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Sample records for survey ii warm

  1. The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS): Pilot Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.; Dickey, John M. [School of Physical Sciences, Private Bag 37, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 7001 (Australia); Jordan, C. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Perth, WA, 6845 (Australia); Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6315, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Bania, T. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Dawson, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and MQ Research Centre in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, NSW, 2109 (Australia); Mc Clure-Griffiths, N. M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2017-07-01

    The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey is a survey of the third and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane that will detect radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission at cm-wavelengths from several hundred H ii region candidates using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The targets for this survey come from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions and were identified based on mid-infrared and radio continuum emission. In this pilot project, two different configurations of the Compact Array Broad Band receiver and spectrometer system were used for short test observations. The pilot surveys detected RRL emission from 36 of 53 H ii region candidates, as well as seven known H ii regions that were included for calibration. These 36 recombination line detections confirm that the candidates are true H ii regions and allow us to estimate their distances.

  2. The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS): Pilot Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.; Dickey, John M.; Jordan, C.; Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M.; Dawson, J. R.; Mc Clure-Griffiths, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey is a survey of the third and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane that will detect radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission at cm-wavelengths from several hundred H ii region candidates using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The targets for this survey come from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions and were identified based on mid-infrared and radio continuum emission. In this pilot project, two different configurations of the Compact Array Broad Band receiver and spectrometer system were used for short test observations. The pilot surveys detected RRL emission from 36 of 53 H ii region candidates, as well as seven known H ii regions that were included for calibration. These 36 recombination line detections confirm that the candidates are true H ii regions and allow us to estimate their distances.

  3. The sloan digital sky survey-II supernova survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) has embarked on a multi-year project to identify and measure light curves for intermediate-redshift (0.05 < z < 0.35) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using repeated five-band (ugriz) imaging over an area of 300 sq. deg. The survey region is a stripe 2.5° wide...

  4. ExploreNEOs: The Warm Spitzer Near Earth Object Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trilling, D. E.; Hora, J. L.; Mueller, M.; Thomas, C. A.; Harris, A. W.; Hagen, A. R.; Mommert, M.; Benner, L.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Delbo, M.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G.; Kistler, J. L.; Mainzer, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We have observed some 600 near Earth objects (NEOs) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns with the Warm Spitzer Space Telescope. We derive the albedo and diameter for each NEO to characterize global properties of the NEO population, among other goals.

  5. Accounting protesting and warm glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of environmental goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-01-01

    Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and warm glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids...... are rooted to some extent in warm glow reasoning while 29% of the zero bids can be classified as expressions of protest rather than preferences. In previous studies, warm glow bidders are only rarely identified while protesters are typically identified and excluded from further analysis. We test...

  6. The Accuracy of the Warm Spitzer Near-Earth Object Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Alan W.; Mommert, M.; Hora, J. L.; Mueller, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Delbo', M.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Mainzer, A.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.; Thomas, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    We report on observations of near-Earth objects (NEOs) performed with IRAC as part of our on-going (2009-2011) Warm Spitzer NEO survey ("ExploreNEOs"), the primary aim of which is to provide sizes and albedos of some 700 NEOs. The emphasis of the work described here is an assessment of the overall

  7. Bulk Densities of Binary Asteroids from the Warm Spitzer NEO Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistler, John; Trilling, D. E.; Mueller, M.; Hora, J. L.; Harris, A. W.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Emery, J. P.; Fazo, G.; Mainzer, A.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Stansberry, J. A.; Thomas, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    The Warm Spitzer NEO survey, ExploreNEOs, will observe approximately 700 Near Earth Asteroids. Several of these objects are known to be binary asteroid systems. Binary systems are interesting due to the unique opportunity they present for determining the masses and densities of their constituent

  8. Status of the Warm Front End of PIP-II Injector Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, Alexander [Fermilab; Alvarez, Matthew [Fermilab; Andrews, Richard [Fermilab; Baffes, Curtis [Fermilab; Carneiro, Jean-Paul [Fermilab; Chen, Alex [Fermilab; Derwent, Paul [Fermilab; Edelen, Jonathan [Fermilab; Frolov, Daniil [Fermilab; Hanna, Bruce [Fermilab; Prost, Lionel [Fermilab; Saewert, Gregory [Fermilab; Saini, Arun [Fermilab; Scarpine, Victor [Fermilab; Sista, V. Lalitha [Fermilab; Steimel, Jim [Fermilab; Sun, Ding [Fermilab; Warner, Arden [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    The Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II) at Fermilab is a program of upgrades to the injection complex. At its core is the design and construction of a CW-compatible, pulsed H⁻ SRF linac. To validate the concept of the front-end of such machine, a test accelerator known as PIP-II Injector Test is under construction. It includes a 10 mA DC, 30 keV H⁻ ion source, a 2 m-long Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 2.1 MeV CW RFQ, followed by a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) that feeds the first of 2 cryomodules increasing the beam energy to about 25 MeV, and a High Energy Beam Transport section (HEBT) that takes the beam to a dump. The ion source, LEBT, RFQ, and initial version of the MEBT have been built, installed, and commissioned. This report presents the overall status of the warm front end.

  9. Indian Ocean corals reveal crucial role of World War II bias for twentieth century warming estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, M; Zinke, J; Dullo, W-C; Garbe-Schönberg, D; Latif, M; Weber, M E

    2017-10-31

    The western Indian Ocean has been warming faster than any other tropical ocean during the 20 th century, and is the largest contributor to the global mean sea surface temperature (SST) rise. However, the temporal pattern of Indian Ocean warming is poorly constrained and depends on the historical SST product. As all SST products are derived from the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere dataset (ICOADS), it is challenging to evaluate which product is superior. Here, we present a new, independent SST reconstruction from a set of Porites coral geochemical records from the western Indian Ocean. Our coral reconstruction shows that the World War II bias in the historical sea surface temperature record is the main reason for the differences between the SST products, and affects western Indian Ocean and global mean temperature trends. The 20 th century Indian Ocean warming pattern portrayed by the corals is consistent with the SST product from the Hadley Centre (HadSST3), and suggests that the latter should be used in climate studies that include Indian Ocean SSTs. Our data shows that multi-core coral temperature reconstructions help to evaluate the SST products. Proxy records can provide estimates of 20 th century SST that are truly independent from the ICOADS data base.

  10. Do Americans Understand That Global Warming Is Harmful to Human Health? Evidence From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W; Kreslake, Jennifer M; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Rosenthal, Seth; Feinberg, Geoff; Leiserowitz, Anthony A

    2015-01-01

    Global warming has significant negative consequences for human health, with some groups at greater risk than others. The extent to which the public is aware of these risks is unclear; the limited extant research has yielded discrepant findings. This paper describes Americans' awareness of the health effects of global warming, levels of support for government funding and action on the issue, and trust in information sources. We also investigate the discrepancy in previous research findings between assessments based on open- versus closed-ended questions. A nationally representative survey of US adults (N = 1275) was conducted online in October 2014. Measures included general attitudes and beliefs about global warming, affective assessment of health effects, vulnerable populations and specific health conditions (open- and closed-ended), perceived risk, trust in sources, and support for government response. Most respondents (61%) reported that, before taking the survey, they had given little or no thought to how global warming might affect people's health. In response to a closed-ended question, many respondents (64%) indicated global warming is harmful to health, yet in response to an open-ended question, few (27%) accurately named one or more specific type of harm. In response to a closed-ended question, 33% indicated some groups are more affected than others, yet on an open-ended question only 25% were able to identify any disproportionately affected populations. Perhaps not surprising given these findings, respondents demonstrated only limited support for a government response: less than 50% of respondents said government should be doing more to protect against health harms from global warming, and about 33% supported increased funding to public health agencies for this purpose. Respondents said their primary care physician is their most trusted source of information on this topic, followed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health

  11. Vulnerability of permafrost carbon to global warming. Part II: sensitivity of permafrost carbon stock to global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khvorostyanov, D.V.; Ciais, G. (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et l' Environnement, Saclay (France)); Krinner, G. (Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, St Martin d' Heres (France)). e-mail: Dimitry.Khvorostiyanov@lsce.ipsl.fr; Zimov, S.A. (Northeast Science Station, Cherskii (RU)); Corradi, C. (UNITUS, Univ. of Tuscia, Veterbo (Italy)); Guggenberger, G. (Inst. of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Martin-Luther-Univ., Halle-Wittenberg (DE))

    2008-07-01

    In the companion paper (Part I), we presented a model of permafrost carbon cycle to study the sensitivity of frozen carbon stocks to future climate warming. The mobilization of deep carbon stock of the frozen Pleistocene soil in the case of rapid stepwise increase of atmospheric temperature was considered. In this work, we adapted the model to be used also for floodplain tundra sites and to account for the processes in the soil active layer. The new processes taken into account are litter input and decomposition, plant-mediated transport of methane, and leaching of exudates from plant roots. The SRES-A2 transient climate warming scenario of the IPSL CM4 climate model is used to study the carbon fluxes from the carbon-rich Pleistocene soil with seasonal active-layer carbon cycling on top of it. For a point to the southwest from the western branch of Yedoma Ice Complex, where the climate warming is strong enough to trigger self-sustainable decomposition processes, about 256 kg C/m2, or 70% of the initial soil carbon stock under present-day climate conditions, are emitted to the atmosphere in about 120 yr, including 20 kg C/m2 released as methane. The total average flux of CO{sub 2} and methane emissions to the atmosphere during this time is of 2.1 kg C/m2/yr. Within the Yedoma, whose most part of the territory remains relatively cold, the emissions are much smaller: 0.2 kg C/m2/yr between 2050 and 2100 for Yakutsk area. In a test case with saturated upper-soil meter, when the runoff is insufficient to evacuate the meltwater, 0.05 kg CH{sub 4}/m2/yr on average are emitted as methane during 250 yr starting from 2050. The latter can translate to the upper bound of 1 GtC/yr in CO{sub 2} equivalent from the 1 million km2 area of the Yedoma

  12. The Extended Northern ROSAT Galaxy Cluster Survey (NORAS II). I. Survey Construction and First Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Trümper, Joachim [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Retzlaff, Jörg [ESO, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Meisenheimer, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schartel, Norbert [ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28692 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-05-01

    As the largest, clearly defined building blocks of our universe, galaxy clusters are interesting astrophysical laboratories and important probes for cosmology. X-ray surveys for galaxy clusters provide one of the best ways to characterize the population of galaxy clusters. We provide a description of the construction of the NORAS II galaxy cluster survey based on X-ray data from the northern part of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. NORAS II extends the NORAS survey down to a flux limit of 1.8 × 10{sup −12} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} (0.1–2.4 keV), increasing the sample size by about a factor of two. The NORAS II cluster survey now reaches the same quality and depth as its counterpart, the southern REFLEX II survey, allowing us to combine the two complementary surveys. The paper provides information on the determination of the cluster X-ray parameters, the identification process of the X-ray sources, the statistics of the survey, and the construction of the survey selection function, which we provide in numerical format. Currently NORAS II contains 860 clusters with a median redshift of z  = 0.102. We provide a number of statistical functions, including the log N –log S and the X-ray luminosity function and compare these to the results from the complementary REFLEX II survey. Using the NORAS II sample to constrain the cosmological parameters, σ {sub 8} and Ω{sub m}, yields results perfectly consistent with those of REFLEX II. Overall, the results show that the two hemisphere samples, NORAS II and REFLEX II, can be combined without problems into an all-sky sample, just excluding the zone of avoidance.

  13. ARGOS - II. The Galactic bulge survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, K.; Ness, M.; Wylie-de-Boer, E.; Athanassoula, E.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Asplund, M.; Lewis, G.; Yong, D.; Lane, R.; Kiss, L.; Ibata, R.

    2013-02-01

    We describe the motivation, field locations and stellar selection for the Abundances and Radial velocity Galactic Origins Survey (ARGOS) spectroscopic survey of 28 000 stars in the bulge and inner disc of the Milky Way galaxy across latitudes of b = -5° to -10°. The primary goal of this survey is to constrain the formation processes of the bulge and establish whether it is predominantly a merger or instability remnant. From the spectra (R = 11 000), we have measured radial velocities and determined stellar parameters, including metallicities and [α/Fe] ratios. Distances were estimated from the derived stellar parameters and about 14 000 stars are red giants within 3.5 kpc of the Galactic Centre. In this paper, we present the observations and analysis methods. Subsequent papers (III and IV) will discuss the stellar metallicity distribution and kinematics of the Galactic bulge and inner disc, and the implications for the formation of the bulge.

  14. University Benefits Survey. Part II (Pensions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1983 survey of pension plans in 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: type of plan, eligibility, member contributions, university contributions, benefits on normal retirement (age 65) and on early retirement (age 55), trustee and investment manager, and pension committee…

  15. Surveys in differential-algebraic equations II

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The present volume comprises survey articles on various fields of Differential-Algebraic Equations (DAEs), which have widespread applications in controlled dynamical systems, especially in mechanical and electrical engineering and a strong relation to (ordinary) differential equations. The individual chapters provide reviews, presentations of the current state of research and new concepts in - Observers for DAEs - DAEs in chemical processes - Optimal control of DAEs - DAEs from a functional-analytic viewpoint - Algebraic methods for DAEs The results are presented in an accessible style, making this book suitable not only for active researchers but also for graduate students (with a good knowledge of the basic principles of DAEs) for self-study.

  16. Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, C R

    1982-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

  17. SHARC-II 350 μm Observations of Thermal Emission from Warm Dust in z >= 5 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Wagg, Jeff; Carilli, Chris L.; Benford, Dominic J.; Dowell, C. Darren; Bertoldi, Frank; Walter, Fabian; Menten, Karl M.; Omont, Alain; Cox, Pierre; Strauss, Michael A.; Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua

    2008-04-01

    We present observations of four z >= 5 SDSS quasars at 350 μm with the SHARC-II bolometer camera on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. These are among the deepest observations that have been made by SHARC-II at 350 μm, and three quasars are detected at >=3σ significance, greatly increasing the sample of 350 μm (corresponds to rest frame wavelengths of = 5), detected high-redshift quasars. The derived rest frame far-infrared (FIR) emission in the three detected sources is about five to ten times stronger than that expected from the average spectral energy distribution (SED) of the local quasars given the same 1450 Å luminosity. Combining the previous submillimeter and millimeter observations at longer wavelengths, the temperatures of the FIR-emitting warm dust from the three quasar detections are estimated to be in the range of 39-52 K. Additionally, the FIR-to-radio SEDs of the three 350 μm detections are consistent with the emission from typical star-forming galaxies. The FIR luminosities are ~1013 L sun and the dust masses are >=108 M sun. These results confirm that huge amounts of warm dust can exist in the host galaxies of optically bright quasars as early as z ~ 6. The universe is so young at these epochs (~1 Gyr) that a rapid dust-formation mechanism is required. We estimate the size of the FIR dust-emission region to be about a few kpc, and further provide a comparison of the SEDs among different kinds of dust-emitting sources to investigate the dominant dust-heating mechanism.

  18. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey: Technical Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; /Fermilab /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington; Choi, Changsu; /Seoul Natl. U.; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; DeJongh, Don Frederic; /Fermilab; Depoy, Darren L.; /Ohio State U.; Doi, Mamoru; /Tokyo U.; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U.; Hogan, Craig J.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Holtzman, Jon; /New Mexico State U.; Im, Myungshin; /Seoul Natl. U.; Jha, Saurabh; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Konishi, Kohki; /Tokyo U.; Lampeitl, Hubert; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Marriner, John; /Fermilab; Marshall, Jennifer L.; /Ohio State U.; McGinnis,; /Fermilab; Miknaitis, Gajus; /Fermilab; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U.; Prieto, Jose Luis; /Ohio State U. /Rochester Inst. Tech. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Pennsylvania U.

    2007-09-14

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) has embarked on a multi-year project to identify and measure light curves for intermediate-redshift (0.05 < z < 0.35) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using repeated five-band (ugriz) imaging over an area of 300 sq. deg. The survey region is a stripe 2.5 degrees wide centered on the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap that has been imaged numerous times in earlier years, enabling construction of a deep reference image for discovery of new objects. Supernova imaging observations are being acquired between 1 September and 30 November of 2005-7. During the first two seasons, each region was imaged on average every five nights. Spectroscopic follow-up observations to determine supernova type and redshift are carried out on a large number of telescopes. In its first two three-month seasons, the survey has discovered and measured light curves for 327 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia, 30 probable SNe Ia, 14 confirmed SNe Ib/c, 32 confirmed SNe II, plus a large number of photometrically identified SNe Ia, 94 of which have host-galaxy spectra taken so far. This paper provides an overview of the project and briefly describes the observations completed during the first two seasons of operation.

  19. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume II. Principles of gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  20. The Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, Masao; et al.

    2014-01-14

    This paper describes the data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey conducted between 2005 and 2007. Light curves, spectra, classifications, and ancillary data are presented for 10,258 variable and transient sources discovered through repeat ugriz imaging of SDSS Stripe 82, a 300 deg2 area along the celestial equator. This data release is comprised of all transient sources brighter than r~22.5 mag with no history of variability prior to 2004. Dedicated spectroscopic observations were performed on a subset of 889 transients, as well as spectra for thousands of transient host galaxies using the SDSS-III BOSS spectrographs. Photometric classifications are provided for the candidates with good multi-color light curves that were not observed spectroscopically. From these observations, 4607 transients are either spectroscopically confirmed, or likely to be, supernovae, making this the largest sample of supernova candidates ever compiled. We present a new method for SN host-galaxy identification and derive host-galaxy properties including stellar masses, star-formation rates, and the average stellar population ages from our SDSS multi-band photometry. We derive SALT2 distance moduli for a total of 1443 SN Ia with spectroscopic redshifts as well as photometric redshifts for a further 677 purely-photometric SN Ia candidates. Using the spectroscopically confirmed subset of the three-year SDSS-II SN Ia sample and assuming a flat Lambda-CDM cosmology, we determine Omega_M = 0.315 +/- 0.093 (statistical error only) and detect a non-zero cosmological constant at 5.7 sigmas.

  1. A Green Bank Telescope Survey of Large Galactic H II Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Luisi, Matteo; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.

    2018-02-01

    As part of our ongoing H II Region Discovery Survey (HRDS), we report the Green Bank Telescope detection of 148 new angularly large Galactic H II regions in radio recombination line (RRL) emission. Our targets are located at a declination of δ > -45^\\circ , which corresponds to 266^\\circ > {\\ell }> -20^\\circ at b=0^\\circ . All sources were selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Catalog of Galactic H II Regions, and have infrared angular diameters ≥slant 260\\prime\\prime . The Galactic distribution of these “large” H II regions is similar to that of the previously known sample of Galactic H II regions. The large H II region RRL line width and peak line intensity distributions are skewed toward lower values, compared with that of previous HRDS surveys. We discover seven sources with extremely narrow RRLs 100 {pc}, making them some of the physically largest known H II regions in the Galaxy. This survey completes the HRDS H II region census in the Northern sky, where we have discovered 887 H II regions and more than doubled the size of the previously known census of Galactic H II regions.

  2. NEOSURVEY 1: INITIAL RESULTS FROM THE WARM SPITZER EXPLORATION SCIENCE SURVEY OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECT PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trilling, David E.; Mommert, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO Box 6010, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Hora, Joseph; Fazio, Giovanni; Smith, Howard [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-65, Cambridge, MA 02138-1516 (United States); Chesley, Steve [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emery, Joshua [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tennessee, 306 EPS Building, 1412 Circle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Harris, Alan [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Planetary Research, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin (Germany); Mueller, Michael [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, PO Box 800, 9700AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-12-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) are small solar system bodies whose orbits bring them close to the Earth’s orbit. We are carrying out a Warm Spitzer Cycle 11 Exploration Science program entitled NEOSurvey—a fast and efficient flux-limited survey of 597 known NEOs in which we derive a diameter and albedo for each target. The vast majority of our targets are too faint to be observed by NEOWISE, though a small sample has been or will be observed by both observatories, which allows for a cross-check of our mutual results. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties. We present here the first results from this new program: fluxes and derived diameters and albedos for 80 NEOs, together with a description of the overall program and approach, including several updates to our thermal model. The largest source of error in our diameter and albedo solutions, which derive from our single-band thermal emission measurements, is uncertainty in η , the beaming parameter used in our thermal modeling; for albedos, improvements in solar system absolute magnitudes would also help significantly. All data and derived diameters and albedos from this entire program are being posted on a publicly accessible Web page at nearearthobjects.nau.edu.

  3. Warm intermediate inflation in the Randall-Sundrum II model in the light of Planck 2015 and BICEP2 results: a general dissipative coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Ramon [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Videla, Nelson [FCFM, Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Fisica, Santiago (Chile); Olivares, Marco [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-05-15

    A warm inflationary Universe in the Randall- Sundrum II model during intermediate inflation is studied. For this purpose, we consider the general form for the dissipative coefficient Γ(T, φ) = C{sub φ}(T{sup m})/(φ{sup m-T}), and also we analyze this inflationary model in the weak and strong dissipative regimes. We study the evolution of the Universe under the slow-roll approximation and find solutions to the full effective Friedmann equation in the brane-world framework. In order to constrain the parameters in our model, we consider the recent data from the BICEP2 to Planck 2015 data together with the necessary condition for warm inflation T > H, and also the condition from the weak (or strong) dissipative regime. (orig.)

  4. A survey on bacterial contamination of lavage water in electric warm-water lavage toilet seats and of the gluteal cleft after lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Hideki; Yokoyama, Kumi; Takei, Yasushi; Tazume, Seiki; Tsukiji, Mami; Matsuki, Hideaki

    2014-06-01

    Electric warm-water lavage toilet seats are in wide use as an appliance beneficial for the maintenance of hygiene and the prophylaxis and improvement of conditions such as constipation and hemorrhoids. In this study, we surveyed the bacterial content in the lavage water of warm-water lavage toilet seats, and fecal bacterial contamination of the gluteal and genital regions due to droplet infection from post-defecation lavage, to examine the problems inherent to the use of such lavage units. The presence of viable bacteria in lavage water was confirmed in this survey. Viable bacterial counts in lavage water were 3-times higher in household units compared to units in public facilities, suggesting a correlation with the replenishment of lavage tank water with fresh water containing residual free chlorine.

  5. National Youth Survey US: Wave II (NYS-1977)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the second wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this data collection. The first wave was conducted in 1976. Youths were interviewed in...

  6. Annual asphalt pavement industry survey on recycled materials and warm-mix asphalt usage : 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    One of the shared goals of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the National Asphalt Pavement Association : (NAPA) is to support and promote sustainable practices such as pavement recycling and warm-mix asphalt (WMA). The use of : recycled m...

  7. Survey of the readiness of insurance companies in Serbia for solvency II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to analyse the readiness of the largest insurance companies operating in Serbia to implement the upcoming Solvency II regulation. The survey was conducted in 2014 using a questionnaire comprising 30 questions. It was sent to the seven biggest companies operating in Serbia during the research, which cover 80% of the market. The questionnaire covered both the organizational and technical profile of the insurance companies. The survey helped to understand the benefits and problems for the domestic insurance market that would result from the introduction of the Solvency II regime and the adjustment of current legislation to the European standard, and whether the insurance sector in Serbia will manage to overcome the obstacles and adopt the policies and procedures prescribed by Solvency II when required. Adopting the European Solvency II regulation means a complete reorganization of the insurance sector in Serbia, which has not been sufficiently surveyed, and never in this manner.

  8. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1987-88. Part II: Pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1987-1988 survey of pensions plans in 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on: eligibility, the type of plan, member contributions, university contributions, benefits on normal retirement (at age 65) and on early retirement (at age 55), trustee, investment manager, and pension committee composition…

  9. MMT HYPERVELOCITY STAR SURVEY. II. FIVE NEW UNBOUND STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-05-20

    We present the discovery of five new unbound hypervelocity stars (HVSs) in the outer Milky Way halo. Using a conservative estimate of Galactic escape velocity, our targeted spectroscopic survey has now identified 16 unbound HVSs as well as a comparable number of HVSs ejected on bound trajectories. A Galactic center origin for the HVSs is supported by their unbound velocities, the observed number of unbound stars, their stellar nature, their ejection time distribution, and their Galactic latitude and longitude distribution. Other proposed origins for the unbound HVSs, such as runaway ejections from the disk or dwarf galaxy tidal debris, cannot be reconciled with the observations. An intriguing result is the spatial anisotropy of HVSs on the sky, which possibly reflects an anisotropic potential in the central 10-100 pc region of the Galaxy. Further progress requires measurement of the spatial distribution of HVSs over the southern sky. Our survey also identifies seven B supergiants associated with known star-forming galaxies; the absence of B supergiants elsewhere in the survey implies there are no new star-forming galaxies in our survey footprint to a depth of 1-2 Mpc.

  10. Linear optics survey of the BESSY II booster synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volz, Paul; Jankowiak, Andreas; Ries, Markus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The proposed VSR upgrade for the BESSY II storage ring features photon pulses as short as 1.7 ps. The current injection system (linac, booster synchrotron, and transfer line) cannot provide electron bunches short enough to meet the required injection efficiency for TopUp operation. This contribution investigates if the momentum compaction factor of the booster synchrotron can be decreased just by changing the quadrupole strengths in the existing booster synchrotron lattice. It was found that by splitting the two quadrupole families into four the momentum compaction factor can be reduced.

  11. THE ELM SURVEY. II. TWELVE BINARY WHITE DWARF MERGER SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, S. J.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Agueeros, M. A.; Heinke, Craig

    2011-01-01

    We describe new radial velocity and X-ray observations of extremely low-mass white dwarfs (ELM WDs, ∼0.2 M sun ) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 and the MMT Hypervelocity Star survey. We identify four new short period binaries, including two merger systems. These observations bring the total number of short period binary systems identified in our survey to 20. No main-sequence or neutron star companions are visible in the available optical photometry, radio, and X-ray data. Thus, the companions are most likely WDs. Twelve of these systems will merge within a Hubble time due to gravitational wave radiation. We have now tripled the number of known merging WD systems. We discuss the characteristics of this merger sample and potential links to underluminous supernovae, extreme helium stars, AM CVn systems, and other merger products. We provide new observational tests of the WD mass-period distribution and cooling models for ELM WDs. We also find evidence for a new formation channel for single low-mass WDs through binary mergers of two lower mass objects.

  12. The Core Collapse Supernova Rate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Matt; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Ben; Galbany, Lluis; Gupta, Ravi R.; Kessler, R.; Marriner, John; Nichol, Robert C.; Richmond, Michael; Schneider, Donald P.; Sollerman, Jesper

    2014-08-26

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SNS) data to measure the volumetric core collapse supernova (CCSN) rate in the redshift range (0.03 < z < 0.09). Using a sample of 89 CCSN, we find a volume-averaged rate of 1.06 ± 0.19 × 10(–)(4)((h/0.7)(3)/(yr Mpc(3))) at a mean redshift of 0.072 ± 0.009. We measure the CCSN luminosity function from the data and consider the implications on the star formation history.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: REFLEX II. Properties of the survey (Boehringer+ 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, H.; Chon, G.; Collins, C. A.; Guzzo, L.; Nowak, N.; Bobrovskyi, S.

    2013-06-01

    Like REFLEX I, the extended survey covers the southern sky outside the band of the Milky Way (|bII|>=20°) with regions around the Magellanic clouds excised (3 in LMC, 3 in SMC). The total survey area after this excision amounts to 4.24 steradian (or 13924°2) which corresponds to 33.75% of the sky. Different from REFLEX I, we use the refined RASS product RASS III (Voges et al. 1999, Cat. IX/10). (2 data files).

  14. THE CARNEGIE-IRVINE GALAXY SURVEY. II. ISOPHOTAL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhaoyu [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Peng, Chien Y. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2011-12-01

    The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey (CGS) is a comprehensive investigation of the physical properties of a complete, representative sample of 605 bright (B{sub T} {<=} 12.9 mag) galaxies in the southern hemisphere. This contribution describes the isophotal analysis of the broadband (BVRI) optical imaging component of the project. We pay close attention to sky subtraction, which is particularly challenging for some of the large galaxies in our sample. Extensive crosschecks with internal and external data confirm that our calibration and sky subtraction techniques are robust with respect to the quoted measurement uncertainties. We present a uniform catalog of one-dimensional radial profiles of surface brightness and geometric parameters, as well as integrated colors and color gradients. Composite profiles highlight the tremendous diversity of brightness distributions found in disk galaxies and their dependence on Hubble type. A significant fraction of S0 and spiral galaxies exhibit non-exponential profiles in their outer regions. We perform Fourier decomposition of the isophotes to quantify non-axisymmetric deviations in the light distribution. We use the geometric parameters, in conjunction with the amplitude and phase of the m = 2 Fourier mode, to identify bars and quantify their size and strength. Spiral arm strengths are characterized using the m = 2 Fourier profiles and structure maps. Finally, we utilize the information encoded in the m = 1 Fourier profiles to measure disk lopsidedness. The databases assembled here and in Paper I lay the foundation for forthcoming scientific applications of CGS.

  15. Annual asphalt pavement industry survey on recycled materials and warm-mix asphalt usage : 2009-2012, [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this survey was to quantify the use of recycled materials, including RAP and RAS, and WMA produced by the asphalt pavement industry. The National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) conducted a voluntary survey of asphalt mixture pro...

  16. THE SURVEY OF LINES IN M31 (SLIM): INVESTIGATING THE ORIGINS OF [C II] EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapala, M. J.; Sandstrom, K.; Groves, B.; Kreckel, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Walter, F.; Fouesneau, M. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Croxall, K. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Dalcanton, J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Leroy, A., E-mail: kapala@mpia.de [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The [C II] 158 μm line is one of the strongest emission lines observed in star-forming galaxies and has been empirically measured to correlate with the star-formation rate (SFR) globally and on kiloparsec scales. However, because of the multiphase origins of [C II], one might expect this relation to break down at small scales. We investigate the origins of [C II] emission by examining high spatial resolution observations of [C II] in M31 with the Survey of Lines in M31. We present five ∼700 × 700 pc (3' × 3') fields mapping the [C II] emission, Hα emission, and the ancillary infrared (IR) data. We spatially separate star-forming regions from diffuse gas and dust emission on ∼50 pc scales. We find that the [C II]-SFR correlation holds even at these scales, although the relation typically has a flatter slope than found at larger (kiloparsec) scales. While the Hα emission in M31 is concentrated in the SFR regions, we find that a significant amount (∼20%-90%) of the [C II] emission comes from outside star-forming regions and that the total IR emission (TIR) has the highest diffuse fraction of all SFR tracers. We find a weak correlation of the [C II]/TIR to dust color in each field and find a large-scale trend of increasing [C II]/TIR with galactocentric radius. The differences in the relative diffuse fractions of [C II], Hα, and IR tracers are likely caused by a combination of energetic photon leakage from H II regions and heating by the diffuse radiation field arising from older (B-star) stellar populations. However, we find that by averaging our measurements over kiloparsec scales, these effects are minimized, and the relation between [C II] and SFR found in other nearby galaxy studies is retrieved.

  17. Powerful H2 Line Cooling in Stephan’s Quintet. II. Group-wide Gas and Shock Modeling of the Warm H2 and a Comparison with [C ii] 157.7 μ m Emission and Kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P. N.; Xu, C. K.; Guillard, P.; Togi, A.; Alatalo, K.; Boulanger, F.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Cluver, M.; Lisenfeld, U.; Ogle, P.

    2017-01-01

    We map for the first time the two-dimensional H 2 excitation of warm intergalactic gas in Stephan's Quintet on group-wide (50 × 35 kpc 2 ) scales to quantify the temperature, mass, and warm H 2 mass fraction as a function of position using Spitzer . Molecular gas temperatures are seen to rise (to T > 700 K) and the slope of the power-law density–temperature relation flattens along the main ridge of the filament, defining the region of maximum heating. We also performed MHD modeling of the excitation properties of the warm gas, to map the velocity structure and energy deposition rate of slow and fast molecular shocks. Slow magnetic shocks were required to explain the power radiated from the lowest-lying rotational states of H 2 , and strongly support the idea that energy cascades down to small scales and low velocities from the fast collision of NGC 7318b with group-wide gas. The highest levels of heating of the warm H 2 are strongly correlated with the large-scale stirring of the medium as measured by [C ii] spectroscopy with Herschel . H 2 is also seen associated with a separate bridge that extends toward the Seyfert nucleus in NGC 7319, from both Spitzer and CARMA CO observations. This opens up the possibility that both galaxy collisions and outflows from active galactic nuclei can turbulently heat gas on large scales in compact groups. The observations provide a laboratory for studying the effects of turbulent energy dissipation on group-wide scales, which may provide clues about the heating and cooling of gas at high z in early galaxy and protogalaxy formation.

  18. Biennial Survey of Education, 1916-18. Volume II. Bulletin, 1919, No. 89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1921

    1921-01-01

    Volume II of the Biennial Survey of Education, 1916-1918 includes the following chapters: (1) Education in Great Britain and Ireland (I. L. Kandel); (2) Education in parts of the British Empire: Educational Developments in the Dominion of Canada (Walter A. Montgomery), Public School System of Jamaica (Charles A. Asbury), Recent Progress of…

  19. The Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sako, Masao; Bassett, Bruce; C. Becker, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    distance moduli for a total of 1443 SN Ia with spectroscopic redshifts as well as photometric redshifts for a further 677 purely-photometric SN Ia candidates. Using the spectroscopically confirmed subset of the three-year SDSS-II SN Ia sample and assuming a flat Lambda-CDM cosmology, we determine Omega......_M = 0.315 +/- 0.093 (statistical error only) and detect a non-zero cosmological constant at 5.7 sigmas....

  20. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Biological Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada. Volume II, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    development of possible cultural resource mitigation mea- sures; and i! E-TR-48-1I-I o Native American consultations. The results of these additional tasks...dog (Cynomys parvidens) UT E Black footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) UT E Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) UT, NV E American peregrine falcon...Myocaster coypus River otter Lutra canadensis Other Animals Mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa Protected Pika Ochotona princeps Protected Douglas squirrel

  1. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey:Search Algorithm and Follow-up Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, Masao; /Pennsylvania U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; DeJongh, Don Frederic; /Fermilab; Depoy, D.L.; /Ohio State U.; Doi, Mamoru; /Tokyo U.; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U.; Craig, Hogan, J.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Holtzman, Jon; /New Mexico State U.; Jha, Saurabh; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Konishi, Kohki; /Tokyo U.; Lampeitl, Hubert; /Baltimore, Space; Marriner, John; /Fermilab; Miknaitis, Gajus; /Fermilab; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U.; Prieto, Jose Luis; /Ohio State U.; Richmond, Michael W.; /Rochester Inst.; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Smith, Mathew; /Portsmouth U.; SubbaRao, Mark; /Chicago U. /Tokyo U. /Tokyo U. /South African Astron. Observ. /Tokyo

    2007-09-14

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey has identified a large number of new transient sources in a 300 deg2 region along the celestial equator during its first two seasons of a three-season campaign. Multi-band (ugriz) light curves were measured for most of the sources, which include solar system objects, Galactic variable stars, active galactic nuclei, supernovae (SNe), and other astronomical transients. The imaging survey is augmented by an extensive spectroscopic follow-up program to identify SNe, measure their redshifts, and study the physical conditions of the explosions and their environment through spectroscopic diagnostics. During the survey, light curves are rapidly evaluated to provide an initial photometric type of the SNe, and a selected sample of sources are targeted for spectroscopic observations. In the first two seasons, 476 sources were selected for spectroscopic observations, of which 403 were identified as SNe. For the Type Ia SNe, the main driver for the Survey, our photometric typing and targeting efficiency is 90%. Only 6% of the photometric SN Ia candidates were spectroscopically classified as non-SN Ia instead, and the remaining 4% resulted in low signal-to-noise, unclassified spectra. This paper describes the search algorithm and the software, and the real-time processing of the SDSS imaging data. We also present the details of the supernova candidate selection procedures and strategies for follow-up spectroscopic and imaging observations of the discovered sources.

  2. The ICD Survey II: Employing Disabled Americans. A Nationwide Survey of 920 Employers. Study No. 864009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    A survey explored what 921 managers nationwide are doing to employ disabled people and return disabled employees to work. It identified barriers that prevent employers from hiring disabled people and steps public and private sectors could take to increase their employment. Employers gave their disabled employees high marks as hard working,…

  3. Mg II-Absorbing Galaxies in the UltraVISTA Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroupe, Darren; Lundgren, Britt

    2018-01-01

    Light that is emitted from distant quasars can become partially absorbed by intervening gaseous structures, including galaxies, in its path toward Earth, revealing information about the chemical content, degree of ionization, organization and evolution of these structures through time. In this project, quasar spectra are used to probe the halos of foreground galaxies at a mean redshift of z=1.1 in the COSMOS Field. Mg II absorption lines in Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar spectra are paired with galaxies in the UltraVISTA catalog at an impact parameter less than 200 kpc. A sample of 77 strong Mg II absorbers with a rest-frame equivalent width ≥ 0.3 Å and redshift from 0.34 < z < 2.21 are investigated to find equivalent width ratios of Mg II, C IV and Fe II absorption lines, and their relation to the impact parameter and the star formation rates, stellar masses, environments and redshifts of their host galaxies.

  4. An ALMA [C II] Survey of 27 Quasars at z > 5.94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Venemans, Bram P.; Bañados, Eduardo; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Fan, Xiaohui; Farina, Emanuele Paolo; Mazzucchelli, Chiara; Riechers, Dominik; Rix, Hans-Walter; Strauss, Michael A.; Wang, Ran; Yang, Yujin

    2018-02-01

    We present a survey of the [C II] 158 μm line and underlying far-infrared (FIR) dust continuum emission in a sample of 27 z≳ 6 quasars using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at ∼ 1\\prime\\prime resolution. The [C II] line was significantly detected (at > 5-σ) in 23 sources (85%). We find typical line luminosities of {L}[{{C}{{II}}]}={10}9-10 {L}ȯ , and an average line width of ∼385 {km} {{{s}}}-1. The [C II]-to-far-infrared luminosity ratios ([C II]/FIR) in our sources span one order of magnitude, highlighting a variety of conditions in the star-forming medium. Four quasar host galaxies are clearly resolved in their [C II] emission on a few kpc scales. Basic estimates of the dynamical masses of the host galaxies give masses between 2 × 1010 and 2 × 1011 {M}ȯ , i.e., more than an order of magnitude below what is expected from local scaling relations, given the available limits on the masses of the central black holes (> 3× {10}8 {M}ȯ , assuming Eddington-limited accretion). In stacked ALMA [C II] spectra of individual sources in our sample, we find no evidence of a deviation from a single Gaussian profile. The quasar luminosity does not strongly correlate with either the [C II] luminosity or equivalent width. This survey (with typical on-source integration times of 8 minutes) showcases the unparalleled sensitivity of ALMA at millimeter wavelengths, and offers a unique reference sample for the study of the first massive galaxies in the universe.

  5. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. III. KINEMATIC DISTANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Bania, T. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Balser, Dana S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Rood, Robert T., E-mail: Loren.Anderson@mail.wvu.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903-0818 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    Using the H I emission/absorption method, we resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity and derive distances for 149 of 182 (82%) H II regions discovered by the Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS). The HRDS is an X-band (9 GHz, 3 cm) GBT survey of 448 previously unknown H II regions in radio recombination line and radio continuum emission. Here, we focus on HRDS sources from 67 Degree-Sign {>=} l {>=} 18 Degree-Sign , where kinematic distances are more reliable. The 25 HRDS sources in this zone that have negative recombination line velocities are unambiguously beyond the orbit of the Sun, up to 20 kpc distant. They are the most distant H II regions yet discovered. We find that 61% of HRDS sources are located at the far distance, 31% at the tangent-point distance, and only 7% at the near distance. 'Bubble' H II regions are not preferentially located at the near distance (as was assumed previously) but average 10 kpc from the Sun. The HRDS nebulae, when combined with a large sample of H II regions with previously known distances, show evidence of spiral structure in two circular arc segments of mean Galactocentric radii of 4.25 and 6.0 kpc. We perform a thorough uncertainty analysis to analyze the effect of using different rotation curves, streaming motions, and a change to the solar circular rotation speed. The median distance uncertainty for our sample of H II regions is only 0.5 kpc, or 5%. This is significantly less than the median difference between the near and far kinematic distances, 6 kpc. The basic Galactic structure results are unchanged after considering these sources of uncertainty.

  6. PLANETARY NEBULAE DETECTED IN THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE GLIMPSE II LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Sun Kwok

    2009-01-01

    We report the result of a search for the infrared counterparts of 37 planetary nebulae (PNs) and PN candidates in the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire II (GLIMPSE II) survey. The photometry and images of these PNs at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm, taken through the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS), are presented. Most of these nebulae are very red and compact in the IRAC bands, and are found to be bright and extended in the 24 μm band. The infrared morphology of these objects are compared with Hα images of the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg (MASH) and MASH II PNs. The implications for morphological difference in different wavelengths are discussed. The IRAC data allow us to differentiate between PNs and H II regions and be able to reject non-PNs from the optical catalog (e.g., PNG 352.1 - 00.0). Spectral energy distributions are constructed by combing the IRAC and MIPS data with existing near-, mid-, and far-IR photometry measurements. The anomalous colors of some objects allow us to infer the presence of aromatic emission bands. These multi-wavelength data provide useful insights into the nature of different nebular components contributing to the infrared emission of PNs.

  7. NEWLY IDENTIFIED EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS (EGOs) FROM THE SPITZER GLIMPSE II SURVEY. I. CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xi; Gan, Cong-Gui; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Titmarsh, Anita; He, Jin-Hua

    2013-01-01

    We have produced a catalog containing 98 newly identified massive young stellar object (MYSO) candidates associated with ongoing outflows (known as extended green objects, or EGOs). These have been identified from the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) II data set and our new identifications increase the number of known EGOs to ∼400 in our Galaxy, adding to the ∼300 previously identified EGOs reported by Cyganowski et al. from the GLIMPSE I survey. The high detection rate (∼70%) of 95 GHz class I methanol masers achieved in a survey toward 57 of these new EGOs with the Mopra 22 m radio telescope demonstrates that the new EGOs are associated with outflows. Investigations of the mid-infrared properties and physical associations with other star formation tracers (e.g., infrared dark clouds, class I and II methanol masers, and millimeter Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey sources) reveal that the newly identified EGOs are very similar in nature to those in the sample of Cyganowski et al. All of the observational evidence supports the hypothesis that EGOs correspond to MYSOs at the earliest evolutionary stage, with ongoing outflow activity, and active rapid accretion.

  8. PHOTOMETRIC TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA CANDIDATES FROM THE THREE-YEAR SDSS-II SN SURVEY DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Masao; Connolly, Brian; Gladney, Larry; Bassett, Bruce; Dilday, Benjamin; Cambell, Heather; Lampeitl, Hubert; Nichol, Robert C.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Kessler, Richard; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Schneider, Donald P.; Smith, Mathew; Sollerman, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the three-year Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova (SN) Survey data and identify a sample of 1070 photometric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) candidates based on their multiband light curve data. This sample consists of SN candidates with no spectroscopic confirmation, with a subset of 210 candidates having spectroscopic redshifts of their host galaxies measured while the remaining 860 candidates are purely photometric in their identification. We describe a method for estimating the efficiency and purity of photometric SN Ia classification when spectroscopic confirmation of only a limited sample is available, and demonstrate that SN Ia candidates from SDSS-II can be identified photometrically with ∼91% efficiency and with a contamination of ∼6%. Although this is the largest uniform sample of SN candidates to date for studying photometric identification, we find that a larger spectroscopic sample of contaminating sources is required to obtain a better characterization of the background events. A Hubble diagram using SN candidates with no spectroscopic confirmation, but with host galaxy spectroscopic redshifts, yields a distance modulus dispersion that is only ∼20%-40% larger than that of the spectroscopically confirmed SN Ia sample alone with no significant bias. A Hubble diagram with purely photometric classification and redshift-distance measurements, however, exhibits biases that require further investigation for precision cosmology.

  9. The GTC exoplanet transit spectroscopy survey. VIII. Flat transmission spectrum for the warm gas giant WASP-80b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, H.; Pallé, E.; Chen, G.; Nortmann, L.; Murgas, F.; Nowak, G.; Aigrain, S.; Booth, A.; Abazorius, M.; Iro, N.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: We set out to study the atmosphere of WASP-80b, a warm inflated gas giant with an equilibrium temperature of 800 K, using ground-based transmission spectroscopy covering the spectral range from 520 to 910 nm. The observations allow us to probe the existence and abundance of K and Na in WASP-80b's atmosphere, existence of high-altitude clouds, and Rayleigh-scattering in the blue end of the spectrum. Methods: We observed two spectroscopic time series of WASP-80b transits with the OSIRIS spectrograph installed in the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), and use the observations to estimate the planet's transmission spectrum between 520 nm and 910 nm in 20 nm-wide passbands, and around the K I and Na I resonance doublets in 6 nm-wide passbands. We jointly model three previously published broadband datasets consisting of 27 light curves, prior to a transmission spectroscopy analysis in order to obtain improved estimates of the planet's orbital parameters, average radius ratio, and stellar density. The parameter posteriors from the broadband analysis are used to set informative priors on the transmission spectroscopy analysis. The final transmission spectroscopy analyses are carried out jointly for the two nights using a divide-by-white approach to remove the common-mode systematics, and Gaussian processes to model the residual wavelength-dependent systematics. Results: We recover a flat transmission spectrum with no evidence of Rayleigh scattering or K I or Na I absorption, and obtain an improved system characterisation as a by-product of the broadband- and GTC-dataset modelling. The transmission spectra estimated separately from the two observing runs are consistent with each other, as are the transmission spectra estimated using either a parametric or nonparametric systematics model. The flat transmission spectrum favours an atmosphere model with high-altitude clouds over cloud-free models with stellar or sub-stellar metallicities. Conclusions: Our results disagree

  10. The ALMA-PILS Survey: Formaldehyde deuteration in warm gas on small scales toward IRAS 16293-2422 B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M. V.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Müller, H. S. P.; Coutens, A.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Taquet, V.; Calcutt, H.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Bourke, T. L.; Wampfler, S. F.

    2018-02-01

    Context. The enhanced degrees of deuterium fractionation observed in envelopes around protostars demonstrate the importance of chemistry at low temperatures, relevant in pre- and protostellar cores. Formaldehyde is an important species in the formation of methanol and more complex molecules. Aims: Here, we aim to present the first study of formaldehyde deuteration on small scales around the prototypical low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422 using high spatial and spectral resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We determine the excitation temperature, abundances and fractionation level of several formaldehyde isotopologues, including its deuterated forms. Methods: Excitation temperature and column densities of formaldehyde in the gas close to one of the components of the binary were constrained through modeling of optically thin lines assuming local thermodynamical equilibrium. The abundance ratios were compared to results from previous single dish observations, astrochemical models and local ISM values. Results: Numerous isotopologues of formaldehyde are detected, among them H2C17O, and D213CO for the first time in the ISM. The large range of upper energy levels covered by the HDCO lines help constrain the excitation temperature to 106 ± 13 K. Using the derived column densities, formaldehyde shows a deuterium fractionation of HDCO/H2CO = 6.5 ± 1%, D2CO/HDCO = 12.8-4.1+3.3%, and D2CO/H2CO = 0.6(4) ± 0.1%. The isotopic ratios derived are 16O/18O = 805-79+43, 18O/17O = 3.2-0.3+0.2, and 12C/13C = 56-11+8. Conclusions: The HDCO/H2CO ratio is lower than that found in previous studies, highlighting the uncertainties involved in interpreting single dish observations of the inner warm regions. The D2CO/HDCO ratio is only slightly larger than the HDCO/H2CO ratio. This is consistent with formaldehyde forming in the ice as soon as CO has frozen onto the grains, with most of the deuteration happening toward the end of the prestellar core

  11. First-Year Spectroscopy for the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Chen; Romani, Roger W.; Sako, Masao; Marriner, John; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Choi, Changsu; Cinabro, David; DeJongh, Fritz; Depoy, Darren L.; Dilday, Ben; Doi, Mamoru; Frieman, Joshua A.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Hogan, Craig J.; Holtzman, Jon; Im, Myungshin; Jha, Saurabh; Kessler, Richard; Konishi, Kohki; Lampeitl, Hubert

    2008-03-25

    This paper presents spectroscopy of supernovae discovered in the first season of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. This program searches for and measures multi-band light curves of supernovae in the redshift range z = 0.05-0.4, complementing existing surveys at lower and higher redshifts. Our goal is to better characterize the supernova population, with a particular focus on SNe Ia, improving their utility as cosmological distance indicators and as probes of dark energy. Our supernova spectroscopy program features rapid-response observations using telescopes of a range of apertures, and provides confirmation of the supernova and host-galaxy types as well as precise redshifts. We describe here the target identification and prioritization, data reduction, redshift measurement, and classification of 129 SNe Ia, 16 spectroscopically probable SNe Ia, 7 SNe Ib/c, and 11 SNe II from the first season. We also describe our efforts to measure and remove the substantial host galaxy contamination existing in the majority of our SN spectra.

  12. Unusual broad-line Mg II emitters among luminous galaxies in the baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roig, Benjamin; Blanton, Michael R.; Ross, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Many classes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been observed and recorded since the discovery of Seyfert galaxies. In this paper, we examine the sample of luminous galaxies in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We find a potentially new observational class of AGNs, one with strong and broad Mg II λ2799 line emission, but very weak emission in other normal indicators of AGN activity, such as the broad-line Hα, Hβ, and the near-ultraviolet AGN continuum, leading to an extreme ratio of broad Hα/Mg II flux relative to normal quasars. Meanwhile, these objects' narrow-line flux ratios reveal AGN narrow-line regions with levels of activity consistent with the Mg II fluxes and in agreement with that of normal quasars. These AGN may represent an extreme case of the Baldwin effect, with very low continuum and high equivalent width relative to typical quasars, but their ratio of broad Mg II to broad Balmer emission remains very unusual. They may also be representative of a class of AGN where the central engine is observed indirectly with scattered light. These galaxies represent a small fraction of the total population of luminous galaxies (≅ 0.1%), but are more likely (about 3.5 times) to have AGN-like nuclear line emission properties than other luminous galaxies. Because Mg II is usually inaccessible for the population of nearby galaxies, there may exist a related population of broad-line Mg II emitters in the local universe which is currently classified as narrow-line emitters (Seyfert 2 galaxies) or low ionization nuclear emission-line regions.

  13. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. IV. HELIUM AND CARBON RECOMBINATION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M. [Astronomy Department, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Balser, Dana S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA, 22903-2475 (United States); Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    The Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS) found hundreds of previously unknown Galactic regions of massive star formation by detecting hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) emission from candidate H II region targets. Since the HRDS nebulae lie at large distances from the Sun, they are located in previously unprobed zones of the Galactic disk. Here, we derive the properties of helium and carbon RRL emission from HRDS nebulae. Our target sample is the subset of the HRDS that has visible helium or carbon RRLs. This criterion gives a total of 84 velocity components (14% of the HRDS) with helium emission and 52 (9%) with carbon emission. For our highest quality sources, the average {sup 4}He{sup +}/H{sup +} abundance ratio by number, (y {sup +}), is 0.068 {+-} 0.023(1{sigma}). This is the same ratio as that measured for the sample of previously known Galactic H II regions. Nebulae without detected helium emission give robust y {sup +} upper limits. There are 5 RRL emission components with y {sup +} less than 0.04 and another 12 with upper limits below this value. These H II regions must have either a very low {sup 4}He abundance or contain a significant amount of neutral helium. The HRDS has 20 nebulae with carbon RRL emission but no helium emission at its sensitivity level. There is no correlation between the carbon RRL parameters and the 8 {mu}m mid-infrared morphology of these nebulae.

  14. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P < 0·001). Median total attack duration was 5·0 h and 9·0 h for patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II, respectively. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  15. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts.

  16. Accounting protesting and warm glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of environmental goods--an empirical case study assessing the value of protecting a Natura 2000 wetland area in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-11-30

    Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and warm glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids are rooted to some extent in warm glow reasoning while 29% of the zero bids can be classified as expressions of protest rather than preferences. In previous studies, warm glow bidders are only rarely identified while protesters are typically identified and excluded from further analysis. We test for selection bias associated with simple removal of both protesters and warm glow bidders in our data. Our findings show that removal of warm glow bidders does not significantly distort WTP whereas we find strong evidence of selection bias associated with removal of protesters. We show how to correct for such selection bias by using a sample selection model. In our empirical sample, using the typical approach of removing protesters from the analysis, the value of protecting the wetland is significantly underestimated by as much as 46% unless correcting for selection bias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. FIRST-YEAR SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY-II SUPERNOVA RESULTS: HUBBLE DIAGRAM AND COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Richard; Frieman, Joshua A.; Becker, Andrew C.; Vanderplas, Jake; Cinabro, David; Marriner, John; Davis, Tamara M.; Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh W.; Holtzman, Jon; Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Nichol, Robert C.; Sako, Masao; Zheng Chen; Bassett, Bruce; Elson, Ed; Bender, Ralf; Depoy, Darren L.; Doi, Mamoru

    2009-01-01

    We present measurements of the Hubble diagram for 103 Type Ia supernovae (SNe) with redshifts 0.04 V = 2.18 ± 0.14 stat ± 0.48 syst , and find that the intrinsic distribution of host-galaxy extinction is well fitted by an exponential function, P(A V ) = exp(-A V /τ V ), with τ V = 0.334 ± 0.088 mag. We combine the SDSS-II measurements with new distance estimates for published SN data from the ESSENCE survey, the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and a compilation of Nearby SN Ia measurements. A new feature in our analysis is the use of detailed Monte Carlo simulations of all surveys to account for selection biases, including those from spectroscopic targeting. Combining the SN Hubble diagram with measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations from the SDSS Luminous Red Galaxy sample and with cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy measurements from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, we estimate the cosmological parameters w and Ω M , assuming a spatially flat cosmological model (FwCDM) with constant dark energy equation of state parameter, w. We also consider constraints upon Ω M and Ω Λ for a cosmological constant model (ΛCDM) with w = -1 and non-zero spatial curvature. For the FwCDM model and the combined sample of 288 SNe Ia, we find w = -0.76 ± 0.07(stat) ± 0.11(syst), Ω M = 0.307 ± 0.019(stat) ± 0.023(syst) using MLCS2K2 and w = -0.96 ± 0.06(stat) ± 0.12(syst), Ω M = 0.265 ± 0.016(stat) ± 0.025(syst) using the SALT-II fitter. We trace the discrepancy between these results to a difference in the rest-frame UV model combined with a different luminosity correction from color variations; these differences mostly affect the distance estimates for the SNLS and HST SNe. We present detailed discussions of systematic errors for both light-curve methods and find that they both show data-model discrepancies in rest-frame U band. For the SALT-II approach, we also see strong evidence for redshift

  18. Survey II of public and leadership attitudes toward nuclear power development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    In August 1975, Ebasco Services Incorporated released results of a survey conducted by Louis Harris and Associates, Inc. to determine attitudes of the American public and its leaders toward nuclear power development in the U.S. Results showed, among other things, that the public favored building nuclear power plants; that they believed we have an energy shortage that will not go away soon; that they were not willing to make environmental sacrifices; and that, while favoring nuclear power development, they also had concerns about some aspects of nuclear power. Except for the environmental group, the leadership group felt the same way the public does. A follow-up survey was made in July 1976 to measure any shifts in attitudes. Survey II showed that one of the real worries that remains with the American public is the shortage of energy; additionally, the public and the leaders are concerned about the U.S. dependence on imported oil. With exception of the environmentalists, the public and its leaders support a host of measures to build energy sources, including: solar and oil shale development; speeding up the Alaskan pipeline; speeding up off-shore drilling; and building nuclear power plants. The public continues to be unwilling to sacrifice the environment. There is less conviction on the part of the public that electric power will be in short supply over the next decade. The public believes the days of heavy dependence on oil or hydroelectric power are coming to an end. By a margin of 3 to 1, the public favors building more nuclear power plants in the U.S., but some concerns about the risks have not dissipated. Even though the public is worried about radioactivity escaping into the atmosphere, they consider nuclear power generation more safe than unsafe

  19. Characteristics and verification of a car-borne survey system for dose rates in air: KURAMA-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, S; Yoshida, T; Tsutsumi, M; Saito, K

    2015-01-01

    The car-borne survey system KURAMA-II, developed by the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, has been used for air dose rate mapping after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. KURAMA-II consists of a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector, a GPS device, and a control device for data processing. The dose rates monitored by KURAMA-II are based on the G(E) function (spectrum-dose conversion operator), which can precisely calculate dose rates from measured pulse-height distribution even if the energy spectrum changes significantly. The characteristics of KURAMA-II have been investigated with particular consideration to the reliability of the calculated G(E) function, dose rate dependence, statistical fluctuation, angular dependence, and energy dependence. The results indicate that 100 units of KURAMA-II systems have acceptable quality for mass monitoring of dose rates in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  1. Hydra II: A Faint and Compact Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy Found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Nidever, David L.; Besla, Gurtina; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Gruendl, Robert A.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Blum, Robert D.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C.; Bell, Eric F.; Chu, You-Hua; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; de Boer, Thomas J. L.; Gallart, Carme; Jin, Shoko; Kunder, Andrea; Majewski, Steven R.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monachesi, Antonela; Monelli, Matteo; Monteagudo, Lara; Noël, Noelia E. D.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4 m Telescope. The new satellite is compact ({{r}h}=68 ± 11 pc) and faint ({{M}V}=-4.8 ± 0.3),

  2. The Unique Optical Design of the CTI-II Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, J. T.; MacFarlane, M.

    2006-12-01

    The CCD/Transit Instrument with Innovative Instrumentation (CTI-II) is being developed for precision ground-based astrometric and photometric astronomical observations. The 1.8m telescope will be stationary, near-zenith pointing and will feature a CCD-mosaic array operated in time-delay and integrate (TDI) mode to image a continuous strip of the sky in five bands. The heart of the telescope is a Nasmyth-like bent-Cassegrain optical system optimized to produce near diffraction-limited images with near zero distortion over a circular1.42 deg field. The optical design includes an f/2.2 parabolic ULE primary with no central hole salvaged from the original CTI telescope and adds the requisite hyperbolic secondary, a folding flat and a highly innovative all-spherical, five lens corrector which includes three plano surfaces. The reflective and refractive portions of the design have been optimized as individual but interdependent systems so that the same reflective system can be used with slightly different refractive correctors. At present, two nearly identical corrector designs are being evaluated, one fabricated from BK-7 glass and the other of fused silica. The five lens corrector consists of an air-spaced triplet separated from follow-on air-spaced doublet. Either design produces 0.25 arcsecond images at 83% encircled energy with a maximum of 0.0005% distortion. The innovative five lens corrector design has been applied to other current and planned Cassegrain, RC and super RC optical systems requiring correctors. The basic five lens approach always results in improved performance compared to the original designs. In some cases, the improvement in image quality is small but includes substantial reductions in distortion. In other cases, the improvement in image quality is substantial. Because the CTI-II corrector is designed for a parabolic primary, it might be especially useful for liquid mirror telescopes. We describe and discuss the CTI-II optical design with respect

  3. Radiation survey of first Hi-Art II Tomotherapy vault design in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A.; Jamema, S.V.; Pai, Rajeshree; Sharma, P.K. Dash; Deshpande, Deepak D.

    2009-01-01

    A vault as per government-regulation compliance with adequate shielding needs was designed and constructed for Hi-Art II Tomotherapy machine being the first in India. Radiation measurements around this Tomotherapy treatment vault were carried out to check the shielding adequacy of the source housing and the vault. It was mandatory to get this un-conventional machine 'Type Approved' by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in India. The aim of this paper was to report on the radiation levels measured during the radiation survey carried out for this machine. The radiation levels in and around the vault were measured for stationary as well as rotational treatment procedures with the largest open field size (5 cm x 40 cm) at the isocenter with and without scattering medium. The survey was performed at three locations near each wall surrounding the vault as well. The leakage radiation from the source housing was measured both in the patient plane outside the treatment field and one meter distance from the source outside the patient plane. The radiation levels both for stationary as well as rotational procedures were within 1 mR/h. No significance difference was observed in the radiation levels measured for rotational procedures with and without scattering medium. The leakage radiation in the patient plane was found to be 0.04% (Tolerance 0.2%), while the head leakage was 0.007% (Tolerance 0.5%) of the dose rate at the isocenter. The treatment delivery with Tomotherapy does play safe radiation levels around the installation layout and also passes the leakage criteria as well.

  4. A multi-institutional survey evaluating patient related QA – phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teichmann Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In phase I of the survey a planning intercomparison of patient-related QA was performed at 12 institutions. The participating clinics created phantom based IMRT and VMAT plans which were measured utilizing the ArcCheck diode array. Mobius3D (M3D was used in phase II. It acts as a secondary dose verification tool for patient-specific QA based on average linac beam data collected by Mobius Medical Systems. All Quasimodo linac plans will be analyzed for the continuation of the intercomparison. We aim to determine if Mobius3D is suited for use with diverse treatment techniques, if beam model customization is needed. Initially we computed first Mobius3D results by transferring all plans from phase I to our Mobius3D server. Because of some larger PTV mean dose differences we checked if output factor customization would be beneficial. We performed measurements and output factor correction to account for discrepancies in reference conditions. Compared to Mobius3D's preconfigured average beam data values, these corrected output factors differed by ±1.5% for field sizes between 7x7cm2 and 30x30cm2 and to −3.9% for 3x3cm2. Our method of correcting the output factors turns out good congruence to M3D's reference values for these medium field sizes.

  5. Hydra II: A Faint and Compact Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy Found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, NF; Nidever, DL; Besla, G; Olsen, K; Walker, AR; Vivas, AK; Gruendl, RA; Kaleida, CC; Muñoz, RR; Blum, RD; Saha, A; Conn, BC; Bell, EF; Chu, YH; Cioni, MRL

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4 m Telescope. The new satellite is compact (rh = 68 ± 11 pc) and faint (MV = -4.8 ± 0.3), but well within the realm of dwarf galaxies. The stellar distribution of Hydra II in the color-magnitude diagram is well-described by a m...

  6. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume III, Part II. Cultural Resources Survey, Pine and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    others), cacti, especially prickly pear ( Opuntia basilaris and others), saltbrush (Atriplex canescens), shadscale Ert r E-TR-48- III-II 17 (Atriplex...supplies were depleted by the settlers through plowing and hunting, and the slave trade, disease , and indentured servitude to the Mormons decimated the

  7. The Effect of Host Galaxies on Type Ia Supernovae in the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampeitl, Hubert; /Portsmouth U., ICG; Smith, Mathew; /Cape Town U. /Portsmouth U., ICG; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U., ICG; Bassett, Bruce; /South African Astron. Observ. /Cape Town U.; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Foley, Ryan J.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U.; Goobar, Ariel; /Stockholm U., OKC; Im, Myungshin; /Seoul Natl. U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway

    2010-05-01

    We present an analysis of the host galaxy dependencies of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) from the full three year sample of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. We re-discover, to high significance, the strong correlation between host galaxy type and the width of the observed SN light curve, i.e., fainter, quickly declining SNe Ia favor passive host galaxies, while brighter, slowly declining Ia's favor star-forming galaxies. We also find evidence (at between 2 to 3{sigma}) that SNe Ia are {approx_equal} 0.1 magnitudes brighter in passive host galaxies, than in star-forming hosts, after the SN Ia light curves have been standardized using the light curve shape and color variations: This difference in brightness is present in both the SALT2 and MCLS2k2 light curve fitting methodologies. We see evidence for differences in the SN Ia color relationship between passive and star-forming host galaxies, e.g., for the MLCS2k2 technique, we see that SNe Ia in passive hosts favor a dust law of R{sub V} {approx_equal} 1, while SNe Ia in star-forming hosts require R{sub V} {approx} 2. The significance of these trends depends on the range of SN colors considered. We demonstrate that these effects can be parameterized using the stellar mass of the host galaxy (with a confidence of > 4{sigma}) and including this extra parameter provides a better statistical fit to our data. Our results suggest that future cosmological analyses of SN Ia samples should include host galaxy information.

  8. The microbial temperature sensitivity to warming is controlled by thermal adaptation and is independent of C-quality across a pan-continental survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Eva; Rousk, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Climate models predict that warming will result in an increased loss of soil organic matter (SOM). However, field experiments suggest that although warming results in an immediate increase in SOM turnover, the effect diminishes over time. Although the use and subsequent turnover of SOM is dominated by the soil microbial community, the underlying physiology underpinning warming responses are not considered in current climate models. It has been suggested that a reduction in the perceived quality of SOM to the microbial community, and changes in the microbial thermal adaptation, could be important feed-backs to soil warming. Thus, studies distinguishing between temperature relationships and how substrate quality influences microbial decomposition are a priority. We examined microbial communities and temperature sensitivities along a natural climate gradient including 56 independent samples from across Europe. The gradient included mean annual temperatures (MAT) from ca -4 to 18 ˚ C, along with wide spans of environmental factors known to influence microbial communities, such as pH (4.0 to 8.8), nutrients (C/N from 7 to 50), SOM (from 4 to 94%), and plant communities, etc. The extensive ranges of environmental conditions resulted in wide ranges of substrate quality, indexed as microbial respiration per unit SOM, from 5-150 μg CO2g-1 SOM g-1 h-1. We hypothesised microbial communities to (1) be adapted to the temperature of their climate, leading to warm adapted bacterial communities that were more temperature sensitive (higher Q10s) at higher MAT; (2) have temperature sensitivities affected by the quality of SOM, with higher Q10s for lower quality SOM. To determine the microbial use of SOM and its dependence on temperature, we characterized microbial temperature dependences of bacterial growth (leu inc), fungal growth (ac-in-erg) and soil respiration in all 56 sites. Temperature dependences were determined using brief (ca. 1-2 h at 25˚ C) laboratory incubation

  9. The GSC-II-based survey of ancient cool white dwarfs I. The sample of spectroscopically confirmed WDs

    OpenAIRE

    Carollo, D.; Bucciarelli, B.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Lattanzi, M. G.; McLean, B.; Morbidelli, R.; Smart, R. L.; Spagna, A.; Terranegra, L.

    2005-01-01

    The GSC-II white dwarf survey was designed to identify faint and high proper motion objects, which we used to define a new and independent sample of cool white dwarfs. With this survey we aim to derive new constraints on the halo white dwarf space density. Also, these data can provide information on the age of thick disk and halo through the analysis of the luminosity function. On the basis of astrometric and photometric parameters, we selected candidates with mu > 0.28 as/yr and R_F > 16 in ...

  10. The Oceans 2015 Initiative, Part II - An updated understanding of the observed and projected impacts of ocean warming and acidification on marine and coastal socioeconomic activities/sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherdon, Lauren; Sumaila, Rashid; Cheung, William W.L.; Rogers, Alex; Magnan, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Between 1971 and 2010, the oceans have absorbed approximately 93% of the excess heat caused by global warming, leading to several major changes such as the increase in stratification, limitation in the circulation of nutrients from deep waters to the surface, and sea level rise. In addition, the oceans absorbed 26% of anthropogenic CO 2 emitted since the start of the Industrial Revolution, which resulted in ocean acidification. Together, these processes strongly affect marine and coastal species' geographic distribution, abundance, migration patterns and phenology. As a consequence of these complex environmental changes, marine and coastal human sectors (i.e., fisheries, aquaculture, coastal tourism and health) are in turn at risk. This report provides an updated synthesis of what the science tells us about such a risk, based upon IPCC AR5 (2013- 2014) and published scientific articles and grey literature that have been published between July 2013 and April 2015. Although uncertainty remains strong, there is growing scientific evidence that ocean warming and acidification will affect key resources for societies through ecosystems services. For example, while AR5 indicated that coral reefs had little scope for adaptation, recent research has suggested that there may be some capacity for some coral species to recover from climatic hocks and bleaching events, and to acquire heat resistance through acclimatization. This will have huge implications on many coastal economies in the developing and developed countries. More generally, key sectors will be affected. For example, while the fish catch potential is expected to decrease at the global scale, it will show diversified trends at the regional scale as fish stocks have started shifting in latitudes or by depth. This will impact regional to local fisheries systems. Also, climate and acidification-related impacts to existing aquaculture are expected to be generally negative, with impacts varying by location

  11. TWO-FLUID MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATIONS OF CONVERGING H I FLOWS IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM. II. ARE MOLECULAR CLOUDS GENERATED DIRECTLY FROM A WARM NEUTRAL MEDIUM?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Formation of interstellar clouds as a consequence of thermal instability is studied using two-dimensional two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We consider the situation of converging, supersonic flows of warm neutral medium in the interstellar medium that generate a shocked slab of thermally unstable gas in which clouds form. We find, as speculated in Paper I, that in the shocked slab magnetic pressure dominates thermal pressure and the thermal instability grows in the isochorically cooling, thermally unstable slab that leads to the formation of H I clouds whose number density is typically n ∼ -3 , even if the angle between magnetic field and converging flows is small. We also find that even if there is a large dispersion of magnetic field, evolution of the shocked slab is essentially determined by the angle between the mean magnetic field and converging flows. Thus, the direct formation of molecular clouds by piling up warm neutral medium does not seem to be a typical molecular cloud formation process, unless the direction of supersonic converging flows is biased to the orientation of mean magnetic field by some mechanism. However, when the angle is small, the H I shell generated as a result of converging flows is massive and possibly evolves into molecular clouds, provided gas in the massive H I shell is piled up again along the magnetic field line. We expect that another subsequent shock wave can again pile up the gas of the massive shell and produce a larger cloud. We thus emphasize the importance of multiple episodes of converging flows, as a typical formation process of molecular clouds.

  12. A Hubble Space Telescope Survey of the Disk Cluster Population of M31. II. Advanced Camera for Surveys Pointings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienke, O. K.; Hodge, P. W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey of star clusters in M31 based on archival images from the Hubble Space Telescope. Paper I reported results from images obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and this paper reports results from the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The ACS survey has yielded a total of 339 star clusters, 52 of which—mostly globular clusters—were found to have been cataloged previously. As for the previous survey, the luminosity function of the clusters drops steeply for absolute magnitudes fainter than MV = -3 the implied cluster mass function has a turnover for masses less than a few hundred solar masses. The color-integrated magnitude diagram of clusters shows three significant features: (1) a group of very red, luminous objects: the globular clusters, (2) a wide range in color for the fainter clusters, representing a considerable range in age and reddening, and (3) a maximum density of clusters centered approximately at V = 21, B - V = 0.30, V - I = 0.50, where there are intermediate-age, intermediate-mass clusters with ages close to 500 million years and masses of about 2000 solar masses. We give a brief qualitative interpretation of the distribution of clusters in the CMDs in terms of their formation and destruction rates. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for research in astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  13. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. VII. Fe II* emission in star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Hayley; Bouché, Nicolas; Contini, Thierry; Paalvast, Mieke; Boogaard, Leindert; Maseda, Michael; Bacon, Roland; Blaizot, Jérémy; Brinchmann, Jarle; Epinat, Benoît; Feltre, Anna; Marino, Raffaella Anna; Muzahid, Sowgat; Richard, Johan; Schaye, Joop; Verhamme, Anne; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2017-11-01

    Non-resonant Fe II* (λ2365, λ2396, λ2612, λ2626) emission can potentially trace galactic winds in emission and provide useful constraints to wind models. From the 3.15' × 3.15' mosaic of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF) obtained with the VLT/MUSE integral field spectrograph, we identify a statistical sample of 40 Fe II* emitters and 50 MgIII (λλ2796,2803) emitters from a sample of 271 [O II]λλ3726,3729 emitters with reliable redshifts from z = 0.85-1.50 down to 2 × 10-18 (3σ) ergs s-1 cm-2 (for [O II]), covering the M⋆ range from 108-1011 M⊙. The Fe II* and Mg II emitters follow the galaxy main sequence, but with a clear dichotomy. Galaxies with masses below 109 M⊙ and star formation rates (SFRs) of ≲ 1 M⊙ yr-1 have MgIII emission without accompanying Fe II* emission, whereas galaxies with masses above 1010 M⊙ and SFRs ≳ 10 M⊙ yr-1 have Fe II* emission without accompanying MgIII emission. Between these two regimes, galaxies have both MgIII and Fe II* emission, typically with MgIII P Cygni profiles. Indeed, the MgIII profile shows a progression along the main sequence from pure emission to P Cygni profiles to strong absorption, due to resonant trapping. Combining the deep MUSE data with HST ancillary information, we find that galaxies with pure MgIII emission profiles have lower SFR surface densities than those with either MgIII P Cygni profiles or Fe II* emission. These spectral signatures produced through continuum scattering and fluorescence, MgIII P Cygni profiles and Fe II* emission, are better candidates for tracing galactic outflows than pure MgIII emission, which may originate from HIII regions. We compare the absorption and emission rest-frame equivalent widths for pairs of FeIII transitions to predictions from outflow models and find that the observations consistently have less total re-emission than absorption, suggesting either dust extinction or non-isotropic outflow geometries.

  14. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; Smith, Russell J.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lucey, John R.; Jogee, Shardha; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Chiboucas, Kristin; Davies, Jonathan I.; del Burgo, Carlos; Erwin, Peter; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hudson, Michael J.; Huxor, Avon; Jenkins, Leigh; Karick, Arna; Khosroshahi, Habib; Kourkchi, Ehsan; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lotz, Jennifer; Marzke, Ronald O.; Marinova, Irina; Matkovic, Ana; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Miller, Neal A.; Mobasher, Bahram; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Okamura, Sadanori; Percival, Sue; Phillipps, Steven; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Price, James; Sharples, Ray M.; Tully, R. Brent; Valentijn, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ~50% of the core high-density region in

  15. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; Smith, Russell J.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lucey, John R.; Jogee, Shardha; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Chiboucas, Kristin; Davies, Jonathan I.; del Burgo, Carlos; Erwin, Peter; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hudson, Michael J.; Huxor, Avon; Jenkins, Leigh; Karick, Arna; Khosroshahi, Habib; Kourkchi, Ehsan; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lotz, Jennifer; Marzke, Ronald O.; Marinova, Irina; Matkovic, Ana; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Miller, Neal A.; Mobasher, Bahram; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Okamura, Sadanori; Percival, Sue; Phillipps, Steven; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Price, James; Sharples, Ray M.; Tully, R. Brent; Valentijn, Edwin

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ~50% of the core high-density region in

  16. What's for Lunch? II. A 1990 Survey of Options in the School Lunch Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Patricia McGrath; And Others

    This report provides information on the content of school lunches offered to middle school children in the public schools. A total of 163 middle schools in 42 states responded to the school lunch survey. Survey findings are given on: (1) the contents of the main course, vegetable and fruit offerings, desserts, and beverages; and (2) lunches…

  17. Predictors of BMI Vary along the BMI Range of German Adults – Results of the German National Nutrition Survey II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kilson; Krems, Carolin; Heuer, Thorsten; Roth, Alexander; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to identify predictors of BMI in German adults by considering the BMI distribution and to determine whether the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Methods The sample included 9,214 adults aged 18–80 years from the German National Nutrition Survey II (NVS II). Quantile regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between BMI and the following predictors: age, sports activities, socio-economic status (SES), healthy eating index-NVS II (HEI-NVS II), dietary knowledge, sleeping duration and energy intake as well as status of smoking, partner relationship and self-reported health. Results Age, SES, self-reported health status, sports activities and energy intake were the strongest predictors of BMI. The important outcome of this study is that the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Especially, energy intake, health status and SES were marginally associated with BMI in normal-weight subjects; this relationships became stronger in the range of overweight, and were strongest in the range of obesity. Conclusions Predictors of BMI and the strength of these associations vary across the BMI distribution in German adults. Consequently, to identify predictors of BMI, the entire BMI distribution should be considered. PMID:28219069

  18. Galactic bulge population II Cepheids in the VVV survey: period-luminosity relations and a distance to the Galactic centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Rejkuba, M.; Minniti, D.; Surot, F.; Valenti, E.; Zoccali, M.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Romaniello, M.; Kanbur, S. M.; Singh, H. P.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Multiple stellar populations of different ages and metallicities reside in the Galactic bulge that trace its structure and provide clues to its formation and evolution. Aims: We present the near-infrared observations of population II Cepheids in the Galactic bulge from VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) survey. The JHKs photometry together with optical data from Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) survey provide an independent estimate of the distance to the Galactic centre. The old, metal-poor and low-mass population II Cepheids are also investigated as useful tracers for the structure of the Galactic bulge. Methods: We identify 340 population II Cepheids in the VVV survey Galactic bulge catalogue based on their match with the OGLE-III Catalogue. The single-epoch JH and multi-epoch Ks observations complement the accurate periods and optical (VI) mean-magnitudes from OGLE. The sample consisting of BL Herculis and W Virginis subtypes is used to derive period-luminosity relations after correcting mean-magnitudes for the extinction. Our Ks-band period-luminosity relation, Ks = -2.189(0.056) [log (P)-1] + 11.187(0.032), is consistent with published work for BL Herculis and W Virginis variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Results: We present a combined OGLE-III and VVV catalogue with periods, classification, mean magnitudes, and extinction for 264 Galactic bulge population II Cepheids that have good-quality Ks-band light curves. The absolute magnitudes for population II Cepheids and RR Lyraes calibrated using Gaia and Hubble Space Telescope parallaxes, together with calibrated magnitudes for Large Magellanic Cloud population II Cepheids, are used to obtain a distance to the Galactic centre, R0 = 8.34 ± 0.03(stat.) ± 0.41(syst.), which changes by with different extinction laws. While noting the limitation of small number statistics, we find that the present sample of population II Cepheids in the Galactic bulge shows a nearly spheroidal

  19. Phonon-mediated distributed transition-edge-sensor X-ray detectors for surveys of galaxy clusters and the warm-hot interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leman, Steven W.; Brink, Paul L.; Cabrera, Blas; Castle, Joseph P.; Chakraborty, Sudeepto; Deiker, Steve; Kahn, Steve; Martinez-Galarce, Dennis S.; Stern, Robert A.; Tomada, Astrid

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a novel phonon-mediated distributed-TES X-ray detector in which X-rays are absorbed in a large germanium or silicon crystal, and the energy is read out by four distributed TESs. This design takes advantage of existing TES technology while overcoming the difficulties of designing spatially large arrays. The sum of the four TES signals will yield energy resolution of E/δE∼1000 and the partitioning of energy between the four will yield position resolution of X/δX and Y/δY∼100. These macropixels, with advances in multiplexing, could be close-packed into 30x30 arrays equivalent to imaging instruments of 10 megapixels or more. We report on our progress to date and discuss its application to galaxy cluster searches and studies of the Warm-Hot Interstellar Medium

  20. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report; Miljoeovervaaking av olje- og gassfelt i Region II i 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner OEst, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  1. High-velocity streams in the Milky Way halo with the SDSS and GSC-II kinematic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spagna A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We explore the stellar halo of the Milky Way to search for fossil signatures of past mergers, consisting of streams of particles torn from their progenitors during the process of hierarchical merging. We examine a representative sample of about 2 700 halo subdwarfs in the solar neighborhood, selected from a new kinematic survey produced by means of spectrophotometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and high-quality proper motions derived from multi-epoch positions using the Guide Star Catalog II. We find statistical evidence for discrete overdensities, likely possible accretion remnants. This methodology and the quality of the selected sample are an efficient means to discover new members of known streams and to identify new streams themselves, and set the basis for future studies.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The HII Region Discovery Survey (HRDS). II. (Anderson+, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. D.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, D. S.; Rood, R. T.

    2011-08-01

    Our observations were made with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) 100m telescope from 2008 June through 2010 October. We assembled our target list from the following multi-frequency, large solid angle Galactic surveys: the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) Galactic Plane Survey at 21cm HI and continuum (VGPS: Stil et al. 2006AJ....132.1158S), the NRAO VLA Sky Survey at 20cm continuum (NVSS: Condon et al. 1998, Cat. VIII/65), the Southern Galactic Plane Survey at 21cm HI and continuum (SGPS: Haverkorn et al. 2006ApJS..167..230H), the VLA MAGPIS at 20cm continuum (Helfand et al. 2006, Cat. J/AJ/131/2525), and the Spitzer 24um MIPSGAL survey (Carey et al. 2009PASP..121...76C). Our analysis here also uses 8.0um data from the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE: Benjamin et al. 2003PASP..115..953B), which were obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. (4 data files).

  3. Linear feature detection algorithm for astronomical surveys - II. Defocusing effects on meteor tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektešević, Dino; Vinković, Dejan; Rasmussen, Andrew; Ivezić, Željko

    2018-03-01

    Given the current limited knowledge of meteor plasma micro-physics and its interaction with the surrounding atmosphere and ionosphere, meteors are a highly interesting observational target for high-resolution wide-field astronomical surveys. Such surveys are capable of resolving the physical size of meteor plasma heads, but they produce large volumes of images that need to be automatically inspected for possible existence of long linear features produced by meteors. Here, we show how big aperture sky survey telescopes detect meteors as defocused tracks with a central brightness depression. We derive an analytic expression for a defocused point source meteor track and use it to calculate brightness profiles of meteors modelled as uniform brightness discs. We apply our modelling to meteor images as seen by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope telescopes. The expression is validated by Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations of photons travelling through the atmosphere and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope telescope optics. We show that estimates of the meteor distance and size can be extracted from the measured full width at half-maximum and the strength of the central dip in the observed brightness profile. However, this extraction becomes difficult when the defocused meteor track is distorted by the atmospheric seeing or contaminated by a long-lasting glowing meteor trail. The full width at half-maximum of satellite tracks is distinctly narrower than meteor values, which enables removal of a possible confusion between satellites and meteors.

  4. Study of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy from the DART Ca II triplet survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, G.; Tolstoy, E.; Helmi, A.; Irwin, M.; Parisi, P.; Hill, V.; Jablonka, P.

    We use Very Large Telescope (VLT)/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) intermediate-resolution (R˜ 6500) spectra of individual red giant branch stars in the near-infrared Ca II triplet (CaT) region to investigate the wide-area metallicity properties and internal kinematics of the

  5. Sudden Stratospheric Warming Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden Stratospheric Warming Compendium (SSWC) data set documents the stratospheric, tropospheric, and surface climate impacts of sudden stratospheric warmings. This...

  6. Global Warming: A Myth?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    warming trend. Efforts are on to explain this temperature anomaly and it may take time to say conclusively whether. 'global warming' exists or not. Introduction. Global warming is one ... puted, as atmospheric temperature trends measured by radio- sondes and .... heat and keeping the surroundings warmer. Burning of large.

  7. Seroepidemiological Survey of HTLV-I/II in Blood Donors of Mazandaran in 1999.

    OpenAIRE

    N. Tabarestani; R. F. Hosseini; ِA. Ajami

    2000-01-01

    SummaryBackground and purpose: HTL-I/II viruses of the Retroviridae family are known to be the causes of various diseases. They are transmitted by blood transfusion, sexual contact and breast milk. As of contaminated mothers. These viral infections are endemic in certain regions, Epidemiological studies appear to be necessary in the country. Blood donors from different transfusion Centers were investigated in a pilot study.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, blood samples of 180...

  8. The diesel exhaust in miners study: II. Exposure monitoring surveys and development of exposure groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coble, J.B.; Stewart, P.A.; Vermeulen, R.; Yereb, D.; Stanevich, R.; Blair, A.; Silverman, D.T.; Attfield, M.

    2010-01-01

    Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Nainital-Cape Survey. II. Null results (Joshi+, 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S.; Mary, D. L.; Martinez, P.; Kurtz, D. W.; Girish, V.; Seetha, S.; Sagar, R.; Ashoka, B. N.

    2007-02-01

    For the Nainital-Cape Survey, high-speed photometric observations of Ap and Am star candidates are carried out from ARIES (Manora Peak, Nainital) using a three-channel fast photometer attached to the ARIES 104-cm Sampurnanand telescope. (1 data file).

  10. Mammalian Survey Techniques for Level II Natural Resource Inventories on Corps of Engineers Projects (Part 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    managers must realize that it is seldom possible to meet all sampling criteria, and meth - ods involving direct sightings often provide incomplete counts of...and mule deer (O. hemionus) are the most common ungulates surveyed on Corps lands (Figure 2). Census methods available for deer include the Hahn

  11. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey : II. First public data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sanchez, S. F.; Barrado, D.; Bekeraite, S.; Bomans, D. J.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Catalan-Torrecilla, C.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Garcia-Benito, R.; Gonzalez Delgado, R. M.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Johnson, B. D.; Kupko, D.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Miskolczi, A.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Perez, E.; Perez, I.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Schilling, U.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, J.; Alves, J.; de Amorim, A. L.; Backsmann, N.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Cortijo, C.; Dettmar, R. -J.; Demleitner, M.; Diaz, A. I.; Enke, H.; Florido, E.; Flores, H.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; Garcia-Lorenzo, B.; Gomes, J. M.; Gruel, N.; Haines, T.; Holmes, L.; Jungwiert, B.; Kalinova, V.; Kehrig, C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Klar, J.; Lehnert, M. D.; Lopez-Sanchez, A. R.; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A.; Marmol-Queralto, E.; Marquez, I.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Molla, M.; del Olmo, A.; Meidt, S. E.; Papaderos, P.; Puschnig, J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Roth, M. M.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Spekkens, K.; Singh, R.; Stanishev, V.; Trager, S. C.; Vilchez, J. M.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.

    We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005

  12. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. II. First public data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Barrado, D.; Bekerait*error*ė, S.; Bomans, D. J.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; García-Benito, R.; González Delgado, R. M.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Johnson, B. D.; Kupko, D.; López-Fernandez, R.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Miskolczi, A.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Pérez, E.; Pérez, I.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Schilling, U.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, J.; Alves, J.; de Amorim, A. L.; Backsmann, N.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Cortijo, C.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Demleitner, M.; Díaz, A. I.; Enke, H.; Florido, E.; Flores, H.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Gomes, J. M.; Gruel, N.; Haines, T.; Holmes, L.; Jungwiert, B.; Kalinova, V.; Kehrig, C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Klar, J.; Lehnert, M. D.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Márquez, I.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; del Olmo, A.; Meidt, S. E.; Papaderos, P.; Puschnig, J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Roth, M. M.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Spekkens, K.; Singh, R.; Stanishev, V.; Trager, S. C.; Vilchez, J. M.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.

    We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005

  13. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Sakon, Itsuki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kawamura, Akiko; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2013-01-01

    We performed a near-infrared spectroscopic survey toward an area of ∼10 deg 2 of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the infrared satellite AKARI. Observations were carried out as part of the AKARI Large-area Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LSLMC). The slitless multi-object spectroscopic capability of the AKARI/IRC enabled us to obtain low-resolution (R ∼ 20) spectra in 2-5 μm for a large number of point sources in the LMC. As a result of the survey, we extracted about 2000 infrared spectra of point sources. The data are organized as a near-infrared spectroscopic catalog. The catalog includes various infrared objects such as young stellar objects (YSOs), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, supergiants, and so on. It is shown that 97% of the catalog sources have corresponding photometric data in the wavelength range from 1.2 to 11 μm, and 67% of the sources also have photometric data up to 24 μm. The catalog allows us to investigate near-infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their infrared spectral energy distributions. In addition, it is estimated that about 10% of the catalog sources are observed at more than two different epochs. This enables us to study a spectroscopic variability of sources by using the present catalog. Initial results of source classifications for the LSLMC samples are presented. We classified 659 LSLMC spectra based on their near-infrared spectral features by visual inspection. As a result, it is shown that the present catalog includes 7 YSOs, 160 C-rich AGBs, 8 C-rich AGB candidates, 85 O-rich AGBs, 122 blue and yellow supergiants, 150 red super giants, and 128 unclassified sources. Distributions of the classified sources on the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are discussed in the text. Continuous wavelength coverage and high spectroscopic sensitivity in 2-5 μm can only be achieved by space observations. This is an unprecedented large-scale spectroscopic survey toward the LMC in the near

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Survey of Centaurus A's Baryonic Structures II. (Taylor+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. A.; Puzia, T. H.; Munoz, R. P.; Mieske, S.; Lancon, A.; Zhang, H.; Eigenthaler, P.; Bovill, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    The Survey of Centaurus A's Baryonic Structures is an optical survey of the nearby giant elliptical galaxy NGC5128 (Centaurus A) using the Dark Energy Camera. This work focussed on identifying globular cluster candidates of 22 sq. degrees centred on NGC5128. In doing so we produced a list of ~4.4x105 point, and point-like sources in the optical u'g'r'i'z' bands with 50/90% completeness limits of at least 24.08/23.62, 22.67/22.27, 22.46/22.00, 22.05/21.63, and 21.71/21.34 AB mags, respectively. The same data is also included for a list of ~3000 highly probable globular cluster candidates Positional data is typically accurate to at least 0.5". (4 data files).

  15. Visual servoing in medical robotics: a survey. Part II: tomographic imaging modalities--techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mahdi; Najmaei, Nima; Khoshnam, Mahta; Patel, Rajni

    2015-03-01

    Intraoperative application of tomographic imaging techniques provides a means of visual servoing for objects beneath the surface of organs. The focus of this survey is on therapeutic and diagnostic medical applications where tomographic imaging is used in visual servoing. To this end, a comprehensive search of the electronic databases was completed for the period 2000-2013. Existing techniques and products are categorized and studied, based on the imaging modality and their medical applications. This part complements Part I of the survey, which covers visual servoing techniques using endoscopic imaging and direct vision. The main challenges in using visual servoing based on tomographic images have been identified. 'Supervised automation of medical robotics' is found to be a major trend in this field and ultrasound is the most commonly used tomographic modality for visual servoing. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Warm-up attitudes and behaviours of amateur golfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkin, A J; Finch, C F; Sherman, C A

    2003-06-01

    Although it is widely recommended that golfers warm-up before play/practice to enhance their physical performance and to prevent injuries, few actually undertake this activity. The reasons why golfers do/do not warm-up are not known. The aim of this study was to determine the self-reported behaviours and attitudes of adult golfers towards warming-up. A survey of 1040 randomly selected golfers was conducted over a 3-week period in July 1999. Information about golf participation, usual warm-up habits and reasons for these warm-up behaviours was obtained by a verbally administered self-report survey. Over 70% of the surveyed golfers stated that they never or seldom warm-up, with only 3.8% reporting warming-up on every occasion. The most common reasons why golfers warmed-up included to play better (74.5%), to prevent injury (27.0%), and because everyone else does (13.2%). Common reasons for not warming-up were the perception that they don't need to (38.7%), don't have enough time (36.4%) and can't be bothered (33.7%). These findings suggest that in order to increase the proportion of golfers who warm-up, education programs focussing on the benefits of warming-up, including injury prevention, need to be developed and implemented. Different strategies may need to be adopted to accommodate golfers' differing attitudes and baseline behaviours.

  17. Test program element II blanket and shield thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing, experimental facility survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available.

  18. Test program element II blanket and shield thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing, experimental facility survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available

  19. A selection of hot subluminous stars in the GALEX survey - II. Subdwarf atmospheric parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Németh, Péter; Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 427, č. 3 (2012), s. 2180-2211 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300030908; GA AV ČR IAA301630901; GA ČR GAP209/10/0967 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : catalogues * surveys * abundance Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.521, year: 2012

  20. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. II. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T., E-mail: mkpresco@physics.ucsb.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Using a systematic broadband search technique, we have carried out a survey for large Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} {sup b}lobs{sup )} at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within 8.5 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field, corresponding to a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h {sup -3} {sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}. Here, we present our spectroscopic observations of candidate giant Ly{alpha} nebulae. Of 26 candidates targeted, 5 were confirmed to have Ly{alpha} emission at 1.7 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.7, 4 of which were new discoveries. The confirmed Ly{alpha} nebulae span a range of Ly{alpha} equivalent widths, colors, sizes, and line ratios, and most show spatially extended continuum emission. The remaining candidates did not reveal any strong emission lines, but instead exhibit featureless, diffuse, blue continuum spectra. Their nature remains mysterious, but we speculate that some of these might be Ly{alpha} nebulae lying within the redshift desert (i.e., 1.2 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.6). Our spectroscopic follow-up confirms the power of using deep broadband imaging to search for the bright end of the Ly{alpha} nebula population across enormous comoving volumes.

  1. THE RISE AND FALL OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES IN THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, Brian T.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Kessler, Richard; Frieman, Joshua A.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Bassett, Bruce; Smith, Mathew; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Benjamin; Kasen, Daniel; Marriner, John; Nichol, Robert C.; Riess, Adam G.; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P.; Sollerman, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the rise and fall times of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. From a set of 391 light curves k-corrected to the rest-frame B and V bands, we find a smaller dispersion in the rising portion of the light curve compared to the decline. This is in qualitative agreement with computer models which predict that variations in radioactive nickel yield have less impact on the rise than on the spread of the decline rates. The differences we find in the rise and fall properties suggest that a single 'stretch' correction to the light curve phase does not properly model the range of SN Ia light curve shapes. We select a subset of 105 light curves well observed in both rise and fall portions of the light curves and develop a '2-stretch' fit algorithm which estimates the rise and fall times independently. We find the average time from explosion to B-band peak brightness is 17.38 ± 0.17 days, but with a spread of rise times which range from 13 days to 23 days. Our average rise time is shorter than the 19.5 days found in previous studies; this reflects both the different light curve template used and the application of the 2-stretch algorithm. The SDSS-II supernova set and the local SNe Ia with well-observed early light curves show no significant differences in their average rise-time properties. We find that slow-declining events tend to have fast rise times, but that the distribution of rise minus fall time is broad and single peaked. This distribution is in contrast to the bimodality in this parameter that was first suggested by Strovink from an analysis of a small set of local SNe Ia. We divide the SDSS-II sample in half based on the rise minus fall value, t r - t f ≤ 2 days and t r - t f > 2 days, to search for differences in their host galaxy properties and Hubble residuals; we find no difference in host galaxy properties or Hubble residuals in our sample.

  2. The Rise and Fall of Type Ia Supernova Light Curves in the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, Brian T.; /Notre Dame U.; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U.; Kessler, Richard; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Frieman, Joshua A.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Jha, Saurabh W.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Kasen, Daniel; /UC, Santa Cruz; Marriner, John; /Fermilab; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U., ICG /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the rise and fall times of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. From a set of 391 light curves k-corrected to the rest-frame B and V bands, we find a smaller dispersion in the rising portion of the light curve compared to the decline. This is in qualitative agreement with computer models which predict that variations in radioactive nickel yield have less impact on the rise than on the spread of the decline rates. The differences we find in the rise and fall properties suggest that a single 'stretch' correction to the light curve phase does not properly model the range of SN Ia light curve shapes. We select a subset of 105 light curves well observed in both rise and fall portions of the light curves and develop a '2-stretch' fit algorithm which estimates the rise and fall times independently. We find the average time from explosion to B-band peak brightness is 17.38 {+-} 0.17 days, but with a spread of rise times which range from 13 days to 23 days. Our average rise time is shorter than the 19.5 days found in previous studies; this reflects both the different light curve template used and the application of the 2-stretch algorithm. The SDSS-II supernova set and the local SNe Ia with well-observed early light curves show no significant differences in their average rise-time properties. We find that slow-declining events tend to have fast rise times, but that the distribution of rise minus fall time is broad and single peaked. This distribution is in contrast to the bimodality in this parameter that was first suggested by Strovink (2007) from an analysis of a small set of local SNe Ia. We divide the SDSS-II sample in half based on the rise minus fall value, t{sub r} - t{sub f} {approx}< 2 days and t{sub r} - t{sub f} > 2 days, to search for differences in their host galaxy properties and Hubble residuals; we find no difference in host galaxy properties or Hubble

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chandra ACIS survey in nearby galaxies. II (Wang+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Qiu, Y.; Liu, J.; Bregman, J. N.

    2018-03-01

    Based on the recently completed Chandra/ACIS survey of X-ray point sources in nearby galaxies, we study the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) for X-ray point sources in different types of galaxies and the statistical properties of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Uniform procedures are developed to compute the detection threshold, to estimate the foreground/background contamination, and to calculate the XLFs for individual galaxies and groups of galaxies, resulting in an XLF library of 343 galaxies of different types. With the large number of surveyed galaxies, we have studied the XLFs and ULX properties across different host galaxy types, and confirm with good statistics that the XLF slope flattens from lenticular (α{\\sim}1.50{\\pm}0.07) to elliptical ({\\sim}1.21{\\pm}0.02), to spirals ({\\sim}0.80{\\pm}0.02), to peculiars ({\\sim}0.55{\\pm}0.30), and to irregulars ({\\sim}0.26{\\pm}0.10). The XLF break dividing the neutron star and black hole binaries is also confirmed, albeit at quite different break luminosities for different types of galaxies. A radial dependency is found for ellipticals, with a flatter XLF slope for sources located between D25 and 2D25, suggesting the XLF slopes in the outer region of early-type galaxies are dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries in globular clusters. This study shows that the ULX rate in early-type galaxies is 0.24{\\pm}0.05 ULXs per surveyed galaxy, on a 5σ confidence level. The XLF for ULXs in late-type galaxies extends smoothly until it drops abruptly around 4x1040erg/s, and this break may suggest a mild boundary between the stellar black hole population possibly including 30M{\\sun} black holes with super-Eddington radiation and intermediate mass black holes. (1 data file).

  4. The Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS). II. Optical Imaging and Photometric Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Hisanori; Kosugi, George; Akiyama, Masayuki; Takata, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Ichi; Iwata, Ikuru; Kajisawa, Masaru; Yasuda, Naoki; Doi, Mamoru; Ouchi, Masami; Simpson, Chris; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Toru; Furusawa, Junko; Morokuma, Tomoki; Ishida, Catherine M.; Aoki, Kentaro; Fuse, Tetsuharu; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Iye, Masanori; Karoji, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kodama, Tadayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Nakata, Fumiaki; Noumaru, Jun'ichi; Ogasawara, Ryusuke; Okamura, Sadanori; Saito, Tomoki; Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2008-05-01

    We present multi-wave band optical imaging data obtained from observations of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS). The survey field, centered at R .A . = 02h18m00s, decl . = - 05°00'00'', has been the focus of a wide range of multiwavelength observing programs spanning from X-ray to radio wavelengths. A large part of the optical imaging observations are carried out with Suprime-Cam on Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea in the course of Subaru Telescope "Observatory Projects." This paper describes our optical observations, data reduction and analysis procedures employed, and the characteristics of the data products. A total area of 1.22 deg2 is covered in five contiguous subfields, each of which corresponds to a single Suprime-Cam field of view (~34' × 27'), in five broadband filters, B, V, Rc, i', and z', to the depths of B = 28.4, V = 27.8, Rc = 27.7, i' = 27.7, and z' = 26.6, respectively (AB, 3 σ, phi = 2''). The data are reduced and compiled into five multi-wave band photometric catalogs, separately for each Suprime-Cam pointing. The i'-band catalogs contain about 900,000 objects, making the SXDS catalogs one of the largest multi-wave band catalogs in corresponding depth and area coverage. The SXDS catalogs can be used for an extensive range of astronomical applications such as the number density of the Galactic halo stars to the large-scale structures at the distant universe. The number counts of galaxies are derived and compared with those of existing deep extragalactic surveys. The optical data, the source catalogs, and configuration files used to create the catalogs are publicly available via the SXDS Web page (http://www.naoj.org/Science/SubaruProject/SXDS/index.html). Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  5. DIGIT survey of far-infrared lines from protoplanetary discs. II. CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Gwendolyn; Salyk, Colette; Bruderer, Simon; Fedele, Davide; Maaskant, Koen; Evans, Neal J.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Montesinos, Benjamin; Herczeg, Greg; Bouwman, Jeroen; Green, Joel D.; Dominik, Carsten; Henning, Thomas; Vicente, Silvia

    2013-11-01

    CO is an important component of a protoplanetary disc as it is one of the most abundant gas phase species. Furthermore, observations of CO transitions can be used as a diagnostic of the gas, tracing conditions in both the inner and outer disc. We present Herschel/PACS spectroscopy of a sample of 22 Herbig Ae/Be (HAEBEs) and eight T Tauri stars (TTS), covering the pure rotational CO transitions from J = 14 → 13 up to J = 49 → 48. CO is detected in only five HAEBEs, namely AB Aur, HD 36112, HD 97048, HD 100546, and IRS 48, and in four TTS, namely AS 205, S CrA, RU Lup, and DG Tau. The highest transition detected is J = 36 → 35 with Eup of 3669 K, seen in HD 100546 and DG Tau. We construct rotational diagrams for the discs with at least three CO detections to derive Trot and find average temperatures of 270 K for the HAEBEs and 485 K for the TTS. The HD 100546 star requires an extra temperature component at Trot ~ 900-1000 K, suggesting a range of temperatures in its disc atmosphere, which is consistent with thermo-chemical disc models. In HAEBEs, the objects with CO detections all have flared discs in which the gas and dust are thermally decoupled. We use a small model grid to analyse our observations and find that an increased amount of flaring means higher line flux, as it increases the mass in warm gas. CO is not detected in our flat discs as the emission is below the detection limit. We find that HAEBE sources with CO detections have high LUV and strong PAH emission, which is again connected to the heating of the gas. In TTS, the objects with CO detections are all sources with evidence of a disc wind or outflow. For both groups of objects, sources with CO detections generally have high UV luminosity (either stellar in HAEBEs or due to accretion in TTS), but this is not a sufficient condition for the detection of the far-IR CO lines. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and

  6. The HIX galaxy survey II: HI kinematics of HI eXtreme galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-01-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected HI content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these HI eXtreme (HIX) galaxies to be so HI-rich. We model the HI kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed HIX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model Dark Sage. We find that (1...

  7. Fiscal 1997 survey report on the trend of global warming protection measures of substituting freons; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (daitai freon no chikyu ondanka taisaku doko ni kansuru chosa hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The trend survey was conducted of global warming protection measures by participation in international conferences, scientific society meetings and lecture meetings, and by literature surveys. We participated in the international conference on ozonosphere protection measures. In the 9th meeting of the nations which concluded the Montreal Protocol, the strengthening of restrictions on methyl bromide was decided on. In the UNEP solvent technology selection conference and the OORG conference of the World Bank, reports were made on substituting solvents in Japan, activities supporting developing countries, and the developmental trend of urethane use foaming agent. In the international conference on ozonosphere protection measures, introduced were the present status of Japan`s ODA for developing countries and examples of success of the substitution in the solvent field. The paper included nine reports on CFC destruction technology related literature made public in the past one year. The paper also introduced a comparative study of de-HCFC substituting technology at U.S. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. EPA`s prediction of emission of fluorine 3 gas, the predicted value of HFC emission and trial calculation of contributing rate in all greenhouse gases by IIR, Green Peace and Elf Atochem, and NOAA`s measured data on SF6 in the atmosphere. 49 refs., 46 figs., 26 tabs.

  8. ONLINE PORNOGRAPHY AND SEXUALITY: SOME RESULTS OF EU KIDS ONLINE SURVEY II IN THE ROMANIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA MARINESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article intends to analyze the exposure of Romanian children and teens to sexually explicit message and the so-called „sexting” activities they perform in the online environment. The main research topic to which we try to find some answers is: are young people more exposed to risks because they view sexually explicit content online and send sexual messages to others? Our results validate the risk migration hypothesis, the blurring boundaries between the online and offline worlds enabling the migration of risk from the real world to the internet and the reverse. At the same time, the date of EU Kinds Online II validate the vulnerability hypothesis, according to which the harm declared by the children following the exposure to sexually explicit images and the receiving the sexual messages is the result of their socio-demographic vulnerabilities

  9. Preliminary Results of Detailed Chemical Abundance Analysis of Milky Way Satellite Galaxy Reticulum II Discovered in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Daniel; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Li, Ting; Dark Energy Survey Milky Way Science Group

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary results from abundance analysis of stars in Milky Way satellite galaxies found in the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES has discovered 16 candidate satellite galaxies of the Milky Way in its first two years of operation. Since January 2015, three candidates have subsequently been revealed to be dark matter-dominated by spectroscopic follow-up studies of their kinematics, confirming their status as satellite galaxies. Spectroscopic follow-up of the remaining 13 candidates is underway. We have analyzed high resolution VLT/GIRAFFE spectra of member stars in one of these satellite galaxies, Reticulum II. Using equivalent width measurement and spectral synthesis methods, we measure the abundances of Iron and other species in order to begin to understand the chemical content of these Milky Way satellites.

  10. Brazil Geological Basic Survey Program - Ponte Nova - Sheet SF.23-X-B-II - Minas Gerais State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandalise, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The present report refers to the Ponte Nova Sheet (SF.23-X-B-II) systematic geological mapping, on the 1:100.000 scale. The Sheet covers the Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais State, in the Mantiqueira Geotectonic Province, to the eastern part of Sao Francisco Geotectonic Province, as defined in the project. The high grade metamorphic rocks to low amphibolite, occurring in the area were affected by a marked low angle shearing transposition, and show diphtheritic effects. Archaean to Proterozoic ages are attributed to the metamorphites mostly by comparison to similar types of the region. Three deformed events were registered in the region. Analysis of the crustal evolution pattern based on geological mapping, laboratorial analyses, gravimetric and air magnetometry data, and available geochronologic data is given in the 6. Chapter, Part II, in the text. Major element oxides, trace-elements, and rare-earths elements were analysed to establish parameters for the rocks environment elucidation. Geochemical survey was carried out with base on pan concentrated and stream sediments distributed throughout the Sheet. Gneisses quarries (industrial rocks) in full exploration activity have been registered, as well as sand and clay deposits employed in construction industry. Metallogenetic/Provisional analysis points out the area as a favorable one for gold prospection. (author)

  11. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. II. DATA DESCRIPTION AND SOURCE CATALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Derek; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Hoyos, Carlos; Balcells, Marc; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Jogee, Shardha; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ∼50% of the core high-density region in Coma. Observations were performed for 25 fields that extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (∼1.75 Mpc or 1 0 ) with a total coverage area of 274 arcmin 2 . The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the southwest region of the cluster. In this paper, we present reprocessed images and SEXTRACTOR source catalogs for our survey fields, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for ∼73,000 unique objects; approximately one-half of our detections are brighter than the 10σ point-source detection limit at F814W = 25.8 mag (AB). The slight majority of objects (60%) are unresolved or only marginally resolved by ACS. We estimate that Coma members are 5%-10% of all source detections, which consist of a large population of unresolved compact sources (primarily globular clusters but also ultra-compact dwarf galaxies) and a wide variety of extended galaxies from a cD galaxy to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The red sequence of Coma member galaxies has a color-magnitude relation with a constant slope and dispersion over 9 mag (-21 F814W < -13). The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in 2008 August. The images and catalogs described

  12. Deep Chandra Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud. II. Timing Analysis of X-Ray Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, JaeSub; Antoniou, Vallia; Zezas, Andreas; Drake, Jeremy J.; Plucinsky, Paul P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Haberl, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbach straße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sasaki, Manami [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Sternwartstrasse 7, 96049 Bamberg (Germany); Laycock, Silas, E-mail: jaesub@head.cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We report the timing analysis results of X-ray pulsars from a recent deep Chandra survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We analyzed a total exposure of 1.4 Ms from 31 observations over a 1.2 deg{sup 2} region in the SMC under a Chandra X-ray Visionary Program. Using the Lomb–Scargle and epoch-folding techniques, we detected periodic modulations from 20 pulsars and a new candidate pulsar. The survey also covered 11 other pulsars with no clear sign of periodic modulation. The 0.5–8 keV X-ray luminosity ( L {sub X} ) of the pulsars ranges from 10{sup 34} to 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1} at 60 kpc. All of the Chandra sources with L {sub X} ≳ 4 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1} exhibit X-ray pulsations. The X-ray spectra of the SMC pulsars (and high-mass X-ray binaries) are in general harder than those of the SMC field population. All but SXP 8.02 can be fitted by an absorbed power-law model with a photon index of Γ ≲ 1.5. The X-ray spectrum of the known magnetar SXP 8.02 is better fitted with a two-temperature blackbody model. Newly measured pulsation periods of SXP 51.0, SXP 214, and SXP 701, are significantly different from the previous XMM-Newton and RXTE measurements. This survey provides a rich data set for energy-dependent pulse profile modeling. Six pulsars show an almost eclipse-like dip in the pulse profile. Phase-resolved spectral analysis reveals diverse spectral variations during pulsation cycles: e.g., for an absorbed power-law model, some exhibit an (anti)-correlation between absorption and X-ray flux, while others show more intrinsic spectral variation (i.e., changes in photon indices).

  13. Civilians in World War II and DSM-IV mental disorders: results from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E; Betancourt, Theresa S; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G; Ten Have, Margreet; Kessler, Ronald C

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Adults (n = 3370) who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders.

  14. Civilians in World War II and DSM-IV mental disorders: Results from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E.; Betancourt, Theresa S.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G.; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G.; Have, Margreet ten; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Methods Adults (n= 3,370)who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Results Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders. (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Conclusions Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders. PMID:29119266

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: California-Kepler Survey (CKS). II. Properties (Johnson+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. A.; Petigura, E. A.; Fulton, B. J.; Marcy, G. W.; Howard, A. W.; Isaacson, H.; Hebb, L.; Cargile, P. A.; Morton, T. D.; Weiss, L. M.; Winn, J. N.; Rogers, L. A.; Sinukoff, E.; Hirsch, L. A.

    2017-11-01

    The California-Kepler Survey (CKS) project and goals are described in detail in Paper I (Petigura et al. 2017, Cat. J/AJ/154/107) of this series. In brief, between 2012 and 2015, we obtained high-resolution (R~50000) spectra of 1305 stars identified as Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) with Keck/HIRES. We used an exposure meter to achieve a uniform signal-to-noise ratio ~45 per HIRES pixel on blaze near 5500Å. Using these spectra, we derived effective temperature (Teff), surface gravity (logg), metallicity ([Fe/H]), and projected stellar rotation velocity (vsini). In this work, we convert the observed spectroscopic properties of Paper I (Petigura et al. 2017, Cat. J/AJ/154/107) into physical stellar and planetary properties. (2 data files).

  16. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume II. Inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, R.F. III; Sharma, R.K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 33 power plants located on inland waters other than the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  17. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume II. Inland waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, III, Richard F.; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 33 power plants located on inland waters other than the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  18. The California- Kepler Survey. II. Precise Physical Properties of 2025 Kepler Planets and Their Host Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, John Asher; Cargile, Phillip A.; Sinukoff, Evan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Petigura, Erik A.; Howard, Andrew W. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States); Fulton, Benjamin J.; Hirsch, Lea A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hebb, Leslie [Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States); Morton, Timothy D.; Winn, Joshua N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Weiss, Lauren M. [Institut de Recherche sur les Exoplanètes, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Rogers, Leslie A., E-mail: petigura@caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We present stellar and planetary properties for 1305 Kepler Objects of Interest hosting 2025 planet candidates observed as part of the California- Kepler Survey. We combine spectroscopic constraints, presented in Paper I, with stellar interior modeling to estimate stellar masses, radii, and ages. Stellar radii are typically constrained to 11%, compared to 40% when only photometric constraints are used. Stellar masses are constrained to 4%, and ages are constrained to 30%. We verify the integrity of the stellar parameters through comparisons with asteroseismic studies and Gaia parallaxes. We also recompute planetary radii for 2025 planet candidates. Because knowledge of planetary radii is often limited by uncertainties in stellar size, we improve the uncertainties in planet radii from typically 42% to 12%. We also leverage improved knowledge of stellar effective temperature to recompute incident stellar fluxes for the planets, now precise to 21%, compared to a factor of two when derived from photometry.

  19. A ROSAT survey of Wolf-Rayet galaxies - II. The extended sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ian R.; Strickland, David K.

    1998-11-01

    We present results from an ongoing X-ray survey of Wolf-Rayet (WR) galaxies, a class of objects believed to be very young starbursts. This paper extends the first X-ray survey of WR galaxies by Stevens & Strickland by studying WR galaxies identified subsequent to the original WR galaxy catalogue of Conti. Out of a sample of 40 new WR galaxies a total of 10 have been observed with the ROSAT PSPC, and of these seven have been detected (NGC 1365, NGC 1569, I Zw 18, NGC 3353, NGC 4449, NGC 5408 and a marginal detection of NGC 2366). Of these, all are dwarf starbursts except for NGC 1365, which is a barred spiral galaxy possibly with an active nucleus. We also report on observations of the related emission-line galaxy IRAS 0833+6517. The X-ray properties of these galaxies are broadly in line with those found for the original sample; they are X-ray overluminous compared with their blue luminosity and have thermal spectra with typically kT~0.4-1.0keV. There are some oddities: NGC 5408 is very overluminous in X-rays, even compared with other WR galaxies; I Zw 18 has a harder X-ray spectrum; NGC 1365, although thought to contain an active nucleus, has X-ray properties that are broadly similar to other WR galaxies, and we suggest that the X-ray emission from NGC 1365 is due to starburst activity. A good correlation between X-ray and blue luminosity is found for the WR galaxy sample as a whole. However, when just dwarf galaxies are considered there is little evidence of correlation. We discuss the implications of these results on our understanding of the X-ray emission from WR galaxies and suggest that the best explanation for the X-ray activity is starburst activity from a young starburst region.

  20. THE SWIFT AGN AND CLUSTER SURVEY. II. CLUSTER CONFIRMATION WITH SDSS DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bregman, Joel N., E-mail: Rhiannon.D.Griffin-1@ou.edu, E-mail: xdai@ou.edu, E-mail: ckochanek@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: jbregman@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We study 203 (of 442) Swift AGN and Cluster Survey extended X-ray sources located in the SDSS DR8 footprint to search for galaxy over-densities in three-dimensional space using SDSS galaxy photometric redshifts and positions near the Swift cluster candidates. We find 104 Swift clusters with a >3σ galaxy over-density. The remaining targets are potentially located at higher redshifts and require deeper optical follow-up observations for confirmation as galaxy clusters. We present a series of cluster properties including the redshift, brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) magnitude, BCG-to-X-ray center offset, optical richness, and X-ray luminosity. We also detect red sequences in ∼85% of the 104 confirmed clusters. The X-ray luminosity and optical richness for the SDSS confirmed Swift clusters are correlated and follow previously established relations. The distribution of the separations between the X-ray centroids and the most likely BCG is also consistent with expectation. We compare the observed redshift distribution of the sample with a theoretical model, and find that our sample is complete for z ≲ 0.3 and is still 80% complete up to z ≃ 0.4, consistent with the SDSS survey depth. These analysis results suggest that our Swift cluster selection algorithm has yielded a statistically well-defined cluster sample for further study of cluster evolution and cosmology. We also match our SDSS confirmed Swift clusters to existing cluster catalogs, and find 42, 23, and 1 matches in optical, X-ray, and Sunyaev–Zel’dovich catalogs, respectively, and so the majority of these clusters are new detections.

  1. The POINT-AGAPE survey II: An Unrestricted Search for Microlensing Events towards M31

    CERN Document Server

    Belokurov, V; Evans, N W; Hewett, P C; Baillon, Paul; Novati, S C; Carr, B J; Creze, M; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Gould, A; Jetzer, P; Kaplan, J; Kerins, E; Paulin-Henriksson, S; Smartt, S J; Stalin, C S; Tsapras, Y; Weston, M J; Jetzer, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    An automated search is carried out for microlensing events using a catalogue of 44554 variable superpixel lightcurves derived from our three-year monitoring program of M31. Each step of our candidate selection is objective and reproducible by a computer. Our search is unrestricted, in the sense that it has no explicit timescale cut. So, it must overcome the awkward problem of distinguishing long-timescale microlensing events from long-period stellar variables. The basis of the selection algorithm is the fitting of the superpixel lightcurves to two different theoretical models, using variable star and blended microlensing templates. Only if microlensing is preferred is an event retained as a possible candidate. Further cuts are made with regard to (i) sampling, (ii) goodness of fit of the peak to a Paczynski curve, (iii) consistency of the microlensing hypothesis with the absence of a resolved source, (iv) achromaticity, (v) position in the colour-magnitude diagram and (vi) signal-to-noise ratio. Our results a...

  2. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; Den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of a HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially-completed survey still covers approximately 50% of the core high density region in Coma. Observations were performed for twenty-five fields with a total coverage area of 274 aremin(sup 2), and extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (approximately 1.75 Mpe or 1 deg). The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the south-west region of the cluster. In this paper we present SEXTRACTOR source catalogs generated from the processed images, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for 76,000 objects that consist of roughly equal numbers of extended galaxies and unresolved objects. Approximately two-thirds of all detections are brighter than F814W=26.5 mag (AB), which corresponds to the 10sigma, point-source detection limit. We estimate that Coma members are 5-10% of the source detections, including a large population of compact objects (primarily GCs, but also cEs and UCDs), and a wide variety of extended galaxies from cD galaxies to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in August 2008. The images and catalogs described in this study relate to our second data release.

  3. The Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars survey: II. Instrumental effects of six ground-based observing campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altavilla, G.; Marinoni, S.; Pancino, E.; Galleti, S.; Ragaini, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Cocozza, G.; Bragaglia, A.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castro, A.; Di Fabrizio, L.; Federici, L.; Figueras, F.; Gebran, M.; Jordi, C.; Masana, E.; Schuster, W.; Valentini, G.; Voss, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia SpectroPhotometric Standard Stars (SPSS) survey started in 2006, was awarded almost 450 observing nights and accumulated almost 100 000 raw data frames with both photometric and spectroscopic observations. Such large observational effort requires careful, homogeneous, and automatic data reduction and quality control procedures. In this paper, we quantitatively evaluate instrumental effects that might have a significant (i.e., ≥ 1 %) impact on the Gaia SPSS flux calibration. The measurements involve six different instruments, monitored over the eight years of observations dedicated to the Gaia flux standards campaigns: DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, EFOSC2@NTT and ROSS@REM in La Silla, CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, and LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir. We examine and quantitatively evaluate the following effects: CCD linearity and shutter times, calibration frames stability, lamp flexures, second order contamination, light polarization, and fringing. We present methods to correct for the relevant effects which can be applied to a wide range of observational projects at similar instruments. Based on data obtained with BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, Italy; EFOSC2@NTT in La Silla, Chile; DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, Spain; CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, Spain; LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir, Mexico (see acknowledgements for more details).

  4. The HIX galaxy survey II: HI kinematics of HI eXtreme galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-02-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected HI content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these HI eXtreme (HIX) galaxies to be so HI-rich. We model the H I kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed HIX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model DARK SAGE. We find that (1) H I discs in HIX galaxies are more likely to be warped and more likely to host H I arms and tails than in the control galaxies, (2) the average H I and average stellar column density of HIX galaxies is comparable to the control sample, (3) HIX galaxies have higher H I and baryonic specific angular momenta than control galaxies, (4) most HIX galaxies live in higher-spin haloes than most control galaxies. These results suggest that HIX galaxies are H I-rich because they can support more H I against gravitational instability due to their high specific angular momentum. The majority of the HIX galaxies inherits their high specific angular momentum from their halo. The H I content of HIX galaxies might be further increased by gas-rich minor mergers. This paper is based on data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) through the large program C 2705.

  5. Far-infrared data for symbiotic stars. II. The IRAS survey observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, S.J.; Fernandez-Castro, T.; Stencel, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    IRAS survey data for all known symbiotic binaries are reported. S type systems have 25 micron excesses much larger than those of single red giant stars, suggesting that these objects lose mass more rapidly than do normal giants. D type objects have far-IR colors similar to those of Mira variables, implying mass-loss rate of about 10 to the -6th solar masses/yr. The near-IR extinctions of the D types indicate that their Mira components are enshrouded in optically thick dust shells, while their hot companions lie outside the shells. If this interpretation of the data is correct, then the very red near-IR colors of D type symbiotic stars are caused by extreme amounts of dust absorption rather than dust emission. The small group of D prime objects possesses far-IR colors resembling those of compact planetary nebulae or extreme OH/IR stars. It is speculated that these binaries are not symbiotic stars at all, but contain a hot compact star and an exasymptotic branch giant which is in the process of ejecting a planetary nebula shell. 42 references

  6. Distribution of angle kappa measurements with Orbscan II in a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; KhabazKhoob, Mehdi; Yazdani, Kamran; Mehravaran, Shiva; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2010-12-01

    To determine the mean angle kappa and its determinants in the population of Tehran, Iran. In a cross-sectional survey with random cluster sampling, a total of 442 participants aged >14 years were selected from 4 municipality districts of Tehran for Orbscan acquisitions. Exclusion criteria were history of eye surgery for refractive errors, cataract or glaucoma, and use of topical medication or any type of contact lens at the time of the study. Mean angle kappa in different age and gender groups and its association with other factors was assessed. Considering the high correlation between the right and left eyes, only results of the right eyes are presented. After applying exclusion criteria, 800 eyes (399 right eyes and 401 left eyes) were examined. Mean participant age was 40.6±16.8 years (range: 14 to 81 years), and 38.8% of eyes were from men. Mean angle kappa was 5.46±1.33° in total; 5.41±1.32° in men and 5.49±1.34° in women (P=.558). It decreased significantly with age; 0.015°/year (Pangle kappa reduces with age, and the inter-gender difference is not significant. Largest angle kappas were seen among individuals with emmetropia. Angle kappas were larger in the hypermetropic population compared to the myopic population. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASAR LENS SEARCH. II. STATISTICAL LENS SAMPLE FROM THETHIRD DATA RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, N; Oguri, M; Becker, R H; Shin, M; Richards, G T; Hennawi, J F; White, R L; Pindor, B; Strauss, M A; Kochanek, C S; Johnston, D E; Gregg, M D; Kayo, I; Eisenstein, D; Hall, P B; Castander, F J; Clocchiatti, A; Chiu, K; Kawano, Y; Scranton, R; Frieman, J; Keeton, C R; Morokuma, T; Rix, H; Turner, E L; Burless, S; Brunner, R J; Sheldon, E S; Bahcall, N A; Fukugita, M

    2007-09-13

    We report the first results of our systematic search for strongly lensed quasars using the spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Among 46,420 quasars from the SDSS Data Release 3 ({approx}4188 deg{sup 2}), we select a subsample of 22,683 quasars that are located at redshifts between 0.6 and 2.2 and are brighter than the Galactic extinction corrected i-band magnitude of 19.1. We identify 220 lens candidates from the quasar subsample, for which we conduct extensive and systematic follow-up observations in optical and near-infrared wavebands, in order to construct a complete lensed quasar sample at image separations between 1-inch and 20-inch and flux ratios of faint to bright lensed images larger than 10{sup -0.5}. We construct a statistical sample of 11 lensed quasars. Ten of these are galaxy-scale lenses with small image separations ({approx} 1-inch - 2-inch) and one is a large separation (15-inch) system which is produced by a massive cluster of galaxies, representing the first statistical sample of lensed quasars including both galaxy- and cluster-scale lenses. The Data Release 3 spectroscopic quasars contain an additional 11 lensed quasars outside the statistical sample.

  8. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  9. The H IX galaxy survey - II. H I kinematics of H I eXtreme galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-05-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected H I content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these H I eXtreme (H IX) galaxies to be so H I-rich. We model the H I kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed H IX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model DARK SAGE. We find that (1) H I discs in H IX galaxies are more likely to be warped and more likely to host H I arms and tails than in the control galaxies, (2) the average H I and average stellar column density of H IX galaxies is comparable to the control sample, (3) H IX galaxies have higher H I and baryonic specific angular momenta than control galaxies, (4) most H IX galaxies live in higher spin haloes than most control galaxies. These results suggest that H IX galaxies are H I-rich because they can support more H I against gravitational instability due to their high specific angular momentum. The majority of the H IX galaxies inherits their high specific angular momentum from their halo. The H I content of H IX galaxies might be further increased by gas-rich minor mergers. This paper is based on data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array through the large program C 2705.

  10. The Taurus Boundary of Stellar/Substellar (TBOSS) Survey. II. Disk Masses from ALMA Continuum Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Duong, K.; Patience, J.; Bulger, J.; van der Plas, G.; Ménard, F.; Pinte, C.; Jackson, A. P.; Bryden, G.; Turner, N. J.; Harvey, P.; Hales, A.; De Rosa, R. J.

    2018-02-01

    We report 885 μm ALMA continuum flux densities for 24 Taurus members spanning the stellar/substellar boundary with spectral types from M4 to M7.75. Of the 24 systems, 22 are detected at levels ranging from 1.0 to 55.7 mJy. The two nondetections are transition disks, though other transition disks in the sample are detected. Converting ALMA continuum measurements to masses using standard scaling laws and radiative transfer modeling yields dust mass estimates ranging from ∼0.3 to 20 M ⊕. The dust mass shows a declining trend with central object mass when combined with results from submillimeter surveys of more massive Taurus members. The substellar disks appear as part of a continuous sequence and not a distinct population. Compared to older Upper Sco members with similar masses across the substellar limit, the Taurus disks are brighter and more massive. Both Taurus and Upper Sco populations are consistent with an approximately linear relationship in M dust to M star, although derived power-law slopes depend strongly upon choices of stellar evolutionary model and dust temperature relation. The median disk around early-M stars in Taurus contains a comparable amount of mass in small solids as the average amount of heavy elements in Kepler planetary systems on short-period orbits around M-dwarf stars, with an order of magnitude spread in disk dust mass about the median value. Assuming a gas-to-dust ratio of 100:1, only a small number of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs have a total disk mass amenable to giant planet formation, consistent with the low frequency of giant planets orbiting M dwarfs.

  11. Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) II: Spectral Homogeneity Among Hungaria Family Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Michael P.; Emery, Joshua; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Lindsay, Sean S.; MacLennan, Eric M.; Cartwright, Richard; Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.; Thomas, Cristina A.; Lorenzi, Vania

    2017-10-01

    Spectral observations of asteroid family members provide valuable information regarding parent body interiors, the source regions of near-Earth asteroids, and the link between meteorites and their parent bodies. Hungaria family asteroids constitute the closest samples to the Earth from a collisional family (~1.94 AU), permitting observations of smaller fragments than accessible for Main Belt families. We have carried out a ground-based observational campaign - Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) - to record reflectance spectra of these preserved samples from the inner-most primordial asteroid belt. During HARTSS phase one (Lucas et al. [2017]. Icarus 291, 268-287) we found that ~80% of the background population is comprised of stony S-complex asteroids that exhibit considerable spectral and mineralogical diversity. In HARTSS phase two, we turn our attention to family members and hypothesize that the Hungaria collisional family is homogeneous. We test this hypothesis through taxonomic classification, albedo estimates, and spectral properties.During phase two of HARTSS we acquired near-infrared (NIR) spectra of 50 new Hungarias (19 family; 31 background) with SpeX/IRTF and NICS/TNG. We analyzed X-type family spectra for NIR color indices (0.85-J J-K), and a subtle ~0.9 µm absorption feature that may be attributed to Fe-poor orthopyroxene. Surviving fragments of an asteroid collisional family typically exhibit similar taxonomies, albedos, and spectral properties. Spectral analysis of X-type Hungaria family members and independently calculated WISE albedo determinations for 428 Hungaria asteroids is consistent with this scenario. Furthermore, ~1/4 of the background population exhibit similar spectral properties and albedos to family X-types.Spectral observations of 92 Hungaria region asteroids acquired during both phases of HARTSS uncover a compositionally heterogeneous background and spectral homogeneity down to ~2 km for collisional family

  12. CHROMOSPHERIC VARIABILITY IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY M DWARFS. II. SHORT-TIMESCALE Hα VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, E. A.; Berger, E.; Laskar, T.; Knapp, G. R.; Gunn, J. E.; Loomis, C. P.; Lupton, R. H.; Schlegel, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive study of short-timescale chromospheric Hα variability in M dwarfs using the individual 15 minute spectroscopic exposures for 52, 392 objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our sample contains about 10 3 -10 4 objects per spectral type bin in the range M0-M9, with a typical number of three exposures per object (ranging up to a maximum of 30 exposures). Using this extensive data set, we find that about 16% of the sources exhibit Hα emission in at least one exposure, and of those about 45% exhibit Hα emission in all of the available exposures. As in previous studies of Hα activity (L Hα /L bol ), we find a rapid increase in the fraction of active objects from M0-M6. However, we find a subsequent decline in later spectral types that we attribute to our use of the individual spectra. Similarly, we find saturated activity at a level of L Hα /L bol ∼ 10 -3.6 for spectral types M0-M5 followed by a decline to about 10 -4.3 in the range M7-M9. Within the sample of objects with Hα emission, only 26% are consistent with non-variable emission, independent of spectral type. The Hα variability, quantified in terms of the ratio of maximum to minimum Hα equivalent width (R EW ), exhibits a rapid rise from M0 to M5, followed by a plateau and a possible decline in M9 objects. In particular, variability with R EW ∼> 10 is only observed in objects later than M5, and survival analysis indicates a probability of ∼ EW values for M0-M4 and M5-M9 are drawn from the same distribution. We further find that for an exponential distribution, the R EW values follow N(R EW ) ∝ exp[ - (R EW - 1)/2.3] for M0-M4 and ∝exp[ - (R EW - 1)/2.9] for M5-M9. Finally, comparing objects with persistent and intermittent Hα emission, we find that the latter exhibit greater variability. Based on these results, we conclude that Hα variability in M dwarfs on timescales of 15 minutes to 1 hr increases with later spectral type, and that the variability is

  13. Young massive stars in the ISOGAL survey. II. The catalogue of bright YSO candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felli, M.; Testi, L.; Schuller, F.; Omont, A.

    2002-09-01

    The 7 and 15 mu m observations of selected fields in the Galactic Plane obtained with ISOCAM during the ISOGAL program offer a unique possibility to search for previously unknown YSOs, undetected by IRAS because of lower sensitivity or confusion problems. In a previous paper (Felli et al. \\cite{FCTOS00}) we established criteria of general validity to select YSOs from the much larger population of Post Main Sequence (Post-MS) stars present in the ISOGAL fields by comparing radio and IR observations of five fields located at l ~ +45deg. The selection was based primarily on the position of the point sources in the [15]-[7]-[15] diagram, which involves only ISOGAL data and allows to find possible YSOs using the survey data alone. In the present work we revise the adopted criteria by comparing radio-identified UC HII regions and ISOGAL observations over a much larger region. The main indications of the previous analysis are confirmed, but the criteria for selecting YSO candidates had to be revised to select only bright objects, in order to limit the contamination of the sample by Post-MS stars. The revised criteria ([15]le4 .5, [7]-[15]ge1 .8) are then used to extract YSO candidates from the ISOGAL Point Source Catalogue in preparation. We select a total of 715 YSO candidates, corresponding to ~ 2% of the sources with good detections at 7 and 15 mu m. The results are presented in a table form that provides an unique input list of small diameter, le 6 arcsec, Galactic YSO candidates. The global properties of the sample of YSO candidates are briefly discussed. This is paper No. 11 in a refereed journal based on data from the ISOGAL project. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA. Table 3 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http

  14. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca II K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Loyd, R. O. Parke; Brown, Alexander; Mason, James P.; Schneider, P. Christian; Tilley, Matt A.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Buccino, Andrea; Froning, Cynthia S.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Linsky, Jeffrey; Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Redfield, Seth; Kowalski, Adam; Miguel, Yamila; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Rugheimer, Sarah; Segura, Antígona; Roberge, Aki; Vieytes, Mariela

    2017-07-01

    Characterizing the UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of an exoplanet host star is critically important for assessing its planet’s potential habitability, particularly for M dwarfs, as they are prime targets for current and near-term exoplanet characterization efforts and atmospheric models predict that their UV radiation can produce photochemistry on habitable zone planets different from that on Earth. To derive ground-based proxies for UV emission for use when Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations are unavailable, we have assembled a sample of 15 early to mid-M dwarfs observed by HST and compared their nonsimultaneous UV and optical spectra. We find that the equivalent width of the chromospheric Ca II K line at 3933 Å, when corrected for spectral type, can be used to estimate the stellar surface flux in ultraviolet emission lines, including H I Lyα. In addition, we address another potential driver of habitability: energetic particle fluxes associated with flares. We present a new technique for estimating soft X-ray and >10 MeV proton flux during far-UV emission line flares (Si IV and He II) by assuming solar-like energy partitions. We analyze several flares from the M4 dwarf GJ 876 observed with HST and Chandra as part of the MUSCLES Treasury Survey and find that habitable zone planets orbiting GJ 876 are impacted by large Carrington-like flares with peak soft X-ray fluxes ≥10-3 W m-2 and possible proton fluxes ˜102-103 pfu, approximately four orders of magnitude more frequently than modern-day Earth.

  15. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca ii K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Loyd, R. O. Parke; Mason, James P. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 600 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Schneider, P. Christian [European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Tilley, Matt A. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Kowalski, Adam [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 2000 Colorado Ave., Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo J. D. [Dpto. de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (FCEN), Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Froning, Cynthia S. [Department of Astronomy/McDonald Observatory, C1400, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hawley, Suzanne L. [Astronomy Department, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Redfield, Seth [Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Miguel, Yamila [Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, Boulevard de l’Observatoire, CS 34229 F-06304 NICE Cedex 4 (France); Newton, Elisabeth R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rugheimer, Sarah, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of St. Andrews, Irvine Building, North Street, St. Andrews, KY16 9AL (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-07-01

    Characterizing the UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of an exoplanet host star is critically important for assessing its planet’s potential habitability, particularly for M dwarfs, as they are prime targets for current and near-term exoplanet characterization efforts and atmospheric models predict that their UV radiation can produce photochemistry on habitable zone planets different from that on Earth. To derive ground-based proxies for UV emission for use when Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) observations are unavailable, we have assembled a sample of 15 early to mid-M dwarfs observed by HST and compared their nonsimultaneous UV and optical spectra. We find that the equivalent width of the chromospheric Ca ii K line at 3933 Å, when corrected for spectral type, can be used to estimate the stellar surface flux in ultraviolet emission lines, including H i Ly α . In addition, we address another potential driver of habitability: energetic particle fluxes associated with flares. We present a new technique for estimating soft X-ray and >10 MeV proton flux during far-UV emission line flares (Si iv and He ii) by assuming solar-like energy partitions. We analyze several flares from the M4 dwarf GJ 876 observed with HST and Chandra as part of the MUSCLES Treasury Survey and find that habitable zone planets orbiting GJ 876 are impacted by large Carrington-like flares with peak soft X-ray fluxes ≥10{sup −3} W m{sup −2} and possible proton fluxes ∼10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} pfu, approximately four orders of magnitude more frequently than modern-day Earth.

  16. Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Rakhi

    2015-06-01

    Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is defined as the destruction of circulating red blood cells (RBCs) in the setting of anti-RBC autoantibodies that optimally react at 37°C. The pathophysiology of disease involves phagocytosis of autoantibody-coated RBCs in the spleen and complement-mediated hemolysis. Thus far, treatment is aimed at decreasing autoantibody production with immunosuppression or reducing phagocytosis of affected cells in the spleen. The role of complement inhibitors in warm AIHA has not been explored. This article addresses the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of warm AIHA and highlights the role of complement in disease pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Global Warming: A Myth?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 7. Global Warming: A Myth? - Credibility of Climate Scenarios Predicted by Systems Simulations. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 6 Issue 7 July 2001 pp 13-21 ...

  18. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  19. Global Warming: A Myth?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 6. Global Warming: A Myth? - Anomalous Temperature Trends Recorded from Satellites and Radiosondes. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 6 Issue 6 June 2001 pp 43-52 ...

  20. Media Pembelajaran Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Tham, Fikri Jufri; Liliana, Liliana; Purba, Kristo Radion

    2016-01-01

    Computer based learning media is one of the media has an important role in learning. Learning media will be attractive when packaged through interactive media , such as interactive media created in paper manufacture " instructional media global warming" . The advantage gained is that it can increase knowledge, generally educate people to be more concerned about the environment , and also can be a means of entertainment. This application is focused to learn about global warming and packaged in...

  1. Refrigeration and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Some aspects of global warming in general, and the implications for refrigerants and refrigerator efficiency in particular, are briefly considered in a question and answer format. The concepts of Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) are explained. GWP is an index which allows a simple comparison to be make between the warming effects of different gases on a kg to kg basis relative to carbon. The GWP depends both on the lifetime of a substance in the atmosphere and its infra-red absorption capacity. The overall warming effect of operating a refrigeration system for its entire life is measured by its TEWI. Chloroflourocarbons (CFCs) which have been widely used as refrigerants are powerful greenhouse gases with high GWPs. Because of the bank of CFCs in refrigerating systems, their levels in the atmosphere are still increasing and it will be some time before refrigerant changes will be effective in reducing the warming effects of refrigerant releases. Hydrocarbons, hydroflourocarbons and ammonia all have a part to play as substitute refrigerants. Refrigerator efficiency is very important in terms of reducing CO 2 emissions. (UK)

  2. Change in the height of Korean children and adolescents: analysis from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey II and V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Na Yung; Shin, Ha Young; Kim, Jae Hyun; Moon, Jin Soo; Lee, Chong Guk

    2015-09-01

    The mean adult height of Koreans has increased since nationwide anthropological measurements began in 1967. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in heights of Korean late adolescents and young adults within and between the Second and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES II and V). Koreans aged ≤22 years with available measurements of height were enrolled from the KNHANES surveys (KNHANES II: n=3,372 [1,732 males and 1,640 females]; KNHANES V: n=6,190 [3,198 males and 2,992 females]). Differences in the height of KNHANES respondents within and between surveys were evaluated according to age and sex. In KNHANES II, there was no significant difference in height between males aged 17-19 years and those aged 20-22 years (174.3±0.5 cm vs. 174.3±0.6 cm, P=0.995). Females aged 20-22 years were taller than those aged 17-19 years (159.8±0.4 cm vs. 161.0±0.4 cm, P=0.017). Females aged 17-19 years were significantly taller in KNHANES V than in KNHANES II (161.2±0.3 cm vs. 159.8±0.4 cm, P=0.004). Respondents aged 20-22 years were taller in KNHANES V than in KNHANES II, although not significantly so; the difference was 0.3±0.8 cm in males (P=0.721) and 0.5±0.6 cm in females (P=0.386). Koreans appear to continue growing even in their late adolescence and early twenties. Consequently, it may be necessary to expand the reference age ranges of the Korean growth chart. Additionally, a longitudinal growth survey is needed to determine growth patterns and secular trend in height among Koreans.

  3. The impacts and costs of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyre, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    There is now a scientific consensus that current rates of accumulation of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere will result in significant global warming and climate change. These changes are likely to have important impacts on a wide range of human activities and the natural environment. There has now been a considerable weight of literature published on the impacts of global warming, much of it very recent. This report seeks to summarise the important results, to analyse the uncertainties and to make a preliminary analysis of the feasibility of monetarising these environmental costs. The impacts of global warming are divided into ten major categories: agriculture, forests and forestry, terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, hydrology and water resources, sea level rise and coastal zones, energy, infrastructure/transport/industry, human health and air quality, oceans, and cryospheric impacts. The results of major summary reports are analysed, notably the report of Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (the IPCC). (author)

  4. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. The survey on structuring institutions for energy environment policies. Part 2. Collection of information about policies in major countries for prevention of global warming; 1999 nendo energy kankyo seisaku no seido kochiku ni kansuru chosa. 2. Kakkoku ondanka boshi seisaku johoshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The present survey is intended to collect and put in order the literatures and items of information related to: the current status and future directionality in the policies in advanced nations related to achieving the targets of the Kyoto Protocol, and trends of improving national institutions to respond to the Kyoto mechanisms, and the background of the conceptions thereof (including the conceptions on designing the international institutions). The survey gives considerations at the same time on possibilities of realization of the policies being implement and/or discussed. The report consists of two parts. Part 1 puts in order the trends until the most recent date in the summary of warming prevention policies in the major European and North American countries, placing the importance on the policies and measures that use economic methods (environment taxation system, national discharge quantity transaction, voluntary action plans and agreements). Part 2 (the present paper) introduces the contents of the major literatures and administrative materials in the policy trends in each nation, and puts in order the basic items of information that are considered useful for performing in the future the surveys related to the subject areas. (NEDO)

  5. Climate change lessons from a warm world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J.

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1970’s to early 1980’s Soviet climatologists were making comparisons to past intervals of warmth in the geologic record and suggesting that these intervals could be possible analogs for 21st century “greenhouse” conditions. Some saw regional warming as a benefit to the Soviet Union and made comments along the lines of “Set fire to the coal mines!” These sentiments were alarming to some, and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) leadership thought they could provide a more quantitative analysis of the data the Soviets were using for the most recent of these warm intervals, the Early Pliocene.

  6. Global warming on trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeker, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the warming will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would throw a wrench into the gears that drive the Unites States' troubled economy. During his three years at the White House, Sununu's view prevailed, and although his role in the debate has diminished, others continue to cast doubt on the reality of global warming. A new lobbying group called the Climate Council has been created to do just this. Burning fossil fuels is not the only problem; a fifth of emissions of carbon dioxide now come from clearing and burning forests. Scientists are also tracking a host of other greenhouse gases that emanate from a variety of human activities; the warming effect of methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide combined equals that of carbon dioxide. Although the current warming from these gases may be difficult to detect against the background noise of natural climate variation, most climatologists are certain that as the gases continue to accumulate, increases in the earth's temperature will become evident even to skeptics. If the reality of global warming were put on trial, each side would have trouble making its case. Jim Hansen's side could not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have warmed the planet. But neither could John Sununu's side prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the warming expected from greenhouse gases has not occurred. To see why each side would have difficulty proving its case, this article reviews the arguments that might be presented in such a hearing

  7. Long range global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth's steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth's temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic

  8. A Measurement of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter; /Notre Dame U.; Goobar, Ariel; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Hopp, Ulrich; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ. /Tokyo U.

    2010-03-01

    We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z {le} 0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 {le} z {le} 0.3. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of (0.37{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.17+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.55{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.13+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} (SNux = 10{sup -12}L{sub x{circle_dot}}{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be (0.31{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.18+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.49{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.15+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be (2.04{sub -1.11-0.04}{sup +1.99+0.07}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.36{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.84+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The ratio of the SN Ia rate in cluster early-type galaxies to that of the SN Ia rate in field early-type galaxies is 1.94{sub -0.91-0.015}{sup +1.31+0.043} and 3.02{sub -1.03-0.048}{sup +1.31+0.062}, for C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift, which probes the late time SN Ia delay distribution, shows only weak dependence on redshift. Combining our current measurements with previous measurements, we fit the cluster SN Ia rate data to a linear function of redshift, and find r{sub L} = [(0.49{sub -0.14}{sup +0.15}) + (0.91{sub -0.81}{sup +0.85}) x z] SNuB h{sup 2}. A comparison of the radial distribution of SNe in cluster to field early-type galaxies shows possible evidence for an enhancement of the SN rate in the cores of cluster early-type galaxies. With an observation of at most 3 hostless, intra-cluster SNe Ia, we estimate the fraction of cluster SNe that are

  9. Objectives and methodology of Romanian SEPHAR II Survey. Project for comparing the prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors in two East-European countries: Romania and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorobantu, Maria; Tautu, Oana-Florentina; Darabont, Roxana; Ghiorghe, Silviu; Badila, Elisabeta; Dana, Minca; Dobreanu, Minodora; Baila, Ilarie; Rutkowski, Marcin; Zdrojewski, Tomasz

    2015-08-12

    Comparing results of representative surveys conducted in different East-European countries could contribute to a better understanding and management of cardiovascular risk factors, offering grounds for the development of health policies addressing the special needs of this high cardiovascular risk region of Europe. The aim of this paper was to describe the methodology on which the comparison between the Romanian survey SEPHAR II and the Polish survey NATPOL 2011 results is based. SEPHAR II, like NATPOL 2011, is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a representative sample of the adult Romanian population (18 to 80 years) and encompasses two visits with the following components: completing the study questionnaire, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and collection of blood and urine samples. From a total of 2223 subjects found at 2860 visited addresses, 2044 subjects gave written consent but only 1975 subjects had eligible data for the analysis, accounting for a response rate of 69.06%. Additionally we excluded 11 subjects who were 80 years of age (NATPOL 2011 included adult subjects up to 79 years). Therefore, the sample size included in the statistical analysis is 1964. It has similar age groups and gender structure as the Romanian population aged 18-79 years from the last census available at the moment of conducting the survey (weight adjustments for epidemiological analyses range from 0.48 to 8.7). Sharing many similarities, the results of SEPHAR II and NATPOL 2011 surveys can be compared by a proper statistical method offering crucial information regarding cardiovascular risk factors in a high-cardiovascular risk European region.

  10. THE MUSCLES TREASURY SURVEY. II. INTRINSIC LY α AND EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA OF K AND M DWARFS WITH EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Loyd, R. O. Parke [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 600 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Redfield, Seth [Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459-0123 (United States); Schneider, P. Christian [European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Wood, Brian E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Froning, Cynthia [Dept. of Astronomy C1400, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Miguel, Yamila [Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, CNRS, Blvd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice cedex 4 (France); Rugheimer, Sarah [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Irvine Building, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9AL (United Kingdom); Walkowicz, Lucianne, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu [The Adler Planetarium, 1300 S Lakeshore Dr, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States)

    2016-06-20

    The ultraviolet (UV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of low-mass (K- and M-type) stars play a critical role in the heating and chemistry of exoplanet atmospheres, but are not observationally well-constrained. Direct observations of the intrinsic flux of the Ly α line (the dominant source of UV photons from low-mass stars) are challenging, as interstellar H i absorbs the entire line core for even the closest stars. To address the existing gap in empirical constraints on the UV flux of K and M dwarfs, the MUSCLES Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Survey has obtained UV observations of 11 nearby M and K dwarfs hosting exoplanets. This paper presents the Ly α and extreme-UV spectral reconstructions for the MUSCLES targets. Most targets are optically inactive, but all exhibit significant UV activity. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique to correct the observed Ly α profiles for interstellar absorption, and we employ empirical relations to compute the extreme-UV SED from the intrinsic Ly α flux in ∼100 Å bins from 100–1170 Å. The reconstructed Ly α profiles have 300 km s{sup −1} broad cores, while >1% of the total intrinsic Ly α flux is measured in extended wings between 300 and 1200 km s{sup −1}. The Ly α surface flux positively correlates with the Mg ii surface flux and negatively correlates with the stellar rotation period. Stars with larger Ly α surface flux also tend to have larger surface flux in ions formed at higher temperatures, but these correlations remain statistically insignificant in our sample of 11 stars. We also present H i column density measurements for 10 new sightlines through the local interstellar medium.

  11. ENSO and greenhouse warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenju; Santoso, Agus; Wang, Guojian; Yeh, Sang-Wook; An, Soon-Il; Cobb, Kim M.; Collins, Mat; Guilyardi, Eric; Jin, Fei-Fei; Kug, Jong-Seong; Lengaigne, Matthieu; McPhaden, Michael J.; Takahashi, Ken; Timmermann, Axel; Vecchi, Gabriel; Watanabe, Masahiro; Wu, Lixin

    2015-09-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant climate phenomenon affecting extreme weather conditions worldwide. Its response to greenhouse warming has challenged scientists for decades, despite model agreement on projected changes in mean state. Recent studies have provided new insights into the elusive links between changes in ENSO and in the mean state of the Pacific climate. The projected slow-down in Walker circulation is expected to weaken equatorial Pacific Ocean currents, boosting the occurrences of eastward-propagating warm surface anomalies that characterize observed extreme El Niño events. Accelerated equatorial Pacific warming, particularly in the east, is expected to induce extreme rainfall in the eastern equatorial Pacific and extreme equatorward swings of the Pacific convergence zones, both of which are features of extreme El Niño. The frequency of extreme La Niña is also expected to increase in response to more extreme El Niños, an accelerated maritime continent warming and surface-intensified ocean warming. ENSO-related catastrophic weather events are thus likely to occur more frequently with unabated greenhouse-gas emissions. But model biases and recent observed strengthening of the Walker circulation highlight the need for further testing as new models, observations and insights become available.

  12. Phase I Cultural Resources Survey and Archeological Inventory of the Proposed Carrollton Revetment Project, Orleans Parish, Louisiana. Volume II of II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    REVETMENT PROJECT, ORLEANS PARISH, LOUISIANA VOLUME II of II FINAL REPORT NOVEMBER 2004 PREPARED FOR: U.S. ARMY CoRPs OF ENGINEERS NEW ORLEANS DISTRICT P.O...situated on the batture side of the Broadway to Walnut New Levee, approximately 240 m (787.4 ft) south of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans... terracotta , drainage pipe, and yellowware), 22 misc. metal items (Masterlock keys [1924 to present], wire nails, watchband, and wire pail), 78 glass shards

  13. The global warming problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this chapter, a discussion is presented of the global warming problem and activities contributing to the formation of acid rain, urban smog and to the depletion of the ozone layer. Globally, about two-thirds of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions arise from fossil-fuel burning; the rest arise primarily from deforestation. Chlorofluorocarbons are the second largest contributor to global warming, accounting for about 20% of the total. The third largest contributor is methane, followed by ozone and nitrous oxide. A study of current activities in the US that contribute to global warming shows the following: electric power plants account for about 33% of carbon dioxide emissions; motor vehicles, planes and ships (31%); industrial plants (24%); commercial and residential buildings (11%)

  14. Measurements of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae at Redshift z < ~0.3 from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Smith, Mathew; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /Portsmouth U.; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; /UC, Berkeley; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.

    2010-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The adopted sample of supernovae (SNe) includes 516 SNe Ia at redshift z {approx}< 0.3, of which 270 (52%) are spectroscopically identified as SNe Ia. The remaining 246 SNe Ia were identified through their light curves; 113 of these objects have spectroscopic redshifts from spectra of their host galaxy, and 133 have photometric redshifts estimated from the SN light curves. Based on consideration of 87 spectroscopically confirmed non-Ia SNe discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey, we estimate that 2.04{sub -0.95}{sup +1.61}% of the photometric SNe Ia may be misidentified. The sample of SNe Ia used in this measurement represents an order of magnitude increase in the statistics for SN Ia rate measurements in the redshift range covered by the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. If we assume a SN Ia rate that is constant at low redshift (z < 0.15), then the SN observations can be used to infer a value of the SN rate of r{sub V} = (2.69{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.34+0.21}) x 10{sup -5} SNe yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} (H{sub 0}/(70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1})){sup 3} at a mean redshift of {approx} 0.12, based on 79 SNe Ia of which 72 are spectroscopically confirmed. However, the large sample of SNe Ia included in this study allows us to place constraints on the redshift dependence of the SN Ia rate based on the SDSS-II Supernova Survey data alone. Fitting a power-law model of the SN rate evolution, r{sub V} (z) = A{sub p} x ((1+z)/(1+z{sub 0})){sup {nu}}, over the redshift range 0.0 < z < 0.3 with z{sub 0} = 0.21, results in A{sub p} = (3.43{sub -0.15}{sup +0.15}) x 10{sup -5} SNe yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} (H{sub 0}/(70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1})){sup 3} and {nu} = 2.04{sub -0.89}{sup +0.90}.

  15. Paralyzed warming world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ač, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2010), s. 81-86 ISSN 1876-8156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : global warming * climate Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://ojs.ubvu.vu.nl/alf/article/view/134/250

  16. Global Warming: A Myth?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On replacing rela-tive humidity cloud scheme with water clouds in the models, global annual average surface temperature comes down from 5.2 OK to 2.7 OK. If cloud radiative properties are allowed to depend on the cloud water content, warming is further reduced to 1.9 OK [7]. (iii) Cloud Radiative Forcing: Clouds reflect a ...

  17. The global warming scare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunavala, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    It is argued that the present propaganda about the global warming with its disastrous consequences is a scare spread by some First World countries, especially the United States, to prevent the rapid industrialization of developing third world countries. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  18. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. II. Spectroscopic redshifts and comparisons to color selections of high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, H.; Bacon, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Richard, J.; Contini, T.; Conseil, S.; Hamer, S.; Akhlaghi, M.; Bouché, N.; Clément, B.; Desprez, G.; Drake, A. B.; Hashimoto, T.; Leclercq, F.; Maseda, M.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Paalvast, M.; Tresse, L.; Ventou, E.; Kollatschny, W.; Boogaard, L. A.; Finley, H.; Marino, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Wisotzki, L.

    2017-11-01

    We have conducted a two-layered spectroscopic survey (1' × 1' ultra deep and 3' × 3' deep regions) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE). The combination of a large field of view, high sensitivity, and wide wavelength coverage provides an order of magnitude improvement in spectroscopically confirmed redshifts in the HUDF; i.e., 1206 secure spectroscopic redshifts for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) continuum selected objects, which corresponds to 15% of the total (7904). The redshift distribution extends well beyond z> 3 and to HST/F775W magnitudes as faint as ≈ 30 mag (AB, 1σ). In addition, 132 secure redshifts were obtained for sources with no HST counterparts that were discovered in the MUSE data cubes by a blind search for emission-line features. In total, we present 1338 high quality redshifts, which is a factor of eight increase compared with the previously known spectroscopic redshifts in the same field. We assessed redshifts mainly with the spectral features [O II] at z< 1.5 (473 objects) and Lyα at 2.9

  19. Cardiovascular prevention guidelines in daily practice: a comparison of EUROASPIRE I, II, and III surveys in eight European countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kotseva, Kornelia

    2009-03-14

    The first and second EUROASPIRE surveys showed high rates of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease. The third EUROASPIRE survey was done in 2006-07 in 22 countries to see whether preventive cardiology had improved and if the Joint European Societies\\' recommendations on cardiovascular disease prevention are being followed in clinical practice.

  20. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic detail survey, Lost Creek, Washington area. Volume II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    Maps and the data from the aerial surveys are included in this report. The purposes of the surveys were to acquire and compile geologic and other information in order to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the USA

  1. Slowing global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavin, C.

    1990-01-01

    According to the authors, global warming promises to be one of the central environmental issues of the nineties. After a decade of scientific concern but popular neglect, the eighties ended with a growing political as well as scientific consensus that the world can no longer afford to procrastinate about this issue. This paper reports on coping with global warming which, according to the author, will force societies to move rapidly into uncharted terrain, reversing powerful trends that have dominated the industrial age. This challenge cannot be met without a strong commitment on the part of both individual consumers and governments. In terms of the earth's carbon balance, the unprecedented policy changes that have now become urgent include a new commitment to greater energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, a carbon tax on fossil fuels, a reversal of deforestation in tropical countries, and the rapid elimination of CFCs

  2. Thinking About Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.

    2006-01-01

    Attitudes toward global warming are influenced by various heuristics, which may distort policy away from what is optimal for the well-being of people. These possible distortions, or biases, include: a focus on harms that we cause, as opposed to those that we can remedy more easily; a feeling that those who cause a problem should fix it; a desire to undo a problem rather than compensate for its presence; parochial concern with one's own group (nation); and neglect of risks that are not available. Although most of these biases tend to make us attend relatively too much to global warming, other biases, such as wishful thinking, cause us to attend too little. I discuss these possible effects and illustrate some of them with an experiment conducted on the World Wide Web

  3. Climate change - global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciconkov, Risto

    2001-01-01

    An explanation about climate, weather, climate changes. What is a greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming and reasons which contribute to this effect. Greenhouse gases (GHG) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) as a factor for estimating their influence on the greenhouse effect. Indicators of the climate changes in the previous period by known international institutions, higher concentrations of global average temperature. Projecting of likely scenarios for the future climate changes and consequences of them on the environment and human activities: industry, energy, agriculture, water resources. The main points of the Kyoto Protocol and problems in its realization. The need of preparing a country strategy concerning the acts of the Kyoto Protocol, suggestions which could contribute in the preparation of the strategy. A special attention is pointed to the energy, its resources, the structure of energy consumption and the energy efficiency. (Author)

  4. Reconstructing warm inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ramón

    2018-03-01

    The reconstruction of a warm inflationary universe model from the scalar spectral index n_S(N) and the tensor to scalar ratio r( N) as a function of the number of e-folds N is studied. Under a general formalism we find the effective potential and the dissipative coefficient in terms of the cosmological parameters n_S and r considering the weak and strong dissipative stages under the slow roll approximation. As a specific example, we study the attractors for the index n_S given by nS-1∝ N^{-1} and for the ratio r∝ N^{-2}, in order to reconstruct the model of warm inflation. Here, expressions for the effective potential V(φ ) and the dissipation coefficient Γ (φ ) are obtained.

  5. Global Warming: A Myth?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IPCC 2nd Assessment, the range of projected global mean warm- ing by 2100 is set at 1-3.5 °C [2]. Another estimate says that, if the present trend of greenhouse gases continue, atmosphere may, on an average, get warmer by 0.7-2°C by the year 2030 and more thereafter [3]. Predictions on global mean surface tem-.

  6. EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Basanti Jain

    2017-01-01

    The abnormal increase in the concentration of the greenhouse gases is resulting in higher temperatures. We call this effect is global warming. The average temperature around the world has increased about 1'c over 140 years, 75% of this has risen just over the past 30 years. The solar radiation, as it reaches the earth, produces "greenhouse effect" in the atmosphere. The thick atmospheric layers over the earth behaves as a glass surface, as it permits short wave radiations from coming in, but ...

  7. The Exoplanet Mass-Ratio Function From the MOA-II Survey: Discovery of a Break and Likely Peak at a Neptune Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, D.; Bennett, D. P.; Sumi, T.; Bond, I. A.; Rogers, L. A.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of the statistical analysis of planetary signals discovered in MOA-II microlensing survey alert system events from 2007 to 2012. We determine the survey sensitivity as a function of planet star mass ratio, q, and projected planet star separation, s, in Einstein radius units. We find that the mass-ratio function is not a single power law, but has a change in slope at q approx.10(exp -4), corresponding to approx. 20 Stellar Mass for the median host-star mass of approx. 0.6 M. We find significant planetary signals in 23 of the 1474 alert events that are well-characterized by the MOA-II survey data alone. Data from other groups are used only to characterize planetary signals that have been identified in the MOA data alone. The distribution of mass ratios and separations of the planets found in our sample are well fit by a broken power-law model. We also combine this analysis with the previous analyses of Gould et al. and Cassan et al., bringing the total sample to 30 planets. The unbroken power-law model is disfavored with a p-value of 0.0022, which corresponds to a Bayes factor of 27 favoring the broken power-law model. These results imply that cold Neptunes are likely to be the most common type of planets beyond the snow line.

  8. First Results from the Herschel and ALMA Spectroscopic Surveys of the SMC: The Relationship between [C II]-bright Gas and CO-bright Gas at Low Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Katherine E.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Wolfire, Mark; Warren, Steven R.; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Croxall, Kevin; Pellegrini, Eric; Smith, John-David; Rubio, Monica; Indebetouw, Remy; Israel, Frank P.; Meixner, Margaret; Roman-Duval, Julia; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Muller, Erik; Verdugo, Celia; Zinnecker, Hans; Okada, Yoko

    2018-02-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) provides the only laboratory to study the structure of molecular gas at high resolution and low metallicity. We present results from the Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of the SMC (HS3), which mapped the key far-IR cooling lines [C II], [O I], [N II], and [O III] in five star-forming regions, and new ALMA 7 m array maps of {}12{CO} and {}13{CO} (2-1) with coverage overlapping four of the five HS3 regions. We detect [C II] and [O I] throughout all of the regions mapped. The data allow us to compare the structure of the molecular clouds and surrounding photodissociation regions using {}13{CO}, {}12{CO}, [C II], and [O I] emission at ≲ 10\\prime\\prime (value at high {A}V in the centers of the clouds and fall to ∼ 1/5{--}1/10× the Milky Way value in the outskirts, indicating the presence of translucent molecular gas not traced by bright {}12{CO} emission. We estimate the amount of molecular gas traced by bright [C II] emission at low {A}V and bright {}12{CO} emission at high {A}V. We find that most of the molecular gas is at low {A}V and traced by bright [C II] emission, but that faint {}12{CO} emission appears to extend to where we estimate that the {{{H}}}2-to-H I transition occurs. By converting our {{{H}}}2 gas estimates to a CO-to-{{{H}}}2 conversion factor (X CO), we show that X CO is primarily a function of {A}V, consistent with simulations and models of low-metallicity molecular clouds. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  9. The Associated Absorption Features in Quasar Spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. Mg II Absorption Doublets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Huang, Wei-Rong; Pang, Ting-Ting; Huang, Hong-Yan; Pan, Da-Sheng; Yao, Min; Nong, Wei-Jing; Lu, Mei-Mei

    2018-03-01

    Using the SDSS spectra of quasars included in the DR7Q or DR12Q catalogs, we search for Mg II λλ2796, 2803 narrow absorption doublets in the spectra data around Mg II λ2798 emission lines. We obtain 17,316 Mg II doublets, within the redshift range of 0.3299 ≤ z abs ≤ 2.5663. We find that a velocity offset of υ r 6000 km s‑1. If associated Mg II absorbers are defined by υ r present at least one associated Mg II system with {W}{{r}}λ 2796≥slant 0.2 \\mathringA . The fraction of associated Mg II systems with high-velocity outflows correlates with the average luminosities of their central quasars, indicating a relationship between outflows and the quasar feedback power. The υ r distribution of the outflow Mg II absorbers is peaked at 1023 km s‑1, which is smaller than the corresponding value of the outflow C IV absorbers. The redshift number density evolution of absorbers (dn/dz) limited by υ r > ‑3000 km s‑1 differs from that of absorbers constrained by υ r > 2000 km s‑1. Absorbers limited by υ r > 2000 km s‑1 and higher values exhibit profiles similar to dn/dz. In addition, the dn/dz is smaller when absorbers are constrained with larger υ r . The distributions of equivalent widths, and the ratio of {W}rλ 2796/{W}rλ 2803, are the same for associated and intervening systems, and independent of quasar luminosity.

  10. THE SECOND SURVEY OF THE MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD BY NANTEN. II. STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Akiko; Mizuno, Yoji; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Onishi, Toshikazu; Fukui, Yasuo; Fillipovic, Miroslav D.; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Kim, Sungeun; Mizuno, Akira

    2009-01-01

    We studied star formation activities in the molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We have utilized the second catalog of 272 molecular clouds obtained by NANTEN to compare the cloud distribution with signatures of massive star formation including stellar clusters, and optical and radio H II regions. We find that the molecular clouds are classified into three types according to the activities of massive star formation: Type I shows no signature of massive star formation; Type II is associated with relatively small H II region(s); and Type III with both H II region(s) and young stellar cluster(s). The radio continuum sources were used to confirm that Type I giant molecular clouds (GMCs) do not host optically hidden H II regions. These signatures of massive star formation show a good spatial correlation with the molecular clouds in the sense that they are located within ∼100 pc of the molecular clouds. Among possible ideas to explain the GMC types, we favor that the types indicate an evolutionary sequence; i.e., the youngest phase is Type I, followed by Type II, and the last phase is Type III, where the most active star formation takes place leading to cloud dispersal. The number of the three types of GMCs should be proportional to the timescale of each evolutionary stage if a steady state of massive star and cluster formation is a good approximation. By adopting the timescale of the youngest stellar clusters, 10 Myr, we roughly estimate the timescales of Types I, II, and III to be 6 Myr, 13 Myr, and 7 Myr, respectively, corresponding to a lifetime of 20-30 Myr for the GMCs with a mass above the completeness limit, 5 x 10 4 M sun .

  11. An Impurity Emission Survey in the near UV and Visible Spectral Ranges of Electron Cyclotron Heated (ECH) Plasma in the TJ-II Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.

    2001-01-01

    We report on a near-ultraviolet and visible spectroscopic survey (220-600 nm) of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heated plasmas created in the TJ-II stellarator, with central electron temperatures up to 2 keV and central electron densities up to 1.7 x 10 ''19 m''-3. Approximately 1200 lines from thirteen elements have been identified. The purpose of the work is to identify the principal impurities and spectral lines present in TJ-II plasmas, as well as their possible origin to search for transitions from highly ionised ions. This work will act as a base for identifying suitable transitions for following the evolution of impurities under different operating regimens and multiplet systems for line polarisation studies. It is intended to use the database creates as a spectral line reference for comparing spectra under different operating and plasma heating regimes. (Author)

  12. An Impurity Emission Survey in the near UV and Visible Spectral Ranges of Electron Cyclotron Heated (ECH) Plasma in the TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.

    2001-07-01

    We report on a near-ultraviolet and visible spectroscopic survey (220-600 nm) of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heated plasmas created in the TJ-II stellarator, with central electron temperatures up to 2 keV and central electron densities up to 1.7 x 10 ''19 m''-3. Approximately 1200 lines from thirteen elements have been identified. The purpose of the work is to identify the principal impurities and spectral lines present in TJ-II plasmas, as well as their possible origin to search for transitions from highly ionised ions. This work will act as a base for identifying suitable transitions for following the evolution of impurities under different operating regimens and multiplet systems for line polarisation studies. It is intended to use the database creates as a spectral line reference for comparing spectra under different operating and plasma heating regimes. (Author)

  13. OBSERVATIONS OF Mg II ABSORPTION NEAR z ∼ 1 GALAXIES SELECTED FROM THE DEEP2 REDSHIFT SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovegrove, Elizabeth; Simcoe, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    We study the frequency of Mg II absorption in the outer halos of galaxies at z = 0.6-1.4 (with median z = 0.87), using new spectra obtained of 10 background quasars with galaxy impact parameters of b r = 0.15-1.0 A, though not all absorbers correlate with DEEP galaxies. We find five unique absorbers within Δv = 500 km s -1 and b r > 1.0 A, consistent with other samples of galaxy-selected Mg II systems. We speculate that Mg II systems with 0.3 r r are more likely to reflect the more recent star-forming history of their associated galaxies.

  14. Gemini NIFS survey of feeding and feedback processes in nearby active galaxies - II. The sample and surface mass density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Riffel, R.; Davies, R.; Bianchin, M.; Diniz, M. R.; Schönell, A. J.; Burtscher, L.; Crenshaw, M.; Fischer, T. C.; Dahmer-Hahn, L. G.; Dametto, N. Z.; Rosario, D.

    2018-02-01

    We present and characterize a sample of 20 nearby Seyfert galaxies selected for having BAT 14-195 keV luminosities LX ≥ 1041.5 erg s-1, redshift z ≤ 0.015, being accessible for observations with the Gemini Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) and showing extended [O III]λ5007 emission. Our goal is to study Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) feeding and feedback processes from near-infrared integral-field spectra, which include both ionized (H II) and hot molecular (H2) emission. This sample is complemented by other nine Seyfert galaxies previously observed with NIFS. We show that the host galaxy properties (absolute magnitudes MB, MH, central stellar velocity dispersion and axial ratio) show a similar distribution to those of the 69 BAT AGN. For the 20 galaxies already observed, we present surface mass density (Σ) profiles for H II and H2 in their inner ˜500 pc, showing that H II emission presents a steeper radial gradient than H2. This can be attributed to the different excitation mechanisms: ionization by AGN radiation for H II and heating by X-rays for H2. The mean surface mass densities are in the range (0.2 ≤ ΣH II ≤ 35.9) M⊙ pc-2, and (0.2 ≤ ΣH2 ≤ 13.9)× 10-3 M⊙ pc-2, while the ratios between the H II and H2 masses range between ˜200 and 8000. The sample presented here will be used in future papers to map AGN gas excitation and kinematics, providing a census of the mass inflow and outflow rates and power as well as their relation with the AGN luminosity.

  15. Getting to the Source: a Survey of Quantitative Data Sources Available to the Everyday Librarian: Part II: Data Sources from Specific Library Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Goddard

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a two-part article that provides a survey of data sources which are likely to be immediately available to the typical practitioner who wishes to engage in statistical analysis of collections and services within his or her own library. Part I outlines the data elements which can be extracted from web server logs, and discusses web log analysis tools. Part II looks at logs, reports, and data sources from proxy servers, resource vendors, link resolvers, federated search engines, institutional repositories, electronic reference services, and the integrated library system.

  16. High-velocity streams in the Milky Way halo with the SDSS and GSC-II kinematic survey

    OpenAIRE

    Spagna A.; Smart R.L.; Lattanzi M.G.; Re Fiorentin P.; Beers T.C.; Curir A.

    2012-01-01

    We explore the stellar halo of the Milky Way to search for fossil signatures of past mergers, consisting of streams of particles torn from their progenitors during the process of hierarchical merging. We examine a representative sample of about 2 700 halo subdwarfs in the solar neighborhood, selected from a new kinematic survey produced by means of spectrophotometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and high-quality proper motions derived from multi-epoch positions using the Guide Star...

  17. Microclimate moderates plant responses to macroclimate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Frenne, Pieter; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Francisco; Coomes, David Anthony; Baeten, Lander; Verstraeten, Gorik; Vellend, Mark; Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus; Brown, Carissa D; Brunet, Jörg; Cornelis, Johnny; Decocq, Guillaume M; Dierschke, Hartmut; Eriksson, Ove; Gilliam, Frank S; Hédl, Radim; Heinken, Thilo; Hermy, Martin; Hommel, Patrick; Jenkins, Michael A; Kelly, Daniel L; Kirby, Keith J; Mitchell, Fraser J G; Naaf, Tobias; Newman, Miles; Peterken, George; Petrík, Petr; Schultz, Jan; Sonnier, Grégory; Van Calster, Hans; Waller, Donald M; Walther, Gian-Reto; White, Peter S; Woods, Kerry D; Wulf, Monika; Graae, Bente Jessen; Verheyen, Kris

    2013-11-12

    Recent global warming is acting across marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems to favor species adapted to warmer conditions and/or reduce the abundance of cold-adapted organisms (i.e., "thermophilization" of communities). Lack of community responses to increased temperature, however, has also been reported for several taxa and regions, suggesting that "climatic lags" may be frequent. Here we show that microclimatic effects brought about by forest canopy closure can buffer biotic responses to macroclimate warming, thus explaining an apparent climatic lag. Using data from 1,409 vegetation plots in European and North American temperate forests, each surveyed at least twice over an interval of 12-67 y, we document significant thermophilization of ground-layer plant communities. These changes reflect concurrent declines in species adapted to cooler conditions and increases in species adapted to warmer conditions. However, thermophilization, particularly the increase of warm-adapted species, is attenuated in forests whose canopies have become denser, probably reflecting cooler growing-season ground temperatures via increased shading. As standing stocks of trees have increased in many temperate forests in recent decades, local microclimatic effects may commonly be moderating the impacts of macroclimate warming on forest understories. Conversely, increases in harvesting woody biomass--e.g., for bioenergy--may open forest canopies and accelerate thermophilization of temperate forest biodiversity.

  18. Cloudy Skies: Assessing Public Understanding of Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Sterman, John; Booth Sweeney, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Surveys show most Americans believe global warming is real. But many advocate delaying action until there is more evidence that warming is harmful. The stock and flow structure of the climate, however, means "wait and see" policies guarantee further warming. Atmospheric CO 2 concentration is now higher than any time in the last 420,000 years, and growing faster than any time in the past 20,000 years. The high concentration of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) generates significant radiat...

  19. The LAMOST survey of background quasars in the vicinity of the Andromeda and Triangulum galaxies. II. Results from the commissioning observations and the pilot surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huo, Zhi-Ying; Bai, Zhong-Rui; Chen, Jian-Jun; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Du, Bing; Jia, Lei; Lei, Ya-Juan [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Xiao-Wei; Yuan, Hai-Bo [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Huang, Yang; Zhang, Hui-Hua [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yan, Lin [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chu, Jia-Ru; Chu, Yao-Quan; Hu, Hong-Zhuan [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Cui, Xiang-Qun; Hou, Yong-Hui; Hu, Zhong-Wen; Jiang, Fang-Hua, E-mail: zhiyinghuo@bao.ac.cn [Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210042 (China); and others

    2013-06-01

    We present new quasars discovered in the vicinity of the Andromeda and Triangulum galaxies with the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope, also named the Guoshoujing Telescope, during the 2010 and 2011 observational seasons. Quasar candidates are selected based on the available Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Kitt Peak National Observatory 4 m telescope, Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey optical, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer near-infrared photometric data. We present 509 new quasars discovered in a stripe of ∼135 deg{sup 2} from M31 to M33 along the Giant Stellar Stream in the 2011 pilot survey data sets, and also 17 new quasars discovered in an area of ∼100 deg{sup 2} that covers the central region and the southeastern halo of M31 in the 2010 commissioning data sets. These 526 new quasars have i magnitudes ranging from 15.5 to 20.0, redshifts from 0.1 to 3.2. They represent a significant increase of the number of identified quasars in the vicinity of M31 and M33. There are now 26, 62, and 139 known quasars in this region of the sky with i magnitudes brighter than 17.0, 17.5, and 18.0, respectively, of which 5, 20, and 75 are newly discovered. These bright quasars provide an invaluable collection with which to probe the kinematics and chemistry of the interstellar/intergalactic medium in the Local Group of galaxies. A total of 93 quasars are now known with locations within 2.°5 of M31, of which 73 are newly discovered. Tens of quasars are now known to be located behind the Giant Stellar Stream, and hundreds are behind the extended halo and its associated substructures of M31. The much enlarged sample of known quasars in the vicinity of M31 and M33 can potentially be utilized to construct a perfect astrometric reference frame to measure the minute proper motions (PMs) of M31 and M33, along with the PMs of substructures associated with the Local Group of galaxies. Those PMs are some of the most fundamental properties of the Local

  20. Global warning, global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benarde, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  1. Scientists' views about attribution of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2014-08-19

    Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global warming. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent warming. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global warming; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change.

  2. Impact of warm winters on microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

    2014-05-01

    Growth of soil bacteria has an asymmetrical response to higher temperature with a gradual increase with increasing temperatures until an optimum after which a steep decline occurs. In laboratory studies it has been shown that by exposing a soil bacterial community to a temperature above the community's optimum temperature for two months, the bacterial community grows warm-adapted, and the optimum temperature of bacterial growth shifts towards higher temperatures. This result suggests a change in the intrinsic temperature dependence of bacterial growth, as temperature influenced the bacterial growth even though all other factors were kept constant. An intrinsic temperature dependence could be explained by either a change in the bacterial community composition, exchanging less tolerant bacteria towards more tolerant ones, or it could be due to adaptation within the bacteria present. No matter what the shift in temperature tolerance is due to, the shift could have ecosystem scale implications, as winters in northern Europe are getting warmer. To address the question of how microbes and plants are affected by warmer winters, a winter-warming experiment was established in a South Swedish grassland. Results suggest a positive response in microbial growth rate in plots where winter soil temperatures were around 6 °C above ambient. Both bacterial and fungal growth (leucine incorporation, and acetate into ergosterol incorporation, respectively) appeared stimulated, and there are two candidate explanations for these results. Either (i) warming directly influence microbial communities by modulating their temperature adaptation, or (ii) warming indirectly affected the microbial communities via temperature induced changes in bacterial growth conditions. The first explanation is in accordance with what has been shown in laboratory conditions (explained above), where the differences in the intrinsic temperature relationships were examined. To test this explanation the

  3. Is Global Warming Accelerating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the warming in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C warming that has been observed during the twentieth century.

  4. Photometric and Spectroscopic Survey of the Cluster [DBS2003] 156 Associated with the H II Region G331.1-0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, M. C.; Ortiz, R.; Abraham, Z.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2016-05-01

    The Norma section of the Milky Way is especially interesting because it crosses three spiral arms: Sagittarius-Carina, Scutum-Crux and the Norma arm itself. Distance determinations of embedded young stellar clusters can contribute to define the spiral structure in this part of the Galaxy. However, spectrophotometric distances were obtained for only a few of these clusters in Norma. We present a photometric and spectroscopic study in the NIR of the [DBS2003] 156 stellar cluster, associated with the H II region G331.1-0.5. We aim to find the ionizing sources of the H II region and determine its distance. The cluster was observed in the J, H, and {K}{{s}} bands and eight potential massive stars were chosen among the detected sources according to color criteria; subsequent spectroscopy of these candidates was performed with the Ohio State Infrared Imager/Spectrometer spectrograph attached to the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research 4.1 m telescope. We identified and classified spectroscopically four early-type stars: IRS 176 (O8 V), IRS 308 (O-type), IRS 310 (O6 V), and IRS 71 (B1 Iab). Based on the proximity of IRS 176 and 308 with the radio continuum emission peaks and their relative positions with respect to the warm dust mid-infrared emission, we concluded that these two stars are the main ionizing sources of the H ii region G331.1-0.5. The mean spectrophotometric distance of IRS 176 and 310 of 3.38 ± 0.58 kpc is similar to that obtained in a previous work for two early-type stars of the neighbor cluster [DBS2003] 157 of 3.29 ± 0.58 kpc. The narrow range of radial velocities of radio sources in the area of the clusters [DBS2003] 156 and 157 and their similar visual extinction indicate that these clusters are physically associated. A common distance of 3.34 ± 0.34 kpc is derived for the system [DBS2003] 156 and 157. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR), a joint project of the Ministério de Ci

  5. Domestic violence and immigration status among Latina mothers in the child welfare system: findings from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being II (NSCAW II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonnaya, Ijeoma Nwabuzor; Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Kohl, Patricia L

    2015-01-01

    Many children involved with the child welfare system witness parental domestic violence. The association between children's domestic violence exposure and child welfare involvement may be influenced by certain socio-cultural factors; however, minimal research has examined this relationship. The current study compares domestic violence experiences and case outcomes among Latinas who are legal immigrants (n=39), unauthorized immigrants (n=77), naturalized citizens (n=30), and US-born citizen mothers (n=383) reported for child maltreatment. This analysis used data from the second round of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Mothers were asked about whether they experienced domestic violence during the past year. In addition, data were collected to assess if (a) domestic violence was the primary abuse type reported and, if so, (b) the maltreatment allegation was substantiated. Results show that naturalized citizens, legal residents, and unauthorized immigrants did not differ from US-born citizens in self-reports of domestic violence; approximately 33% of mothers reported experiences of domestic violence within the past year. Yet, unauthorized immigrants were 3.76 times more likely than US-born citizens to have cases with allegations of domestic violence as the primary abuse type. Despite higher rates of alleged domestic violence, unauthorized citizens were not more likely than US-born citizens to have these cases substantiated for domestic violence (F(2.26, 153.99)=0.709, p=.510). Findings highlight that domestic violence is not accurately accounted for in families with unauthorized immigrant mothers. We recommend child welfare workers are trained to properly assess and fulfill the needs of immigrant families, particularly as it relates to domestic violence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spectroscopic survey of the Galaxy with Gaia - II. The expected science yield from the Radial Velocity Spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, MI; Vallenari, A; Turon, C; Munari, U; Katz, D; Bono, G; Cropper, M; Helmi, A; Robichon, N; Thevenin, F; Vidrih, S; Zwitter, T; Arenou, F; Baylac, MO; Bertelli, G; Bijaoui, A; Boschi, F; Castelli, F; Crifo, F; David, M; Gomboc, A; Gomez, A; Haywood, M; Jauregi, U; de Laverny, P; Lebreton, Y; Marrese, P; Marsh, T; Mignot, S; Morin, D; Pasetto, S; Perryman, M; Prsa, A; Recio-Blanco, A; Royer, F; Sellier, A; Siviero, A; Sordo, R; Soubiran, C; Tomasella, L; Viala, Y

    2005-01-01

    The Gaia mission is designed as a Galaxy explorer, and will measure simultaneously, in a survey mode, the five or six phase-space parameters of all stars brighter than 20th magnitude, as well as providing a description of their astrophysical characteristics. These measurements are obtained by

  7. Industry Wage Surveys: Banking and Life Insurance, December 1976. Part I--Banking. Part II--Life Insurance. Bulletin 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Carl

    This report presents the results of a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine wages and related benefits in (1) the banking industry and (2) for employees in home offices and regional head offices of life insurance carriers. Part 1 discusses banking industry characteristics and presents data for tellers and selected…

  8. A CFH12k lensing survey of X-ray luminous galaxy clusters - II. Weak lensing analysis and global correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardeau, S.; Soucail, G.; Kneib, J.-P.; Czoske, O.; Ebeling, H.; Hudelot, P.; Smail, I.; Smith, G. P.

    Aims. We present a wide-field multi-color survey of a homogeneous sample of eleven clusters of galaxies for which we measure total masses and mass distributions from weak lensing. This sample, spanning a small range in both X-ray luminosity and redshift, is ideally suited to determining the

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Main-belt asteroids polarimetric survey. II. (Gil-Hutton+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Canada-Assandri, M.

    2012-01-01

    Results for the objects observed during the polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids. The observations were carried out during different observing runs between May 2004 and November 2009 at the 2.15m telescope of the CASLEO, San Juan, Argentina, using the Torino and CASPROF polarimeters. (3 data files).

  10. The SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts – II. New FRB discoveries and their follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhandari, S.; Keane, E.F.; Barr, E.D.; Jameson, A.; Petroff, E.; Johnston, S.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N.D.R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Caleb, M.; Eatough, R.P.; Flynn, C.; Green, J.A.; Jankowski, F.; Kramer, M.; Krishnan, V Venkatraman; Morello, V.; Possenti, A.; Stappers, B.; Tiburzi, C.; van Straten, W.; Andreoni, I.; Butterley, T.; Chandra, P.; Cooke, J.; Corongiu, A.; Coward, D.M.; Dhillon, V.S.; Dodson, R.; Hardy, L.K.; Howell, E.J.; Jaroenjittichai, P.; Klotz, A.; Littlefair, S.P.; Marsh, T.R.; Mickaliger, M.; Muxlow, T.; Perrodin, D.; Pritchard, D.; Sawangwit, U.; Terai, T.; Tominaga, N.; Torne, P.; Totani, T.; Trois, A.; Turpin, D.; Niino, Y.; Wilson, R.W.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brânzas, H.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A.F.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schussler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzocca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of four Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) in the ongoing SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts at the Parkes Radio Telescope: FRBs 150610, 151206, 151230 and 160102. Our real-time discoveries have enabled us to conduct extensive, rapid multimessenger follow-up at 12 major

  11. Human Trafficking in the United States. Part II. Survey of U.S. Government Web Resources for Publications and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigabutra-Roberts, Anchalee

    2012-01-01

    This second part of a two-part series is a survey of U.S. government web resources on human trafficking in the United States, particularly of the online publications and data included on agencies' websites. Overall, the goal is to provide an introduction, an overview, and a guide on this topic for library staff to use in their research and…

  12. Spontaneous baryogenesis in warm inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    We discuss spontaneous baryogenesis in the warm inflation scenario. In contrast with standard inflation models, radiation always exists in the warm inflation scenario, and the inflaton must be directly coupled to it. Also, the transition to the post-inflationary radiation dominated phase is smooth and the entropy is not significantly increased at the end of the period of inflation. In addition, after the period of warm inflation ends, the inflaton does not oscillate coherently but slowly roll...

  13. SOFIA Observations of S106: Dynamics of the Warm Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R.; Schneider, N.; Stutzki, J.; Gusten, R.; Graf, U. U.; Hartogh, P.; Guan, X.; Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Context The H II region/PDR/molecular cloud complex S106 is excited by a single O-star. The full extent of the warm and dense gas close to the star has not been mapped in spectrally resolved high-J CO or [C II] lines, so the kinematics of the warm. partially ionized gas, are unknown. Whether the prominent dark lane bisecting the hourglass-shaped nebula is due solely to the shadow cast by a small disk around the exciting star or also to extinction in high column foreground gas was an open question until now. Aims. To disentangle the morphology and kinematics of warm neutral and ionized gas close to the star, study their relation to the bulk of the molecular gas. and to investigate the nature of the dark lane. Methods. We use the heterodyne receiver GREAT on board SOFIA to observe velocity resolved spectral lines of [C II] and CO 11 yields 10 in comparison with so far unpublished submm continuum data at 350 micron (8HARC-Il) and complementary molecular line data. Results. The high angular and spectral resolution observations show a very complex morphology and kinematics of the inner S106 region, with many different components at different excitation conditions contributing to the observed emission. The [C II] lines are found to be bright and very broad. tracing high velocity gas close to the interface of molecular cloud and H II region. CO 11 yields 10 emission is more confined.. both spatially and in velocity, to the immediate surroundings of S 106 IR showing the presence of warm, high density (clumpy) gas. Our high angular resolution submm continuum observations rule out the scenario where the dark lane separating the two lobes is due solely to the shadow cast by a small disk close to the star. The lane is clearly seen also as warm, high column density gas at the boundary of the molecular cloud and H II region.

  14. Daytime warming has stronger negative effects on soil nematodes than night-time warming

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiumin; Wang, Kehong; Song, Lihong; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Donghui

    2017-01-01

    Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, that is, stronger warming during night-time than during daytime. Here we focus on how soil nematodes respond to the current asymmetric warming. A field infrared heating experiment was performed in the western of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Three warming modes, i.e. daytime warming, night-time warming and diurnal warming, were taken to perform the asymmetric warming condition. Our results showed that the daytime and diurnal warming treatmen...

  15. Global Warming on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; hide

    1998-01-01

    Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global warming since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.

  16. Synergistic warm inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimento, Luis P.; Jakubi, Alejandro S.; Zuccala, Norberto; Pavon, Diego

    2002-01-01

    We consider an alternative warm inflationary scenario in which n scalar fields coupled to a dissipative matter fluid cooperate to produce power-law inflation. The scalar fields are driven by an exponential potential and the bulk dissipative pressure coefficient is linear in the expansion rate. We find that the entropy of the fluid attains its asymptotic value in a characteristic time proportional to the square of the number of fields. This scenario remains nearly isothermal along the inflationary stage. The perturbations in energy density and entropy are studied in the long-wavelength regime and seen to grow roughly as the square of the scale factor. They are shown to be compatible with COBE measurements of the fluctuations in temperature of the CMB

  17. Management of the open book APC II pelvis: Survey results from pelvic and acetabular surgeons in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, James R; Murphy, Colin; Quansah, Ben; Carrothers, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    The results of this questionnaire show that the opinion of pelvic and acetabular surgeons in the UK and Republic of Ireland vary as to the best method of fixation for APC II pelvic injuries. A single anterior plate and single sacroiliac joint (SIJ) screw was the most popular fixation method, chosen by 34%. 74% favour a single, opposed to two orthogonal anterior plates. Posterior fixation supplementing anterior plating is preferred by 63% of surgeons, 58% use a single versus 42% two SIJ screws. Case by case assessment and intraoperative screening to assess stability is essential when considering whether to stabilise the SIJ.

  18. Interacting warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ m α ρ e β form, where ρ m and ρ e are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w m and w e of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used

  19. The Einstein@Home Gamma-ray Pulsar Survey. II. Source Selection, Spectral Analysis, and Multiwavelength Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Clark, C. J.; Pletsch, H. J.; Guillemot, L.; Johnson, T. J.; Torne, P.; Champion, D. J.; Deneva, J.; Ray, P. S.; Salvetti, D.; Kramer, M.; Aulbert, C.; Beer, C.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bock, O.; Camilo, F.; Cognard, I.; Cuéllar, A.; Eggenstein, H. B.; Fehrmann, H.; Ferrara, E. C.; Kerr, M.; Machenschalk, B.; Ransom, S. M.; Sanpa-Arsa, S.; Wood, K.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the analysis of 13 gamma-ray pulsars discovered in the Einstein@Home blind search survey using Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 data. The 13 new gamma-ray pulsars were discovered by searching 118 unassociated LAT sources from the third LAT source catalog (3FGL), selected using the Gaussian Mixture Model machine-learning algorithm on the basis of their gamma-ray emission properties being suggestive of pulsar magnetospheric emission. The new gamma-ray pulsars have pulse profiles and spectral properties similar to those of previously detected young gamma-ray pulsars. Follow-up radio observations have revealed faint radio pulsations from two of the newly discovered pulsars and enabled us to derive upper limits on the radio emission from the others, demonstrating that they are likely radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars. We also present results from modeling the gamma-ray pulse profiles and radio profiles, if available, using different geometric emission models of pulsars. The high discovery rate of this survey, despite the increasing difficulty of blind pulsar searches in gamma rays, suggests that new systematic surveys such as presented in this article should be continued when new LAT source catalogs become available.

  20. Part I. Synthesis and characterization of C2 substituted imidazolium room temperature ionic liquids. Part II. Survey and analysis of organic chemistry textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Elliot G.

    Part I. Among room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), those derived from the imidazolium cation are the most common. RTILs have generally been viewed solely as solvents, but they are able to participate in certain types of reactions, particularly due to the relatively high acidity at the imidazolium C2. Deprotonation affords N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), which can cause unwanted side reactions. Consequently, the major limitation of imidazolium RTILs is that they cannot be used as solvents in highly basic reactions such as the Baylis-Hillman and Grignard reactions. This work reveals a convenient route for the preparation of C2-substituted imidazolium ionic liquids. This method involves the alkylation of N-heterocyclic carbenes, which are readily generated from the C2-unsubstituted imidazolium ionic liquids. It works well for nonfunctionalized alkyl chlorides and less well for alkyl bromides and iodides, likely due to competing elimination reactions. The resulting C2-substituted salts can be transformed into ionic liquids via standard anion metathesis reactions. Part II. Recent advances in media and the increasingly encyclopedic nature of traditional textbooks have made their role in college classes uncertain. In an effort to discover what is really being taught in organic chemistry courses across the US, a survey of organic chemistry professors in all 50 states was conducted to determine what material is covered in their organic chemistry courses for science majors. Survey Monkey, an online survey program, was used to construct a short 10-item survey which was sent to organic chemistry professors at various types of institutions across the nation. We sent out 2417 surveys and received 489 responses. The results of this survey revealed what topics the professors believe is core material and what they feel is extraneous. Additionally, this research identifies the things these professors would like to see changed in the organic chemistry texts. From the open

  1. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.

  2. Synthesizing exoplanet demographics from radial velocity and microlensing surveys. II. The frequency of planets orbiting M dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clanton, Christian; Gaudi, B. Scott, E-mail: clanton@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    In contrast to radial velocity (RV) surveys, results from microlensing surveys indicate that giant planets with masses greater than the critical mass for core accretion (∼0.1 M {sub Jup}) are relatively common around low-mass stars. Using the methodology developed in the first paper, we predict the sensitivity of M-dwarf RV surveys to analogs of the population of planets inferred by microlensing. We find that RV surveys should detect a handful of super-Jovian (>M {sub Jup}) planets at the longest periods being probed. These planets are indeed found by RV surveys, implying that the demographic constraints inferred from these two methods are consistent. Finally, we combine the results from both methods to estimate planet frequencies spanning wide regions of parameter space. We find that the frequency of Jupiters and super-Jupiters (1 ≲ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub Jup} ≲ 13) with periods 1 ≤ P/days ≤ 10{sup 4} is f{sub J}=0.029{sub −0.015}{sup +0.013}, a median factor of 4.3 (1.5-14 at 95% confidence) smaller than the inferred frequency of such planets around FGK stars of 0.11 ± 0.02. However, we find the frequency of all giant planets with 30 ≲ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub ⊕} ≲ 10{sup 4} and 1 ≤ P/days ≤ 10{sup 4} to be f{sub G}=0.15{sub −0.07}{sup +0.06}, only a median factor of 2.2 (0.73-5.9 at 95% confidence) smaller than the inferred frequency of such planets orbiting FGK stars of 0.31 ± 0.07. For a more conservative definition of giant planets (50 ≲ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub ⊕} ≲ 10{sup 4}), we find f{sub G{sup ′}}=0.11±0.05, a median factor of 2.2 (0.73-6.7 at 95% confidence) smaller than that inferred for FGK stars of 0.25 ± 0.05. Finally, we find the frequency of all planets with 1 ≤ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub ⊕} ≤ 10{sup 4} and 1 ≤ P/days ≤ 10{sup 4} to be f{sub p} = 1.9 ± 0.5.

  3. Polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids. II. Results for 58 B- and C-type objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada-Assandri, M.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: We present results of a polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids at Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito (CASLEO), San Juan, Argentina. The aims of this survey are to increase the database of asteroid polarimetry, to estimate diversity in polarimetric properties of asteroids that belong to different taxonomic classes, and to search for objects that exhibit anomalous polarimetric properties. Methods: The data were obtained with the Torino and CASPROF polarimeters at the 2.15m telescope. The Torino polarimeter is an instrument that allows simultaneous measurement of polarization in five different bands, and the CASPROF polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation. Results: The survey began in 2003, and up to 2009 data on a sample of more than 170 asteroids were obtained. In this paper the results for 58 B- and C-type objects are presented, most of them polarimetrically observed for the first time. Using these data we find phase-polarization curves and polarimetric parameters for these taxonomic classes. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.Tables 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/539/A115

  4. The challenge of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryner, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter outlines the science of global warming, the likely consequences of global warming and some of the major challenges in dealing with global climate change. Some of the major international organisations concerned with environmental issues are listed. International agreements might be used to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. 32 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Committed warming inferred from observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritsen, Thorsten; Pincus, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Due to the lifetime of CO2, the thermal inertia of the oceans, and the temporary impacts of short-lived aerosols and reactive greenhouse gases, the Earth’s climate is not equilibrated with anthropogenic forcing. As a result, even if fossil-fuel emissions were to suddenly cease, some level of committed warming is expected due to past emissions as studied previously using climate models. Here, we provide an observational-based quantification of this committed warming using the instrument record of global-mean warming, recently improved estimates of Earth’s energy imbalance, and estimates of radiative forcing from the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Compared with pre-industrial levels, we find a committed warming of 1.5 K (0.9-3.6, 5th-95th percentile) at equilibrium, and of 1.3 K (0.9-2.3) within this century. However, when assuming that ocean carbon uptake cancels remnant greenhouse gas-induced warming on centennial timescales, committed warming is reduced to 1.1 K (0.7-1.8). In the latter case there is a 13% risk that committed warming already exceeds the 1.5 K target set in Paris. Regular updates of these observationally constrained committed warming estimates, although simplistic, can provide transparent guidance as uncertainty regarding transient climate sensitivity inevitably narrows and the understanding of the limitations of the framework is advanced.

  6. Scientists' Views about Attribution of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2015-04-01

    What do scientists think? That is an important question when engaging in science communication, in which an attempt is made to communicate the scientific understanding to a lay audience. To address this question we undertook a large and detailed survey among scientists studying various aspects of climate change , dubbed "perhaps the most thorough survey of climate scientists ever" by well-known climate scientist and science communicator Gavin Schmidt. Among more than 1800 respondents we found widespread agreement that global warming is predominantly caused by human greenhouse gases. This consensus strengthens with increased expertise, as defined by the number of self-reported articles in the peer-reviewed literature. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), agreed that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are the dominant cause of recent global warming, i.e. having contributed more than half of the observed warming. With this survey we specified what the consensus position entails with much greater specificity than previous studies. The relevance of this consensus for science communication will be discussed. Another important result from our survey is that the main attribution statement in IPCC's fourth assessment report (AR4) may lead to an underestimate of the greenhouse gas contribution to warming, because it implicitly includes the lesser known masking effect of cooling aerosols. This shows the importance of the exact wording in high-profile reports such as those from IPCC in how the statement is perceived, even by fellow scientists. The phrasing was improved in the most recent assessment report (AR5). Respondents who characterized the human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. This shows that contrarian opinions are amplified in the media in relation to their prevalence in the scientific community. This

  7. Photometric redshifts for the next generation of deep radio continuum surveys - II. Gaussian processes and hybrid estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kenneth J.; Jarvis, Matt J.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Röttgering, Huub J. A.

    2018-04-01

    Building on the first paper in this series (Duncan et al. 2018), we present a study investigating the performance of Gaussian process photometric redshift (photo-z) estimates for galaxies and active galactic nuclei detected in deep radio continuum surveys. A Gaussian process redshift code is used to produce photo-z estimates targeting specific subsets of both the AGN population - infrared, X-ray and optically selected AGN - and the general galaxy population. The new estimates for the AGN population are found to perform significantly better at z > 1 than the template-based photo-z estimates presented in our previous study. Our new photo-z estimates are then combined with template estimates through hierarchical Bayesian combination to produce a hybrid consensus estimate that outperforms both of the individual methods across all source types. Photo-z estimates for radio sources that are X-ray sources or optical/IR AGN are significantly improved in comparison to previous template-only estimates - with outlier fractions and robust scatter reduced by up to a factor of ˜4. The ability of our method to combine the strengths of the two input photo-z techniques and the large improvements we observe illustrate its potential for enabling future exploitation of deep radio continuum surveys for both the study of galaxy and black hole co-evolution and for cosmological studies.

  8. Phase II Characterization Survey of the USNS Bridge (T-AOE 10), Military Sealift Fleet Support Command, Naval Station, Norfolk, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALTIC, NICK A

    2012-08-30

    In March 2011, the USNS Bridge was deployed off northeastern Honshu, Japan with the carrier USS Ronald Reagan to assist with relief efforts after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. During that time, the Bridge was exposed to air-borne radioactive materials leaking from the damaged Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. The proximity of the Bridge to the air-borne impacted area resulted in the contamination of the ship’s air-handling systems and the associated components, as well as potential contamination of other ship surfaces due to either direct intake/deposition or inadvertent spread from crew/operational activities. Preliminary surveys in the weeks after the event confirmed low-level contamination within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ductwork and systems, and engine and other auxiliary air intake systems. Some partial decontamination was performed at that time. In response to the airborne contamination event, Military Sealift Fleet Support Command (MSFSC) contracted Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under provisions of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to assess the radiological condition of the Bridge. Phase I identified contamination within the CPS filters, ventilation systems, miscellaneous equipment, and other suspect locations that could not accessed at that time (ORAU 2011b). Because the Bridge was underway during the characterization, all the potentially impacted systems/spaces could not be investigated. As a result, MSFSC contracted with ORAU to perform Phase II of the characterization, specifically to survey systems/spaces previously inaccessible. During Phase II of the characterization, the ship was in port to perform routine maintenance operations, allowing access to the previously inaccessible systems/spaces.

  9. Global warming forecasts unreliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, A.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the opinions of a series of experts who have recently commented on the reliability of predictions of global warning in relation to observed and forecasted increases in carbon dioxide emissions. One of the more difficult to explain observations, evidenced through the analysis of past meteorological data, was the rapid increase in global temperature that took place during the period preceding 1940 and which was followed by a gradual decrease, during a thirty year period of heightened industrialization and consumption of fossil fuels, up to 1970 when global temperatures began again to rise rapidly. Variations in solar activity was suggested to explain this apparently anomalous trend in global temperatures. This question as to the existence of a strict correlation between global warming and rises in carbon dioxide emissions, as well as, forecasted increases in concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide due to the expected population growth in China are putting a strain on attempts by OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) environmental policy makers to gain support for energy tax proposals

  10. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - OTÁP2014. II. Energy and macronutrient intake of the Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkadi Nagy, Eszter; Bakacs, Márta; Illés, Éva; Nagy, Barbara; Varga, Anita; Kis, Orsolya; Schreiberné Molnár, Erzsébet; Martos, Éva

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess and monitor the dietary habits and nutrient intake of Hungarian adults. Three-day dietary records were used for dietary assessment, the sample was representative for the Hungarian population aged ≥18ys by gender and age. The mean proportion of energy from fat was higher (men: 38 energy%, women: 37 energy%), that from carbohydrates was lower (men: 45 energy%, women: 47 energy%) than recommended, the protein intake is adequate. Unfavorable change compared to the previous survey in 2009 was the increase of fat and saturated fatty acid energy percent in women, the decrease in fruit and vegetable consumption, which explains the decreased fiber intake. An increasing trend in added sugar energy percent in each age groups of both genders was observed compared to 2009. Interventions focusing on the promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption and decreasing of saturated fat and added sugar intake are needed. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(15), 587-597.

  11. THE GOULD’S BELT DISTANCES SURVEY (GOBELINS). II. DISTANCES AND STRUCTURE TOWARD THE ORION MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Loinard, Laurent; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Morelia 58089 (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Torres, Rosa M. [Centro Universitario de Tonalá, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Nuevo Perifrico No. 555, Ejido San José, Tatepozco, C.P. 48525, Tonalá, Jalisco, México (Mexico); Galli, Phillip A. B. [Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000, Grenoble (France); Boden, Andrew F. [Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Briceño, Cesar [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Tobin, John J., E-mail: mkounkel@umich.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We present the results of the Gould’s Belt Distances Survey of young star-forming regions toward the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex. We detected 36 young stellar objects (YSOs) with the Very Large Baseline Array, 27 of which have been observed in at least three epochs over the course of two years. At least half of these YSOs belong to multiple systems. We obtained parallax and proper motions toward these stars to study the structure and kinematics of the Complex. We measured a distance of 388 ± 5 pc toward the Orion Nebula Cluster, 428 ± 10 pc toward the southern portion L1641, 388 ± 10 pc toward NGC 2068, and roughly ∼420 pc toward NGC 2024. Finally, we observed a strong degree of plasma radio scattering toward λ Ori.

  12. Profiling Occupant Behaviour in Danish Dwellings using Time Use Survey Data - Part II: Time-related Factors and Occupancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmes, V.M.; Li, R.; Andersen, R.K.

    2018-01-01

    occupant profiles for prediction of energy use to reduce the gap between predicted and real building energy consumptions. In this study, we exploit diary-based Danish Time Use Surveys for understanding and modelling occupant behaviour in the residential sector in Denmark. This paper is a continuation......Occupant behaviour has been shown to be one of the key driving factors of uncertainty in prediction of energy consumption in buildings. Building occupants affect building energy use directly and indirectly by interacting with building energy systems such as adjusting temperature set......-points, switching lights on/off, using electrical devices and opening/closing windows. Furthermore, building inhabitants’ daily activity profiles clearly shape the timing of energy demand in households. Modelling energy-related human activities throughout the day, therefore, is crucial to defining more realistic...

  13. Molecular-cloud-scale Chemical Composition. II. Mapping Spectral Line Survey toward W3(OH) in the 3 mm Band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yuri [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Harada, Nanase [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Shimonishi, Takashi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramakiazaaoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Sakai, Nami [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-10-10

    To study a molecular-cloud-scale chemical composition, we conducted a mapping spectral line survey toward the Galactic molecular cloud W3(OH), which is one of the most active star-forming regions in the Perseus arm. We conducted our survey through the use of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope, and observed the area of 16′ × 16′, which corresponds to 9.0 pc × 9.0 pc. The observed frequency ranges are 87–91, 96–103, and 108–112 GHz. We prepared the spectrum averaged over the observed area, in which eight molecular species (CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, CS, SO, C{sup 18}O, and {sup 13}CO) are identified. On the other hand, the spectrum of the W3(OH) hot core observed at a 0.17 pc resolution shows the lines of various molecules such as OCS, H{sub 2}CS CH{sub 3}CCH, and CH{sub 3}CN in addition to the above species. In the spatially averaged spectrum, emission of the species concentrated just around the star-forming core, such as CH{sub 3}OH and HC{sub 3}N, is fainter than in the hot core spectrum, whereas emission of the species widely extended over the cloud such as CCH is relatively brighter. We classified the observed area into five subregions according to the integrated intensity of {sup 13}CO, and evaluated the contribution to the averaged spectrum from each subregion. The CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, and CS lines can be seen even in the spectrum of the subregion with the lowest {sup 13}CO integrated intensity range (<10 K km s{sup −1}). Thus, the contributions of the spatially extended emission is confirmed to be dominant in the spatially averaged spectrum.

  14. Transcriptome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of Putative Chrysanthemum HD-Zip I and II Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip transcription factor family is a key transcription factor family and unique to the plant kingdom. It consists of a homeodomain and a leucine zipper that serve in combination as a dimerization motif. The family can be classified into four subfamilies, and these subfamilies participate in the development of hormones and mediation of hormone action and are involved in plant responses to environmental conditions. However, limited information on this gene family is available for the important chrysanthemum ornamental species (Chrysanthemum morifolium. Here, we characterized 17 chrysanthemum HD-Zip genes based on transcriptome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 17 CmHB genes were distributed in the HD-Zip subfamilies I and II and identified two pairs of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and four pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. The software MEME was used to identify 7 putative motifs with E values less than 1e-3 in the chrysanthemum HD-Zip factors, and they can be clearly classified into two groups based on the composition of the motifs. A bioinformatics analysis predicted that 8 CmHB genes could be targeted by 10 miRNA families, and the expression of these 17 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized. The results presented here will promote research on the various functions of the HD-Zip gene family members in plant hormones and stress responses.

  15. Spectroscopic survey of Kepler stars - II. FIES/NOT observations of A- and F-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczura, E.; Polińska, M.; Murphy, S. J.; Smalley, B.; Kołaczkowski, Z.; Jessen-Hansen, J.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Lykke, J. M.; Triviño Hage, A.; Michalska, G.

    2017-09-01

    We have analysed high-resolution spectra of 28 A and 22 F stars in the Kepler field, observed using the Fibre-Fed Échelle Spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We provide spectral types, atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances for 50 stars. Balmer, Fe I and Fe II lines were used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities and microturbulent velocities. We determined chemical abundances and projected rotational velocities using a spectrum synthesis technique. Effective temperatures calculated by spectral energy distribution fitting are in good agreement with those determined from the spectral line analysis. The stars analysed include chemically peculiar stars of the Am and λ Boo types, as well as stars with approximately solar chemical abundances. The wide distribution of projected rotational velocity, vsin I, is typical for A and F stars. The microturbulence velocities obtained are typical for stars in the observed temperature and surface gravity ranges. Moreover, we affirm the results of Niemczura et al. that Am stars do not have systematically higher microturbulent velocities than normal stars of the same temperature.

  16. Feasibility study for an airborne high-sensitivity gamma-ray survey of Alaska. Phase II (final) report: 1976--1979 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This study constitutes a determination of the extent to which it is feasible to use airborne, high-sensitivity gamma spectrometer systems for uranium reconnaissance in the State of Alaska, and specification of a preliminary plan for surveying the entire state of the 1975--1979 time frame. Phase I included the design of a program to survey the highest priority areas in 1975 using available aircraft and spectrometer equipment. This has now resulted in a contract for 10,305 flight line miles to cover about 11 of the 1:250,000 scale quadrangles using a DC-3 aircraft with an average 6.25 x 25 mile grid of flight line. Phase II includes the design of alternative programs to cover the remaining 128 quadrangles using either a DC-3 and a Bell 205A helicopter or a Helio Stallion STOL aircraft and a Bell 205A helicopter during 1976-1979. The 1976-1979 time frame allows some time for possible new system developments in both airborne gamma-ray spectrometers and in ancillary equipment, and these are outlined. (auth)

  17. Survey of eight dimensions quality of life for patients with diabetes type II, referred to Sanandaj diabetes center in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Khaledi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Diabetes is a chronic disease; the patients suffer from diabetes needs a special care. One of the programs to help these kinds of patients is to analyze their quality of life, which was carried out through a nursing disciplinary program by a cross sectional study during 2009. Materials & Methods: 198 type II diabetic patients who were referred to diabetic center of an educational hospital, affiliated to Sanandaj medical university were selected randomly, they were interviewed and obtained a written permission to join this study, then asked to fill up SF-36 questionnaires, and finally, the data from the questionnaires were analyzed by the SPSS software program. Results: The results showed the quality of life of diabetes patients (55.6% with respect to their physical fitness were acceptable. Whereas, in case of play in the physical role 67.7% were not acceptable but in case of the physical pain 45.3% had physical pain and effects on public health 45.6% were moderately effected, in case of energy and vitality 35.4% were not acceptable, in case of social functioning 38.5% were favorable, in case of emotional role 75.8% were undesirable and finally considering psycho mental health 49.5% were in the desirable limit. Statistical analysis for evaluation of relationship between quality of life and demographic data, were carried out by using "ANOVA” test. Conclusion: This study showed that the quality of life in all the group of study were at moderate level. In order to improve the quality of life in diabetes patients it is suggested that planners and managers should pay enough attention to support the physical, mental and social well being of the diabetes patients.

  18. Engineering survey planning for the alignment of a particle accelerator: part II. Design of a reference network and measurement strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira Leão, Rodrigo; Raffaelo Baldo, Crhistian; Collucci da Costa Reis, Maria Luisa; Alves Trabanco, Jorge Luiz

    2018-03-01

    The building blocks of particle accelerators are magnets responsible for keeping beams of charged particles at a desired trajectory. Magnets are commonly grouped in support structures named girders, which are mounted on vertical and horizontal stages. The performance of this type of machine is highly dependent on the relative alignment between its main components. The length of particle accelerators ranges from small machines to large-scale national or international facilities, with typical lengths of hundreds of meters to a few kilometers. This relatively large volume together with micrometric positioning tolerances make the alignment activity a classical large-scale dimensional metrology problem. The alignment concept relies on networks of fixed monuments installed on the building structure to which all accelerator components are referred. In this work, the Sirius accelerator is taken as a case study, and an alignment network is optimized via computational methods in terms of geometry, densification, and surveying procedure. Laser trackers are employed to guide the installation and measure the girders’ positions, using the optimized network as a reference and applying the metric developed in part I of this paper. Simulations demonstrate the feasibility of aligning the 220 girders of the Sirius synchrotron to better than 0.080 mm, at a coverage probability of 95%.

  19. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. II. X-Ray Point Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first survey results of hard X-ray point sources in the Galactic Center (GC) region by NuSTAR. We have discovered 70 hard (3-79 keV) X-ray point sources in a 0.6 deg2 region around Sgr A* with a total exposure of 1.7 Ms, and 7 sources in the Sgr B2 field with 300 ks. We identify...... persistent luminous X-ray binaries (XBs) and the likely run-away pulsar called the Cannonball. New source-detection significance maps reveal a cluster of hard (>10 keV) X-ray sources near the Sgr. A diffuse complex with no clear soft X-ray counterparts. The severe extinction observed in the Chandra spectra...... indicate that the X-ray spectra of the NuSTAR sources should have kT > 20 keV on average for a single temperature thermal plasma model or an average photon index of Gamma = 1.5-2 for a power-law model. These findings suggest that the GC X-ray source population may contain a larger fraction of XBs with high...

  20. A Deep Proper Motion Catalog Within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Footprint. II. The White Dwarf Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C.; von Hippel, Ted; Kilic, Mukremin; Liebert, James W.; Williams, Kurtis A.; DeGennaro, Steven; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Dame, Kyra; Gianninas, A.; Brown, Warren R.

    2017-01-01

    A catalog of 8472 white dwarf (WD) candidates is presented, selected using reduced proper motions from the deep proper motion catalog of Munn et al. Candidates are selected in the magnitude range 16Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging footprint. Distances, bolometric luminosities, and atmospheric compositions are derived by fitting SDSS ugriz photometry to pure hydrogen and helium model atmospheres (assuming surface gravities {log} {\\text{}}g=8). The disk white dwarf luminosity function (WDLF) is constructed using a sample of 2839 stars with 5.5< {M}{bol}< 17, with statistically significant numbers of stars cooler than the turnover in the luminosity function. The WDLF for the halo is also constructed, using a sample of 135 halo WDs with 5< {M}{bol}< 16. We find space densities of disk and halo WDs in the solar neighborhood of 5.5+/- 0.1× {10}-3 {{pc}}-3 and 3.5+/- 0.7× {10}-5 {{pc}}-3, respectively. We resolve the bump in the disk WDLF due to the onset of fully convective envelopes in WDs, and see indications of it in the halo WDLF as well.

  1. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.; Conrow, T.P.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1990-01-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling. 105 refs

  2. The Fornax Cluster VLT Spectroscopic Survey II - Planetary Nebulae kinematics within 200 kpc of the cluster core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiniello, C.; Napolitano, N. R.; Arnaboldi, M.; Tortora, C.; Coccato, L.; Capaccioli, M.; Gerhard, O.; Iodice, E.; Spavone, M.; Cantiello, M.; Peletier, R.; Paolillo, M.; Schipani, P.

    2018-03-01

    We present the largest and most spatially extended planetary nebulae (PNe) catalog ever obtained for the Fornax cluster. We measured velocities of 1452 PNe out to 200 kpc in the cluster core using a counter-dispersed slitless spectroscopic technique with data from FORS2 on the VLT. With such extended spatial coverage, we can study separately the stellar halos of some of the cluster main galaxies and the intracluster light. In this second paper of the Fornax Cluster VLT Spectroscopic Survey (FVSS), we identify and classify the emission-line sources, describe the method to select PNe and calculate their coordinates and velocities from the dispersed slitless images. From the PN 2D velocity map we identify stellar streams that are possibly tracing the gravitational interaction of NGC 1399 with NGC 1404 and NGC 1387. We also present the velocity dispersion profile out to ˜200 kpc radii, which shows signatures of a superposition of the bright central galaxy and the cluster potential, with the latter clearly dominating the regions outside R˜1000″(˜100 kpc).

  3. Luminous and Variable Stars in M31 and M33. IV. Luminous Blue Variables, Candidate LBVs, B[e] Supergiants, and the Warm Hypergiants: How to Tell Them Apart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Gordon, Michael S.; Hahn, David [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Martin, John C. [University of Illinois Springfield, Springfield, IL 62703 (United States); Weis, Kerstin, E-mail: roberta@umn.edu [Astronomical Institute, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    In this series of papers we have presented the results of a spectroscopic survey of luminous stars in the nearby spirals M31 and M33. Here, we present spectroscopy of 132 additional stars. Most have emission-line spectra, including luminous blue variables (LBVs) and candidate LBVs, Fe ii emission line stars, the B[e] supergiants, and the warm hypergiants. Many of these objects are spectroscopically similar and are often confused with each other. We examine their similarities and differences and propose the following guidelines that can be used to help distinguish these stars in future work. (1) The B[e] supergiants have emission lines of [O i] and [Fe ii] in their spectra. Most of the spectroscopically confirmed sgB[e] stars also have warm circumstellar dust in their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). (2) Confirmed LBVs do not have the [O i] emission lines in their spectra. Some LBVs have [Fe ii] emission lines, but not all. Their SEDs show free–free emission in the near-infrared but no evidence for warm dust . Their most important and defining characteristic is the S Dor-type variability. (3) The warm hypergiants spectroscopically resemble the LBVs in their dense wind state and the B[e] supergiants. However, they are very dusty. Some have [Fe ii] and [O i] emission in their spectra like the sgB[e] stars, but are distinguished by their A- and F-type absorption-line spectra. In contrast, the B[e] supergiant spectra have strong continua and few if any apparent absorption lines. Candidate LBVs should share the spectral characteristics of the confirmed LBVs with low outflow velocities and the lack of warm circumstellar dust.

  4. Luminous and Variable Stars in M31 and M33. IV. Luminous Blue Variables, Candidate LBVs, B[e] Supergiants, and the Warm Hypergiants: How to Tell Them Apart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Gordon, Michael S.; Hahn, David; Martin, John C.; Weis, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    In this series of papers we have presented the results of a spectroscopic survey of luminous stars in the nearby spirals M31 and M33. Here, we present spectroscopy of 132 additional stars. Most have emission-line spectra, including luminous blue variables (LBVs) and candidate LBVs, Fe ii emission line stars, the B[e] supergiants, and the warm hypergiants. Many of these objects are spectroscopically similar and are often confused with each other. We examine their similarities and differences and propose the following guidelines that can be used to help distinguish these stars in future work. (1) The B[e] supergiants have emission lines of [O i] and [Fe ii] in their spectra. Most of the spectroscopically confirmed sgB[e] stars also have warm circumstellar dust in their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). (2) Confirmed LBVs do not have the [O i] emission lines in their spectra. Some LBVs have [Fe ii] emission lines, but not all. Their SEDs show free–free emission in the near-infrared but no evidence for warm dust . Their most important and defining characteristic is the S Dor-type variability. (3) The warm hypergiants spectroscopically resemble the LBVs in their dense wind state and the B[e] supergiants. However, they are very dusty. Some have [Fe ii] and [O i] emission in their spectra like the sgB[e] stars, but are distinguished by their A- and F-type absorption-line spectra. In contrast, the B[e] supergiant spectra have strong continua and few if any apparent absorption lines. Candidate LBVs should share the spectral characteristics of the confirmed LBVs with low outflow velocities and the lack of warm circumstellar dust.

  5. Amplified Arctic warming by phytoplankton under greenhouse warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho

    2015-05-12

    Phytoplankton have attracted increasing attention in climate science due to their impacts on climate systems. A new generation of climate models can now provide estimates of future climate change, considering the biological feedbacks through the development of the coupled physical-ecosystem model. Here we present the geophysical impact of phytoplankton, which is often overlooked in future climate projections. A suite of future warming experiments using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model that interacts with a marine ecosystem model reveals that the future phytoplankton change influenced by greenhouse warming can amplify Arctic surface warming considerably. The warming-induced sea ice melting and the corresponding increase in shortwave radiation penetrating into the ocean both result in a longer phytoplankton growing season in the Arctic. In turn, the increase in Arctic phytoplankton warms the ocean surface layer through direct biological heating, triggering additional positive feedbacks in the Arctic, and consequently intensifying the Arctic warming further. Our results establish the presence of marine phytoplankton as an important potential driver of the future Arctic climate changes.

  6. Global Warming Responses at the Primary Secondary Interface: 1. Students' Beliefs and Willingness to Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stannistreet, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Using survey methodology, students' beliefs, and willingness to act, about 16 specific actions related to global warming are compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those actions. In general there was a disparity between…

  7. Population risk perceptions of global warming in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agho, Kingsley; Stevens, Garry; Taylor, Mel; Barr, Margo; Raphael, Beverley

    2010-11-01

    According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), global warming has the potential to dramatically disrupt some of life's essential requirements for health, water, air and food. Understanding how Australians perceive the risk of global warming is essential for climate change policy and planning. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and socio-demographic factors associated with, high levels of perceived likelihood that global warming would worsen, concern for self and family and reported behaviour changes. A module of questions on global warming was incorporated into the New South Wales Population Health Survey in the second quarter of 2007. This Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) was completed by a representative sample of 2004 adults. The weighted sample was comparable to the Australian population. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted to examine the socio-demographic and general health factors. Overall 62.1% perceived that global warming was likely to worsen; 56.3% were very or extremely concerned that they or their family would be directly affected by global warming; and 77.6% stated that they had made some level of change to the way they lived their lives, because of the possibility of global warming. After controlling for confounding factors, multivariate analyses revealed that those with high levels of psychological distress were 2.17 (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.17; CI: 1.16-4.03; P=0.015) times more likely to be concerned about global warming than those with low psychological distress levels. Those with a University degree or equivalent and those who lived in urban areas were significantly more likely to think that global warming would worsen compared to those without a University degree or equivalent and those who lived in the rural areas. Females were significantly (AOR=1.69; CI: 1.23-2.33; P=0.001) more likely to report they had made changes to the way they lived their lives due to the risk of

  8. The Segue K giant survey. II. A catalog of distance determinations for the Segue K giants in the galactic halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Xiang-Xiang; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ma, Zhibo; Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; Beers, Timothy C.; Ivans, Inese I.; Jacobson, Heather R.; Johnson, Jennifer; Lee, Young Sun; Lucatello, Sara; Rockosi, Constance M.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Yanny, Brian; Zhao, Gang; Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We present an online catalog of distance determinations for 6036 K giants, most of which are members of the Milky Way's stellar halo. Their medium-resolution spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration are used to derive metallicities and rough gravity estimates, along with radial velocities. Distance moduli are derived from a comparison of each star's apparent magnitude with the absolute magnitude of empirically calibrated color-luminosity fiducials, at the observed (g – r) 0 color and spectroscopic [Fe/H]. We employ a probabilistic approach that makes it straightforward to properly propagate the errors in metallicities, magnitudes, and colors into distance uncertainties. We also fold in prior information about the giant-branch luminosity function and the different metallicity distributions of the SEGUE K-giant targeting sub-categories. We show that the metallicity prior plays a small role in the distance estimates, but that neglecting the luminosity prior could lead to a systematic distance modulus bias of up to 0.25 mag, compared to the case of using the luminosity prior. We find a median distance precision of 16%, with distance estimates most precise for the least metal-poor stars near the tip of the red giant branch. The precision and accuracy of our distance estimates are validated with observations of globular and open clusters. The stars in our catalog are up to 125 kpc from the Galactic center, with 283 stars beyond 50 kpc, forming the largest available spectroscopic sample of distant tracers in the Galactic halo.

  9. WHITE DWARF-RED DWARF SYSTEMS RESOLVED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE. II. FULL SNAPSHOT SURVEY RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farihi, J.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, S.

    2010-01-01

    Results are presented for a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys high-resolution imaging campaign of 90 white dwarfs with known or suspected low-mass stellar and substellar companions. Of the 72 targets that remain candidate and confirmed white dwarfs with near-infrared excess, 43 are spatially resolved into two or more components, and a total of 12 systems are potentially triples. For 68 systems where a comparison is possible, 50% have significant photometric distance mismatches between their white dwarf and M dwarf components, suggesting that white dwarf parameters derived spectroscopically are often biased due to the cool companion. Interestingly, 9 of the 30 binaries known to have emission lines are found to be visual pairs and hence widely separated, indicating an intrinsically active cool star and not irradiation from the white dwarf. There is a possible, slight deficit of earlier spectral types (bluer colors) among the spatially unresolved companions, exactly the opposite of expectations if significant mass is transferred to the companion during the common envelope phase. Using the best available distance estimates, the low-mass companions to white dwarfs exhibit a bimodal distribution in projected separation. This result supports the hypothesis that during the giant phases of the white dwarf progenitor, any unevolved companions either migrate inward to short periods of hours to days, or outward to periods of hundreds to thousands of years. No intermediate projected separations of a few to several AU are found among these pairs. However, a few double M dwarfs (within triples) are spatially resolved in this range, empirically demonstrating that such separations were readily detectable among the binaries with white dwarfs. A straightforward and testable prediction emerges: all spatially unresolved, low-mass stellar and substellar companions to white dwarfs should be in short-period orbits. This result has implications for substellar companion and

  10. The SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts - II. New FRB discoveries and their follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, S.; Keane, E. F.; Barr, E. D.; Jameson, A.; Petroff, E.; Johnston, S.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Caleb, M.; Eatough, R. P.; Flynn, C.; Green, J. A.; Jankowski, F.; Kramer, M.; Krishnan, V. Venkatraman; Morello, V.; Possenti, A.; Stappers, B.; Tiburzi, C.; van Straten, W.; Andreoni, I.; Butterley, T.; Chandra, P.; Cooke, J.; Corongiu, A.; Coward, D. M.; Dhillon, V. S.; Dodson, R.; Hardy, L. K.; Howell, E. J.; Jaroenjittichai, P.; Klotz, A.; Littlefair, S. P.; Marsh, T. R.; Mickaliger, M.; Muxlow, T.; Perrodin, D.; Pritchard, T.; Sawangwit, U.; Terai, T.; Tominaga, N.; Torne, P.; Totani, T.; Trois, A.; Turpin, D.; Niino, Y.; Wilson, R. W.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brânzaş, H.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Moursli, R. Cherkaoui El; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A. F.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Palma, I. Di; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Bojaddaini, I. El; Khayati, N. El; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Gregoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pǎvǎlaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzocca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2018-04-01

    We report the discovery of four Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) in the ongoing SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts at the Parkes Radio Telescope: FRBs 150610, 151206, 151230 and 160102. Our real-time discoveries have enabled us to conduct extensive, rapid multimessenger follow-up at 12 major facilities sensitive to radio, optical, X-ray, gamma-ray photons and neutrinos on time-scales ranging from an hour to a few months post-burst. No counterparts to the FRBs were found and we provide upper limits on afterglow luminosities. None of the FRBs were seen to repeat. Formal fits to all FRBs show hints of scattering while their intrinsic widths are unresolved in time. FRB 151206 is at low Galactic latitude, FRB 151230 shows a sharp spectral cut-off, and FRB 160102 has the highest dispersion measure (DM = 2596.1 ± 0.3 pc cm-3) detected to date. Three of the FRBs have high dispersion measures (DM > 1500 pc cm-3), favouring a scenario where the DM is dominated by contributions from the intergalactic medium. The slope of the Parkes FRB source counts distribution with fluences >2 Jy ms is α =-2.2^{+0.6}_{-1.2} and still consistent with a Euclidean distribution (α = -3/2). We also find that the all-sky rate is 1.7^{+1.5}_{-0.9}× 10^3FRBs/(4π sr)/day above {˜ }2{ }{Jy}{ }{ms} and there is currently no strong evidence for a latitude-dependent FRB sky rate.

  11. Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants, Stage II Protection of concrete - State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Ylva (CBI, Boraas (Sweden)); Henriksson, Gunilla (SP, Boraas (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    A pilot study on the degradation and corrosion of concrete in biological treatment plants was conducted in 2009/2010 in a Waste Refinery Project WR-27 'Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants'. The results showed that the concrete does not have sufficient resistance in the current aggressive plant environment. Furthermore, it is stated that some form of surface protection system is needed to ensure the good performance of concrete constructions, and that the system must withstand the aggressive environment and the traffic that occurs on site. Consequently, a new study was proposed in order to develop specifications for surface protection of concrete in aggressive food waste environments. Results from that study are presented in this report. The report includes various types of waterproofing/protection coating for concrete in biological treatment plants. A number of proposals from the industry are presented in the light of results from project WR-27, i.e., the materials must, among other things, withstand the aggressive leachate from waste food at temperatures up to 70 deg C, and some degree of wear. Some systems are compared in terms of technical material properties as reported by the manufacturer. It turns out that different testing methods were used, and the test results are thus generally not directly comparable. A proposal for a test program has been developed, focusing on chemical resistance and wear resistance. A test solution corresponding to leachate is specified. Laboratory tests for verification of the proposed methodology and future requirements are proposed, as well as test sites and follow-up in the field

  12. Arctic dimension of global warming

    OpenAIRE

    G. V. Alekseev

    2014-01-01

    A brief assessment of the global warming in the Arctic climate system with the emphasis on sea ice is presented. The Arctic region is coupled to the global climate system by the atmosphere and ocean circulation that providesa major contribution to the Arctic energy budget. On this basis using of special indices it is shown that amplification of warming in the Arctic is associated with the increasing of meridional heat transport from the low latitudes.

  13. Global Warming, Irreversibility and Learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Ulph, Alistair; Ulph, David

    1997-01-01

    A number of economists have argued that the literature on the irreversibility effect implies that current abatement of greenhouse gas emissions should be greater when there is the possibility of obtaining better information in the future about the potential damages from global warming than when there is no possibility of obtaining better information. In this paper the authors show that even the simplest model of global warming does not satisfy either of Epstein's (1980) sufficient conditions,...

  14. Global warming: A vicious circle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, J.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases the planet is already committed to regional droughts, storms, disruption of fisheries and the extinction of many plant and animal species. But current predictions of global warming do not take into account the reactions and interactions of the planet's land, ocean and ice masses to the rise in temperatures. It seems likely that the greenhouse effect will give rise to positive feedback reactions, leading to greater global warming than predicted

  15. Global warming and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The problems of pollution, global warming and renewable energy sources are not going to go away. Governments need to act with urgency if they are to produce a long-term energy policy. This paper looks at the current energy situation, and how this would project into the future without the instigation of radical changes. It concludes that nuclear is the best option available for averting a growing energy, pollution and global warming crisis. (author)

  16. Media narratives of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisner, M. [Syracuse Univ., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The way in which the North American print media are representing global warming was the focus of this paper. It was suggested that the way in which the media presents the issue and proposed responses to it, will influence how the public and decision-makers perceive and respond to the problem. This paper also presented examples demonstrating how nature and humanity's relationship to nature are being presented and what types of responses to global warming are being presented. The issue of who is responsible for acting to prevent or mitigate climate change was also discussed. It was shown that media narratives of global warming are not just stories of scientists debating the existence of global warming, but that they now largely accept global warming as a reality. However, the media continue to construct the problem in narrow technical, economic and anthropocentric terms. Mass media interpretation of global warming offer up a limited selection of problem definitions, reasons for acting and ways of addressing the problem. It was cautioned that this approach will likely promote futility, denial and apathy on the part of the public. 21 refs.

  17. Apical Periodontitis and Endodontic Treatment in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus: Comparative Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadi, Leena

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients compared with nondiabetic patients and to examine the effect of glycemic control on the prevalence of AP. Radiographs of a group of DM patients were compared with those of a matched nondiabetic group to identify AP. The diabetic group was subdivided according to the level of glycemic control into two subgroups: A well-controlled DM and a poorly controlled DM. The periapical index score was used to assess the periapical status. All groups were compared in regard to the presence of AP lesions, the number of end-odontically treated teeth (ET), and the percentage of failure of endodontically treated teeth (AP/ET ratio). Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0, Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used for all the analyses; p ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The prevalence of AP was higher in diabetic group than in the nondiabetic group (13.5 vs 11.9% respectively). Diabetic group had more teeth with endodontic treatment ET compared with nondiabetic group (4.18 vs 1.82% respectively); this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001) along with higher AP/ET ratio (27.7 vs 19.3 respectively). The poorly controlled DM group had a higher prevalence of AP lesions compared with the well-controlled DM group (18.29 vs 9.21 respectively). This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001); they also had a higher percentage of ET (5.55 vs 3.13% respectively) and AP/ ET ratio (32.0 vs 21.8% respectively). This survey demonstrates a higher prevalence of AP in DM patients compared with nondiabetic group, with an increased prevalence of persistent chronic AP. Compared with a well-controlled diabetic group, a poor glycemic control may be associated with a higher prevalence of AP and increased rate of endodontic failures. Counseling diabetic patients, particularly those with poor glycemic control, about the risk of

  18. The GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS). II. Metallicity distributions and alpha element abundances at fixed Galactic latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, O. A.; Zoccali, M.; Vasquez, S.; Hill, V.; Rejkuba, M.; Valenti, E.; Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Renzini, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Minniti, D.; Brown, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Aims: We investigate metallicity and α-element abundance gradients along a Galactic longitude strip, at latitude b ~ -4°, with the aim of providing observational constraints for the structure and origin of the Milky Way bulge. Methods: High-resolution (R ~ 22 500) spectra for 400 K giants, in four fields within -4.8° ≲ b ≲ -3.4° and -10° ≲ l ≲ +10°, were obtained within the GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS) project. To this sample we added another ~400 stars in Baade's Window at (l,b) = (1°,-4°), observed with the identical instrumental configuration: FLAMES GIRAFFE in Medusa mode with HR13 setup. All target stars lie within the red clump of the bulge colour-magnitude diagram, thus minimising contamination from the disc or halo stars. The spectroscopic stellar surface parameters were derived with an automatic method based on the GALA code, while the [Ca/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] abundances as a function of [Fe/H] were derived through a comparison with the synthetic spectra using MOOG. We constructed the metallicity distributions for the entire sample, and for each field individually, in order to investigate the presence of gradients or field-to-field variations in the shape of the distributions. Results: The metallicity distributions in the five fields are consistent with being drawn from a single parent population, indicating the absence of a gradient along the major axis of the Galactic bar. The global metallicity distribution is nicely fitted by two Gaussians. The metal-poor component is rather broad, with a mean at ⟨ [Fe/H] ⟩ = -0.31 dex and σ = 0.31 dex. The metal-rich component is narrower, with mean ⟨ [Fe/H] ⟩ = + 0.26 and σ = 0.2 dex. The [Mg/Fe] ratio follows a tight trend with [Fe/H], with enhancement with respect to solar in the metal-poor regime similar to the value observed for giant stars in the local thick disc. [Ca/Fe] abundances follow a similar trend, but with a considerably larger scatter than [Mg/Fe]. A decrease in [Mg/Fe] is

  19. Specific respiratory warm-up improves rowing performance and exertional dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volianitis, S; McConnell, A K; Koutedakis, Y; Jones, D A

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was a) to compare the effect of three different warm-up protocols upon rowing performance and perception of dyspnea, and b) to identify the functional significance of a respiratory warm-up. A group of well-trained club rowers (N = 14) performed a 6-min all-out rowing simulation (Concept II). We examined differences in mean power output and dyspnea measures (modified CR-Borg scale) under three different conditions: after a submaximal rowing warm-up (SWU), a specific rowing warm-up (RWU), and a specific rowing warm-up with the addition of a respiratory warm-up (RWUplus) protocol. Mean power output during the 6-min all-out rowing effort increased by 1.2% after the RWUplus compared with that obtained after the RWU (P < 0.05) which, in turn, was by 3.2% higher than the performance after the SWU (P < 0.01). Similarly, after the RWUplus, dyspnea was 0.6 +/- 0.1 (P < 0.05) units of the Borg scale lower compared with the dyspnea after the RWU and 0.8 +/- 0.2 (P < 0.05) units lower than the dyspnea after the SWU. These data suggest that a combination of a respiratory warm-up protocol together with a specific rowing warm-up is more effective than a specific rowing warm-up or a submaximal warm-up alone as a preparation for rowing performance.

  20. Unexpected Impacts of Global warming on Extreme Warm Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Compo, G. P.; McColl, C.; Penland, C.

    2017-12-01

    It is generally presumed that the likelihood of extreme warm spells around the globe has increased, and will continue to increase, due to global warming. However, we find that this is generally not true in three very different types of global observational datasets and uncoupled atmospheric model simulations of the 1959 to 2012 period with prescribed observed global SSTs, sea ice, and radiative forcing changes. While extreme warm spells indeed became more common in many regions, in many other regions their likelihood remained almost the same or even decreased from the first half to the second half of this period. Such regions of unexpected changes covered nearly 40 percent of the globe in both winter and summer. The basic reason for this was a decrease of temperature variability in such regions that offset or even negated the effect of the mean temperature shift on extreme warm spell probabilities. The possibility of such an impact on extreme value probabilities was highlighted in a recent paper by Sardeshmukh, Compo, and Penland (Journal of Climate 2015). The consistency of the changes in extreme warm spell probabilities among the different observational datasets and model simulations examined suggests that they are robust regional aspects of global warming associated with atmospheric circulation changes. This highlights the need for climate models to represent not just the mean regional temperature signals but also the changes in subseasonal temperature variability associated with global warming. However, current climate models (both CMIP3 and CMIP5) generally underestimate the magnitude of the changes in the atmospheric circulation and associated temperature variability. A likely major cause of this is their continuing underestimation of the magnitude of the spatial variation of tropical SST trends. By generating an overly spatially bland tropical SST warming in response to changes in radiative forcing, the models spuriously mute tropically

  1. Prevalence surveys as part of a strategic plan to prevent healthcare associated infections. The experience of the University Hospital "Federico II" of Naples, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montella, E; Triassi, M; Bellopede, R; Reis, W; Palladino, R; Di Silverio, P

    2014-01-01

    The care-associated infections (HAI) are the most serious complication associated with medical care. They are the cause of diseases for patients and economic damage to public health. The University "Federico II" of Naples decided to monitor the HAI, repeating the prevalence survey conducted earlier in 2011 in order to analyze the phenomenon of infection and to evaluate the possible correlation with risk factors. The Survey was conducted according to ECDC criteria. Considered that the study carried out in 2011 was conducted following the same methodology, to compare the results of the year 2012 the prevalence rates of both years were standardized. For the year 2012, the number of patients enrolled in the study and stratification of patients by age and sex were similar to data collected in 2011. It was very interesting to find the prevalence of HAI standardized reduced in 2012 compared to 2011. As a matter of fact, in fact, that the standardized prevalence of HAI for the year 2012 was 3.1%, one percentage point lower than in 2011 (4.4%). The practical training and direct regarded as the most appropriate approach in order to make health professionals aware in the field of health care-associated infections, as well as the system of selfcontrol peripheral for the correct application of the procedures, as well as epidemiological surveillance active, measured through rates of incidence, at the same time allow the monitoring of the phenomenon is infectious and the application of corrective measures that prevent its onset. The choice to make again an epidemiological study of prevalence with the same methodology ensures, in fact, two advantages: the comparability of the data, both at intra-company both at regional, national and international evaluation of the effectiveness of corrective actions.

  2. The Great Warming Brian Fagan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

  3. What's in a name? Commonalities and differences in public understanding of "climate change" and "global warming"

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmarsh, Lorraine E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from a survey of public understanding of climate change and global warming amongst residents in the south of England. Whereas much previous research has relied on survey checklists to measure public understanding of climate change, this study employed a more qualitative approach to reveal participants' unprompted conceptions of climate change and global warming. Overall, the findings show a tendency for the public to dissociate themselves from the causes, impact...

  4. Global warming and thermohaline circulation stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard A; Vellinga, Michael; Thorpe, Robert

    2003-09-15

    The Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) plays an important role in global climate. Theoretical and palaeoclimatic evidence points to the possibility of rapid changes in the strength of the THC, including a possible quasi-permanent shutdown. The climatic impacts of such a shutdown would be severe, including a cooling throughout the Northern Hemisphere, which in some regions is greater in magnitude than the changes expected from global warming in the next 50 years. Other climatic impacts would likely include a severe alteration of rainfall patterns in the tropics, the Indian subcontinent and Europe. Modelling the future behaviour of the THC focuses on two key questions. (i) Is a gradual weakening of the THC likely in response to global warming, and if so by how much? (ii) Are there thresholds beyond which rapid or irreversible changes in the THC are likely? Most projections of the response of the THC to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases suggest a gradual weakening over the twenty-first century. However, there is a wide variation between different models over the size of the weakening. Rapid or irreversible THC shutdown is considered a low-probability (but high-impact) outcome; however, some climate models of intermediate complexity do show the possibility of such events. The question of the future of the THC is beset with conceptual, modelling and observational uncertainties, but some current and planned projects show promise to make substantial progress in tackling these uncertainties in future.

  5. How warm days increase belief in global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaval, Lisa; Keenan, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.

    2014-02-01

    Climate change judgements can depend on whether today seems warmer or colder than usual, termed the local warming effect. Although previous research has demonstrated that this effect occurs, studies have yet to explain why or how temperature abnormalities influence global warming attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying psychology of this effect can help explain the public's reaction to climate change and inform approaches used to communicate the phenomenon. Across five studies, we find evidence of attribute substitution, whereby individuals use less relevant but available information (for example, today's temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less accessible information (for example, global climate change patterns) when making judgements. Moreover, we rule out alternative hypotheses involving climate change labelling and lay mental models. Ultimately, we show that present temperature abnormalities are given undue weight and lead to an overestimation of the frequency of similar past events, thereby increasing belief in and concern for global warming.

  6. Frontiers and challenges in warm dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Desjarlais, Michael; Redmer, Ronald; Trickey, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Warm Dense Matter (WDM) occupies a loosely defined region of phase space intermediate between solid, liquid, gas, and plasma, and typically shares characteristics of two or more of these phases. WDM is generally associated with the combination of strongly coupled ions and moderately degenerate electrons, and careful attention to quantum physics and electronic structure is essential. The lack of a small perturbation parameter greatly limits approximate attempts at its accurate description. Since WDM resides at the intersection of solid state and high energy density physics, many high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments pass through this difficult region of phase space. Thus, understanding and modeling WDM is key to the success of experiments on diverse facilities. These include the National Ignition Campaign centered on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), pulsed-power driven experiments on the Z machine, ion-beam-driven WDM experiments on the NDCX-II, and fundamental WDM research at the Linear Coherent...

  7. Peranan Environmental Accounting terhadap Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Martusa, Riki

    2011-01-01

    This article explores about is global warming. The distortion of nature causes global warming. Industrial sector is one of global warming incurred. Some nations create a group to cope this matter. They try to reduce carbon emission as one of global warming causes by controlling industrial carbon emission through financial reporting. This article explores normatively roles of environmental accounting in cope with global warming.  

  8. Climate warming drives local extinction: Evidence from observation and experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Anne Marie; Stanton, Maureen L; Harte, John

    2018-02-01

    Despite increasing concern about elevated extinction risk as global temperatures rise, it is difficult to confirm causal links between climate change and extinction. By coupling 25 years of in situ climate manipulation with experimental seed introductions and both historical and current plant surveys, we identify causal, mechanistic links between climate change and the local extinction of a widespread mountain plant ( Androsace septentrionalis ). Climate warming causes precipitous declines in population size by reducing fecundity and survival across multiple life stages. Climate warming also purges belowground seed banks, limiting the potential for the future recovery of at-risk populations under ameliorated conditions. Bolstered by previous reports of plant community shifts in this experiment and in other habitats, our findings not only support the hypothesis that climate change can drive local extinction but also foreshadow potentially widespread species losses in subalpine meadows as climate warming continues.

  9. Climate warming drives local extinction: Evidence from observation and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Anne Marie; Stanton, Maureen L.; Harte, John

    2018-01-01

    Despite increasing concern about elevated extinction risk as global temperatures rise, it is difficult to confirm causal links between climate change and extinction. By coupling 25 years of in situ climate manipulation with experimental seed introductions and both historical and current plant surveys, we identify causal, mechanistic links between climate change and the local extinction of a widespread mountain plant (Androsace septentrionalis). Climate warming causes precipitous declines in population size by reducing fecundity and survival across multiple life stages. Climate warming also purges belowground seed banks, limiting the potential for the future recovery of at-risk populations under ameliorated conditions. Bolstered by previous reports of plant community shifts in this experiment and in other habitats, our findings not only support the hypothesis that climate change can drive local extinction but also foreshadow potentially widespread species losses in subalpine meadows as climate warming continues. PMID:29507884

  10. The politics of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, N.

    1991-01-01

    The probable warming of the world over the next few decades due to human activity presents a unique threat. The threat of global warming has been brought about by the activities of the entire human race, and only action by a large part of the human race can slow down the process or halt it. Other unwanted effects of industrial activity are trans-national, and require international agreements to regulate them, most obviously radioactivity from nuclear power accidents, acid rain and river pollution; but climatic change, unlike these, is global. International negotiations are going on now to deal with the problem of global warming, mostly by reducing the emission of gases that contribute to it. These are preliminary, yet already different perceptions and conflicting interests are emerging. The aim of the present negotiations is a convention for the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in June 1992, the so-called ''Earth Summit''. (author)

  11. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and copper (II) complexes of N, N' – bis(benzoin)ethylenediiminato have been prepared and characterized by infrared, elemental analysis, conductivity measurements and solubility. The potentiometric, and elemental analyses studies of the complexes revealed 1:1 ...

  12. Global warming at the summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    During the recent summit meeting between Russian President Vladimir Putin and U.S. President Bill Clinton, the two leaders reaffirmed their concerns about global warming and the need to continue to take actions to try to reduce the threat.In a June 4 joint statement, they stressed the need to develop flexibility mechanisms, including international emissions trading, under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They also noted that initiatives to reduce the risk of greenhouse warming, including specific mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, could potentially promote economic growth.

  13. Global Warming: Physics and Facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, B.G.; Hafemeister, D.; Scribner, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO 2 ; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment

  14. Efficiency, sustainability and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, Richard T.; Bishop, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    Economic analyses of global warming have typically been grounded in the theory of economic efficiency. Such analyses may be inappropriate because many of the underlying concerns about climate change are rooted not in efficiency, but in the intergenerational allocation of economic endowments. A simple economic model is developed which demonstrates that an efficient economy is not necessarily a sustainable economy. This result leads directly to questions about the policy relevance of several economic studies of the issue. We then consider policy alternatives to address global warming in the context of economies with the dual objectives of efficiency and sustainability, with particular attention to carbon-based taxes

  15. Ten-Year Changes in the Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Physical Activity among Polish Adults Aged 20 to 74 Years. Results of the National Multicenter Health Surveys WOBASZ (2003-2005 and WOBASZ II (2013-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kwaśniewska

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate ten-year changes in physical activity (PA patterns and sociodemographic determinants among adult residents of Poland.The study comprised two independent samples of randomly selected adults aged 20-74 years participating in the National Multicentre Health Survey WOBASZ (2003-2005; n = 14572 and WOBASZ II (2013-2014; n = 5694. In both surveys the measurements were performed by six academic centers in all 16 voivodships of Poland (108 measurement points in each survey. Sociodemographic data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire in both surveys. Physical activity was assessed in three domains: leisure-time, occupational and commuting physical activity.Leisure-time PA changed substantially between the surveys (p<0.001. The prevalence of subjects being active on most days of week fell in both genders in the years 2003-2014 (37.4% vs 27.3% in men; 32.7% vs 28.3% in women. None or occasional activity increased from 49.6% to 56.8% in men, while remained stable in women (55.2% vs 54.9%. In both WOBASZ surveys the likelihood of physical inactivity was higher in less educated individuals, smokers and those living in large agglomerations (p<0.01. No significant changes were observed in occupational activity in men between the surveys, while in women percentage of sedentary work increased from 43.4% to % 49.4% (p<0.01. Commuting PA decreased significantly in both genders (p<0.001. About 79.3% of men and 71.3% of women reported no active commuting in the WOBASZ II survey.The observed unfavourable changes in PA emphasize the need for novel intervention concepts in order to reverse this direction. Further detailed monitoring of PA patterns in Poland is of particular importance.

  16. Type Ia Supernova Properties as a Function of the Distance to the Host Galaxy in the SDSS-II SN Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbany, Lluis [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Barcelona (Spain); et al.

    2012-08-20

    We use type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey to search for dependencies between SN Ia properties and the projected distance to the host galaxy center, using the distance as a proxy for local galaxy properties (local star-formation rate, local metallicity, etc.). The sample consists of almost 200 spectroscopically or photometrically confirmed SNe Ia at redshifts below 0.25. The sample is split into two groups depending on the morphology of the host galaxy. We fit light-curves using both MLCS2k2 and SALT2, and determine color (AV, c) and light-curve shape (delta, x1) parameters for each SN Ia, as well as its residual in the Hubble diagram. We then correlate these parameters with both the physical and the normalized distances to the center of the host galaxy and look for trends in the mean values and scatters of these parameters with increasing distance. The most significant (at the 4-sigma level) finding is that the average fitted AV from MLCS2k2 and c from SALT2 decrease with the projected distance for SNe Ia in spiral galaxies. We also find indications that SNe in elliptical galaxies tend to have narrower light-curves if they explode at larger distances, although this may be due to selection effects in our sample. We do not find strong correlations between the residuals of the distance moduli with respect to the Hubble flow and the galactocentric distances, which indicates a limited correlation between SN magnitudes after standardization and local host metallicity.

  17. Comparison of food consumption and nutrient intake assessed with three dietary assessment methods: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straßburg, Andrea; Eisinger-Watzl, Marianne; Krems, Carolin; Roth, Alexander; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2017-11-30

    Comparison of food consumption, nutrient intake and underreporting of diet history interviews, 24-h recalls and weighed food records to gain further insight into specific strength and limitations of each method and to support the choice of the adequate dietary assessment method. For 677 participants (14-80 years) of the German National Nutrition Survey II confidence intervals for food consumption and nutrient intake were calculated on basis of bootstrapping samples, Cohen's d for the relevance of differences, and intraclass correlation coefficients for the degree of agreement of dietary assessment methods. Low energy reporters were identified with Goldberg cut-offs. In 7 of 18 food groups diet history interviews showed higher consumption means than 24-h recalls and weighed food records. Especially mean values of food groups perceived as socially desirable, such as fruit and vegetables, were highest for diet history interviews. For "raw" and "cooked vegetables", the diet history interviews showed a mean consumption of 144 and 109 g/day in comparison with 68 and 70 g/day in 24-h recalls and 76 and 75 g/day in weighed food records, respectively. For "fruit", diet history interviews showed a mean consumption of 256 g/day in comparison with 164 g/day in 24-h recalls and 147 g/day in weighed food records. No major differences regarding underreporting of energy intake were found between dietary assessment methods. With regard to estimating food consumption and nutrient intake, 24-h recalls and weighed food records showed smaller differences and better agreement than pairwise comparisons with diet history interviews.

  18. Medical aspects of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganathan, D; Rom, W N

    2001-08-01

    Global warming is caused by increased carbon dioxide (CO2)resulting in a greenhouse effect with enhanced warming of the earth. Measurements of CO2 show a steady increase over the past 30 years caused by the burning of fossil fuels and from the loss of natural CO2 sinks. A 100-year increase in global temperature by 0.3 to 0.6 degrees C is reflected in atmospheric warming, glacier shrinkage, and rising sea levels. Planetary ecosystem dynamics are being altered, challenging public health. It is predicted that morbidity and mortality will increase as a result of heat stress, as seen in recent heat waves in the U.S. Weather disaster effects will increase in number and magnitude, and both noninfectious and infectious diseases may flourish. A significant challenge will be the changes in life cycles of microbial species due to the warmer environs. Specific increases in incidence have been noted for vector-borne diseases, in addition to pulmonary findings, cardiovascular morbidity, neurological diseases, and occupational diseases. Warming can be demonstrated by the observed changes that have already occurred in the environment, particularly the thinning of polar ice caps. The United States Global Research Program has been established to coordinate research activities, which responds to issues deemed important by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Research issues pertain to the scientific uncertainties in the greenhouse effect, temperature measurements at various atmospheric levels and latitudes, and impact on biota redistribution. The Kyoto Protocol has mandated specific solutions, e.g., a 7% reduction in CO2 levels within 10 years. Future recommendations involve supporting new technologies that are available to decrease emissions as well as understanding the role that occupational and environmental specialists have in global warming recognition. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Separating warming-induced drought from drought-induced warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Michael; Wolf, Sebastian; Yin, Dongqin

    2017-04-01

    A very widely held public perception is that increasing temperature is a cause of "drying" and drought. The atmospheric-focused meteorologic community has often assumed that the warmer temperatures increase evaporation and that this contributes to worsening drought via atmospheric demand. On the other hand, the agricultural and hydrologic scientific communities have a very different interpretation linked to water supply, with the lack of available water leading to reduced evaporation and enhanced surface warming. This is a classic chicken-or-the-egg problem that has resisted definitive explanation probably due to the lack of radiative observations at suitable spatial and temporal scales. Here we use recently released NASA CERES satellite radiation data to study the 2013-2014 Californian drought. We evaluate whether the observed increase in near-surface air temperature should be considered a forcing (as per standard meteorological approaches) or a feedback (as per standard agricultural and hydrologic approaches). We find that the radiative perturbation associated with the drought has a distinct radiative signature for more incoming shortwave- and less incoming longwave-radiation. That result, coupled with estimates of decreased evapotranspiration show that around two-third of the warming has a radiative origin and the remaining one-third is the result of a surface feedback from reduced evaporative cooling. Hence, the radiative perturbation during the recent Californian drought was distinctly different from the projected radiative perturbation of the enhanced greenhouse effect. We conclude that the warming experienced during meteorological drought is very different from the warming projected as a consequence of the enhanced greenhouse effect.

  20. Amplified Arctic warming by phytoplankton under greenhouse warming

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Bader, Jürgen; Rolph, Rebecca; Kwon, Minho

    2015-01-01

    One of the important impacts of marine phytoplankton on climate systems is the geophysical feedback by which chlorophyll and the related pigments in phytoplankton absorb solar radiation and then change sea surface temperature. Yet such biogeophysical impact is still not considered in many climate projections by state-of-the-art climate models, nor is its impact on the future climate quantified. This study shows that, by conducting global warming simulations with and without an active marine e...

  1. The warm pool in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S.R.

    The structure of the warm pool (region with temperature greater than 28 degrees C) in the equatorial Indian Ocean is examined and compared with its counterpart in the Pacific Ocean using the climatology of Levitus. Though the Pacific warm pool...

  2. Impacts of nighttime post-anthesis warming on rice productivity and grain quality in East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Dong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of nighttime post-anthesis warming on rice productivity and grain quality in East China were evaluated for two cultivars, II You 128, an indica rice, and Wuyunjing 7, a japonica rice. Warming by 3.0 °C stimulated the nighttime respiration rate and decreased the photosynthesis rate, resulting in significant decreases of 21.2% and 24.9% in aboveground biomass accumulation for II You 128 and Wuyunjing 7, respectively. Warming significantly reduced the rates of seed setting and grain filling, especially of inferior kernels (those lower in panicles, while the filling rate of superior kernels remained almost unchanged. As a result, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were respectively 3.7% and 30.0% lower for II You 128 and 12.8% and 34.3% for Wuyunjing 7 in warmed plots than in the unwarmed control. Nighttime warming also significantly reduced the grain milling and appearance quality of both varieties. More negative effects of warming on inferior than on superior kernels were found. The above results have important implications for rice variety cultivation in East China.

  3. Cosmic rays and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlykin, A.D. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sloan, T. [Lancaster University (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A.W. [Durham University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds could contribute to global warming. The argument is that the observed increased solar activity during the last century caused a decrease in the ionization due to cosmic rays since the lower energy cosmic particles are deflected by the magnetic field created by the increasing solar wind. This would lead to a decrease in cloud cover allowing more heating of the earth by the sun. Meteorological data combined to solar activity observations and simulations show that any effect of solar activity on clouds and the climate is likely to be through irradiance rather than cosmic rays. Since solar irradiance transfers 8 orders of magnitude more energy to the atmosphere than cosmic rays it is more plausible that this can produce a real effect. The total contribution of variable solar activity to global warming is shown to be less than 14% of the total temperature rise. (A.C.)

  4. Global Warming Blame the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, N

    1997-01-01

    Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

  5. Global Warming and Financial Umbrellas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosi, C.; Moretto, M.

    2001-10-01

    A new instrument for hedging weather risks has made its appearance in the financial arena. Trade in 'weather derivatives' has taken off in the US, and interest is growing elsewhere. Whilst such contracts may be simply interpreted as a new tool for solving a historical problem, the question addressed in this paper is if, besides other factors, the appearance of weather derivatives is somehow related to anthropogenic climate change. Our tentative answer is positive. Since 'global warming' does not simply mean an increase in averaged temperatures, but increased climate variability, and increased frequency and magnitude of weather extremes, derivative contracts may potentially become a useful tool for hedging some weather risks, insofar as they may provide coverage at a lower cost than standard insurance schemes. Keywords: Global warming, climate variability, insurance coverage, weather derivatives

  6. Hydrological consequences of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Norman L.

    2009-06-01

    The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

  7. Nitrous oxide and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeze, C.

    1994-01-01

    The climatic impact of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions is calculated annually for the period 1900-2100, using a globally averaged computer model. Emissions of N 2 O have been increasing up top an estimated 12.7 Tg N/year in 1990 by human activities and global warming. If the current trends continue, emissions are estimated to be 25.7 Tg N/year by 2100, with fossil-fuel use and human food production as major contributors. The resulting equilibrium temperature increase (0.37 degree C) exceeds the forcing derived from climate goals that may be considered environmentally desirable. Limiting equilibrium warming to 0.1 degree C per decade would require anthropogenic-induced and warming-induced N 2 O emissions to be reduced by 80% relative to current trends and to be stabilized from 2050, so that 10.7 Tg N/year is emitted by 2100. To stabilize the current concentration or climate forcing of N 2 , substantially larger cuts are needed. However, even in an optimistic scenario, emissions keep increasing up to 14.4. Tg N/year by 2100. A major reason is the close connection between N 2 O emissions and human food production. Synthetic fertilizer use, land-use change, and production of manure increase almost inevitably as the human population grows. Thus if global warming is to be limited to 0.1 degree C per decade it may be necessary to set emission reductions for other greenhouse gases relatively high to compensate for growth in climatic forcing by N 2 O

  8. Global warming: knowledge and views of Iranian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Salehpour, Sousan; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Boyes, Eddie; Stanisstreet, Martin; Attarchi, Mirsaeed

    2013-04-06

    Study of students' knowledge about global warming can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global warming. To assess students' knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed "if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter" and "incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global warming". 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought "the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide" and "presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect". 68.4% believed "not using cars so much is a cure for global warming". While a student's 'cognitive score' could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P<0.01) and grade 1 students (P<0.001) but there was no statistically significant difference between students of different regions (P>0.05). In general, students' knowledge about global warming was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students' mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global warming. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter.

  9. Movement of global warming issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Taishi

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and the movement of the global warming issues as seen from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Conference of the Parties: COP) and the policy discussions in Japan. From the Fifth Assessment Report published by IPCC, it shows the following items: (1) increasing trends of greenhouse effect gas emissions during 1970 and 2010, (2) trends in world's greenhouse effect gas emissions according to income segment, and (3) factor analysis of changes in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Next, it takes up the greenhouse gas emission scenario of IPCC, shows the scenario due to temperature rise pattern, and introduces the assumption of emission reduction due to BECCS. Regarding the 2 deg. scenario that has become a hot topic in international negotiations, it describes the reason for difficulties in its implementation. In addition, as the international trends of global warming, it describes the agreement of numerical targets for emissions at COP3 (Kyoto Conference) and the subsequent movements. Finally, it introduces Japan's measures against global warming, as well as the future movement. (A.O.)

  10. Global warming: Economic policy responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  11. Greenhouse gases and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    From previous articles we have learned about the complexities of our environment, its atmosphere and its climate system. we have also learned that climate change and, therefore global warm and cool periods are naturally occurring phenomena. Moreover, all scientific evidence suggests that global warming, are likely to occur again naturally in the future. However, we have not yet considered the role of the rates of climate change in affecting the biosphere. It appears that how quickly the climate changes may be more important than the change itself. In light of this concern, let us now consider the possibility that, is due to human activity. We may over the next century experience global warming at rates and magnitudes unparalleled in recent geologic history. The following questions are answered; What can we learn from past climates? What do we know about global climates over the past 100 years? What causes temperature change? What are the greenhouse gases? How much have concentration of greenhouse gases increased in recent years? Why are increases in concentrations of greenhouse of concern? What is the e nhanced greenhouse effect ? How can human activity impact the global climate? What are some reasons for increased concentrations of greenhouse gases? What are fossil fuel and how do they transform into greenhouse gases? Who are the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases? Why are canada per capita emissions of greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)

  12. Exposure of UK industrial plumbers to asbestos, Part II: Awareness and responses of plumbers to working with asbestos during a survey in parallel with personal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Delphine; Burdett, Garry

    2007-03-01

    Throughout the European Union, millions tonnes of asbestos were used in the manufacture of products for building and for industrial installations. Today, in the UK, it is estimated that over half a million non-domestic premises alone have asbestos-containing materials in them and it is recognized that those working in building maintenance trades continue to be at significant risk. In part II, the awareness of UK plumbers to when they are working with asbestos was investigated and compared with the monitored levels reported in part I. The plumbers were issued by post with passive samplers, activity logs to monitor a working week and a questionnaire. The activity logs were used to assess whether maintenance workers were knowingly or unknowingly exposed to airborne asbestos fibres during a course of a working week. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on their: age, employment status, current and past perception of the frequency which they work with asbestos and knowledge of the precautions that should be taken to limit exposure and risk. Approximately 20% of workers reported on the sample log that they had worked with asbestos. There was a high correlation (93%) between the sampling log replies that they were knowingly working with asbestos and measured asbestos on the passive sampler. However, some 60% of the samples had >5 microm long asbestos structures found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis suggesting that the plumbers were aware of about only one-third of their contacts with asbestos materials throughout the week. This increased to just over one half of the plumbers being aware of their contact based on the results for phase contrast microscopy (PCM) countable asbestos fibres. The results from the questionnaire found that over half of the plumbers replying thought that they disturb asbestos only once a year and 90% of them thought they would work with asbestos for<10 h year-1. Their expectations and awareness of work with

  13. Does Climate Literacy Matter? A Case Study of U.S. Students' Level of Concern about Anthropogenic Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Educators seeking to address global warming in their classrooms face numerous challenges, including the question of whether student opinions about anthropogenic global warming (AGW) can change in response to increased knowledge about the climate system. This article analyzes survey responses from 458 students at a primarily undergraduate…

  14. A HERSCHEL SURVEY OF THE [N II] 205 {mu}m LINE IN LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: THE [N II] 205 {mu}m EMISSION AS A STAR FORMATION RATE INDICATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yinghe; Gao Yu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C. Kevin; Lord, S.; Howell, J.; Appleton, P.; Mazzarella, J.; Schulz, B. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Isaak, K. G. [ESA Astrophysics Missions Division, ESTEC, PO Box 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and ITCP, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Diaz-Santos, T.; Surace, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Iwasawa, K. [ICREA and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Leech, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Petric, A. O. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Van der Werf, P. P., E-mail: yhzhao@ipac.caltech.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    We present, for the first time, a statistical study of [N II] 205 {mu}m line emission for a large sample of local luminous infrared galaxies using Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SPIRE FTS) data. For our sample of galaxies, we investigate the correlation between the [N II] luminosity (L{sub [N{sub II]}}) and the total infrared luminosity (L{sub IR}), as well as the dependence of L{sub [N{sub II]}}/L{sub IR} ratio on L{sub IR}, far-infrared colors (IRAS f{sub 60}/f{sub 100}), and the [O III] 88 {mu}m to [N II] luminosity ratio. We find that L{sub [N{sub II]}} correlates almost linearly with L{sub IR} for non-active galactic nucleus galaxies (all having L{sub IR} < 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }) in our sample, which implies that L{sub [N{sub II]}} can serve as a star formation rate tracer which is particularly useful for high-redshift galaxies that will be observed with forthcoming submillimeter spectroscopic facilities such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. Our analysis shows that the deviation from the mean L{sub [N{sub II]}}-L{sub IR} relation correlates with tracers of the ionization parameter, which suggests that the scatter in this relation is mainly due to the variations in the hardness, and/or ionization parameter, of the ambient galactic UV field among the sources in our sample.

  15. Impact and prevention on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heon Ryeol

    2003-11-01

    This book deals with impact and prevention on global warming with eight chapters, which introduce the change after the earth was born and natural environment, how is global atmospheric environment under the control of radiant energy? What does global warming look with the earth history like? What's the status of global warming so far? How does climate change happen? What is the impact by global warming and climate change and for preservation of global environment of 21 century with consumption of energy, measure and prospect on global warming. It has reference, index and three appendixes.

  16. Global warming and obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R; Ji, M; Zhang, S

    2018-02-01

    Global warming and the obesity epidemic are two unprecedented challenges mankind faces today. A literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO and Scopus for articles published until July 2017 that reported findings on the relationship between global warming and the obesity epidemic. Fifty studies were identified. Topic-wise, articles were classified into four relationships - global warming and the obesity epidemic are correlated because of common drivers (n = 21); global warming influences the obesity epidemic (n = 13); the obesity epidemic influences global warming (n = 13); and global warming and the obesity epidemic influence each other (n = 3). We constructed a conceptual model linking global warming and the obesity epidemic - the fossil fuel economy, population growth and industrialization impact land use and urbanization, motorized transportation and agricultural productivity and consequently influences global warming by excess greenhouse gas emission and the obesity epidemic by nutrition transition and physical inactivity; global warming also directly impacts obesity by food supply/price shock and adaptive thermogenesis, and the obesity epidemic impacts global warming by the elevated energy consumption. Policies that endorse deployment of clean and sustainable energy sources, and urban designs that promote active lifestyles, are likely to alleviate the societal burden of global warming and obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  17. Global warming-setting the stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Most of us have heard or read about global warming. However, the messages we receive are often in conflict, raising more questions than answer. Is global warming a good or a bad thing? has it already started or is it part of our future? Are we, or are we not doing anything about it? Should we be concerned? This primer on Global Warming is designed to clear up some of this confusion by providing basic scientific information on global warming issue. It is clear that there is still much to learn about global warming. However, it is also clear that there is a lot that we already know - and that dose provide cause for concern. We must understand the global warming issue if we are to make wise decisions and take responsible actions in response to the challenges and opportunities posed by global warming. Chapter 1 of 'the primer on global Warming' set the stage with a brief overview of science of global warming within the context of climate change. In addition, it introduces the specific issues that surround the global warming problem. As far as the science of global warming is concerned the following questions are discussed. What is global climate? Is climate change natural? What causes climate to vary on a global scale? How does the composition of the atmosphere relate to climate change. but there are also certain issues discussed here which surround the global warming such as: If climate varies naturally, why is there a concern about 'global warming'? What are the potential consequences of 'global warning'. What human activities contribute to 'global warming'. (Author)

  18. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A W

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variatio...

  19. Plant movements and climate warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Frenne, Pieter; Coomes, David A.; De Schrijver, An

    2014-01-01

    range, and reflecting movement scenarios of up to 1600 km. Furthermore, to determine temperature and forest-structural effects, the plants and soils were experimentally warmed and shaded. •We found significantly positive effects of the difference between the temperature of the sites of seed and soil...... performance. •Our results suggest that abiotic and biotic soil characteristics can shape climate change-driven plant movements by affecting growth of nonlocal migrants, a mechanism which should be integrated into predictions of future range shifts....

  20. [Medical consequences of global warming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swynghedauw, Bernard

    2009-04-01

    The global warming of the planet and its anthropogenic origin are no longer debatable. Nevertheless, from a medical point of view, while the epidemiological consequences of the warming are rather well-known, the biological consequences are still poorly documented. This is a good example of evolutionary (or darwinian) medicine. The research strategy of this systematic review is based on both PubMed during the period of 2000-2007 and several reviews articles for the period >2000. From a medical point of view, there are four types of consequences. 1-The simple elevation of the average external temperature is accompanied by an increased global mortality and morbidity, the mortality/external temperature is a J curve, with the warm branch more pronounced than the cold one. A recent study on 50 different cities had confirmed that global, and more specifically cardiovascular mortalities were enhanced at the two extreme of the temperatures. 2-The acute heatwaves, such as that which happened in France in August 2003, have been studied in detail by several groups. The mortality which was observed during the recent heatwaves was not compensated by harvesting, strongly suggesting that we were dealing with heat stroke, and that such an increased mortality was more reflecting the limits of our adaptational capacities than aggravation of a previously altered health status. 3-Climate changes have modified the repartition and virulence of pathogenic agents (dengue, malaria...) and above all their vectors. Such modifications were exponential and are likely to reflect the biological properties of parasites. 4-Indirect consequences of global warming include variations in the hydraulic cycle, the new form of tropical hurricanes and many different changes affecting both biodiversity and ecosystems. They will likely result in an increased level of poverty. These finding gave rise to several basic biological questions, rarely evoked, and that concern the limits of the adaptational

  1. A 1.4 deg2 blind survey for C II], C III] and C IV at z ˜ 0.7-1.5 - I. Nature, morphologies and equivalent widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroe, Andra; Sobral, David; Matthee, Jorryt; Calhau, João; Oteo, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    While traditionally associated with active galactic nuclei (AGN), the properties of the C II] (λ = 2326 Å), C III] (λ, λ = 1907, 1909 Å) and C IV (λ, λ = 1549, 1551 Å) emission lines are still uncertain as large, unbiased samples of sources are scarce. We present the first blind, statistical study of C II], C III] and C IV emitters at z ˜ 0.68, 1.05, 1.53, respectively, uniformly selected down to a flux limit of ˜4 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-1 through a narrow-band survey covering an area of ˜1.4 deg2 over COSMOS and UDS. We detect 16 C II], 35 C III] and 17 C IV emitters, whose nature we investigate using optical colours as well as Hubble Space Telescope (HST), X-ray, radio and far-infrared data. We find that z ˜ 0.7 C II] emitters are consistent with a mixture of blue (UV slope β = -2.0 ± 0.4) star-forming (SF) galaxies with discy HST structure and AGN with Seyfert-like morphologies. Bright C II] emitters have individual X-ray detections as well as high average black hole accretion rates (BHARs) of ˜0.1 M⊙ yr-1. C III] emitters at z ˜ 1.05 trace a general population of SF galaxies, with β = -0.8 ± 1.1, a variety of optical morphologies, including isolated and interacting galaxies and low BHAR (frame equivalent widths (EWs) that could be as large as 50-100 Å. AGN or spatial offsets between the UV continuum stellar disc and the line-emitting regions may explain the large EW. These bright C II], C III] and C IV emitters are ideal candidates for spectroscopic follow-up to fully unveil their nature.

  2. Forecasting phenology under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Inés; Primack, Richard B; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J; Ellwood, Elizabeth; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Sang Don; Kobori, Hiromi; Silander, John A

    2010-10-12

    As a consequence of warming temperatures around the world, spring and autumn phenologies have been shifting, with corresponding changes in the length of the growing season. Our understanding of the spatial and interspecific variation of these changes, however, is limited. Not all species are responding similarly, and there is significant spatial variation in responses even within species. This spatial and interspecific variation complicates efforts to predict phenological responses to ongoing climate change, but must be incorporated in order to build reliable forecasts. Here, we use a long-term dataset (1953-2005) of plant phenological events in spring (flowering and leaf out) and autumn (leaf colouring and leaf fall) throughout Japan and South Korea to build forecasts that account for these sources of variability. Specifically, we used hierarchical models to incorporate the spatial variability in phenological responses to temperature to then forecast species' overall and site-specific responses to global warming. We found that for most species, spring phenology is advancing and autumn phenology is getting later, with the timing of events changing more quickly in autumn compared with the spring. Temporal trends and phenological responses to temperature in East Asia contrasted with results from comparable studies in Europe, where spring events are changing more rapidly than are autumn events. Our results emphasize the need to study multiple species at many sites to understand and forecast regional changes in phenology.

  3. Population growth and global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, R.V.

    2009-01-01

    When I was born in 1930, the human population of the world was a mere 2 billion. Today, it has already reached 6.8 billion, and is projected to reach 9.1 billion by 2050. That is unsustainable. It is slowly beginning to dawn on us that Global Warming is the result of increasing human CO2 emissions, and the more people there are in the world, the worse it will become. Ultimately, it is the sky that will prove to be the limit to our numbers. The developed countries of the world are the most affluent, and also the most effluent, so we must lead by example and contain our own population growth and per capita emissions. We also have a big debt to repay to former colonial territories in Africa, Asia and South America, who desperately need our help to contain their excessive rates of population growth. Belgian and Dutch obstetricians and gynaecologists can play a critical role in this endeavour. After all, we already have a pill that will stop global warming – the oral contraceptive pill. PMID:25478068

  4. Economic approaches to greenhouse warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Global environmental problems raise a host of major policy questions. They are all scientifically complex and controversial, and no scientific consensus is likely to emerge until irreversible decisions have been made. The costs and benefits of these changes transcend national boundaries, and nations, which cannot appropriate the global costs and benefits of such changes, are unlikely to be able or willing to make efficient decisions on how to combat these global externalities. In addition, these concerns sometimes have impacts over hundreds of years and thereby strain political decision making, which often functions effectively only when the crisis is at hand. This chapter considers some of the economic issues involved in deciding how to react to the threat of global warming. The author first reviews the theory and evidence on the greenhouse effect. He then presents evidence on the impacts of greenhouse warming, the costs of stabilizing climate, and the kinds of adaptations that might be available. In the final section, he reviews the policy initiatives that nations might follow in the near term

  5. Forecasting phenology under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Inés; Primack, Richard B.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ellwood, Elizabeth; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Sang Don; Kobori, Hiromi; Silander, John A.

    2010-01-01

    As a consequence of warming temperatures around the world, spring and autumn phenologies have been shifting, with corresponding changes in the length of the growing season. Our understanding of the spatial and interspecific variation of these changes, however, is limited. Not all species are responding similarly, and there is significant spatial variation in responses even within species. This spatial and interspecific variation complicates efforts to predict phenological responses to ongoing climate change, but must be incorporated in order to build reliable forecasts. Here, we use a long-term dataset (1953–2005) of plant phenological events in spring (flowering and leaf out) and autumn (leaf colouring and leaf fall) throughout Japan and South Korea to build forecasts that account for these sources of variability. Specifically, we used hierarchical models to incorporate the spatial variability in phenological responses to temperature to then forecast species' overall and site-specific responses to global warming. We found that for most species, spring phenology is advancing and autumn phenology is getting later, with the timing of events changing more quickly in autumn compared with the spring. Temporal trends and phenological responses to temperature in East Asia contrasted with results from comparable studies in Europe, where spring events are changing more rapidly than are autumn events. Our results emphasize the need to study multiple species at many sites to understand and forecast regional changes in phenology. PMID:20819816

  6. 85Kr induced global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    It's well known that the trace atmospheric constituent as 85 Kr is at present about 10 6 cm -3 and increasing considerably (twice every 8--10 years) as a result of nuclear fuel utilization. This paper presents the model of influence of 85 Kr accumulation in the earth atmosphere on climate perturbation and global warming. The process of increasing the concentrations in the troposphere due to the anthropogenic emission of 85 Kr and its radioactive decay is analyzed, based on master kinetic equations. Results indicate that anthropogenic emissions contributing to the total equilibrium concentration of tropospheric ions due to 85 Kr is about equal to the natural level of tropospheric ions. The influence of atmospheric electricity on the transformation between water vapor and clouds which result in an increase in the concentration of ions in troposphere is investigated. The paper shows that the process of anthropogenic accumulation of 85 Kr in the troposphere at present rate up to 2005--2010 increases the mean of the dew-point temperature several degrees on the global scale. Relevant change of height for the lower level of clouds has been obtained. Positive feedback between the process of warming of the lower atmosphere and the concentration of tropospheric ions has been considered

  7. Population growth and global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, R V

    2009-01-01

    When I was born in 1930, the human population of the world was a mere 2 billion. Today, it has already reached 6.8 billion, and is projected to reach 9.1 billion by 2050. That is unsustainable. It is slowly beginning to dawn on us that Global Warming is the result of increasing human CO2 emissions, and the more people there are in the world, the worse it will become. Ultimately, it is the sky that will prove to be the limit to our numbers. The developed countries of the world are the most affluent, and also the most effluent, so we must lead by example and contain our own population growth and per capita emissions. We also have a big debt to repay to former colonial territories in Africa, Asia and South America, who desperately need our help to contain their excessive rates of population growth. Belgian and Dutch obstetricians and gynaecologists can play a critical role in this endeavour. After all, we already have a pill that will stop global warming - the oral contraceptive pill.

  8. ExploreNEOs: The Warm Spitzer NEO survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emery, J. P.; Trilling, D.; Bhattacharya, B.; Bottke, W. F.; Chesley, S.; Delbo, M.; Fazio, G.; Harris, A. W.; Hora, J.; Mainzer, A.; Mueller, M.; Penprase, B.; Smith, H.; Spahr, T.; Stansberry, J.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped

  9. Looking for transiting warm Jupiters - win some, lose some

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shporer, Avi; Zhou, George; Vanderburg, Andrew; Fulton, Benjamin; Bieryla, Allyson; Ciardi, David; Collins, Karen; Espinoza, Néstor; Isaacson, Howard; Morton, Timothy; Torres, Guillermo; Armstrong, James; Bayliss, Daniel; Bento, Joao; Berlind, Perry; Bouchy, Francois; Calkins, Mike; Cameron, Andrew; Cochran, William; Colon, Knicole; Crossfield, Ian; Dragomir, Diana; Esquerdo, Gil; Howard, Andrew; Howell, Steve; Kielkopf, John; Latham, David; Murgas, Felipe; Sefako, Ramotholo; Sinukoff, Evan; Siverd, Robert; Udry, Stephane; TECH

    2018-01-01

    We have initiated a project to discover transiting warm Jupiters - gas giant planets receiving stellar irradiation below 108 erg s-1 cm-2, corresponding to orbital periods beyond about 10 days around Sun-like stars, through follow-up of transiting candidates identified by K2 and other transit surveys. Our goals are to (1) investigate the inflated gas giants conundrum, (2) study the mystery of hot Jupiters orbital evolution, and (3) identify targets for extending exoplanet atmosphere and stellar obliquity studies beyond the hot Jupiters class. This project has so far resulted in the discovery of two new transiting warm Jupiters (K2-114b and K2-115b), and the identification of three statistically validated planets as low-mass stars.

  10. Warm Rain Processes Over the Tropical Oceans and Implications on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Wu, H. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will first show results from TRMM regarding the characteristics of warm rains over the tropical oceans, and the dependence of rate of warm rain production on sea surface temperature. Results lead to the hypothesis that warm rain production efficiency, i.e., autoconversion, may be increased in a warm climate. We use the GEOS-II GCM to test this hypothesis. Our modeling results show that in a climate with increased rate of autoconversion, the total rain amount is increased, with warm rain contributing to a larger portion of the increase. The abundant rainout of warm precipitation at middle to low levels causes a reduction of high cloud cover due to the depletion of water available for ice-phase rain production. As a result, more isolated, but more intense penetrative convection develops. Results also show that increased autoconversion reduces the convective adjustment time scale tends, implying a faster recycling of atmospheric water. Most interestingly, the increased low level heating associated with warm rain leads to more energetic Madden and Julian oscillations in the tropics, with well-defined eastward propagation. While reducing the autoconversion leads to an abundant mix of westward and eastward tropical disturbance on daily to weekly time scales. The causes of the sensitivity of the dynamical regimes to the microphysics parameterization in the GCM will be discussed.

  11. Inflating, Warming Up and Probing the Pre-Bangian Universe

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083955

    1999-01-01

    Classical and quantum gravitational instabilities, can, respectively, inflate and warm up a primordial Universe satisfying a superstring-motivated principle of "Asymptotic Past Triviality". A physically viable big bang is thus generated without invoking either large fine-tunings or a long period of post-big bang inflation. Properties of the pre-bangian Universe can be probed through its observable relics, which include: i) a (possibly observable) stochastic gravitational-wave background; ii) a (possible) new mechanism for seeding the galactic magnetic fields; iii) a (possible) new source of large-scale structure and CMB anisotropy.

  12. AWARENESS OF GLOBAL WARMING AMONG PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS

    OpenAIRE

    R. Yogeeswari; D. Geetha

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays global warming is considered as a burning problem and it is being a challenge to the entire world and its scientific society. Global warming is a worldwide environmental problem by which there is an abnormal increase to the level of temperature, particularly in a natural environment. Lack of awareness on effect of the global warming is an essential problem. This problem should be solved by the future teachers at some extent by increasing the level of awareness, in this way the study ...

  13. Ecological stability in response to warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussmann, Katarina E.; Schwarzmüller, Florian; Brose, Ulrich; Jousset, Alexandre; Rall, Björn C.

    2014-03-01

    That species’ biological rates including metabolism, growth and feeding scale with temperature is well established from warming experiments. The interactive influence of these changes on population dynamics, however, remains uncertain. As a result, uncertainty about ecological stability in response under warming remains correspondingly high. In previous studies, severe consumer extinction waves in warmed microcosms were explained in terms of warming-induced destabilization of population oscillations. Here, we show that warming stabilizes predator-prey dynamics at the risk of predator extinction. Our results are based on meta-analyses of a global database of temperature effects on metabolic and feeding rates and maximum population size that includes species of different phylogenetic groups and ecosystem types. To unravel population-level consequences we parameterized a bioenergetic predator-prey model and simulated warming effects within ecological, non-evolutionary timescales. In contrast to previous studies, we find that warming stabilized population oscillations up to a threshold temperature, which is true for most of the possible parameter combinations. Beyond the threshold level, warming caused predator extinction due to starvation. Predictions were tested in a microbial predator-prey system. Together, our results indicate a major change in how we expect climate change to alter natural ecosystems: warming should increase population stability while undermining species diversity.

  14. The physics and history of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yongyun

    2012-01-01

    Global warming is not only a hot research area in atmospheric sciences and even all Earth sciences but is also a controversial topic in the international community. The purpose of this paper is not to clarify these controversies, but instead, to address the physical basis on which our understanding of global warming is founded, and to briefly review the nearly 200-year history of global warming sciences. We hope the paper will help readers, who have no background in the atmospheric and climate sciences, understand scientific issues of global warming. (author)

  15. GLOBAL WARMING BETWEEN SCIENCE AND POLITICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Străuțiu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades, the scientific theory of global warming has become a political ideology. Significant political components are found both in the premises and (especially in the consequences. But witnessed also at least a decade of negationism: global warming research programs are questionable regarding methodology and the ethics of research. Face to all contestations, “Global warming theory” has already become “Global climate change theory”. It is true that global warming ideology preparing a global governing over a strictly limited number of people?

  16. Warming Ocean Conditions Relate to Increased Trophic Requirements of Threatened and Endangered Salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Daly

    Full Text Available The trophic habits, size and condition of yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha caught early in their marine residence were examined during 19 survey years (1981-1985; 1998-2011. Juvenile salmon consumed distinct highly piscivorous diets in cold and warm ocean regimes with major differences between ocean regimes driven by changes in consumption of juvenile rockfishes, followed by several other fish prey, adult euphausiids and decapod larvae. Notable, Chinook salmon consumed 30% more food in the warm versus cold ocean regime in both May and June. Additionally, there were about 30% fewer empty stomachs in the warm ocean regime in May, and 10% fewer in warm June periods. The total prey energy density consumed during the warmer ocean regime was also significantly higher than in cold. Chinook salmon had lower condition factor and were smaller in fork length during the warm ocean regime, and were longer and heavier for their size during the cold ocean regime. The significant increase in foraging during the warm ocean regime occurred concurrently with lower available prey biomass. Adult return rates of juvenile Chinook salmon that entered the ocean during a warm ocean regime were lower. Notably, our long term data set contradicts the long held assertion that juvenile salmon eat less in a warm ocean regime when low growth and survival is observed, and when available prey are reduced. Comparing diet changes between decades under variable ocean conditions may assist us in understanding the effects of projected warming ocean regimes on juvenile Chinook salmon and their survival in the ocean environment. Bioenergetically, the salmon appear to require more food resources during warm ocean regimes.

  17. Warming Ocean Conditions Relate to Increased Trophic Requirements of Threatened and Endangered Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Elizabeth A; Brodeur, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    The trophic habits, size and condition of yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) caught early in their marine residence were examined during 19 survey years (1981-1985; 1998-2011). Juvenile salmon consumed distinct highly piscivorous diets in cold and warm ocean regimes with major differences between ocean regimes driven by changes in consumption of juvenile rockfishes, followed by several other fish prey, adult euphausiids and decapod larvae. Notable, Chinook salmon consumed 30% more food in the warm versus cold ocean regime in both May and June. Additionally, there were about 30% fewer empty stomachs in the warm ocean regime in May, and 10% fewer in warm June periods. The total prey energy density consumed during the warmer ocean regime was also significantly higher than in cold. Chinook salmon had lower condition factor and were smaller in fork length during the warm ocean regime, and were longer and heavier for their size during the cold ocean regime. The significant increase in foraging during the warm ocean regime occurred concurrently with lower available prey biomass. Adult return rates of juvenile Chinook salmon that entered the ocean during a warm ocean regime were lower. Notably, our long term data set contradicts the long held assertion that juvenile salmon eat less in a warm ocean regime when low growth and survival is observed, and when available prey are reduced. Comparing diet changes between decades under variable ocean conditions may assist us in understanding the effects of projected warming ocean regimes on juvenile Chinook salmon and their survival in the ocean environment. Bioenergetically, the salmon appear to require more food resources during warm ocean regimes.

  18. Automobility: Global Warming as Symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Backhaus

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The argument of this paper is that sustainability requires a new worldview-paradigm. It critically evaluates Gore’s liberal-based environmentalism in order to show how “shallow ecologies” are called into question by deeper ecologies. This analysis leads to the notion that global warming is better understood as a symptom indicative of the worldview that is the source for environmental crises. Heidegger’s ontological hermeneutics and its critique of modern technology show that the modern worldview involves an enframing (a totalizing technological ordering of the natural. Enframing reveals entities as standing reserve (on demand energy suppliers. My thesis maintains that enframing is geographically expressed as automobility. Because of the energy needs used to maintain automobility, reaching the goal of sustainability requires rethinking the spatial organization of life as a function of stored energy technologies.

  19. The tragedy of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominique Auverlot

    2014-01-01

    The author first evokes the consequences of global warming: ocean acidity, ice melt, sea level rise, repeated and always more intense extreme climatic events (a list of the main meteorological and climatic events which occurred in 2013 is given). He outlines that these phenomena happen more quickly than foreseen. He notices that these facts confirm the content of the different IPCC reports. The author outlines the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. He discusses the evolutions of these emissions between 1970 and 2010 in the different countries with respect to their level of economic development. It clearly appears that developed countries produce more emissions, and have only stabilized their emission level whereas emerging countries have notably increased their emissions. Developed and emerging countries should therefore act as quickly as possible

  20. Warm anisotropic inflationary universe model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of warm inflation using vector fields in the background of a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I model of the universe. We formulate the field equations, and slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) in the slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of the directional Hubble parameter during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of the scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of the inflaton. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and the Planck observational data. (orig.)

  1. Warm anisotropic inflationary universe model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2014-02-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of warm inflation using vector fields in the background of a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I model of the universe. We formulate the field equations, and slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) in the slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of the directional Hubble parameter during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of the scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of the inflaton. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and the Planck observational data. (orig.)

  2. The economics of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillet, G.; Hediger, W.; Kypreos, S.; Corbaz, C.

    1993-05-01

    The global warming threat is challenging the world community to both international cooperation and national policy action. This report focuses on the necessity to alternate between ''global and national climate policies''. The Swiss perspective is at issue. The economic rationales for comparing national climate policy options are analyzed. This report explicitly focusses on the fundamental role of the normative framework and the related environmental-economic requisites for establishing an efficient national climate policy and computing a ''carbon tax''. Finally, the latest results of the energy and greenhouse gas scenarios for Switzerland, elaborated on within the network of the IEA/ETSAP Project, Annex IV, ''Greenhouse Gases and National Energy Options: Technologies and Costs for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases'', illustrate Switzerland's difficulties in reducing greenhouse gas emissions at ''reasonable cost'' compared with other countries. This should make Switzerland very sensitive to the implementation of efficient environmental-policy instruments and international cooperation. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  3. Keeping cool on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, F.; Hawkins, W.; Nierenberg, W.; Salmon, J.; Jastrow, R.; Moore, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    A number of scientific groups have concluded that the greenhouse effect caused by the man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other bases has produced much or all of the rise in global temperatures. They predict that there will be an increase in greenhouse gases equivalent to a doubling of carbon dioxide by the middle of the 21st century, and that this will cause the temperature of the earth to rise by as much as 5C. According to these scientists, a temperature rise of this magnitude would cause major disruptions in the earth's ecosystem, including severe summer drought in the midwestern US and other agricultural regions. The worst-case scenarios predict a major rise in sea level as a result of the greenhouse warming, inundating areas of New York, Miami and other coastal cities as well as low-lying river deltas and islands. The lives of hundreds of millions of people would be disrupted. The available data on climate change, however, do not support these predictions, nor do they support the idea that human activity has caused, or will cause, a dangerous increase in global temperatures. As the authors make this statement, they are aware that it contradicts widespread popular opinion, as well as the technical judgments of some of their colleagues. But it would be imprudent to ignore the facts on global warming that have accumulated over the last two years. These facts indicate that theoretical estimates of the greenhouse problem have greatly exaggerated its seriousness. Enormous economic stakes ride on forthcoming government decisions regarding carbon taxes and other restrictions on CO 2 emissions. Due attention must therefore be given to the scientific evidence, no matter how contrary to popular opinion its implications appear to be. This article discusses the scientific evidence

  4. The impact of possible climate catastrophes on global warming policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranzini, Andrea; Chesney, Marc; Morisset, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies on global warming have introduced the inherent uncertainties associated with the costs and benefits of climate policies and have often shown that abatement policies are likely to be less aggressive or postponed in comparison to those resulting from traditional cost-benefit analyses (CBA). Yet, those studies have failed to include the possibility of sudden climate catastrophes. The aim of this paper is to account simultaneously for possible continuous and discrete damages resulting from global warming, and to analyse their implications on the optimal path of abatement policies. Our approach is related to the new literature on investment under uncertainty, and relies on some recent developments of the real option in which we incorporated negative jumps (climate catastrophes) in the stochastic process corresponding to the net benefits associated with the abatement policies. The impacts of continuous and discrete climatic risks can therefore be considered separately. Our numerical applications lead to two main conclusions: (i) gradual, continuous uncertainty in the global warming process is likely to delay the adoption of abatement policies as found in previous studies, with respect to the standard CBA; however (ii) the possibility of climate catastrophes accelerates the implementation of these policies as their net discounted benefits increase significantly

  5. Warm gas towards young stellar objects in Corona Australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Johan; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; D. Green, Joel

    2014-01-01

    by an intermediate-mass young star. We study the effects on the warm gas and dust in a group of low-mass young stellar objects from the irradiation by the young luminous Herbig Be star R CrA. Herschel/PACS far-infrared datacubes of two low-mass star-forming regions in the R CrA dark cloud are presented....... The distribution of CO, OH, H2O, [C II], [O I], and continuum emission is investigated. We have developed a deconvolution algorithm which we use to deconvolve the maps, separating the point-source emission from the extended emission. We also construct rotational diagrams of the molecular species. By deconvolution...... Be star R CrA. Our results show that a nearby luminous star does not increase the molecular excitation temperatures in the warm gas around a young stellar object (YSO). However, the emission from photodissociation products of H2O, such as OH and O, is enhanced in the warm gas associated...

  6. A Simple Calorimetric Experiment that Highlights Aspects of Global Heat Retention and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Joel D.; Johnston, Harold S.

    2007-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, general chemistry students measure the heating curves for three different systems: (i) 500 g of room-temperature water heated by a small desk lamp, (ii) 500 g of an ice-water mixture warmed by conduction with room-temperature surroundings, and (iii) 500 g of an ice-water mixture heated by a small desk lamp and by…

  7. Deep time evidence for climate sensitivity increase with warming:Climate Sensitivity Rise With Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, Gary; Huber, Matthew; Rondanelli, Roberto; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2016-01-01

    Future global warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will depend on climate feedbacks, the effect of which is expressed by climate sensitivity, the warming for a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content. It is not clear how feedbacks, sensitivity, and temperature will evolve in our warming world, but past warming events may provide insight. Here we employ paleoreconstructions and new climate-carbon model simulations in a novel framework to explore a wide scenario range for the Paleoce...

  8. Effects of warming yang and invigorating qi prescription on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in rats with heart failure after myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua HAN

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of warming yang and invigorating qi prescription on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS in rats with heart failure after myocardial infarction. 126 rats were randomly divided into model group, sham operation, warming yang, invigorating qi, warming yang+invigorating qi, digoxin and captopril group for respective treatment. After intervention for 6, 8 and 10 weeks, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was calculated, and the plasma renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels were measured. Results showed that, after 6, 8 and 10 weeks, LVEF in warming yang, invigorating qi, warming yang+invigorating qi and captopril group was significantly higher than model group (P < 0.05, and the plasma renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels in warming yang, invigorating qi, warming yang+invigorating qi and captopril groups were significantly lower than model group (P < 0.05. Renin angiotensin II and aldosterone levels in invigorating qi, warming yang+invigorating qi and captopril groups after 10 weeks was significantly lower than after 6 weeks (P < 0.05; aldosterone level in captopril groups after 10 weeks was significantly lower than after 6 weeks (P < 0.05. Warming yang and invigorating qi prescription can improve LVEF in rats with heart failure after myocardial infarction, which may be related with the inhibition of RAAS activation.

  9. Design and performance of combined infrared canopy and belowground warming in the B4WarmED (Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger) experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Roy L; Stefanski, Artur; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Hobbie, Sarah E; Kimball, Bruce A; Reich, Peter B

    2015-06-01

    Conducting manipulative climate change experiments in complex vegetation is challenging, given considerable temporal and spatial heterogeneity. One specific challenge involves warming of both plants and soils to depth. We describe the design and performance of an open-air warming experiment called Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger (B4WarmED) that addresses the potential for projected climate warming to alter tree function, species composition, and ecosystem processes at the boreal-temperate ecotone. The experiment includes two forested sites in northern Minnesota, USA, with plots in both open (recently clear-cut) and closed canopy habitats, where seedlings of 11 tree species were planted into native ground vegetation. Treatments include three target levels of plant canopy and soil warming (ambient, +1.7°C, +3.4°C). Warming was achieved by independent feedback control of voltage input to aboveground infrared heaters and belowground buried resistance heating cables in each of 72-7.0 m(2) plots. The treatments emulated patterns of observed diurnal, seasonal, and annual temperatures but with superimposed warming. For the 2009 to 2011 field seasons, we achieved temperature elevations near our targets with growing season overall mean differences (∆Tbelow ) of +1.84°C and +3.66°C at 10 cm soil depth and (∆T(above) ) of +1.82°C and +3.45°C for the plant canopies. We also achieved measured soil warming to at least 1 m depth. Aboveground treatment stability and control were better during nighttime than daytime and in closed vs. open canopy sites in part due to calmer conditions. Heating efficacy in open canopy areas was reduced with increasing canopy complexity and size. Results of this study suggest the warming approach is scalable: it should work well in small-statured vegetation such as grasslands, desert, agricultural crops, and tree saplings (<5 m tall). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Global warming increases the interspecific competitiveness of the invasive plant alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Ismail, Mohannad; Ding, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Global warming could accelerate the spread of invasive species to higher latitudes and intensify their effects on native species. Here, we report results of two years of field surveys along a latitudinal gradient (21°N to 31°N) in southern China, to determine the species structure of the invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides community. We also performed a replacement series experiment (mono and mixed) to evaluate the effects of elevated temperature on the competitiveness of A. philoxeroides with the native co-occurring species Digitaria sanguinalis. In the field survey, we found that the dominance of A. philoxeroides increased with increasing of latitude gradient while cover of D. sanguinalis decreased. In monospecific plantings, artificial warming reduced the length of D. sanguinalis roots. In mixed plantings, warming reduced both A. philoxeroides abundance and D. sanguinalis stem length when A. philoxeroides was more prevalent in the planting. Warming also significantly reduced D. sanguinalis biomass, but increased that of A. philoxeroides. In addition, elevated temperatures significantly reduced the relative yield (RY) of D. sanguinalis, particularly when A. philoxeroides was planted in higher proportion in the plot. These results suggest that the invasiveness of A. philoxeroides increased with increasing latitude, and that warming may increase the effectiveness of its interspecific competition with D. sanguinalis. Hence, under global warming conditions, the harm to native species from A. philoxeroides would increase at higher latitudes. Our findings are critical for predicting the invasiveness of alien species under climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fisheries Disaster Survey, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Responses to selected questions from the Social and Economic Survey administered in spring and summer 2000 to recipients of the second round (Round II) of financial...

  12. Recognition of people with an opinion that nuclear power generation causes global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukue, Chiyokazu

    2004-01-01

    Almost a half of the people are thinking that nuclear power generation causes global warming. We conducted a survey in order to explore the recognition and background for the thinking of people. Consequently, the existence of the right knowledge ''nuclear power generation does not discharge carbon dioxide at the time of power generation'' influenced most the idea which nuclear power generation prevents global warming. On the other hand, the misunderstanding as ''the radioactive material produced from a nuclear power plant advances global warming'' has influenced the idea considered as a cause, and it is though that this misunderstanding depend on the negative image to nuclear power generation. Moreover, many people do not recognize the mechanism of global warming, and it is thought that they confuse global warming with the other global environment problems, such as acid rain or ozone layer destruction. Therefore, it is required to spread the knowledge that nuclear power generation does not discharge carbon dioxide, and to promote the understanding that a radioactive material is not related to global warming. Furthermore, it is required to distinguish global warming from the other global environment problems, and to explain them intelligibly. (author)

  13. Warm Deuteration of Hydrogen Cyanide in Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, N.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Roueff, E.; Palau, A.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Herschel HEXOS Team

    2011-05-01

    Deuterium fractionation has been observed both in cold molecular clouds and in star forming regions. In the latter it should be a remnant from the earlier cold prestellar phase where, after being frozen onto dust grains, deuterated species are released during the switch-on of the protostar. However this mechanism does not explain the large deuteration observed at moderately warm regions such as the Orion Bar and the molecular Ridge. Using HIFI data from the Guaranteed Time Key Program ``Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS)'', we have detected high-J DCN transitions, up to J=17-16, toward Orion KL. On the other hand, DNC is not detected within the HIFI frequency range. Furthermore, the DCN J=2-1, 2x2' maps observed with the IRAM 30m telescope show extended emission along the molecular filament revealing the moderate and warm conditions under DCN seems to be produced (Extended and Compact Ridge, Hot Core and Orion-S). On the other hand, DNC J=2--1 emission is much less extended and it does not show an emission peak at the KL position, like DCN, but toward an offset (-20'',-25'') from IRc2. In our analysis we have combined the HIFI data with that of the Orion surveys performed at the 30m, thus including a wide range of excitation conditions. In order to reproduce the observed profiles and compute column densities, we have used the LVG approximation and a source model with a three layer stratification for the Compact Ridge, Plateau and Hot Core components. The abundance ratio DCN/HCN is found to be an order of magnitude higher than the DNC/HNC one for the Compact Ridge and the Hot Core components (Tkin=100-300 K) while the opposite behaviour is obtained for the Extended Ridge (Tkin=60 K), suggesting different deuteration pathways for these two isomers. This study demonstrates that observations covering a wide range of excitation conditions are mandatory to better constrain the physical properties in such a complex region as Orion. This was possible

  14. Fish energy budget under ocean warming and flame retardant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Patrícia; Figueiredo, Cátia; Baptista, Miguel; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Camacho, Carolina; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Valente, Luísa M P; Marques, António; Rosa, Rui

    2018-02-28

    Climate change and chemical contamination are global environmental threats of growing concern for the scientific community and regulatory authorities. Yet, the impacts and interactions of both stressors (particularly ocean warming and emerging chemical contaminants) on physiological responses of marine organisms remain unclear and still require further understanding. Within this context, the main goal of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effects of warming (+ 5 °C) and accumulation of a polybrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-209, brominated flame retardant) through dietary exposure on energy budget of the juvenile white seabream (Diplodus sargus). Specifically, growth (G), routine metabolism (R), excretion (faecal, F and nitrogenous losses, U) and food consumption (C) were calculated to obtain the energy budget. The results demonstrated that the energy proportion spent for G dominated the mode of the energy allocation of juvenile white seabream (56.0-67.8%), especially under the combined effect of warming plus BDE-209 exposure. Under all treatments, the energy channelled for R varied around 26% and a much smaller percentage was channelled for excretion (F: 4.3-16.0% and U: 2.3-3.3%). An opposite trend to G was observed to F, where the highest percentage (16.0 ± 0.9%) was found under control temperature and BDE-209 exposure via diet. In general, the parameters were significantly affected by increased temperature and flame retardant exposure, where higher levels occurred for: i) wet weight, relative growth rate, protein and ash contents under warming conditions, ii) only for O:N ratio under BDE-209 exposure via diet, and iii) for feed efficiency, ammonia excretion rate, routine metabolic rate and assimilation efficiency under the combination of both stressors. On the other hand, decreased viscerosomatic index was observed under warming and lower fat content was observed under the combined effect of both stressors. Overall, under future

  15. The control on the deformation of the ATLAS barrel toroid warm structure

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, F; Giraud, P F; Védrine, P; Guyot, C; Levesy, B; Ponsot, P; Schune, P; Sun, Z

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS barrel toroid warm structure supports the barrel toroid and the muon detectors. The warm structure is about 26 meters long with an outer diameter of 20 meters. In order to ensure the physics performance of the muon detectors, the deformation of the warm structure is minimised during the design phase. The barrel toroid assembly has been carried out in the cavern of the ATLAS experiment since end of 2004. In September 2005, the warm structure has been completely released. The release has been followed-up in real time using optical alignment sensors. Good agreement has been found within 1 mm, between the alignment system measurement, the geometer survey and the predicted values according to the finite element analyses results.

  16. The rise of global warming skepticism: exploring affective image associations in the United States over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    This article explores how affective image associations to global warming have changed over time. Four nationally representative surveys of the American public were conducted between 2002 and 2010 to assess public global warming risk perceptions, policy preferences, and behavior. Affective images (positive or negative feelings and cognitive representations) were collected and content analyzed. The results demonstrate a large increase in "naysayer" associations, indicating extreme skepticism about the issue of climate change. Multiple regression analyses found that holistic affect and "naysayer" associations were more significant predictors of global warming risk perceptions than cultural worldviews or sociodemographic variables, including political party and ideology. The results demonstrate the important role affective imagery plays in judgment and decision-making processes, how these variables change over time, and how global warming is currently perceived by the American public. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Warming of Water in a Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulins, Paulis; Krauze, Armands; Ozolinsh, Maris; Muiznieks, Andris

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the process of water warming from 0 °C in a glass. An experiment is performed that analyzes the temperature in the top and bottom layers of water during warming. The experimental equipment is very simple and can be easily set up using devices available in schools. The temperature curves obtained from the experiment help us…

  18. National Security Implications of Global Warming Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Although numerous historical examples demonstrate how actual climate change has contributed to the rise and fall of powers, global warming , in and of...become convinced that global warming is universally bad and humans are the primary cause, political leaders may develop ill-advised policies restricting

  19. Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Bill

    1994-01-01

    A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global warming, and unequal warming. (LZ)

  20. Strategies for mitigation of global warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the international negotions on climate change leading up to COP15 in Copenhagen. Supplementary policies for mitigation of global warming are proposed.......The paper analyses the international negotions on climate change leading up to COP15 in Copenhagen. Supplementary policies for mitigation of global warming are proposed....

  1. Effects of global warming on respiratory diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abe Olugbenga

    Effects of global warming on respiratory diseases. 1. 1. *Tanimowo MO and Abiona Oo. Review Article. ABSTRACT. Background: Global warming is a consequence of air pollution resulting in climate change due to trapping of excess greenhouse gases in the earth's atmosphere that affects biodiversity and constitutes a ...

  2. Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global warming through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global warming present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these…

  3. Mitigation of global warming through renewable biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhillon, R.S.; Wuehlisch, George von

    2013-01-01

    Rising level of atmospheric CO 2 and consequent global warming is evident. Global surface temperature have already increased by 0.8 °C over the 20th century and is projected to increase by 1.4–5.8 °C during the twenty-first century. The global warming will continue till atmospheric concentrations of the major greenhouse gases are stabilized. Among them, CO 2 is mainly responsible and is expected to account for about 60% of the warming over the next century. This study reviews advances on causes and consequences of global climate change and its impact on nature and society. Renewable biomass has tremendous potential to mitigate the global warming. Renewable biomass is expected to play a multifunctional role including food production, source of energy and fodder, biodiversity conservation, yield of goods and services to the society as well as mitigation of the impact of climate change. The review highlights the different management and research strategies in forestry, agriculture, agroforestry and grasslands to mitigate the global warming. -- Highlights: ► Rising level of atmospheric CO 2 and consequent global warming is evident. ► CO 2 is mainly responsible for global warming. ► Global temperature is predicted to increase by 1.4–5.8 °C during 21st century. ► Renewable biomass has great potential to mitigate the global warming

  4. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

  5. Urban warming reduces aboveground carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meineke, Emily; Youngsteadt, Elsa; Dunn, Robert Roberdeau

    2016-01-01

    A substantial amount of global carbon is stored in mature trees. However, no experiments to date test how warming affects mature tree carbon storage. Using a unique, citywide, factorial experiment, we investigated how warming and insect herbivory affected physiological function and carbon...... photosynthesis was reduced at hotter sites. Ecosystem service assessments that do not consider urban conditions may overestimate urban tree carbon storage. Because urban and global warming are becoming more intense, our results suggest that urban trees will sequester even less carbon in the future....... sequestration (carbon stored per year) of mature trees. Urban warming increased herbivorous arthropod abundance on trees, but these herbivores had negligible effects on tree carbon sequestration. Instead, urban warming was associated with an estimated 12% loss of carbon sequestration, in part because...

  6. Multielement chemical and statistical analyses from a uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment survey in and near the Elkhorn Mountains, Jefferson County, Montana; Part II, Stream sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suits, V.J.; Wenrich, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-two stream-sediment samples, collected from an area south of Helena, Jefferson County, Montana, were sieved into two size fractions (50 ppm for the fine fraction) were encountered in samples from the Warm Springs Creek drainage area, along Prickly Pear Creek near Welmer and Golconda Creeks and along Muskrat Creek. All groups showed a significant correlation at the 99 percent confidence level (r between 0.73 and 0.77) between U and Th. Uranium was found to correlate significantly only with Th (as mentioned above) and with -Ni in the fine fraction of the volcanics group. U correlates significantly with -Al2O3, Ba, organic C, -K2O, -Sr and Y in both size fractions for the Boulder batholith. Correlations between U and each of several elements differ for the fine and coarse fractions of the Boulder batholith group, suggesting that the U distribution in these stream sediments is in large part controlled by grain size. Correlations were found between U and CaO, Cr, Fe203, -Na2O, Sc, -SiO2, TiO2, Yb and Zr in the coarse fraction but not in the fine fraction. U correlates weakly (to the 90% confidence level, crc<.37) with -Co and -Cu in the fine but not the coarse fraction. These results are compared to a previous study in the northern Absaroka mountains. Correlation coefficients between all other elements determined from these samples are also shown in Tables 12 to 15.

  7. A Survey of Beginning Crop Science Courses at 49 U.S. Universities. II. Laboratory Format, Teaching Methods, and Topical Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Krista L.; Karnok, Keith J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is the second of a two-part series which discusses the findings related to laboratory segments in the beginning crop science courses offered in Land Grant institutions. Survey results reveal that laboratories are used but employ traditional teaching rather than individualized or auto-tutorial techniques. (ML)

  8. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE 350 MHz DRIFT-SCAN SURVEY II: DATA ANALYSIS AND THE TIMING OF 10 NEW PULSARS, INCLUDING A RELATIVISTIC BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Ryan S.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Archibald, Anne M.; Karako-Argaman, Chen [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Boyles, Jason; Lorimer, Duncan R.; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Cardoso, Rogerio F. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, 111 White Hall, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Ransom, Scott M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Stairs, Ingrid H.; Berndsen, Aaron; Cherry, Angus; McPhee, Christie A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hessels, Jason W. T.; Kondratiev, Vladislav I.; Van Leeuwen, Joeri [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Epstein, Courtney R. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pennucci, Tim [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Roberts, Mallory S. E. [Eureka Scientific Inc., 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602 (United States); Stovall, Kevin, E-mail: rlynch@physics.mcgill.ca [Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We have completed a 350 MHz Drift-scan Survey using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope with the goal of finding new radio pulsars, especially millisecond pulsars that can be timed to high precision. This survey covered {approx}10,300 deg{sup 2} and all of the data have now been fully processed. We have discovered a total of 31 new pulsars, 7 of which are recycled pulsars. A companion paper by Boyles et al. describes the survey strategy, sky coverage, and instrumental setup, and presents timing solutions for the first 13 pulsars. Here we describe the data analysis pipeline, survey sensitivity, and follow-up observations of new pulsars, and present timing solutions for 10 other pulsars. We highlight several sources-two interesting nulling pulsars, an isolated millisecond pulsar with a measurement of proper motion, and a partially recycled pulsar, PSR J0348+0432, which has a white dwarf companion in a relativistic orbit. PSR J0348+0432 will enable unprecedented tests of theories of gravity.

  9. A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part II. Evaluating Four Conceptual Cosmology Surveys: A Classical Test Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    This is the second of five papers detailing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. This article begins our quantitative investigation of the data. We describe how we scored students' responses to four conceptual cosmology surveys, and we present evidence for the inter-rater…

  10. Luminous and variable stars in M31 and M33. II. Luminous blue variables, candidate LBVs, Fe II emission line stars, and other supergiants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Weis, Kerstin; Bomans, D. J.; Burggraf, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of non-terminal eruptions are being found in the numerous surveys for optical transients. Very little is known about these giant eruptions, their progenitors and their evolutionary state. A greatly improved census of the likely progenitor class, including the most luminous evolved stars, the luminous blue variables (LBVs), and the warm and cool hypergiants is now needed for a complete picture of the final pre-supernova stages of very massive stars. We have begun a survey of the evolved and unstable luminous star populations in several nearby resolved galaxies. In this second paper on M31 and M33, we review the spectral characteristics, spectral energy distributions, circumstellar ejecta, and evidence for mass loss for 82 luminous and variable stars. We show that many of these stars have warm circumstellar dust including several of the Fe II emission line stars, but conclude that the confirmed LBVs in M31 and M33 do not. The confirmed LBVs have relatively low wind speeds even in their hot, quiescent or visual minimum state compared to the B-type supergiants and Of/WN stars which they spectroscopically resemble. The nature of the Fe II emission line stars and their relation to the LBV state remains uncertain, but some have properties in common with the warm hypergiants and the sgB[e] stars. Several individual stars are discussed in detail. We identify three possible candidate LBVs and three additional post-red supergiant candidates. We suggest that M33-013406.63 (UIT301,B416) is not an LBV/S Dor variable, but is a very luminous late O-type supergiant and one of the most luminous stars or pair of stars in M33.

  11. Personal efficacy, the information environment, and attitudes toward global warming and climate change in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellstedt, Paul M; Zahran, Sammy; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2008-02-01

    Despite the growing scientific consensus about the risks of global warming and climate change, the mass media frequently portray the subject as one of great scientific controversy and debate. And yet previous studies of the mass public's subjective assessments of the risks of global warming and climate change have not sufficiently examined public informedness, public confidence in climate scientists, and the role of personal efficacy in affecting global warming outcomes. By examining the results of a survey on an original and representative sample of Americans, we find that these three forces-informedness, confidence in scientists, and personal efficacy-are related in interesting and unexpected ways, and exert significant influence on risk assessments of global warming and climate change. In particular, more informed respondents both feel less personally responsible for global warming, and also show less concern for global warming. We also find that confidence in scientists has unexpected effects: respondents with high confidence in scientists feel less responsible for global warming, and also show less concern for global warming. These results have substantial implications for the interaction between scientists and the public in general, and for the public discussion of global warming and climate change in particular.

  12. GLOBAL WARMING AND CONSTRUCTION ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bassioni, Ghada

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of cements with several main constituents is of particular importance with regard to reducing climatically relevant CO2 emissions in the cement industry. This ecological aspect is not the only argument in favor of Portland composite cements. They are also viable alternatives to Portland cement from the technical point of view. Substitution of ordinary Portland cement (CEM I) by Portland composite cements (CEM II) and (CEM III), which clearly possess different chemical and mine...

  13. Warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfa, Theodosia A

    2016-12-02

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare and heterogeneous disease that affects 1 to 3/100 000 patients per year. AIHA caused by warm autoantibodies (w-AIHA), ie, antibodies that react with their antigens on the red blood cell optimally at 37°C, is the most common type, comprising ∼70% to 80% of all adult cases and ∼50% of pediatric cases. About half of the w-AIHA cases are called primary because no specific etiology can be found, whereas the rest are secondary to other recognizable underlying disorders. This review will focus on the postulated immunopathogenetic mechanisms in idiopathic and secondary w-AIHA and report on the rare cases of direct antiglobulin test-negative AIHA, which are even more likely to be fatal because of inherent characteristics of the causative antibodies, as well as because of delays in diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment. Then, the characteristics of w-AIHA associated with genetically defined immune dysregulation disorders and special considerations on its management will be discussed. Finally, the standard treatment options and newer therapeutic approaches for this chronic autoimmune blood disorder will be reviewed. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal pollution causes global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordell, Bo

    2003-09-01

    Over longer time-scales there is no net heat inflow to Earth since incoming solar energy is re-emitted at exactly the same rate. To maintain Earth's thermal equilibrium, however, there must be a net outflow equal to the geothermal heat flow. Performed calculations show that the net heat outflow in 1880 was equal to the geothermal heat flow, which is the only natural net heat source on Earth. Since then, heat dissipation from the global use of nonrenewable energy sources has resulted in additional net heating. In, e.g. Sweden, which is a sparsely populated country, this net heating is about three times greater than the geothermal heat flow. Such thermal pollution contributes to global warming until the global temperature has reached a level where this heat is also emitted to space. Heat dissipation from the global use of fossil fuels and nuclear power is the main source of thermal pollution. Here, it was found that one third of current thermal pollution is emitted to space and that a further global temperature increase of 1.8 °C is required until Earth is again in thermal equilibrium.

  15. Global warming and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E

    2012-10-01

    The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Global warming and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

  17. Global warming impacts of chillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calm, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Most discussion of refrigerant impacts on the environment has focused on protection of stratospheric ozone. The now-familiar Montreal Protocol, as revised last November at a meeting in Copenhagen, provides a clear mandate for transition to alternatives that do not deplete the earth's ozone layer. Coupled with reduction in refrigerant emissions, substitution of fluids with low or zero ozone-depletion potential (ODP) minimize or, for the latter, eliminate damage to the ozone layer. With retirement of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants that once dominated in chillers for air conditioning systems, including r-11, R-12, R-113, R-114, and R-500 (which contains R-12), questions surface on other environmental concerns for the alternatives. The direct effect (chemical action as a greenhouse gas) alone however, is misleading. The thermodynamic properties of a refrigerant limit the efficiency that can be attained in a heat pump or refrigeration machine. Since the efficiency governs the amount of power required for a specific thermal load, the selection refrigerants also impacts the greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide, released in supplying the required power. The warming stemming from combustion emissions to provide power is referred to as the indirect, or energy-related, effect. Atmospheric scientists use the term indirect effect to refer to the impact of greenhouse gases produced in the atmosphere by chemical reactions with an emission. The effect of this secondary chemistry is of much lesser magnitude and is not further discussed in this article

  18. Global Warming: Knowledge and Views of Iranian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Yazdanparast, Sousan Salehpour, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi, Eddie Boyes, Martin Stanisstreet, Mirsaeed Attarchi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of students’ knowledge about global warming can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global warming. To assess students’ knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed “if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter” and “incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global warming”. 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought “the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide” and “presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect”. 68.4% believed “not using cars so much is a cure for global warming”. While a student’s ‘cognitive score’ could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P0.05. In general, students' knowledge about global warming was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students’ mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global warming. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter.

  19. HERSCHEL/PACS SURVEY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN TAURUS/AURIGA—OBSERVATIONS OF [O I] AND [C II], AND FAR-INFRARED CONTINUUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Christian D.; Sandell, Göran; Vacca, William D.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Mathews, Geoffrey; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Ménard, Francois; Pinte, Christophe; Podio, Linda; Thi, Wing-Fai; Barrado, David; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo; Dent, William R. F.; Eiroa, Carlos; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Grady, Carol; Roberge, Aki; Kamp, Inga; Vicente, Silvia; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory was used to observe ∼120 pre-main-sequence stars in Taurus as part of the GASPS Open Time Key project. Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer was used to measure the continuum as well as several gas tracers such as [O I] 63 μm, [O I] 145 μm, [C II] 158 μm, OH, H 2 O, and CO. The strongest line seen is [O I] at 63 μm. We find a clear correlation between the strength of the [O I] 63 μm line and the 63 μm continuum for disk sources. In outflow sources, the line emission can be up to 20 times stronger than in disk sources, suggesting that the line emission is dominated by the outflow. The tight correlation seen for disk sources suggests that the emission arises from the inner disk (<50 AU) and lower surface layers of the disk where the gas and dust are coupled. The [O I] 63 μm is fainter in transitional stars than in normal Class II disks. Simple spectral energy distribution models indicate that the dust responsible for the continuum emission is colder in these disks, leading to weaker line emission. [C II] 158 μm emission is only detected in strong outflow sources. The observed line ratios of [O I] 63 μm to [O I] 145 μm are in the regime where we are insensitive to the gas-to-dust ratio, neither can we discriminate between shock or photodissociation region emission. We detect no Class III object in [O I] 63 μm and only three in continuum, at least one of which is a candidate debris disk

  20. Care seeking, complementary therapy and herbal medicine use among people with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease CAMELOT phase II: Surveying for diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manderson, Lenore; Oldenburg, Brian; Lin, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    prior to the survey, 43% of all respondents had used CAM products or practitioners, including 11% who used Western herbal medicines. The data offers considerable opportunities to tease out the drivers, costs and benefits of CAM use by people with chronic disease. Although findings will be published...... across a number of articles, here we profile the demographic and health status characteristics of survey respondents and compare the characteristics of users of naturopathy and Western herbal medicine practitioner with this.......Many Australians manage their health through the combined use of conventional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine, with substantial direct and indirect costs to government and consumers. Our interest was in the varied health practices of people with type 2 diabetes...

  1. Global metabolic impacts of recent climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael E; Wang, George; Huey, Raymond B

    2010-10-07

    Documented shifts in geographical ranges, seasonal phenology, community interactions, genetics and extinctions have been attributed to recent global warming. Many such biotic shifts have been detected at mid- to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere-a latitudinal pattern that is expected because warming is fastest in these regions. In contrast, shifts in tropical regions are expected to be less marked because warming is less pronounced there. However, biotic impacts of warming are mediated through physiology, and metabolic rate, which is a fundamental measure of physiological activity and ecological impact, increases exponentially rather than linearly with temperature in ectotherms. Therefore, tropical ectotherms (with warm baseline temperatures) should experience larger absolute shifts in metabolic rate than the magnitude of tropical temperature change itself would suggest, but the impact of climate warming on metabolic rate has never been quantified on a global scale. Here we show that estimated changes in terrestrial metabolic rates in the tropics are large, are equivalent in magnitude to those in the north temperate-zone regions, and are in fact far greater than those in the Arctic, even though tropical temperature change has been relatively small. Because of temperature's nonlinear effects on metabolism, tropical organisms, which constitute much of Earth's biodiversity, should be profoundly affected by recent and projected climate warming.

  2. Global warming and climate change: control methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laal, M.; Aliramaie, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aimed at finding causes of global warming and ways to bring it under control. Data based on scientific opinion as given by synthesis reports of news, articles, web sites, and books. global warming is the observed and projected increases in average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans. Carbon dioxide and other air pollution that is collecting in the atmosphere like a thickening blanket, trapping the sun's heat and causing the planet to warm up. Pollution is one of the biggest man-made problems. Burning fossil fuels is the main factor of pollution. As average temperature increases, habitats, species and people are threatened by drought, changes in rainfall, altered seasons, and more violent storms and floods. Indeed the life cycle of nuclear power results in relatively little pollution. Energy efficiency, solar, wind and other renewable fuels are other weapons against global warming . Human activity, primarily burning fossil fuels, is the major driving factor in global warming . Curtailing the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by reducing use of oil, gasoline, coal and employment of alternate energy, sources are the tools for keeping global warming under control. global warming can be slowed and stopped, with practical actions thal yield a cleaner, healthier atmosphere

  3. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Survey of trends of new CO{sub 2} fixation technology using bacteria and algae (II); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Saikin sorui wo riyoshita atarashii nisanka tanso kotei gijutsu no doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trend of technology is surveyed from a standpoint that, in the process of CO2 fixation using microbes for the production of useful substances, it is essential, in view of income/outgo balance and economy, to utilize their catalytic function. The survey centers about the feasibility of the utilization of organic wastes, cellulose wastes in particular, as an energy source. Special attention is paid to the energy of artificial light and laser beams. From a point of view that it is important to suppress cell multiplication and to effectively utilize only catalytic activity for the production of useful substances, the cell division mechanism of the Corynebacterium is analyzed, and the findings are compiled to facilitate the study as to whether the division may be controlled. A report is also prepared on the metabolic mechanism of a photosynthesizing bacterium that is judged to be the most promising species. Reference is made to aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Shown are the organic compounds that are formed by CO2 gas fixation thanks to microbial or enzymatic reactions. To emphasize their importance as an energy source and to explain the conversion of biomass into useful substances, the technology and economy of conversion into fuel compounds are surveyed. The production of ethanol out of organic wastes is evaluated in the way of LCA (life cycle assessment). (NEDO)

  4. WARM MOLECULAR GAS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, N.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Howell, J.; Appleton, P.; Lord, S.; Schulz, B. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gao, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Surace, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Isaak, K. G. [ESA Astrophysics Missions Division, ESTEC, P.O. Box 299, 2200-AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Petric, A. O. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Iwasawa, K. [ICREA and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Leech, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Sanders, D. B., E-mail: lu@ipac.caltech.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2014-06-01

    We present our initial results on the CO rotational spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the J to J–1 transitions from J = 4 up to 13 from Herschel SPIRE spectroscopic observations of 65 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey. The observed SLEDs change on average from one peaking at J ≤ 4 to a broad distribution peaking around J ∼ 6 to 7 as the IRAS 60-to-100 μm color, C(60/100), increases. However, the ratios of a CO line luminosity to the total infrared luminosity, L {sub IR}, show the smallest variation for J around 6 or 7. This suggests that, for most LIRGs, ongoing star formation (SF) is also responsible for a warm gas component that emits CO lines primarily in the mid-J regime (5 ≲ J ≲ 10). As a result, the logarithmic ratios of the CO line luminosity summed over CO (5–4), (6–5), (7–6), (8–7) and (10–9) transitions to L {sub IR}, log R {sub midCO}, remain largely independent of C(60/100), and show a mean value of –4.13 (≡log R{sub midCO}{sup SF}) and a sample standard deviation of only 0.10 for the SF-dominated galaxies. Including additional galaxies from the literature, we show, albeit with a small number of cases, the possibility that galaxies, which bear powerful interstellar shocks unrelated to the current SF, and galaxies, in which an energetic active galactic nucleus contributes significantly to the bolometric luminosity, have their R {sub midCO} higher and lower than R{sub midCO}{sup SF}, respectively.

  5. Recent Arctic warming vertical structure contested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, A N; Brönnimann, S; Haimberger, L

    2008-09-11

    The vertical structure of the recent Arctic warming contains information about the processes governing Arctic climate trends. Graversen et al. argue, on the basis of ERA-40 reanalysis data, that a distinct maximum in 1979-2001 warm-season (April-October) Arctic temperature trends appears around 3 km above ground. Here we show that this is due to the heterogeneous nature of the data source, which incorporates information from satellites and radiosondes. Radiosonde data alone suggest the warming was strongest near ground.

  6. Observational Constraints on Monomial Warm Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Visinelli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Warm inflation is, as of today, one of the best motivated mechanisms for explaining an early inflationary period. In this paper, we derive and analyze the current bounds on warm inflation with a monomial potential $U\\propto \\phi^p$, using the constraints from the PLANCK mission. In particular, we discuss the parameter space of the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ and the potential coupling $\\lambda$ of the monomial warm inflation in terms of the number of e-folds. We obtain that the theoretical ten...

  7. Building Material Preferences in Warm-Humid and Hot-Dry Climates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dry climates in Ghana. Using a combination of closed and open-ended questionnaires, a total of 1281 participants (473 adults and 808 youth) were recruited in Ghana in a two-month survey in Kumasi and Tamale representing the warm-humid ...

  8. Turkish Primary Science Teacher Candidates' Understandings of Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Fatma Aggul; Yalcin, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore Turkish primary science teacher candidates' understanding of global warming and ozone layer depletion. In the study, as the research approach the survey method was used. The sample consisted of one hundred eighty nine third grade science teacher candidates. Data was collected using the tool developed by the…

  9. Chinese Grade Eight Students' Understanding about the Concept of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing

    2017-01-01

    China is one of the world's biggest greenhouse gas emitters. Chinese students' awareness and understanding about global warming have a significant impact on the future of mankind. This study, as an initial research of this kind in Mainland China, uses clinical interviews to survey 37 grade eight students on their understanding about global…

  10. Plot-scale evidence of tundra vegetation change and links to recent summer warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah C. Elmendorf; Gregory H.R. Henry; Robert D. Hollister; Robert G. Bjork; Noemie Boulanger-Lapointe; Elisabeth J. Cooper; Johannes H.C. Cornelissen; Thomas A. Day; Ellen Dorrepaal; Tatiana G. Elumeeva; Mike Gill; William A. Gould; John Harte; David S. Hik; Annika Hofgaard; David R. Johnson; Jill F. Johnstone; Ingijorg Svala Jonsdottir; Janet C. Jorgenson; Kari Klanderud; Julia A. Klein; Saewan Koh; Gaku Kudo; Mark Lara; Esther Levesque; Borgthor Magnusson; Jeremy L. May; Joel A. Mercado; Anders Michelsen; Ulf Molau; Isla H. Myers-Smith; Steven F. Oberbauer; Vladimir G. Onipchenko; Christian Rixen; Niels Martin Schmidt; Gaius R. Shaver; Marko J. Spasojevic; Pora Ellen Porhallsdottir; Anne Tolvanen; Tiffany Troxler; Craig E. Tweedie; Sandra Villareal; Carl-Henrik Wahren; Xanthe Walker; Patrick J. Webber; Jeffrey M. Welker; Sonja Wipf

    2012-01-01

    Temperature is increasing at unprecedented rates across most of the tundra biome1. Remote-sensing data indicate that contemporary climate warming has already resulted in increased productivity over much of the Arctic2,3, but plot-based evidence for vegetation transformation is not widespread. We analysed change in tundra vegetation surveyed between 1980 and 2010 in 158...

  11. Rapid climate variability during warm and cold periods in polar regions and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Landais, A.; Combourieu-Nebout, N.

    2005-01-01

    Typical rapid climate events punctuating the last glacial period in Greenland, Europe and Antarctica are compared to two rapid events occurring under warmer conditions: (i) Dansgaard-Oeschger event 25, the first abrupt warming occurring during last glacial inception; (ii) 8.2 ka BP event, the only...... rapid cooling recorded during the Holocene in Greenland ice cores and in Ammersee, Germany. The rate of warming during previous warmer interglacial periods is estimated from polar ice cores to 1.5 °C per millennium, without abrupt changes. Climate change expected for the 21st century should however...

  12. Impacts of extreme winter warming events on plant physiology in a sub-Arctic heath community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Bjerke, Jarle W; Davey, Matthew P; Taulavuori, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja; Laine, Kari; Callaghan, Terry V; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2010-10-01

    Insulation provided by snow cover and tolerance of freezing by physiological acclimation allows Arctic plants to survive cold winter temperatures. However, both the protection mechanisms may be lost with winter climate change, especially during extreme winter warming events where loss of snow cover from snow melt results in exposure of plants to warm temperatures and then returning extreme cold in the absence of insulating snow. These events cause considerable damage to Arctic plants, but physiological responses behind such damage remain unknown. Here, we report simulations of extreme winter warming events using infrared heating lamps and soil warming cables in a sub-Arctic heathland. During these events, we measured maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII), photosynthesis, respiration, bud swelling and associated bud carbohydrate changes and lipid peroxidation to identify physiological responses during and after the winter warming events in three dwarf shrub species: Empetrum hermaphroditum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Vaccinium myrtillus. Winter warming increased maximum quantum yield of PSII, and photosynthesis was initiated for E. hermaphroditum and V. vitis-idaea. Bud swelling, bud carbohydrate decreases and lipid peroxidation were largest for E. hermaphroditum, whereas V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea showed no or less strong responses. Increased physiological activity and bud swelling suggest that sub-Arctic plants can initiate spring-like development in response to a short winter warming event. Lipid peroxidation suggests that plants experience increased winter stress. The observed differences between species in physiological responses are broadly consistent with interspecific differences in damage seen in previous studies, with E. hermaphroditum and V. myrtillus tending to be most sensitive. This suggests that initiation of spring-like development may be a major driver in the damage caused by winter warming events that are predicted to become more

  13. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey, Colorado-Arizona area: Salton Sea NI II-9, Phoenix NI 12-7, El Centro NI II-12, AJO NI 12-10, Lukeville NH 12-1 quadrangles. Volume I. Narrative report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    A rotary-wing reconnaissance high sensitivity radiometric and magnetic survey, encompassing several 1:250,000 quadrangles in southwestern Arizona and southeastern California, was performed. The surveyed area consisted of approximately 9300 line miles. The radiometric data were corrected and normalized to 400 feet terrain clearance. The data were identified as to rock type by correlating the data samples with existing geologic maps. Statistics defining the mean and standard deviation of each rock type are presented as listings in Volume I of this report. The departure of the data from its corresponding mean rock type is computed in terms of standard deviation units and is presented graphically as anomaly maps in Volume II and as computer listings in microfiche form in Volume I. Profiles of the normalized averaged data are contained in Volume II and include traces of the potassium, uranium and thorium count rates, corresponding ratios, and several ancilliary sensor data traces, magnetometer, radio altimeter and barometric pressure height. A description of the local geology is provided, and a discussion of the magnetic and radiometric data is presented together with an evaluation of selected uranium anomalies

  14. A history of the Water Resources Branch of the United States Geological Survey: volume 4, years of World War II, July 1, 1939 to June 30, 1947

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follansbee, Robert

    1939-01-01

    This period extends from July 1, 1939, to June 30, 1947, and is called the years of World War II, although it was not until December 1941 that the United States entered the war which began in Europe in September 1939. By the beginning of the period, it was evident that this country might be drawn into the conflict and a rearmament program including the draft act , effective in September 1940, was started and prosecuted vigorously prior to December 1941, when the attack on Pearl Harbor forced us into the war. Although the war was not officially ended by June 1947, President Truman proclaimed the end of hostilities on December 31, 1946, thus terminating some of his war-time powers, and by further action terminated other war-time powers as of June 30, 1947.

  15. The gravitino problem in supersymmetric warm inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Juan C. Bueno; Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Kohri, Kazunori

    2011-01-01

    The warm inflation paradigm considers the continuous production of radiation during inflation due to dissipative effects. In its strong dissipation limit, warm inflation gives way to a radiation dominated Universe. High scale inflation then yields a high reheating temperature, which then poses a severe gravitino overproduction problem for the supersymmetric realisations of warm inflation. In this paper we show that, in a certain class of supersymmetric models, the dissipative dynamics of the inflaton is such that the field can avoid its complete decay after inflation. In some cases, the residual energy density stored in the inflaton field oscillations may come to dominate over the radiation bath at a later epoch. If the inflaton field finally decays much later than the onset of this matter dominated phase, the entropy produced from its decay may be sufficient to counteract the excess of gravitinos produced during the last stages of warm inflation

  16. Palaeoclimate: Volcanism caused ancient global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Katrin J.; Bralower, Timothy J.

    2017-08-01

    A study confirms that volcanism set off one of Earth's fastest global-warming events. But the release of greenhouse gases was slow enough for negative feedbacks to mitigate impacts such as ocean acidification. See Letter p.573

  17. Global Surface Warming Hiatus Analysis Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used to conduct the study of the global surface warming hiatus, an apparent decrease in the upward trend of global surface temperatures since 1998....

  18. Reconciling controversies about the 'global warming hiatus'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhaug, Iselin; Stolpe, Martin B; Fischer, Erich M; Knutti, Reto

    2017-05-03

    Between about 1998 and 2012, a time that coincided with political negotiations for preventing climate change, the surface of Earth seemed hardly to warm. This phenomenon, often termed the 'global warming hiatus', caused doubt in the public mind about how well anthropogenic climate change and natural variability are understood. Here we show that apparently contradictory conclusions stem from different definitions of 'hiatus' and from different datasets. A combination of changes in forcing, uptake of heat by the oceans, natural variability and incomplete observational coverage reconciles models and data. Combined with stronger recent warming trends in newer datasets, we are now more confident than ever that human influence is dominant in long-term warming.

  19. Teaching cases on transportation and global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This project developed a series of three teaching cases that explore the implications of global : warming for transportation policy in the United States. The cases are intended to be used in : graduate and undergraduate courses on transportation poli...

  20. Ecological stability in response to warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fussmann, Katarina E.; Schwarzmueller, Florian; Brose, Ulrich; Jousset, Alexandre|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370632656; Rall, Bjoern C.

    That species' biological rates including metabolism, growth and feeding scale with temperature is well established from warming experiments(1). The interactive influence of these changes on population dynamics, however, remains uncertain. As a result, uncertainty about ecological stability in

  1. Self-interacting warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannestad, Steen; Scherrer, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown by many independent studies that the cold dark matter scenario produces singular galactic dark halos, in strong contrast with observations. Possible remedies are that either the dark matter is warm so that it has significant thermal motion or that the dark matter has strong self-interactions. We combine these ideas to calculate the linear mass power spectrum and the spectrum of cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations for self-interacting warm dark matter. Our results indicate that such models have more power on small scales than is the case for the standard warm dark matter model, with a CMB fluctuation spectrum which is nearly indistinguishable from standard cold dark matter. This enhanced small-scale power may provide better agreement with the observations than does standard warm dark matter. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  2. Bidet toilet seats with warm-water tanks: residual chlorine, microbial community, and structural analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyo, Toru; Asakura, Keiko; Nakano, Makiko; Yamada, Mutsuko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2016-02-01

    Despite the reported health-related advantages of the use of warm water in bidets, there are health-related disadvantages associated with the use of these toilet seats, and the bacterial research is sparse. We conducted a survey on the hygienic conditions of 127 warm-water bidet toilet seats in restrooms on a university campus. The spray water from the toilet seats had less residual chlorine than their tap water sources. However, the total viable microbial count was below the water-quality standard for tap water. In addition, the heat of the toilet seats' warm-water tanks caused heterotrophic bacteria in the source tap water to proliferate inside the nozzle pipes and the warm-water tanks. Escherichia coli was detected on the spray nozzles of about 5% of the toilet seats, indicating that the self-cleaning mechanism of the spray nozzles was largely functioning properly. However, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected on about 2% of the toilet seats. P. aeruginosa was found to remain for long durations in biofilms that formed inside warm-water tanks. Infection-prevention measures aimed at P. aeruginosa should receive full consideration when managing warm-water bidet toilet seats in hospitals in order to prevent opportunistic infections in intensive care units, hematology wards, and other hospital locations.

  3. The Nainital-Cape Survey. II. Report for pulsation in five chemically peculiar A-type stars and presentation of 140 null results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S.; Mary, D. L.; Martinez, P.; Kurtz, D. W.; Girish, V.; Seetha, S.; Sagar, R.; Ashoka, B. N.

    2006-08-01

    Aims.We search for photometric variability in chemically peculiar A type stars in the northern hemisphere. Methods: .High-speed photometric observations of Ap and Am star candidates have been carried out from ARIES (Manora Peak, Nainital) using a three-channel fast photometer attached to the ARIES 104-cm Sampurnanand telescope. Results: .This paper presents three new variables: HD 113878, HD 118660 and HD 207561. During the time span of the survey (1999 December to 2004 January) pulsations of the δ Sct type were also found for the two evolved Am stars HD 102480 and HD 98851, as reported in Joshi et al. (2002, 2003). Additionally, we present 140 null results of the survey for this time span. Conclusions: .The star HD 113878 pulsates with a period of 2.31 h, which is typical of δ Sct stars. HD 118660 exhibits multi-periodic variability with a prominent period of nearly 1 h. These periods need to be investigated and make HD 118660 a particularly interesting target for further observations. For HD 207561, a star classified as Am, a probable pulsation with a period of 6 min was found in the light curves obtained on two consecutive nights. Both HD 102480 and HD 98851 exhibit unusual alternating high and low amplitude maxima, with a period ratio of 2:1. The analysis of the null results confirms the photometric quality of the Nainital site.

  4. MALT-45: A 7 mm survey of the southern Galaxy - II. ATCA follow-up observations of 44 GHz class I methanol masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Christopher H.; Walsh, Andrew J.; Breen, Shari L.; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Voronkov, Maxim A.; Hyland, Lucas J.

    2017-11-01

    We detail interferometric observations of 44 GHz class I methanol masers detected by MALT-45 (a 7 mm unbiased auto-correlated spectral-line Galactic-plane survey) using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We detect 238 maser spots across 77 maser sites. Using high-resolution positions, we compare the class I CH3OH masers to other star formation maser species, including CS (1-0), SiO v = 0 and the H53 α radio-recombination line. Comparison between the cross- and auto-correlated data has allowed us to also identify quasi-thermal emission in the 44 GHz class I methanol maser line. We find that the majority of class I methanol masers have small spatial and velocity ranges (<0.5 pc and <5 km s-1), and closely trace the systemic velocities of associated clouds. Using 870 μm dust continuum emission from the ATLASGAL survey, we determine clump masses associated with class I masers, and find that they are generally associated with clumps between 1000 and 3000 M⊙. For each class I methanol maser site, we use the presence of OH masers and radio recombination lines to identify relatively evolved regions of high-mass star formation; we find that maser sites without these associations have lower luminosities and preferentially appear towards dark infrared regions.

  5. Enhanced Decadal Warming of the Southeast Indian Ocean During the Recent Global Surface Warming Slowdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanlong; Han, Weiqing; Zhang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    The rapid Indian Ocean warming during the early-21th century was a major heat sink for the recent global surface warming slowdown. Analysis of observational data and ocean model experiments reveals that during 2003-2012 more than half of the increased upper Indian Ocean heat content was concentrated in the southeast Indian Ocean (SEIO), causing a warming "hot spot" of 0.8-1.2 K decade-1 near the west coast of Australia. This SEIO warming was primarily induced by the enhancements of the Pacific trade winds and Indonesian throughflow associated with the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation's (IPO) transition to its negative phase, and to a lesser degree by local atmospheric forcing within the Indian Ocean. Large-ensemble climate model simulations suggest that this warming event was likely also exacerbated by anthropogenic forcing and thus unprecedentedly strong as compared to previous IPO transition periods. Climate model projections suggest an increasing possibility of such strong decadal warming in future.

  6. Power Engineering and Global Climate Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Канило, П. М.

    2016-01-01

    Presently, three ecological problems are in the focus of humanities concern: the global climate warming on Earth, the future of the ozone layer and the circularity of global bio-geo-chemical cycles (the concept of biotic regulation of the environment). Further climate warming can result in adverse consequences such as enhanced evaporation of World Ocean water and intensification of the greenhouse effect, stratosphere cooling and respective thinning of the protective ozone screen, a rising lev...

  7. Global warming and north-south solidarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, S.

    1998-01-01

    The discussion on climate change is based on 'contradictory certainties'. All sides claim to have found the truth. Much has been written and said about the connection between global warming, biodiversity and over population. The impoverished countries of the South se the insatiable intentions of the North as the major threat to the environment; and global warming as an excuse for stopping the economic development of the south

  8. Attribution of polar warming to human influence

    OpenAIRE

    Gillett, NP; Stone, DA; Stott, PA; Nozawa, T; Karpechko, AY; Hegerl, GC; Wehner, MF; Jones, PD

    2008-01-01

    The polar regions have long been expected to warm strongly as a result of anthropogenic climate change, because of the positive feedbacks associated with melting ice and snow. Several studies have noted a rise in Arctic temperatures over recent decades, but have not formally attributed the changes to human influence, owing to sparse observations and large natural variability. Both warming and cooling trends have been observed in Antarctica, which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ...

  9. Should we be concerned about global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2006-01-01

    Accurate scientific predictions of the true human health outcomes of global climate change are significantly confounded by several effect modifiers that cannot be adjusted for analytically. Nevertheless, with the documented increase in average global surface temperature of 0.6 C. since 1975, there is uniform consensus in the international scientific community that the earth is warming from a variety of climatic effects, including cyclical re-warming and the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions to support human activities.

  10. Global warming and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    -fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global warming concerns.

  11. Results of the WHAM Hα survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Brianna Marie; Haffner, Lawrence Matthew; Barger, Kat; Madsen, Greg

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of an Hα survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) as the initial component of our WHAM Magellanic System Survey (SMC/LMC/Stream). Previous surveys of the SMC have focused on the bright H II regions (supernovae remnants/ HII bubbles, etc) centered around the stellar component of the galaxy. These surveys were not sensitive to the fainter Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) within and surrounding the galaxy. With WHAM, we detect a halo of diffuse Hα emission extending to radii well beyond the bright H II regions and comparable to extents of observed HI. Using WHAM's unprecedented sensitivity to trace diffuse emission (~ tens of mR) with a velocity resolution of 12 km/s, we have compiled the first comprehensive spatial and kinematic map of the extended Hα emission. With these new data in hand, we are able to delineate the considerable warm ionized component associated with the SMC, leading to better calculations of its present-day mass and providing new constraints for dynamical evolution simulations of the Magellanic System. Similar WHAM surveys of the diffuse ionized content of the LMC and Stream are also underway.

  12. Mediterranean climate change and Indian Ocean warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.; Hurrel, J.

    2006-01-01

    General circulation model (GCM) responses to 20. century changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and greenhouse gases are diagnosed, with emphasis on their relationship to observed regional climate change over the Mediterranean region. A major question is whether the Mediterranean region's drying trend since 1950 can be understood as a consequence of the warming trend in tropical SSTs. We focus on the impact of Indian Ocean warming, which is itself the likely result of increasing greenhouse gases. It is discovered that a strong projection onto the positive polarity of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index characterizes the atmospheric response structure to the 1950-1999 warming of Indian Ocean SSTs. This influence appears to be robust in so far as it is reproduced in ensembles of experiments using three different GCMs. Both the equilibrium and transient responses to Indian Ocean warming are examined. Under each scenario, the latitude of prevailing mid latitude westerlies shifts poleward during the November-April period. The consequence is a drying of the Mediterranean region, whereas northern Europe and Scandinavia receive increased precipitation in concert with the poleward shift of storminess. The IPCC (TAR) 20. century coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations forced by observed greenhouse gas changes also yield a post-1950 drying trend over the Mediterranean. We argue that this feature of human-induced regional climate change is the outcome of a dynamical feedback, one involving Indian Ocean warming and a requisite adjustment of atmospheric circulation systems to such ocean warming

  13. THE ARIZONA RADIO OBSERVATORY CO MAPPING SURVEY OF GALACTIC MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE W3 REGION IN CO J = 2-1, 13CO J = 2-1, AND CO J = 3-2 EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieging, John H.; Peters, William L.

    2011-01-01

    We present fully sampled 38'' resolution maps of the CO and 13 CO J = 2-1 lines in the molecular clouds toward the H II region complex W3. The maps cover a 2. 0 0 x 1. 0 67 section of the galactic plane and span -70 to -20 km s -1 (LSR) in velocity with a resolution of ∼1.3 km s -1 . The velocity range of the images includes all the gas in the Perseus spiral arm. We also present maps of CO J = 3-2 emission for a 0. 0 5 x 0. 0 33 area containing the H II regions W3 Main and W3(OH). The J = 3-2 maps have velocity resolution of 0.87 km s -1 and 24'' angular resolution. Color figures display the peak line brightness temperature, the velocity-integrated intensity, and velocity channel maps for all three lines, and also the (CO/ 13 CO) J = 2-1 line intensity ratios as a function of velocity. The line intensity image cubes are made available in standard FITS format as electronically readable files. We compare our molecular line maps with the 1.1 mm continuum image from the BOLOCAM Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). From our 13 CO image cube, we derive kinematic information for the 65 BGPS sources in the mapped field, in the form of Gaussian component fits.

  14. OPERATION SUN BEAM, SHOTS LITTLE FELLER I, II, JOHNIE BOY, and SMALL BOY. Project Officers’ Report. Project 2.8. Radiological Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-11

    Boy, and the 22nd Chemical Company from Fort McClellan, Alabama, commanded by Lt Richard D. ’ vde , made off- site ground surveys. Both groups were...0, N b.c 0 0 ~q ,’~ ’Sj 0~j 0100 114 .7’ W4 WI ...................................................-................ ~jSc>.~-.w~-.* -- - .. 2--F...0.11 0100 0.05 153 .09 7 831 0.15 0on1 0.a 1538 0.ŝ a um- 01 11 0.14 090 006ŕ 133o 0.05 9 130. 106 0.18 09W 0.03 1518 0.05 30 906 0.8 93 0.04 13*1 0.09

  15. Using large scale surveys to investigate seasonal variations in seabird distribution and abundance. Part II: The Bay of Biscay and the English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettex, Emeline; Laran, Sophie; Authier, Matthieu; Blanck, Aurélie; Dorémus, Ghislain; Falchetto, Hélène; Lambert, Charlotte; Monestiez, Pascal; Stéfan, Eric; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Seabird distributions and the associated seasonal variations remain challenging to investigate, especially in oceanic areas. Recent advances in telemetry have provided considerable information on seabird ecology, but still exclude small species, non-breeding birds and individuals from inaccessible colonies from any scientific survey. To overcome this issue and investigate seabird distribution and abundance in the eastern North Atlantic (ENA), large-scale aerial surveys were conducted in winter 2011-12 and summer 2012 over a 375,000 km2 area encompassing the English Channel (EC) and the Bay of Biscay (BoB). Seabird sightings, from 15 taxonomic groups, added up to 17,506 and 8263 sightings in winter and summer respectively, along 66,307 km. Using geostatistical methods, density maps were provided for both seasons. Abundance was estimated by strip transect sampling. Most taxa showed marked seasonal variations in their density and distribution. The highest densities were recorded during winter for most groups except shearwaters, storm-petrels, terns and large-sized gulls. Subsequently, the abundance in winter nearly reached one million individuals and was 2.5 times larger than in summer. The continental shelf and the slope in the BoB and the EC were identified as key areas for seabird conservation, especially during winter, as birds from northern Europe migrate southward after breeding. This large-scale study provided a synoptic view of the seabird community in the ENA, over two contrasting seasons. Our results highlight that oceanic areas harbour an abundant avifauna. Since most of the existing marine protected areas are restricted to the coastal fringe, the importance of oceanic areas in winter should be considered in future conservation plans. Our work will provide a baseline for the monitoring of seabird distribution at sea, and could inform the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  16. SPITZER ULTRA FAINT SURVEY PROGRAM (SURFS UP). II. IRAC-DETECTED LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES AT 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 BEHIND STRONG-LENSING CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kuang-Han; Bradač, Maruša; Hoag, Austin; Cain, Benjamin; Lubin, L. M.; Knight, Robert I. [University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Lemaux, Brian C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Brammer, Gabriel B. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Castellano, Marco; Amorin, Ricardo; Fontana, Adriano; Merlin, Emiliano [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Schmidt, Kasper B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Schrabback, Tim [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf Dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Linden, Anja von der, E-mail: khhuang@ucdavis.edu, E-mail: astrokuang@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We study the stellar population properties of the IRAC-detected 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 galaxy candidates from the Spitzer UltRa Faint SUrvey Program. Using the Lyman Break selection technique, we find a total of 17 galaxy candidates at 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 from Hubble Space Telescope images (including the full-depth images from the Hubble Frontier Fields program for MACS 1149 and MACS 0717) that have detections at signal-to-noise ratios  ≥ 3 in at least one of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm channels. According to the best mass models available for the surveyed galaxy clusters, these IRAC-detected galaxy candidates are magnified by factors of ∼1.2–5.5. Due to the magnification of the foreground galaxy clusters, the rest-frame UV absolute magnitudes M{sub 1600} are between −21.2 and −18.9 mag, while their intrinsic stellar masses are between 2 × 10{sup 8}M{sub ⊙} and 2.9 × 10{sup 9}M{sub ⊙}. We identify two Lyα emitters in our sample from the Keck DEIMOS spectra, one at z{sub Lyα} = 6.76 (in RXJ 1347) and one at z{sub Lyα} = 6.32 (in MACS 0454). We find that 4 out of 17 z ≳ 6 galaxy candidates are favored by z ≲ 1 solutions when IRAC fluxes are included in photometric redshift fitting. We also show that IRAC [3.6]–[4.5] color, when combined with photometric redshift, can be used to identify galaxies which likely have strong nebular emission lines or obscured active galactic nucleus contributions within certain redshift windows.

  17. Childhood adversities and adult psychiatric disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication II: associations with persistence of DSM-IV disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2010-02-01

    Although significant associations of childhood adversities (CAs) with adult mental disorders have been widely documented, associations of CAs with onset and persistence of disorders have not been distinguished. This distinction is important for conceptual and practical purposes. To examine the multivariate associations of 12 retrospectively reported CAs with persistence of adult DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Cross-sectional community survey. Household population in the United States. Nationally representative sample of 5692 adults. Recency of episodes was assessed separately for each of 20 lifetime DSM-IV mood, anxiety, disruptive behavior, and substance use disorders in respondents with a lifetime history of these disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Predictors of persistence were examined using backward recurrence survival models to predict time since most recent episode controlling for age at onset and time since onset. The CAs involving maladaptive family functioning (parental mental illness, substance use disorder, criminality, family violence, physical and sexual abuse, and neglect) but not other CAs were significantly but modestly related to persistence of mood, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders. Number of maladaptive family functioning CAs had statistically significant, but again substantively modest, subadditive associations with the same outcomes. Exposure to multiple other CAs was significantly associated with persistence of mood and anxiety disorders. Associations remained statistically significant throughout the life course, although the substantive size of associations indicated by simulations showing time to most recent episode would increase by only 1.6% (from a mean of 8.3 years to a mean of 8.4 years) in the absence of CAs. The overall statistically significant associations of CAs with adult DSM-IV/Composite International Diagnostic Interview disorders are due largely to

  18. THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE SURVEY OF THE ORION A AND B MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND DEMOGRAPHICS OF DUSTY YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megeath, S. T.; Kryukova, E.; Gutermuth, R.; Muzerolle, J.; Hora, J. L.; Myers, P. C.; Fazio, G. G.; Allen, L. E.; Flaherty, K.; Hartmann, L.; Pipher, J. L.; Stauffer, J.; Young, E. T.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the spatial distribution of dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) identified in the Spitzer Survey of the Orion Molecular clouds, augmenting these data with Chandra X-ray observations to correct for incompleteness in dense clustered regions. We also devise a scheme to correct for spatially varying incompleteness when X-ray data are not available. The local surface densities of the YSOs range from 1 pc −2 to over 10,000 pc −2 , with protostars tending to be in higher density regions. This range of densities is similar to other surveyed molecular clouds with clusters, but broader than clouds without clusters. By identifying clusters and groups as continuous regions with surface densities ≥10 pc −2 , we find that 59% of the YSOs are in the largest cluster, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), while 13% of the YSOs are found in a distributed population. A lower fraction of protostars in the distributed population is evidence that it is somewhat older than the groups and clusters. An examination of the structural properties of the clusters and groups shows that the peak surface densities of the clusters increase approximately linearly with the number of members. Furthermore, all clusters with more than 70 members exhibit asymmetric and/or highly elongated structures. The ONC becomes azimuthally symmetric in the inner 0.1 pc, suggesting that the cluster is only ∼2 Myr in age. We find that the star formation efficiency (SFE) of the Orion B cloud is unusually low, and that the SFEs of individual groups and clusters are an order of magnitude higher than those of the clouds. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the young low mass stars in the Orion clouds and the Orion OB 1 association, and we determine upper limits to the fraction of disks that may be affected by UV radiation from OB stars or dynamical interactions in dense, clustered regions

  19. Stellar substructures in the solar neighbourhood. II. Abundances of neutron-capture elements in the kinematic Group 3 of the Geneva-Copenhagen survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonkutė, E.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Nordström, B.; Ženovienė, R.

    2013-07-01

    Context. The evolution of chemical elements in a galaxy is linked to its star formation history. Variations in star formation history are imprinted in the relative abundances of chemical elements produced in different supernova events and asymptotic giant branch stars. Aims: We determine detailed elemental abundances of s- and r-process elements in stars belonging to Group 3 of the Geneva-Copenhagen survey and compare their chemical composition with Galactic disc stars. The aim is to look for possible chemical signatures that might give information about the formation history of this kinematic group of stars, which is suggested to correspond to remnants of disrupted satellites. Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, and were analysed with a differential model atmosphere method. Comparison stars were observed and analysed with the same method. Results: Abundances of chemical elements produced mainly by the s-process are similar to those in the Galactic thin-disc dwarfs of the same metallicity, while abundances of chemical elements produced predominantly by the r-process are overabundant. The similar elemental abundances are observed in Galactic thick-disc stars. Conclusions: The chemical composition together with the kinematic properties and ages of stars in Group 3 of the Geneva-Copenhagen survey support a gas-rich satellite merger scenario as the most likely explanation for the origin. The similar chemical composition of stars in Group 3 and the thick-disc stars might suggest that their formation histories are linked.

  20. THE SWIFT GRB HOST GALAXY LEGACY SURVEY. II. REST-FRAME NEAR-IR LUMINOSITY DISTRIBUTION AND EVIDENCE FOR A NEAR-SOLAR METALLICITY THRESHOLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krühler, T. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 København Ø (Denmark); Laskar, T.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chary, R. [US Planck Data Center, MS220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Postigo, A. de Ugarte [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Michałowski, M. J. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Schulze, S., E-mail: dperley@dark-cosmology.dk [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2016-01-20

    We present rest-frame near-IR (NIR) luminosities and stellar masses for a large and uniformly selected population of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using deep Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of 119 targets from the Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey spanning 0.03 < z < 6.3, and we determine the effects of galaxy evolution and chemical enrichment on the mass distribution of the GRB host population across cosmic history. We find a rapid increase in the characteristic NIR host luminosity between z ∼ 0.5 and z ∼ 1.5, but little variation between z ∼ 1.5 and z ∼ 5. Dust-obscured GRBs dominate the massive host population but are only rarely seen associated with low-mass hosts, indicating that massive star-forming galaxies are universally and (to some extent) homogeneously dusty at high redshift while low-mass star-forming galaxies retain little dust in their interstellar medium. Comparing our luminosity distributions with field surveys and measurements of the high-z mass–metallicity relation, our results have good consistency with a model in which the GRB rate per unit star formation is constant in galaxies with gas-phase metallicity below approximately the solar value but heavily suppressed in more metal-rich environments. This model also naturally explains the previously reported “excess” in the GRB rate beyond z ≳ 2; metals stifle GRB production in most galaxies at z < 1.5 but have only minor impact at higher redshifts. The metallicity threshold we infer is much higher than predicted by single-star models and favors a binary progenitor. Our observations also constrain the fraction of cosmic star formation in low-mass galaxies undetectable to Spitzer to be small at z < 4.

  1. Um exame dos modelos de redes de filas abertas aplicados a sistemas de manufatura discretos: parte II A survey on open queueing network models applied to discrete manufacturing systems: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. Bitran

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a segunda (e última parte do nosso exame dos modelos de redes de filas abertas aplicados a sistemas de manufatura discretos. Nosso enfoque é em modelos de projeto e planejamento de job-shops. Na primeira parte (BITRAN & MORABITO, 1995b revisamos métodos de decomposição exatos e aproximados para modelos de avaliação de desempenho em sistemas com múltiplas classes de produtos e diversas estações de trabalho. Nesta segunda parte examinamos modelos de otimização de três categorias de problemas: a primeira minimiza o investimento de capital de maneira a atingir uma medida de desempenho (estoque em processo ou leadtime, a segunda busca otimizar a medida de desempenho sujeito às restrições de recursos, e a terceira explora resultados de pesquisas recentes com a redução de complexidade mediante reprojeto da planta e da partição de produtos.This paper presents the second (and last part of our survey on open queueing network models applied to discrete manufacturing systems. We focus on design and planning for job-shops. In the first part (Bitran and Morabito, 1995b we reviewed exact and approximate decomposition methods for performance evaluation models for single and multiple product class systems. The second part reviews optimization models of three categories of problems: the first minimizes capital investment subject to attaining a performance measure (WIP or leadtime, the second seeks to optimize the performance measure subject to resource constraints, and the third explores recent research developments in complexity reduction through shop redesign and products partitioning.

  2. Can Global Warming be Stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, M.

    2013-12-01

    Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global warming have been reported in numerous occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater environmental hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US

  3. THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING ON STORMS AND STORM PREPAREDNESS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Chew-Hung

    2010-01-01

    According to the latest report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “[w]arming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures” (IPCC, 2007: 5) by about 0.8–1.0°C over the last 160 years. Based on a survey of literature on global warming and precipitation, there is agreement that the frequency of extreme precipitation events in Southeast Asia will increase with global warming. At the region...

  4. Gamma-spectrometric surveys in differentiated granites. II: the Joaquim Murtinho Granite in the Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex, Parana, SE Brazil; Levantamentos gamaespectrometricos em granitos diferenciados. II: O exemplo do Granito Joaquim Murtinho, Complexo Granitico Cunhaporanga, Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada; Fruchting, Allan [Votorantim Metais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: allan.fruchting@vmetais.com.br; Guimaraes, Gilson Burigo [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail: gburigo@ig.com.br; Alves, Luizemara Soares [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: luizemara@petrobras.com.br; Martin, Victor Miguel Oliveira; Ulbrich, Horstpeter Herberto Gustavo Jose [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], e-mail: vicmartin6@ig.com.br, e-mail: hulbrich@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Detailed mapping at the NW corner of the large Neo proterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), Parana state, SE Brazil, redefined the Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG), a late intrusion in CGC with an exposed area of about 10 km{sup 2}, made up mainly by evolved 'alaskites' (alkali-feldspar leuco granites). This unit is in tectonic contact with the Neoproterozoic-Eocambrian volcano-sedimentary Castro Group, to the W, and is intrusive into other less evolved granitic units of the CGC to the E. Petrographically, JMG shows mainly mesoperthite and quartz, with subordinate amounts of altered micas and some accessory phases, mainly zircon. The equi to inequigranular granites are usually deformed with cataclastic textures, are often brecciated, and may have miarolitic structures. Formation of late albite, sericite, carbonate and hematite was caused by deuteric and hydrothermal alteration. A gamma-ray spectrometric survey at 231 stations which measured total counts (TC), Ueq K%, eU ppm and eTh ppm was used to construct several direct and derived maps. Compared to neighboring units the JMG has significant anomalies, especially in the TC, %K, eTh and eU maps, although the differences are less obvious in some derived maps. These evolved granites are enriched in these three elements. Geochemical behavior of K, Th and U is used to analyse the results observed in maps. Enhanced weathering under a subtropical climate with moderate to high average temperatures and heavy rainfall affects mainly feldspars and biotite, and may also destabilize most U and Th-bearing accessory phases. Th is most likely retained in restite minerals in soils, being relatively immobile, while part of U may migrate as uranyl ion in oxidizing media. K is especially affected by feldspar alteration to K-free clays (mainly kaolinite), and may be completely leached. Gamma-ray spectrometric methods are valid tools to study facies in granitic rocks, especially in those that are enriched in K, Th and U

  5. An international survey on hypoglycemia among insulin-treated type I and type II diabetes patients: Turkey cohort of the non-interventional IO HAT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emral, Rıfat; Tetiker, Tamer; Sahin, Ibrahim; Sari, Ramazan; Kaya, Ahmet; Yetkin, İlhan; Cil, Sefika Uslu; Tütüncü, Neslihan Başcıl

    2018-02-13

    Limited real-world data are currently available on hypoglycemia in diabetes patients. The International Operations Hypoglycemia Assessment Tool (IO HAT) study was designed to estimate hypoglycemia in insulin-treated type I (T1DM) and type II (T2DM) diabetes mellitus patients from 9 countries. The data from Turkey cohort are presented here. A non-interventional study to determine the hypoglycemia incidence, retrospectively and prospectively, in Turkish T1DM and T2DM patients using a 2-part self-assessment questionnaire. Overall, 2348 patients were enrolled in the Turkey cohort (T1DM = 306 patients, T2DM = 2042 patients). In T1DM patients, 96.8% patients reported hypoglycemic events (Incidence rate [IR]: 68.6 events per patient-year [ppy]), prospectively, while 74.0% patients reported hypoglycemic events (IR: 51.7 events ppy), retrospectively. In T2DM patients, 95.9% patients (IR: 28.3 events ppy) reported hypoglycemic events, prospectively, while 53.6% patients (IR: 23.0 events ppy) reported hypoglycemic events, retrospectively. Nearly all patients reported hypoglycemia during the prospective period. This is a first patient-reported dataset on hypoglycemia in Turkish, insulin-treated diabetes patients. A high incidence of patient-reported hypoglycemia confirms that hypoglycemia remains under-estimated. Hypoglycemia increased healthcare utilization impacting patients' quality of life. Hypoglycemia remains a common side effect with insulin-treatment and strategies to optimize therapy and reduce hypoglycemia occurrence in diabetes patients are required. Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02306681 (Date of registration: 12 Nov 2014; retrospectively registered).

  6. The Bolocam 1.1 mm Lockman Hole Galaxy Survey: SHARC II 350 μm Photometry and Implications for Spectral Models, Dust Temperatures, and Redshift Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, G. T.; Glenn, J.; Egami, E.; Rieke, G. H.; Ivison, R. J.; Yun, M. S.; Aguirre, J. E.; Maloney, P. R.; Haig, D.

    2006-05-01

    We present 350 μm photometry of all 17 galaxy candidates in the Lockman Hole detected in a 1.1 mm Bolocam survey. Several of the galaxies were previously detected at 850 μm, at 1.2 mm, in the infrared by Spitzer, and in the radio. Nine of the Bolocam galaxy candidates were detected at 350 μm, and two new candidates were serendipitously detected at 350 μm (bringing the total in the literature detected in this way to three). Five of the galaxies have published spectroscopic redshifts, enabling investigation of the implied temperature ranges and a comparison of photometric redshift techniques. For z~2.5 thermally emitting galaxies, λ=350 μm lies near the spectral energy distribution peak. Thus, luminosities can be measured without extrapolating to the peak from detection wavelengths of λ>=850 μm. Characteristically, the galaxy luminosities lie in the range 1.0-1.2×1013 Lsolar, with dust temperatures in the range 40-70 K, depending on the choice of spectral index and wavelength of unit optical depth. The implied dust masses are (3-5)×108 Msolar. We find that the far-infrared to radio relation for star-forming ULIRGs systematically overpredicts the radio luminosities and overestimates redshifts on the order of Δz~1, whereas redshifts based on either submillimeter data alone or the 1.6 μm stellar bump and PAH features are more accurate.

  7. Second Byurakan spectral sky survey. II. Results for region centered on alpha 09h50m, delta +55 deg 00 arcmin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markarian, B.E.; Stepanian, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The second list of objects in the Second Biurakan Spectral Sky Survey of the region centered on alpha 09h50m, delta +55 deg 00 arcmin is given. The list contains data on 110 objects and galaxies of a peculiar physical nature and 24 blue stars. The observations were made with the 40-52 arcsec Schmidt telescope of the Biurakan Astrophysical Observatory with a set of three objective prisms using Kodak IIIaJ and IIIaF emulsions sensitized in nitrogen. The area is found to contain 20 quasar candidates and four Seyfert galaxies, 27 blue stellar objects, 24 galaxies with an appreciable ultraviolet continuum, and 39 emission galaxies without appreciable ultraviolet radiation. The surface brightness of the quasars and Seyferts on the considered area down to the limiting magnitude 19.5 M is more than 1.5 per square degree with allowance for the already known quasars. The surface density of emission galaxies is about four per square degree. 7 references

  8. Global Warming Will Bring New Fungal Diseases for Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Solache, Monica A.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fungi are major pathogens of plants, other fungi, rotifers, insects, and amphibians, but relatively few cause disease in mammals. Fungi became important human pathogens only in the late 20th century, primarily in hosts with impaired immunity as a consequence of medical interventions or HIV infection. The relatively high resistance of mammals has been attributed to a combination of a complex immune system and endothermy. Mammals maintain high body temperatures relative to environmental temperatures, creating a thermally restrictive ambient for the majority of fungi. According to this view, protection given by endothermy requires a temperature gradient between those of mammals and the environment. We hypothesize that global warming will increase the prevalence of fungal diseases in mammals by two mechanisms: (i) increasing the geographic range of currently pathogenic species and (ii) selecting for adaptive thermotolerance for species with significant pathogenic potential but currently not pathogenic by virtue of being restricted by mammalian temperatures. PMID:20689745

  9. Warm Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Timothy

    Warm absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band warm absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. Warm absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the warm absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between warm absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of warm absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for warm absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of warm absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are

  10. Do mitigation strategies reduce global warming potential in the northern U.S. corn belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jane M-F; Archer, David W; Weyers, Sharon L; Barbour, Nancy W

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural management practices that enhance C sequestration, reduce greenhouse gas emission (nitrous oxide [N₂O], methane [CH₄], and carbon dioxide [CO₂]), and promote productivity are needed to mitigate global warming without sacrificing food production. The objectives of the study were to compare productivity, greenhouse gas emission, and change in soil C over time and to assess whether global warming potential and global warming potential per unit biomass produced were reduced through combined mitigation strategies when implemented in the northern U.S. Corn Belt. The systems compared were (i) business as usual (BAU); (ii) maximum C sequestration (MAXC); and (iii) optimum greenhouse gas benefit (OGGB). Biomass production, greenhouse gas flux change in total and organic soil C, and global warming potential were compared among the three systems. Soil organic C accumulated only in the surface 0 to 5 cm. Three-year average emission of N₂O and CH was similar among all management systems. When integrated from planting to planting, N₂O emission was similar for MAXC and OGGB systems, although only MAXC was fertilized. Overall, the three systems had similar global warming potential based on 4-yr changes in soil organic C, but average rotation biomass was less in the OGGB systems. Global warming potential per dry crop yield was the least for the MAXC system and the most for OGGB system. This suggests management practices designed to reduce global warming potential can be achieved without a loss of productivity. For example, MAXC systems over time may provide sufficient soil C sequestration to offset associated greenhouse gas emission. by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Global warming: Towards a strategy for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A discussion paper is provided as background to a proposed public review of a strategy for Ontario's response to global warming. Global warming arises from the generation of greenhouse gases, which come from the use of fossil fuels, the use of chlorofluorocarbons, and deforestation. Energy policy is the backbone of achieving climate stability since the burning of fossil fuels releases most of the greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide. Canada is, by international standards, a very energy-intensive country and is among the world's largest emitters of carbon dioxide on a per capita basis. Ontario is the largest energy-using province in Canada, and fossil fuels represent over 80% of provincial energy use. A proposed goal for Ontario is to provide leadership in stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases, while minimizing the social, economic, and environmental costs in Ontario of adapting to global warming. A proposed first step to address global warming is to achieve reductions in expected emissions of the greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, so that levels by the year 2000 are lower than in 1989. Current policies and regulations helping to reduce the greenhouse effect include some of the current controls on automotive emissions and the adoption by the provincial electric utility of targets to reduce electricity demand. New initiatives include establishment of minimum energy efficiency standards and reduction of peak-day electricity use. Action steps for future consideration are detailed in the categories of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, carbon dioxide absorption, and research and analysis into global warming

  12. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.

  13. Global warming from an energy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Global climate change and energy are integrally related. The majority of greenhouse gas emissions are the result of energy production and use; at the same time, warming will affect energy patterns in California through physical increases in energy demand, physical changes in energy supply, and changes in both energy end-use patterns and supplies resulting from climate-change policies. There seems to be a growing political consensus that the world (as well as the state) needs to act soon to minimize further commitment to future warming. While California is not likely to experience the physical changes resulting from a warmer climate for years or perhaps decades, policy responses to the warming issue may cause more immediate impacts. This chapter will discuss how policy response to potential warming may be the most significant early impact of the issue on California's energy system. Makers of energy policy face the dilemma of deciding how to respond to the climate warming issue in the face of scientific uncertainties about its timing and seriousness. The chapter will conclude by presenting a conceptual framework for dealing with this dilemma, along with general recommendations for action

  14. Light accelerates plant responses to warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Frenne, Pieter; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Francisco; De Schrijver, An; Coomes, David A; Hermy, Martin; Vangansbeke, Pieter; Verheyen, Kris

    2015-08-17

    Competition for light has profound effects on plant performance in virtually all terrestrial ecosystems. Nowhere is this more evident than in forests, where trees create environmental heterogeneity that shapes the dynamics of forest-floor communities(1-3). Observational evidence suggests that biotic responses to both anthropogenic global warming and nitrogen pollution may be attenuated by the shading effects of trees and shrubs(4-9). Here we show experimentally that tree shade is slowing down changes in below-canopy communities due to warming. We manipulated levels of photosynthetically active radiation, temperature and nitrogen, alone and in combination, in a temperate forest understorey over a 3-year period, and monitored the composition of the understorey community. Light addition, but not nitrogen enrichment, accelerated directional plant community responses to warming, increasing the dominance of warmth-preferring taxa over cold-tolerant plants (a process described as thermophilization(6,10-12)). Tall, competitive plants took greatest advantage of the combination of elevated temperature and light. Warming of the forest floor did not result in strong community thermophilization unless light was also increased. Our findings suggest that the maintenance of locally closed canopy conditions could reduce, at least temporarily, warming-induced changes in forest floor plant communities.

  15. DGSAT: Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Amateur Telescopes. II. A catalogue of isolated nearby edge-on disk galaxies and the discovery of new low surface brightness systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, C.; Javanmardi, B.; Martínez-Delgado, D.; Kroupa, P.; Teuwen, K.

    2017-07-01

    The connection between the bulge mass or bulge luminosity in disk galaxies and the number, spatial and phase space distribution of associated dwarf galaxies is a discriminator between cosmological simulations related to galaxy formation in cold dark matter and generalised gravity models. Here, a nearby sample of isolated Milky Way-class edge-on galaxies is introduced, to facilitate observational campaigns to detect the associated families of dwarf galaxies at low surface brightness. Three galaxy pairs with at least one of the targets being edge-on are also introduced. Approximately 60% of the catalogued isolated galaxies contain bulges of different size, while the remaining objects appear to be bulgeless. Deep images of NGC 3669 (small bulge, with NGC 3625 at the edge of the image) and NGC 7814 (prominent bulge), obtained with a 0.4 m aperture, are also presented, resulting in the discovery of two new dwarf galaxy candidates, NGC 3669-DGSAT-3 and NGC 7814-DGSAT-7. Eleven additional low surface brightness galaxies are identified, previously notified with low quality measurement flags in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Integrated magnitudes, surface brightnesses, effective radii, Sersic indices, axis ratios, and projected distances to their putative major hosts are displayed. At least one of the galaxies, NGC 3625-DGSAT-4, belongs with a surface brightness of μr ≈ 26 mag arcsec-2 and effective radius >1.5 kpc to the class of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs). NGC 3669-DGSAT-3, the galaxy with the lowest surface brightness in our sample, may also be an UDG.

  16. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS): the United States of America in 2011 chapter II: phosphodiesterase inhibitors utilization among English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeer, Osama

    2013-02-01

    Utility of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEi's) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) has been the focus of experimental and clinical studies. However, public preferences, attitudes, and experiences with PDEi's are rarely addressed from a population/epidemiology viewpoint. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS) is a worldwide epidemiologic study of sexuality and sexual disorders, first launched in the Middle East in 2010, followed by the United States in 2011. To describe the utilization rates, trends, and attitudes toward PDEi's in the United States in the year 2011. GOSS was randomly deployed to English-speaking male Web surfers in the United States via paid advertising on Facebook®, comprising 146 questions. Utilization rates and preferences for PDEi's by brand. Six hundred three subjects participated; mean age 53.43 years ± 13.9. Twenty-three point seven percent used PDEi's on more consistent basis, 37.5% of those with ED vs. 15.6% of those without ED (recreational users). Unrealistic safety concerns including habituation were pronounced. Seventy-nine point six percent of utilization was on prescription basis. PDEi's were purchased through pharmacies (5.3% without prescription) and in 16.5% over the Internet (68% without prescription). Nine point six percent nonprescription users suffered coronary heart disease. Prescription use was inclined toward sildenafil, generally, and particularly in severe cases, and shifted toward tadalafil in moderate ED and for recreational use, followed by vardenafil. Nonprescription utilization trends were similar, except in recreational use where sildenafil came first. In the United States unrealistic safety concerns over PDEi's utility exist and should be addressed. Preference for particular PDEi's over the others is primarily dictated by health-care providers, despite lack of guidelines that govern physician choice. Online and over-the-counter sales of PDEi's are common, and can expose a subset of users to health

  17. Large Interstellar Polarisation Survey. II. UV/optical study of cloud-to-cloud variations of dust in the diffuse ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenmorgen, R.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Bagnulo, S.; Cox, N. L. J.; Cami, J.; Peest, C.

    2018-03-01

    It is well known that the dust properties of the diffuse interstellar medium exhibit variations towards different sight-lines on a large scale. We have investigated the variability of the dust characteristics on a small scale, and from cloud-to-cloud. We use low-resolution spectro-polarimetric data obtained in the context of the Large Interstellar Polarisation Survey (LIPS) towards 59 sight-lines in the Southern Hemisphere, and we fit these data using a dust model composed of silicate and carbon particles with sizes from the molecular to the sub-micrometre domain. Large (≥6 nm) silicates of prolate shape account for the observed polarisation. For 32 sight-lines we complement our data set with UVES archive high-resolution spectra, which enable us to establish the presence of single-cloud or multiple-clouds towards individual sight-lines. We find that the majority of these 35 sight-lines intersect two or more clouds, while eight of them are dominated by a single absorbing cloud. We confirm several correlations between extinction and parameters of the Serkowski law with dust parameters, but we also find previously undetected correlations between these parameters that are valid only in single-cloud sight-lines. We find that interstellar polarisation from multiple-clouds is smaller than from single-cloud sight-lines, showing that the presence of a second or more clouds depolarises the incoming radiation. We find large variations of the dust characteristics from cloud-to-cloud. However, when we average a sufficiently large number of clouds in single-cloud or multiple-cloud sight-lines, we always retrieve similar mean dust parameters. The typical dust abundances of the single-cloud cases are [C]/[H] = 92 ppm and [Si]/[H] = 20 ppm.

  18. Pb II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    ., 2009) biomaterials. However, the ..... reported for various microorganisms by various researchers (Gong et al., 2005). At biomass ... the increase in initial Pb (II) was also observed for removal of Pb (II) by loofa sponge immobilized Aspergillus.

  19. Thermal Niche Tracking and Future Distribution of Atlantic Mackerel Spawning in response to Ocean Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eBruge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available North-east Atlantic mackerel spawning distribution has shifted northward in the last three decades probably in response to global sea warming. Yet, uncertainties subsist regarding on the shift rate, causalities, and how this species will respond to future conditions. Using egg surveys, we explored the influence of temperature change on mackerel’s spawning distribution (western and southern spawning components of the stock between 1992 and 2013, and projected how it may change under future climate change scenarios. We developed three generalized additive models: (i a spatiotemporal model to reconstruct the spawning distribution for the north-east Atlantic stock over the period 1992-2013, to estimate the rate of shift; (ii a thermal habitat model to assess if spawning mackerel have tracked their thermal spawning-niche; and (iii a niche-based model to project future spawning distribution under two predicted climate change scenarios. Our findings showed that mackerel spawning activity has shifted northward at a rate of 15.9 ± 0.9 km/decade between 1992 and 2013. Similarly, using the thermal habitat model, we detected a northward shift of the thermal spawning-niche. This indicates that mackerel has spawned at higher latitudes to partially tracking their thermal spawning-niche, at a rate of 28.0 ± 9.0 km/°C of sea warming. Under future scenarios (mid and end of the century, the extrapolation of the niche-based model to coupled hydroclimatic and biogeochemical models indicates that centre of gravity of mackerel spawning distribution is expected to shift westward (32 to 117 km and northward (0.5 to 328 km, but with high variability according to scenarios and time frames. The future of the overall egg production in the area is uncertain (change from -9.3% to 12%. With the aim to allow the fishing industry to anticipate the future distribution of mackerel shoals during the spawning period, future research should focus on reducing uncertainty in

  20. Warm Rain Processes over the Tropical Oceans and Implications on Climate Change: Results from TRMM and GEOS GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Wu, H. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will first show results from TRMM data regarding the characteristics of warm rains over the tropical oceans, and the dependence of rate of warm rain production on sea surface temperature. Results lead to the hypothesis that warm rain production efficiency, i.e., autoconversion, may be increased in a warm climate. We use the GEOS-II GCM to test this hypothesis. Our modeling results show that in a climate with increased rate of autoconversion, the total rain amount is increased, with warm rain contributing to larger portion of the increase. The abundant rainout of warm precipitation causes a reduction of low and middle cloud amount due to rainout, and reduced high clouds due to less water vapor available for ice-phase convection. However, clod radiation feedback caused by the increased rainfall efficiency, leads to differential vertical heating/cooling producing a more unstable atmosphere, allowing, more intense, but isolated penetrative convection, with contracted anvils to develop. Results also show that increased autoconversion reduces the convective adjustment time scale, resulting in faster recycling of atmospheric water. Most interestingly, the increased low level heating associated with warm rain leads to more energetic Madden and Julian oscillations in the tropics, with well-defined eastward propagation. While reducing the autoconversion leads to an abundant mix of westward and eastward tropical disturbances on daily to weekly time scales. The crucial link of precipitation microphysical processes to climate change including the effects of aerosols will be discussed.

  1. Warm Rain Processes Over the Tropical Oceans and Implications on Climate Change: Results from TRMM and GOES GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Wu, H. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will first show results from TRMM data regarding the characteristics of warm rains over the tropical oceans, and the dependence of rate of warm rain production on sea surface temperature. Results lead to the hypothesis that warm rain production efficiency, i.e., autoconversion, may be increased in a warm climate. We use the GEOS-II GCM to test this hypothesis. Our modeling results show that in a climate with increased rate of autoconversion, the total rain amount is increased, with warm rain contributing to a larger portion of the increase. The abundant rainout of warm precipitation causes a reduction of low and middle cloud amount due to rainout, and reduced high clouds due to less water vapor available for ice-phase convection. However, clod radiation feedback caused by the increased rainfall efficiency, leads to differential vertical heating/cooling producing a more unstable atmosphere, allowing, more intense, but isolated penetrative convection, with contracted anvils to develop. Results also show that increased autoconversion reduces the convective adjustment time scale, resulting in faster recycling of atmospheric water. Most interestingly, the increased low level heating associated with warm rain leads to more energetic Madden and Julian oscillations in the tropics, with well-defined eastward propagation. While reducing the autoconversion leads to an abundant mix of westward and eastward tropical disturbances on daily to weekly time scales. The crucial link of precipitation microphysical processes to climate change including the effects of aerosols will be discussed.

  2. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  3. Warm Handoffs: a Novel Strategy to Improve End-of-Rotation Care Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saag, Harry S; Chen, Jingjing; Denson, Joshua L; Jones, Simon; Horwitz, Leora; Cocks, Patrick M

    2018-01-01

    Hospitalized medical patients undergoing transition of care by house staff teams at the end of a ward rotation are associated with an increased risk of mortality, yet best practices surrounding this transition are lacking. To assess the impact of a warm handoff protocol for end-of-rotation care transitions. A large, university-based internal medicine residency using three different training sites. PGY-2 and PGY-3 internal medicine residents. Implementation of a warm handoff protocol whereby the incoming and outgoing residents meet at the hospital to sign out in-person and jointly round at the bedside on sicker patients using a checklist. An eight-question survey completed by 60 of 99 eligible residents demonstrated that 85% of residents perceived warm handoffs to be safer for patients (p rotation (p rotation care transitions. Additional studies analyzing patient outcomes will be needed to assess the impact of this strategy.

  4. Awareness structure of the people with opinion that nuclear power is effective for preventing global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukae, Chiyokazu

    2006-01-01

    Most of people think that nuclear power generation is not effective for preventing global warming. In this research, the reason why people think so was investigated with using questionnaire survey. As a result, the misunderstanding, the thermal effluent and radioactive substance etc. produced from a nuclear plant promotes global warming, has influenced on this issue. People have negative image against nuclear power in the background of this idea. This negative image is a factor to decrease the evaluation that nuclear power is useful for preventing global warming regardless of the presence of the misunderstanding. By the fear that the accident of the nuclear plant brings the environmental destruction, people evaluate that nuclear power doesn't have the capabilities for environmental preservation. Especially young people have such awareness. It is necessary to learn energy and environmental issues including the merits and demerits of nuclear power objectively in the academic training. (author)

  5. Studies of global warming and global energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Atsushi

    1993-01-01

    Global warming caused by increase in atmospheric CO 2 concentration has been the focus of many recent global energy studies. CO 2 is emitted to the atmosphere mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels. This means that global warming is fundamentally a problem of the global energy system. An analysis of the findings of recent global energy studies is made in this report. The results are categorized from the viewpoint of concern about global warming. The analysis includes energy use and CO 2 emissions, measures taken to restrain CO 2 emissions and the cost of such measure, and suggestions for long term global energy generation. Following this comparative analysis, each of the studies is reviewed in detail. (author) 63 refs

  6. The IRAM-30 m line survey of the Horsehead PDR. II. First detection of the l-C3H+ hydrocarbon cation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pety, J.; Gratier, P.; Guzmán, V.; Roueff, E.; Gerin, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Bardeau, S.; Sievers, A.; Le Petit, F.; Le Bourlot, J.; Belloche, A.; Talbi, D.

    2012-12-01

    Context. Pure gas-phase chemistry models do not succeed in reproducing the measured abundances of small hydrocarbons in the interstellar medium. Information on key gas-phase progenitors of these molecules sheds light on this problem. Aims: We aim to constrain the chemical content of the Horsehead mane with a millimeter unbiased line survey at two positions, namely the photo-dissociation region (PDR) and the nearby shielded core. This project revealed a consistent set of eight unidentified lines toward the PDR position. We associate them to the l-C3H+ hydrocarbon cation, which enables us to constrain the chemistry of small hydrocarbons. We observed the lowest detectable J line in the millimeter domain along a cut toward the illuminating direction to constrain the spatial distribution of the l-C3H+ emission perpendicular to the photo-dissociation front. Methods: We simultaneously fit 1) the rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of a linear rotor; and 2) the Gaussian line shapes located at the eight predicted frequencies. A rotational diagram is then used to infer the excitation temperature and the column density. We finally compare the abundance to the results of the Meudon PDR photochemical model. Results: Six out of the eight unidentified lines observable in the millimeter bands are detected with a signal-to-noise ratio from 6 to 19 toward the Horsehead PDR, while the two last ones are tentatively detected. Mostly noise appears at the same frequency toward the dense core, located less than 40'' away. Moreover, the spatial distribution of the species integrated emission has a shape similar to radical species such as HCO, and small hydrocarbons such as C2H, which show enhanced abundances toward the PDR. The observed lines can be accurately fitted with a linear rotor model, implying a 1Σ ground electronic state. The deduced rotational constant value is B = 11 244.9512 ± 0.0015 MHz, close to that of l-C3H. Conclusions: This is the first detection of the l

  7. Forecasting effects of global warming on biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botkin, D.B.; Saxe, H.; Araújo, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    The demand for accurate forecasting of the effects of global warming on biodiversity is growing, but current methods for forecasting have limitations. In this article, we compare and discuss the different uses of four forecasting methods: (1) models that consider species individually, (2) niche...... and theoretical ecological results suggest that many species could be at risk from global warming, during the recent ice ages surprisingly few species became extinct. The potential resolution of this conundrum gives insights into the requirements for more accurate and reliable forecasting. Our eight suggestions...

  8. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.

    environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global...... warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction....

  9. Is the enhancement of global warming important?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, M.C.R.; Barrett, J.

    2001-01-01

    There is no doubt that global warming is important; without it the Earth's surface would have a mean temperature of 33 o C lower than it has currently. The IPCC maintains that human activities are to blame for the observed increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since pre-industrial times. There are some doubts about whether global warming is being enhanced by the activities of the human race. This article reviews these doubts and the proposed remedies to the alleged enhancement. (author)

  10. A real-time Global Warming Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, K; Allen, M R; Forster, P M; Otto, F E L; Mitchell, D M; Matthews, H D; Frame, D J

    2017-11-13

    We propose a simple real-time index of global human-induced warming and assess its robustness to uncertainties in climate forcing and short-term climate fluctuations. This index provides improved scientific context for temperature stabilisation targets and has the potential to decrease the volatility of climate policy. We quantify uncertainties arising from temperature observations, climate radiative forcings, internal variability and the model response. Our index and the associated rate of human-induced warming is compatible with a range of other more sophisticated methods to estimate the human contribution to observed global temperature change.

  11. Resource Letter GW-2: Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Schneider, Stephen H.

    2008-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on human-induced climate change, also known as global warming [Resource Letter GW-1: Global Warming, John W. Firor, Am. J. Phys. 62, 490-495 (1994)]. After an introductory overview, journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing, detection and attribution of human-induced climate change, carbon cycle feedbacks, paleoclimate, climate models and modeling uncertainties, projections of future climate change and climate impacts, and mitigation and adaptation policy options.

  12. Use of emulsion for warm mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabir Panda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to increase in energy costs and emission problems in hot mix asphalt usually used, it brought a great interest to the researchers to develop the warm mix technology for pavement constructions. Commonly known as warm mix asphalt (WMA, it is a typical method in the bituminous paving technology, which allows production and placement of bituminous mixes at lower temperatures than that used for hot mix asphalt (HMA. The WMA involves an environmental friendly production process that utilises organic additives, chemical additives and water based technologies. The organic and chemical additives are normally very costly and still involve certain amount of environmental issues. These factors motivated the authors to take up this technology using simple, environment friendly and somewhat cost effective procedure. In this study, an attempt has been made to prepare warm mixes by first pre-coating the aggregates with medium setting bitumen emulsion (MS and then mixing the semi-coated aggregates with VG 30 bitumen at a lower temperature than normally required. After a number of trials it was observed that mostly three mixing temperatures, namely temperatures 110 °C, 120 °C and 130 °C were appropriate to form the bituminous mixes with satisfactory homogeneity and consistency and as such were maintained throughout this study. Marshall samples for paving mixes were prepared using this procedure for dense bituminous macadam (DBM gradings as per the specifications of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH and subsequently Marshall properties of the resultant mixes were studied with the main objective of deciding the different parameters that were considered for development of appropriate warm mix asphalt. In this study it has been observed that out of three mixing temperatures tried, the mixes prepared at 120 °C with bitumen-emulsion composition of 80B:20E for DBM warm mix, offer highest Marshall stability and highest indirect tensile strength

  13. Evaluation of the warm-up habits and knowledge levels in amateur athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Aykut Aysan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the warm-up habit and level of knowledge in the amateur athletes.Materials and methods: A total of 510 amateur athletes aged between 17 and 30 years with the mean sport age of 6.2±3.4 years were included. There were 360 males (mean age 22.4±2.0 years and 150 females (mean age 21.2±2.1 years. Warm-up habits of athletes were obtained using by the Likert-type survey questionnaire consisting of 20 questions. The reliability coefficient of the survey had been calculated as cronbach alph=0.647, KMO=0.715, Barlett=1968.711 (p<0.05.Results: It was observed that 56.3% of the athletes had sportive success in elite level and 25% of the male athletes and 32% of the female athletes had never injured before. Item of “warm-up has no effect on the performance of the athlete” was rejected with the mean score of 2.70±0.93, item of “warm-up lessens the risk of being injured for the athletes” was accepted by majority (83.9%. Of all athletes, 83.9% of them had been injured more than once. The warm-up habit was found to be performed in 47.8% at pre-training or pre-competition periods, however cool-down habit was found in 17.3% of athletes at the end of activity.Conclusion: There was a common belief that warm-up had a positive effect on the performance of the athletes, reduced the risk of injury, increased the movement angle of joints. But it can be said that habits of the amateurs was not at a sufficient level. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:181-6

  14. Climate warming affects biological invasions by shifting interactions of plants and herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinmin; Siemann, Evan; Shao, Xu; Wei, Hui; Ding, Jianqing

    2013-08-01

    Plants and herbivorous insects can each be dramatically affected by temperature. Climate warming may impact plant invasion success directly but also indirectly through changes in their natural enemies. To date, however, there are no tests of how climate warming shifts the interactions among invasive plants and their natural enemies to affect invasion success. Field surveys covering the full latitudinal range of invasive Alternanthera philoxeroides in China showed that a beetle introduced for biocontrol was rare or absent at higher latitudes. In contrast, plant cover and mass increased with latitude. In a 2-year field experiment near the northern limit of beetle distribution, we found the beetle sustained populations across years under elevated temperature, dramatically decreasing A. philoxeroides growth, but it failed to overwinter in ambient temperature. Together, these results suggest that warming will allow the natural enemy to expand its range, potentially benefiting biocontrol in regions that are currently too cold for the natural enemy. However, the invader may also expand its range further north in response to warming. In such cases where plants tolerate cold better than their natural enemies, the geographical gap between plant and herbivorous insect ranges may not disappear but will shift to higher latitudes, leading to a new zone of enemy release. Therefore, warming will not only affect plant invasions directly but also drive either enemy release or increase that will result in contrasting effects on invasive plants. The findings are also critical for future management of invasive species under climate change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Changes in ocean vertical heat transport with global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zika, Jan D.; Laliberté, Frédéric; Mudryk, Lawrence R.; Sijp, Willem P.; Nurser, A. J. G.

    2015-06-01

    Heat transport between the surface and deep ocean strongly influences transient climate change. Mechanisms setting this transport are investigated using coupled climate models and by projecting ocean circulation into the temperature-depth diagram. In this diagram, a "cold cell" cools the deep ocean through the downwelling of Antarctic waters and upwelling of warmer waters and is balanced by warming due to a "warm cell," coincident with the interhemispheric overturning and previously linked to wind and haline forcing. With anthropogenic warming, the cold cell collapses while the warm cell continues to warm the deep ocean. Simulations with increasingly strong warm cells, set by their mean Southern Hemisphere winds, exhibit increasing deep-ocean warming in response to the same anthropogenic forcing. It is argued that the partition between components of the circulation which cool and warm the deep ocean in the preindustrial climate is a key determinant of ocean vertical heat transport with global warming.

  16. Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Terry P; Kerry, James T; Álvarez-Noriega, Mariana; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Anderson, Kristen D; Baird, Andrew H; Babcock, Russell C; Beger, Maria; Bellwood, David R; Berkelmans, Ray; Bridge, Tom C; Butler, Ian R; Byrne, Maria; Cantin, Neal E; Comeau, Steeve; Connolly, Sean R; Cumming, Graeme S; Dalton, Steven J; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Eakin, C Mark; Figueira, Will F; Gilmour, James P; Harrison, Hugo B; Heron, Scott F; Hoey, Andrew S; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Kennedy, Emma V; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Lough, Janice M; Lowe, Ryan J; Liu, Gang; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Malcolm, Hamish A; McWilliam, Michael J; Pandolfi, John M; Pears, Rachel J; Pratchett, Morgan S; Schoepf, Verena; Simpson, Tristan; Skirving, William J; Sommer, Brigitte; Torda, Gergely; Wachenfeld, David R; Willis, Bette L; Wilson, Shaun K

    2017-03-15

    During 2015-2016, record temperatures triggered a pan-tropical episode of coral bleaching, the third global-scale event since mass bleaching was first documented in the 1980s. Here we examine how and why the severity of recurrent major bleaching events has varied at multiple scales, using aerial and underwater surveys of Australian reefs combined with satellite-derived sea surface temperatures. The distinctive geographic footprints of recurrent bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef in 1998, 2002 and 2016 were determined by the spatial pattern of sea temperatures in each year. Water quality and fishing pressure had minimal effect on the unprecedented bleaching in 2016, suggesting that local protection of reefs affords little or no resistance to extreme heat. Similarly, past exposure to bleaching in 1998 and 2002 did not lessen the severity of bleaching in 2016. Consequently, immediate global action to curb future warming is essential to secure a future for coral reefs.

  17. Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Terry P.; Kerry, James T.; Álvarez-Noriega, Mariana; Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G.; Anderson, Kristen D.; Baird, Andrew H.; Babcock, Russell C.; Beger, Maria; Bellwood, David R.; Berkelmans, Ray; Bridge, Tom C.; Butler, Ian R.; Byrne, Maria; Cantin, Neal E.; Comeau, Steeve; Connolly, Sean R.; Cumming, Graeme S.; Dalton, Steven J.; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Eakin, C. Mark; Figueira, Will F.; Gilmour, James P.; Harrison, Hugo B.; Heron, Scott F.; Hoey, Andrew S.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Kennedy, Emma V.; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Lough, Janice M.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Liu, Gang; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Malcolm, Hamish A.; McWilliam, Michael J.; Pandolfi, John M.; Pears, Rachel J.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Schoepf, Verena; Simpson, Tristan; Skirving, William J.; Sommer, Brigitte; Torda, Gergely; Wachenfeld, David R.; Willis, Bette L.; Wilson, Shaun K.

    2017-03-01

    During 2015-2016, record temperatures triggered a pan-tropical episode of coral bleaching, the third global-scale event since mass bleaching was first documented in the 1980s. Here we examine how and why the severity of recurrent major bleaching events has varied at multiple scales, using aerial and underwater surveys of Australian reefs combined with satellite-derived sea surface temperatures. The distinctive geographic footprints of recurrent bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef in 1998, 2002 and 2016 were determined by the spatial pattern of sea temperatures in each year. Water quality and fishing pressure had minimal effect on the unprecedented bleaching in 2016, suggesting that local protection of reefs affords little or no resistance to extreme heat. Similarly, past exposure to bleaching in 1998 and 2002 did not lessen the severity of bleaching in 2016. Consequently, immediate global action to curb future warming is essential to secure a future for coral reefs.

  18. The Origins and Consequences of democratic citizens' Policy Agendas. A Study of Popular Concern about Global Warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krosnick, J.A. [Departments of Communication, Political Science, and Psychology, Stanford University, 432 McClatchy Hall, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Holbrook, A.L. [Departments of Public Administration and Psychology, Survey Research Laboratory, MC336, University of Illinois at Chicago, 412 S Peoria St., Sixth Floor, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Lowe, L. [NFO Ad: Impact, 44 Montgomery St., Suite 2090, San Francisco, CA 94104 (United States); Visser, P.S. [Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, 5848 S. University Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    This article proposes and tests a model of the causes and consequences of Americans' judgments of the national seriousness of global warming. The model proposes that seriousness judgments about global warming are a function of beliefs about the existence of global warming, attitudes toward it, the certainty with which these beliefs and attitudes are held, and beliefs about human responsibility for causing global warming and people's ability to remedy it. The model also proposes that beliefs about whether global warming is a problem are a function of relevant personal experiences (with the weather) and messages from informants (in this case, scientists), that attitudes toward global warming are a function of particular perceived consequences of global warming, and that certainty about these attitudes and beliefs is a function of knowledge and prior thought. Data from two representative sample surveys offer support for all of these propositions, document effects of national seriousness judgments on support for ameliorative efforts generally and specific ameliorative policies, and thereby point to psychological mechanisms that may be responsible for institutional and elite impact on the public's assessments of national problem importance and on public policy preferences.

  19. The Origins and Consequences of democratic citizens' Policy Agendas. A Study of Popular Concern about Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krosnick, J.A.; Holbrook, A.L.; Lowe, L.; Visser, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes and tests a model of the causes and consequences of Americans' judgments of the national seriousness of global warming. The model proposes that seriousness judgments about global warming are a function of beliefs about the existence of global warming, attitudes toward it, the certainty with which these beliefs and attitudes are held, and beliefs about human responsibility for causing global warming and people's ability to remedy it. The model also proposes that beliefs about whether global warming is a problem are a function of relevant personal experiences (with the weather) and messages from informants (in this case, scientists), that attitudes toward global warming are a function of particular perceived consequences of global warming, and that certainty about these attitudes and beliefs is a function of knowledge and prior thought. Data from two representative sample surveys offer support for all of these propositions, document effects of national seriousness judgments on support for ameliorative efforts generally and specific ameliorative policies, and thereby point to psychological mechanisms that may be responsible for institutional and elite impact on the public's assessments of national problem importance and on public policy preferences

  20. Qualitative models of global warming amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milošević, U.; Bredeweg, B.; de Kleer, J.; Forbus, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest from ecological experts to create qualitative models of phenomena for which numerical information is sparse or missing. We present a number of successful models in the field of environmental science, namely, the domain of global warming. The motivation behind the effort is

  1. Laboratory evaluation of warm mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    "Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) has been traditionally produced at a discharge temperature of between : 280F (138C) and 320 F (160C), resulting in high energy (fuel) costs and generation of greenhouse : gases. The goal for Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) is to...

  2. Dynamical Analysis of the Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is a major concern nowadays. Weather conditions are changing, and it seems that human activity is one of the main causes. In fact, since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the burning of fossil fuels has increased the nonnatural emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that absorbs the infrared radiation produced by the reflection of the sunlight on the Earth’s surface, trapping the heat in the atmosphere. Global warming and the associated climate changes are being the subject of intensive research due to their major impact on social, economic, and health aspects of human life. This paper studies the global warming trend in the perspective of dynamical systems and fractional calculus, which is a new standpoint in this context. Worldwide distributed meteorological stations and temperature records for the last 100 years are analysed. It is shown that the application of Fourier transforms and power law trend lines leads to an assertive representation of the global warming dynamics and a simpler analysis of its characteristics.

  3. Wind changes above warm Agulhas Current eddies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rouault, M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available speeds above the eddies at the instantaneous scale; 20 % of cases had incomplete data due to partial global coverage by the scatterometer for one path. For cases where the wind is stronger above warm eddies, there is no relationship between the increase...

  4. NASA: Black soot fuels global warming

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    New research from NASA's Goddard Space Center scientists suggests emissions of black soot have been altering the way sunlight reflects off Earth's snow. The research indicates the soot could be responsible for as much as 25 percent of global warming over the past century (assorted news items, 1 paragraph each).

  5. CERN plans global-warming experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    De Laine, M

    1998-01-01

    A controversial theory that proposes that cosmic rays are responsible for global warming, is going to be tested at CERN. Experimentalists will use a cloud chamber to mimic the Earth's atmosphere in order to try and find out if cloud formation is influenced by solar activity (1 page).

  6. Wind changes above warm Agulhas Current eddies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roualt, M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea-surface temperature (SST), altimetry derived sea-level anomalies (SLA) and surface current are used south of the Agulhas Current to identify warm core mesoscale ocean eddies presenting a distinct SST perturbation superior to 1(supo...

  7. National contributions to observed global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, H Damon; Graham, Tanya L; Keverian, Serge; Lamontagne, Cassandra; Seto, Donny; Smith, Trevor J

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying national contributions to global warming as a way of allocating historical responsibility for observed climate change. This task is made difficult by uncertainty associated with national estimates of historical emissions, as well as by difficulty in estimating the climate response to emissions of gases with widely varying atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we present a new estimate of national contributions to observed climate warming, including CO 2 emissions from fossil fuels and land-use change, as well as methane, nitrous oxide and sulfate aerosol emissions While some countries’ warming contributions are reasonably well defined by fossil fuel CO 2 emissions, many countries have dominant contributions from land-use CO 2 and non-CO 2 greenhouse gas emissions, emphasizing the importance of both deforestation and agriculture as components of a country’s contribution to climate warming. Furthermore, because of their short atmospheric lifetime, recent sulfate aerosol emissions have a large impact on a country’s current climate contribution We show also that there are vast disparities in both total and per-capita climate contributions among countries, and that across most developed countries, per-capita contributions are not currently consistent with attempts to restrict global temperature change to less than 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures. (paper)

  8. Global warming in the public sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfee-Morlot, Jan; Maslin, Mark; Burgess, Jacquelin

    2007-11-15

    Although the science of global warming has been in place for several decades if not more, only in the last decade and a half has the issue moved clearly into the public sphere as a public policy issue and a political priority. To understand how and why this has occurred, it is essential to consider the history of the scientific theory of the greenhouse effect, the evidence that supports it and the mechanisms through which science interacts with lay publics and other elite actors, such as politicians, policymakers and business decision makers. This article reviews why and how climate change has moved from the bottom to the top of the international political agenda. It traces the scientific discovery of global warming, political and institutional developments to manage it as well as other socially mediated pathways for understanding and promoting global warming as an issue in the public sphere. The article also places this historical overview of global warming as a public issue into a conceptual framework for understanding relationships between society and nature with emphasis on the co-construction of knowledge.

  9. Desert Amplification in a Warming Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950–2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor. PMID:27538725

  10. The global warming hiatus: Slowdown or redistribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Hai; Boyer, Tim; Trenberth, Kevin; Karl, Thomas R.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Nieves, Veronica; Tung, Ka-Kit; Roemmich, Dean

    2016-11-01

    Global mean surface temperatures (GMST) exhibited a smaller rate of warming during 1998-2013, compared to the warming in the latter half of the 20th Century. Although, not a "true" hiatus in the strict definition of the word, this has been termed the "global warming hiatus" by IPCC (2013). There have been other periods that have also been defined as the "hiatus" depending on the analysis. There are a number of uncertainties and knowledge gaps regarding the "hiatus." This report reviews these issues and also posits insights from a collective set of diverse information that helps us understand what we do and do not know. One salient insight is that the GMST phenomenon is a surface characteristic that does not represent a slowdown in warming of the climate system but rather is an energy redistribution within the oceans. Improved understanding of the ocean distribution and redistribution of heat will help better monitor Earth's energy budget and its consequences. A review of recent scientific publications on the "hiatus" shows the difficulty and complexities in pinpointing the oceanic sink of the "missing heat" from the atmosphere and the upper layer of the oceans, which defines the "hiatus." Advances in "hiatus" research and outlooks (recommendations) are given in this report.

  11. Awareness And Perception of Global Warming Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though 198(52%) felt they were already taking actions to conserve energy, only 34(9.0%) would rather use public transport than buy a car in order to conserve energy. CONCLUSION The knowledge and perception of the concept of global warming among the respondents were good. However, most confused the concept of ...

  12. Can warming particles enter global climate discussions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Tami C

    2007-01-01

    'Soot' or 'black carbon', which comes from incomplete combustion, absorbs light and warms the atmosphere. Although there have been repeated suggestions that reduction of black carbon could be a viable part of decreasing global warming, it has not yet been considered when choosing actions to reduce climatic impact. In this paper, I examine four conceptual barriers to the consideration of aerosols in global agreements. I conclude that some of the major objections to considering aerosols under hemispheric or global agreements are illusory because: (1) a few major sources will be addressed by local regulations, but the remainder may not be addressed by traditional air quality management; (2) climate forcing by carbon particles is not limited to 'hot spots'-about 90% of it occurs at relatively low concentrations; (3) while aerosol science is complex, the most salient characteristics of aerosol behavior can be condensed into tractable metrics including, but not limited to, the global warming potential; (4) despite scientific uncertainties, reducing all aerosols from major sources of black carbon will reduce direct climate warming with a very high probability. This change in climate forcing accounts for at least 25% of the accompanying CO 2 forcing with significant probability (25% for modern diesel engines, 90% for superemitting diesels, and 55% for cooking with biofuels). Thus, this fraction of radiative forcing should not be ignored

  13. Revisiting CMB constraints on warm inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Richa; Dasgupta, Arnab; Goswami, Gaurav; Prasad, Jayanti; Rangarajan, Raghavan

    2018-02-01

    We revisit the constraints that Planck 2015 temperature, polarization and lensing data impose on the parameters of warm inflation. To this end, we study warm inflation driven by a single scalar field with a quartic self interaction potential in the weak dissipative regime. We analyse the effect of the parameters of warm inflation, namely, the inflaton self coupling λ and the inflaton dissipation parameter QP on the CMB angular power spectrum. We constrain λ and QP for 50 and 60 number of e-foldings with the full Planck 2015 data (TT, TE, EE + lowP and lensing) by performing a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo analysis using the publicly available code CosmoMC and obtain the joint as well as marginalized distributions of those parameters. We present our results in the form of mean and 68 % confidence limits on the parameters and also highlight the degeneracy between λ and QP in our analysis. From this analysis we show how warm inflation parameters can be well constrained using the Planck 2015 data.

  14. Desert Amplification in a Warming Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming

    2016-08-19

    Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950-2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor.

  15. Abrupt warming of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, D. E.

    2011-07-19

    Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

  16. Global warming and abrupt climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A. J.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

    2004-05-01

    Despite recent the recent IPCC (2001) assessment that "Most models show weakening of the Northern Hemisphere Thermohaline Circulation (THC), which contributes to a reduction of surface warming in the northern North Atlantic. Even in models where the THC weakens, there is still a warming over Europe due to increased greenhouse gases." there is still a widespread misunderstanding of the possible consequence of climate change on the Atlantic Ocean Meridional Overturning. In particular, it is often touted, especially in the media that a possible consequence of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is: "Global warming will cause the onset of the next ice age". Here we document the history from where this misconception arose and quantitatively show how it is impossible for an ice age to ensue as a consequence of global warming. Through analysis of the paleoclimate record as well as a number of climate model simulations, we also suggest that it is very unlikely that the Atlantic Meridional Overturning will cease to be active in the near future. We further suggest that a region where intermediate water formation may shut down is in the Labrador Sea, although this has more minor consequences for climate than if deep water formation in the Nordic Seas were to cease.

  17. Global Warming, A Tragedy of the Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philander, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    What is the appropriate balance between our responsibilities towards future generations, and our obligations to those who live in abject poverty today? Global warming, a tragedy of the commons, brings such ethical questions to the fore but, whether "matured" or not, is itself mute on ethical issues.

  18. Greenhouse warming and changes in sea level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is likely that the anticipated warming due to the effect of increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will lead to a further and faster rise in world mean sea level. There are many processes in the climate system controlling sea level, but the most important

  19. Frequency of Deep Convective Clouds and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Teixeira, Joao

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effect of global warming on the formation of Deep Convective Clouds (DCC). It concludes that nature responds to global warming with an increase in strong convective activity. The frequency of DCC increases with global warming at the rate of 6%/decade. The increased frequency of DCC with global warming alone increases precipitation by 1.7%/decade. It compares the state of the art climate models' response to global warming, and concludes that the parametrization of climate models need to be tuned to more closely emulate the way nature responds to global warming.

  20. Deep time evidence for climate sensitivity increase with warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaffer, Gary; Huber, Matthew; Rondanelli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Future global warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will depend on climate feedbacks, the effect of which is expressed by climate sensitivity, the warming for a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content. It is not clear how feedbacks, sensitivity, and temperature will evolve in our warming...... world, but past warming events may provide insight. Here we employ paleoreconstructions and new climate-carbon model simulations in a novel framework to explore a wide scenario range for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) carbon release and global warming event 55.8Ma ago, a possible future...... indicates climate sensitivity increase with global warming....

  1. Interaction strength between different grazers and macroalgae mediated by ocean acidification over warming gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, E; Rodil, I F; Vaz-Pinto, F; Fernández, A; Arenas, F

    2017-04-01

    Since the past century, rising CO 2 levels have led to global changes (ocean warming and acidification) with subsequent effects on marine ecosystems and organisms. Macroalgae-herbivore interactions have a main role in the regulation of marine community structure (top-down control). Gradients of warming prompt complex non-linear effects on organism metabolism, cascading into altered trophic interactions and community dynamics. However, not much is known on how will acidification and grazer assemblage composition shape these effects. Within this context, we aimed to assess the combined effects of warming gradients and acidification on macroalgae-herbivore interactions, using three cosmopolitan species, abundant in the Iberian Peninsula and closely associated in nature: the amphipod Melita palmata, the gastropod Gibbula umbilicalis, and the green macroalga Ulva rigida. Under two CO 2 treatments (ΔCO 2 ≃ 450 μatm) across a temperature gradient (13.5, 16.6, 19.9 and 22.1 °C), two mesocosm experiments were performed to assess grazer consumption rates and macroalgae-herbivore interaction, respectively. Warming (Experiment I and II) and acidification (Experiment II) prompted negative effects in grazer's survival and species-specific differences in consumption rates. M. palmata was shown to be the stronger grazer per biomass (but not per capita), and also the most affected by climate stressors. Macroalgae-herbivore interaction strength was markedly shaped by the temperature gradient, while simultaneous acidification lowered thermal optimal threshold. In the near future, warming and acidification are likely to strengthen top-down control, but further increases in disturbances may lead to bottom-up regulated communities. Finally, our results suggest that grazer assemblage composition may modulate future macroalgae-herbivore interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Average [O II]nebular emission associated with Mg II absorbers: Dependence on Fe II absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ravi; Srianand, Raghunathan; Petitjean, Patrick; Noterdaeme, Pasquier

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the effect of Fe II equivalent width (W2600) and fibre size on the average luminosity of [O II]λλ3727,3729 nebular emission associated with Mg II absorbers (at 0.55 ≤ z ≤ 1.3) in the composite spectra of quasars obtained with 3 and 2 arcsec fibres in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We confirm the presence of strong correlations between [O II] luminosity (L_{[O II]}) and equivalent width (W2796) and redshift of Mg II absorbers. However, we show L_{[O II]} and average luminosity surface density suffers from fibre size effects. More importantly, for a given fibre size the average L_{[O II]} strongly depends on the equivalent width of Fe II absorption lines and found to be higher for Mg II absorbers with R ≡W2600/W2796 ≥0.5. In fact, we show the observed strong correlations of L_{[O II]} with W2796 and z of Mg II absorbers are mainly driven by such systems. Direct [O II] detections also confirm the link between L_{[O II]} and R. Therefore, one has to pay attention to the fibre losses and dependence of redshift evolution of Mg II absorbers on W2600 before using them as a luminosity unbiased probe of global star formation rate density. We show that the [O II] nebular emission detected in the stacked spectrum is not dominated by few direct detections (i.e., detections ≥3σ significant level). On an average the systems with R ≥0.5 and W2796 ≥2Å are more reddened, showing colour excess E(B - V) ˜ 0.02, with respect to the systems with R <0.5 and most likely traces the high H I column density systems.

  3. Warming impacts on fish species composition in the Kattegat-Belt Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryndum, Karoline Minna; MacKenzie, Brian

    Sea have been influenced by these changes. We hypothesize that the recent warming has led to an increase in species richness of the local community and that this increase is due to immigration of species from warmer areas. We use spring and fall survey data collected by DTU Aqua during the years 1994......-2013 and bottom temperature data (observed and model outputs from a regional phyical oceanographic model) to test these ideas. Species richness has increased significantly during the time period in both seasons of the year, and the increases 21 were significantly correlated with bottom temperatures. Analysis...... of the southern range limits of all species captured in the surveys shows that the mean southern latitudinal limit of the fish community has been decreasing and is also corrrelated with bottom temperatures; these patterns are consistent with immigration of fish from southerly zoogeographic regions. Warm...

  4. Inconsistent Subsurface and Deeper Ocean Warming Signals During Recent Global Warming and Hiatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hua; Wu, Xiangbai; Lu, Wenfang; Zhang, Weiwei; Yan, Xiao-Hai

    2017-10-01

    Ocean heat content (OHC) evolutions calculated from the data sets (WOA, MyOcean, ORAS4, and SODA) were examined at different depth ranges in this study. According to the OHC changes, the subsurface and deeper ocean (SDO, 300-2000 m) heat content rapidly increased over the world's ocean basins during 1998-2013, indicating significant warming in the SDO during the recent global surface warming hiatus. Almost all the ocean basins warmed up, but with various contributions to the global SDO warming tied to the recent hiatus. The role of the Indian Ocean is particularly important as it has accounted for about 30% of global SDO heat uptake during the hiatus. The combined use of multiple data sets can reveal inconsistencies in SDO warming analysis results, and improve our understanding of the role of the SDO in the recent hiatus. The heat uptake in global SDO during the hiatus was about 2.37, 5.44, 3.75, and 2.44 × 1022 joules with trends of 0.40, 0.70, 0.77, and 0.48 W m-2 according to WOA, MyOcean, ORAS4, and SODA respectively, presenting obviously inconsistent SDO warming signals. MyOcean shows OHC overestimates in different ocean basins, while ORAS4 presents more reliable SDO OHC analysis. In general, the global SDO has sequestered a significant amount of heat—about 3.50 × 1022 joules with trends of 0.59 W m-2 on average among the four data sets—during the recent hiatus, demonstrating widespread and significant warming signals in the global SDO. There remain substantial uncertainties and discrepancies, however (especially in the PO and SO), in the available SDO warming information due to insufficient subsurface observation coverage and variations in the data set generation techniques used among different researchers.

  5. Irrigation enhances local warming with greater nocturnal warming effects than daytime cooling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Jeong, Su-Jong

    2018-02-01

    To meet the growing demand for food, land is being managed to be more productive using agricultural intensification practices, such as the use of irrigation. Understanding the specific environmental impacts of irrigation is a critical part of using it as a sustainable way to provide food security. However, our knowledge of irrigation effects on climate is still limited to daytime effects. This is a critical issue to define the effects of irrigation on warming related to greenhouse gases (GHGs). This study shows that irrigation led to an increasing temperature (0.002 °C year-1) by enhancing nighttime warming (0.009 °C year-1) more than daytime cooling (-0.007 °C year-1) during the dry season from 1961-2004 over the North China Plain (NCP), which is one of largest irrigated areas in the world. By implementing irrigation processes in regional climate model simulations, the consistent warming effect of irrigation on nighttime temperatures over the NCP was shown to match observations. The intensive nocturnal warming is attributed to energy storage in the wetter soil during the daytime, which contributed to the nighttime surface warming. Our results suggest that irrigation could locally amplify the warming related to GHGs, and this effect should be taken into account in future climate change projections.

  6. Response of ocean ecosystems to climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, J. L.; Slater, R.; Barber, R.; Bopp, L.; Doney, S. C.; Hirst, A. C.; Kleypas, J.; Matear, R.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Monfray, P.; Soldatov, V.; Spall, S. A.; Stouffer, R.

    2004-09-01

    We examine six different coupled climate model simulations to determine the ocean biological response to climate warming between the beginning of the industrial revolution and 2050. We use vertical velocity, maximum winter mixed layer depth, and sea ice cover to define six biomes. Climate warming leads to a contraction of the highly productive marginal sea ice biome by 42% in the Northern Hemisphere and 17% in the Southern Hemisphere, and leads to an expansion of the low productivity permanently stratified subtropical gyre biome by 4.0% in the Northern Hemisphere and 9.4% in the Southern Hemisphere. In between these, the subpolar gyre biome expands by 16% in the Northern Hemisphere and 7% in the Southern Hemisphere, and the seasonally stratified subtropical gyre contracts by 11% in both hemispheres. The low-latitude (mostly coastal) upwelling biome area changes only modestly. Vertical stratification increases, which would be expected to decrease nutrient supply everywhere, but increase the growing season length in high latitudes. We use satellite ocean color and climatological observations to develop an empirical model for predicting chlorophyll from the physical properties of the global warming simulations. Four features stand out in the response to global warming: (1) a drop in chlorophyll in the North Pacific due primarily to retreat of the marginal sea ice biome, (2) a tendency toward an increase in chlorophyll in the North Atlantic due to a complex combination of factors, (3) an increase in chlorophyll in the Southern Ocean due primarily to the retreat of and changes at the northern boundary of the marginal sea ice zone, and (4) a tendency toward a decrease in chlorophyll adjacent to the Antarctic continent due primarily to freshening within the marginal sea ice zone. We use three different primary production algorithms to estimate the response of primary production to climate warming based on our estimated chlorophyll concentrations. The three algorithms give

  7. Effects of Global Warming on Predatory Bugs Supported by Data Across Geographic and Seasonal Climatic Gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Schuldiner-Harpaz, Tarryn; Coll, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    Global warming may affect species abundance and distribution, as well as temperature-dependent morphometric traits. In this study, we first used historical data to document changes in Orius (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) species assemblage and individual morphometric traits over the past seven decades in Israel. We then tested whether these changes could have been temperature driven by searching for similar patterns across seasonal and geographic climatic gradients in a present survey. The histo...

  8. Alabama warm mix asphalt field study : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The Alabama Department of Transportation hosted a warm mix asphalt field demonstration in August 2007. The warm mix asphalt technology demonstrated was Evotherm Dispersed Asphalt Technology. The WMA and hot mix asphalt produced for the demonstration ...

  9. Nearshore Survey System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 19 Coastal Field Data Collection Program Nearshore Survey System Evaluation Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La...Collection Program ERDC/CHL TR-17-19 December 2017 Nearshore Survey System Evaluation Michael F. Forte, William A. Birkemeier, and J. Robert Mitchell...No. 462585 ERDC/CHL TR-17-19 ii Abstract This report evaluates the accuracy of two systems for surveying the beach and nearshore zone. The 10

  10. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    ABSTRACT: A Schiff base was prepared from the reaction of 2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid and 2, 4 - pentanedione. The reaction of the prepared Schiff base with ethanolic solution of copper (II) chloride formed diaquo bis( N – 2 – amino – 3 - methylbutyl - 2, 4 - pentanedionato) copper (II) complex. The Schiff base is ...

  11. Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming

    OpenAIRE

    Crowther, T. W.; Todd-Brown, K. E. O.; Rowe, C. W.; Wieder, W. R.; Carey, J. C.; Machmuller, M. B.; Snoek, B. L.; Fang, S.; Zhou, G.; Allison, S. D.; Blair, J. M.; Bridgham, S. D.; Burton, A. J.; Carrillo, Y.; Reich, P. B.

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. The majority of the Earth's terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil, the net global balance between these responses remains uncertain. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of warming-induced changes in soil carbon stocks by assembling dat...

  12. On warm Rossby waves and their relations to ENSO events

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, K.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis suggested by several simple air-sea coupled models is examined with an ocean numerical model driven by FSU wind stress for the period from 1963 to 1987. The examined hypothesis is that warm Rossby waves generated by stronger trades associated with cold events following warm episodes are responsible for triggering the next warm events as results, following are found. 1) Warm Rossby wawes are always found approaching the western boundary of the tropical Pacific in the preceding w...

  13. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-11-13

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east-west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific's could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries.

  14. Is man responsible for global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendre, A.

    2009-01-01

    According to politicians, ecologists and mass media, it is now certain that with our CO 2 emissions, we are all responsible for a major global warming to come with dramatic consequences. But, is this affirmation indisputable? Are we all responsible for the rise of sea level and the summer thawing of the arctic ice shelf? Is this expected global warming without precedent? And is CO 2 , necessary for life, the cause of our misfortune? The answers commonly claimed are maybe more complex in reality and the climate question more subtle than it looks like. This book tries to decode the wheels of the climate machine and the share of human responsibility in climate change. (J.S.)

  15. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east–west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean–atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific’s could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries. PMID:23112174

  16. Implications of global warming on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Syam, P.V.S.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the build up of green house gases in atmosphere, less heat escapes through the atmosphere promoting global warming. This may result in world wide droughts, sea-level rise inundating islands and coastal countries, cataclysmic hurricanes etc. Human health as a result of these changes, will be affected both physiologically and psychologically. Physiological effects may be more pronounced in cases occurring due to changes in rainfall and temperature patterns, food production amounts, water availability, etc. Psychological impact may be more in cases of catastrophes like floods, hurricanes or famine. In this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the implications of global warming on human health due to temperature change. Food production changes and ultra-violet radiation effects and cataclysmic disaster effects. (author)

  17. Environmental colonialism Leadership and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-16

    The vast majority of the world's scientific community believes there is global warming and that it is global problem requiring international cooperation. But policy makers in industrialized countries are at a crossroads:Listen to the skeptics, who demand more proof and who fear economic consequences of an anti-greenhouse campaign, or take the more difficult path of commitment to attacking the problem. Meanwhile, poverty and debt keep. The Third world locked out of any active partnership. This issue of ED highlight their results of recently tapping documents and seminar findings on the subject of global warming. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of the February 9, 1990; and (2) ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, February 1990 edition. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Competitive warm-up in basketball: literature review and proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Berdejo-del-Fresno

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Warm-up is used, accepted and performed by every participant before practising any sport. Warm-up is also considered by most sportmen as fundamental to achieve optimal performance. However, there is little scientific evidence supporting its effectiveness. This lack of evidence, together with the diversity of sports, requires the standardisation of common warm-up patterns for each sport activity. As elite basketball is concerned, a large scientific gap has been found, which the present article will attempt to fill in. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are: first, conducting a literature review on all aspects of warm-up, i.e. warm-up definition, warm up types, warm-up benefits, warm-up structure (intensity, duration, recovery and specificity, influential factors, as well as what kind of stretching must be included in the warm-up; and secondly, from the conclusions obtained,  describing and proposing a methodology which is adapted to competitive warm-up for high-level basketball, so this methodology serves as a justified reference guide when going through the pre-game phase.Key Words: static stretching, dynamic stretching, generic warm-up, specific warm-up, basketball.

  19. Global Warming: A Review of the Debates on the Causes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    A review of the causes, consequences and political responses to global warming is the focus of this paper. ... community and politicians are not unanimous to reduce global warming which emanate from their political ... scientists believe that the Earth is undergoing global warming and the works of thousands of scientists, in ...

  20. Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crowther, T W; Todd-Brown, K E O; Rowe, C W; Wieder, W R; Carey, J C; Machmuller, M B; Snoek, B L; Fang, S; Zhou, G; Allison, S D; Blair, J M; Bridgham, S D; Burton, A J; Carrillo, Y; Reich, P B; Clark, J S; Classen, A T; Dijkstra, F A; Elberling, B; Emmett, B A; Estiarte, M; Frey, S D; Guo, J; Harte, J; Jiang, L; Johnson, B R; Kröel-Dulay, G; Larsen, K S; Laudon, H; Lavallee, J M; Lupascu, M; Ma, L N; Marhan, S; Michelsen, A; Mohan, J; Niu, S; Pendall, E; Peñuelas, J; Pfeifer-Meister, L; Poll, C; Reinsch, S; Reynolds, L L; Schmidt, I K; Sistla, S; Sokol, N W; Templer, P H; Treseder, K K; Welker, J M; Bradford, M A

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the Earth's terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil, the net global balance between

  1. Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crowther, T.W.; Todd-Brown, K.E.O.; Rowe, C.W.; Wieder, W.R.; Carey, J.C.; Machmuller, M.B.; Snoek, B.L.; Fang, S.; Zhou, G.; Allison, S.D.; Blair, J.M.; Bridgham, S.D.; Burton, A.J.; Carrillo, Y.; Reich, P.B.; Clark, J.S.; Classen, A.T.; Dijkstra, F.A.; Elberling, B.; Emmett, B.A.; Estiarte, M.; Frey, S.D.; Guo, J.; Harte, J.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, B.R.; Kröel-Dulay, G.; Larsen, K.S.; Laudon, H.; Lavallee, J.M.; Luo, Y.; Lupascu, M.; Ma, L.N.; Marhan, S.; Michelsen, A.; Mohan, J.; Niu, S.; Pendall, E.; Peñuelas, J.; Pfeifer-Meister, L.; Poll, C.; Reinsch, S.; Reynolds, L.L.; Schmidt, I.K.; Sistla, S.; Sokol, N.W.; Templer, P.H.; Treseder, K.K.; Welker, J.M.; Bradford, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the Earth’s terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil the net global balance between

  2. Quantifying global soil carbon losses in response to warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crowther, T. W.; Todd-Brown, K. E. O.; Rowe, C. W.; Wieder, W. R.; Carey, J. C.; Machmuller, M. B.; Snoek, B. L.; Fang, S.; Zhou, G.; Allison, S. D.; Blair, J. M.; Bridgham, S. D.; Burton, A. J.; Carrillo, Y.; Reich, P. B.; Clark, J. S.; Classen, A. T.; Dijkstra, F. A.; Elberling, B.; Emmett, B. A.; Estiarte, M.; Frey, S. D.; Guo, J.; Harte, J.; Jiang, L.; Johnson, B. R.; Kröel-Dulay, G.; Larsen, K. S.; Laudon, H.; Lavallee, J. M.; Luo, Y.; Lupascu, M.; Ma, L. N.; Marhan, S.; Michelsen, A.; Mohan, J.; Niu, S.; Pendall, E.; Peñuelas, J.; Pfeifer-Meister, L.; Poll, C.; Reinsch, S.; Reynolds, L. L.; Schmidt, I. K.; Sistla, S.; Sokol, N. W.; Templer, P. H.; Treseder, K. K.; Welker, J. M.; Bradford, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the Earth’s terrestrial carbon is stored in the soil. If anthropogenic warming stimulates the loss of this carbon to the atmosphere, it could drive further planetary warming1, 2, 3, 4. Despite evidence that warming enhances carbon fluxes to and from the soil5, 6, the net global

  3. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... device that warms blood or plasma, by means other than electromagnetic radiation, prior to administration... electromagnetic radiation (radiowaves or microwaves) to warm a bag or bottle of blood or plasma prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section...

  4. Public perception of global warming and related environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public perception of global warming and related environmental issues in Kano city, Nigeria. ... Conclusion The high awareness about global warming needs to be reinforced through use of media to encourage advocacy and community action towards preventing global warming and ensuring environmental sustainability.

  5. Exceptional Air Mass Transport and Dynamical Drivers of an Extreme Wintertime Arctic Warm Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Hanin; Boettcher, Maxi; Grams, Christian M.; Joos, Hanna; Pfahl, Stephan; Wernli, Heini

    2017-12-01

    At the turn of the years 2015/2016, maximum surface temperature in the Arctic reached record-high values, exceeding the melting point, which led to a strong reduction of the Arctic sea ice extent in the middle of the cold season. Here we show, using a Lagrangian method, that a combination of very different airstreams contributed to this event: (i) warm low-level air of subtropical origin, (ii) initially cold low-level air of polar origin heated by surface fluxes, and (iii) strongly descending air heated by adiabatic compression. The poleward transport of these warm airstreams occurred along an intense low-level jet between a series of cyclones and a quasi-stationary anticyclone. The complex 3-D configuration that enabled this transport was facilitated by continuous warm conveyor belt ascent into the upper part of the anticyclone. This study emphasizes the combined role of multiple transport processes and transient synoptic-scale dynamics for establishing an extreme Arctic warm event.

  6. A real-time Global Warming Index

    OpenAIRE

    Haustein, K; Allen, MR; Forster, PM; Otto, FEL; Mitchell, DM; Matthews, HD; Frame, DJ

    2017-01-01

    We propose a simple real-time index of global human-induced warming and assess its robustness to uncertainties in climate forcing and short-term climate fluctuations. This index provides improved scientific context for temperature stabilisation targets and has the potential to decrease the volatility of climate policy. We quantify uncertainties arising from temperature observations, climate radiative forcings, internal variability and the model response. Our index and the associated rate of h...

  7. Global warming : a guide to the science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon, W.; Baliunas, S.L.; Robinson, A.B.; Robinson, Z.W.

    2001-01-01

    This guide dispels the popular hypothesis that increases in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from increased industrial activity have caused global warming. The report suggests that there is no evidence of catastrophic anthropogenic global warming and that temperature changes over the last 100 years has been due mostly to natural phenomena. The global temperature has increased by about 0.5 to 0.6 degrees C in the past 100 years, and this, before most of the greenhouse gases were added to the air by human activities such as burning of fossil fuels. The initial major rise in temperature was in 1940, before the rise in carbon dioxide levels, therefore, it was suggested that this warming must have been natural in origin. Computer based simulations of the climate system forecast disastrous rises in global temperature. But it was argued that current climate models are not accurate in forecasting future climate change because it is not possible to isolate the effect of an increased concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide on climate because about 5 million different variables have to be considered with all their important impacts and interactions. Science indicates that at most, a little warming will occur and certainly better plant grown which should be of great benefit to mankind. It was concluded that the human condition can be improved through unconstrained access to energy, but use of energy may also produce local unwanted pollutants as a by product. The sources of true environmental pollution can be mitigated based on rational considerations of the risks of pollutants and benefits of energy use. refs., figs

  8. Climate change and global warming potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vate, J.F. van de

    1996-01-01

    Climate change and the global budgets of the two main energy consumption related greenhouse gases, CO 2 and CH 4 , are discussed. The global warming potential (GWP) of the non-CO 2 greenhouse gases is defined and the large range of GWPs of CH 4 in the literature is discussed. GWPs are expected to play an important role in energy policies and negotiations concerning lowering greenhouse gas emissions. (author). 20 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  9. Book ReviewL Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Astriani

    2015-01-01

    Global Warming is part of Greenhaven’s Contemporary Issues Companion series published by, Thomson Gale on 2005. Each volume of the anthologyseries focuses on a topic of current interest, presenting informative and thought-provoking selection written from wide-variety viewpoints. It is an ideal launching point for research on a particular topic. Each anthology in the series is composed of readings taken from an extensive gamut of resources, including periodical, newspapers, books, governmentdo...

  10. Soft radiative strength in warm nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garrett, P E; Nelson, R O; Schiller, A; Voinov, A; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Belgya, T; Chankova, R; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Rekstad, J; Siem, S

    2004-01-01

    Unresolved transitions in the nuclear γ-ray cascade produced in the decay of excited nuclei are best described by statistical concepts: a continuous radiative strength function (RSF) and level density yield mean values of transition matrix elements. Data on the soft (E γ < 3-4 MeV) RSF for transitions between warm states (i.e. states several MeV above the yrast line) have, however, remained elusive

  11. Indian Secondary Students' Views about Global Warming: Beliefs about the Usefulness of Actions and Willingness to Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhokar, Kiran; Dua, Shweta; Taylor, Neil; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A 44-item survey instrument was designed to determine secondary students' views about how useful various specific actions related to reducing global warming might be, their willingness to undertake these various actions and the extent to which these 2 might be linked. The instrument was administered to students in grades 6-10 (n = 768) from 4…

  12. Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban

    2013-01-01

    The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective.

  13. Toward international law on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, E.B. Jr.; Johns, C.; Pauken, M.T.

    1991-01-01

    Legal precedent in the history of international environmental law is considered. Then, the legal principles, rights and obligations related to transboundary environmental interference are drawn from the precedent. From this legal and historical background, and a brief overview of the principal technical aspects of the emerging global warming problem, the authors suggest a number of possible international protocols. These include outlines of multilateral treaties on energy efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption of renewable and solar energy, and stimulation of several types of forestation, with creation of practical regimes and remedies. Each protocol has its own environmental social and economic merits and urgency, apart from the prevention of global warming. In each suggested protocol, the political obstacles are analyzed. Suggestions are presented for reduction of levels of disagreement standing in the way of obtaining viable treaties likely to be upheld in practice by the signatories. An agenda for study and action is presented, on the assumption that prudence dictates that international environmental law must be expanded as soon as feasible to regulate global warming

  14. Is global warming mostly at night?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukla, G.; Quayle, R.G.; Karl, T.

    1994-01-01

    The release of greenhouse gases is expected to lead to substantial future warming. The global mean temperature has indeed risen in recent decades. The causes of the observed warming, and its relation to the greenhouse gas buildup are, however, still debated. One important aspect of the observed temperature change relates to its asymmetry during the day and night. The day-night temperature difference over land in North America, most of Eurasia, Oceania, and portions of Africa and Australia shows a decrease since about 1950. The changes of the daily mean temperature in these areas are principally due to the rising night or early morning temperature, and are accompanied by increasing cloudiness. Their results support the notion that the increase of cloud cover, possibly due to industrial sulfur emissions, mitigates the greenhouse warming. The causes of the changing diurnal temperature range and of the increasing cloudiness will have to be clarified and the future SO 2 emissions reliably projected before any trustworthy prediction of future climates can be made. 37 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Global Warming: Evidence from Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown on-board sequential, sun-synchronous, polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by the satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help the onboard warm black body temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically weighted global mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid-troposphere, warmed at the rate of 0.13 K per decade (with an uncertainty of 0.05 K per decade) during 1980 to 1999. The global warming deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite deuced result.

  16. Climate. Meeting the challenge of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Mann, Michael; Greene, Charles; Salas y Melia, David; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Journe, Venance; Guegan, Jean-Francois; ); Bopp, Laurent; Magnan, Alexandre; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Bally, Rene; Duponnois, Robin; Giodda, Alain; MOATTI, JEAN-PAUL; Recio, Carlos; Santana, Luis; Hulot, Nicolas; Criqui, Patrick; Meritet, Sophie; Jacobson, Mark; Delucchi, Mark; Julliard, Romain; Balibar, Sebastien; Prevot, Anne-Caroline; Colleony, Agathe; Mangin, Loic

    2015-01-01

    The contributions of this publication first discuss and comment the cost of inaction in front of global warming. The authors deny the existence of a climate pause, explain the existence of harsh winters in Europe in the context of global warming, outline that models developed and used in the 1960 already predicted the present trend, discuss the complex relationships between climate change and health, outline the threats on the oceans (acidification, impact on marine species, level rise) and consequently on mankind. A second set of contributions addresses opportunities to be implemented now: to plant trees along the Sahara, the example of an ecologic island (El Hierro, Canaries Islands), the commitment of communities, associations and citizens, the necessary energy transition, innovation at the service of climate, the role of finances and investments. The third set of contributions addresses perspectives: to do without fossil energies, how to reduce the impact of global warming in cities (by planting trees and closing shutters), the emergence of participative science, arguments against climate sceptics, a difficult change of behaviours

  17. Effects of Global Warming on Vibrio Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Pruzzo, Carla

    2015-06-01

    Vibrio-related infections are increasing worldwide both in humans and aquatic animals. Rise in global sea surface temperature (SST), which is approximately 1 °C higher now than 140 years ago and is one of the primary physical impacts of global warming, has been linked to such increases. In this chapter, major known effects of increasing SST on the biology and ecology of vibrios are described. They include the effects on bacterial growth rate, both in the field and in laboratory, culturability, expression of pathogenicity traits, and interactions with aquatic organisms and abiotic surfaces. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ocean warming on Vibrio interactions with zooplankters, which represent one of the most important aquatic reservoirs for these bacteria. The reported findings highlight the biocomplexity of the interactions between vibrios and their natural environment in a climate change scenario, posing the need for interdisciplinary studies to properly understand the connection between ocean warming and persistence and spread of vibrios in sea waters and the epidemiology of the diseases they cause.

  18. National action strategy on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    A document prepared by a committee of Canadian environmental ministries proposes a strategic framework for a national action plan concerning global warming. The strategy would be carried out jointly by governments and all other sectors of the economy, taking into account the present state of scientific knowledge on global warming. Within this framework, the governments in cooperation with interested parties would take certain measures in their respective areas of competence. The main recommendations of the document include the following. The action strategy should comprise 3 elements: limiting emissions of greenhouse gases; forecasting climatic changes which Canada could undergo due to global warming and preparing for such changes; and improving scientific knowledge and the capacity to predict climatic changes. Limitations on this strategy should take into account such matters as the interaction of greenhouse gases with other pollutants, the importance of the international context, the need to adapt to new discoveries, and the importance of regional differences. Implementation of the strategy should incorporate widespread consultation of all affected sectors, sustained work on establishing international conventions and protocols on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, objectives and schedules for such reductions, and stepwise actions to control emissions in order to enable an adequate evaluation of the consequences and effectiveness of such measures. 10 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Seaweed communities in retreat from ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernberg, Thomas; Russell, Bayden D; Thomsen, Mads S; Gurgel, C Frederico D; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Poloczanska, Elvira S; Connell, Sean D

    2011-11-08

    In recent decades, global climate change [1] has caused profound biological changes across the planet [2-6]. However, there is a great disparity in the strength of evidence among different ecosystems and between hemispheres: changes on land have been well documented through long-term studies, but similar direct evidence for impacts of warming is virtually absent from the oceans [3, 7], where only a few studies on individual species of intertidal invertebrates, plankton, and commercially important fish in the North Atlantic and North Pacific exist. This disparity of evidence is precarious for biological conservation because of the critical role of the marine realm in regulating the Earth's environmental and ecological functions, and the associated socioeconomic well-being of humans [8]. We interrogated a database of >20,000 herbarium records of macroalgae collected in Australia since the 1940s and documented changes in communities and geographical distribution limits in both the Indian and Pacific Oceans, consistent with rapid warming over the past five decades [9, 10]. We show that continued warming might drive potentially hundreds of species toward and beyond the edge of the Australian continent where sustained retreat is impossible. The potential for global extinctions is profound considering the many endemic seaweeds and seaweed-dependent marine organisms in temperate Australia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multishock Compression Properties of Warm Dense Argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Chen, Qifeng; Yunjun, Gu; Li, Zhiguo; Shen, Zhijun

    2015-10-01

    Warm dense argon was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The diagnostics of warm dense argon were performed by a multichannel optical pyrometer and a velocity interferometer system. The equations of state in the pressure-density range of 20-150 GPa and 1.9-5.3 g/cm3 from the first- to fourth-shock compression were presented. The single-shock temperatures in the range of 17.2-23.4 kK were obtained from the spectral radiance. Experimental results indicates that multiple shock-compression ratio (ηi = ρi/ρ0) is greatly enhanced from 3.3 to 8.8, where ρ0 is the initial density of argon and ρi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) is the compressed density from first to fourth shock, respectively. For the relative compression ratio (ηi’ = ρi/ρi-1), an interesting finding is that a turning point occurs at the second shocked states under the conditions of different experiments, and ηi’ increases with pressure in lower density regime and reversely decreases with pressure in higher density regime. The evolution of the compression ratio is controlled by the excitation of internal degrees of freedom, which increase the compression, and by the interaction effects between particles that reduce it. A temperature-density plot shows that current multishock compression states of argon have distributed into warm dense regime.

  1. Effects of copper, hypoxia and acute temperature shifts on mitochondrial oxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to warm temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sappal, Ravinder; Fast, Mark; Stevens, Don; Kibenge, Fred; Siah, Ahmed; Kamunde, Collins

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Warm acclimation reduced the electron transport system (ETS) efficiency. • Warm acclimation altered the effects of acute temperature shift, hypoxia and Cu on ETS. • Warm acclimation increased thermal sensitivity of state 3 and reduced that of state 4. • Cu stimulated while hypoxia inhibited ETS respiratory activity. • Interactions of Cu and hypoxia on the ETS and plasma metabolites were antagonistic. - Abstract: Temperature fluctuations, hypoxia and metals pollution frequently occur simultaneously or sequentially in aquatic systems and their interactions may confound interpretation of their biological impacts. With a focus on energy homeostasis, the present study examined how warm acclimation influences the responses and interactions of acute temperature shift, hypoxia and copper (Cu) exposure in fish. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were acclimated to cold (11 °C; control) and warm (20 °C) temperature for 3 weeks followed by exposure to environmentally realistic levels of Cu and hypoxia for 24 h. Subsequently, mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) respiratory activity supported by complexes I–IV (CI–IV), plasma metabolites and condition indices were measured. Warm acclimation reduced fish condition, induced aerobic metabolism and altered the responses of fish to acute temperature shift, hypoxia and Cu. Whereas warm acclimation decelerated the ETS and increased the sensitivity of maximal oxidation rates of the proximal (CI and II) complexes to acute temperature shift, it reduced the thermal sensitivity of state 4 (proton leak). Effects of Cu with and without hypoxia were variable depending on the acclimation status and functional index. Notably, Cu stimulated respiratory activity in the proximal ETS segments, while hypoxia was mostly inhibitory and minimized the stimulatory effect of Cu. The effects of Cu and hypoxia were modified by temperature and showed reciprocal antagonistic interaction on the ETS and plasma

  2. Effects of copper, hypoxia and acute temperature shifts on mitochondrial oxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to warm temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sappal, Ravinder [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island C1A 4P3 (Canada); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island C1A 4P3 (Canada); Fast, Mark [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island C1A 4P3 (Canada); Stevens, Don [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island C1A 4P3 (Canada); Kibenge, Fred [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island C1A 4P3 (Canada); Siah, Ahmed [British Columbia Centre for Aquatic Health Sciences, 871A Island Highway, Campbell River, British Columbia V9W 2C2 (Canada); Kamunde, Collins, E-mail: ckamunde@upei.ca [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island C1A 4P3 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Warm acclimation reduced the electron transport system (ETS) efficiency. • Warm acclimation altered the effects of acute temperature shift, hypoxia and Cu on ETS. • Warm acclimation increased thermal sensitivity of state 3 and reduced that of state 4. • Cu stimulated while hypoxia inhibited ETS respiratory activity. • Interactions of Cu and hypoxia on the ETS and plasma metabolites were antagonistic. - Abstract: Temperature fluctuations, hypoxia and metals pollution frequently occur simultaneously or sequentially in aquatic systems and their interactions may confound interpretation of their biological impacts. With a focus on energy homeostasis, the present study examined how warm acclimation influences the responses and interactions of acute temperature shift, hypoxia and copper (Cu) exposure in fish. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were acclimated to cold (11 °C; control) and warm (20 °C) temperature for 3 weeks followed by exposure to environmentally realistic levels of Cu and hypoxia for 24 h. Subsequently, mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) respiratory activity supported by complexes I–IV (CI–IV), plasma metabolites and condition indices were measured. Warm acclimation reduced fish condition, induced aerobic metabolism and altered the responses of fish to acute temperature shift, hypoxia and Cu. Whereas warm acclimation decelerated the ETS and increased the sensitivity of maximal oxidation rates of the proximal (CI and II) complexes to acute temperature shift, it reduced the thermal sensitivity of state 4 (proton leak). Effects of Cu with and without hypoxia were variable depending on the acclimation status and functional index. Notably, Cu stimulated respiratory activity in the proximal ETS segments, while hypoxia was mostly inhibitory and minimized the stimulatory effect of Cu. The effects of Cu and hypoxia were modified by temperature and showed reciprocal antagonistic interaction on the ETS and plasma

  3. GLOBAL WARMING: IS A NEW THREAT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayca Eminoglu

    2008-09-30

    In the Post Cold War era, the concepts of ''security'', ''national security'', and ''international security'' have changed with regard to their contents and meanings. Such developments made states to renew their national security policies. Security is a special form of politics as well. All security issues are political problems but not all political conflicts are security issues. In the Post Cold War era, differentiating and increasing numbers of elements that constitutes threat changed the concept of threat and widen the capacity of security. In this term, many elements lost its effect of being a threat but also new threatening elements emerged. Environmental problems, human rights, mass migration, micro nationalism, ethnic conflicts, religious fundamentalism, contagious diseases, international terrorism, economic instabilities, drug and weapon smuggling and human trafficking are the new problems emerged in international security agenda. Environmental problems no longer take place in security issues and can be mentioned as a ''low security'' issue. They are threats to the global commons i.e. the oceans, the seas, the ozone layer and the climate system, which are life supports for mankind as a whole. Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues of our day that effects human life in every field and can be defined as a 'serious threat to international security'. Because of global warming, environmental changes will occur and these changes will cause conflicting issues in international relations. Because of global warming dwindling freshwater supplies, food shortages, political instability and other conflicts may take place. Some IR scholars see a need for global cooperation in order to face the threat. At the background of global warming and its effects, states have to get preventive measures and normally, each state form its own measures, therefore as a

  4. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Powder River II Project: the Newcastle and Gillette Quadrangles of Wyoming and South Dakota; the Ekalaka Quadrangle of Montana, South and North Dakota. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    During the months of August through September 1978, geoMetrics, Inc. flew approximately 9000 line miles of high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic data in eastern Wyoming and southern Montana over three 1 0 x 2 0 NTMS quadrangle (Newcastle, Gillette, and Ekalaka) as part of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. All radiometric and magnetic data were fully reduced and interpreted by geoMetrics, and are presented as four volumes (one Volume I and three Volume II's) in this report. The survey area lies entirely within the northern Great Plains Physiographic Province. The deep Powder River Basin and the Black Hills Uplift are the two dominant structures in the area. Both structures strike NNW approximately parallel to each other with the Powder River Basin to the west of the Uplift. The Basin is one of the largest and deepest in the northern Great Plains and contains over 17,000 feet of Phanerozoic sediments at its deepest point. Economic deposits of oil, coal, bentonite and uranium are found in the Tertiary and/or Cretaceous rocks of the Basin. Gold, silver, lead, copper, manganese, rare-earth elements and uranium have been mined in the Uplift. Epigenetic uranium deposits lie primarily in the Monument Hills - Box Creek and Pumpkin Buttes - Turnercrest districts within arkosic sandstones of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. A total of 368 groups of statistical values in the uranium window meet the criteria for valid anomalies and are discussed in the interpretation sections (83 in Newcastle, 109 in Gillette, and 126 in Ekalaka). Most anomalies lie in the Tertiary sediments of the Powder River Basin, but only a few are clearly related to known uranium mines or prospects. Magnetic data generally delineate the deep Powder River Basin relative to the Black Hills Uplift. Higher frequency anomalies appear related to producing oil fields and mapped sedimentary structures

  5. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Powder River II Project: the Newcastle and Gillette Quadrangles of Wyoming and South Dakota; the Ekalaka Quadrangle of Montana, South and North Dakota. Volume I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    During the months of August through September 1978, geoMetrics, Inc. flew approximately 9000 line miles of high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic data in eastern Wyoming and southern Montana over three 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangle (Newcastle, Gillette, and Ekalaka) as part of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. All radiometric and magnetic data were fully reduced and interpreted by geoMetrics, and are presented as four volumes (one Volume I and three Volume II's) in this report. The survey area lies entirely within the northern Great Plains Physiographic Province. The deep Powder River Basin and the Black Hills Uplift are the two dominant structures in the area. Both structures strike NNW approximately parallel to each other with the Powder River Basin to the west of the Uplift. The Basin is one of the largest and deepest in the northern Great Plains and contains over 17,000 feet of Phanerozoic sediments at its deepest point. Economic deposits of oil, coal, bentonite and uranium are found in the Tertiary and/or Cretaceous rocks of the Basin. Gold, silver, lead, copper, manganese, rare-earth elements and uranium have been mined in the Uplift. Epigenetic uranium deposits lie primarily in the Monument Hills - Box Creek and Pumpkin Buttes - Turnercrest districts within arkosic sandstones of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. A total of 368 groups of statistical values in the uranium window meet the criteria for valid anomalies and are discussed in the interpretation sections (83 in Newcastle, 109 in Gillette, and 126 in Ekalaka). Most anomalies lie in the Tertiary sediments of the Powder River Basin, but only a few are clearly related to known uranium mines or prospects. Magnetic data generally delineate the deep Powder River Basin relative to the Black Hills Uplift. Higher frequency anomalies appear related to producing oil fields and mapped sedimentary structures.

  6. Comparison of a radiant patient warming device with forced air warming during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A; Walker, S; Bradley, M

    2004-02-01

    The importance of maintaining a patient's core body temperature during anaesthesia to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications has been well documented. The standard practice of this institution is the use of a forced air device for intraoperative warming. The purpose of this study was to compare this standard with an alternative warming device using a radiant heat source which only heated the face. This prospective, randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of two methods of intraoperative warming: the BairHugger (Augustine Medical, U.S.A.) forced air device and the SunTouch (Fisher & Paykel Healthcare, N.Z.) radiant warmer during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 42 female patients. Oesophageal core temperatures were recorded automatically on to computer during operations using standardised anaesthesia, intravenous infusions and draping. The study failed to show any statistical or clinical difference between the two patient groups in terms of mean core temperature both intraoperatively (P = 0.42) and in the recovery period (P = 0.54). Mean start to end core temperature differences were marginally lower in the radiant group (0.08 degree C) but not statistically or clinically significantly different. Given some of the drawbacks with forced air systems, such as the expense of the single use blanket, this new radiant warming device offers an alternative method of active warming with advantages in terms of cost and possible application to a wide variety of surgical procedures.

  7. CARBON-CHAIN SPECIES IN WARM-UP MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassel, George E.; Harada, Nanase; Herbst, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In previous warm-up chemical models of the low-mass star-forming region L1527, we investigated the evolution of carbon-chain unsaturated hydrocarbon species when the envelope temperature is slightly elevated to T ≈ 30 K. These models demonstrated that enhanced abundances of such species can be explained by gas-phase ion-molecule chemistry following the partial sublimation of methane from grain surfaces. We also concluded that the abundances of hydrocarbon radicals such as the C n H family should be further enhanced as the temperatures increase to higher values, but this conclusion stood in contrast with the lack of unambiguous detection of these species toward hot core and corino sources. Meanwhile, observational surveys have identified C 2 H, C 4 H, CH 3 CCH, and CH 3 OH toward hot corinos (especially IRAS 16293–2422) as well as toward L1527, with lower abundances for the carbon-chain radicals and higher abundances for the other two species toward the hot corinos. In addition, the Herschel Space Telescope has detected the bare linear chain C 3 in 50 K material surrounding young high-mass stellar objects. To understand these new results, we revisit previous warm-up models with an augmented gas-grain network that incorporated reactions from a gas-phase network that was constructed for use with increased temperature up to 800 K. Some of the newly adopted reactions between carbon-chain species and abundant H 2 possess chemical activation energy barriers. The revised model results now better reproduce the observed abundances of unsaturated carbon chains under hot corino (100 K) conditions and make predictions for the abundances of bare carbon chains in the 50 K regions observed by the Herschel HIFI detector.

  8. Long-term effects of ocean warming on vibrios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzzo, C.; Pezzati, E.; Brettar, I.; Reid, P. C.; Colwell, R.; Höfle, M. G.; vezzulli, L.

    2012-12-01

    Vibrios are a major source of human disease, play an important role in the ecology and health of marine animals and are regarded as an abundant fraction of culturable bacteria of the ocean. There has been a considerable global effort to reduce the risk of Vibrio infections and yet in most countries both human and non-human illnesses associated with these bacteria are increasing. The cause of this increase is not known, but since vibrios are strongly thermodependant there is good reason to believe that global warming may have contributed. To investigate this possibility we examined historical samples from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) archive using advanced molecular analysis and pyrosequencing. For the first time we were able to recover environmental DNA from CPR samples that had been stored for up to ~50 years in a formalin-fixed format, which is suitable for molecular analyses of the associated prokaryotic community. To overcome the problem of DNA degradation due to the sample age and storage in formalin we develop an unbiased index of abundance for Vibrio quantification in CPR samples termed a 'relative Vibrio Abundance Index' (VAI). VAI is defined as the ratio of Vibrio spp. cells to total bacterial cells assessed by Real-Time PCR using genus-specific and universal primers, respectively, producing small amplicons of similar size (~100bp). We assessed VAI index on 55 samples (each representing 10 nautical miles tow equal to 3 m3 of filtered sewater) collected in August by the CPR survey in the North Sea from off the Rhine and Humber estuaries between 1961 to 2005 showing that the genus Vibrio has increased in prevalence in the last 44 years and that this increase is correlated significantly, during the same period, with warming sea surface temperature. In addition, by applying deep sequencing analysis of a subset of these samples we provide evidence that bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio, including the human pathogen V. cholerae, not only increased

  9. Global warming 2007. An update to global warming: the balance of evidence and its policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Charles F

    2007-03-09

    In the four years since my original review (Keller[25]; hereafter referred to as CFK03), research has clarified and strengthened our understanding of how humans are warming the planet. So many of the details highlighted in the IPCC's Third Assessment Report[21] and in CFK03 have been resolved that I expect many to be a bit overwhelmed, and I hope that, by treating just the most significant aspects of the research, this update may provide a road map through the expected maze of new information. In particular, while most of CFK03 remains current, there are important items that have changed: Most notable is the resolution of the conundrum that mid-tropospheric warming did not seem to match surface warming. Both satellite and radiosonde (balloon-borne sensors) data reduction showed little warming in the middle troposphere (4-8 km altitude). In the CFK03 I discussed potential solutions to this problem, but at that time there was no clear resolution. This problem has now been solved, and the middle troposphere is seen to be warming apace with the surface. There have also been advances in determinations of temperatures over the past 1,000 years showing a cooler Little Ice Age (LIA) but essentially the same warming during medieval times (not as large as recent warming). The recent uproar over the so-called "hockey stick" temperature determination is much overblown since at least seven other groups have made relatively independent determinations of northern hemisphere temperatures over the same time period and derived essentially the same results. They differ on how cold the LIA was but essentially agree with the Mann's hockey stick result that the Medieval Warm Period was not as warm as the last 25 years. The question of the sun's influence on climate continues to generate controversy. It appears there is a growing consensus that, while the sun was a major factor in earlier temperature variations, it is incapable of having caused observed warming in the past quarter

  10. WARM EXTENDED DENSE GAS AT THE HEART OF A COLD COLLAPSING DENSE CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinnaga, Hiroko; Phillips, Thomas G.; Furuya, Ray S.; Kitamura, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate when and how the birth of a protostellar core occurs, we made survey observations of four well-studied dense cores in the Taurus molecular cloud using CO transitions in submillimeter bands. We report here the detection of unexpectedly warm (∼30-70 K), extended (radius of ∼2400 AU), dense (a few times 10 5 cm -3 ) gas at the heart of one of the dense cores, L1521F (MC27), within the cold dynamically collapsing components. We argue that the detected warm, extended, dense gas may originate from shock regions caused by collisions between the dynamically collapsing components and outflowing/rotating components within the dense core. We propose a new stage of star formation, 'warm-in-cold core stage (WICCS)', i.e., the cold collapsing envelope encases the warm extended dense gas at the center due to the formation of a protostellar core. WICCS would constitute a missing link in evolution between a cold quiescent starless core and a young protostar in class 0 stage that has a large-scale bipolar outflow.

  11. Global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies: Combining fluorocarbon and CO2 effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, P.D.; Fischer, S.K.; Hughes, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are on their way out, due to their role in stratospheric ozone depletion and the related international Montreal Protocol agreement and various national phaseout timetables. As the research, engineering development, and manufacturing investment decisions have ensued to prepare for this transition away from CFCs, the climate change issue has emerged and there has recently been increased attention on the direct global warming potential (GWP) of the fluorocarbon alternatives as greenhouse gases. However, there has been less focus on the indirect global warming effect arising from end-use energy changes and associated CO 2 emissions. A study was undertaken to address these combined global warming effects. A concept of Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) was developed for combining the direct and indirect effects and was used for evaluating CFC-replacement options available in the required CFC transition time frame. Analyses of industry technology surveys indicate that CFC-user industries have made substantial progress toward near-equal energy efficiency with many HCFC/HFC alternatives. The findings also bring into question the relative importance of the direct effect in many applications and stress energy efficiency when searching for suitable CFC alternatives. For chillers, household refrigerators, and unitary air-conditioning or heat pump equipment, changes in efficiency of only 2--5% would have a greater effect on future TEWI than completely eliminating the direct effect

  12. THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING ON STORMS AND STORM PREPAREDNESS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chew-Hung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, “[w]arming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures” (IPCC, 2007: 5 by about 0.8–1.0°C over the last 160 years. Based on a survey of literature on global warming and precipitation, there is agreement that the frequency of extreme precipitation events in Southeast Asia will increase with global warming. At the regional level, densely populated countries in Southeast Asia are vulnerable to these changes in precipitation events. This article provides a review of the potential changes to storm events in Southeast Asia, based on the understanding of existing scientific discourse. The article also presents two case studies of anomalous storm event in Southeast Asia, Typhoon Vamei and the extreme high rainfall event in December 2006 in Peninsular Malaysia, as indication of the potential impacts of global warming related changes to storm activities, highlighting the need for preparedness in adapting to the impact of global warming.

  13. Proposal of computation chart for general use for diffusion prediction of discharged warm water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Akira; Kadoyu, Masatake

    1976-01-01

    The authors have developed the unique simulation analysis method using the numerical models for the prediction of discharged warm water diffusion. At the present stage, the method is adopted for the precise analysis computation in order to make the prediction of the diffusion of discharged warm water at each survey point, but instead of this method, it is strongly requested that some simple and easy prediction methods should be established. For the purpose of meeting this demand, in this report, the computation chart for general use is given to predict simply the diffusion range of discharged warm water, after classifying the semi-infinite sea region into several flow patterns according to the sea conditions and conducting the systematic simulation analysis with the numerical model of each pattern, respectively. (1) Establishment of the computation conditions: The special sea region was picked up as the area to be investigated, which is semi-infinite facing the outer sea and along the rectilineal coast line from many sea regions surrounding Japan, and from the viewpoint of the flow and the diffusion characteristics, the sea region was classified into three patterns. 51 cases in total various parameters were obtained, and finally the simulation analysis was performed. (2) Drawing up the general use chart: 28 sheets of the computation chart for general use were drawn, which are available for computing the approximate temperature rise caused by the discharged warm water diffusion. The example of Anegasaki Thermal Power Station is given. (Kako, I.)

  14. ION BEAM HEATED TARGET SIMULATIONS FOR WARM DENSE MATTER PHYSICS AND INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, J.J.; Armijo, J.; Bailey, D.S.; Friedman, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.; Leung, P.T.; Logan, B.G.; Marinak, M.M.; More, R.M.; Ng, S.F.; Penn, G.E.; Perkins, L.J.; Veitzer, S.; Wurtele, J.S.; Yu, S.S.; Zylstra, A.B.

    2008-08-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations have been carried out using the multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics code HYDRA and the simplified one-dimensional hydrodynamics code DISH. We simulate possible targets for a near-term experiment at LBNL (the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, NDCX) and possible later experiments on a proposed facility (NDCX-II) for studies of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy related beam-target coupling. Simulations of various target materials (including solids and foams) are presented. Experimental configurations include single pulse planar metallic solid and foam foils. Concepts for double-pulsed and ramped-energy pulses on cryogenic targets and foams have been simulated for exploring direct drive beam target coupling, and concepts and simulations for collapsing cylindrical and spherical bubbles to enhance temperature and pressure for warm dense matter studies are described.

  15. Ion Beam Heated Target Simulations for Warm Dense Matter Physics and Inertial Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, J J; Armijo, J; Bailey, D S; Friedman, A; Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Kaganovich, I; Leung, P T; Logan, B G; Marinak, M M; More, R M; Ng, S F; Penn, G E; Perkins, L J; Veitzer, S; Wurtele, J S; Yu, S S; Zylstra, A B

    2008-08-12

    Hydrodynamic simulations have been carried out using the multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics code HYDRA and the simplified one-dimensional hydrodynamics code DISH. We simulate possible targets for a near-term experiment at LBNL (the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, NDCX) and possible later experiments on a proposed facility (NDCX-II) for studies of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy related beam-target coupling. Simulations of various target materials (including solids and foams) are presented. Experimental configurations include single pulse planar metallic solid and foam foils. Concepts for double-pulsed and ramped-energy pulses on cryogenic targets and foams have been simulated for exploring direct drive beam target coupling, and concepts and simulations for collapsing cylindrical and spherical bubbles to enhance temperature and pressure for warm dense matter studies are described.

  16. Simulation of future global warming scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field warming facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmani, Muhammad Ishaq Asif; Zhang, Jingqi; Li, Ganghua; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Wang, Shaohua; Kimball, Bruce A; Yan, Chuan; Liu, Zhenghui; Ding, Yanfeng

    2011-12-06

    To simulate expected future global warming, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to warm open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point differences of 1.3 and 2.7°C 67% of the time.

  17. The warming effect of the flare of natural gas on soil biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevdokimov, Ilya; Yusupov, Irek; Shavnin, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Simulation of global warming is one of the key issues of international efforts to study climatic changes. A number of manipulation experiments with soil warming have been established throughout the world in the last decades. We used warming with natural gas flare near the pine forest as a kind of manipulation experiment to assess the synergistic effect of drying and warming on plant-soil-microbial interactions. The experimental area is situated in a pine forest subzone of the forest zone of the Western Siberia near Pokachi, Yugra (61o73'N, 75o49'E). The experimental plots were established in a young Scotch pine forest on sandy podzolic soil at three distances of 70, 90 and 130 m from the flare of natural gas, with trees exposed to strong (S) moderate (M), and weak (W) impact, respectively. Increase of soil temperature in summer time were moderate: on average 0.7oC and 1.3oC for the plots M and S, respectively, compared to the plot W. The plot S demonstrated increase in CO2 efflux from the soil surface, mainly due to intensifying plant root respiration, by 18% compared to the plot W as well as increase in SOM content by 31%, with intensive accumulation of recalcitrant humus. By contrast, microbial biomass, labile SOM pool and basal respiration were higher in soil with weak flaring impact by 74%, 33% and 24%, respectively. Thus, three trends in plant-soil-microbe system exposed to warming and drying were revealed: i) SOM accumulation, ii) suppression of microbial activity, and iii) stimulation of root respiration. The research was supported by the Russian Science Foundation and Russian Foundation for Basic Researches.

  18. Heterogeneous Sensitivity of Tropical Precipitation Extremes during Growth and Mature Phases of Atmospheric Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhi, P.; Giannini, A.; Lall, U.; Gentine, P.

    2016-12-01

    Assessing and managing risks posed by climate variability and change is challenging in the tropics, from both a socio-economic and a scientific perspective. Most of the vulnerable countries with a limited climate adaptation capability are in the tropics. However, climate projections, particularly of extreme precipitation, are highly uncertain there. The CMIP5 (Coupled Model Inter- comparison Project - Phase 5) inter-model range of extreme precipitation sensitivity to the global temperature under climate change is much larger in the tropics as compared to the extra-tropics. It ranges from nearly 0% to greater than 30% across models (O'Gorman 2012). The uncertainty is also large in historical gauge or satellite based observational records. These large uncertainties in the sensitivity of tropical precipitation extremes highlight the need to better understand how tropical precipitation extremes respond to warming. We hypothesize that one of the factors explaining the large uncertainty is due to differing sensitivities during different phases of warming. We consider the `growth' and `mature' phases of warming under climate variability case- typically associated with an El Niño event. In the remote tropics (away from tropical Pacific Ocean), the response of the precipitation extremes during the two phases can be through different pathways: i) a direct and fast changing radiative forcing in an atmospheric column, acting top-down due to the tropospheric warming, and/or ii) an indirect effect via changes in surface temperatures, acting bottom-up through surface water and energy fluxes. We also speculate that the insights gained here might be useful in interpreting the large sensitivity under climate change scenarios, since the physical mechanisms during the two warming phases under climate variability case, have some correspondence with an increasing and stabilized green house gas emission scenarios.

  19. Reducing muscle temperature drop after warm-up improves sprint cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Steve H; Ferguson, Richard A; Gerrett, Nicola; Hupperets, Maarten; Hodder, Simon G; Havenith, George

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of passive insulation versus external heating during recovery after a sprint-specific warm-up on thigh muscle temperature and subsequent maximal sprint performance. On three separate occasions, 11 male cyclists (age = 24.7 ± 4.2 yr, height = 1.82 ± 0.72 m, body mass = 77.9 ± 9.8 kg; mean ± SD) completed a standardized 15-min intermittent warm-up on a cycle ergometer, followed by a 30-min passive recovery period before completing a 30-s maximal sprint test. Muscle temperature was measured in the vastus lateralis at 1, 2, and 3 cm depth before and after the warm-up and immediately before the sprint test. Absolute and relative peak power output was determined and blood lactate concentration was measured immediately after exercise. During the recovery period, participants wore a tracksuit top and (i) standard tracksuit pants (CONT), (ii) insulated athletic pants (INS), or (iii) insulated athletic pants with integrated electric heating elements (HEAT). Warm-up increased Tm by approximately 2.5 °C at all depths, with no differences between conditions. During recovery, Tm remained elevated in HEAT compared with INS and CONT at all depths (P HEAT compared with CONT (both P HEAT (6.3 ± 1.8 mmol·L(-1)) but not INS (4.0 ± 1.8 mmol·L(-1)) versus CONT (4.1 ± 1.9 mmol·L(-1)). Passive heating of the thighs between warm-up completion and performance execution using pants incorporating electrically heated pads can attenuate the decline in Tm and improve sprint cycling performance.

  20. Can air pollutant controls change global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strefler, Jessica; Luderer, Gunnar; Kriegler, Elmar; Meinshausen, Malte

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Air pollution policies do not affect long-term climate targets. • Reduction of aerosols counteracts a fraction of the reduction of Kyoto forcing. • Air pollution policies may affect the rate of climate change in the short term. • There is no tradeoff between clean air and climate policies. - Abstract: In this paper we analyze the interaction between climate and air pollution policies using the integrated assessment model REMIND coupled to the reduced-form climate model MAGICC. Since overall, aerosols tend to cool the atmosphere, there is a concern that a reduction of pollutant emissions could accelerate global warming and offset the climate benefits of carbon dioxide emission reductions. We investigate scenarios which independently reduce emissions from either large-scale sources, such as power plants, or small-scale sources, such as cooking and heating stoves. Large-scale sources are likely to be easier to control, but their aerosol emissions are characterized by a relatively high sulfur content, which tends to result in atmospheric cooling. Pollution from small-scale sources, by contrast, is characterized by a high share of carbonaceous aerosol, which is an important contributor to global warming. We find that air pollution policies can significantly reduce aerosol emissions when no climate policies are in place. Stringent climate policies lead to a large reduction of fossil fuel use, and therefore result in a concurrent reduction of air pollutant emissions. These reductions partly reduce aerosol masking, thus initially counteracting the reduction of greenhouse gas forcing, however not overcompensating it. If climate policies are in place, air pollution policies have almost no impacts on medium- and long-term radiative forcing. Therefore there is no conflict of objectives between clean air and limiting global warming. We find that the stringency of air pollution policies may influence the rate of global temperature change in the first decade