains, with a temporal resolution of 21 days. At the global scale, the SWOT mission will cover reservoirs with areal extents greater than 250 × 250 m with 20 cm accuracy.

  12. Impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking: findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Song-Lih; Lin, I-Feng; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Tsai, Tzu-I

    2013-10-01

    To assess the impact of a set of comprehensive tobacco control policies implemented in Taiwan in 2009, including extensive smoke-free policy, advertisement ban, pictorial warning and price increase, on adolescent smoking prevalence. Five waves of cross-sectional surveys. Taiwan, 2004-11. Nationally representative sample of junior high schools aged 13-15 years, in a biennial survey, total sample size 101,100. Core questionnaire of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, including ever smoking, 30-day smoking and number of cigarettes smoked. The magnitude of prevalence change before and after the 2009 policy implementation was quantified by adjusted odds ratios estimated by piecewise logistic regression models. The 30-day smoking prevalence demonstrated an upward trend [odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.10] between 2004 and 2008. Significant decline in 30-day smoking prevalence after the 2009 law implementation was observed (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.71-0.99). Those living in non-city areas demonstrated a greater magnitude of change. In addition to changes in prevalence, we observed some delay in the age starting smoking, reduction in smokers who smoke fewer than one cigarette per day, and decrease in smokers who did not buy cigarettes. The decline in smoking prevalence was contributed primarily by the reduction in experimenters. The comprehensive tobacco control programme introduced in Taiwan in 2009 was associated with a reduction in adolescent smoking, particularly among those in earlier stages of smoking and those who resided in non-city areas. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. The potential Public Health Impact of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: Global Opinion Survey of Topic Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, L A; Rajić, A; Stärk, K D C; McEwen, S A

    2016-05-01

    Global research knowledge has accumulated over the past few decades, and there is reasonable evidence for a positive association between Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease in humans, although its role as a human pathogen has not been entirely accepted. For this reason, management of public health risk due to M. paratuberculosis remains an important policy issue in agri-food public health arenas in many countries. Responsible authorities must decide whether existing mitigation strategies are sufficient to prevent or reduce human exposure to M. paratuberculosis. A Web-based questionnaire was administered to topic specialists to elicit empirical knowledge and opinion on the overall public health impact of M. paratuberculosis, the importance of various routes of human exposure to the pathogen, existing mitigation strategies and the need for future strategies. The questionnaire had four sections and consisted of 20 closed and five open questions. Topic specialists believed that M. paratuberculosis is likely a risk to human health (44.8%) and, given the paucity of available evidence, most frequently ranked it as a moderate public health issue (40.1%). A significant correlation was detected between topic specialists' commitment to M. paratuberculosis in terms of the number of years or proportion of work dedicated to this topic, and the likelihood of an extreme answer (high or low) to the above questions. Topic specialists identified contact with ruminants and dairy products as the most likely routes of exposure for humans. There was consensus on exposure routes for ruminants and what commodities to target in mitigation efforts. Described mandatory programmes mainly focused on culling diseased animals and voluntary on-farm prevention programmes. Despite ongoing difficulties in the identification of subclinical infections in animals, the topic specialists largely agreed that further enhancement of on-farm programmes in affected commodities by

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of DSM-5 Cannabis Use Disorder, 2012-2013: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah S; Kerridge, Bradley T; Saha, Tulshi D; Huang, Boji; Pickering, Roger; Smith, Sharon M; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Grant, Bridget F

    2016-06-01

    Attitudes toward marijuana are changing, the prevalence of DSM-IV cannabis use disorder has increased, and DSM-5 modified the cannabis use disorder criteria. Therefore, updated information is needed on the prevalence, demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, disability, and treatment for DSM-5 cannabis use disorder. In 2012-2013, 36,309 participants ≥18 years old were interviewed in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. Psychiatric and substance use disorders were assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-5. The prevalences of 12-month and lifetime cannabis use disorder were 2.5% and 6.3%. Among those with 12-month and lifetime diagnoses, the mean days of marijuana use per year were 225.3 (SE=5.7) and 274.2 (SE=3.8). The odds of 12-month and lifetime cannabis use disorder were higher for men, Native Americans, unmarried individuals, those with low incomes, and young adults (e.g., among those age 18-24 years versus ≥45: odds ratio for 12-month disorder, 7.2; 95% confidence interval, 5.5-9.5). Cannabis use disorder was associated with other substance use disorders, affective disorders, anxiety, and personality disorders. Twelve-month cannabis use disorder was associated with disability. As disorder severity increased, virtually all associations became stronger. Only 13.2% with lifetime cannabis use disorder participated in 12-step programs or professional treatment. DSM-5 cannabis use disorder is prevalent, associated with comorbidity and disability, and largely untreated. Findings suggest the need to improve prevention and educate the public, professionals, and policy makers about possible harms associated with cannabis use disorders and available interventions.

  15. The Epidemiology of Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes in Adulthood: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Saha, Tulshi D.; Smith, Sharon M.; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Pickering, Roger P.; Ruan, W. June; Huang, Boji; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present current, nationally representative U.S. findings on prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, disability and treatment of DSM-5 antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and syndromal adult antisocial behavior without conduct disorder before age 15 (AABS). Method Face-to-face interviews with respondents (n=36,309) in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III. DSM-5 alcohol, nicotine, specific drug use disorders, and selected mood, anxiety, trauma-related, eating, and personality disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule–5. Results Prevalences of ASPD and AABS were 4.3% and 20.3%, highest among male, white, Native American, younger, and unmarried respondents, those with high school or less education, lower incomes, and Western residence. Both antisocial syndromes were significantly associated with 12-month and lifetime substance use, dysthymia/persistent depressive, bipolar I, posttraumatic stress and borderline and schizotypal personality disorders (ORs=1.2-7.0). ASPD was additionally associated with 12-month agoraphobia and lifetime generalized anxiety disorder; AABS, with 12-month and lifetime major depressive and 12-month generalized anxiety disorders. Both were associated with significant disability (pantisocial respondents were untreated. Conclusions One in 4 U.S. adults exhibits syndromal antisocial behavior, with similar sociodemographic and psychiatric correlates and disability regardless of whether onset occurred before age 15, illustrating the clinical and public health significance of both ASPD and AABS. In addition to laying groundwork for estimates of social and economic costs, and further etiologic and nosologic research, these findings highlight the urgency of effectively preventing and treating antisocial syndromes, including investigation of whether treatment for comorbidity hastens symptomatic remission and improves

  16. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: cosmological analysis of the DR12 galaxy sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shadab; Ata, Metin; Bailey, Stephen; Beutler, Florian; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blazek, Jonathan A.; Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Burden, Angela; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Comparat, Johan; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Escoffier, Stephanie; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Hand, Nick; Ho, Shirley; Kinemuchi, Karen; Kirkby, David; Kitaura, Francisco; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Maraston, Claudia; McBride, Cameron K.; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Oravetz, Daniel; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Percival, Will J.; Petitjean, Patrick; Prada, Francisco; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Reid, Beth A.; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.; Roe, Natalie A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rossi, Graziano; Rubiño-Martín, Jose Alberto; Saito, Shun; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Samushia, Lado; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Satpathy, Siddharth; Schlegel, David J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Scóccola, Claudia G.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Sheldon, Erin S.; Simmons, Audrey; Slosar, Anže; Strauss, Michael A.; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Magaña, Mariana Vargas; Vazquez, Jose Alberto; Verde, Licia; Wake, David A.; Wang, Yuting; Weinberg, David H.; White, Martin; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Yèche, Christophe; Zehavi, Idit; Zhai, Zhongxu; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2017-09-01

    We present cosmological results from the final galaxy clustering data set of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III. Our combined galaxy sample comprises 1.2 million massive galaxies over an effective area of 9329 deg2 and volume of 18.7 Gpc3, divided into three partially overlapping redshift slices centred at effective redshifts 0.38, 0.51 and 0.61. We measure the angular diameter distance DM and Hubble parameter H from the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) method, in combination with a cosmic microwave background prior on the sound horizon scale, after applying reconstruction to reduce non-linear effects on the BAO feature. Using the anisotropic clustering of the pre-reconstruction density field, we measure the product DMH from the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) effect and the growth of structure, quantified by fσ8(z), from redshift-space distortions (RSD). We combine individual measurements presented in seven companion papers into a set of consensus values and likelihoods, obtaining constraints that are tighter and more robust than those from any one method; in particular, the AP measurement from sub-BAO scales sharpens constraints from post-reconstruction BAOs by breaking degeneracy between DM and H. Combined with Planck 2016 cosmic microwave background measurements, our distance scale measurements simultaneously imply curvature ΩK = 0.0003 ± 0.0026 and a dark energy equation-of-state parameter w = -1.01 ± 0.06, in strong affirmation of the spatially flat cold dark matter (CDM) model with a cosmological constant (ΛCDM). Our RSD measurements of fσ8, at 6 per cent precision, are similarly consistent with this model. When combined with supernova Ia data, we find H0 = 67.3 ± 1.0 km s-1 Mpc-1 even for our most general dark energy model, in tension with some direct measurements. Adding extra relativistic species as a degree of freedom loosens the constraint only slightly, to H0 = 67.8 ± 1.2 km s-1 Mpc-1. Assuming flat

  17. Global survey of star clusters in the Milky Way. V. Integrated JHKS magnitudes and luminosity functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, N. V.; Piskunov, A. E.; Schilbach, E.; Röser, S.; Scholz, R.-D.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: In this study we determine absolute integrated magnitudes in the J,H,KS passbands for Galactic star clusters from the Milky Way Star Clusters survey. In the wide solar neighbourhood, we derive the open cluster luminosity function (CLF) for different cluster ages. Methods: The integrated magnitudes are based on uniform cluster membership derived from the 2MAst catalogue (a merger of the PPMXL and 2MASS) and are computed by summing up the individual luminosities of the most reliable cluster members. We discuss two different techniques of constructing the CLF, a magnitude-limited and a distance-limited approach. Results: Absolute J,H,KS integrated magnitudes are obtained for 3061 open clusters, and 147 globular clusters. The integrated magnitudes and colours are accurate to about 0.8 and 0.2 mag, respectively. Based on the sample of open clusters we construct the general cluster luminosity function in the solar neighbourhood in the three passbands. In each passband the CLF shows a linear part covering a range of 6 to 7 mag at the bright end. The CLFs reach their maxima at an absolute magnitude of -2 mag, then drop by one order of magnitude. During cluster evolution, the CLF changes its slope within tight, but well-defined limits. The CLF of the youngest clusters has a steep slope of about 0.4 at bright magnitudes and a quasi-flat portion for faint clusters. For the oldest population, we find a flatter function with a slope of about 0.2. The CLFs at Galactocentric radii smaller than that of the solar circle differ from those in the direction of the Galactic anti-centre. The CLF in the inner area is flatter and the cluster surface density higher than the local one. In contrast, the CLF is somewhat steeper than the local one in the outer disk, and the surface density is lower. The corresponding catalogue of integrated magnitudes is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  18. Global priorities for research and the relative importance of different research outcomes: an international Delphi survey of malaria research experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Conteh, Lesong

    2016-12-06

    As global research investment increases, attention inevitably turns to assessing and measuring the outcomes and impact from research programmes. Research can have many different outcomes such as producing advances in scientific knowledge, building research capacity and, ultimately, health and broader societal benefits. The aim of this study was to test the use of a Delphi methodology as a way of gathering views from malaria research experts on research priorities and eliciting relative valuations of the different types of health research impact. An international Delphi survey of 60 malaria research experts was used to understand views on research outcomes and priorities within malaria and across global health more widely. The study demonstrated the application of the Delphi technique to eliciting views on malaria specific research priorities, wider global health research priorities and the values assigned to different types of research impact. In terms of the most important past research successes, the development of new anti-malarial drugs and insecticide-treated bed nets were rated as the most important. When asked about research priorities for future funding, respondents ranked tackling emerging drug and insecticide resistance the highest. With respect to research impact, the panel valued research that focuses on health and health sector benefits and informing policy and product development. Contributions to scientific knowledge, although highly valued, came lower down the ranking, suggesting that efforts to move research discoveries to health products and services are valued more highly than pure advances in scientific knowledge. Although the Delphi technique has been used to elicit views on research questions in global health this was the first time it has been used to assess how a group of research experts value or rank different types of research impact. The results suggest it is feasible to inject the views of a key stakeholder group into the research

  19. Promoting and Protecting Apologetic Discourse through Law: A Global Survey and Critique of Apology Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Charles Kleefeld

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The year 2016 was a milestone for the law-and-apology field, marking the thirtieth anniversary of the first general law aimed at enabling apologies for civil wrongs, introduced in Massachusetts in 1986, as well as the tenth anniversary of the Apology Act, enacted in British Columbia in 2006. The Apology Act seeks to promote apologies and apologetic discourse as an important form of out-of-court dispute resolution, chiefly by making apologetic statements inadmissible for proving liability in civil wrongs. It has served as a benchmark from which subsequent law reform efforts in Canada and abroad have been measured. In 2017, that benchmark was passed with the enactment in Hong Kong of the most ambitious apology law yet, which privileges not only statements of remorse, but also statements of facts embedded in apologies. This article summarises global apology legislation and court decisions to date. Part I considers each major jurisdiction, starting with the USA and concluding with Hong Kong. Part II draws some conclusions about where we have been and where we are going in our efforts to promote or protect apologetic discourse, including recommendations on interpreting existing laws and on drafting or redrafting apology legislation. El año 2016 supuso un hito en el campo del derecho y las disculpas, marcando el trigésimo aniversario de la primera ley general destinada a permitir las disculpas para daños civiles, aprobada en Massachusetts en 1986, así como el décimo aniversario de la Ley de Disculpa, aprobada en la Columbia Británica en 2006. La Ley de Disculpa busca promover las disculpas y el discurso de arrepentimiento como una forma importante para resolver disputas fuera de los tribunales, principalmente haciendo que las afirmaciones de arrepentimiento no fueran admisibles para probar la responsabilidad por daños civiles. Ha servido como ejemplo con el que comparar siguientes intentos de reforma jurídica en Canadá y el extranjero. En

  20. Fe(III) fertilization mitigating net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in paddy rice-wheat rotation systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuwei; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Qiaohui; Zou, Jianwen

    2012-05-01

    A complete accounting of net greenhouse gas balance (NGHGB) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) affected by Fe(III) fertilizer application was examined in typical annual paddy rice-winter wheat rotation cropping systems in southeast China. Annual fluxes of soil carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) were measured using static chamber method, and the net ecosystem exchange of CO(2) (NEE) was determined by the difference between soil CO(2) emissions (R(H)) and net primary production (NPP). Fe(III) fertilizer application significantly decreased R(H) without adverse effects on NPP of rice and winter wheat. Fe(III) fertilizer application decreased seasonal CH(4) by 27-44%, but increased annual N(2)O by 65-100%. Overall, Fe(III) fertilizer application decreased the annual NGHGB and GHGI by 35-47% and 30-36%, respectively. High grain yield and low greenhouse gas intensity can be reconciled by Fe(III) fertilizer applied at the local recommendation rate in rice-based cropping systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. U.S. Geological Survey climate and land use change science strategy: a framework for understanding and responding to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Virginia R.; Kirtland, David A.; Taylor, Ione L.; Belnap, Jayne; Cronin, Thomas M.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Frazier, Eldrich L.; Haines, John W.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Milly, Paul C.D.; ,; ,; ,; Robert, S.; Maule, Alec G.; McMahon, Gerard; Striegl, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a nonregulatory Federal science agency with national scope and responsibilities, is uniquely positioned to serve the Nation’s needs in understanding and responding to global change, including changes in climate, water availability, sea level, land use and land cover, ecosystems, and global biogeochemical cycles. Global change is among the most challenging and formidable issues confronting our Nation and society. Scientists agree that global environmental changes during this century will have far-reaching societal implications (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007; U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2009). In the face of these challenges, the Nation can benefit greatly by using natural science information in decisionmaking.

  2. 'Loose' cigarettes association with intensity of smoking: A secondary data analysis from Global Adult Tobacco Survey, India, 2009-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitasha Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Raising tax on tobacco products is one of the key tobacco control strategies. Globally, it has led to decrease in overall cigarette consumption but on the other hand contributed to increased sale and purchase of loose cigarettes. These loose cigarettes have many important public health implications. Aim: To assess the association between practice of buying loose cigarettes and intensity of smoking. Materials and Methods: A secondary analysis of Global Adult Tobacco Survey, India 2009–2010 data was performed in May 2014, on adult population age 15 years and above. The key outcome variable was “intensity of smoking” defined as average number of cigarettes smoked per day, whereas the key exposure variable was “practice of purchasing loose cigarettes.” Descriptive statistical analysis was performed using EpiData software (version 2.2.2.182 and STATA version 12.1. Results: Nearly, 57% of current cigarette smokers (approximately 3.46 million bought loose cigarettes. The proportion of buying loose cigarettes decreased with increasing level of education and wealth index as well as least among government employees. The intensity of smoking was 70% less among loose cigarette buyers than nonbuyers (odds ratio [OR]: 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.24–0.34. It was found to be significantly lower in rural areas (OR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68–0.97 and among homemakers and those who had formal schooling. Conclusion: This study showed that loose cigarette buying is associated with decreased in smoking intensity. This may be due to increased taxes leading to increased buying of single cigarettes. These findings, therefore, highlight a need for a comprehensive policy and further studies on loose cigarette selling.

  3. The methodology of population surveys of headache prevalence, burden and cost: Principles and recommendations from the Global Campaign against Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of headache is very large, but knowledge of it is far from complete and needs still to be gathered. Published population-based studies have used variable methodology, which has influenced findings and made comparisons difficult. Among the initiatives of the Global Campaign against Headache to improve and standardize methods in use for cross-sectional studies, the most important is the production of consensus-based methodological guidelines. This report describes the development of detailed principles and recommendations. For this purpose we brought together an expert consensus group to include experience and competence in headache epidemiology and/or epidemiology in general and drawn from all six WHO world regions. The recommendations presented are for anyone, of whatever background, with interests in designing, performing, understanding or assessing studies that measure or describe the burden of headache in populations. While aimed principally at researchers whose main interests are in the field of headache, they should also be useful, at least in parts, to those who are expert in public health or epidemiology and wish to extend their interest into the field of headache disorders. Most of all, these recommendations seek to encourage collaborations between specialists in headache disorders and epidemiologists. The focus is on migraine, tension-type headache and medication-overuse headache, but they are not intended to be exclusive to these. The burdens arising from secondary headaches are, in the majority of cases, more correctly attributed to the underlying disorders. Nevertheless, the principles outlined here are relevant for epidemiological studies on secondary headaches, provided that adequate definitions can be not only given but also applied in questionnaires or other survey instruments. PMID:24467862

  4. Impact of the Global Food Safety Initiative on Food Safety Worldwide: Statistical Analysis of a Survey of International Food Processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Philip G; Mauromoustakos, Andy; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Thompson, Kevin C; Yiannas, Frank; Bridges, Kerry; Francois, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    In 2000, the Consumer Goods Forum established the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) to increase the safety of the world's food supply and to harmonize food safety regulations worldwide. In 2013, a university research team in conjunction with Diversey Consulting (Sealed Air), the Consumer Goods Forum, and officers of GFSI solicited input from more than 15,000 GFSI-certified food producers worldwide to determine whether GFSI certification had lived up to these expectations. A total of 828 usable questionnaires were analyzed, representing about 2,300 food manufacturing facilities and food suppliers in 21 countries, mainly across Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and North America. Nearly 90% of these certified suppliers perceived GFSI as being beneficial for addressing their food safety concerns, and respondents were eight times more likely to repeat the certification process knowing what it entailed. Nearly three-quarters (74%) of these food manufacturers would choose to go through the certification process again even if certification were not required by one of their current retail customers. Important drivers for becoming GFSI certified included continuing to do business with an existing customer, starting to do business with new customer, reducing the number of third-party food safety audits, and continuing improvement of their food safety program. Although 50% or fewer respondents stated that they saw actual increases in sales, customers, suppliers, or employees, significantly more companies agreed than disagreed that there was an increase in these key performance indicators in the year following GFSI certification. A majority of respondents (81%) agreed that there was a substantial investment in staff time since certification, and 50% agreed there was a significant capital investment. This survey is the largest and most representative of global food manufacturers conducted to date.

  5. Secondhand smoke exposure at home among one billion children in 21 countries: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Andes, Linda; Morton, Jeremy; Bashir, Rizwan; Fouad, Heba; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Caixeta, Roberta; Dias, Rula Cavaco; Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; Kashiwabara, Mina; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2016-12-01

    Children are vulnerable to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure because of limited control over their indoor environment. Homes remain the major place where children may be exposed to SHS. Our study examines the magnitude, patterns and determinants of SHS exposure in the home among children in 21 countries (19 low-income and middle-income countries and 2 high-income countries). Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data, a household survey of people 15 years of age or older. Data collected during 2009-2013 were analysed to estimate the proportion of children exposed to SHS in the home. GATS estimates and 2012 United Nations population projections for 2015 were also used to estimate the number of children exposed to SHS in the home. The proportion of children younger than 15 years of age exposed to SHS in the home ranged from 4.5% (Panama) to 79.0% (Indonesia). Of the approximately one billion children younger than 15 years of age living in the 21 countries under study, an estimated 507.74 million were exposed to SHS in the home. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines accounted for almost 84.6% of the children exposed to SHS. The prevalence of SHS exposure was higher in countries with higher adult smoking rates and was also higher in rural areas than in urban areas, in most countries. A large number of children were exposed to SHS in the home. Encouraging of voluntary smoke-free rules in homes and cessation in adults has the potential to reduce SHS exposure among children and prevent SHS-related diseases and deaths. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Social determinants of health and tobacco use in thirteen low and middle income countries: evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna M Palipudi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco use has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in morbidity. The objective of this study is to examine the role of social determinants on current tobacco use in thirteen low-and-middle income countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used nationally representative data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS conducted during 2008-2010 in 13 low-and-middle income countries: Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Viet Nam. These surveys provided information on 209,027 respondent's aged 15 years and above and the country datasets were analyzed individually for estimating current tobacco use across various socio-demographic factors (gender, age, place of residence, education, wealth index, and knowledge on harmful effects of smoking. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict the impact of these determinants on current tobacco use status. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco, either daily or occasionally. Former smokers were excluded from the analysis. Adjusted odds ratios for current tobacco use after controlling other cofactors, was significantly higher for males across all countries and for urban areas in eight of the 13 countries. For educational level, the trend was significant in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Philippines and Thailand demonstrating decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing levels of education. For wealth index, the trend of decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing wealth was significant for Bangladesh, India, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Viet Nam. The trend of decreasing prevalence with increasing levels of knowledge on harmful effects of smoking was significant in China, India, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Ukraine and Viet Nam. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate a

  7. Toward a global view of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine use: findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Chiu, Wai-Tat; Sampson, Nancy; Kessler, Ronald C; Anthony, James C; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Aimee; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Neumark, Yehuda; Ormel, J Hans; Pinto-Meza, Alejandra; Posada-Villa, José; Stein, Dan J; Takeshima, Tadashi; Wells, J Elisabeth

    2008-07-01

    Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use cause considerable morbidity and mortality, but good cross-national epidemiological data are limited. This paper describes such data from the first 17 countries participating in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative. Household surveys with a combined sample size of 85,052 were carried out in the Americas (Colombia, Mexico, United States), Europe (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Ukraine), Middle East and Africa (Israel, Lebanon, Nigeria, South Africa), Asia (Japan, People's Republic of China), and Oceania (New Zealand). The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess the prevalence and correlates of a wide variety of mental and substance disorders. This paper focuses on lifetime use and age of initiation of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine. Alcohol had been used by most in the Americas, Europe, Japan, and New Zealand, with smaller proportions in the Middle East, Africa, and China. Cannabis use in the US and New Zealand (both 42%) was far higher than in any other country. The US was also an outlier in cocaine use (16%). Males were more likely than females to have used drugs; and a sex-cohort interaction was observed, whereby not only were younger cohorts more likely to use all drugs, but the male-female gap was closing in more recent cohorts. The period of risk for drug initiation also appears to be lengthening longer into adulthood among more recent cohorts. Associations with sociodemographic variables were consistent across countries, as were the curves of incidence of lifetime use. Globally, drug use is not distributed evenly and is not simply related to drug policy, since countries with stringent user-level illegal drug policies did not have lower levels of use than countries with liberal ones. Sex differences were consistently documented, but are decreasing in more recent cohorts, who also have higher levels of illegal

  8. Smoking behaviour of Czech adolescents: results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in the Czech Republic, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovinová, H; Csémy, L

    2004-03-01

    The Czech Republic Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is a school-based survey of students in grades 7-9, conducted in 2002. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for all of the Czech Republic. On a large sample of students (N=4,149) from 7-9th grade it reveals that smoking among children has been continually growing. According to the results of this study, over 34% of the respondents smoke. Results of the study help us to understand social and attitudinal factors that affect adolescent smoking habits. Social factors include particularly the convenient availability of cigarettes and the lack of the legal regulation of the retail of cigarettes: over one half of all smokers under 15 years of age regularly purchase cigarettes in regular retail outlets; 72% of them reported never having been restricted in their purchases because of their age. Advertising and media coverage appears to be another important factor that affects smoking in this age group. Over 80% of children under 15 years of age reported that they have been exposed to the tobacco advertising. The study also allows an interesting analysis of the exposure to the environmental tobacco smoke. Compared to non-smokers, this exposure has been significantly higher in the case of smokers--both in their homes and at other locations (58% vs. 25%, and 90% vs. 57% respectively). The analysis of the data also revealed a strong misconception about the health risks related to passive smoking among smokers. The study provides three key findings for health promotion: (1) it is necessary to exert a continuous pressure on the political representation to strictly enforce the regulations of tobacco distribution and availability to minors; (2) school health education as well as community oriented prevention programs need to explicitly communicate non-smoking as a standard; and (3) it is important to increase the attractiveness and availability of smoking cessation programs.

  9. Bullying victimization and physical fighting among Venezuelan adolescents in Barinas: results from the Global School-Based Health Survey 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herring Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence among adolescents has untoward psycho-social and physical health effects among this age group. Most of the literature on this topic has been from high-income nations, and little information has come from middle- and low-income nations. This study was done to assess the relationship between physical fighting and bullying victimization among Venezuelan school-going adolescents in Barinas. Method We used data from the 2003 Global School-Based Health Survey conducted among in-school adolescents in Barinas, Venezuela. We estimated the prevalence of bullying victimization and physical fighting. We also conducted Logistic regression analysis to assess the association between a selected list of explanatory variables and physical fighting. We hypothesized that there would be a dose-response relationship between physical fighting and number of times the adolescent reported being a bullied in the past 30 days. Results A total of 2,249 adolescent students participated in the survey. However data on sex (gender were available for only 2,229 respondents, of whom 31.2 (47.4% males and 17.0% females reported having been involved in a physical fight in the last 12 months. Some 31.5% (37.0% males and 27.0% females reported having been bullied in the past 30 days. There was a dose-response relationship between bullying victimization and physical fighting (p-trend < 0.001. Compared to subjects who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied were more likely to engage in physical fighting after controlling for age, sex, substance use (smoking, alcohol drinking or drug use, and parental supervision. Conclusion Physical fighting and bullying victimization experience is common among in-school adolescents in Barinas, Venezuela. The fact that victims of bullying were more likely to have engaged in physical fighting may be evidence supporting the notion that "violence begets more violence".

  10. Social determinants of health and tobacco use in thirteen low and middle income countries: evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna M; Gupta, Prakash C; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Andes, Linda J; Asma, Samira; McAfee, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco use has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in morbidity. The objective of this study is to examine the role of social determinants on current tobacco use in thirteen low-and-middle income countries. We used nationally representative data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted during 2008-2010 in 13 low-and-middle income countries: Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Viet Nam. These surveys provided information on 209,027 respondent's aged 15 years and above and the country datasets were analyzed individually for estimating current tobacco use across various socio-demographic factors (gender, age, place of residence, education, wealth index, and knowledge on harmful effects of smoking). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict the impact of these determinants on current tobacco use status. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco, either daily or occasionally. Former smokers were excluded from the analysis. Adjusted odds ratios for current tobacco use after controlling other cofactors, was significantly higher for males across all countries and for urban areas in eight of the 13 countries. For educational level, the trend was significant in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Philippines and Thailand demonstrating decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing levels of education. For wealth index, the trend of decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing wealth was significant for Bangladesh, India, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Viet Nam. The trend of decreasing prevalence with increasing levels of knowledge on harmful effects of smoking was significant in China, India, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Ukraine and Viet Nam. These findings demonstrate a significant but varied role of social determinants on current tobacco use within and

  11. Toward a global view of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine use: findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Degenhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use cause considerable morbidity and mortality, but good cross-national epidemiological data are limited. This paper describes such data from the first 17 countries participating in the World Health Organization's (WHO's World Mental Health (WMH Survey Initiative.Household surveys with a combined sample size of 85,052 were carried out in the Americas (Colombia, Mexico, United States, Europe (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Ukraine, Middle East and Africa (Israel, Lebanon, Nigeria, South Africa, Asia (Japan, People's Republic of China, and Oceania (New Zealand. The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI was used to assess the prevalence and correlates of a wide variety of mental and substance disorders. This paper focuses on lifetime use and age of initiation of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine. Alcohol had been used by most in the Americas, Europe, Japan, and New Zealand, with smaller proportions in the Middle East, Africa, and China. Cannabis use in the US and New Zealand (both 42% was far higher than in any other country. The US was also an outlier in cocaine use (16%. Males were more likely than females to have used drugs; and a sex-cohort interaction was observed, whereby not only were younger cohorts more likely to use all drugs, but the male-female gap was closing in more recent cohorts. The period of risk for drug initiation also appears to be lengthening longer into adulthood among more recent cohorts. Associations with sociodemographic variables were consistent across countries, as were the curves of incidence of lifetime use.Globally, drug use is not distributed evenly and is not simply related to drug policy, since countries with stringent user-level illegal drug policies did not have lower levels of use than countries with liberal ones. Sex differences were consistently documented, but are decreasing in more recent cohorts, who also have higher levels of

  12. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS): male homosexuality among Arabic-speaking internet users in the Middle East--2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeer, Osama; Shaeer, Kamal

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of male homosexuality is difficult to elicit considering the sensitivity of one's sexual orientation. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS) is an online epidemiologic study of male and female sexuality. The online nature of GOSS allows more confidentiality and wider geographic reach, particularly important in investigating sexual issues within the more conservative societies. This study aims to determine the prevalence of male homosexuality among Internet users in the Arabic-speaking Middle East and the unique characteristics of this subset of the population. Prevalence of male homosexuality. In the year 2010, GOSS was offered to Arabic-speaking web surfers above 18 years of age in the Middle East. Potential participants were invited via advertising on Facebook®. Invitations were dispatched randomly with the exception of geographic region and age, regardless web surfing preferences. GOSS relied in part on validated questionnaires such as the International Index of Erectile Function, as well on other nonvalidated questions. 17.1% reported desire toward the same sex, of whom 5.6% had homosexual encounters, mostly in the form of external stimulation rather than intercourse, and exclusively undercover. An overwhelming majority was ego-dystonic (78.2%). This is--to our knowledge--the first online survey to address the prevalence of homosexual orientation and practice in the Middle East, discriminating desire from practice, ego-syntonic from ego-dystonic, and investigating the pattern of practice. Homosexual desire is present in the Middle East as it is around the world, and homosexual encounters are as prevalent. Yet, the undercover and ego-dystonic states prevail. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Gaia-ESO Survey: Global properties of clusters Trumpler 14 and 16 in the Carina nebula ⋆⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, F.; Klutsch, A.; Jeffries, R. D.; Randich, S.; Prisinzano, L.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Micela, G.; Kalari, V.; Frasca, A.; Zwitter, T.; Bonito, R.; Gilmore, G.; Flaccomio, E.; Francois, P.; Koposov, S.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Sacco, G. G.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Alfaro, E. J.; Costado, M. T.; Donati, P.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Magrini, L.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Worley, C. C.; Vink, J. S.; Zaggia, S.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We present the first extensive spectroscopic study of the global population in star clusters Trumpler 16, Trumpler 14, and Collinder 232 in the Carina nebula, using data from the Gaia-ESO Survey, down to solar-mass stars. Methods: In addition to the standard homogeneous survey data reduction, a special processing was applied here because of the bright nebulosity surrounding Carina stars. Results: We find about 400 good candidate members ranging from OB types down to slightly subsolar masses. About 100 heavily reddened early-type Carina members found here were previously unrecognized or poorly classified, including two candidate O stars and several candidate Herbig Ae/Be stars. Their large brightness makes them useful tracers of the obscured Carina population. The spectroscopically derived temperatures for nearly 300 low-mass members enables the inference of individual extinction values and the study of the relative placement of stars along the line of sight. Conclusions: We find a complex spatial structure with definite clustering of low-mass members around the most massive stars and spatially variable extinction. By combining the new data with existing X-ray data, we obtain a more complete picture of the three-dimensional spatial structure of the Carina clusters and of their connection to bright and dark nebulosity and UV sources. The identification of tens of background giants also enables us to determine the total optical depth of the Carina nebula along many sightlines. We are also able to put constraints on the star formation history of the region with Trumpler 14 stars found to be systematically younger than stars in other subclusters. We find a large percentage of fast-rotating stars among Carina solar-mass members, which provide new constraints on the rotational evolution of pre-main-sequence stars in this mass range. Based on observations collected with the FLAMES spectrograph at VLT/UT2 telescope (Paranal Observatory, ESO, Chile), for the Gaia

  14. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in four Peruvian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Peruga, Armando; Hallal, Ana Luiza Curi; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2008-12-15

    In 2004, Peru ratified the Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and in 2006 passed Law 28705 for tobacco consumption and exposure reduction. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. Findings from the GYTS conducted in four main cities in Peru in 2000 and 2003 are reported in this paper and can be used to monitor provisions of the WHO FCTC. The GYTS is a school-based survey that uses a standardized methodology for sampling, questionnaire construction, field procedures, and data management. In total, 5,332 and 7,824 students aged 13 to 15 years participated in the 2000 and 2003 surveys conducted in Huancayo, Lima, Tarapoto and Trujillo. In both years, Lima had the highest lifetime (54.6% and 59.6%) and current use of tobacco (18.6% and 19.2%) of the four cities. According to gender, boys smoked more than girls and less than 20% of students initiated smoking before the age of 10. Among smokers, more than 60% bought their cigarettes in a store with no restriction for their age, and approximately 12% had ever been offered "free cigarettes". Around 90% of students were in favor of banning smoking in public places. Changes between 2000 and 2003 included an increase in the percentage of smokers who wanted to have a cigarette first thing in the morning in Tarapoto (from 0% to 1.2%) and a decrease in exposure to tobacco at home in Huancayo (from 23.7% to 17.8%) and Trujillo (from 27.8% to 19.8%) While few changes in tobacco use among youth have been observed in the GYTS in Peru, the data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation efforts. At this time, tobacco control efforts in Peru need to focus on enhancing Law 28705 to include enforcement of existing provisions and inclusion of new laws and regulations. Most of these provisions are required of all countries, such as Peru, that have ratified the WHO FCTC.

  15. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS in four Peruvian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Charles W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In 2004, Peru ratified the Health Organization (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC and in 2006 passed Law 28705 for tobacco consumption and exposure reduction. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. Findings from the GYTS conducted in four main cities in Peru in 2000 and 2003 are reported in this paper and can be used to monitor provisions of the WHO FCTC. Methods The GYTS is a school-based survey that uses a standardized methodology for sampling, questionnaire construction, field procedures, and data management. In total, 5,332 and 7,824 students aged 13 to 15 years participated in the 2000 and 2003 surveys conducted in Huancayo, Lima, Tarapoto and Trujillo. Results In both years, Lima had the highest lifetime (54.6% and 59.6% and current use of tobacco (18.6% and 19.2% of the four cities. According to gender, boys smoked more than girls and less than 20% of students initiated smoking before the age of 10. Among smokers, more than 60% bought their cigarettes in a store with no restriction for their age, and approximately 12% had ever been offered "free cigarettes". Around 90% of students were in favor of banning smoking in public places. Changes between 2000 and 2003 included an increase in the percentage of smokers who wanted to have a cigarette first thing in the morning in Tarapoto (from 0% to 1.2% and a decrease in exposure to tobacco at home in Huancayo (from 23.7% to 17.8% and Trujillo (from 27.8% to 19.8% Conclusion While few changes in tobacco use among youth have been observed in the GYTS in Peru, the data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation efforts. At this time, tobacco control efforts in Peru need to focus on enhancing Law 28705 to include enforcement of existing provisions and inclusion of new laws and regulations. Most of these provisions are required of all countries, such as Peru

  16. Association of APOE polymorphism with chronic kidney disease in a nationally representative sample: a Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III Genetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthier-Schaad Yvette

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apolipoprotein E polymorphisms (APOE have been associated with lowered glomerular filtration rate (GFR and chronic kidney disease (CKD with e2 allele conferring risk and e4 providing protection. However, few data are available in non-European ethnic groups or in a population-based cohort. Methods The authors analyzed 5,583 individuals from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III to determine association with estimated GFR by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD equation and low-GFR cases. Low-GFR cases were defined as GFR 2; additionally, GFR was analyzed continuously. Results In univariate analysis, the e4 allele was negatively associated with low-GFR cases in non-Hispanic whites, odds ratio (OR: 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.60, 0.97. In whites, there was a significant association between increasing APOE score (indicating greater number of e2 alleles and higher prevalence of low-GFR cases (OR: 1.21, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.45. Analysis of continuous GFR in whites found the e4 allele was associated with higher levels of continuous GFR (β-coefficient: 2.57 ml/min/1.73 m2, 95%CI: 0.005, 5.14; in non-Hispanic blacks the e2 allele was associated with lower levels of continuous GFR (β-coefficient: -3.73 ml/min/1.73 m2, 95%CI: -6.61, -0.84. APOE e2 and e4 alleles were rare and not associated with low-GFR cases or continuous GFR in Mexican Americans. Conclusion In conclusion, the authors observed a weak association between the APOE e4 allele and low-GFR cases and continuous GFR in non-Hispanic whites, and the APOE e2 allele and continuous GFR in non-Hispanic blacks, but found no association with either measure of kidney function in Mexican Americans. Larger studies including multiethnic groups are needed to determine the significance of this association.

  17. Feasibility planning study for a behavior database. Volume III Appendix B, Compendium of survey questions on drinking and driving and occupant restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The general objective of the project was to determine the feasibility of and the general requirements for a centralized database on driver behavior and attitudes related to drunk driving and occupant restraints. Volume III is a compendium of question...

  18. Comparison of the Carbon System Parameters at the Global CO2 Survey Crossover Locations in the North and South Pacific Ocean, 1990-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feely, Richard A [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Lamb, Marilyn F. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Greeley, Dana J. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Wanninkhof, Rik [NOAA, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML)

    1999-10-01

    As a collaborative program to measure global ocean carbon inventories and provide estimates of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (C02) uptake by the oceans. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy have sponsored the collection of ocean carbon measurements as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment and Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study cruises. The cruises discussed here occurred in the North and South Pacific from 1990 through 1996. The carbon parameters from these 30 crossover locations have been compared to ensure that a consistent global data set emerges from the survey cruises. !'he results indicate that for dissolved inorganic carbon. fugacity of C02• and pH. the a~:,rreements at most crossover locations are well within the design specifications for the global CO) survey: whereas. in the case of total alkaliniry. the agreement between crossover locations is not as close.

  19. Correlates of cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Thailand: findings from the Thai global youth tobacco survey 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies examining the social correlates of tobacco use among adolescents fail to recognise theories of health behaviour and health promotion in their analysis. Using the Socio-Ecologiocal Model (SEM we assessed the demographic and social factors associated with current cigarette smoking among adolescents in Thailand. Method A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey (Thai GYTS 2005 was analysed to obtain prevalence of selected attributes and assess factors associated with current cigarette smoking. Current cigarette smoking was defined as having smoked a cigarette, even a single puff, in the last 30 days. Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the level of association between the explanatory variables and current smoking. Results Of the 18,368 respondents, 22.0% males and 5.2% females reported being current smokers (p Conclusion Current cigarette smoking was associated with male gender, smoking parents or closest peers. Perception that smoking was harmful to health was associated with less likelihood of being a current smoker.

  20. Alcohol marketing, drunkenness, and problem drinking among Zambian youth: findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (N = 2257). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.02) and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06-1.87) among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  1. Survey on bio-chemical complex harmonized with global environment. 3; Kankyo chowagata seibutsu kagaku konbinato ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A survey was conducted of bio-chemical complex harmonized with the global environment for the purpose of constructing the material production process harmonized with the environment by the process fusion between biological conversion and chemical reaction. Palm oil was taken up as renewable raw material plant resource. The process utilizing bio-chemical reaction advances at normal temperature and pressure and is high in reaction specificity and selectivity. This is a recycling, circulation and environmental harmony type production technology which brings high yield, energy conservation, resource conservation, and low environmental loads. Waste water treatment and production of useful substances from sludge were thought as elementary technology. A possibility was studied of enzyme production by culturing solid waste, and the enzyme was applied to the hydrolysis process. The paper indicated trace components in the palm oil and the extraction method and proposed the production process of new derivatives for adding value to hydrolysate. A study was also made of the overall process flow which integrated these new processes and the material balance. The comprehensive evaluation of this new process was made from the aspect of the product structure, the market, construction cost, economical efficiency, and the environment. 133 refs., 65 figs., 56 tabs.

  2. Strategies for restoration of deep-water coral ecosystems based on a global survey of oil and gas regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, E. E.; Jones, D.; Levin, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    The oil and gas industry is one of the most active agents of the global industrialization of the deep sea. The wide array of impacts following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlighted the need for a systematic review of existing regulations both in US waters and internationally. Within different exclusive economic zones, there are a wide variety of regulations regarding the survey of deep-water areas prior to leasing and the acceptable set-back distances from vulnerable marine ecosystems once they are discovered. There are also varying mitigation strategies for accidental release of oil and gas, including active monitoring systems, temporary closings of oil and gas production, and marine protected areas. The majority of these regulations are based on previous studies of typical impacts from oil and gas drilling, rather than accidental releases. However, the probability of an accident from standard operations increases significantly with depth. The Oil & Gas working group of the Deep Ocean Stewardship Initiative is an international partnership of scientists, managers, non-governmental organizations, and industry professionals whose goal is to review existing regulations for the oil & gas industry and produce a best practices document to advise both developed and developing nations on their regulatory structure as energy development moves into deeper waters.

  3. Alcohol Marketing, Drunkenness, and Problem Drinking among Zambian Youth: Findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Swahn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS conducted in Zambia (2004 of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (=2257. Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09–2.02 and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06–1.87 among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of truancy among adolescents in Swaziland: findings from the Global School-Based Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Educational attainment is an important determinant of diverse health outcomes. Truancy among adolescents jeopardizes chances of achieving their educational goals. Truant behaviors are also associated with various psychosocial problems. There is however limited data on the prevalence and factors associated with truancy among adolescents in Africa. Methods We used data from the Swaziland Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS conducted in 2003 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported truancy within the last 30 days among adolescents. We also assessed the association between self-reported truancy and a selected list of independent variables using logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 7341 students participated in the study. In analysis of available data, 2526 (36.2% and 4470 (63.8% were males and females respectively. The overall prevalence of truancy within the last 30 days preceding the study was 21.6%. Prevalence of truancy was 27.4% (605 and 17.9% (723 in males and females respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, being a male, having been bullied, lower school grades, and alcohol use were positively associated with truancy. Adolescents who perceived themselves as having parental support were less likely to have reported being truant. Conclusion Truancy among adolescents in Swaziland should be regarded as an important social problem as it is relatively prevalent. The design and implementation of intervention programs aimed to reduce truant behaviours should incorporate our knowledge of the factors identified as associated with bullying.

  5. Risk factors of future smoking among Thai youth: a secondary analysis of the Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyeongsil; Lee, Joann; Lee, Sungkyu

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to identify the risk factors for future smoking among Thai youth aged 13 to 15 years (seventh to ninth grade). Data from the nationally representative 2005 Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 15 774) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Among nonsmoking Thai youth, boys were much more likely to have intention of future smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.37-0.84). Younger youth were more likely to be cigarette smokers in the future (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.56-0.88). Youth having the intention of smoking from a friend's cigarette offer were 5.29 times more likely to have intention of future smoking, compared with those who did not (95% CI = 3.75-7.46). Understanding and targeting youth at higher risk for future smoking can provide for a lowering of the youth smoking rate in Thailand and contribute to the country's continued efforts in effective youth tobacco control. © 2013 APJPH.

  6. Monitor III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Monitor III is a totally portable version of the Monitor I and II systems in use at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) since 1976. The Monitor III system differs from the other systems in that it is capable of operating in any location accessible by truck. Although Monitor III was designed primarily for the handling and disposal of radioactive materials, it is also capable of performing the more sophisticated operations normally performed by the other Monitor systems. The development and operational capabilities of the Monitor remote handling system have been thoroughly reported since 1978. This paper reports on the commissioning of a new system with unique capabilities

  7. An analysis of global youth tobacco survey for developing a comprehensive national smoking policy in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Sarmento, Decio; Yehadji, Degninou

    2016-01-22

    Smoking is a global public health concern. Timor-Leste is facing a rapidly growing epidemic of tobacco use. The trend of smoking in Timor-Leste seems to be increasing and the magnitude of the problem affects people who smoke before reaching adulthood. One of the factors implicated in the continuously rising trend of smoking among young people in Timor-Leste is clearly due to unavailability of restrictive laws and regulations. Therefore, our study sought to analyze available dataset from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) for developing a comprehensive national smoking policy in order to lower smoking risks among young people in Timor-Leste. We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2009 GYTS in Timor-Leste. The 2009 GYTS assessed 1657 in-school students aged 13-15 years for current smoking prevalence and determinants of tobacco use. We used IBM SPSS version 21 software to analyze the data. Frequency analyses were computed to identify demographic characteristics of study participants. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between each demographic characteristic as well as each independent variable and the outcome of being current smokers. Out of 1657 in-school students, 51 % were of ages less than 15; 53 % were girls; and 45 % were in grade 2. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking was found to be 51 %. The prevalence of current smoking among in-school students increased with ages (from 46 % in less than 15 to 57 % in 15 plus). Boys were more likely to be smokers than girls (59 % versus 28 %). Significant factors positively associated with current smoking included parental smoking; closed-peer smoking; number of days people smoked in the house; having family discussion about harmful effects of smoking; being smoking in areas such as school, public places and home; and having seen cigarette advertisements on billboard. Timor-Leste has higher prevalence of cigarette smoking among minors, especially among boys. Our analysis

  8. Scientific publications on portal vein thrombosis and Budd-Chiari syndrome: a global survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xingshun; Jia, Jia; Ren, Weirong; Yang, Man; De Stefano, Valerio; Wang, Juan; Fan, Daiming

    2014-03-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) are two rare vascular disorders of the liver that can lead to life-threatening complications. We conducted a global survey to systematically analyze the scientific publications in the fields of PVT and BCS. All papers regarding PVT and BCS were identified via the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases. The publication year, country, type of paper, study design, and number of citations were summarized. Good quality papers were defined as those in which a high proportion of homogeneous patients with BCS and/or PVT was observed. We identified 6691 and 4325 papers regarding PVT and BCS, respectively. The number of papers gradually increased over time. Researchers from the USA published the greatest number of papers (PVT: n=1418; BCS: n=888). Clinical studies were the most common type of paper (PVT: n=5395; BCS n=3171), but fewer than half of these observed more than 10 patients (PVT: n=2667/5395; BCS: n=1092/3171). Furthermore, fewer than half of the clinical studies with more than 10 patients were of good quality (PVT: 976/2667; BCS: 466/1092). According to the study design, the good quality papers were classified as cohort studies (PVT: n=865; BCS: n=421), case-control studies (PVT: n=98; BCS: n=45), and randomized controlled trials (PVT: n=13; BCS: n=0). The 5 most frequently cited original articles and guidelines/consensuses were also listed. Despite an increase in the number of papers regarding PVT and BCS over time, most of the papers had a small sample size, suggesting the necessity of large cohort studies or randomized controlled trials.

  9. Tobacco Use Among Students Aged 13-15 Years in South Korea: The 2013 Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhye Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives We examined the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke among middle-school students in Korea using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS in 2013. Methods The GYTS in Korea was conducted between July and August 2013 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data were collected using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of middle-school students aged 13-15 years in sampled classrooms. Results The GYTS in Korea was completed by 4235 students aged 13-15 years in 43 middle schools. Approximately one in five of the students (17.8% reported that they had tried cigarettes in the past, while 5.2% reported currently being cigarette smokers. Current cigarette smoking was higher in boys (7.5% than in girls (2.6%. Of the students, 29.7% had been exposed to secondhand smoke at home, 47.4% inside enclosed public places, and 53.9% in outdoor public places. Of the current cigarette smokers, 25.7% bought their cigarettes from a store despite a law prohibiting this. Additionally, 58.0% of students noticed point-of-sale tobacco advertisements or promotions, 66.8% of current cigarette smokers wanted to stop smoking, and 70.9% of students had been taught about the dangers of tobacco use in school. Conclusions These findings provide an opportunity to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive tobacco control policy. The results suggest that youth have relatively easy access to cigarettes and are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke in public places, as well as to point-of-sale tobacco advertisements and promotions. Strict enforcement of the ban on tobacco sales to youth, expanding smoke-free areas, and advertising bans are needed to reduce tobacco use among youth.

  10. The global existence and large time behavior of smooth compressible fluid in an infinitely expanding ball, III: The 3-D Boltzmann equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huicheng; Zhao, Wenbin

    2018-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of the works in [35] and [37], where the authors have established the global existence of smooth compressible flows in infinitely expanding balls for inviscid gases and viscid gases, respectively. In this paper, we are concerned with the global existence and large time behavior of compressible Boltzmann gases in an infinitely expanding ball. Such a problem is one of the interesting models in studying the theory of global smooth solutions to multidimensional compressible gases with time dependent boundaries and vacuum states at infinite time. Due to the conservation of mass, the fluid in the expanding ball becomes rarefied and eventually tends to a vacuum state meanwhile there are no appearances of vacuum domains in any part of the expansive ball, which is easily observed in finite time. In the present paper, we will confirm this physical phenomenon for the Boltzmann equation by obtaining the exact lower and upper bound on the macroscopic density function.

  11. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna M.; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S.; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation. PMID:26378897

  12. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna M; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S; Asma, Samira

    2015-09-17

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation.

  13. A survey on job satisfaction among nursing staff before and after introduction of the NIDCAP model of care in a level III NICU in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielenga, Joke M.; Smit, Bert J.; Unk, Karel A.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the effect of introduction of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) on nursing staff job satisfaction. SUBJECTS: Registered nurses, with specialist neonatal qualifications or in training, in a level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in

  14. A 1.4 deg2 blind survey for C II], C III] and C IV at z ˜ 0.7-1.5 - I. Nature, morphologies and equivalent widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroe, Andra; Sobral, David; Matthee, Jorryt; Calhau, João; Oteo, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    While traditionally associated with active galactic nuclei (AGN), the properties of the C II] (λ = 2326 Å), C III] (λ, λ = 1907, 1909 Å) and C IV (λ, λ = 1549, 1551 Å) emission lines are still uncertain as large, unbiased samples of sources are scarce. We present the first blind, statistical study of C II], C III] and C IV emitters at z ˜ 0.68, 1.05, 1.53, respectively, uniformly selected down to a flux limit of ˜4 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-1 through a narrow-band survey covering an area of ˜1.4 deg2 over COSMOS and UDS. We detect 16 C II], 35 C III] and 17 C IV emitters, whose nature we investigate using optical colours as well as Hubble Space Telescope (HST), X-ray, radio and far-infrared data. We find that z ˜ 0.7 C II] emitters are consistent with a mixture of blue (UV slope β = -2.0 ± 0.4) star-forming (SF) galaxies with discy HST structure and AGN with Seyfert-like morphologies. Bright C II] emitters have individual X-ray detections as well as high average black hole accretion rates (BHARs) of ˜0.1 M⊙ yr-1. C III] emitters at z ˜ 1.05 trace a general population of SF galaxies, with β = -0.8 ± 1.1, a variety of optical morphologies, including isolated and interacting galaxies and low BHAR (frame equivalent widths (EWs) that could be as large as 50-100 Å. AGN or spatial offsets between the UV continuum stellar disc and the line-emitting regions may explain the large EW. These bright C II], C III] and C IV emitters are ideal candidates for spectroscopic follow-up to fully unveil their nature.

  15. Richard III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2017-01-01

    Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"......Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"...

  16. Role of global stress in the health-related quality of life of caregivers: evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzelman, Kristin; Skinner, Halcyon G; Gangnon, Ronald E; Nieto, F Javier; Malecki, Kristen; Witt, Whitney P

    2014-06-01

    Informal caregivers play a critical role in the care of individuals who are aging or have disabilities and are at increased risk for poor health outcomes. This study sought to determine whether and to what extent: (1) global stress and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) differed between caregivers and non-caregivers; (2) global stress mediated the relationship between caregiving status and HRQoL; and (3) caregiver strain (i.e., stress attributable to caregiving) was associated with worse HRQoL after accounting for global stress. Cross-sectional data were from the 2008-2010 Survey of the Health of Wisconsin, a representative sample of adults aged 21-74 years. Participants (n = 1,364) completed questionnaires about caregiving status, sociodemographics, global stress, and HRQoL. Staged generalized additive models assessed the impact of caregiving on HRQoL and the role of caregiver strain and global stress in this relationship. In the last 12 months, 17.2% of the sample reported caregiving. Caregivers reported worse mental HRQoL than non-caregivers (β -1.88, p = 0.02); global stress mediated this relationship (p stress (p stress, rather than caregiving per se, contributes to poor HRQoL among caregivers, above and beyond the effect of caregiving strain. Screening, monitoring, and reducing stress in multiple life domains presents an opportunity to improve HRQoL outcomes for caregivers.

  17. The Global Online Sexuality Survey: public perception of female genital cutting among internet users in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeer, Osama; Shaeer, Eman

    2013-12-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC) is a ritual involving cutting part or all of the female external genitalia, performed primarily in Africa. Understanding the motivation behind FGC whether religious or otherwise is important for formulating the anti-FGC messages in prevention and awareness campaigns. The study aims to provide an investigation of opinion over FGC, the root motive/s behind it, in addition to the current prevalence of FGC among Internet users in the Middle East. The Global Online Sexuality Survey was undertaken in the Middle East via paid advertising on Facebook®, comprising 146 questions. The main outcomes are the prevalence of and public opinion on FGC among Internet users. 31.6% of 992 participants experienced FGC at an average age of 9.6 ± 3.5 years, mostly in Egypt (50.2%). FGC was performed among both Muslims (36.9%) and Christians (18.8%), more in rural areas (78.7%) than urban (47.4%), and was performed primarily by doctors (54.7%) and nurses (9.5%). Whether or not it is necessary for female chastity, FGC was reported as highly necessary (22.5%), and necessary (21.6%). This was more among males, particularly among those with rural origin, with no difference as per educational level. This is in contrast to only 3.7% regarding FGC as a mandate of Islam. Religious opinion among Muslims was: 55.4% anti-FGC and 44.6% pro-FGC. An important motivation driving FGC seems to be males seeking female chastity rather than religion, especially with FGC not being an Islamic mandate, not to undermine the importance of religion among other motives. School and university education were void of an effective anti-FGC message, which should be addressed. There is a shift toward doctors and nurses for performing FGC, which is both a threat and an opportunity. We propose that the primary message against FGC should be delivered by medical and paramedical personnel who can deliver a balanced and confidential message. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. NASA/DoD Aerospace knowledge diffusion research project. III - The impact of a sponsor letter on mail survey response rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the impact of two interventions in the design of mail surveys. The interventions were devised to increase response rates and to clarify sample eligibility. To test their effectiveness, interventions occurred at different points in each of three surveys. One intervention was a letter from the research sponsor (NASA) supporting the research. The other intervention was the inclusion of a postcard that could be used by the respondent to indicate that the questionnaire was not appropriate for him/her. The sample was drawn from the membership of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics research society. The results indicate that the sponsor letter improved response rates under certain conditions described in the paper. The postcards assisted in identifying noneligible persons particularly when they accompanied a pre-survey letter. The implications for survey costs are discussed.

  19. Physicians Experience with and Expectations of the Safety and Tolerability of WHO-Step III Opioids for Chronic (Low Back Pain: Post Hoc Analysis of Data from a German Cross-Sectional Physician Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Ueberall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe physicians’ daily life experience with WHO-step III opioids in the treatment of chronic (low back pain (CLBP. Methods. Post hoc analysis of data from a cross-sectional online survey with 4.283 Germany physicians. Results. With a reported median use in 17% of affected patients, WHO-step III opioids play a minor role in treatment of CLBP in daily practice associated with a broad spectrum of positive and negative effects. If prescribed, potent opioids were reported to show clinically relevant effects (such as ≥50% pain relief in approximately 3 of 4 patients (median 72%. Analgesic effects reported are frequently related with adverse events (AEs. Only 20% of patients were reported to remain free of any AE. Most frequently reported AE was constipation (50%, also graded highest for AE-related daily life restrictions (median 46%. Specific AE countermeasures were reported to be necessary in approximately half of patients (median 45%; nevertheless AE-related premature discontinuation rates reported were high (median 22%. Fentanyl/morphine were the most/least prevalently prescribed potent opioids mentioned (median 20 versus 8%. Conclusion. Overall, use of WHO-step III opioids for CLBP is low. AEs, especially constipation, are commonly reported and interfere significantly with analgesic effects in daily practice. Nevertheless, beneficial effects outweigh related AEs in most patients with CLBP.

  20. Levantamento da fauna entomológica no estado do Paraná III: Saturniidae (Lepidoptera Survey of the entomological fauna in Paraná State. III: Saturniidae (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C. Marinoni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the Survey of the Entomological Fauna in Paraná State, the family Saturniidae was studied in its ecological and faunistic aspects. The material was captured using one light trap installed in eight different sites of the State: Antonina, São José dos Pinhais, Colombo, Ponta Grossa, Telêmaco Borba, Jundiaí do Sul, Guarapuava and Fênix, from October 1986 to September 1987. The total number of specimens and means values of capture were analyzed. Indices of diversity and evenness were used to discuss richness and dominance of species in each locality. Besides using ecological indices, the data were also compared by Clustering Analysts, Principal Coordinate Analysis, Minimum Spanning Tree and Linear Correlation Coefficient. The results were compared with meteorological and floristic conditions in the eight localities.

  1. Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Working Group III (Mitigation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Jean; Pipatti, Riitta; Hashimoto, Seiji; Diaz, Cristobal; Mareckova, Katarina; Diaz, Luis; Kjeldsen, Peter; Monni, Suvi; Faaij, Andre; Gao, Qingxian; Zhang, Tianzhu; Ahmed, Mohammed Abdelrafie; Sutamihardja, R T M; Gregory, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from post-consumer waste and wastewater are a small contributor (about 3%) to total global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Emissions for 2004-2005 totalled 1.4 Gt CO2-eq year(-1) relative to total emissions from all sectors of 49 Gt CO2-eq year(-1) [including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and F-gases normalized according to their 100-year global warming potentials (GWP)]. The CH4 from landfills and wastewater collectively accounted for about 90% of waste sector emissions, or about 18% of global anthropogenic methane emissions (which were about 14% of the global total in 2004). Wastewater N2O and CO2 from the incineration of waste containing fossil carbon (plastics; synthetic textiles) are minor sources. Due to the wide range of mature technologies that can mitigate GHG emissions from waste and provide public health, environmental protection, and sustainable development co-benefits, existing waste management practices can provide effective mitigation of GHG emissions from this sector. Current mitigation technologies include landfill gas recovery, improved landfill practices, and engineered wastewater management. In addition, significant GHG generation is avoided through controlled composting, state-of-the-art incineration, and expanded sanitation coverage. Reduced waste generation and the exploitation of energy from waste (landfill gas, incineration, anaerobic digester biogas) produce an indirect reduction of GHG emissions through the conservation of raw materials, improved energy and resource efficiency, and fossil fuel avoidance. Flexible strategies and financial incentives can expand waste management options to achieve GHG mitigation goals; local technology decisions are influenced by a variety of factors such as waste quantity and characteristics, cost and financing issues, infrastructure requirements including available land area, collection and transport considerations, and regulatory constraints

  2. Fermilab III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The total ongoing plans for Fermilab are wrapped up in the Fermilab III scheme, centrepiece of which is the proposal for a new Main Injector. The Laboratory has been awarded a $200,000 Illinois grant which will be used to initiate environmental assessment and engineering design of the Main Injector, while a state review panel recommended that the project should also benefit from $2 million of funding

  3. A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part III. Evaluating Four Conceptual Cosmology Surveys: An Item Response Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    This is the third of five papers detailing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. In this paper, we use item response theory to analyze students' responses to three out of the four conceptual cosmology surveys we developed. The specific item response theory model we use is…

  4. The Complex Emergency Database: a global repository of small-scale surveys on nutrition, health and mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Altare

    Full Text Available Evidence has become central for humanitarian decision making, as it is now commonly agreed that aid must be provided solely in proportion to the needs and on the basis of needs assessments. Still, reliable epidemiological data from conflict-affected communities are difficult to acquire in time for effective decisions, as existing health information systems progressively lose functionality with the onset of conflicts. In the last decade, health and nutrition humanitarian agencies have made substantial progress in collecting quality data using small-scale surveys. In 2002, a group of academics, non-governmental organizations, and UN agencies launched the Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions (SMART methodology. Since then, field agencies have conducted thousands of surveys. Although the contribution of each survey by itself is limited by its small sample and the impossibility to extrapolate results to national level, their aggregation can provide a more stable view of both trends and distributions in a larger region. The Complex Emergency Database (CEDAT was set up in order to make best use of the collective force of these surveys. Functioning as a central repository, it can provide valuable information on trends and patterns of mortality and nutrition indicators from conflict-affected communities. Given their high spatial resolution and their high frequency, CEDAT data can complement official statistics in between nationwide surveys. They also provide information of the displacement status of the measured population, pointing out vulnerabilities. CEDAT is hosted at the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, University of Louvain. It runs on voluntary agreements between the survey implementer and the CEDAT team. To date, it contains 3309 surveys from 51 countries, and is a unique repository of such data.

  5. Use of global coronary heart disease risk assessment in practice: a cross-sectional survey of a sample of U.S. physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shillinglaw Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global coronary heart disease (CHD risk assessment is recommended to guide primary preventive pharmacotherapy. However, little is known about physicians' understanding and use of global CHD risk assessment. Our objective was to examine US physicians' awareness, use, and attitudes regarding global CHD risk assessment in clinical practice, and how these vary by provider specialty. Methods Using a web-based survey of US family physicians, general internists, and cardiologists, we examined awareness of tools available to calculate CHD risk, method and use of CHD risk assessment, attitudes towards CHD risk assessment, and frequency of using CHD risk assessment to guide recommendations of aspirin, lipid-lowering and blood pressure (BP lowering therapies for primary prevention. Characteristics of physicians indicating they use CHD risk assessments were compared in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results A total of 952 physicians completed the questionnaire, with 92% reporting awareness of tools available to calculate CHD global risk. Among those aware of such tools, over 80% agreed that CHD risk calculation is useful, improves patient care, and leads to better decisions about recommending preventive therapies. However, only 41% use CHD risk assessment in practice. The most commonly reported barrier to CHD risk assessment is that it is too time consuming. Among respondents who calculate global CHD risk, 69% indicated they use it to guide lipid lowering therapy recommendations; 54% use it to guide aspirin therapy recommendations; and 48% use it to guide BP lowering therapy. Only 40% of respondents who use global CHD risk routinely tell patients their risk. Use of a personal digital assistant or smart phone was associated with reported use of CHD risk assessment (adjusted OR 1.58; 95% CI 1.17-2.12. Conclusions Reported awareness of tools to calculate global CHD risk appears high, but the majority of physicians in this sample do not

  6. Results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey and implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in former Soviet Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanova, Gulnoza; Mokdad, Ali H

    2013-04-01

    We used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) to monitor articles of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries. The GYTS is a school-based survey, which uses a two-stage sample design to produce representative, independent, cross-sectional estimates. The GYTS was conducted in 10 out of 12 FSU countries from 1999 to 2008. The prevalence of ever smoking and current smoking, smoking initiation, and exposure to second-hand smoking decreased over time. Overall, willingness to stop smoking, supporting smoking bans, and receiving information about the dangers of smoking increased over time. Overall, our study shows that FSU countries had positive changes in tobacco-use prevalence and perception among youth over time. Our findings should be used as baseline measures for future tobacco-control interventions aimed at reducing tobacco use among youth. Moreover, our results call for the enforcement of restricting advertising for tobacco products.

  7. Toward the development of the International Classification of Functioning Core Sets for children with cerebral palsy: a global expert survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiariti, Veronica; Mâsse, Louise C; Cieza, Alarcos; Klassen, Anne F; Sauve, Karen; Armstrong, Robert; O'Donnell, Maureen

    2014-05-01

    The goal of the International Classification of Functioning is to standardize the classification of health and function of children around the world. To facilitate the application of this classification, International Classification of Functioning-based tools like the "Core Sets" are being developed. We conducted an international survey of professional experts to identify the most relevant areas of functioning in children with cerebral palsy. The questionnaire covered each component of the classification. In total, 193 professionals completed the survey (response rate 78%). Overall, 9706 answers were linked to the classification (pediatric version) by 2 professionals. From the experts' perspective, movement-related areas and social participation are the most relevant areas of functioning. Experts suggest a more comprehensive profile of functioning in particular in areas of personal capacity and social participation. The results of this survey will inform the development of the International Classification of Functioning Core Sets for children with cerebral palsy.

  8. Validating a hospital medicines formulary survey in the Western Pacific Region--a global hospital pharmacy initiative based on the Basel Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penm, Jonathan; Chaar, Betty; Moles, Rebekah

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, the Basel Statements were developed to reflect the future of hospital pharmacy worldwide. Included were a key set of statements regarding the expanding role of hospital pharmacists' influence on prescribing from the management of medicines formularies to being an active member of the therapeutic decision-making process. This study aimed to validate a survey to measure Basel Statement 26 regarding the role of medicines formularies and the factors that affect its use in the Western Pacific Region (WPR). The survey was developed in consultation with a WPR advisory group and current literature. The survey was translated using the forward-backward method into Chinese (simplified) and Vietnamese. The instrument was pilot tested in a stratified random sample of 260 hospital pharmacy directors in the WPR. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the data to assess construct validity of the Medicines Formulary Scale that assessed responders' perceptions of their formulary and impact on utilization. The Medicines Formulary Survey was completed by 107 hospital pharmacy directors or equivalent. The survey contained the Medicines Formulary Scale in addition to questions regarding the content and review process of the hospital's formulary as well as demographic questions. Application of the PCA procedures resulted in a parsimonious 2-factor solution in which 33.8% of the variance was explained. The Cronbach alpha for the 17-item scale was found to be 0.70. The Cronbach alpha values for the first and second factor/subscales were 0.76 and 0.68, respectively. The Medicines Formulary Survey appears reliable and valid for assessing hospital pharmacy directors' perceptions of hospital medicine formularies in the WPR. Further development of validated instruments to assess other areas of hospital pharmacy practice will help track the progression of hospital pharmacy and aid in globalization of the profession. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A global population redistribution in a migrant shorebird detected with continent-wide qualitative breeding survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhimberdiev, E.; Verkuil, Y.I.; Saveliev, A.A.; Vaisanen, R.A.; Karagicheva, J.; Soloviev, M.Y.; Tomkovich, P.S.; Piersma, T.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Over the last two decades, thousands of northward migrating ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) have disappeared from western European staging sites. These migratory ruffs were partly temperate breeding birds, but most individuals head towards the Eurasian Arctic tundras where 95% of the global

  10. A global population redistribution in a migrant shorebird detected with continent-wide qualitative breeding survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhimberdiev, Eldar; Verkuil, Yvonne I.; Saveliev, Anatoly A.; Vaisanen, Risto A.; Karagicheva, Julia; Soloviev, Mikhail Y.; Tomkovich, Pavel S.; Piersma, Theunis; Väisänen, Risto A.; Richardson, David

    Aim Over the last two decades, thousands of northward migrating ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) have disappeared from western European staging sites. These migratory ruffs were partly temperate breeding birds, but most individuals head towards the Eurasian Arctic tundras where 95% of the global

  11. Baseline Trachoma Surveys in Kaskazini A and Micheweni Districts of Zanzibar: Results of Two Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Fatma J; Kabona, George; Abdalla, Khalfan M; Mohamed, Saleh J; Ali, Said M; Ame, Shaali M; Ngwalle, Abel; Mbise, Christina; Rotondo, Lisa; Willis, Rebecca; Flueckiger, Rebecca M; Massae, Patrick A; Bakhtiari, Ana; Solomon, Anthony W; Ngondi, Jeremiah M

    2016-12-01

    Based on health care records and trachoma rapid assessments, trachoma was suspected to be endemic in Kaskazini A and Micheweni districts of Zanzibar. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in each of those districts. The survey was undertaken in Kaskazini A and Micheweni districts on Unguja and Pemba Islands, respectively. A multi-stage cluster random sampling design was applied, whereby 25 census enumeration areas (clusters) and 30 households per cluster were included. Consenting eligible participants (children aged 1-9 years and people aged 15 years and older) were examined for trachoma using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. A total of 1673 households were surveyed and 6407 participants (98.0% of those enumerated) were examined for trachoma. Examinees included a total of 2825 children aged 1-9 years and 3582 people aged 15 years and older. TF prevalence in 1-9-year-olds was 2.7% (95% confidence interval, CI, 2.7-4.1%) in Kazkazini A and 11.4% (95% CI 6.6-16.5%) in Micheweni. Among people aged 15 years and older, TT prevalence was 0.01% (95% CI 0.00-0.04%) in Kazkazini A and 0.21% (95% CI 0.08-0.39%) in Micheweni. Trachoma is a public health problem in Micheweni district, where implementation of all four components of the SAFE strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement), including mass drug administration with azithromycin, is required. These findings will facilitate planning for trachoma elimination.

  12. Toward a global view of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine use : Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Chiu, Wai-Tat; Sampson, Nancy; Kessler, Ronald C.; Anthony, James C.; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Aimee; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Neumark, Yehuda; Ormel, J. Hans; Pinto-Meza, Alejandra; Posada-Villa, Jose; Stein, Dan J.; Takeshima, Tadashi; Wells, J. Elisabeth

    Background Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use cause considerable morbidity and mortality, but good cross-national epidemiological data are limited. This paper describes such data from the first 17 countries participating in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey

  13. A CFH12k lensing survey of X-ray luminous galaxy clusters - II. Weak lensing analysis and global correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardeau, S.; Soucail, G.; Kneib, J.-P.; Czoske, O.; Ebeling, H.; Hudelot, P.; Smail, I.; Smith, G. P.

    Aims. We present a wide-field multi-color survey of a homogeneous sample of eleven clusters of galaxies for which we measure total masses and mass distributions from weak lensing. This sample, spanning a small range in both X-ray luminosity and redshift, is ideally suited to determining the

  14. Exploring the gap between the practical and theoretical world of ERP implementations: results of a global survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catersels, R.; Helms, R.W.; Batenburg, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the differences between the theoretical world of ERP researchers and the practical world of ERP consultants. A survey was held among 129 ERP consultants to explore their opinion and experience with regard to a number of subjects that have been researched in many papers, such as

  15. Development of the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D.J.; Earle, P.S.; Allen, T.I.; Jaiswal, K.; Porter, K.; Hearne, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) System plays a primary alerting role for global earthquake disasters as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) response protocol. We provide an overview of the PAGER system, both of its current capabilities and our ongoing research and development. PAGER monitors the USGS’s near real-time U.S. and global earthquake origins and automatically identifies events that are of societal importance, well in advance of ground-truth or news accounts. Current PAGER notifications and Web pages estimate the population exposed to each seismic intensity level. In addition to being a useful indicator of potential impact, PAGER’s intensity/exposure display provides a new standard in the dissemination of rapid earthquake information. We are currently developing and testing a more comprehensive alert system that will include casualty estimates. This is motivated by the idea that an estimated range of possible number of deaths will aid in decisions regarding humanitarian response. Underlying the PAGER exposure and loss models are global earthquake ShakeMap shaking estimates, constrained as quickly as possible by finite-fault modeling and observed ground motions and intensities, when available. Loss modeling is being developed comprehensively with a suite of candidate models that range from fully empirical to largely analytical approaches. Which of these models is most appropriate for use in a particular earthquake depends on how much is known about local building stocks and their vulnerabilities. A first-order country-specific global building inventory has been developed, as have corresponding vulnerability functions. For calibrating PAGER loss models, we have systematically generated an Atlas of 5,000 ShakeMaps for significant global earthquakes during the last 36 years. For many of these, auxiliary earthquake source and shaking intensity data are also available. Refinements to the loss models are ongoing

  16. Associations of serum carotenoid concentrations and fruit or vegetable consumption with serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF binding protein-3 concentrations in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Anja; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intervention may alter the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and thereby cancer risk. In a qualitative review, eleven of twenty studies showed a link between one or more carotenoids, vegetable or fruit intake and the IGF system, however, with partly contrary findings, such that no firm conclusion can be drawn. Therefore, we evaluated associations between serum carotenoid concentrations or the intake of fruits and vegetables with IGF-1, IGF binding protein (BP)-3 and their molar ratio (IGF-1:IGFBP-3) within the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). In our analysis, we included 6061 NHANES III participants and used multivariable-adjusted linear regression models. IGF-1 concentrations were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of lycopene, β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lutein/zeaxanthin in men and women. Statistically significant positive associations were observed for serum concentrations of α-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin and intake of fruits with serum IGFBP-3 concentrations in women, but not in men. The IGF-1:IGFBP-3 molar ratio was significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of lycopene, β-carotene and α-carotene in men and with β-carotene in women. In conclusion, dietary interventions with carotenoids, fruits and vegetables may affect the IGF system, although the direction of these effects is currently unclear.

  17. WHO Global Oral Data Bank, 1986-96: an overview of oral health surveys at 12 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithila, A.; Bourgeois, D.; Barmes, D. E.; Murtomaa, H.

    1998-01-01

    The global oral health situation of 12-year-old children--decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index and the percentage of population affected--is described in this article using the latest representative studies for 80 countries included in the WHO Global Oral Data Bank (GODB) between 1986 and 1996. The quantity of information varied considerably: 68% of developed market economies had at least one national data set, compared with 38% of developing countries and 36% of economies in transition. By WHO region, the proportions were as follows: Eastern Mediterranean, 55%; European, 50%; Western Pacific, 48%; African, 39%; South-East Asia, 30%; and the Americas, 26%. Globally, the weighted DMFT index for all data in the GODB is Internationale goal for the year 2000. For the data reviewed in this article, achievement and nonachievement of this goal are discussed, as is the variation in DMFT means and proportions of children affected for various country groupings. There are difficulties in obtaining recent data for many countries, but the article emphasizes the need to maintain and develop the GODB to facilitate the compilation of valid, reliable and comparable data on oral health. PMID:9744243

  18. Mutagens from the cooking of food. III. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in secondary sources of cooked dietary protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjeldanes, L F; Morris, M M; Felton, J S; Healy, S; Stuermer, D; Berry, P; Timourian, H; Hatch, F T

    1982-08-01

    A survey of mutagen formation during the cooking of a variety of protein-rich foods that are minor sources of protein intake in the American diet is reported (see Bjeldanes, Morris, Felton et al. (1982) for survey of major protein foods). Milk, cheese, tofu and organ meats showed negligible mutagen formation except following high-temperature cooking for long periods of time. Even under the most extreme conditions, tofu, cheese and milk exhibited fewer than 500 Ames/Salmonella typhimurium revertants/100 g equivalents (wet weight of uncooked food), and organ meats only double that amount. Beans showed low mutagen formation after boiling and boiling followed by frying (with and without oil). Only boiling of beans followed by baking for 1 hr gave appreciable mutagenicity (3650 revertants/100g equivalents). Seafood samples gave a variety of results: red snapper, salmon, trout, halibut and rock cod all gave more than 1000 revertants/100 g wet weight equivalents when pan-fried or griddle-fried for about 6 min/side. Baked or poached rock and deep-fried shrimp showed no significant mutagen formation. Broiled lamb chops showed mutagen formation similar to that in red meats tested in the preceding paper: 16,000 revertants/100 g equivalents. These findings show that as measured by bioassay in S. typhimurium, most of the foods that are minor sources of protein in the American diet are also minor sources of cooking-induced mutagens.

  19. Prevalence of Chronic Illness and Health Seeking Behaviour in Malaysian Population: Results from the Third National Health Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amal, N M; Paramesarvathy, R; Tee, G H; Gurpreet, K; Karuthan, C

    2011-03-01

    The third National Health Morbidity Survey was conducted in 2006 on a nationally representative sample of population in Malaysia in order to obtain community-based data and information on the prevalence of chronic illness. Of 57,500 eligible respondents 56710 (98.6%) participated in the study. Estimated overall prevalence of chronic illness in the Malaysian population within a recall period of one year was 15.5% (95% CI 15.1% - 15.9%). Chronic illness was reported significantly higher among the females, 16.8% (16.3 - 17.3). The most common chronic illness was hypertension (7.9%, 7.6 - 8.2), followed by diabetes mellitus (4.0%, 3.8 - 4.2) and highest reported by the Indians (19.7%, 18.4 - 21.0). Among the respondents who had sought treatment for chronic illness from government health facilities, Malays (65.8%) and those with monthly household income of less than RM400 (76.6%) were the highest. Chinese (44.5%) and those with household income of RM5000 and above (54.3%) were the highest groups who sought treatment from the private health facilities. Most of the respondents reported mild illness was the main reason for not seeking treatment for their chronic illness. It is hoped that the results of this survey will help the Ministry of Health Malaysia to enhance health programmes and planning resource allocation in order to improve health status of the population.

  20. Fiscal 1994 survey report. Survey of energy supply/demand structure sophistication and global environmental impact; 1994 nendo energy jukyu kozo kodoka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Outlines of various energy supply/demand analytical models are surveyed. With environmental problems gathering importance, a number of models are being introduced in which energy supply/demand structures, long-term climate changes, and impacts of policy options on social economy are linked to each other. Some socioeconomic impact models cover a single country and others the whole world. They are various in type, ranging from dynamic optimization models to static balance models. Twenty-four models are chosen, and grouped into two types respectively covering Japan and the whole world from a geographical viewpoint and into three groups in view of their structures. Under an optimization model, such optimization is accomplished as economic growth maximization and energy cost minimization and so forth under given energy supply restrictions. Under a general balance type econometric model, an adjustment process in which capital and labor and production are coordinated across multiple departments is expressly stated. Under a partial balance type econometric model, a demand function for goods is given and optimum behavior such as consumption maximization is indirectly described. (NEDO)

  1. Exploring the gap between the practical and theoretical world of ERP implementations: results of a global survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Catersels, R.; Helms, R.W.; Batenburg, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the differences between the theoretical world of ERP researchers and the practical world of ERP consultants. A survey was held among 129 ERP consultants to explore their opinion and experience with regard to a number of subjects that have been researched in many papers, such as the use of ERP implementation methods, ERP phase models, critical success factors (CSF’s), and critical failure factors (CFF’s). A central question was to investigate the consultants’ use of scient...

  2. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School-Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessaram, Tara; McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for disease and injury in Pacific Island countries and territories (PICT). This paper examines drinking patterns across 20 PICTs. We synthesised published data from the STEPwise approach to surveillance or similar surveys for adults 25-64 years, and from the Global School-Based Student Health surveys and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) for youth. We examined current and heavy drinking, and for adults also frequency of consumption. Using YRBSS, we studied trends in youth alcohol use in US-affiliated PICTs between 2001 and 2013. Alcohol consumption in adults and youth varied considerably across PICTs. In eight PICT populations, over 60% of male adults were current drinkers. Male adults consumed alcohol more frequently and engaged in heavy drinking more than female adults. Similar gender differences occurred in current and heavy drinking among youth. Across 10 PICTs, current drinking prevalence in males 13-15 years ranged from 10% to over 40%. Declines in alcohol use among grade 9-12 students were observed in YRBSS, although the magnitude differed by island and sex. Alcohol consumption varies widely between PICTs. There are marked gender differences in use and abstention. There is scope in PICTs for implementation of best practice strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm. These need to be gender responsive and cognisant of concerning patterns of youth drinking. Strengthening surveillance of alcohol use and its consequences is vital to inform and monitor the impact of national and regional policies. [Kessaram T, McKenzie J, Girin N, Roth A, Vivili P, Williams G, Hoy D. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School-Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:412-423]. © 2015 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on

  3. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: theoretical systematics and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Ho, Shirley; Cuesta, Antonio J.; O'Connell, Ross; Ross, Ashley J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Percival, Will J.; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Beutler, Florian; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Prada, Francisco; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.; Rossi, Graziano; Seo, Hee-Jong; Brownstein, Joel R.; Olmstead, Matthew; Thomas, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the potential sources of theoretical systematics in the anisotropic Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) distance scale measurements from the clustering of galaxies in configuration space using the final Data Release (DR12) of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We perform a detailed study of the impact on BAO measurements from choices in the methodology such as fiducial cosmology, clustering estimators, random catalogues, fitting templates, and covariance matrices. The theoretical systematic uncertainties in BAO parameters are found to be 0.002 in the isotropic dilation α and 0.003 in the quadrupolar dilation ɛ. The leading source of systematic uncertainty is related to the reconstruction techniques. Theoretical uncertainties are sub-dominant compared with the statistical uncertainties for BOSS survey, accounting 0.2σstat for α and 0.25σstat for ɛ (σα, stat ˜0.010 and σɛ, stat ˜ 0.012 respectively). We also present BAO-only distance scale constraints from the anisotropic analysis of the correlation function. Our constraints on the angular diameter distance DA(z) and the Hubble parameter H(z), including both statistical and theoretical systematic uncertainties, are 1.5% and 2.8% at zeff = 0.38, 1.4% and 2.4% at zeff = 0.51, and 1.7% and 2.6% at zeff = 0.61. This paper is part of a set that analyzes the final galaxy clustering dataset from BOSS. The measurements and likelihoods presented here are cross-checked with other BAO analysis in Alam et al. (2016). The systematic error budget concerning the methodology on post-reconstruction BAO analysis presented here is used in Alam et al. (2016). to produce the final cosmological constraints from BOSS.

  4. The HYSPIRI Decadal Survey Mission: Update on the Mission Concept and Science Objectives for Global Imaging Spectroscopy and Multi-Spectral Thermal Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Hook, Simon J.; Middleton, Elizabeth; Turner, Woody; Ungar, Stephen; Knox, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The NASA HyspIRI mission is planned to provide global solar reflected energy spectroscopic measurement of the terrestrial and shallow water regions of the Earth every 19 days will all measurements downlinked. In addition, HyspIRI will provide multi-spectral thermal measurements with a single band in the 4 micron region and seven bands in the 8 to 12 micron region with 5 day day/night coverage. A direct broadcast capability for measurement subsets is also planned. This HyspIRI mission is one of those designated in the 2007 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey: Earth Science and Applications from Space. In the Decadal Survey, HyspIRI was recognized as relevant to a range of Earth science and science applications, including climate: "A hyperspectral sensor (e.g., FLORA) combined with a multispectral thermal sensor (e.g., SAVII) in low Earth orbit (LEO) is part of an integrated mission concept [described in Parts I and II] that is relevant to several panels, especially the climate variability panel." The HyspIRI science study group was formed in 2008 to evaluate and refine the mission concept. This group has developed a series of HyspIRI science objectives: (1) Climate: Ecosystem biochemistry, condition & feedback; spectral albedo; carbon/dust on snow/ice; biomass burning; evapotranspiration (2) Ecosystems: Global plant functional types, physiological condition, and biochemistry including agricultural lands (3) Fires: Fuel status, fire frequency, severity, emissions, and patterns of recovery globally (4) Coral reef and coastal habitats: Global composition and status (5) Volcanoes: Eruptions, emissions, regional and global impact (6) Geology and resources: Global distributions of surface mineral resources and improved understanding of geology and related hazards These objectives are achieved with the following measurement capabilities. The HyspIRI imaging spectrometer provides: full spectral coverage from 380 to 2500 at 10 nm sampling; 60 m spatial sampling

  5. Economic Challenges of Globalization. The Social Worlds of the Moroccan Company and its Cultural Adaptations. Guidelines for a Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine El Aoufi

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available By means of an analysis of the social worlds of the Moroccan company and of its cultures, the author comes to the conclusion that the Moroccan company is subject to a new strategic game in which “social worlds” inside and outside the company play a decisive role in competitive placement . His text urges that a survey be done and proposes the essential axes in regard to functioning, in terms of organization of labor and management, to types of cultural capital in general and linguistic registers in particular within the Moroccan company, and to the consequences of plurality in the companies’ efficiency of production and bottom lines.

  6. Global survey of the omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in the blood stream of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Ken D; Van Elswyk, Mary E; Higgins, M Roberta; Weatherford, Charli A; Salem, Norman

    2016-07-01

    Studies reporting blood levels of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were systematically identified in order to create a global map identifying countries and regions with different blood levels. Included studies were those of healthy adults, published in 1980 or later. A total of 298 studies met all inclusion criteria. Studies reported fatty acids in various blood fractions including plasma total lipids (33%), plasma phospholipid (32%), erythrocytes (32%) and whole blood (3.0%). Fatty acid data from each blood fraction were converted to relative weight percentages (wt.%) and then assigned to one of four discrete ranges (high, moderate, low, very low) corresponding to wt.% EPA+DHA in erythrocyte equivalents. Regions with high EPA+DHA blood levels (>8%) included the Sea of Japan, Scandinavia, and areas with indigenous populations or populations not fully adapted to Westernized food habits. Very low blood levels (≤4%) were observed in North America, Central and South America, Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Africa. The present review reveals considerable variability in blood levels of EPA+DHA and the very low to low range of blood EPA+DHA for most of the world may increase global risk for chronic disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Confidence to Perform in the Global Marketplace: Constructing and Validating a Survey Instrument for Community College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slantcheva-Durst, Snejana; Liu, Mingyang

    This article discusses the construction and validation of an instrument to gauge community college students' confidence to perform in the global marketplace. The instrument was designed to capture students' beliefs in their own abilities to successfully carry out job-related tasks in cross-cultural work environments that are globally-interconnected and constantly at flux. The instrument items emerged from a comprehensive review of literature, nationwide workforce skills initiatives, rounds of expert panel analyses, and focus groups. Items were formulated within Bandura's framework of self-efficacy, and the instrument was analyzed with Rasch measurement. The Rasch analysis, conducted on a sample of 741 students, provided evidence of the content validity of the items, the generalizability of the measure, and its external validity. The instrument can offer useful feedback to community college internationalization-focused staff in their efforts to assess outcomes of international initiatives for community college students, thus supporting program assessment, evaluation of student growth, and institutional decision-making.

  8. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE CLUSTER SUPERNOVA SURVEY. III. CORRELATED PROPERTIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR HOSTS AT 0.9 < z < 1.46

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, J.; Barbary, K.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Goldhaber, G. [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Aldering, G.; Faccioli, L.; Hsiao, E. [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Barrientos, L. F. [Departmento de Astronomia, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Brodwin, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dawson, K. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Deustua, S.; Fruchter, A. S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Doi, M.; Ihara, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Gilbank, D. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University Of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Gladders, M. D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hattori, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North Aohaku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kashikawa, N., E-mail: jmeyers314@berkeley.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Collaboration: Supernova Cosmology Project; and others

    2012-05-01

    Using the sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cluster Supernova Survey and augmented with HST-observed SNe Ia in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields, we search for correlations between the properties of SNe and their host galaxies at high redshift. We use galaxy color and quantitative morphology to determine the red sequence in 25 clusters and develop a model to distinguish passively evolving early-type galaxies from star-forming galaxies in both clusters and the field. With this approach, we identify 6 SN Ia hosts that are early-type cluster members and 11 SN Ia hosts that are early-type field galaxies. We confirm for the first time at z > 0.9 that SNe Ia hosted by early-type galaxies brighten and fade more quickly than SNe Ia hosted by late-type galaxies. We also show that the two samples of hosts produce SNe Ia with similar color distributions. The relatively simple spectral energy distributions expected for passive galaxies enable us to measure stellar masses of early-type SN hosts. In combination with stellar mass estimates of late-type GOODS SN hosts from Thomson and Chary, we investigate the correlation of host mass with Hubble residual observed at lower redshifts. Although the sample is small and the uncertainties are large, a hint of this relation is found at z > 0.9. By simultaneously fitting the average cluster galaxy formation history and dust content to the red-sequence scatters, we show that the reddening of early-type cluster SN hosts is likely E(B - V) {approx}< 0.06. The similarity of the field and cluster early-type host samples suggests that field early-type galaxies that lie on the red sequence may also be minimally affected by dust. Hence, the early-type-hosted SNe Ia studied here occupy a more favorable environment to use as well-characterized high-redshift standard candles than other SNe Ia.

  9. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search. III Constraints on Dark Energy From The Third Data Release Quasar Lens Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguri, M; Inada, N; Strauss, M A; Kochanek, C S; Richards, G T; Schneider, D P; Becker, R H; Fukugita, M; Gregg, M D; Hall, P B; Hennawi, J F; Johnston, D E; Kayo, I; Keeton, C R; Pindor, B; Shin, M; Turner, E; White, R L; York, D G; Anderson, S F; Bahcall, N A; Brunner, R J; Burles, S; Castander, F J; Chiu, K; Clocchiatti, A; Einsenstein, D; Frieman, J; Kawano, Y; Lupton, R; Morokuma, T; Rix, H; Scranton, R; Sheldon, E S

    2007-09-12

    We present cosmological results from the statistics of lensed quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Quasar Lens Search. By taking proper account of the selection function, we compute the expected number of quasars lensed by early-type galaxies and their image separation distribution assuming a flat universe, which is then compared with 7 lenses found in the SDSS Data Release 3 to derive constraints on dark energy under strictly controlled criteria. For a cosmological constant model (w = -1) we obtain {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.74{sub -0.15}{sup +0.11}(stat.){sub -0.06}{sup +0.13}(syst.). Allowing w to be a free parameter we find {Omega}{sub M} = 0.26{sub -0.06}{sup +0.07}(stat.){sub -0.05}{sup +0.03}(syst.) and w = -1.1 {+-} 0.6(stat.){sub -0.5}{sup +0.3}(syst.) when combined with the constraint from the measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations in the SDSS luminous red galaxy sample. Our results are in good agreement with earlier lensing constraints obtained using radio lenses, and provide additional confirmation of the presence of dark energy consistent with a cosmological constant, derived independently of type Ia supernovae.

  10. The effects of global climate change on Southeast Asia: A survey of likely impacts and problems of adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoto, Sukrisno; Howe, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    Study results indicate the likelihood of significant net damages from climate change, in particular damages from sea-level rise and higher temperatures that seem unlikely to be offset by favorable shifts in precipitation and carbon dioxide. Also indicated was the importance of better climate models, in particular models that can calculate climate change on a regional scale appropriate to policy-making. In spite of this potential for damage, there seems to be a low level of awareness and concern, probably caused by the higher priority given to economic growth and reinforced by the great uncertainty in the forecasts. The common property nature of global environment systems also leads to a feeling of helplessness on the part of country governments.

  11. A global survey of the stable isotope and chemical compositions of bottled and canned beers as a guide to authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J F; Yates, H S A; Tinggi, U

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a dataset, derived from the analysis of 162 bottled and canned beers from around the globe, which may be used for comparison with suspected counterfeit or substitute products. The data comprise δ2H and δ18O compositions of the whole beer and δ13C compositions of the dry residue (mostly sugar) together with the concentrations of five anions (F, Cl, NO3, SO4, PO4) and seven cations (Ca, K, Mg, SiO2, V, Mn, Sr). A strong correlation, consistent with natural waters but offset from the Global Meteoric Water Line, was observed between the δ2H/δ18O composition of the beers. The extent of the offset could be explained by the brewing process and the alcohol and sugars present in the beers. Correlations between inorganic analytes were consistent with the addition of salts in the brewing process. Beers were classified as follows: ale, lager, stout or wheat-beer and the chemical composition was found to be characteristic of the assigned type, with lagers being the most readily classified. A combination of chemical and isotopic data was found to be characteristic of the geographical origin (on a continental scale) and could most easily identify beers from Australasia or Europe. A global map of δ18O data revealed a geo-spatial distribution that mirrored existing maps of the isotopic composition of annual precipitation. This confirmed a commonsense view that local precipitation will be the primary source for the water used in brewing. Using this isoscape (or alcoscape) it may be possible to assess the geographical origins of samples for which genuine comparative samples cannot be obtained. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiyear, Multinational Survey of the Incidence and Global Distribution of Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabine, Sharon; Hackel, Meredith; McLaughlin, Robert E.; Biedenbach, Douglas J.; Bouchillon, Samuel K.; Sahm, Daniel F.; Bradford, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) hydrolyze all classes of β-lactams except monobactams and are not inhibited by classic serine β-lactamase inhibitors. Gram-negative pathogens isolated from patient infections were collected from 202 medical centers in 40 countries as part of a global surveillance study from 2012 to 2014. Carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were characterized for bla genes encoding VIM, IMP, NDM, SPM, and GIM variants using PCR and sequencing. A total of 471 MBL-positive isolates included the following species (numbers of isolates are in parentheses): P. aeruginosa (308), Klebsiella spp. (85), Enterobacter spp. (39), Proteeae (16), Citrobacter freundii (12), Escherichia coli (6), and Serratia marcescens (5) and were submitted by sites from 34 countries. Of these, 69.6% were collected in 9 countries (numbers of isolates are in parentheses): Russia (72), Greece (61), Philippines (54), Venezuela (29), and Kuwait, Nigeria, Romania, South Africa, and Thailand (20 to 25 isolates each). Thirty-two different MBL variants were detected (14 VIM, 14 IMP, and 4 NDM enzymes). Seven novel MBL variants were encountered in the study, each differing from a previously reported variant by one amino acid substitution: VIM-42 (VIM-1 [V223I]), VIM-43 (VIM-4 [A24V]), VIM-44 (VIM-2 [K257N]), VIM-45 (VIM-2 [T35I]), IMP-48 (IMP-14 [I69T]), IMP-49 (IMP-18 [V49F]), and NDM-16 (NDM-1 [R264H]). The in vitro activities of all tested antibiotics against MBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae were significantly reduced with the exception of that of aztreonam-avibactam (MIC90, 0.5 to 1 μg/ml), whereas colistin was the most effective agent against MBL-positive P. aeruginosa isolates (>97% susceptible). Although the global percentage of isolates encoding MBLs remains relatively low, their detection in 12 species, 34 countries, and all regions participating in this surveillance study is concerning. PMID:26643349

  13. Inequities in access to HIV prevention services for transgender men: results of a global survey of men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheim, Ayden I; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Arreola, Sonya; Makofane, Keletso; Do, Tri D; Hebert, Patrick; Thomann, Matthew; Ayala, George

    2016-01-01

    Free or low-cost HIV testing, condoms, and lubricants are foundational HIV prevention strategies, yet are often inaccessible for men who have sex with men (MSM). In the global context of stigma and poor healthcare access, transgender (trans) MSM may face additional barriers to HIV prevention services. Drawing on data from a global survey of MSM, we aimed to describe perceived access to prevention services among trans MSM, examine associations between stigma and access, and compare access between trans MSM and cisgender (non-transgender) MSM. The 2014 Global Men's Health and Rights online survey was open to MSM (inclusive of trans MSM) from any country and available in seven languages. Baseline data (n=3857) were collected from July to October 2014. Among trans MSM, correlations were calculated between perceived service accessibility and anti-transgender violence, healthcare provider stigma, and discrimination. Using a nested matched-pair study design, trans MSM were matched 4:1 to cisgender MSM on age group, region, and HIV status, and conditional logistic regression models compared perceived access to prevention services by transgender status. About 3.4% of respondents were trans men, of whom 69 were included in the present analysis. The average trans MSM participant was 26 to 35 years old (56.5%); lived in western Europe, North America, or Oceania (75.4%); and reported being HIV-negative (98.6%). HIV testing, condoms, and lubricants were accessible for 43.5, 53.6, and 26.1% of trans MSM, respectively. Ever having been arrested or convicted due to being trans and higher exposure to healthcare provider stigma in the past six months were associated with less access to some prevention services. Compared to matched cisgender controls, trans MSM reported significantly lower odds of perceived access to HIV testing (OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.33, 0.98) and condom-compatible lubricants (OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.30, 0.98). This first look at access to HIV prevention services for trans MSM

  14. First Results on the Cluster Galaxy Population from the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey. III. Brightest Cluster Galaxies, Stellar Mass Distribution, and Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ting; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Lin, Sheng-Chieh; Oguri, Masamune; Chen, Kai-Feng; Tanaka, Masayuki; Chiu, I.-Non; Huang, Song; Kodama, Tadayuki; Leauthaud, Alexie; More, Surhud; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Bundy, Kevin; Lin, Lihwai; Miyazaki, Satoshi

    2017-12-01

    The unprecedented depth and area surveyed by the Subaru Strategic Program with the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC-SSP) have enabled us to construct and publish the largest distant cluster sample out to z∼ 1 to date. In this exploratory study of cluster galaxy evolution from z = 1 to z = 0.3, we investigate the stellar mass assembly history of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), the evolution of stellar mass and luminosity distributions, the stellar mass surface density profile, as well as the population of radio galaxies. Our analysis is the first high-redshift application of the top N richest cluster selection, which is shown to allow us to trace the cluster galaxy evolution faithfully. Over the 230 deg2 area of the current HSC-SSP footprint, selecting the top 100 clusters in each of the four redshift bins allows us to observe the buildup of galaxy population in descendants of clusters whose z≈ 1 mass is about 2× {10}14 {M}ȯ . Our stellar mass is derived from a machine-learning algorithm, which is found to be unbiased and accurate with respect to the COSMOS data. We find very mild stellar mass growth in BCGs (about 35% between z = 1 and 0.3), and no evidence for evolution in both the total stellar mass–cluster mass correlation and the shape of the stellar mass surface density profile. We also present the first measurement of the radio luminosity distribution in clusters out to z∼ 1, and show hints of changes in the dominant accretion mode powering the cluster radio galaxies at z∼ 0.8.

  15. Grant Administration Manual for Title III Coordinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Emily Duncan; Ashmore, Frances W.

    Guidelines for coordinators of programs under Title III of the Higher Education Act of 1965 are presented, based on a national survey of Title III program coordinators. The responsibilities of the coordinator and information on administering the Strengthening Developing Institutions Program (SDIP) grant are covered. The program can either be a…

  16. Global positioning system survey data for active seismic and volcanic areas of eastern Sicily, 1994 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Fagone, Sonia; Giardina, Carmelo; Genovese, Simone; Aiesi, Gianpiero; Calvagna, Francesco; Cantarero, Massimo; Consoli, Orazio; Consoli, Salvatore; Guglielmino, Francesco; Puglisi, Biagio; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2016-08-01

    This work presents and describes a 20-year long database of GPS data collected by geodetic surveys over the seismically and volcanically active eastern Sicily, for a total of more than 6300 measurements. Raw data were initially collected from the various archives at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania-Osservatorio Etneo and organized in a single repository. Here, quality and completeness checks were performed, while all necessary supplementary information were searched, collected, validated and organized together with the relevant data. Once all data and information collections were completed, raw binary data were converted into the universal ASCII RINEX format; all data are provided in this format with the necessary information for precise processing. In order to make the data archive readily consultable, we developed software allowing the user to easily search and obtain the needed data by simple alphanumeric and geographic queries.

  17. Global positioning system survey data for active seismic and volcanic areas of eastern Sicily, 1994 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Fagone, Sonia; Giardina, Carmelo; Genovese, Simone; Aiesi, Gianpiero; Calvagna, Francesco; Cantarero, Massimo; Consoli, Orazio; Consoli, Salvatore; Guglielmino, Francesco; Puglisi, Biagio; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2016-08-01

    This work presents and describes a 20-year long database of GPS data collected by geodetic surveys over the seismically and volcanically active eastern Sicily, for a total of more than 6300 measurements. Raw data were initially collected from the various archives at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania—Osservatorio Etneo and organized in a single repository. Here, quality and completeness checks were performed, while all necessary supplementary information were searched, collected, validated and organized together with the relevant data. Once all data and information collections were completed, raw binary data were converted into the universal ASCII RINEX format; all data are provided in this format with the necessary information for precise processing. In order to make the data archive readily consultable, we developed software allowing the user to easily search and obtain the needed data by simple alphanumeric and geographic queries.

  18. Exploring the characteristics, global distribution and reasons for retraction of published articles involving human research participants: a literature survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Kamel, Mariam; Jin, Yanling; Xu, Michael Kuan; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Samaan, Zainab; Levine, Mitchell Ah; Thabane, Lehana

    2018-01-01

    Article retraction is a measure taken by journals or authors where there is evidence of research misconduct or error, redundancy, plagiarism or unethical research. Recently, the retraction of scientific publications has been on the rise. In this survey, we aimed to describe the characteristics and distribution of retracted articles and the reasons for retractions. We searched retracted articles on the PubMed database and Retraction Watch website from 1980 to February 2016. The primary outcomes were the characteristics and distribution of retracted articles and the reasons for retractions. The secondary outcomes included how article retractions were handled by journals and how to improve the journal practices toward article retractions. We included 1,339 retracted articles. Most retracted articles had six authors or fewer. Article retraction was most common in the USA (26%), Japan (11%) and Germany (10%). The main reasons for article retraction were misconduct (51%, n = 685) and error (14%, n = 193). There were 66% (n = 889) of retracted articles having male senior or corresponding authors. Of the articles retracted after August 2010, 63% (n = 567) retractions were reported on Retraction Watch. Large discrepancies were observed in the ways that different journals handled article retractions. For instance, articles were completely withdrawn from some journals, while in others, articles were still available with no indication of retraction. Likewise, some retraction notices included a detailed account of the events that led to article retraction, while others only consisted of a statement indicating the article retraction. The characteristics, geographic distribution and reasons for retraction of published articles involving human research participants were examined in this survey. More efforts are needed to improve the consistency and transparency of journal practices toward article retractions.

  19. Awareness and enforcement of guidelines for publishing industry-sponsored medical research among publication professionals: the Global Publication Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Elizabeth; Woolley, Karen; Adshead, Viv; Cairns, Angela; Fullam, Josh; Gonzalez, John; Grant, Tom; Tortell, Stephanie

    2014-04-19

    To gather information about current practices and implementation of publication guidelines among publication professionals working in or for the pharmaceutical industry. Web-based survey publicised via email and social media to members of the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) and other organisations from November 2012 to February 2013. 469 individuals involved in publishing industry-sponsored research in peer-reviewed journals, mainly working in pharmaceutical or device companies ('industry', n=144), communication agencies ('agency', n=238), contract research organisations (CRO, n=15) or as freelancers (n=34). Most respondents (78%) had worked on medical publications for ≥5 years and 62% had a PhD/MD. Over 90% of industry, agency and CRO respondents routinely refer to Good Publication Practice (GPP2) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' Uniform Requirements. Most respondents (78% industry, 79% agency) received mandatory training on ethical publication practices. Over 90% of respondents' companies had publication guidelines or policies and required medical writing support to be acknowledged in publications (96% industry, 99% agency). Many industry respondents used publication management tools to monitor compliance with company guidelines and about half (46%) stated that their company had formal publication audits. Fewer agencies audited adherence to guidelines but 20% of agency respondents reported audits of employees and 6% audits of freelancers. Of concern, 37% of agency respondents reported requests from authors or sponsors that they believed were unethical, although 93% of these requests were withdrawn after respondents explained the need for compliance with guidelines. Most respondents' departments (63% industry, 58% agency, 60% CRO) had been involved in publishing studies with negative or inconclusive results. Within this sample, most publication professionals working in or for industry were aware of

  20. Large-Scale Distribution of Total Mass versus Luminous Matter from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations: First Search in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumagnac, M T; Barkana, R; Sabiu, C G; Loeb, A; Ross, A J; Abdalla, F B; Balan, S T; Lahav, O

    2016-05-20

    Baryon acoustic oscillations in the early Universe are predicted to leave an as yet undetected signature on the relative clustering of total mass versus luminous matter. A detection of this effect would provide an important confirmation of the standard cosmological paradigm and constrain alternatives to dark matter as well as nonstandard fluctuations such as compensated isocurvature perturbations (CIPs). We conduct the first observational search for this effect, by comparing the number-weighted and luminosity-weighted correlation functions, using the SDSS-III BOSS Data Release 10 CMASS sample. When including CIPs in our model, we formally obtain evidence at 3.2σ of the relative clustering signature and a limit that matches the existing upper limits on the amplitude of CIPs. However, various tests suggest that these results are not yet robust, perhaps due to systematic biases in the data. The method developed in this Letter used with more accurate future data such as that from DESI, is likely to confirm or disprove our preliminary evidence.

  1. “The Effects of Limited Resources and Opportunities on Women’s Careers in Physics: Results from the Global Survey of Physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The results of the Global Survey of Physicists draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. Previous studies of women in physics have mostly focused on the lack of women in the field. This study goes beyond the obvious shortage of women and shows that there are much deeper issues. For the first time, a multinational study was conducted with 15000 respondents from 130 countries, showing that problems for women in physics transcend national borders. Across all countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. We show that limited resources and opportunities hurt career progress, and because women have fewer opportunities and resources, their careers progress more slowly. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful ...

  2. An approach to regional wetland digital elevation model development using a differential global positioning system and a custom-built helicopter-based surveying system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.W.; Desmond, G.B.; Henkle, C.; Glover, R.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate topographic data are critical to restoration science and planning for the Everglades region of South Florida, USA. They are needed to monitor and simulate water level, water depth and hydroperiod and are used in scientific research on hydrologic and biologic processes. Because large wetland environments and data acquisition challenge conventional ground-based and remotely sensed data collection methods, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) adapted a classical data collection instrument to global positioning system (GPS) and geographic information system (GIS) technologies. Data acquired with this instrument were processed using geostatistics to yield sub-water level elevation values with centimetre accuracy (??15 cm). The developed database framework, modelling philosophy and metadata protocol allow for continued, collaborative model revision and expansion, given additional elevation or other ancillary data. ?? 2012 Taylor & Francis.

  3. AND Dy(III)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ACTIVITIES OF Sm(III) AND Dy(III) COMPLEXES WITH SCHIFF BASE DERIVED FROM ... and spectral analysis show that ligand coordinate to the central lanthanide(III)ion by its imine nitrogen, phenolic oxygen and carboxylic oxygen in 1:1 stoichemetry. The complexes were ... instance iron (III) and cobalt (III) complexes.

  4. Social Determinants of Health and Tobacco Use in Five Low and Middle-Income Countries - Results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), 2011 - 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Guat Hiong; Aris, Tahir; Rarick, James; Irimie, Sorina

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco consumption continues to be the leading cause of preventable deaths globally. The objective of this study was to examine the associaton of selected socio-demographic variables with current tobacco use in five countries that participated in the Phase II Global Adult Tobacco Survey in 2011 - 2012. We analysed internationally comparable representative household survey data from 33,482 respondents aged ≥ 15 years in Indonesia, Malaysia, Romania, Argentina and Nigeria for determinants of tobacco use within each country. Socio-demographic variables analysed included gender, age, residency, education, wealth index and awareness of smoking health consequences. Current tobacco use was defined as smoking or use of smokeless tobacco daily or occasionally. The overall prevalence of tobacco use varied from 5.5% in Nigeria to 35.7% in Indonesia and was significantly higher among males than females in all five countries. Odds ratios for current tobacco use were significantly higher among males for all countries [with the greatest odds among Indonesian men (OR=67.4, 95% CI: 51.2-88.7)] and among urban dwellers in Romania. The odds of current tobacco use decreased as age increased for all countries except Nigeria where. The reverse was true for Argentina and Nigeria. Significant trends for decreasing tobacco use with increasing educational levels and wealth index were seen in Indonesia, Malaysia and Romania. Significant negative associations between current tobacco use and awareness of adverse health consequences of smoking were found in all countries except Argentina. Males and the socially and economically disadvantaged populations are at the greatest risk of tobacco use. Tobacco control interventions maybe tailored to this segment of population and incorporate educational interventions to increase knowledge of adverse health consequences of smoking.

  5. Trends of violence among 7th, 8th and 9th grade students in the state of Lara, Venezuela: The Global School Health Survey 2004 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Ricardo; Poni, Esteban S; Escobar-Poni, Bertha C; Escobar, Judith

    2011-11-01

    Violence by young people is one of the most visible forms of violence and contributes greatly to the global burden of premature death, injury and disability. The Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS), State of Lara, Venezuela (GSHS-Lara) is a school-based surveillance system. It comprises a repeated, cross-sectional, self-administered survey drawn from a representative sample of 7th to 9th grade students, performed in the school years 2003-2004 (GSHS-Lara 2004) and 2007-2008 (GSHS-Lara 2008). It explores, among other things, a general violence indicator such as school absenteeism due to feeling unsafe at school or on the way to or from school for any reason; and more specific indicators of violence such as robbery, bullying, physical fights and use of weapons, as well as exposure to lectures on how to prevent violence. Results are given in terms of prevalence percentage. Absenteeism doubled between the two study periods (10.8% to 20.8%). The number of students that were a victim of robbery remained high and without change both outside (14.2% and 14.8%) and inside school (21.7% and 22.0%). The number of victims of bullying was high and increasing (33.4% and 43.6%). Bullying associated with being physically attacked decreased (18.5% to 14.3%). Physical attacks without active participation and not associated with bullying were frequent (21.5%). Physical fighting with active participation prevalence remained high and without change (27.5% and 28.2%). Carrying a weapon almost doubled (4.3% to 7.1%). Less than 65% reported classes for violence prevention. The GSHS-Lara shows that violence is an important public health problem that needs to be addressed by the community and its authorities.

  6. A global assessment of the gender gap in self-reported health with survey data from 59 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Ties; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Verdes, Emese; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-07-30

    While surveys in high-income countries show that women generally have poorer self-reported health than men, much less is known about gender differences in other regions of the world. Such data can be used to examine the determinants of sex differences. We analysed data on respondents 18 years and over from the World Health Surveys 2002-04 in 59 countries, which included multiple measures of self-reported health, eight domains of functioning and presumptive diagnoses of chronic conditions. The age-standardized female excess fraction was computed for all indicators and analysed for five regional groups of countries. Multivariate regression models were used to examine the association between country gaps in self-reported health between the sexes with societal and other background characteristics. Women reported significantly poorer health than men on all self-reported health indicators. The excess fraction was 15 % for the health score based on the eight domains, 28 % for "poor" or "very poor" self-rated health on the single question, and 26 % for "severe" or "extreme" on a single question on limitations. The excess female reporting of poorer health occurred at all ages, but was smaller at ages 60 and over. The female excess was observed in all regions, and was smallest in the European high-income countries. Women more frequently reported problems in specific health domains, with the excess fraction ranging from 25 % for vision to 35 % for mobility, pain and sleep, and with considerable variation between regions. Angina, arthritis and depression had female excess fractions of 33, 32 and 42 % respectively. Higher female prevalence of the presumptive diagnoses was observed in all regional country groups. The main factors affecting the size of the gender gap in self-reported health were the female-male gaps in the prevalence of chronic conditions, especially arthritis and depression and gender characteristics of the society. Large female-male differences in self

  7. A global survey on occupational health services in selected international commission on occupational health (ICOH) member countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Jorma; Lehtinen, Suvi; Valenti, Antonio; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2017-10-05

    The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH), and the European Union (EU) have encouraged countries to organize occupational health services (OHS) for all working people irrespective of the sector of economy, size of enterprise or mode of employment of the worker. The objective of this study was to survey the status of OHS in a sample of countries from all continents. A questionnaire focusing on the main aspects of OHS was developed on the basis of ILO Convention No. 161 and several other questionnaire surveys used in various target groups of OHS. The questionnaire was sent to 58 key informants: ICOH National Secretaries. A total of 49 National Secretaries responded (response rate 84.5%), from countries that employ 70% of the total world labour force. The majority of the respondent countries, 67%, had drawn up an OHS policy and implement it with the help of national occupational safety and health (OSH) authorities, institutes of occupational health or respective bodies, universities, and professional associations. Multidisciplinary expert OHS resources were available in the majority (82%) of countries, but varied widely in quantitative terms. The average OHS coverage of workers was 24.8%, with wide variation between countries. In over two thirds (69%) of the countries, the content of services was mixed, consisting of preventive and curative services, and in 29% preventive only. OHS financing was organized according to a mixed model among 63% and by employers only among 33% of the respondents. The majority of countries have drawn up policies, strategies and programmes for OHS. The infrastructures and institutional and human resources for the implementation of strategies, however, remain insufficient in the majority of countries (implementation gap). Qualitatively, the content and multidisciplinary nature of OHS corresponds to

  8. A global assessment of the gender gap in self-reported health with survey data from 59 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ties Boerma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While surveys in high-income countries show that women generally have poorer self-reported health than men, much less is known about gender differences in other regions of the world. Such data can be used to examine the determinants of sex differences. Methods We analysed data on respondents 18 years and over from the World Health Surveys 2002–04 in 59 countries, which included multiple measures of self-reported health, eight domains of functioning and presumptive diagnoses of chronic conditions. The age-standardized female excess fraction was computed for all indicators and analysed for five regional groups of countries. Multivariate regression models were used to examine the association between country gaps in self-reported health between the sexes with societal and other background characteristics. Results Women reported significantly poorer health than men on all self-reported health indicators. The excess fraction was 15 % for the health score based on the eight domains, 28 % for “poor” or “very poor” self-rated health on the single question, and 26 % for “severe” or “extreme” on a single question on limitations. The excess female reporting of poorer health occurred at all ages, but was smaller at ages 60 and over. The female excess was observed in all regions, and was smallest in the European high-income countries. Women more frequently reported problems in specific health domains, with the excess fraction ranging from 25 % for vision to 35 % for mobility, pain and sleep, and with considerable variation between regions. Angina, arthritis and depression had female excess fractions of 33, 32 and 42 % respectively. Higher female prevalence of the presumptive diagnoses was observed in all regional country groups. The main factors affecting the size of the gender gap in self-reported health were the female-male gaps in the prevalence of chronic conditions, especially arthritis and depression and

  9. A Global Survey of ATPase Activity in Plasmodium falciparum Asexual Blood Stages and Gametocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Corrie; Frando, Andrew; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Fleck, Neil; Flannery, Erika L.; Fishbaugher, Matthew; Murphree, Taylor A.; Hansen, Joshua R.; Smith, Richard D.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.; Wright, Aaron T.; Grundner, Christoph

    2017-10-27

    Effective malaria control and elimination in hyperendemic areas of the world will require treatment of disease-causing Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) blood stage infection but also blocking parasite transmission from humans to mosquito to prevent disease spread. Numerous antimalarial drugs have become ineffective due to parasite drug resistance and many currently used therapies do not kill gametocytes, highly specialized sexual parasite stages with distinct physiology that are necessary for transmission from the human host to the mosquito vector. Further confounding next generation drug development against Pf is the lack of known biochemical activity for most parasite gene products as well as the unknown metabolic needs of non-replicating gametocyte. Here, we take a systematic activity-based proteomics approach to survey the large and druggable ATPase family that is associated with replicating blood stage asexual parasites and transmissible gametocytes. We experimentally confirm existing annotation and predict ATPase function for 38 uncharacterized proteins. ATPase activity broadly changes during the transition from asexual schizonts to gametocytes, indicating altered metabolism and regulatory roles of ATPases specific for each lifecycle stage. By mapping the activity of ATPases associated with gametocytogenesis, we assign biochemical activity to a large number of uncharacterized proteins and identify new candidate transmission blocking targets.

  10. Network global navigation satellite system surveys to harmonize American and Canadian datum for the Lake Champlain Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.; Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.; Martin, Daniel J.

    2016-03-08

    Historically high flood levels were observed during flooding in Lake Champlain and the Richelieu River from late April through May 2011. Flooding was caused by record spring precipitation and snowmelt from the third highest cumulative snowfall year on record, which included a warm, saturated late spring snowpack. Flood stage was exceeded for a total of 67 days from April 13 to June 19, 2011. During this flooding, shoreline erosion and lake flood inundation were exacerbated by wind-driven waves associated with local fetch and lake-wide seiche effects. In May 2011, a new water-surface-elevation record was set for Lake Champlain. Peak lake-level water-surface elevations varied at the three U.S. Geological Survey lake-level gages on Lake Champlain in 2011. The May 2011 peak water-surface elevations for Lake Champlain ranged from 103.20 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 at the northern end of Lake Champlain (at its outlet into the Richelieu River at Rouses Point, New York) to 103.57 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 at the southern end of the Lake in Whitehall, New York. The water-surface elevations for the Richelieu River in Canada are referenced to a different vertical datum than are those in Lake Champlain in the United States, which causes difficulty in assessing real-time flood water-surface elevations and comparing of flood peaks in the Lake Champlain Basin in the United States and Canada.

  11. IRSN opinion survey - The perception of risks and security by the French population. Global results June 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    After having commented the most remarkable results (importance of the economic crisis as a major concern for French people before environmental concerns, an improved perception of industrial risks, the Fukushima accident is fading away but specific traces remain, expectations regarding nuclear energy), this report, illustrated by several graphs, presents and discusses the results of an annual opinion survey on the present concerns of French people (in the present society, for the environment, and as far as science is concerned), the opinion of French people on expertise (about who must control a risky installation, about the role and image of scientific experts, about the diffusion and sharing of scientific expertise, and about the perception of pluralistic structures), on the attitude of French people in front of 33 risk situations (risks to which French people feel exposed to, confidence of French people in authorities to protect them, the truth of information on hazards, the hierarchy of 33 situations according to three aspects and their relationship with installation acceptability). The fourth part addresses more particularly the nuclear sector: nuclear risk, ability and credibility of interveners, debate on energy transition. A last part addresses the perception of the Fukushima accident. Graphs notably present the evolution of opinions with respect to last year or over the past years

  12. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Henk; Hii, Jeffrey; Soares, Agnes; Mnzava, Abraham; Ameneshewa, Birkinesh; Dash, Aditya P; Ejov, Mikhail; Tan, Soo Hian; Matthews, Graham; Yadav, Rajpal S; Zaim, Morteza

    2011-05-14

    It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countries responded to the questionnaire (80% response rate), representing 94% of the total population of the countries targeted. Major gaps were evident in countries in pesticide procurement practices, training on vector control decision making, certification and quality control of pesticide application, monitoring of worker safety, public awareness programmes, and safe disposal of pesticide-related waste. Nevertheless, basic conditions of policy and coordination have been established in many countries through which the management of vector control pesticides could potentially be improved. Most countries responded that they have adopted relevant recommendations by the WHO. Given the deficiencies identified in this first global survey on public health pesticide management and the recent rise in pesticide use for malaria control, the effectiveness and safety of pesticide use are being compromised. This highlights the urgent need for countries to strengthen their capacity on pesticide management and evidence-based decision making within the context of an integrated vector management approach.

  13. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Soo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countries responded to the questionnaire (80% response rate, representing 94% of the total population of the countries targeted. Results Major gaps were evident in countries in pesticide procurement practices, training on vector control decision making, certification and quality control of pesticide application, monitoring of worker safety, public awareness programmes, and safe disposal of pesticide-related waste. Nevertheless, basic conditions of policy and coordination have been established in many countries through which the management of vector control pesticides could potentially be improved. Most countries responded that they have adopted relevant recommendations by the WHO. Conclusions Given the deficiencies identified in this first global survey on public health pesticide management and the recent rise in pesticide use for malaria control, the effectiveness and safety of pesticide use are being compromised. This highlights the urgent need for countries to strengthen their capacity on pesticide management and evidence-based decision making within the context of an integrated vector management approach.

  14. Global environment assessment survey by advancing the energy demand and supply structure. 4; Energy jukyu kozo kodoka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the energy demand and supply structure in Japan, the international trend of approaches to global warming problems and the mitigation options to global warming in the energy related sectors have been surveyed. For the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, an Ad-hoc Group has discussed relevant topics after the 1st conference of the Parties. Meetings of the Group primarily focused on what objectives to set for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in and in and after 2000. IPCC completed their Technical Paper in November 1996 in which technologies and measures to reduce GHG emissions and to enhance GHG sinks were analyzed and evaluated in various aspects. This Paper discusses about each sector of institutional buildings sector, transport sector, industrial sector, and energy supply sector. Especially, in the energy supply sector, promising approaches to reduce future emission include more efficient conversion of fossil fuels, switching to low-carbon fossil fuels, decarbonization of flue gas and fuels, CO2 storage, switching to nuclear energy, and switching to renewable sources of energy. 5 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. Global rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosquist, K.

    1980-01-01

    Global rotation in cosmological models is defined on an observational basis. A theorem is proved saying that, for rigid motion, the global rotation is equal to the ordinary local vorticity. The global rotation is calculated in the space-time homogeneous class III models, with Godel's model as a special case. It is shown that, with the exception of Godel's model, the rotation in these models becomes infinite for finite affine parameter values. In some directions the rotation changes sign and becomes infinite in a direction opposite to the local vorticity. The points of infinite rotation are identified as conjugate points along the null geodesics. The physical interpretation of the infinite rotation is discussed, and a comparison with the behaviour of the area distance at conjugate points is given. (author)

  16. Tobacco Use, Exposure to Secondhand Smoke, and Cessation Counseling Among Health Professions Students: Greek Data from the Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbouni, Anastasia; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Antoniadou, Eleni; Kourea, Kallirrhoe; Miloni, Evangelia; Warren, Charles W.; Rahiotis, George; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    We conducted the GHPSS (Global Health Professions Student Survey) to obtain information regarding health profession students’ smoking habits and perceptions, exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) as well as level of knowledge and training on tobacco use and smoking cessation counseling. GHPSS is a survey for third-year students in the following fields: health visitors, dentistry, medicine, nursing and/or pharmacy. The highest tobacco use prevalence rate and exposure to SHS were recorded among health visitor students with 46.4% and 33.3% respectively. The majority of the respondents believed that their profession serves as a role model for their patients. Formal training on cessation counseling ranged between 10.7% for health visitor students to 22.4% for nursing students. The relatively high percentage of health profession students who currently smoke and the alarmingly high percentage of those exposed to SHS indicate lack of concerted efforts for implementation and effective enforcement of the anti-tobacco policy measures. Despite its significance, formal training on cessation counseling for students is strikingly low. These results indicate the urgent need to train health professional students on tobacco cessation counseling and educate them on the dangers of tobacco use, SHS and the positively influential role they can play to affect their patients’ smoking habits. PMID:22470295

  17. Evaluation of the use of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data for developing evidence-based tobacco control policies in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erguder, Toker; Cakir, Banu; Aslan, Dilek; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2008-12-15

    The tobacco control effort in Turkey has made significant progress in recent years. Turkey initiated its tobacco control effort with the passing of Law 4207 (The Prevention of Harmful Effects of Tobacco Products) in 1996 and ratified the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in 2004. It is important to base policy decisions on valid and reliable evidence from population-based, representative studies that are periodically repeated to enable policy makers to monitor the results of their interventions and to appropriately tailor anti-tobacco activities towards future needs. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) was developed to track tobacco use among young people and enhance the capacity of countries to design, implement, and evaluate tobacco control and prevention programs. Turkey conducted the GYTS in 2003 and data from this survey can be used as baseline measures for evaluation of the tobacco control programs implemented by the Ministry of Health (MOH) of the Turkish government. The GYTS was conducted in 2003 on a representative sample of students aged 13 to 15 years. It indicated that almost 3 in 10 students in Turkey had ever smoked cigarettes, with significantly higher rates among boys. Current cigarette smoking rates were lower, at 9% for boys and 4% for girls. The prevalence of current use of other tobacco products was about half these figures for each gender. About 80% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Exposure to pro-smoking media messages was not rare. Almost half of the smokers 'usually' bought their tobacco from a store, despite the law prohibiting this. Exposure to teaching against smoking in schools was not universal. Findings from the GYTS, with periodic repeats of the survey, can be used to monitor the impact of enforcing various provisions of the present law (No: 4207), the progress made in achieving the goals of the WHO FCTC, and the effectiveness of various preventive interventions against smoking. Such

  18. Patient-Reported Outcomes and Therapeutic Affordances of Social Media: Findings From a Global Online Survey of People With Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from social media use in chronic disease management continue to emerge. While many published articles suggest the potential for social media is positive, there is a lack of robust examination into mediating mechanisms that might help explain social media’s therapeutic value. This study presents findings from a global online survey of people with chronic pain (PWCP) to better understand how they use social media as part of self-management. Objective Our aim is to improve understanding of the various health outcomes reported by PWCP by paying close attention to therapeutic affordances of social media. We wish to examine if demographics of participants underpin health outcomes and whether the concept of therapeutic affordances explains links between social media use and PROs. The goal is for this to help tailor future recommendations for use of social media to meet individuals’ health needs and improve clinical practice of social media use. Methods A total of 231 PWCP took part in a global online survey investigating PROs from social media use. Recruited through various chronic disease entities and social networks, participants provided information on demographics, health/pain status, social media use, therapeutic affordances, and PROs from use. Quantitative analysis was performed on the data using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation, and cluster analysis. Results The total dataset represented 218 completed surveys. The majority of participants were university educated (67.0%, 146/218) and female (83.9%, 183/218). More than half (58.7%, 128/218) were married/partnered and not working for pay (75.9%, 88/116 of these due to ill health). Fibromyalgia (46.6%, 55/118) and arthritis (27.1%, 32/118) were the most commonly reported conditions causing pain. Participants showed a clear affinity for social network site use (90.0%, 189/210), followed by discussion forums and blogs. PROs were consistent, suggesting that social

  19. Patient-reported outcomes and therapeutic affordances of social media: findings from a global online survey of people with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolli, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo

    2015-01-22

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from social media use in chronic disease management continue to emerge. While many published articles suggest the potential for social media is positive, there is a lack of robust examination into mediating mechanisms that might help explain social media's therapeutic value. This study presents findings from a global online survey of people with chronic pain (PWCP) to better understand how they use social media as part of self-management. Our aim is to improve understanding of the various health outcomes reported by PWCP by paying close attention to therapeutic affordances of social media. We wish to examine if demographics of participants underpin health outcomes and whether the concept of therapeutic affordances explains links between social media use and PROs. The goal is for this to help tailor future recommendations for use of social media to meet individuals' health needs and improve clinical practice of social media use. A total of 231 PWCP took part in a global online survey investigating PROs from social media use. Recruited through various chronic disease entities and social networks, participants provided information on demographics, health/pain status, social media use, therapeutic affordances, and PROs from use. Quantitative analysis was performed on the data using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation, and cluster analysis. The total dataset represented 218 completed surveys. The majority of participants were university educated (67.0%, 146/218) and female (83.9%, 183/218). More than half (58.7%, 128/218) were married/partnered and not working for pay (75.9%, 88/116 of these due to ill health). Fibromyalgia (46.6%, 55/118) and arthritis (27.1%, 32/118) were the most commonly reported conditions causing pain. Participants showed a clear affinity for social network site use (90.0%, 189/210), followed by discussion forums and blogs. PROs were consistent, suggesting that social media positively impact psychological

  20. Race-ethnic differences in the association of genetic loci with HbA1c levels and mortality in U.S. adults: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels diagnose diabetes, predict mortality and are associated with ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in white individuals. Genetic associations in other race groups are not known. We tested the hypotheses that there is race-ethnic variation in 1) HbA1c-associated risk allele frequencies (RAFs) for SNPs near SPTA1, HFE, ANK1, HK1, ATP11A, FN3K, TMPRSS6, G6PC2, GCK, MTNR1B; 2) association of SNPs with HbA1c and 3) association of SNPs with mortality. Methods We studied 3,041 non-diabetic individuals in the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) III. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity (NHW: non-Hispanic white; NHB: non-Hispanic black; MA: Mexican American) to calculate RAF, calculated a genotype score by adding risk SNPs, and tested associations with SNPs and the genotype score using an additive genetic model, with type 1 error = 0.05. Results RAFs varied widely and at six loci race-ethnic differences in RAF were significant (p race-ethnicity (NHW: 10.4, NHB: 11.0, MA: 10.7, p race-ethnic heterogeneity. The combined impact of common HbA1c-associated variants on HbA1c levels varied by race-ethnicity, but did not influence mortality. PMID:22540250

  1. Therapeutic Affordances of Social Media: Emergent Themes From a Global Online Survey of People With Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Background Research continues to present tenuous suggestions that social media is well suited to enhance management of chronic disease and improve health outcomes. Various studies have presented qualitative reports of health outcomes from social media use and have examined discourse and communication themes occurring through different social media. However, there is an absence of published studies examining and unpacking the underlying therapeutic mechanisms driving social media’s effects. Objective This paper presents a qualitative analysis thoroughly describing what social media therapeutically affords people living with chronic pain who are self-managing their condition. From this therapeutic affordance perspective, we aim to formulate a preliminary conceptual model aimed at better understanding "how" social media can influence patient outcomes. Methods In total, 218 people with chronic pain (PWCP) completed an online survey, investigating patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from social media use. Supplementary to quantitative data collected, participants were also given the opportunity to provide further open commentary regarding their use of social media as part of chronic pain management; 68/218 unique users (31.2%) chose to provide these free-text responses. Through thematic content analysis, 117 free-text responses regarding 10 types of social media were coded. Quotes were extracted and tabulated based on therapeutic affordances that we had previously identified. Inductive analysis was then performed to code defining language and emergent themes central to describing each affordance. Three investigators examined the responses, developed the coding scheme, and applied the coding to the data. Results We extracted 155 quotes from 117 free-text responses. The largest source of quotes came from social network site users (78/155, 50.3%). Analysis of component language used to describe the aforementioned affordances and emergent themes resulted in a final revision

  2. Therapeutic affordances of social media: emergent themes from a global online survey of people with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolli, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2014-12-22

    Research continues to present tenuous suggestions that social media is well suited to enhance management of chronic disease and improve health outcomes. Various studies have presented qualitative reports of health outcomes from social media use and have examined discourse and communication themes occurring through different social media. However, there is an absence of published studies examining and unpacking the underlying therapeutic mechanisms driving social media's effects. This paper presents a qualitative analysis thoroughly describing what social media therapeutically affords people living with chronic pain who are self-managing their condition. From this therapeutic affordance perspective, we aim to formulate a preliminary conceptual model aimed at better understanding "how" social media can influence patient outcomes. In total, 218 people with chronic pain (PWCP) completed an online survey, investigating patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from social media use. Supplementary to quantitative data collected, participants were also given the opportunity to provide further open commentary regarding their use of social media as part of chronic pain management; 68/218 unique users (31.2%) chose to provide these free-text responses. Through thematic content analysis, 117 free-text responses regarding 10 types of social media were coded. Quotes were extracted and tabulated based on therapeutic affordances that we had previously identified. Inductive analysis was then performed to code defining language and emergent themes central to describing each affordance. Three investigators examined the responses, developed the coding scheme, and applied the coding to the data. We extracted 155 quotes from 117 free-text responses. The largest source of quotes came from social network site users (78/155, 50.3%). Analysis of component language used to describe the aforementioned affordances and emergent themes resulted in a final revision and renaming of therapeutic affordances

  3. Prevalence and correlates of being bullied among in-school adolescents in Malawi: results from the 2009 Global School-Based Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubwalo, H W; Muula, A S; Siziya, S; Pasupulati, S; Rudatsikira, E

    2013-03-01

    Physical and emotional violence against adolescents is a neglected, but growing problem globally. Violence against adolescents negatively affects the victim in terms of physical health, school attendance and performance and social adjustment. The literature on the prevalence and associated factors of bullying against adolescents is sparse in southern Africa outside South Africa. Such data are even sparser for Malawi. The current study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of self-reported bullying and its personal and social correlates. A secondary analysis of the Malawi School-Based Student Health Survey (2009) was done. Descriptive analyses were done to describe the sample and estimate the prevalence of reporting history of bullying in the past 30 days preceding the survey. Logistic regression analysis was done to assess the association between several factors and being a victim of bullying. Crude and adjusted odds ratios are reported. A total of 2,264 in-school adolescents participated in the Malawi School-Based Student Health Survey of 2009. Just under half (44.5%) reported having been bullied in the previous month to the survey (44.1% among boys versus 44.9% among girls). Compared to adolescents of age 16 years or older, those who were 12 years old or younger and those who were 14 years of age were more likely to be bullied (AOR=1.54; 95% CI [1.41, 1.76]) and OR=1.26; 95% CI [1.21, 1.31]) respectively. The other risk factors that were identified in the analysis were loneliness (AOR = 2.23; 95% CI [2.20, 2.27]), and being worried (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI [2.76, 2.85[). Adolescents who had no close friends were 14% (AOR = 1.14; 95% CI [1.11-1.17]) more likely to be reporting bullied compared to adolescents who reported having close friends. Adolescents who smoked cigarettes were more than three times more likely to reporting be bullied compared to non-smokers (AOR=3.97; 955 CI [3.83, 4.10]), while those who drank alcohol were more than twice as likely to be

  4. Most Recent Sampling Results for Annex III Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contains email from Scott Miller, US EPA to Scott Kramer. Subject: Most Recent Sampling Results for Annex III Building. (2:52 PM) and Gore(TM) Surveys Analytical Results U.S. Geological Survey, Montgomery, AL.

  5. Protocol for Combined Analysis of FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global Randomized Phase III Trials of Chemotherapy +/- Selective Internal Radiation Therapy as First-Line Treatment for Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdee, Pradeep S; Moschandreas, Joanna; Gebski, Val; Love, Sharon B; Francis, E Anne; Wasan, Harpreet S; van Hazel, Guy; Gibbs, Peter; Sharma, Ricky A

    2017-03-28

    In colorectal cancer (CRC), unresectable liver metastases are associated with a poor prognosis. The FOXFIRE (an open-label randomized phase III trial of 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and folinic acid +/- interventional radioembolization as first-line treatment for patients with unresectable liver-only or liver-predominant metastatic colorectal cancer), SIRFLOX (randomized comparative study of FOLFOX6m plus SIR-Spheres microspheres versus FOLFOX6m alone as first-line treatment in patients with nonresectable liver metastases from primary colorectal carcinoma), and FOXFIRE-Global (assessment of overall survival of FOLFOX6m plus SIR-Spheres microspheres versus FOLFOX6m alone as first-line treatment in patients with nonresectable liver metastases from primary colorectal carcinoma in a randomized clinical study) clinical trials were designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combining first-line chemotherapy with selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using yttrium-90 resin microspheres, also called transarterial radioembolization. The aim of this analysis is to prospectively combine clinical data from 3 trials to allow adequate power to evaluate the impact of chemotherapy with SIRT on overall survival. Eligible patients are adults with histologically confirmed CRC and unequivocal evidence of liver metastases which are not treatable by surgical resection or local ablation with curative intent at the time of study entry. Patients may also have limited extrahepatic metastases. Final analysis will take place when all participants have been followed up for a minimum of 2 years. Efficacy and safety estimates derived using individual participant data (IPD) from SIRFLOX, FOXFIRE, and FOXFIRE-Global will be pooled using 2-stage prospective meta-analysis. Secondary outcome measures include progression-free survival (PFS), liver-specific PFS, health-related quality of life, response rate, resection rate, and adverse event profile. The large study population will

  6. Global Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barakat, Livia L.; Lorenz, Melanie P.; Ramsey, Jase R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of cultural intelligence (CQ) on the job performance of global managers. Design/methodology/approach: – In total, 332 global managers were surveyed from multinational companies operating in Brazil. The mediating effect of job...... satisfaction was tested on the CQ-job performance relationship. Findings: – The findings suggest that job satisfaction transmits the effect of CQ to job performance, such that global managers high in CQ exhibit more job satisfaction in an international setting, and therefore perform better at their jobs....... Practical implications: – Results imply that global managers should increase their CQ in order to improve their job satisfaction and ultimately perform better in an international context. Originality/value: – The authors make three primary contributions to the international business literature. First...

  7. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    , postgraduate qualification or MBA programme. This book also caters for practicing managers and executives who need to understand current developments in global derivatives markets and require cutting-edge insight on strategic risk management issues. Dr Torben Juul Andersen is currently Associate Professor...... approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk...... management practice. Of particular note is the global and integrated approach chosen in this book which should be of special interest to aspiring managers active in global and international markets." - Dr Jean-Pierre Zigrand, Lecturer in Finance, London School of Economics, UK. More than 90 per cent...

  8. Socio-economic inequalities in health and health service use among older adults in India: results from the WHO Study on Global AGEing and adult health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinda, E M; Attermann, J; Gerdtham, U G; Enemark, U

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure socio-economic inequalities in self-reported health (SRH) and healthcare visits and to identify factors contributing to health inequalities among older people aged 50-plus years. This study is based on a population-based, cross-sectional survey. We accessed data of 7150 older adults from the World Health Organization's Study on Global AGEing and adult health Indian survey. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the correlates of poor SRH. We estimated the concentration index to measure socio-economic inequalities in SRH and healthcare visits. Regression-based decomposition analysis was employed to explore the correlates contributing to poor SRH inequality. About 19% (95% CI: 18%, 20%) reported poor health (n = 1368) and these individuals were significantly less wealthy. In total, 5134 (71.8%) participants made at least one health service visit. Increasing age, female gender, low social caste, rural residence, multimorbidity, absence of pension support, and health insurance were significant correlates of poor SRH. The standardized concentration index of poor SRH -0.122 (95% CI: -0.102; -0.141) and healthcare visits 0.364 (95% CI: 0.324, 0.403) indicated pro-poor and pro-rich inequality, respectively. Economic status (62.3%), pension support (11.5%), health insurance coverage (11.5%), social caste (10.7%) and place of residence (4.1%) were important contributors to inequalities in poor health. Socio-economic disparities in health and health care are major concerns in India. Achievement of health equity demand strategies beyond health policies, to include pro-poor, social welfare policies among older Indians. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Association between Warning Label Requirements and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Education-Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; He, Yanyun; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2017-01-21

    The Guidelines for the implementation of Article 11 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) require that cigarette health warning labels should include pictures and take up 50% or more of the principal display area. This study examined how the association between large pictorial warnings, those covering ≥50% of the front and back of the package, and the prevalence of cigarette smoking varies by educational attainment. We pooled individual-level tobacco use data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 18 countries between 2008 and 2013 and linked them with warning label requirements during the same period from the MPOWER database and reports regarding warnings. The respondents' self-reported exposure to warnings was examined according to education. Logistic regressions were further employed to analyze education-specific associations between large pictorial warnings and smoking prevalence, and whether such association differed by education was examined using an interaction test. At the time of the survey, eight out of 18 countries had imposed graphic warning labels that covered ≥50% of the package. These warnings were associated with a 10.0% (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97; p ≤ 0.01) lower cigarette smoking prevalence among adults with less than a secondary education or no formal education, but not among respondents with at least a secondary education. Less educated respondents were also less likely to be exposed to warnings in all 18 countries. The association between strong warnings and lower smoking prevalence among less educated respondents could be greater if their exposure to warnings increases. Prominent pictorial warning labels can potentially reduce health disparities resulting from smoking across different education levels.

  10. The Association between Warning Label Requirements and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Education-Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Guidelines for the implementation of Article 11 of the World Health Organization (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC require that cigarette health warning labels should include pictures and take up 50% or more of the principal display area. This study examined how the association between large pictorial warnings, those covering ≥50% of the front and back of the package, and the prevalence of cigarette smoking varies by educational attainment. Methods: We pooled individual-level tobacco use data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS in 18 countries between 2008 and 2013 and linked them with warning label requirements during the same period from the MPOWER database and reports regarding warnings. The respondents’ self-reported exposure to warnings was examined according to education. Logistic regressions were further employed to analyze education-specific associations between large pictorial warnings and smoking prevalence, and whether such association differed by education was examined using an interaction test. Results: At the time of the survey, eight out of 18 countries had imposed graphic warning labels that covered ≥50% of the package. These warnings were associated with a 10.0% (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97; p ≤ 0.01 lower cigarette smoking prevalence among adults with less than a secondary education or no formal education, but not among respondents with at least a secondary education. Less educated respondents were also less likely to be exposed to warnings in all 18 countries. The association between strong warnings and lower smoking prevalence among less educated respondents could be greater if their exposure to warnings increases. Conclusions: Prominent pictorial warning labels can potentially reduce health disparities resulting from smoking across different education levels.

  11. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): the case for the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Baquilod, Marina; Fishburn, Burke; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in the Philippines in 2000 and 2003 which can be used as baseline measures to monitor provisions of the 2003 Tobacco Regulatory Act and Articles of the WHO FCTC. The GYTS is a school-based survey which uses a two-stage sample design to produce representative, independent, cross-sectional estimates. In both 2000 and 2003, the GYTS was conducted in three geographic zones in the Philippines. The zones are then combined to produce a representative national estimate each year. Data in this report are limited to students aged 13-15 years. The findings in this study show that in the Philippines changes occurred between 2000 and 2003 in that: students were less likely to smoke cigarettes or use other tobacco products, less likely to be exposed to SHS in public places, more likely to support bans on smoking in public places, more likely to have learned in school and from the media about the health hazards of tobacco use, and less likely to have been offered "free" cigarettes by a tobacco company representative. The synergy between the Philippines' leadership in passing the Clean Air Act in 1999 and the Tobacco Regulatory Air in 2003, in ratifying the WHO FCTC in 2005, and in supporting the conduct of the GYTS offers the Philippines a unique opportunity to develop, implement and evaluate the youth component of their comprehensive tobacco control policy that can be most helpful to the country.

  12. Cross-country comparison of waterpipe use: nationally representative data from 13 low and middle-income countries from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jeremy; Song, Yang; Fouad, Heba; Awa, Fatimah El; Abou El Naga, Randa; Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2014-09-01

    Evidence shows that smoking tobacco using a waterpipe is significantly associated with diseases. Despite this, waterpipe use seems to be increasing worldwide, though nationally representative data are not widely available. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) provides an opportunity to measure various indicators of waterpipe use from nationally representative surveys. Data were obtained for adults 15 years of age or older from 13 countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Vietnam) who completed GATS from 2008-2010. The GATS questionnaire collected data on current waterpipe use, including daily/less than daily prevalence and number of sessions per day/week. An optional waterpipe module measured former use, age of initiation, and level of consumption during a session. GATS was successful in producing nationally representative data on waterpipe use from 13 countries, many of which for the first time. The prevalence of waterpipe use among men was highest in Vietnam (13.0%) and Egypt (6.2%); among women, waterpipe use was highest in Russia (3.2%) and Ukraine (1.1%). While over 90% of adults in Ukraine thought smoking tobacco causes serious illness, only 31.4% thought smoking tobacco using a waterpipe causes serious illness. GATS data provide the ability to analyse waterpipe use within a country and across countries. Monitoring of waterpipe use at a national level will better enable countries to target tobacco control interventions such as education campaigns about the negative health effects of waterpipe use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Awareness and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in Indonesia, Malaysia, Qatar, and Greece: Findings From 2011-2013 Global Adult Tobacco Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Mbulo, Lazarous; Morton, Jeremy; Mbulo, Lazarous; Bunnell, Rebecca; Blutcher-Nelson, Glenda; Kosen, Soewarta; Tee, Guat Hiong; Abdalla, Amani Mohamed Elkhatim; Mutawa, Kholood Ateeq Al; Barbouni, Anastasia; Antoniadou, Eleni; Fouad, Heba; Khoury, Rula N; Rarick, James; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Asma, Samira

    2016-04-01

    Increases in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) awareness and current use have been documented in high income countries but less is known about middle and low income countries. Nationally representative household survey data from the first four Global Adult Tobacco Surveys to assess e-cigarettes were analyzed, including Indonesia (2011), Malaysia (2011), Qatar (2013), and Greece (2013). Correlates of e-cigarette awareness and current use were calculated. Sample sizes for Greece and Qatar allowed for further analysis of e-cigarette users. Awareness of e-cigarettes was 10.9% in Indonesia, 21.0% in Malaysia, 49.0% in Qatar, and 88.5% in Greece. In all four countries, awareness was higher among male, younger, more educated, and wealthier respondents. Current e-cigarette use among those aware of e-cigarettes was 3.9% in Malaysia, 2.5% in Indonesia, 2.2% in Greece and 1.8% in Qatar. Across these four countries, an estimated 818 500 people are currently using e-cigarettes. Among current e-cigarette users, 64.4% in Greece and 84.1% in Qatar also smoked cigarettes, and, 10.6% in Greece and 6.0% in Qatar were never-smokers. E-cigarette awareness and use was evident in all four countries. Ongoing surveillance and monitoring of awareness and use of e-cigarettes in these and other countries could help inform tobacco control policies and public health interventions. Future surveillance should monitor use of e-cigarettes among current smokers and uptake among never-smokers and relapsing former smokers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Prevalence and correlates for school truancy among pupils in grades 7-10: results from the 2004 Zambia Global School-based Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Babaniyi, Olusegun; Songolo, Peter; Siziya, Seter

    2012-01-20

    There are limited data on the prevalence and associated factors of truancy in southern Africa. Yet truancy should attract the attention of public health professionals, educators and policy makers as it may be associated with adolescent problem behaviours. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence and determine correlates of school truancy among pupils in Zambia. We used data collected in 2004 in the Zambia Global School-based Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with truancy. A total of 2257 pupils participated in the survey of whom 53.9% were male. Overall 58.8% of the participants (58.1% of males and 58.4% of females) reported being truant in the past 30 days. Factors associated with truancy were having been bullied (AOR = 1.34, 95% CI [1.32, 1.36]), current alcohol use (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI [2.16, 2.23]), perception that other students were kind and helpful (AOR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.10, 1.14]), being male and being from the lowest school grade. Pupils whose parents or guardians checked their homework (AOR = 0.91 95% CI, [0.89, 0.92]) and those who reported parental supervision (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI [0.92-0.95]) were less likely to report being truant. We found a high prevalence of truancy among pupils in grades 7-10 in Zambia. Interventions aimed to reduce truancy should be designed and implemented with due consideration of the associated factors.

  15. Awareness and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in Indonesia, Malaysia, Qatar, and Greece: Findings From 2011–2013 Global Adult Tobacco Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Mbulo, Lazarous; Morton, Jeremy; Mbulo, Lazarous; Bunnell, Rebecca; Blutcher-Nelson, Glenda; Kosen, Soewarta; Tee, Guat Hiong; Abdalla, Amani Mohamed Elkhatim; Al Mutawa, Kholood Ateeq; Barbouni, Anastasia; Antoniadou, Eleni; Fouad, Heba; Khoury, Rula N.; Rarick, James; Sinha, Dhirendra N.; Asma, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increases in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) awareness and current use have been documented in high income countries but less is known about middle and low income countries. Methods Nationally representative household survey data from the first four Global Adult Tobacco Surveys to assess e-cigarettes were analyzed, including Indonesia (2011), Malaysia (2011), Qatar (2013), and Greece (2013). Correlates of e-cigarette awareness and current use were calculated. Sample sizes for Greece and Qatar allowed for further analysis of e-cigarette users. Results Awareness of e-cigarettes was 10.9% in Indonesia, 21.0% in Malaysia, 49.0% in Qatar, and 88.5% in Greece. In all four countries, awareness was higher among male, younger, more educated, and wealthier respondents. Current e-cigarette use among those aware of e-cigarettes was 3.9% in Malaysia, 2.5% in Indonesia, 2.2% in Greece and 1.8% in Qatar. Across these four countries, an estimated 818 500 people are currently using e-cigarettes. Among current e-cigarette users, 64.4% in Greece and 84.1% in Qatar also smoked cigarettes, and, 10.6% in Greece and 6.0% in Qatar were never-smokers. Conclusions E-cigarette awareness and use was evident in all four countries. Ongoing surveillance and monitoring of awareness and use of e-cigarettes in these and other countries could help inform tobacco control policies and public health interventions. Future surveillance should monitor use of e-cigarettes among current smokers and uptake among never-smokers and relapsing former smokers. PMID:25895951

  16. Prevalence and correlates for school truancy among pupils in grades 7-10: results from the 2004 Zambia Global School-based Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muula Adamson S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data on the prevalence and associated factors of truancy in southern Africa. Yet truancy should attract the attention of public health professionals, educators and policy makers as it may be associated with adolescent problem behaviours. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence and determine correlates of school truancy among pupils in Zambia. Findings We used data collected in 2004 in the Zambia Global School-based Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with truancy. A total of 2257 pupils participated in the survey of whom 53.9% were male. Overall 58.8% of the participants (58.1% of males and 58.4% of females reported being truant in the past 30 days. Factors associated with truancy were having been bullied (AOR = 1.34, 95% CI [1.32, 1.36], current alcohol use (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI [2.16, 2.23], perception that other students were kind and helpful (AOR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.10, 1.14], being male and being from the lowest school grade. Pupils whose parents or guardians checked their homework (AOR = 0.91 95% CI, [0.89, 0.92] and those who reported parental supervision (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI [0.92-0.95] were less likely to report being truant. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of truancy among pupils in grades 7-10 in Zambia. Interventions aimed to reduce truancy should be designed and implemented with due consideration of the associated factors.

  17. Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-05-15

    Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, 'environmental equity' indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International 'best practice benchmarks' will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. This research is highly original due to the very 'upstream' approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to establish INFORMAS globally as a new monitoring initiative

  18. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-01-01

    The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive concept...

  19. Galaxy interactions and star formation: Results of a survey of global H-alpha emission in spiral galaxies in 8 clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, C.

    1990-01-01

    Kennicutt and Kent (1983) have shown that the global H alpha emission from a spiral galaxy is an indicator of the formation rate of massive stars. Moss, Whittle and Irwin (1988) have surveyed two clusters (Abell 347 and 1367) for galaxies with H alpha emission using a high dispersion objective prism technique. The purpose of the survey is to investigate environmental effects on star formation in spiral galaxies, and in particular to ascertain whether star formation is enhanced in cluster spirals. Approximately 20 percent of CGCG galaxies were detected in emission. Two plates of excellent quality were obtained for each of the two clusters, and galaxies were only identified to have emission if this was detected on both plates of a plate pair. In this way, plate flaws and other spurious identifications of emission could be rejected, and weak emission confirmed. The results of this survey have been discussed by Moss (1987). The detected galaxies are of types SO-a and later. The frequency with which galaxies are detected in emission increases towards later morphological type as expected (cf. Kennicutt and Kent 1983). There is no evidence of any dependence of the frequency of detected emission on the absolute magnitude of the galaxy (cf. Moss and Whittle 1990), but there is a strong correlation between a disturbed morphological appearance of the galaxy and the detection of emission. Furthermore it is found that the emission is more centrally concentrated in those galaxies which show a disturbed morphology. It may be noted that the objective prism plate gives a spectrum of a 400 A region around rest wavelength H alpha, but superposed on this is the H alpha emission from the galaxy which, because the light is essentially monochromatic, results in a true two-dimensional image of the H alpha distribution. The visual appearance of the emission on the prism plates was classified according to its diffuseness on a 5 point scale (very diffuse, diffuse, intermediate, compact, and

  20. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Methods: Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO “MPOWER” tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. Results: The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p p p < 0.001. Conclusions: POS advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  1. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Li, Qing; Chaloupka, Frank J

    while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO "MPOWER" tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans) and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p < 0.01), and that this association is seen for both genders (boys OR = 0.74, p < 0.1; girls OR = 0.52, p < 0.001). POS advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  2. Alcohol marketing and drunkenness among students in the Philippines: findings from the nationally representative Global School-based Student Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H; Palmier, Jane B; Benegas-Segarra, Agnes; Sinson, Fe A

    2013-12-10

    A largely unaddressed issue in lower income countries and the Philippines, in particular, is the role of alcohol marketing and its potential link to early alcohol use among youth. This study examines the associations between exposures to alcohol marketing and Filipino youths' drinking prevalence and drunkenness. Cross-sectional analyses were used to examine the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Philippines (2011). The self-administered questionnaires were completed by students primarily 13 to 16 years of age (N = 5,290). Three statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR: 1.84; 95% CI=1.06-3.21) among youths after controlling for demographic and psychosocial characteristics, peer environment, and risky behaviors. In addition, seeing alcohol ads in newspapers and magazines (AOR: 1.65, 95% CI=1.05-2.58) and seeing ads at sports events, concerts or fairs (AOR: 1.50, 95% CI =1.06-2.12) were significantly associated with increased reports of drunkenness. There are significant associations between alcohol marketing exposure and increased alcohol use and drunkenness among youth in the Philippines. These findings highlight the need to put policies into effect that restrict alcohol marketing practices as an important prevention strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  3. Current Tobacco Smoking and Desire to Quit Smoking Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 61 Countries, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, René A; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Babb, Stephen; Armour, Brian S

    2017-05-26

    Tobacco use is the world's leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, resulting in nearly 6 million deaths each year (1). Smoked tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars, are the most common form of tobacco consumed worldwide (2), and most tobacco smokers begin smoking during adolescence (3). The health benefits of quitting are greater for persons who stop smoking at earlier ages; however, quitting smoking at any age has health benefits (4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 61 countries across the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions from 2012 to 2015 to examine the prevalence of current tobacco smoking and desire to quit smoking among students aged 13-15 years. Across all 61 countries, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 10.7% (range = 1.7%, Sri Lanka to 35.0%, Timor-Leste). By sex, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.6% among males (range = 2.9%, Tajikistan to 61.4%, Timor-Leste) and 7.5% among females (range = 1.6%, Tajikistan to 29.0%, Bulgaria). In the majority of countries assessed, the proportion of current tobacco smokers who desired to quit smoking exceeded 50%. These findings could be used by country level tobacco control programs to inform strategies to prevent and reduce youth tobacco use (1,4).

  4. Prevalence and correlates of hunger among primary and secondary school children in Malawi: results from the 2009 Global School-based Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwambene, J B; Muula, A S; Leo, J C

    2013-06-01

    Education is important in improving economies and creating literate, self-reliant and healthy societies. However, hunger is a barrier to basic education in Malawi. Hunger is also associated with a number of health risk behaviours, such as bullying, suicide ideation and unhygienic behaviours that may jeopardize the future of children. There are, however, limited data on the prevalence and associated factors of hunger among school children in Malawi. The study used data from the Malawi Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2009 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hunger within the last 30 days among primary and secondary school age group. It also assessed the association between self-reported hunger and some selected list of independent variables using frequency distribution, chi-squared test and logistic regression. A total of 2359 students were available for analysis. The overall self-reported prevalence of hunger within the last 30 days was 12.5% (18.9% (172) in the rural and 8.3% (115) in urban areas; and 11.9%(123) for male and 12.5(148) for female children). In the final analysis, geographical location, eating fruits, having been bullied, suicide ideation, and washing hands with soap were significantly associated with hunger. Hunger in both primary and secondary school children in Malawi is a major social problem. The design of school feeding programmes aimed to reduce hunger should incorporate the factors identified as associated with hunger.

  5. Effects of the 2008 Global Economic Crisis on National Health Indicators: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Gyeongsil; Kim, Jun-Suk; Oh, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Keun-Seung; Hur, Yong; Cho, Be-Long

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between economics and health has been of great interest throughout the years. The accumulated data is not sufficient enough to carry out long-term studies from the viewpoint of morbidity, although Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) was carried out yearly since 1998 in Korea. Thus, we investigated the effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on health indicators of Korea. Health indicators were selected by paired t-test based on 2007 and 2009 KNHANES data. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, exercise, education, income, working status, and stress were used as confounding factors, which were analyzed with logistic and probit analyses. Validation was done by comparing gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates and probit analyses results of 2007-2012 KNHANES data. Among several health indicators, the prevalence of hypertension and stress perception was higher after the economic crisis. Factors related with higher hypertension prevalence include older age, male gender, higher BMI, no current tobacco use, recent drinking, lower education levels, and stress perception. Factors related with more stress perception were younger age, female gender, current smoking, lower education levels, and lower income. GDP growth rates, a macroeconomic indicator, are inversely associated with hypertension prevalence with a one-year lag, and also inversely associated with stress perception without time lag. The economic crisis increased the prevalence of hypertension and stress perception. In the case of GDP growth rate change, hypertension was an inversely lagging indicator and stress perception was an inversely-related coincident indicator.

  6. The effect of post-traumatic stress disorder on the risk of developing prescription opioid use disorder: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ahmed N; Foll, Bernard Le; Imtiaz, Sameer; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of baseline post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and each symptoms cluster on the risk of developing opioid use disorder (OUD) in those exposed to opioid painkillers and to assess the effect of comorbid PTSD and OUD on functioning, OUD severity, and treatment seeking compared with individuals with OUD only. We obtained data from 4025 individuals exposed to opioid painkillers from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III. We matched individuals with baseline PTSD with individuals without PTSD on demographics, developmental background, family history, personalities, and exposure to stressful life events with propensity score methodology. We controlled for clinical diagnoses and other risk factors that may have occurred after PTSD onset. Quality of life was assessed with the SF-12; the number of diagnostic criteria met indicated OUD severity. Baseline PTSD predicted OUD after controlling for matching variables and other risk factors, including baseline mood/anxiety disorders and other substance use disorders (odds ratio[OR]: 1.58; 95% confidence interval[CI]: 1.14-2.17; p=0.02). Among individuals with PTSD, arousal/reactivity cluster predicted OUD. Individuals with comorbid PTSD and OUD had lower mean scores on the SF-12 scale and greater severity of OUD than individuals with OUD. There were no differences in help-seeking. Baseline PTSD increases the risk of developing OUD after exposure to opioid painkillers. Clinicians should screen for PTSD diagnosis and arousal/reactivity symptoms prior to prescribing painkillers. Integrated treatments are strongly recommended for patients with this dual diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Global Trends in Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2005-01-01

    societal and administrative conditions. This of course imposes all kinds of challenges upon the profession and educational institutions. Furthermore, issues such as curricula development, quality assurance, continuing professional development, and mutual recognition are crucial to any professional...

  8. Global Survey of National Constitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perehudoff, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract General Comment No. 22, issued in 2016 by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), clarifies states’ legal duties to respect, protect, and fulfill the right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Our study analyzes domestic constitutions around the world to investigate whether and to what extent the right to sexual and reproductive health is respected, protected, and fulfilled; to what extent these provisions are inclusive and non-discriminatory; and to what degree the interlinkages between this and other human rights are acknowledged. Of the 195 constitutions accessed, 27 enshrine sexual and/or reproductive health, and seven adopt restrictive approaches to this right. In the 27 constitutions, provisions most frequently enshrine respect of one’s sexual health and family planning decisions, the protection of sexual health, and the provision of reproductive health care and family planning services (fulfillment). Most of the 27 constitutions fail to adequately respect reproductive health rights; to protect reproductive health, family planning, and abortion services from third-party interference; and to fulfill all dimensions of sexual health and access to abortion. Three of the 27 constitutions enshrine a universal right to SRH, and additional constitutions protect specific vulnerable groups (such as women, children) and/or restrict the scope of rights holders to couples. Among the 27 constitutions, nine explicitly link the right to sexual and reproductive health to the rights to education, science, and/or to make autonomous decisions about sexuality and reproduction. Our results can serve as a baseline measure to track constitutional reforms in pursuit of the realization of sexual and reproductive health and rights, and as building blocks for future lawmakers committed to realizing these rights through domestic legal reform. PMID:29302182

  9. Global identification, xenophobia and globalisation: A cross-national exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariely, Gal

    2017-12-01

    This paper explores the ways in which globalisation influences social identity. Combining a psychological social-identity framework with sociological considerations regarding the contextual impact of globalisation, it tests whether global identification-that is, people's identification as global citizens-constitutes an inclusive category, negatively linked to xenophobic attitudes towards immigrants across countries and whether the actual country level of globalisation moderates the relationship between global identification and xenophobia. Unlike most psychological studies of globalisation, it draws its data from 124 national samples across 86 countries, with 154,760 respondents overall, using three different cross-national surveys. Study 1 (International Social Survey Program National Identity Module III 2013; N = 39,426, countries = 32) evinces that while global identification is in fact negatively linked to xenophobia, the correlation is moderated by the country level of globalisation, countries marked by higher levels of globalisation exhibiting a stronger negative relation between global identification and xenophobia than those characterised by a lower level of globalisation. Study 2 (European Values Study 2008; N = 53,083, countries = 44) and Study 3 (World Values Survey 6; N = 65,251, countries = 48) replicated these results across other countries employing dissimilar scales for global identification and xenophobia. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    ." - Steen Parsholt, Chairman and CEO, Aon Nordic Region. "Andersen has done a wonderful job of developing a comprehensive text that deals with risk management in global markets. I would recommend this book to any student or businessman who has a need to better understand the risks and risk management......""In Global Derivatives: A Strategic Risk Management Perspective", Torben Juul Andersen has succeeded to gather in one book a complete and thorough summary and an easy-to-read explanation of all types of derivative instruments and their background, and their use in modern management of risk...... approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk...

  11. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Larry W.; Chu, William P.; Pitts, Michael C.

    1998-12-01

    The SAGE III is the fourth generation of solar occultation instruments designed to measure aerosols and trace gas species in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. It will be launched aboard a Meteor-3M platform in the summer of 1999 and the International Space Station Alpha in 2001. SAGE III preserves the robust characteristics of the SAGE series, including self-calibration and high vertical resolution, and adds new capabilities including a lunar occultation mode. This paper will describe the SAGE III instrument and outline its potential contribution to global change research.

  12. Secondhand smoke exposure and susceptibility to initiating cigarette smoking among never-smoking students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung A; Palipudi, Krishna M; English, Lorna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) causes premature death and illness in non-smokers. We examined SHS exposure at home and in public places, as well as susceptibility to initiate cigarette smoking among never cigarette smokers. We used 2006-2011 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 29 African countries (56,967 students). GYTS is a nationally representative, self-administered school-based survey, conducted among students aged 13-15years. Prevalence ratio, estimates and 95% confidence intervals were computed for SHS exposure in the homes and public places separately. The two-sample t-test was used to assess the difference in susceptibility to smoking by SHS exposure among never-smoking students (α=0.05). Among never-smoking students, exposure to SHS at home ranged from 12.7% (Cape Verde) to 44.0% (Senegal). The prevalence ratio (PR) comparing susceptibility to smoking initiation among never smokers exposed to SHS at home to those who were not exposed at home ranged from 1.2 to 2.6. Exposure to SHS in public places ranged from 23.9% (Cape Verde) to 80.4% (Mali). Of the countries being studied, 8 countries showed a significant difference in susceptibility to smoking initiation among never smokers exposed to SHS in public places compared to those not exposed in public places. (PR ranged from 0.5-3.5). In many African countries in the study, a substantial proportion of students who never smoked are exposed to SHS at home and in public places. Majority of never smokers who were exposed to SHS at home and in public places had a higher prevalence of susceptibility to initiate smoking than those that were not exposed to SHS at home and in public places. Adoption and enforcement of smoke-free policies in public places and smoke-free rules at home could substantially contribute to reducing SHS exposure in many of these countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of tobacco use in four countries of the World Health Organization: South-East Asia region: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, K; Rizwan, S A; Sinha, D N; Andes, L J; Amarchand, R; Krishnan, A; Asma, S

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of deaths and Disability Adjusted Life Years lost worldwide, particularly in South-East Asia. Health risks associated with exclusive use of one form of tobacco alone has a different health risk profile when compared to dual use. In order to tease out specific profiles of mutually exclusive categories of tobacco use, we carried out this analysis. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data was used to describe the profiles of three mutually exclusive tobacco use categories ("Current smoking only," "Current smokeless tobacco [SLT] use only," and "Dual use") in four World Health Organization South-East Asia Region countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Thailand. GATS was a nationally representative household-based survey that used a stratified multistage cluster sampling design proportional to population size. Prevalence of different forms of usage were described as proportions. Logistics regression analyses was performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses were weighted, accounted for the complex sampling design and conducted using SPSS version 18. The prevalence of different forms of tobacco use varied across countries. Current tobacco use ranged from 27.2% in Thailand to 43.3% in Bangladesh. Exclusively smoking was more common in Indonesia (34.0%) and Thailand (23.4%) and less common in Bangladesh (16.1%) and India (8.7%). Exclusively using SLT was more common in Bangladesh (20.3%) and India (20.6%) and less common on Indonesia (0.9%) and Thailand (3.5%). Dual use of smoking and SLT was found in Bangladesh (6.8%) and India (5.3%), but was negligible in Indonesia (0.8) and Thailand (0.4%). Gender, age, education and wealth had significant effects on the OR for most forms of tobacco use across all four countries with the exceptions of SLT use in Indonesia and dual use in both Indonesia and Thailand. In general, the different forms of tobacco use increased among males and with increasing

  14. Prevalence and correlates of being bullied among in-school adolescents in Beijing: results from the 2003 Beijing Global School-Based Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazemba, Alice; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2008-04-02

    Bullying has public health importance. It has been reported that both the victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to have suicidal ideation and other suicidal behaviours. Moreover, bullying can be a precursor for school violence and can contribute to poor academic performance. The purpose of the study was to raise awareness on the subject in China. We, therefore conducted an analysis of secondary data to determine the prevalence and correlates of having been bullied among in-school adolescents. The data was taken from the Beijing Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2003. A weighted analysis to reduce bias due to differing patterns of non-response was conducted using statistical software (SPSS version 14.0). We conducted a backward logistic regression analysis to determine independent predictors for being bullied. Out of a total of 2,348 in-school adolescents who participated in the survey, 20% (23% males, and 17% females) reported having been bullied. Risk factors for having been bullied were loneliness (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42-1.45), being worried (AOR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.29-1.32), being sad or having feelings of hopelessness (AOR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.19-1.22), smoking cigarettes (AOR = 1.09; 95% CI 1.08-1.11), drinking alcohol (AOR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.29-1.32), and being truant (AOR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.22-1.27). Meanwhile protective factors were having close friends (AOR = 0.84; 95% CI 0.83-0.86), receiving parental supervision (AOR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.80-0.81), and ever been drunk (AOR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.84-0.87). We believe the results of this study will raise awareness among school health practitioners and administrators, paediatric psychiatrists and psychologists on the prevalence and correlates of bullying among adolescents in Beijing, China.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of being bullied among in-school adolescents in Beijing: results from the 2003 Beijing Global School-Based Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muula Adamson S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying has public health importance. It has been reported that both the victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to have suicidal ideation and other suicidal behaviours. Moreover, bullying can be a precursor for school violence and can contribute to poor academic performance. The purpose of the study was to raise awareness on the subject in China. We, therefore conducted an analysis of secondary data to determine the prevalence and correlates of having been bullied among in-school adolescents. Methods The data was taken from the Beijing Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2003. A weighted analysis to reduce bias due to differing patterns of non-response was conducted using statistical software (SPSS version 14.0. We conducted a backward logistic regression analysis to determine independent predictors for being bullied. Results Out of a total of 2,348 in-school adolescents who participated in the survey, 20% (23% males, and 17% females reported having been bullied. Risk factors for having been bullied were loneliness (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.42–1.45, being worried (AOR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.29–1.32, being sad or having feelings of hopelessness (AOR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.19–1.22, smoking cigarettes (AOR = 1.09; 95% CI 1.08–1.11, drinking alcohol (AOR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.29–1.32, and being truant (AOR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.22–1.27. Meanwhile protective factors were having close friends (AOR = 0.84; 95% CI 0.83–0.86, receiving parental supervision (AOR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.80–0.81, and ever been drunk (AOR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.84–0.87. Conclusion We believe the results of this study will raise awareness among school health practitioners and administrators, paediatric psychiatrists and psychologists on the prevalence and correlates of bullying among adolescents in Beijing, China.

  16. The relationship between waterpipe and cigarette smoking in low and middle income countries: cross-sectional analysis of the global adult tobacco survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jawad

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Waterpipe tobacco smoking is receiving growing attention due to accumulating evidence suggesting increasing prevalence in some populations and deleterious health effects. Nevertheless, the relationship between waterpipe and cigarette smoking remain unknown, particularly in low and middle income countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analysed waterpipe and cigarette smoking using data from Global Adult Tobacco Survey, a household survey of adults aged ≥15 years conducted between 2008-2010 in LMICs. Factors associated with waterpipe and cigarette use were assessed using multiple logistic regression. Factors associated with the quantity of waterpipe and cigarette smoking were assessed using log-linear regression models. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, gender, residence, education, occupation and smokeless tobacco use, waterpipe smoking was significantly higher among cigarette users than in non-cigarette users in India (5.6% vs. 0.6%, AOR 13.12, 95% CI 7.41-23.23 and Russia (6.7% vs. 0.2%, AOR 27.73, 95% CI 11.41-67.43, but inversely associated in Egypt (2.6% vs. 3.4%, AOR 0.21, 95% CI 0.15-0.30 and not associated in Vietnam (13.3% vs. 4.7%, AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.74-1.23. Compared to non-cigarette smokers, waterpipe smokers who also used cigarettes had more waterpipe smoking sessions per week in Russia (1.3 vs. 2.9, beta coefficient 0.31, 95% CI 0.06, 0.57, but less in Egypt (18.2 vs. 10.7, beta coefficient -0.45, 95% CI -0.73, -0.17 and Vietnam (102.0 vs. 79.3, beta coefficient -0.31, 95% CI -0.56, -0.06 and similar amounts in India (29.4 vs. 32.6, beta coefficient -0.12, 95% CI -0.46, 0.22. CONCLUSIONS: Waterpipe smoking is low in most LMICs but important country-level differences in use, including concurrent cigarette smoking, should be taken into account when designing and evaluating tobacco control interventions.

  17. Antithrombin III blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...

  18. Impact of the 2008 global financial crisis on the health of Canadians: repeated cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Sabrina; Labonté, Ronald; Bancej, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Despite a clear impact on the Canadian economy, little is known about the subsequent health impacts of the 2008 global financial crisis (GFC) in this country. This study fills this gap in knowledge by conducting a repeated cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). Data from 7 cycles (2007-2013) of the CCHS were combined to form a large data set representative of the Canadian working-age population (15-64 years) residing in 1 of 10 provinces. A logistic regression model was used to determine whether exposure to various periods of the GFC resulted in increased odds of reporting poor mental health. Exposure was categorised into 4 periods based on political and economic indicators, as follows: precrisis period (baseline), initial crisis period, stimulus period and austerity period. Other outcomes investigated included: anxiety disorders (AD), mood disorders (MD), poor physical health and health-related behaviours (heavy alcohol drinking (HAD) and decreased fruit/vegetable consumption (FVC)). A significant increased odds of reporting poor mental health was observed during the austerity period compared with the precrisis period (OR=1.26 (1.16 to 1.32)); findings remain significant when adjusted for sex, marital status and education. Exposure to the austerity period was also significantly associated with increased odds of reporting AD, MD, HAD and decreased odds of FVC. No significant associations were observed for the poor self-perceived physical health variable. Statistically significant associations were observed between several negative health outcomes and the austerity period when compared with the precrisis period. Austerity has been linked to worsening health in other studies and represents an example of how the policy response can have greater detrimental impact on health than the financial crisis itself. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  19. Patterns and Outcomes of Induction of Labour in Africa and Asia: a secondary analysis of the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Neonatal Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P Vogel

    Full Text Available Labour induction should be performed where benefit outweighs potential harm, however epidemiology of induction in lower-income countries is not well described. We used the WHO Global Survey dataset to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of labour induction in 192,538 deliveries in 253 facilities across 16 countries in Africa and Asia.Data was analyzed separately for Africa and Asia. Prevalence of indications, methods, success and characteristics associated with labour induction were determined. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between induction (with medical indication and elective and maternal/perinatal outcomes.Induction accounted for 4.4% (Africa and 12.1% (Asia of deliveries. Oxytocin alone was the most common method (45.9% and 37.5% and success rates were generally over 80%. Medically indicated inductions were associated with increased adjusted odds of Apgar <7 at 5 minutes, low birthweight, NICU admission and fresh stillbirth in both regions. The odds of caesarean section in Africa were reduced (Adj OR 0.61, 95%CI 0.42-0.88. Elective induction was associated with increased adjusted odds of NICU (Africa and ICU (Asia admissions.Induction was generally less common than in higher-income countries. Prostaglandin use was uncommon despite evidence supporting use. Induction for medical indications may be associated with poorer outcomes due to maternal baseline risks. Despite one-third of elective inductions occurring at <39 weeks, the risk of maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality was not elevated following elective inductions.

  20. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS): the United States of America in 2011 chapter II: phosphodiesterase inhibitors utilization among English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeer, Osama

    2013-02-01

    Utility of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEi's) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) has been the focus of experimental and clinical studies. However, public preferences, attitudes, and experiences with PDEi's are rarely addressed from a population/epidemiology viewpoint. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS) is a worldwide epidemiologic study of sexuality and sexual disorders, first launched in the Middle East in 2010, followed by the United States in 2011. To describe the utilization rates, trends, and attitudes toward PDEi's in the United States in the year 2011. GOSS was randomly deployed to English-speaking male Web surfers in the United States via paid advertising on Facebook®, comprising 146 questions. Utilization rates and preferences for PDEi's by brand. Six hundred three subjects participated; mean age 53.43 years ± 13.9. Twenty-three point seven percent used PDEi's on more consistent basis, 37.5% of those with ED vs. 15.6% of those without ED (recreational users). Unrealistic safety concerns including habituation were pronounced. Seventy-nine point six percent of utilization was on prescription basis. PDEi's were purchased through pharmacies (5.3% without prescription) and in 16.5% over the Internet (68% without prescription). Nine point six percent nonprescription users suffered coronary heart disease. Prescription use was inclined toward sildenafil, generally, and particularly in severe cases, and shifted toward tadalafil in moderate ED and for recreational use, followed by vardenafil. Nonprescription utilization trends were similar, except in recreational use where sildenafil came first. In the United States unrealistic safety concerns over PDEi's utility exist and should be addressed. Preference for particular PDEi's over the others is primarily dictated by health-care providers, despite lack of guidelines that govern physician choice. Online and over-the-counter sales of PDEi's are common, and can expose a subset of users to health

  1. Disability weights from a household survey in a low socio-economic setting: how does it compare to the global burden of disease 2010 study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Neethling

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global burden of disease (GBD 2010 study used a universal set of disability weights to estimate disability adjusted life years (DALYs by country. However, it is not clear whether these weights can be applied universally in calculating DALYs to inform local decision-making. This study derived disability weights for a resource-constrained community in Cape Town, South Africa, and interrogated whether the GBD 2010 disability weights necessarily represent the preferences of economically disadvantaged communities. Design: A household survey was conducted in Lavender Hill, Cape Town, to assess the health state preferences of the general public. The responses from a paired comparison valuation method were assessed using a probit regression. The probit coefficients were anchored onto the 0 to 1 disability weight scale by running a lowess regression on the GBD 2010 disability weights and interpolating the coefficients between the upper and lower limit of the smoothed disability weights. Results: Heroin and opioid dependence had the highest disability weight of 0.630, whereas intellectual disability had the lowest (0.040. Untreated injuries ranked higher than severe mental disorders. There were some counterintuitive results, such as moderate (15th and severe vision impairment (16th ranking higher than blindness (20th. A moderate correlation between the disability weights of the local study and those of the GBD 2010 study was observed (R2=0.440, p<0.05. This indicates that there was a relationship, although some conditions, such as untreated fracture of the radius or ulna, showed large variability in disability weights (0.488 in local study and 0.043 in GBD 2010. Conclusions: Respondents seemed to value physical mobility higher than cognitive functioning, which is in contrast to the GBD 2010 study. This study shows that not all health state preferences are universal. Studies estimating DALYs need to derive local disability weights using

  2. Influence of tobacco industry advertisements and promotions on tobacco use in India: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, D N; Palipudi, K M; Oswal, K; Gupta, P C; Andes, L J; Asma, S

    2014-12-01

    The developing world, including countries like India, has become a major target for the tobacco industry to market its products. This study examines the influence of the marketing (advertising and promotion) of tobacco products on the use of tobacco by adults (ages 15 and over) in India. Data from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010 was analyzed using methods for complex (clustered) sample designs. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to predict the use of different tobacco products by level of exposure to tobacco marketing using adults who have never used tobacco as the reference category. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for education, gender, age, state of residence, wealth index, and place of residence (urban/rural). Adults in India were almost twice as likely to be current smokers (versus never users) when they were exposed to a moderate level of bidi or cigarette marketing. For bidis, among adults with high exposure, the OR for current use was 4.57 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6, 13.0). Adults were more likely to be current users of smokeless tobacco (SLT) with even a low level of exposure to SLT marketing (OR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.4]). For SLT, the ORs showed an increasing trend (P for trend marketing (minimum, OR = 1.25 [1.1-1.4]; moderate, OR = 1.38 [1.1-1.8]; and high, OR = 2.73 [1.8-4.2]), with the trend highly significant (P marketing of tobacco products, which may take the form of advertising at the point of sale, sales or a discounted price, free coupons, free samples, surrogate advertisements, or any of several other modalities, increased prevalence of tobacco use among adults. An increasing level of exposure to direct and indirect advertisement and promotion is associated with an increased likelihood of tobacco use.

  3. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS): the United States of America in 2011. Chapter I: erectile dysfunction among English-speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeer, Osama; Shaeer, Kamal

    2012-12-01

    The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS) is a worldwide epidemiologic study of sexuality and sexual disorders, based on validated questionnaires and applying age adjustment to the World Standard Population (WSP) by the World Health Organization. In 2010, the first report of GOSS came from the Middle East, describing an erectile dysfunction (ED) prevalence rate of 47%. This report studies the prevalence rate of ED in the United States as of 2011-2012 and evaluates risk factors for ED. Prevalence of ED. GOSS was randomly deployed to English-speaking male web surfers in the United States via paid advertising on Facebook, comprising 146 questions including the abbreviated 5-item International Index of Erectile Function. Two thousand twenty-two males participated; with a mean age was 52.38 years ± 14.5. Prevalence of ED was 37.7%, adjusted to 33.7% according to WSP, comparable across ethnic groups. The following risk factors were associated with higher risk for ED: diabetes mellitus, hypertension with and without antihypertensive treatment, coronary heart disease, obesity (defined by body mass index), difficult micturition, subjectively reported depression, interpersonal distress, subjectively reported impotence, in addition to novel factors such as subjectively reported premature ejaculation (PE) and concerns over genital size (not a smaller penis per se), low libido, and irregular coitus. Frequency of smoking and alcohol were not associated with higher prevalence of ED, although duration of smoking was. Adjusted to WSP, prevalence rate of ED in the United States of America is 33.7% in the year 2011, in contrast to the adjusted prevalence in the Middle East (47%). Most of the classical risk factors for ED play the same role in the United States and the World, including diabetes, hypertension, and aging. Concerns over genital size and PE are emerging risk factors for ED. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Alcohol marketing and drunkenness among students in the Philippines: findings from the nationally representative Global School-based Student Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A largely unaddressed issue in lower income countries and the Philippines, in particular, is the role of alcohol marketing and its potential link to early alcohol use among youth. This study examines the associations between exposures to alcohol marketing and Filipino youths’ drinking prevalence and drunkenness. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were used to examine the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Philippines (2011). The self-administered questionnaires were completed by students primarily 13 to 16 years of age (N = 5290). Three statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Results Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR: 1.84; 95% CI = 1.06–3.21) among youths after controlling for demographic and psychosocial characteristics, peer environment, and risky behaviors. In addition, seeing alcohol ads in newspapers and magazines (AOR: 1.65, 95% CI = 1.05–2.58) and seeing ads at sports events, concerts or fairs (AOR: 1.50, 95% CI = 1.06–2.12) were significantly associated with increased reports of drunkenness. Conclusions There are significant associations between alcohol marketing exposure and increased alcohol use and drunkenness among youth in the Philippines. These findings highlight the need to put policies into effect that restrict alcohol marketing practices as an important prevention strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth. PMID:24325264

  5. Adolescent injuries in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Uruguay: Results from the 2012-2013 Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Naja I; Arif, Issra; Paumier, Michelle F; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2016-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify the proportion of early adolescents in southern South America who were injured in the past year, to identify risk behaviours and other exposures associated with injuries, and to evaluate the most common types and causes of injury in this population. We used complex samples analysis to examine cross-sectional data from more than 35,000 students from all four countries in South America that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) in 2012-2013. The proportion of students reporting at least one injury in the past year that required medical treatment or caused at least one full day of missed school or usual activities was 27.1% in Argentina, 29.5% in Uruguay, 30.9% in Chile, and 36.8% in Bolivia. Significantly more boys than girls reported injuries. Injured students were more likely than non-injured students to report anxiety-induced insomnia, being physically attacked, being in a physical fight, and being lonely in the past year, and they were also more likely to report being bullied, using tobacco, drinking alcohol, and missing school in the past month. For both boys and girls, the most common type of injury reported was a broken bone or dislocated joint and the most common injury cause was the student falling. However, most students were not able to provide a specific answer to either question. The GSHS has been conducted in 100 low- and middle-income countries and territories around the world, and new waves of data collection are currently being planned and implemented. The utility of the injury data from the GSHS would be improved if the injury type and cause response items were updated to better capture information about self-harm, sports injuries, and other statistics that will provide a stronger foundation for evidence-based injury prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury among adolescents participating in the Djibouti 2007 Global School-based Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health and injury are neglected public health issues especially in low-income nations. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates for serious injury in the last 12 months. Findings The study used data of the 2007 Djibouti Global School-based Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish associations. Of the 1, 777 respondents, 61.1% (63.2% males and 57.8% females reported having sustained serious injury (SSI. Compared to participants who were not bullied, those who reported being bullied 3-9 days per month were more likely to have sustained serious injury in the last 12 months (AOR = 1.27; 95% CI [1.06, 1.52] for 3-5 days of bullying victimization per month, and AOR = 3.19; 95% CI [2.28, 4.47] for 6-9 days per month. Adolescents who were engaged in physical fighting were 47% (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI [1.40, 1.55] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who were not engaged in the fighting. Meanwhile, adolescents who used substances (cigarettes, other forms of tobacco or drugs were 30% (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.19, 1.42] more likely to have sustained serious injury compared to those who did not use substances. Conclusions Serious injury is common among adolescents in Djibouti, and we suggest that health workers attending to injured adolescents explore the patients' psycho-social environment. Further, we suggest longitudinal studies where reduction of substance use and bullying may be assessed if they have an impact in reducing serious injury among adolescents.

  7. The multi-ethnic global lung initiative 2012 and Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reference values do not reflect spirometric measurements in Black boys and men from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rębacz-Maron, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    The interpretation of spirometric results of Black Africans according to reference standards based on data from outside their native environment may lead to the wrong conclusions. This article aims to characterize the ventilatory capacity of boys and men from Tanzania according to forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and FEV 1 /FVC based on the collected anthropological material and to compare them to NHANES III, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) African American predicted values and GLI2012 equations. The analysis included spirometric measurements of n = 295 participants from Tanzania. Pearson's correlation analysis and the backward stepwise multiple regression analysis were performed. FEV 1 , FVC, PEF and FEV 1 /FVC results were compared to the NHANES III African American predicted values as well as to the GLI2012 equations. FEV 1 measurements are lower than the reference values according to NHANES III and GLI2012 equations by 22·1% and 25·8%. FVC results fell short of the NHANES III predicted by 29·5% and of GLI2012 by 32·5%. The average %FEV 1 /FVC scores for the boys and men exceeded the recommended GLI2012 predicted by 10·5-15·2%. All the spirometric measurements included in the analysis were statistically significantly correlated with age, body height, sitting height, trunk length and body weight. The application of prediction formulae developed for non-African populations overestimates the values for Black Africans. The results of spirometric measurements are ecosensitive and dependent on various external (environmental) factors. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. 2012 Alumni Perspectives Survey. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Conducted in September 2011, this Alumni Perspectives Survey by the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) is a longitudinal study of respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey, the annual GMAC[R] exit survey of graduate management students in their final year of business school. This 12th annual report includes responses…

  9. Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2010. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sabeen

    2010-01-01

    During the months of April and September of 2009, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) conducted the Alumni Perspectives Survey, a longitudinal study of prior respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey of management students nearing graduation. A total of 3,708 alumni responded to the April 2009 survey,…

  10. Metallothionein (MT)-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A

    1999-01-01

    and renamed as MT-III. In this study we have raised polyclonal antibodies in rabbits against recombinant rat MT-III (rMT-III). The sera obtained reacted specifically against recombinant zinc-and cadmium-saturated rMT-III, and did not cross-react with native rat MT-I and MT-II purified from the liver of zinc...... astrocyte migration in vitro, rMT-III promoted migration to a higher extent than MT-I+II. Thus, MT-III could not only affect neuronal sprouting as previously suggested, but also astrocyte function. Finally, MT-III protein levels of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were, if anything, increased when...