WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey ii error

  1. Errors in practical measurement in surveying, engineering, and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, B.A.; Morris, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses statistical measurement, error theory, and statistical error analysis. The topics of the book include an introduction to measurement, measurement errors, the reliability of measurements, probability theory of errors, measures of reliability, reliability of repeated measurements, propagation of errors in computing, errors and weights, practical application of the theory of errors in measurement, two-dimensional errors and includes a bibliography. Appendices are included which address significant figures in measurement, basic concepts of probability and the normal probability curve, writing a sample specification for a procedure, classification, standards of accuracy, and general specifications of geodetic control surveys, the geoid, the frequency distribution curve and the computer and calculator solution of problems

  2. Survey of Radar Refraction Error Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    RANGE YUMA PROVING GROUND NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER AIRCRAFT DIVISION NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER WEAPONS DIVISION NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE CENTER...estimation for an electromagnetic wave propagating at radio frequencies through the earth’s atmosphere. Appendices contain descriptive material on the...of Radar Refraction Error Corrections, RCC 266-16 vii Acronyms BAE BAE Systems CRPL Central Radio Propagation Laboratory EM electromagnetic

  3. Analysis of Employee's Survey for Preventing Human-Errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Chanho; Kim, Younggab; Joung, Sanghoun

    2013-01-01

    Human errors in nuclear power plant can cause large and small events or incidents. These events or incidents are one of main contributors of reactor trip and might threaten the safety of nuclear plants. To prevent human-errors, KHNP(nuclear power plants) introduced 'Human-error prevention techniques' and have applied the techniques to main parts such as plant operation, operation support, and maintenance and engineering. This paper proposes the methods to prevent and reduce human-errors in nuclear power plants through analyzing survey results which includes the utilization of the human-error prevention techniques and the employees' awareness of preventing human-errors. With regard to human-error prevention, this survey analysis presented the status of the human-error prevention techniques and the employees' awareness of preventing human-errors. Employees' understanding and utilization of the techniques was generally high and training level of employee and training effect on actual works were in good condition. Also, employees answered that the root causes of human-error were due to working environment including tight process, manpower shortage, and excessive mission rather than personal negligence or lack of personal knowledge. Consideration of working environment is certainly needed. At the present time, based on analyzing this survey, the best methods of preventing human-error are personal equipment, training/education substantiality, private mental health check before starting work, prohibit of multiple task performing, compliance with procedures, and enhancement of job site review. However, the most important and basic things for preventing human-error are interests of workers and organizational atmosphere such as communication between managers and workers, and communication between employees and bosses

  4. Nonresponse Error in Mail Surveys: Top Ten Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette M. Daly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting mail surveys can result in nonresponse error, which occurs when the potential participant is unwilling to participate or impossible to contact. Nonresponse can result in a reduction in precision of the study and may bias results. The purpose of this paper is to describe and make readers aware of a top ten list of mailed survey problems affecting the response rate encountered over time with different research projects, while utilizing the Dillman Total Design Method. Ten nonresponse error problems were identified, such as inserter machine gets sequence out of order, capitalization in databases, and mailing discarded by postal service. These ten mishaps can potentiate nonresponse errors, but there are ways to minimize their frequency. Suggestions offered stem from our own experiences during research projects. Our goal is to increase researchers' knowledge of nonresponse error problems and to offer solutions which can decrease nonresponse error in future projects.

  5. Measurement Error Calibration in Mixed-Mode Sample Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelens, Bart; van den Brakel, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-mode surveys are known to be susceptible to mode-dependent selection and measurement effects, collectively referred to as mode effects. The use of different data collection modes within the same survey may reduce selectivity of the overall response but is characterized by measurement errors differing across modes. Inference in sample surveys…

  6. The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS): Pilot Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.; Dickey, John M. [School of Physical Sciences, Private Bag 37, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 7001 (Australia); Jordan, C. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Perth, WA, 6845 (Australia); Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6315, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Bania, T. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Dawson, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and MQ Research Centre in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, NSW, 2109 (Australia); Mc Clure-Griffiths, N. M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2017-07-01

    The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey is a survey of the third and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane that will detect radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission at cm-wavelengths from several hundred H ii region candidates using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The targets for this survey come from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions and were identified based on mid-infrared and radio continuum emission. In this pilot project, two different configurations of the Compact Array Broad Band receiver and spectrometer system were used for short test observations. The pilot surveys detected RRL emission from 36 of 53 H ii region candidates, as well as seven known H ii regions that were included for calibration. These 36 recombination line detections confirm that the candidates are true H ii regions and allow us to estimate their distances.

  7. The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey (SHRDS): Pilot Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.; Dickey, John M.; Jordan, C.; Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M.; Dawson, J. R.; Mc Clure-Griffiths, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    The Southern H ii Region Discovery Survey is a survey of the third and fourth quadrants of the Galactic plane that will detect radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission at cm-wavelengths from several hundred H ii region candidates using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The targets for this survey come from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions and were identified based on mid-infrared and radio continuum emission. In this pilot project, two different configurations of the Compact Array Broad Band receiver and spectrometer system were used for short test observations. The pilot surveys detected RRL emission from 36 of 53 H ii region candidates, as well as seven known H ii regions that were included for calibration. These 36 recombination line detections confirm that the candidates are true H ii regions and allow us to estimate their distances.

  8. Medical Errors in Cyprus: The 2005 Eurobarometer Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Pavlakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical errors have been highlighted in recent years by different agencies, scientific bodies and research teams alike. We sought to explore the issue of medical errors in Cyprus using data from the Eurobarometer survey.Methods: Data from the special Eurobarometer survey conducted in 2005 across all European Union countries (EU-25 and the acceding countries were obtained from the corresponding EU office. Statisticalanalyses including logistic regression models were performed using SPSS.Results: A total of 502 individuals participated in the Cyprus survey. About 90% reported that they had often or sometimes heard about medical errors, while 22% reported that a family member or they had suffered a serious medical error in a local hospital. In addition, 9.4% reported a serious problem from a prescribed medicine. We also found statistically significant differences across different ages and gender and in rural versus urban residents. Finally, using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, wefound that residents in rural areas were more likely to have suffered a serious medical error in a local hospital or from a prescribed medicine.Conclusion: Our study shows that the vast majority of residents in Cyprus in parallel with the other Europeans worry about medical errors and a significant percentage report having suffered a serious medical error at a local hospital or from a prescribed medicine. The results of our study could help the medical community in Cyprus and the society at large to enhance its vigilance with respect to medical errors in order to improve medical care.

  9. The sloan digital sky survey-II supernova survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) has embarked on a multi-year project to identify and measure light curves for intermediate-redshift (0.05 < z < 0.35) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using repeated five-band (ugriz) imaging over an area of 300 sq. deg. The survey region is a stripe 2.5° wide...

  10. SIRTF Focal Plane Survey: A Pre-flight Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, David S.; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Boussalis, Dhemetrios; Kang, Bryan H.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains a pre-flight error analysis of the calibration accuracies expected from implementing the currently planned SIRTF focal plane survey strategy. The main purpose of this study is to verify that the planned strategy will meet focal plane survey calibration requirements (as put forth in the SIRTF IOC-SV Mission Plan [4]), and to quantify the actual accuracies expected. The error analysis was performed by running the Instrument Pointing Frame (IPF) Kalman filter on a complete set of simulated IOC-SV survey data, and studying the resulting propagated covariances. The main conclusion of this study is that the all focal plane calibration requirements can be met with the currently planned survey strategy. The associated margins range from 3 to 95 percent, and tend to be smallest for frames having a 0.14" requirement, and largest for frames having a more generous 0.28" (or larger) requirement. The smallest margin of 3 percent is associated with the IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 micron array centers (frames 068 and 069), and the largest margin of 95 percent is associated with the MIPS 160 micron array center (frame 087). For pointing purposes, the most critical calibrations are for the IRS Peakup sweet spots and short wavelength slit centers (frames 019, 023, 052, 028, 034). Results show that these frames are meeting their 0.14" requirements with an expected accuracy of approximately 0.1", which corresponds to a 28 percent margin.

  11. Weak gravitational lensing systematic errors in the dark energy survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazas, Andres Alejandro

    Dark energy is one of the most important unsolved problems in modern Physics, and weak gravitational lensing (WL) by mass structures along the line of sight ("cosmic shear") is a promising technique to learn more about its nature. However, WL is subject to numerous systematic errors which induce biases in measured cosmological parameters and prevent the development of its full potential. In this thesis, we advance the understanding of WL systematics in the context of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We develop a testing suite to assess the performance of the shapelet-based DES WL measurement pipeline. We determine that the measurement bias of the parameters of our Point Spread Function (PSF) model scales as (S/N )-2, implying that a PSF S/N > 75 is needed to satisfy DES requirements. PSF anisotropy suppression also satisfies the requirements for source galaxies with S/N ≳ 45. For low-noise, marginally-resolved exponential galaxies, the shear calibration errors are up to about 0.06% (for shear values ≲ 0.075). Galaxies with S/N ≳ 75 present about 1% errors, sufficient for first-year DES data. However, more work is needed to satisfy full-area DES requirements, especially in the high-noise regime. We then implement tests to validate the high accuracy of the map between pixel coordinates and sky coordinates (astrometric solution), which is crucial to detect the required number of galaxies for WL in stacked images. We also study the effect of atmospheric dispersion on cosmic shear experiments such as DES and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) in the four griz bands. For DES (LSST), we find systematics in the g and r (g, r, and i) bands that are larger than required. We find that a simple linear correction in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r ( i) band for DES (LSST). More complex corrections will likely reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band

  12. Decomposing response error in food consumption measurement: Implications for survey design from a randomized survey experiment in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Jed; Beegle, Kathleen; De Weerdt, Joachim; Gibson, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: There is wide variation in how consumption is measured in household surveys, both across countries and over time. This variation may confound welfare comparisons in part because these alternative survey designs produce consumption estimates differentially influenced by contrasting types of survey response error. While previous studies have documented the extent of net error in alternative survey designs, little is known about the relative influence of the different response errors t...

  13. Error modeling of DEMs from topographic surveys of rivers using fuzzy inference systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangen, Sara; Hensleigh, James; McHugh, Peter; Wheaton, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) have become common place in the earth sciences as a tool to characterize surface topography and set modeling boundary conditions. All DEMs have a degree of inherent error that is propagated to subsequent models and analyses. While previous research has shown that DEM error is spatially variable it is often represented as spatially uniform for analytical simplicity. Fuzzy inference systems (FIS) offer a tractable approach for modeling spatially variable DEM error, including flexibility in the number of inputs and calibration of outputs based on survey technique and modeling environment. We compare three FIS error models for DEMs derived from TS surveys of wadeable streams and test them at 34 sites in the Columbia River basin. The models differ in complexity regarding the number/type of inputs and degree of site-specific parameterization. A 2-input FIS uses inputs derived from the topographic point cloud (slope, point density). A 4-input FIS adds interpolation error and 3-D point quality. The 5-input FIS adds bed-surface roughness estimates. Both the 4 and 5-input FIS model output were parameterized to site-specific values. In the wetted channel we found (i) the 5-input FIS resulted in lower mean δz due to including roughness, and (ii) the 4 and 5-input FIS resulted in a higher standard deviation and maximum δz due to the inclusion of site-specific bank heights. All three FIS gave plausible estimates of DEM error, with the two more complicated models offering an improvement in the ability to detect spatially localized areas of DEM uncertainty.

  14. Germane facts about germanium sesquioxide: II. Scientific error and misrepresentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J; Andrus, G Merrill; Parish, W Wesley

    2004-04-01

    The preceding paper reviewed the anticancer properties and safety of bis (2-carboxyethylgermanium) sesquioxide (CEGS). An examination of those data leads one to question why this information has not stimulated clinical trials in patients with cancer. The answer is discussed in this paper, which traces the history to an error published in the scientific literature in 1987. The reliance by subsequent authors on secondary sources, citing only the error and not the correction published in 1988, constitutes part of the explanation of why CEGS has been neglected. A second factor is also considered: careless reporting about any germanium-based compound as if the many thousands of germanium compounds were all the same. This combination of a publication error, careless writing, and the reliance on secondary sources appears to be responsible for the neglect of the potential clinical use of this unique germanium compound.

  15. Investigation of Medication Errors: A Prescription Survey from Sri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Prescription errors are common in outpatient settings of Aluthgama and Kandy areas in. Sri Lanka. Standardized prescription writing process in relation to layout, use of abbreviations, and units and legibility, is proposed as a potential solution to overcome this problem. Keywords: Medication error, Prescriptions, ...

  16. Do Survey Data Estimate Earnings Inequality Correctly? Measurement Errors among Black and White Male Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ChangHwan; Tamborini, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have considered how earnings inequality estimates may be affected by measurement error in self-reported earnings in surveys. Utilizing restricted-use data that links workers in the Survey of Income and Program Participation with their W-2 earnings records, we examine the effect of measurement error on estimates of racial earnings…

  17. Writing biomedical manuscripts part II: standard elements and common errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohwovoriole, A E

    2011-01-01

    It is incumbent on, satisfying to, and rewarding for, researchers to have their work published. Many workers are denied this satisfaction because of their inability to secure acceptance after what they consider a good research. Several reasons account for rejection or delay of manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. A research poorly conceptualised and/or conducted will fail to fly but poor writing up of the completed work accounts for a greater majority of manuscripts that get rejected. The chances of manuscript acceptance can be increased by paying attention to the standard elements and avoiding correcting the common errors that make for the rejection of manuscripts. Cultivating the habit of structuring every department of the manuscript greatly improves chances of acceptance. The final paper should follow the universally accepted pattern of aim , introduction , methods, results, and discussion. The sequence of putting the paper together is different from the order in the final form. Follow a pattern that starts with the Tables and figures for the results section , followed by final version of the methods section. The title and abstract should be about the last to be written in the final version of the manuscript. You need to have results sorted out early as the rest of what you will write is largely dictated by your results. Revise the work several times and get co - authors and third parties to help read it over. To succeed follow the universal rules of writing and those of the target journal rules while avoiding those errors that are easily amenable to correction before you submit your manuscript.

  18. Automated suppression of errors in LTP-II slope measurements with x-ray optics. Part1: Review of LTP errors and methods for the error reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Zulfiqar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yashchuk, Valeriy V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-05-11

    Systematic error and instrumental drift are the major limiting factors of sub-microradian slope metrology with state-of-the-art x-ray optics. Significant suppression of the errors can be achieved by using an optimal measurement strategy suggested in [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 115101 (2009)]. With this series of LSBL Notes, we report on development of an automated, kinematic, rotational system that provides fully controlled flipping, tilting, and shifting of a surface under test. The system is integrated into the Advanced Light Source long trace profiler, LTP-II, allowing for complete realization of the advantages of the optimal measurement strategy method. We provide details of the system’s design, operational control and data acquisition. The high performance of the system is demonstrated via the results of high precision measurements with a spherical test mirror.

  19. Medication errors in chemotherapy preparation and administration: a survey conducted among oncology nurses in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulas, Arife; Silay, Kamile; Akinci, Sema; Dede, Didem Sener; Akinci, Muhammed Bulent; Sendur, Mehmet Ali Nahit; Cubukcu, Erdem; Coskun, Hasan Senol; Degirmenci, Mustafa; Utkan, Gungor; Ozdemir, Nuriye; Isikdogan, Abdurrahman; Buyukcelik, Abdullah; Inanc, Mevlude; Bilici, Ahmet; Odabasi, Hatice; Cihan, Sener; Avci, Nilufer; Yalcin, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    Medication errors in oncology may cause severe clinical problems due to low therapeutic indices and high toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents. We aimed to investigate unintentional medication errors and underlying factors during chemotherapy preparation and administration based on a systematic survey conducted to reflect oncology nurses experience. This study was conducted in 18 adult chemotherapy units with volunteer participation of 206 nurses. A survey developed by primary investigators and medication errors (MAEs) defined preventable errors during prescription of medication, ordering, preparation or administration. The survey consisted of 4 parts: demographic features of nurses; workload of chemotherapy units; errors and their estimated monthly number during chemotherapy preparation and administration; and evaluation of the possible factors responsible from ME. The survey was conducted by face to face interview and data analyses were performed with descriptive statistics. Chi-square or Fisher exact tests were used for a comparative analysis of categorical data. Some 83.4% of the 210 nurses reported one or more than one error during chemotherapy preparation and administration. Prescribing or ordering wrong doses by physicians (65.7%) and noncompliance with administration sequences during chemotherapy administration (50.5%) were the most common errors. The most common estimated average monthly error was not following the administration sequence of the chemotherapeutic agents (4.1 times/month, range 1-20). The most important underlying reasons for medication errors were heavy workload (49.7%) and insufficient number of staff (36.5%). Our findings suggest that the probability of medication error is very high during chemotherapy preparation and administration, the most common involving prescribing and ordering errors. Further studies must address the strategies to minimize medication error in chemotherapy receiving patients, determine sufficient protective measures

  20. Geophysical and geological surveys along the northeastern flank of Mount error, Northwestern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Rajendraprasad, B.; Hansen, R.D.

    Bathymetry, multichannel continuous seismic reflection, magnetic and gravity surveys and sampling were carried out over Mount Error in the northwestern Indian Ocean and along the northeastern flank of the seamount, to study the nature of its...

  1. Drug Administration Errors by South African Anaesthetists – a Survey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    TRAVEL FELLOWSHIP. Objectives. To investigate the incidence, nature of and factors contributing towards “wrong drug administrations” by South African anaesthetists. Design. A confidential, self-reporting survey was sent out to the 720 anaesthetists on the database of the South African Society of. Anaesthesiologists.

  2. The Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, Masao; et al.

    2014-01-14

    This paper describes the data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey conducted between 2005 and 2007. Light curves, spectra, classifications, and ancillary data are presented for 10,258 variable and transient sources discovered through repeat ugriz imaging of SDSS Stripe 82, a 300 deg2 area along the celestial equator. This data release is comprised of all transient sources brighter than r~22.5 mag with no history of variability prior to 2004. Dedicated spectroscopic observations were performed on a subset of 889 transients, as well as spectra for thousands of transient host galaxies using the SDSS-III BOSS spectrographs. Photometric classifications are provided for the candidates with good multi-color light curves that were not observed spectroscopically. From these observations, 4607 transients are either spectroscopically confirmed, or likely to be, supernovae, making this the largest sample of supernova candidates ever compiled. We present a new method for SN host-galaxy identification and derive host-galaxy properties including stellar masses, star-formation rates, and the average stellar population ages from our SDSS multi-band photometry. We derive SALT2 distance moduli for a total of 1443 SN Ia with spectroscopic redshifts as well as photometric redshifts for a further 677 purely-photometric SN Ia candidates. Using the spectroscopically confirmed subset of the three-year SDSS-II SN Ia sample and assuming a flat Lambda-CDM cosmology, we determine Omega_M = 0.315 +/- 0.093 (statistical error only) and detect a non-zero cosmological constant at 5.7 sigmas.

  3. Correction of Frequent English Writing Errors by Using Coded Indirect Corrective Feedback and Error Treatment: The Case of Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II

    OpenAIRE

    Chaiwat Tantarangsee

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study are 1) to study the frequent English writing errors of students registering the course: Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and 2) to find out the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and writing error treatments. Samples include 28 2nd year English Major students, Faculty of Education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Tool for experimental study includes the lesson plan of the cours...

  4. Measuring the Measurement Error: A Method to Qualitatively Validate Survey Data

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Blattman; Julian C. Jamison; Tricia Koroknay-Palicz; Katherine Rodrigues; Margaret Sheridan

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments rely heavily on self-reported data, but subjects may misreport behaviors, especially sensitive ones such as crime. If treatment influences survey responses, it biases experimental estimates. We develop a validation technique that uses intensive qualitative work to assess survey measurement error. Subjects were assigned to receive cash, therapy, both, or neither. According to survey responses, receiving both treatments dramatically reduced crime and other sensitive behaviors....

  5. Experimental investigation of false positive errors in auditory species occurrence surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.W.; Weir, Linda A.; McClintock, Brett T.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Bailey, Larissa L.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2012-01-01

    False positive errors are a significant component of many ecological data sets, which in combination with false negative errors, can lead to severe biases in conclusions about ecological systems. We present results of a field experiment where observers recorded observations for known combinations of electronically broadcast calling anurans under conditions mimicking field surveys to determine species occurrence. Our objectives were to characterize false positive error probabilities for auditory methods based on a large number of observers, to determine if targeted instruction could be used to reduce false positive error rates, and to establish useful predictors of among-observer and among-species differences in error rates. We recruited 31 observers, ranging in abilities from novice to expert, that recorded detections for 12 species during 180 calling trials (66,960 total observations). All observers made multiple false positive errors and on average 8.1% of recorded detections in the experiment were false positive errors. Additional instruction had only minor effects on error rates. After instruction, false positive error probabilities decreased by 16% for treatment individuals compared to controls with broad confidence interval overlap of 0 (95% CI: -46 to 30%). This coincided with an increase in false negative errors due to the treatment (26%; -3 to 61%). Differences among observers in false positive and in false negative error rates were best predicted by scores from an online test and a self-assessment of observer ability completed prior to the field experiment. In contrast, years of experience conducting call surveys was a weak predictor of error rates. False positive errors were also more common for species that were played more frequently, but were not related to the dominant spectral frequency of the call. Our results corroborate other work that demonstrates false positives are a significant component of species occurrence data collected by auditory

  6. The Extended Northern ROSAT Galaxy Cluster Survey (NORAS II). I. Survey Construction and First Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Trümper, Joachim [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Retzlaff, Jörg [ESO, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Meisenheimer, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schartel, Norbert [ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28692 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-05-01

    As the largest, clearly defined building blocks of our universe, galaxy clusters are interesting astrophysical laboratories and important probes for cosmology. X-ray surveys for galaxy clusters provide one of the best ways to characterize the population of galaxy clusters. We provide a description of the construction of the NORAS II galaxy cluster survey based on X-ray data from the northern part of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. NORAS II extends the NORAS survey down to a flux limit of 1.8 × 10{sup −12} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} (0.1–2.4 keV), increasing the sample size by about a factor of two. The NORAS II cluster survey now reaches the same quality and depth as its counterpart, the southern REFLEX II survey, allowing us to combine the two complementary surveys. The paper provides information on the determination of the cluster X-ray parameters, the identification process of the X-ray sources, the statistics of the survey, and the construction of the survey selection function, which we provide in numerical format. Currently NORAS II contains 860 clusters with a median redshift of z  = 0.102. We provide a number of statistical functions, including the log N –log S and the X-ray luminosity function and compare these to the results from the complementary REFLEX II survey. Using the NORAS II sample to constrain the cosmological parameters, σ {sub 8} and Ω{sub m}, yields results perfectly consistent with those of REFLEX II. Overall, the results show that the two hemisphere samples, NORAS II and REFLEX II, can be combined without problems into an all-sky sample, just excluding the zone of avoidance.

  7. ARGOS - II. The Galactic bulge survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, K.; Ness, M.; Wylie-de-Boer, E.; Athanassoula, E.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Asplund, M.; Lewis, G.; Yong, D.; Lane, R.; Kiss, L.; Ibata, R.

    2013-02-01

    We describe the motivation, field locations and stellar selection for the Abundances and Radial velocity Galactic Origins Survey (ARGOS) spectroscopic survey of 28 000 stars in the bulge and inner disc of the Milky Way galaxy across latitudes of b = -5° to -10°. The primary goal of this survey is to constrain the formation processes of the bulge and establish whether it is predominantly a merger or instability remnant. From the spectra (R = 11 000), we have measured radial velocities and determined stellar parameters, including metallicities and [α/Fe] ratios. Distances were estimated from the derived stellar parameters and about 14 000 stars are red giants within 3.5 kpc of the Galactic Centre. In this paper, we present the observations and analysis methods. Subsequent papers (III and IV) will discuss the stellar metallicity distribution and kinematics of the Galactic bulge and inner disc, and the implications for the formation of the bulge.

  8. The Use of PCs, Smartphones, and Tablets in a Probability-Based Panel Survey : Effects on Survey Measurement Error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, Peter; Toepoel, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Respondents in an Internet panel survey can often choose which device they use to complete questionnaires: a traditional PC, laptop, tablet computer, or a smartphone. Because all these devices have different screen sizes and modes of data entry, measurement errors may differ between devices. Using

  9. University Benefits Survey. Part II (Pensions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1983 survey of pension plans in 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: type of plan, eligibility, member contributions, university contributions, benefits on normal retirement (age 65) and on early retirement (age 55), trustee and investment manager, and pension committee…

  10. Improved characterisation and modelling of measurement errors in electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Chak-Hau Michael; Kuras, Oliver; Wilkinson, Paul B.; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Chambers, Jonathan E.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Graham, James; Sherlock, Emma F.; Binley, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Measurement errors can play a pivotal role in geophysical inversion. Most inverse models require users to prescribe or assume a statistical model of data errors before inversion. Wrongly prescribed errors can lead to over- or under-fitting of data; however, the derivation of models of data errors is often neglected. With the heightening interest in uncertainty estimation within hydrogeophysics, better characterisation and treatment of measurement errors is needed to provide improved image appraisal. Here we focus on the role of measurement errors in electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). We have analysed two time-lapse ERT datasets: one contains 96 sets of direct and reciprocal data collected from a surface ERT line within a 24 h timeframe; the other is a two-year-long cross-borehole survey at a UK nuclear site with 246 sets of over 50,000 measurements. Our study includes the characterisation of the spatial and temporal behaviour of measurement errors using autocorrelation and correlation coefficient analysis. We find that, in addition to well-known proportionality effects, ERT measurements can also be sensitive to the combination of electrodes used, i.e. errors may not be uncorrelated as often assumed. Based on these findings, we develop a new error model that allows grouping based on electrode number in addition to fitting a linear model to transfer resistance. The new model explains the observed measurement errors better and shows superior inversion results and uncertainty estimates in synthetic examples. It is robust, because it groups errors together based on the electrodes used to make the measurements. The new model can be readily applied to the diagonal data weighting matrix widely used in common inversion methods, as well as to the data covariance matrix in a Bayesian inversion framework. We demonstrate its application using extensive ERT monitoring datasets from the two aforementioned sites.

  11. How Big of a Problem is Analytic Error in Secondary Analyses of Survey Data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady T West

    Full Text Available Secondary analyses of survey data collected from large probability samples of persons or establishments further scientific progress in many fields. The complex design features of these samples improve data collection efficiency, but also require analysts to account for these features when conducting analysis. Unfortunately, many secondary analysts from fields outside of statistics, biostatistics, and survey methodology do not have adequate training in this area, and as a result may apply incorrect statistical methods when analyzing these survey data sets. This in turn could lead to the publication of incorrect inferences based on the survey data that effectively negate the resources dedicated to these surveys. In this article, we build on the results of a preliminary meta-analysis of 100 peer-reviewed journal articles presenting analyses of data from a variety of national health surveys, which suggested that analytic errors may be extremely prevalent in these types of investigations. We first perform a meta-analysis of a stratified random sample of 145 additional research products analyzing survey data from the Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT, which describes features of the U.S. Science and Engineering workforce, and examine trends in the prevalence of analytic error across the decades used to stratify the sample. We once again find that analytic errors appear to be quite prevalent in these studies. Next, we present several example analyses of real SESTAT data, and demonstrate that a failure to perform these analyses correctly can result in substantially biased estimates with standard errors that do not adequately reflect complex sample design features. Collectively, the results of this investigation suggest that reviewers of this type of research need to pay much closer attention to the analytic methods employed by researchers attempting to publish or present secondary analyses of survey data.

  12. How Big of a Problem is Analytic Error in Secondary Analyses of Survey Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brady T; Sakshaug, Joseph W; Aurelien, Guy Alain S

    2016-01-01

    Secondary analyses of survey data collected from large probability samples of persons or establishments further scientific progress in many fields. The complex design features of these samples improve data collection efficiency, but also require analysts to account for these features when conducting analysis. Unfortunately, many secondary analysts from fields outside of statistics, biostatistics, and survey methodology do not have adequate training in this area, and as a result may apply incorrect statistical methods when analyzing these survey data sets. This in turn could lead to the publication of incorrect inferences based on the survey data that effectively negate the resources dedicated to these surveys. In this article, we build on the results of a preliminary meta-analysis of 100 peer-reviewed journal articles presenting analyses of data from a variety of national health surveys, which suggested that analytic errors may be extremely prevalent in these types of investigations. We first perform a meta-analysis of a stratified random sample of 145 additional research products analyzing survey data from the Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), which describes features of the U.S. Science and Engineering workforce, and examine trends in the prevalence of analytic error across the decades used to stratify the sample. We once again find that analytic errors appear to be quite prevalent in these studies. Next, we present several example analyses of real SESTAT data, and demonstrate that a failure to perform these analyses correctly can result in substantially biased estimates with standard errors that do not adequately reflect complex sample design features. Collectively, the results of this investigation suggest that reviewers of this type of research need to pay much closer attention to the analytic methods employed by researchers attempting to publish or present secondary analyses of survey data.

  13. How Big of a Problem is Analytic Error in Secondary Analyses of Survey Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brady T.; Sakshaug, Joseph W.; Aurelien, Guy Alain S.

    2016-01-01

    Secondary analyses of survey data collected from large probability samples of persons or establishments further scientific progress in many fields. The complex design features of these samples improve data collection efficiency, but also require analysts to account for these features when conducting analysis. Unfortunately, many secondary analysts from fields outside of statistics, biostatistics, and survey methodology do not have adequate training in this area, and as a result may apply incorrect statistical methods when analyzing these survey data sets. This in turn could lead to the publication of incorrect inferences based on the survey data that effectively negate the resources dedicated to these surveys. In this article, we build on the results of a preliminary meta-analysis of 100 peer-reviewed journal articles presenting analyses of data from a variety of national health surveys, which suggested that analytic errors may be extremely prevalent in these types of investigations. We first perform a meta-analysis of a stratified random sample of 145 additional research products analyzing survey data from the Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), which describes features of the U.S. Science and Engineering workforce, and examine trends in the prevalence of analytic error across the decades used to stratify the sample. We once again find that analytic errors appear to be quite prevalent in these studies. Next, we present several example analyses of real SESTAT data, and demonstrate that a failure to perform these analyses correctly can result in substantially biased estimates with standard errors that do not adequately reflect complex sample design features. Collectively, the results of this investigation suggest that reviewers of this type of research need to pay much closer attention to the analytic methods employed by researchers attempting to publish or present secondary analyses of survey data. PMID:27355817

  14. Modified Monte Carlo program for SAND-II with solution weighting and error analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, C.A.; McElroy, W.N.; Simons, R.L.; Lippincott, E.P.; Odette, G.R.

    1976-08-01

    In previous versions of the SAND-II and Monte Carlo codes, uncertainty data for both measured activities and cross sections were used only in a statistical sense for error propagation studies. These versions used an equal uncertainty procedure for weighting each foil. An in-depth study is presented of different weighting procedures utilizing available uncertainty data to obtain a ''most appropriate'' SAND-II solution flux spectrum. Based on this study, an improved and modified SAND-II Monte Carlo code has been developed. Development of the new code was based on extensive computer runs involving data from 21 foils irradiated in CFRMF as a part of the Interlaboratory LMFBR Reaction Rate (ILRR) program

  15. Are Divorce Studies Trustworthy? The Effects of Survey Nonresponse and Response Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Colter

    2010-01-01

    Researchers rely on relationship data to measure the multifaceted nature of families. This article speaks to relationship data quality by examining the ramifications of different types of error on divorce estimates, models predicting divorce behavior, and models employing divorce as a predictor. Comparing matched survey and divorce certificate…

  16. Surveys in differential-algebraic equations II

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The present volume comprises survey articles on various fields of Differential-Algebraic Equations (DAEs), which have widespread applications in controlled dynamical systems, especially in mechanical and electrical engineering and a strong relation to (ordinary) differential equations. The individual chapters provide reviews, presentations of the current state of research and new concepts in - Observers for DAEs - DAEs in chemical processes - Optimal control of DAEs - DAEs from a functional-analytic viewpoint - Algebraic methods for DAEs The results are presented in an accessible style, making this book suitable not only for active researchers but also for graduate students (with a good knowledge of the basic principles of DAEs) for self-study.

  17. Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, C R

    1982-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

  18. Survey of error concealment schemes for real-time audio transmission systems

    OpenAIRE

    Robles Moya, Aránzazu

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents an overview of the main strategies employed for error detection and error concealment in different real-time transmission systems for digital audio. The “Adaptive Differential Pulse-Code Modulation (ADPCM)”, the “Audio Processing Technology Apt-x100”, the “Extended Adaptive Multi-Rate Wideband (AMR-WB+)”, the “Advanced Audio Coding (AAC)”, the “MPEG-1 Audio Layer II (MP2)”, the “MPEG-1 Audio Layer III (MP3)” and finally the “Adaptive Transform Coder 3 (AC3)” are considere...

  19. Survey on Visual Impairment and Refractive Errors on Ta′u Island, American Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn S Barnes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the prevalence of presenting visual impairment and refractive errors on the isolated island of Ta′u, American Samoa. Methods: Presenting visual acuity and refractive errors of 124 adults over 40 years of age (55 male and 69 female were measured using the Snellen chart and an autorefractometer. This sample represented over 50% of the island′s eligible population. Results: In this survey, all presenting visual acuity (VA was uncorrected. Of the included sample, 10.5% presented with visual impairment (visual acuity lower than 6/18, but equal to or better than 3/60 in the better eye and 4.8% presented with VA worse than 6/60 in the better eye. Overall, 4.0% of subjects presented with hyperopia (+3 D or more, 3.2% were myopic (‑1 D or less, and 0.8% presented with high myopia (‑5 D or less. There was no significant difference between genders in terms of visual impairment or refractive errors. Conclusion: This study represents the first population-based survey on presenting visual acuity and refractive errors in American Samoa. In addition to providing baseline data on vision and refractive errors, we found that the prevalence of myopia and hyperopia was much lower than expected.

  20. The relative size of measurement error and attrition error in a panel survey. Comparing them with a new multi-trait multi-method model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to simultaneously estimate both measurement and nonresponse errors for attitudinal and behavioural questions in a longitudinal survey. The method uses a Multi-Trait Multi-Method (MTMM) approach, which is commonly used to estimate the reliability and validity of survey

  1. Error, stress, and teamwork in medicine and aviation: cross sectional surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, J Bryan; Thomas, Eric J; Helmreich, Robert L

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To survey operating theatre and intensive care unit staff about attitudes concerning error, stress, and teamwork and to compare these attitudes with those of airline cockpit crew. Design: Cross sectional surveys. Setting: Urban teaching and non-teaching hospitals in the United States, Israel, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. Major airlines around the world. Participants: 1033 doctors, nurses, fellows, and residents working in operating theatres and intensive care units and over 30 000 cockpit crew members (captains, first officers, and second officers). Main outcome measures: Perceptions of error, stress, and teamwork. Results: Pilots were least likely to deny the effects of fatigue on performance (26% v 70% of consultant surgeons and 47% of consultant anaesthetists). Most pilots (97%) and intensive care staff (94%) rejected steep hierarchies (in which senior team members are not open to input from junior members), but only 55% of consultant surgeons rejected such hierarchies. High levels of teamwork with consultant surgeons were reported by 73% of surgical residents, 64% of consultant surgeons, 39% of anaesthesia consultants, 28% of surgical nurses, 25% of anaesthetic nurses, and 10% of anaesthetic residents. Only a third of staff reported that errors are handled appropriately at their hospital. A third of intensive care staff did not acknowledge that they make errors. Over half of intensive care staff reported that they find it difficult to discuss mistakes. Conclusions: Medical staff reported that error is important but difficult to discuss and not handled well in their hospital. Barriers to discussing error are more important since medical staff seem to deny the effect of stress and fatigue on performance. Further problems include differing perceptions of teamwork among team members and reluctance of senior theatre staff to accept input from junior members. PMID:10720356

  2. A Survey of Soft-Error Mitigation Techniques for Non-Volatile Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparsh Mittal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-volatile memories (NVMs offer superior density and energy characteristics compared to the conventional memories; however, NVMs suffer from severe reliability issues that can easily eclipse their energy efficiency advantages. In this paper, we survey architectural techniques for improving the soft-error reliability of NVMs, specifically PCM (phase change memory and STT-RAM (spin transfer torque RAM. We focus on soft-errors, such as resistance drift and write disturbance, in PCM and read disturbance and write failures in STT-RAM. By classifying the research works based on key parameters, we highlight their similarities and distinctions. We hope that this survey will underline the crucial importance of addressing NVM reliability for ensuring their system integration and will be useful for researchers, computer architects and processor designers.

  3. The LBTI Fizeau imager - II. Sensitivity of the PSF and the MTF to adaptive optics errors and to piston errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patru, F.; Esposito, S.; Puglisi, A.; Riccardi, A.; Pinna, E.; Arcidiacono, C.; Antichi, J.; Mennesson, B.; Defrère, D.; Hinz, P. M.; Hill, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    We show numerical simulations with monochromatic light in the visible for the LBTI Fizeau imager, including opto-dynamical aberrations due here to adaptive optics (AO) errors and to differential piston fluctuations, while other errors have been neglected. The achievable Strehl by the LBTI using two AO is close to the Strehl provided by a single standalone AO system, as long as other differential wavefront errors are mitigated. The LBTI Fizeau imager is primarily limited by the AO performance and by the differential piston/tip-tilt errors. Snapshots retain high-angular resolution and high-contrast imaging information by freezing the fringes against piston errors. Several merit functions have been critically evaluated in order to characterize point spread functions and the modulation transfer functions for high-contrast imaging applications. The LBTI Fizeau mode can provide an image quality suitable for standard science cases (i.e. a Strehl above 70 per cent) by performing both at a time: an AO correction better than ≈λ/18 RMS for both short and long exposures, and a piston correction better than ≈λ/8 RMS for long exposures or simply below the coherence length for short exposures. Such results, which can be applied to any observing wavelength, suggest that AO and piston control at the LBTI would already improve the contrast at near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Therefore, the LBTI Fizeau imager can be used for high-contrast imaging, providing a high-Strehl regime (by both AO systems), a cophasing mode (by a fringe tracker) and a burst mode (by a fast camera) to record fringed speckles in short exposures.

  4. The Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sako, Masao; Bassett, Bruce; C. Becker, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    distance moduli for a total of 1443 SN Ia with spectroscopic redshifts as well as photometric redshifts for a further 677 purely-photometric SN Ia candidates. Using the spectroscopically confirmed subset of the three-year SDSS-II SN Ia sample and assuming a flat Lambda-CDM cosmology, we determine Omega......_M = 0.315 +/- 0.093 (statistical error only) and detect a non-zero cosmological constant at 5.7 sigmas....

  5. Vaccination management and vaccination errors: a representative online-survey among primary care physicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta M Weltermann

    Full Text Available Effective immunizations require a thorough, multi-step process, yet few studies comprehensively addressed issues around vaccination management.To assess variations in vaccination management and vaccination errors in primary care.A cross sectional, web-based questionnaire survey was performed among 1157 primary physicians from North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany: a representative 10% random sample of general practitioners (n = 946 and all teaching physicians from the University Duisburg-Essen (n = 211. Four quality aspects with three items each were included: patient-related quality (patient information, patient consent, strategies to increase immunization rates, vaccine-related quality (practice vaccine spectrum, vaccine pre-selection, vaccination documentation, personnel-related quality (recommendation of vaccinations, vaccine application, personnel qualification and storage-related quality (storage device, temperature log, vaccine storage control. For each of the four quality aspects, "good quality" was reached if all three criteria per quality aspect were fulfilled. Good vaccination management was defined as fulfilling all twelve items. Additionally, physicians' experiences with errors and nearby-errors in vaccination management were obtained.More than 20% of the physicians participated in the survey. Good vaccination management was reached by 19% of the practices. Patient-related quality was good in 69% of the practices, vaccine-related quality in 73%, personnel-related quality in 59% and storage-related quality in 41% of the practices. No predictors for error reporting and good vaccination management were identified.We identified good results for vaccine- and patient-related quality but need to improve issues that revolve around vaccine storage.

  6. Prostacyclin administration errors in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients admitted to hospitals in the United States: a national survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingman, Martha S.; Tankersley, Mark A.; Lombardi, Sandra; Spence, Susan; Torres, Fernando; Chin, Kelly S.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epoprostenol and treprostinil are intravenous prostacyclin medications used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This survey explored hospital policies regarding prostacyclin infusions, and investigated the type and frequency of errors that occurred in the inpatient setting. METHODS Information on prostacyclin infusion policies and inpatient errors was obtained through detailed interviews with 18 PAH nurses, and through an electronic survey completed by 97 PAH clinicians. RESULTS The electronic survey respondents reported wide variability in prostacyclin infusion policies, including variability in the use of home vs hospital infusion pumps, and variability in the use and storage of back-up epoprostenol and treprostinil. Serious or potentially serious errors in medication administration were reported by 68% of survey respondents. The most common error types (reported by ≥25%), included: incorrect cassette placed in the pump; inaccurate pump programming; errant drug dosing; and inadvertent cessation of the pump. Nine errors, all at different centers, were believed to have contributed to patient death. In the separate interviews with the PAH nurses, 94% reported serious errors. These errors prompted many of the centers to implement policy changes in an attempt to reduce future errors, improve safety and optimize patient outcomes. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that prostacyclin infusion therapy is problematic and that an opportunity exists to improve safety. The development of standardized treatment guidelines should be considered. PMID:20430649

  7. ERROR OCCURRENCE PROBABILITY OF TYPE I AND II IN MONITORING OF A SEEDER-FERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Vale

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the seeder-fertilizer performance throughout the sowing grains becomes essential to ensure its operation and to determine in which moment the pause intervention during the operation should occur. However, a way to analyze the performance of the seeder-fertilizer can be done through the individual values control cards, which detect the presence of eventual causes due the seeding, becoming an important analysis/manager tool. In this way, this paper focuses in evaluate the probability of occurrence of the errors type I and II in the operational performance analysis of a seeder-fertilizer, using values of number one (1 σ, two (2 σ and three (3 σ multiples of the standard deviation. The experiment was performed in rural area within the county of Sinop – MT, during the crop 2014/15. The experimental design used was based on the statistical quality control logic, to monitor the variables throughout the operational course. Has been collected 120 sampling points in total, 60 being collected per day (at random moments, for each seeding type in a period of two days, for each variant analyzed. The quality indicators were the seeder-fertilizer driving wheels skidding and overall field capacity, all variants being collected during the soybean seeding. The major probability of the occurrence of errors type I é presented to all the quality indicators which use value one (1 σ and two (2 σ as standard deviation multiple. The driving wheel skidding, both in the conventional seeding and in the direct seeding can be evaluated using the value multiple of the standard deviation number three (3 σ. The overall field capacity on the conventional seeding system can be evaluated using the value multiple of the standard deviation number three (3 σ. And, the direct seeding can be evaluated using the value multiple of the standard deviation number two (2 σ.

  8. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey: Technical Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; /Fermilab /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington; Choi, Changsu; /Seoul Natl. U.; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; DeJongh, Don Frederic; /Fermilab; Depoy, Darren L.; /Ohio State U.; Doi, Mamoru; /Tokyo U.; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U.; Hogan, Craig J.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Holtzman, Jon; /New Mexico State U.; Im, Myungshin; /Seoul Natl. U.; Jha, Saurabh; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Konishi, Kohki; /Tokyo U.; Lampeitl, Hubert; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Marriner, John; /Fermilab; Marshall, Jennifer L.; /Ohio State U.; McGinnis,; /Fermilab; Miknaitis, Gajus; /Fermilab; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U.; Prieto, Jose Luis; /Ohio State U. /Rochester Inst. Tech. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Pennsylvania U.

    2007-09-14

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) has embarked on a multi-year project to identify and measure light curves for intermediate-redshift (0.05 < z < 0.35) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using repeated five-band (ugriz) imaging over an area of 300 sq. deg. The survey region is a stripe 2.5 degrees wide centered on the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap that has been imaged numerous times in earlier years, enabling construction of a deep reference image for discovery of new objects. Supernova imaging observations are being acquired between 1 September and 30 November of 2005-7. During the first two seasons, each region was imaged on average every five nights. Spectroscopic follow-up observations to determine supernova type and redshift are carried out on a large number of telescopes. In its first two three-month seasons, the survey has discovered and measured light curves for 327 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia, 30 probable SNe Ia, 14 confirmed SNe Ib/c, 32 confirmed SNe II, plus a large number of photometrically identified SNe Ia, 94 of which have host-galaxy spectra taken so far. This paper provides an overview of the project and briefly describes the observations completed during the first two seasons of operation.

  9. Linking Errors between Two Populations and Tests: A Case Study in International Surveys in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hastedt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This simulation study was prompted by the current increased interest in linking national studies to international large-scale assessments (ILSAs such as IEA's TIMSS, IEA's PIRLS, and OECD's PISA. Linkage in this scenario is achieved by including items from the international assessments in the national assessments on the premise that the average achievement scores from the latter can be linked to the international metric. In addition to raising issues associated with different testing conditions, administrative procedures, and the like, this approach also poses psychometric challenges. This paper endeavors to shed some light on the effects that can be expected, the linkage errors in particular, by countries using this practice. The ILSA selected for this simulation study was IEA TIMSS 2011, and the three countries used as the national assessment cases were Botswana, Honduras, and Tunisia, all of which participated in TIMSS 2011. The items selected as items common to the simulated national tests and the international test came from the Grade 4 TIMSS 2011 mathematics items that IEA released into the public domain after completion of this assessment. The findings of the current study show that linkage errors seemed to achieve acceptable levels if 30 or more items were used for the linkage, although the errors were still significantly higher compared to the TIMSS' cutoffs. Comparison of the estimated country averages based on the simulated national surveys and the averages based on the international TIMSS assessment revealed only one instance across the three countries of the estimates approaching parity. Also, the percentages of students in these countries who actually reached the defined benchmarks on the TIMSS achievement scale differed significantly from the results based on TIMSS and the results for the simulated national assessments. As a conclusion, we advise against using groups of released items from international assessments in national

  10. Assessment of Systematic Chromatic Errors that Impact Sub-1% Photometric Precision in Large-Area Sky Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T. S. [et al.

    2016-05-27

    Meeting the science goals for many current and future ground-based optical large-area sky surveys requires that the calibrated broadband photometry is stable in time and uniform over the sky to 1% precision or better. Past surveys have achieved photometric precision of 1-2% by calibrating the survey's stellar photometry with repeated measurements of a large number of stars observed in multiple epochs. The calibration techniques employed by these surveys only consider the relative frame-by-frame photometric zeropoint offset and the focal plane position-dependent illumination corrections, which are independent of the source color. However, variations in the wavelength dependence of the atmospheric transmission and the instrumental throughput induce source color-dependent systematic errors. These systematic errors must also be considered to achieve the most precise photometric measurements. In this paper, we examine such systematic chromatic errors using photometry from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) as an example. We define a natural magnitude system for DES and calculate the systematic errors on stellar magnitudes, when the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput deviate from the natural system. We conclude that the systematic chromatic errors caused by the change of airmass in each exposure, the change of the precipitable water vapor and aerosol in the atmosphere over time, and the non-uniformity of instrumental throughput over the focal plane, can be up to 2% in some bandpasses. We compare the calculated systematic chromatic errors with the observed DES data. For the test sample data, we correct these errors using measurements of the atmospheric transmission and instrumental throughput. The residual after correction is less than 0.3%. We also find that the errors for non-stellar objects are redshift-dependent and can be larger than those for stars at certain redshifts.

  11. Tests of two methods for identifying founder effects in metapopulations reveal substantial type II error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R Graham; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

    2013-03-01

    Genetic analysis has been promoted as a way to reconstruct recent historical dynamics ("historical demography") by screening for signatures of events, such as bottlenecks, that disrupt equilibrium patterns of variation. Such analyses might also identify "metapopulation" processes like extinction and recolonization or source-sink dynamics, but this potential remains largely unrealized. Here we use simulations to test the ability of two currently used strategies to distinguish between a set of interconnected subpopulations (demes) that have undergone bottlenecks or extinction and recolonization events (metapopulation dynamics) from a set of static demes. The first strategy, decomposed pairwise regression, provides a holistic test for heterogeneity among demes in their patterns of isolation-by-distance. This method suffered from a type II error rate of 59-100 %, depending on parameter conditions. The second strategy tests for deviations from mutation-drift equilibrium on a deme-by-deme basis to identify sites likely to have experienced recent bottlenecks or founder effects. Although bottleneck tests have good statistical power for single populations with recent population declines, their validity in structured populations has been called into question, and they have not been tested in a metapopulation context with immigration (or colonization) and population recovery. Our simulations of hypothetical metapopulations show that population recovery can rapidly eliminate the statistical signature of a bottleneck, and that moderate levels of gene flow can generate a false signal of recent population growth for demes in equilibrium. Although we did not cover all possible metapopulation scenarios, the performance of the tests was disappointing. Our results indicate that these methods might often fail to identify population bottlenecks and founder effects if population recovery and/or gene flow are influential demographic features of the study system.

  12. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume II. Principles of gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  13. Continuous-variable quantum error correction II: the Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Kyungjoo; Duivenvoorden, Kasper; Albert, Victor V.; Brierley, R. T.; Reinhold, Philip; Li, Linshu; Shen, Chao; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Girvin, S. M.; Terhal, Barbara M.; Jiang, Liang

    Recently, various single mode bosonic quantum error-correcting codes (e.g., cat codes and binomial codes) have been developed to correct errors due to excitation loss of bosonic systems. Meanwhile, the Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill (GKP) codes do not follow the simple design guidelines of cat and binomial codes, but nevertheless demonstrate excellent performance in correcting bosonic loss errors. To understand the underlying mechanism of the GKP codes, we represent them using a superposition of coherent states, investigate their performance as approximate error-correcting codes, and identify the dominant types of uncorrectable errors. This understanding will help us to develop more robust codes against bosonic loss errors, which will be useful for robust quantum information processing with bosonic systems.

  14. Neurosurgical Resident Error: A Survey of U.S. Neurosurgery Residency Training Program Directors' Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Raghav; Moore, Justin M; Adeeb, Nimer; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Schneider, Anna M; Gandhi, Chirag D; Harsh, Griffith R; Thomas, Ajith J; Ogilvy, Christopher S

    2018-01-01

    Efforts to address resident errors and to enhance patient safety have included systemic reforms, such as the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's (ACGME's) mandated duty-hour restrictions, and specialty-specific initiatives such as the neurosurgery Milestone Project. However, there is currently little data describing the basis for these errors or outlining trends in neurosurgical resident error. An online questionnaire was distributed to program directors of 108 U.S. neurosurgery residency training programs to assess the frequency, most common forms and causes of resident error, the resulting patient outcomes, and the steps taken by residency programs to address these errors. Thirty-one (28.7%) responses were received. Procedural/surgical error was the most commonly observed type of error. Transient injury and no injury to the patient were perceived to be the 2 most frequent outcomes. Inexperience or resident mistake despite adequate training were cited as the most common causes of error. Twenty-three (74.2%) respondents stated that a lower post graduate year level correlated with an increased incidence of errors. There was a trend toward an association between an increased number of residents within a program and the number of errors attributable to a lack of supervision (r = 0.36; P = 0.06). Most (93.5%) program directors do not believe that mandated duty-hour restrictions reduce error frequency. Program directors believe that procedural error is the most commonly observed form of error, with post graduate year level believed to be an important predictor of error frequency. The perceived utility of systemic reforms that aim to reduce the incidence of resident error remains unclear. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Role-modeling and medical error disclosure: a national survey of trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, William; Hickson, Gerald B; Miller, Bonnie M; Doukas, David J; Buckley, John D; Song, John; Sehgal, Niraj L; Deitz, Jennifer; Braddock, Clarence H; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani

    2014-03-01

    To measure trainees' exposure to negative and positive role-modeling for responding to medical errors and to examine the association between that exposure and trainees' attitudes and behaviors regarding error disclosure. Between May 2011 and June 2012, 435 residents at two large academic medical centers and 1,187 medical students from seven U.S. medical schools received anonymous, electronic questionnaires. The questionnaire asked respondents about (1) experiences with errors, (2) training for responding to errors, (3) behaviors related to error disclosure, (4) exposure to role-modeling for responding to errors, and (5) attitudes regarding disclosure. Using multivariate regression, the authors analyzed whether frequency of exposure to negative and positive role-modeling independently predicted two primary outcomes: (1) attitudes regarding disclosure and (2) nontransparent behavior in response to a harmful error. The response rate was 55% (884/1,622). Training on how to respond to errors had the largest independent, positive effect on attitudes (standardized effect estimate, 0.32, P error (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.15-1.64; P errors. Negative role models may be a significant impediment to disclosure among trainees.

  16. When Is a Failure to Replicate Not a Type II Error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Urcuioli, Peter J.; Lionello-DeNolf, Karen M.

    2007-01-01

    Zentall and Singer (2007) challenge our conclusion that the work-ethic effect reported by Clement, Feltus, Kaiser, and Zentall (2000) may have been a Type I error by arguing that (a) the effect has been extensively replicated and (b) the amount of overtraining our pigeons received may not have been sufficient to produce it. We believe that our…

  17. A survey of the prevalence of refractive errors among children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background : Refractive errors are a known cause of visual impairment and may cause blindness worldwide. In children, refractive errors may prevent those afflicted from progressing with their studies. In Uganda, like in many developing countries, there is no established vision-screening programme for children on ...

  18. Age-related association of refractive error with intraocular pressure in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin A; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Moon; Park, Chan Kee

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and refractive errors according to age group in a representative sample of non-glaucomatous Korean adults. A total of 7,277 adults (≥ 19 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011 underwent ophthalmic examination were divided into three groups according to age: the young- (19-39 years), middle- (40-59 years), and old- (≥ 60 years) age groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses between IOP and various parameters (including the refractive error) were conducted. The mean IOP of the total population was 14.0 ± 0.1 mmHg [young: 13.9 ± 0.1 mmHg; middle: 14.1 ± 0.1 mmHg; old: 13.8 ± 0.2 mmHg (P for trend = 0.085)]. Myopia and high myopia were more prevalent in the young- (70.8% and 16.1%, respectively), compared to the middle- (44.6% and 10.9%) and old- (8.9% and 2.2%) age groups. Univariate analysis in the total population showed that higher IOP was associated with myopic refractive error, the female gender, higher body mass index (BMI), diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia (all Prefractive error, the female gender, higher BMI, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes (all Prefractive error was not significant (P = 0.828). In multiple linear regression analysis, similar significant relationships between the refractive error and IOP were found in the young- and middle-age groups (beta =  -0.08 and -0.12; P = 0.002 and refractive error was an independent predictor of higher IOP in non- glaucomatous eyes, and the association between refractive error and IOP differed according to age.

  19. Calibration of a neutron log in partially saturated media. Part II. Error analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearst, J.R.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Dreiling, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Four sources or error (uncertainty) are studied in water content obtained from neutron logs calibrated in partially saturated media for holes up to 3 m. For this calibration a special facility was built and an algorithm for a commercial epithermal neutron log was developed that obtains water content from count rate, bulk density, and gap between the neutron sonde and the borehole wall. The algorithm contained errors due to the calibration and lack of fit, while the field measurements included uncertainties in the count rate (caused by statistics and a short time constant), gap, and density. There can be inhomogeneity in the material surrounding the borehole. Under normal field conditions the hole-size-corrected water content obtained from such neutron logs can have an uncertainty as large as 15% of its value

  20. A Green Bank Telescope Survey of Large Galactic H II Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Luisi, Matteo; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.

    2018-02-01

    As part of our ongoing H II Region Discovery Survey (HRDS), we report the Green Bank Telescope detection of 148 new angularly large Galactic H II regions in radio recombination line (RRL) emission. Our targets are located at a declination of δ > -45^\\circ , which corresponds to 266^\\circ > {\\ell }> -20^\\circ at b=0^\\circ . All sources were selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Catalog of Galactic H II Regions, and have infrared angular diameters ≥slant 260\\prime\\prime . The Galactic distribution of these “large” H II regions is similar to that of the previously known sample of Galactic H II regions. The large H II region RRL line width and peak line intensity distributions are skewed toward lower values, compared with that of previous HRDS surveys. We discover seven sources with extremely narrow RRLs 100 {pc}, making them some of the physically largest known H II regions in the Galaxy. This survey completes the HRDS H II region census in the Northern sky, where we have discovered 887 H II regions and more than doubled the size of the previously known census of Galactic H II regions.

  1. Medication administration errors among paediatric nurses in Lagos public hospitals: an opinion survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikoya, K A; Oreagba, I A; Ogunleye, O O; Senbanjo, I O; MacEbong, G L; Olayemi, S O

    2013-01-01

    There is paucity of data on paediatric medicine administration error (MAE) in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the experience of MAEs among paediatric nurses working in public hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria. A confidential, self-reporting questionnaire was the instrument for the study. Public hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria with established paediatric services and departments. Paediatric nurses. The questionnaire was administered to 75 nurses working in public hospitals in Lagos to obtain information on the experience of medication errors during their entire career, as well as to know their views on the nature of MAEs and the contributing factors. Fifty nurses responded to give a response rate of 66.7%. All the participants were females with a mean ± s.d age of 35.3 ± 10.7 years. Thirty two (64%) had committed at least one medication error over the course of their career. Wrong dose error (24; 48%) and wrong timing of medicine administration (20; 40%) were the MAEs frequently committed by the participants. The consequences of the errors included shock (23; 46%), restlessness (21; 42%), disorientation (11; 22%), and respiratory depression (10; 20%). Increased workload (26; 52%) and not double checking medicine doses (12; 24%) were the major factors the nurses perceived to be contributing to MAEs. Only 15(30%) nurses had reported MAEs to their superiors. Fear of intimidation, retribution or being punished (11; 22%) and lack of policies in place to report errors (13; 26%) were the two major barriers to reporting MAEs. Half (50%) of the nurses indicated that policies were available in their work places to prevent medication errors. Medication administration errors were frequently committed by the participants and resulted in some inconsequential effects, morbidity and deaths. Appropriate measures should be implemented to prevent future occurrences of MAEs.

  2. Informed Design of Mixed-Mode Surveys : Evaluating mode effects on measurement and selection error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klausch, Thomas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341427306

    2014-01-01

    “Mixed-mode designs” are innovative types of surveys which combine more than one mode of administration in the same project, such as surveys administered partly on the web (online), on paper, by telephone, or face-to-face. Mixed-mode designs have become increasingly popular in international survey

  3. Models for Ballistic Wind Measurement Error Analysis. Volume II. Users’ Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    TEST CHART NATIONAL li ’A il (If IANP) ARDl A -CR-83-0008-1 Reports Control Symbol OSO - 1366 MODELS FOR BALLISTIC WIND MEASUREMENTERROR ANALYSIS...AD-A129 360 MODELS FOR BALLSTIC WIND MEASUREMENT ERROR ANALYSIS VO UME 11USERS’ MAN..U) NEW REXICO STATE UNIV LAS U SS CRUCES PHYSICAL SCIENCE LAR...ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER SASL-CR-83-0008-1 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5 TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED MODELS FOR BALLISTIC WIND

  4. Errors in second moments estimated from monostatic Doppler sodar winds. II. Application to field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaynor, J. E.; Kristensen, Leif

    1986-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.3, no.3, p.523-8 (1986). The authors use the theoretical results presented in part I to correct turbulence parameters derived from monostatic sodar wind measurements in an attempt to improve the statistical comparisons with the sonic anemometers on the Boulder Atmospheric...... Observatory tower. The approximate magnitude of the error due to spatial and temporal pulse volume separation is presented as a function of mean wind angle relative to the sodar configuration and for several antenna pulsing orders. Sodar-derived standard deviations of the lateral wind component, before...

  5. A Survey of Wireless Fair Queuing Algorithms with Location-Dependent Channel Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca VARGATU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of wireless networks has brought more and more attention to topics related to fair allocation of resources, creation of suitable algorithms, taking into account the special characteristics of wireless environment and insurance fair access to the transmission channel, with delay bound and throughput guaranteed. Fair allocation of resources in wireless networks requires significant challenges, because of errors that occur only in these networks, such as location-dependent and bursty channel errors. In wireless networks, frequently happens, because interference of radio waves, that a user experiencing bad radio conditions during a period of time, not to receive resources in that period. This paper analyzes some resource allocation algorithms for wireless networks with location dependent errors, specifying the base idea for each algorithm and the way how it works. The analyzed fair queuing algorithms differ by the way they treat the following aspects: how to select the flows which should receive additional services, how to allocate these resources, which is the proportion received by error free flows and how the flows affected by errors are compensated.

  6. Intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals in the Einstein Telescope. II. Parameter estimation errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, E. A.; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the precision with which the Einstein Telescope will be able to measure the parameters of intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals, i.e., the inspirals of stellar mass compact objects into intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). We calculate the parameter estimation errors using the Fisher Matrix formalism and present results of Monte Carlo simulations of these errors over choices for the extrinsic parameters of the source. These results are obtained using two different models for the gravitational waveform which were introduced in paper I of this series. These two waveform models include the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases in a consistent way. One of the models, based on the transition scheme of Ori and Thorne [A. Ori and K. S. Thorne, Phys. Rev. D 62, 124022 (2000).], is valid for IMBHs of arbitrary spin; whereas, the second model, based on the effective-one-body approach, has been developed to cross-check our results in the nonspinning limit. In paper I of this series, we demonstrated the excellent agreement in both phase and amplitude between these two models for nonspinning black holes, and that their predictions for signal-to-noise ratios are consistent to within 10%. We now use these waveform models to estimate parameter estimation errors for binary systems with masses 1.4M · +100M · , 10M · +100M · , 1.4M · +500M · , and 10M · +500M · and various choices for the spin of the central IMBH. Assuming a detector network of three Einstein Telescopes, the analysis shows that for a 10M · compact object inspiralling into a 100M · IMBH with spin q=0.3, detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 30, we should be able to determine the compact object and IMBH masses, and the IMBH spin magnitude to fractional accuracies of ∼10 -3 , ∼10 -3.5 , and ∼10 -3 , respectively. We also expect to determine the location of the source in the sky and the luminosity distance to within ∼0.003 steradians and ∼10%, respectively. We also compute results for

  7. FIRST-YEAR SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY-II SUPERNOVA RESULTS: HUBBLE DIAGRAM AND COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Richard; Frieman, Joshua A.; Becker, Andrew C.; Vanderplas, Jake; Cinabro, David; Marriner, John; Davis, Tamara M.; Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh W.; Holtzman, Jon; Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Nichol, Robert C.; Sako, Masao; Zheng Chen; Bassett, Bruce; Elson, Ed; Bender, Ralf; Depoy, Darren L.; Doi, Mamoru

    2009-01-01

    We present measurements of the Hubble diagram for 103 Type Ia supernovae (SNe) with redshifts 0.04 V = 2.18 ± 0.14 stat ± 0.48 syst , and find that the intrinsic distribution of host-galaxy extinction is well fitted by an exponential function, P(A V ) = exp(-A V /τ V ), with τ V = 0.334 ± 0.088 mag. We combine the SDSS-II measurements with new distance estimates for published SN data from the ESSENCE survey, the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and a compilation of Nearby SN Ia measurements. A new feature in our analysis is the use of detailed Monte Carlo simulations of all surveys to account for selection biases, including those from spectroscopic targeting. Combining the SN Hubble diagram with measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations from the SDSS Luminous Red Galaxy sample and with cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy measurements from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, we estimate the cosmological parameters w and Ω M , assuming a spatially flat cosmological model (FwCDM) with constant dark energy equation of state parameter, w. We also consider constraints upon Ω M and Ω Λ for a cosmological constant model (ΛCDM) with w = -1 and non-zero spatial curvature. For the FwCDM model and the combined sample of 288 SNe Ia, we find w = -0.76 ± 0.07(stat) ± 0.11(syst), Ω M = 0.307 ± 0.019(stat) ± 0.023(syst) using MLCS2K2 and w = -0.96 ± 0.06(stat) ± 0.12(syst), Ω M = 0.265 ± 0.016(stat) ± 0.025(syst) using the SALT-II fitter. We trace the discrepancy between these results to a difference in the rest-frame UV model combined with a different luminosity correction from color variations; these differences mostly affect the distance estimates for the SNLS and HST SNe. We present detailed discussions of systematic errors for both light-curve methods and find that they both show data-model discrepancies in rest-frame U band. For the SALT-II approach, we also see strong evidence for redshift

  8. A Survey of Kurdish Students' Sound Segment & Syllabic Pattern Errors in the Course of Learning EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to finding adequate answers to the following queries: (A) what are the segmental and syllabic pattern errors made by Kurdish students in their pronunciation? (B) Can the problematic areas in pronunciation be predicted by a systematic comparison of the sound systems of both native and target languages? (C) Can there be any…

  9. Refractive Errors in Koreans: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lim, Key Hwan; Choi, Moonjung; Kim, Hye Young; Baek, Seung-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Our study provides epidemiologic data on the prevalence of refractive errors in all age group ≥5 years in Korea. In 2008 to 2012, a total of 33,355 participants aged ≥5 years underwent ophthalmologic examinations. Using the right eye, myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent (SE) less than -0.5 or -1.0 diopters (D) in subjects aged 19 years and older or as an SE less than -0.75 or -1.25 D in subjects aged 5 to 18 years according to non-cycloplegic refraction. Other refractive errors were defined as follows: high myopia as an SE less than -6.0 D; hyperopia as an SE larger than +0.5 D; and astigmatism as a cylindrical error less than -1.0 D. The prevalence and risk factors of myopia were evaluated. Prevalence rates with a 95% confidence interval were determined for myopia (SE prevalence of myopia demonstrated a nonlinear distribution with the highest peak between the ages of 19 and 29 years. The prevalence of hyperopia decreased with age in subjects aged 39 years or younger and then increased with age in subjects aged 40 years or older. The prevalence of astigmatism gradually increased with age. Education was associated with all refractive errors; myopia was more prevalent and hyperopia and astigmatism were less prevalent in the highly educated groups. In young generations, the prevalence of myopia in Korea was much higher compared to the white or black populations in Western countries and is consistent with the high prevalence found in most other Asian countries. The overall prevalence of hyperopia was much lower compared to that of the white Western population. Age and education level were significant predictive factors associated with all kinds of refractive errors.

  10. A survey of mindset theories of intelligence and medical error self-reporting among pediatric housestaff and faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegathesan, Mithila; Vitberg, Yaffa M; Pusic, Martin V

    2016-02-11

    Intelligence theory research has illustrated that people hold either "fixed" (intelligence is immutable) or "growth" (intelligence can be improved) mindsets and that these views may affect how people learn throughout their lifetime. Little is known about the mindsets of physicians, and how mindset may affect their lifetime learning and integration of feedback. Our objective was to determine if pediatric physicians are of the "fixed" or "growth" mindset and whether individual mindset affects perception of medical error reporting.  We sent an anonymous electronic survey to pediatric residents and attending pediatricians at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Respondents completed the "Theories of Intelligence Inventory" which classifies individuals on a 6-point scale ranging from 1 (Fixed Mindset) to 6 (Growth Mindset). Subsequent questions collected data on respondents' recall of medical errors by self or others. We received 176/349 responses (50 %). Participants were equally distributed between mindsets with 84 (49 %) classified as "fixed" and 86 (51 %) as "growth". Residents, fellows and attendings did not differ in terms of mindset. Mindset did not correlate with the small number of reported medical errors. There is no dominant theory of intelligence (mindset) amongst pediatric physicians. The distribution is similar to that seen in the general population. Mindset did not correlate with error reports.

  11. National Youth Survey US: Wave II (NYS-1977)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the second wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this data collection. The first wave was conducted in 1976. Youths were interviewed in...

  12. A Survey of Kurdish Students’ Sound Segment & Syllabic Pattern Errors in the Course of Learning EFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Mohammadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to finding adequate answers to the following queries: (A what are the segmental and syllabic pattern errors made by Kurdish students in their pronunciation? (B Can the problematic areas in pronunciation be predicted by a systematic comparison of the sound systems of both native and target languages? (C Can there be any consistency between the predictions and the results of the error analysis experiments in the same field? To reach the goals of the study the following steps were taken; 1.The sound systems and syllabic patterns of both languages Kurdish and English were clearly described on the basis of place and manner of articulation and the combinatory power of clusters. 2. To carry out a contrastive analysis, the sound segments (vowels, consonants and diphthongs and the syllabic patterns of both languages were compared in order to surface the similarities and differences.  3. The syllabic patterns and sound segments in English that had no counterparts in Kurdish were detected and considered as problematic areas in pronunciation. 4. To countercheck the acquired predictions, an experiment was carried out with 50 male and female pre-university students. Subjects were given some passages to read. The readability index of these passages ranged from 8.775 to 10.432 which are quite suitable in comparison to the readability index of pre-university texts ranging from 8.675 to 10.475. All samples of bound production were transcribed in IPA and the syllabic patterns were shown by symbols ‘V’ and ‘C’ indicating vowels and consonants respectively. An error analysis of the acquired data proved that English sound segments and syllabic patterns with no counterparts in Kurdish resulted in pronunciation errors.

  13. Survey of the readiness of insurance companies in Serbia for solvency II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to analyse the readiness of the largest insurance companies operating in Serbia to implement the upcoming Solvency II regulation. The survey was conducted in 2014 using a questionnaire comprising 30 questions. It was sent to the seven biggest companies operating in Serbia during the research, which cover 80% of the market. The questionnaire covered both the organizational and technical profile of the insurance companies. The survey helped to understand the benefits and problems for the domestic insurance market that would result from the introduction of the Solvency II regime and the adjustment of current legislation to the European standard, and whether the insurance sector in Serbia will manage to overcome the obstacles and adopt the policies and procedures prescribed by Solvency II when required. Adopting the European Solvency II regulation means a complete reorganization of the insurance sector in Serbia, which has not been sufficiently surveyed, and never in this manner.

  14. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1987-88. Part II: Pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1987-1988 survey of pensions plans in 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on: eligibility, the type of plan, member contributions, university contributions, benefits on normal retirement (at age 65) and on early retirement (at age 55), trustee, investment manager, and pension committee composition…

  15. MMT HYPERVELOCITY STAR SURVEY. II. FIVE NEW UNBOUND STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-05-20

    We present the discovery of five new unbound hypervelocity stars (HVSs) in the outer Milky Way halo. Using a conservative estimate of Galactic escape velocity, our targeted spectroscopic survey has now identified 16 unbound HVSs as well as a comparable number of HVSs ejected on bound trajectories. A Galactic center origin for the HVSs is supported by their unbound velocities, the observed number of unbound stars, their stellar nature, their ejection time distribution, and their Galactic latitude and longitude distribution. Other proposed origins for the unbound HVSs, such as runaway ejections from the disk or dwarf galaxy tidal debris, cannot be reconciled with the observations. An intriguing result is the spatial anisotropy of HVSs on the sky, which possibly reflects an anisotropic potential in the central 10-100 pc region of the Galaxy. Further progress requires measurement of the spatial distribution of HVSs over the southern sky. Our survey also identifies seven B supergiants associated with known star-forming galaxies; the absence of B supergiants elsewhere in the survey implies there are no new star-forming galaxies in our survey footprint to a depth of 1-2 Mpc.

  16. Uncertainty in mapped geological boundaries held by a national geological survey:eliciting the geologists' tacit error model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. M.; Lawley, R. S.; Barron, A. J. M.; Aldiss, D. T.; Ambrose, K.; Cooper, A. H.; Lee, J. R.; Waters, C. N.

    2015-06-01

    It is generally accepted that geological line work, such as mapped boundaries, are uncertain for various reasons. It is difficult to quantify this uncertainty directly, because the investigation of error in a boundary at a single location may be costly and time consuming, and many such observations are needed to estimate an uncertainty model with confidence. However, it is recognized across many disciplines that experts generally have a tacit model of the uncertainty of information that they produce (interpretations, diagnoses, etc.) and formal methods exist to extract this model in usable form by elicitation. In this paper we report a trial in which uncertainty models for geological boundaries mapped by geologists of the British Geological Survey (BGS) in six geological scenarios were elicited from a group of five experienced BGS geologists. In five cases a consensus distribution was obtained, which reflected both the initial individually elicited distribution and a structured process of group discussion in which individuals revised their opinions. In a sixth case a consensus was not reached. This concerned a boundary between superficial deposits where the geometry of the contact is hard to visualize. The trial showed that the geologists' tacit model of uncertainty in mapped boundaries reflects factors in addition to the cartographic error usually treated by buffering line work or in written guidance on its application. It suggests that further application of elicitation, to scenarios at an appropriate level of generalization, could be useful to provide working error models for the application and interpretation of line work.

  17. Linear optics survey of the BESSY II booster synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volz, Paul; Jankowiak, Andreas; Ries, Markus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The proposed VSR upgrade for the BESSY II storage ring features photon pulses as short as 1.7 ps. The current injection system (linac, booster synchrotron, and transfer line) cannot provide electron bunches short enough to meet the required injection efficiency for TopUp operation. This contribution investigates if the momentum compaction factor of the booster synchrotron can be decreased just by changing the quadrupole strengths in the existing booster synchrotron lattice. It was found that by splitting the two quadrupole families into four the momentum compaction factor can be reduced.

  18. THE ELM SURVEY. II. TWELVE BINARY WHITE DWARF MERGER SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, S. J.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Agueeros, M. A.; Heinke, Craig

    2011-01-01

    We describe new radial velocity and X-ray observations of extremely low-mass white dwarfs (ELM WDs, ∼0.2 M sun ) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 and the MMT Hypervelocity Star survey. We identify four new short period binaries, including two merger systems. These observations bring the total number of short period binary systems identified in our survey to 20. No main-sequence or neutron star companions are visible in the available optical photometry, radio, and X-ray data. Thus, the companions are most likely WDs. Twelve of these systems will merge within a Hubble time due to gravitational wave radiation. We have now tripled the number of known merging WD systems. We discuss the characteristics of this merger sample and potential links to underluminous supernovae, extreme helium stars, AM CVn systems, and other merger products. We provide new observational tests of the WD mass-period distribution and cooling models for ELM WDs. We also find evidence for a new formation channel for single low-mass WDs through binary mergers of two lower mass objects.

  19. Likelihood of reporting medication errors in hospitalized children: a survey of nurses and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishoej, Rikke Mie; Hallas, Jesper; Juel Kjeldsen, Lene; Thybo Christesen, Henrik; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2018-03-01

    Hospitalized children are at risk of medication errors (MEs) due to complex dosage calculations and preparations. Incident reporting systems may facilitate prevention of MEs but underreporting potentially undermines this system. We aimed to examine whether scenarios involving medications should be reported to a national mandatory incident reporting system and the likelihood of self- and peer-reporting these scenarios among paediatric nurses and physicians. Participants' reporting of MEs was explored through a questionnaire involving 20 medication scenarios. The scenarios represented different steps in the medication process, types of error, patient outcomes and medications. Reporting rates and odds ratios with 95% confidence interval [OR, (95% CI)] were calculated. Barriers to and enablers of reporting were identified through content analysis of participants' comments. The response rate was 42% (291/689). Overall, 61% of participants reported that scenarios should be reported. The likelihood of reporting was 60% for self-reporting and 37% for peer-reporting. Nurses versus physicians, and healthcare professionals with versus without patient safety responsibilities assessed to a larger extent that the scenarios should be reported [OR = 1.34 (1.05-1.70) and OR = 1.41 (1.12-1.78), respectively]; were more likely to self-report, [OR = 2.81 (1.71-4.62) and OR = 2.93 (1.47-5.84), respectively]; and were more likely to peer-report [OR = 1.89 (1.36-2.63) and OR = 3.61 (2.57-5.06), respectively].Healthcare professionals with versus without management responsibilities were more likely to peer-report [OR = 5.16 (3.44-7.72)]. Participants reported that scenarios resulting in actual injury or incidents considered to have a learning potential should be reported. The likelihood of underreporting scenarios was high among paediatric nurses and physicians. Nurses and staff with patient safety responsibilities were more likely to assess that scenarios should be reported and to report

  20. The Core Collapse Supernova Rate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Matt; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Ben; Galbany, Lluis; Gupta, Ravi R.; Kessler, R.; Marriner, John; Nichol, Robert C.; Richmond, Michael; Schneider, Donald P.; Sollerman, Jesper

    2014-08-26

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SNS) data to measure the volumetric core collapse supernova (CCSN) rate in the redshift range (0.03 < z < 0.09). Using a sample of 89 CCSN, we find a volume-averaged rate of 1.06 ± 0.19 × 10(–)(4)((h/0.7)(3)/(yr Mpc(3))) at a mean redshift of 0.072 ± 0.009. We measure the CCSN luminosity function from the data and consider the implications on the star formation history.

  1. The Relation Between Inflation in Type-I and Type-II Error Rate and Population Divergence in Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Multi-Ethnic Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, E M; Zwinderman, A H; Gamazon, E R

    2017-05-01

    Population divergence impacts the degree of population stratification in Genome Wide Association Studies. We aim to: (i) investigate type-I error rate as a function of population divergence (F ST ) in multi-ethnic (admixed) populations; (ii) evaluate the statistical power and effect size estimates; and (iii) investigate the impact of population stratification on the results of gene-based analyses. Quantitative phenotypes were simulated. Type-I error rate was investigated for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) with varying levels of F ST between the ancestral European and African populations. Type-II error rate was investigated for a SNP characterized by a high value of F ST . In all tests, genomic MDS components were included to correct for population stratification. Type-I and type-II error rate was adequately controlled in a population that included two distinct ethnic populations but not in admixed samples. Statistical power was reduced in the admixed samples. Gene-based tests showed no residual inflation in type-I error rate.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: REFLEX II. Properties of the survey (Boehringer+ 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, H.; Chon, G.; Collins, C. A.; Guzzo, L.; Nowak, N.; Bobrovskyi, S.

    2013-06-01

    Like REFLEX I, the extended survey covers the southern sky outside the band of the Milky Way (|bII|>=20°) with regions around the Magellanic clouds excised (3 in LMC, 3 in SMC). The total survey area after this excision amounts to 4.24 steradian (or 13924°2) which corresponds to 33.75% of the sky. Different from REFLEX I, we use the refined RASS product RASS III (Voges et al. 1999, Cat. IX/10). (2 data files).

  3. THE CARNEGIE-IRVINE GALAXY SURVEY. II. ISOPHOTAL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhaoyu [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Peng, Chien Y. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2011-12-01

    The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey (CGS) is a comprehensive investigation of the physical properties of a complete, representative sample of 605 bright (B{sub T} {<=} 12.9 mag) galaxies in the southern hemisphere. This contribution describes the isophotal analysis of the broadband (BVRI) optical imaging component of the project. We pay close attention to sky subtraction, which is particularly challenging for some of the large galaxies in our sample. Extensive crosschecks with internal and external data confirm that our calibration and sky subtraction techniques are robust with respect to the quoted measurement uncertainties. We present a uniform catalog of one-dimensional radial profiles of surface brightness and geometric parameters, as well as integrated colors and color gradients. Composite profiles highlight the tremendous diversity of brightness distributions found in disk galaxies and their dependence on Hubble type. A significant fraction of S0 and spiral galaxies exhibit non-exponential profiles in their outer regions. We perform Fourier decomposition of the isophotes to quantify non-axisymmetric deviations in the light distribution. We use the geometric parameters, in conjunction with the amplitude and phase of the m = 2 Fourier mode, to identify bars and quantify their size and strength. Spiral arm strengths are characterized using the m = 2 Fourier profiles and structure maps. Finally, we utilize the information encoded in the m = 1 Fourier profiles to measure disk lopsidedness. The databases assembled here and in Paper I lay the foundation for forthcoming scientific applications of CGS.

  4. Visual impairment attributable to uncorrected refractive error and other causes in the Ghanaian youth: The University of Cape Coast Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abokyi, Samuel; Ilechie, Alex; Nsiah, Peter; Darko-Takyi, Charles; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Osei-Akoto, Yaw Jnr; Youfegan-Baanam, Mathurin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of visual impairment attributable to refractive error and other causes in a youthful Ghanaian population. A prospective survey of all consecutive visits by first-year tertiary students to the Optometry clinic between August, 2013 and April, 2014. Of the 4378 first-year students aged 16-39 years enumerated, 3437 (78.5%) underwent the eye examination. The examination protocol included presenting visual acuity (PVA), ocular motility, and slit-lamp examination of the external eye, anterior segment and media, and non-dilated fundus examination. Pinhole acuity and fundus examination were performed when the PVA≤6/12 in one or both eyes to determine the principal cause of the vision loss. The mean age of participants was 21.86 years (95% CI: 21.72-21.99). The prevalence of bilateral visual impairment (BVI; PVA in the better eye ≤6/12) and unilateral visual impairment UVI; PVA in the worse eye ≤6/12) were 3.08% (95% CI: 2.56-3.72) and 0.79% (95% CI: 0.54-1.14), respectively. Among 106 participants with BVI, refractive error (96.2%) and corneal opacity (3.8%) were the causes. Of the 27 participants with UVI, refractive error (44.4%), maculopathy (18.5%) and retinal disease (14.8%) were the major causes. There was unequal distribution of BVI in the different age groups, with those above 20 years having a lesser burden. Eye screening and provision of affordable spectacle correction to the youth could be timely to eliminate visual impairment. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment errors resulting from use of lasers and IPL by medical laypersons: results of a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, Stefan; Karsai, Syrus; Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Pohl, Laura; Kaiser, Kathrine; Park, Bo-Hyun; Raulin, Christian

    2013-02-01

    The demand for hair and tattoo removal with laser and IPL technology (intense pulsed light technology) is continually increasing. Nowadays these treatments are often carried out by medical laypersons without medical supervision in franchise companies, wellness facilities, cosmetic institutes and hair or tattoo studios. This is the first survey is to document and discuss this issue and its effects on public health. Fifty patients affected by treatment errors caused by medical laypersons with laser and IPL applications were evaluated in this retrospective study. We used a standardized questionnaire with accompanying photographic documentation. Among the reports there were some missing or no longer traceable parameters, which is why 7 cases could not be evaluated. The following complications occurred, with possible multiple answers: 81.4% pigmentation changes, 25.6% scars, 14% textural changes and 4.6% incorrect information. The sources of error (multiple answers possible) were the following: 62.8% excessively high energy, 39.5% wrong device for the indication, 20.9% treatment of patients with darker skin or marked tanning, 7% no cooling, and 4.6% incorrect information. The causes of malpractice suggest insufficient training, inadequate diagnostic abilities, and promising unrealistic results. Direct supervision by a medical specialist, comprehensive experience in laser therapy, and compliance with quality guidelines are prerequisites for safe laser and IPL treatments. Legal measures to make such changes mandatory are urgently needed. © The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  6. THE SURVEY OF LINES IN M31 (SLIM): INVESTIGATING THE ORIGINS OF [C II] EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapala, M. J.; Sandstrom, K.; Groves, B.; Kreckel, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Walter, F.; Fouesneau, M. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Croxall, K. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Dalcanton, J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Leroy, A., E-mail: kapala@mpia.de [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The [C II] 158 μm line is one of the strongest emission lines observed in star-forming galaxies and has been empirically measured to correlate with the star-formation rate (SFR) globally and on kiloparsec scales. However, because of the multiphase origins of [C II], one might expect this relation to break down at small scales. We investigate the origins of [C II] emission by examining high spatial resolution observations of [C II] in M31 with the Survey of Lines in M31. We present five ∼700 × 700 pc (3' × 3') fields mapping the [C II] emission, Hα emission, and the ancillary infrared (IR) data. We spatially separate star-forming regions from diffuse gas and dust emission on ∼50 pc scales. We find that the [C II]-SFR correlation holds even at these scales, although the relation typically has a flatter slope than found at larger (kiloparsec) scales. While the Hα emission in M31 is concentrated in the SFR regions, we find that a significant amount (∼20%-90%) of the [C II] emission comes from outside star-forming regions and that the total IR emission (TIR) has the highest diffuse fraction of all SFR tracers. We find a weak correlation of the [C II]/TIR to dust color in each field and find a large-scale trend of increasing [C II]/TIR with galactocentric radius. The differences in the relative diffuse fractions of [C II], Hα, and IR tracers are likely caused by a combination of energetic photon leakage from H II regions and heating by the diffuse radiation field arising from older (B-star) stellar populations. However, we find that by averaging our measurements over kiloparsec scales, these effects are minimized, and the relation between [C II] and SFR found in other nearby galaxy studies is retrieved.

  7. Biennial Survey of Education, 1916-18. Volume II. Bulletin, 1919, No. 89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1921

    1921-01-01

    Volume II of the Biennial Survey of Education, 1916-1918 includes the following chapters: (1) Education in Great Britain and Ireland (I. L. Kandel); (2) Education in parts of the British Empire: Educational Developments in the Dominion of Canada (Walter A. Montgomery), Public School System of Jamaica (Charles A. Asbury), Recent Progress of…

  8. Assessing measurement error in surveys using latent class analysis: application to self-reported illicit drug use in data from the Iranian Mental Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Khalagi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Latent class analysis (LCA is a method of assessing and correcting measurement error in surveys. The local independence assumption in LCA assumes that indicators are independent from each other condition on the latent variable. Violation of this assumption leads to unreliable results. We explored this issue by using LCA to estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use in the Iranian Mental Health Survey. The following three indicators were included in the LCA models: five or more instances of using any illicit drug in the past 12 months (indicator A, any use of any illicit drug in the past 12 months (indicator B, and the self-perceived need of treatment services or having received treatment for a substance use disorder in the past 12 months (indicator C. Gender was also used in all LCA models as a grouping variable. One LCA model using indicators A and B, as well as 10 different LCA models using indicators A, B, and C, were fitted to the data. The three models that had the best fit to the data included the following correlations between indicators: (AC and AB, (AC, and (AC, BC, and AB. The estimated prevalence of illicit drug use based on these three models was 28.9%, 6.2% and 42.2%, respectively. None of these models completely controlled for violation of the local independence assumption. In order to perform unbiased estimations using the LCA approach, the factors violating the local independence assumption (behaviorally correlated error, bivocality, and latent heterogeneity should be completely taken into account in all models using well-known methods.

  9. Nonresponse and Underreporting Errors Increase over the Data Collection Week Based on Paradata from the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mengyao; Gremel, Garrett W; Kirlin, John A; West, Brady T

    2017-05-01

    Background: Food acquisition diary surveys are important for studying food expenditures, factors affecting food acquisition decisions, and relations between these decisions with selected measures of health (e.g., body mass index, self-reported health). However, to our knowledge, no studies have evaluated the errors associated with these diary surveys, which can bias survey estimates and research findings. The use of paradata, which has been largely ignored in previous literature on diary surveys, could be useful for studying errors in these surveys. Objective: We used paradata to assess survey errors in the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS). Methods: To evaluate the patterns of nonresponse over the diary period, we fit a multinomial logistic regression model to data from this 1-wk diary survey. We also assessed factors influencing respondents' probability of reporting food acquisition events during the diary process by using logistic regression models. Finally, with the use of an ordinal regression model, we studied factors influencing respondents' perceived ease of participation in the survey. Results: As the diary period progressed, nonresponse increased, especially for those starting the survey on Friday (where the odds of a refusal increased by 12% with each fielding day). The odds of reporting food acquisition events also decreased by 6% with each additional fielding day. Similarly, the odds of reporting ≥1 food-away-from-home event (i.e., meals, snacks, and drinks obtained outside the home) decreased significantly over the fielding period. Male respondents, larger households, households that eat together less often, and households with frequent guests reported a significantly more difficult time getting household members to participate, as did non-English-speaking households and households currently experiencing difficult financial conditions. Conclusions: Nonresponse and underreporting of food acquisition events tended to

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Chul Kim

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence and risk factors of refractive errors in a representative Korean population aged 20 years old or older. METHODS: A total of 23,392 people aged 20+ years were selected for the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey 2008-2011, using stratified, multistage, clustered sampling. Refractive error was measured by autorefraction without cycloplegia, and interviews were performed regarding associated risk factors including gender, age, height, education level, parent's education level, economic status, light exposure time, and current smoking history. RESULTS: Of 23,392 participants, refractive errors were examined in 22,562 persons, including 21,356 subjects with phakic eyes. The overall prevalences of myopia ( 0.5 D were 48.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.4-48.8, 4.0% (CI, 3.7-4.3, and 24.2% (CI, 23.6-24.8, respectively. The prevalence of myopia sharply decreased from 78.9% (CI, 77.4-80.4 in 20-29 year olds to 16.1% (CI, 14.9-17.3 in 60-69 year olds. In multivariable logistic regression analyses restricted to subjects aged 40+ years, myopia was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.93-0.94, p < 0.001, education level of university or higher (OR, 2.31; CI, 1.97-2.71, p < 0.001, and shorter sunlight exposure time (OR, 0.84; CI, 0.76-0.93, p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first representative population-based data on refractive error for Korean adults. The prevalence of myopia in Korean adults in 40+ years (34.7% was comparable to that in other Asian countries. These results show that the younger generations in Korea are much more myopic than previous generations, and that important factors associated with this increase are increased education levels and reduced sunlight exposures.

  11. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Biological Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada. Volume II, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    development of possible cultural resource mitigation mea- sures; and i! E-TR-48-1I-I o Native American consultations. The results of these additional tasks...dog (Cynomys parvidens) UT E Black footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) UT E Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) UT, NV E American peregrine falcon...Myocaster coypus River otter Lutra canadensis Other Animals Mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa Protected Pika Ochotona princeps Protected Douglas squirrel

  12. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey:Search Algorithm and Follow-up Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, Masao; /Pennsylvania U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; DeJongh, Don Frederic; /Fermilab; Depoy, D.L.; /Ohio State U.; Doi, Mamoru; /Tokyo U.; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U.; Craig, Hogan, J.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Holtzman, Jon; /New Mexico State U.; Jha, Saurabh; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Konishi, Kohki; /Tokyo U.; Lampeitl, Hubert; /Baltimore, Space; Marriner, John; /Fermilab; Miknaitis, Gajus; /Fermilab; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U.; Prieto, Jose Luis; /Ohio State U.; Richmond, Michael W.; /Rochester Inst.; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Smith, Mathew; /Portsmouth U.; SubbaRao, Mark; /Chicago U. /Tokyo U. /Tokyo U. /South African Astron. Observ. /Tokyo

    2007-09-14

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey has identified a large number of new transient sources in a 300 deg2 region along the celestial equator during its first two seasons of a three-season campaign. Multi-band (ugriz) light curves were measured for most of the sources, which include solar system objects, Galactic variable stars, active galactic nuclei, supernovae (SNe), and other astronomical transients. The imaging survey is augmented by an extensive spectroscopic follow-up program to identify SNe, measure their redshifts, and study the physical conditions of the explosions and their environment through spectroscopic diagnostics. During the survey, light curves are rapidly evaluated to provide an initial photometric type of the SNe, and a selected sample of sources are targeted for spectroscopic observations. In the first two seasons, 476 sources were selected for spectroscopic observations, of which 403 were identified as SNe. For the Type Ia SNe, the main driver for the Survey, our photometric typing and targeting efficiency is 90%. Only 6% of the photometric SN Ia candidates were spectroscopically classified as non-SN Ia instead, and the remaining 4% resulted in low signal-to-noise, unclassified spectra. This paper describes the search algorithm and the software, and the real-time processing of the SDSS imaging data. We also present the details of the supernova candidate selection procedures and strategies for follow-up spectroscopic and imaging observations of the discovered sources.

  13. The ICD Survey II: Employing Disabled Americans. A Nationwide Survey of 920 Employers. Study No. 864009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    A survey explored what 921 managers nationwide are doing to employ disabled people and return disabled employees to work. It identified barriers that prevent employers from hiring disabled people and steps public and private sectors could take to increase their employment. Employers gave their disabled employees high marks as hard working,…

  14. Mg II-Absorbing Galaxies in the UltraVISTA Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroupe, Darren; Lundgren, Britt

    2018-01-01

    Light that is emitted from distant quasars can become partially absorbed by intervening gaseous structures, including galaxies, in its path toward Earth, revealing information about the chemical content, degree of ionization, organization and evolution of these structures through time. In this project, quasar spectra are used to probe the halos of foreground galaxies at a mean redshift of z=1.1 in the COSMOS Field. Mg II absorption lines in Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar spectra are paired with galaxies in the UltraVISTA catalog at an impact parameter less than 200 kpc. A sample of 77 strong Mg II absorbers with a rest-frame equivalent width ≥ 0.3 Å and redshift from 0.34 < z < 2.21 are investigated to find equivalent width ratios of Mg II, C IV and Fe II absorption lines, and their relation to the impact parameter and the star formation rates, stellar masses, environments and redshifts of their host galaxies.

  15. An ALMA [C II] Survey of 27 Quasars at z > 5.94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Venemans, Bram P.; Bañados, Eduardo; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Fan, Xiaohui; Farina, Emanuele Paolo; Mazzucchelli, Chiara; Riechers, Dominik; Rix, Hans-Walter; Strauss, Michael A.; Wang, Ran; Yang, Yujin

    2018-02-01

    We present a survey of the [C II] 158 μm line and underlying far-infrared (FIR) dust continuum emission in a sample of 27 z≳ 6 quasars using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at ∼ 1\\prime\\prime resolution. The [C II] line was significantly detected (at > 5-σ) in 23 sources (85%). We find typical line luminosities of {L}[{{C}{{II}}]}={10}9-10 {L}ȯ , and an average line width of ∼385 {km} {{{s}}}-1. The [C II]-to-far-infrared luminosity ratios ([C II]/FIR) in our sources span one order of magnitude, highlighting a variety of conditions in the star-forming medium. Four quasar host galaxies are clearly resolved in their [C II] emission on a few kpc scales. Basic estimates of the dynamical masses of the host galaxies give masses between 2 × 1010 and 2 × 1011 {M}ȯ , i.e., more than an order of magnitude below what is expected from local scaling relations, given the available limits on the masses of the central black holes (> 3× {10}8 {M}ȯ , assuming Eddington-limited accretion). In stacked ALMA [C II] spectra of individual sources in our sample, we find no evidence of a deviation from a single Gaussian profile. The quasar luminosity does not strongly correlate with either the [C II] luminosity or equivalent width. This survey (with typical on-source integration times of 8 minutes) showcases the unparalleled sensitivity of ALMA at millimeter wavelengths, and offers a unique reference sample for the study of the first massive galaxies in the universe.

  16. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. III. KINEMATIC DISTANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Bania, T. M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Balser, Dana S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Rood, Robert T., E-mail: Loren.Anderson@mail.wvu.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903-0818 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    Using the H I emission/absorption method, we resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity and derive distances for 149 of 182 (82%) H II regions discovered by the Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS). The HRDS is an X-band (9 GHz, 3 cm) GBT survey of 448 previously unknown H II regions in radio recombination line and radio continuum emission. Here, we focus on HRDS sources from 67 Degree-Sign {>=} l {>=} 18 Degree-Sign , where kinematic distances are more reliable. The 25 HRDS sources in this zone that have negative recombination line velocities are unambiguously beyond the orbit of the Sun, up to 20 kpc distant. They are the most distant H II regions yet discovered. We find that 61% of HRDS sources are located at the far distance, 31% at the tangent-point distance, and only 7% at the near distance. 'Bubble' H II regions are not preferentially located at the near distance (as was assumed previously) but average 10 kpc from the Sun. The HRDS nebulae, when combined with a large sample of H II regions with previously known distances, show evidence of spiral structure in two circular arc segments of mean Galactocentric radii of 4.25 and 6.0 kpc. We perform a thorough uncertainty analysis to analyze the effect of using different rotation curves, streaming motions, and a change to the solar circular rotation speed. The median distance uncertainty for our sample of H II regions is only 0.5 kpc, or 5%. This is significantly less than the median difference between the near and far kinematic distances, 6 kpc. The basic Galactic structure results are unchanged after considering these sources of uncertainty.

  17. Humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae group sizes in line transect ship surveys: An evaluation of observer errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme A. Bortolotto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Accurate estimates of group sizes through line transect sampling methods are important to correctly ascertain the abundance of animals that occur in groups. Since the average observed group size is a component of the distance sampling formula, bias in these data leads to biased abundance estimates. This study aimed to evaluate the potential errors in group size estimation during line transect ship surveys to estimate abundances of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski 1781. In a research cruise along the Brazilian coast, an experiment to collect group size information was conducted from two different sighting platforms on the same vessel. Group sizes were recorded by primary observers at first sighting (PO1 and, in some cases, after some time (PO2. A tracker (T was located on a higher platform to estimate the sizes of groups detected by the primary observers, but tracked one group at a time until it passed abeam. Thus, the dedicated effort to obtain multiple group counts (i.e. higher platform, more time and no responsibility for detecting new groups was expected to provide more accurate numbers. PO2 estimates were compared with PO1 estimates, and T estimates were compared with both PO1 and PO2. Additionally, ratios between T and both PO2 (R1 and PO1 (R2, and between PO2 and PO1 (R3 were calculated. To investigate a possible improvement in abundance estimates, a correction factor (CF was computed from the ratio of T and PO2 means. Primary observer self-correction (= 1.60, CV% = 70.3 was statistically similar to the correction for the tracker (= 1.62, CV% = 84.1. CF resulted in 1 and would not improve abundance estimates. This study supports that observers conducting line transect surveys on large whales have the potential to provide group size information that is as adequate as the correction procedure adopted.

  18. Developing Calibration Weights and Standard-Error Estimates for a Survey of Drug-Related Emergency-Department Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kott Phillip S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a two-step calibration-weighting scheme for a stratified simple random sample of hospital emergency departments. The first step adjusts for unit nonresponse. The second increases the statistical efficiency of most estimators of interest. Both use a measure of emergency-department size and other useful auxiliary variables contained in the sampling frame. Although many survey variables are roughly a linear function of the measure of size, response is better modeled as a function of the log of that measure. Consequently the log of size is a calibration variable in the nonresponse-adjustment step, while the measure of size itself is a calibration variable in the second calibration step. Nonlinear calibration procedures are employed in both steps. We show with 2010 DAWN data that estimating variances as if a one-step calibration weighting routine had been used when there were in fact two steps can, after appropriately adjusting the finite-population correct in some sense, produce standard-error estimates that tend to be slightly conservative.

  19. On the Error State Selection for Stationary SINS Alignment and Calibration Kalman Filters-Part II: Observability/Estimability Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Felipe O; Hemerly, Elder M; Leite Filho, Waldemar C

    2017-02-23

    This paper presents the second part of a study aiming at the error state selection in Kalman filters applied to the stationary self-alignment and calibration (SSAC) problem of strapdown inertial navigation systems (SINS). The observability properties of the system are systematically investigated, and the number of unobservable modes is established. Through the analytical manipulation of the full SINS error model, the unobservable modes of the system are determined, and the SSAC error states (except the velocity errors) are proven to be individually unobservable. The estimability of the system is determined through the examination of the major diagonal terms of the covariance matrix and their eigenvalues/eigenvectors. Filter order reduction based on observability analysis is shown to be inadequate, and several misconceptions regarding SSAC observability and estimability deficiencies are removed. As the main contributions of this paper, we demonstrate that, except for the position errors, all error states can be minimally estimated in the SSAC problem and, hence, should not be removed from the filter. Corroborating the conclusions of the first part of this study, a 12-state Kalman filter is found to be the optimal error state selection for SSAC purposes. Results from simulated and experimental tests support the outlined conclusions.

  20. PLANETARY NEBULAE DETECTED IN THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE GLIMPSE II LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Sun Kwok

    2009-01-01

    We report the result of a search for the infrared counterparts of 37 planetary nebulae (PNs) and PN candidates in the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire II (GLIMPSE II) survey. The photometry and images of these PNs at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm, taken through the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS), are presented. Most of these nebulae are very red and compact in the IRAC bands, and are found to be bright and extended in the 24 μm band. The infrared morphology of these objects are compared with Hα images of the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg (MASH) and MASH II PNs. The implications for morphological difference in different wavelengths are discussed. The IRAC data allow us to differentiate between PNs and H II regions and be able to reject non-PNs from the optical catalog (e.g., PNG 352.1 - 00.0). Spectral energy distributions are constructed by combing the IRAC and MIPS data with existing near-, mid-, and far-IR photometry measurements. The anomalous colors of some objects allow us to infer the presence of aromatic emission bands. These multi-wavelength data provide useful insights into the nature of different nebular components contributing to the infrared emission of PNs.

  1. Characterization and error analysis of an N×N unfolding procedure applied to filtered, photoelectric x-ray detector arrays. II. Error analysis and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Fehl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A five-channel, filtered-x-ray-detector (XRD array has been used to measure time-dependent, soft-x-ray flux emitted by z-pinch plasmas at the Z pulsed-power accelerator (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The preceding, companion paper [D. L. Fehl et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120402 (2010PRABFM1098-4402] describes an algorithm for spectral reconstructions (unfolds and spectrally integrated flux estimates from data obtained by this instrument. The unfolded spectrum S_{unfold}(E,t is based on (N=5 first-order B-splines (histograms in contiguous unfold bins j=1,…,N; the recovered x-ray flux F_{unfold}(t is estimated as ∫S_{unfold}(E,tdE, where E is x-ray energy and t is time. This paper adds two major improvements to the preceding unfold analysis: (a Error analysis.—Both data noise and response-function uncertainties are propagated into S_{unfold}(E,t and F_{unfold}(t. Noise factors ν are derived from simulations to quantify algorithm-induced changes in the noise-to-signal ratio (NSR for S_{unfold} in each unfold bin j and for F_{unfold} (ν≡NSR_{output}/NSR_{input}: for S_{unfold}, 1≲ν_{j}≲30, an outcome that is strongly spectrally dependent; for F_{unfold}, 0.6≲ν_{F}≲1, a result that is less spectrally sensitive and corroborated independently. For nominal z-pinch experiments, the combined uncertainty (noise and calibrations in F_{unfold}(t at peak is estimated to be ∼15%. (b Generalization of the unfold method.—Spectral sensitivities (called here passband functions are constructed for S_{unfold} and F_{unfold}. Predicting how the unfold algorithm reconstructs arbitrary spectra is thereby reduced to quadratures. These tools allow one to understand and quantitatively predict algorithmic distortions (including negative artifacts, to identify potentially troublesome spectra, and to design more useful response functions.

  2. NEWLY IDENTIFIED EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS (EGOs) FROM THE SPITZER GLIMPSE II SURVEY. I. CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xi; Gan, Cong-Gui; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Titmarsh, Anita; He, Jin-Hua

    2013-01-01

    We have produced a catalog containing 98 newly identified massive young stellar object (MYSO) candidates associated with ongoing outflows (known as extended green objects, or EGOs). These have been identified from the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) II data set and our new identifications increase the number of known EGOs to ∼400 in our Galaxy, adding to the ∼300 previously identified EGOs reported by Cyganowski et al. from the GLIMPSE I survey. The high detection rate (∼70%) of 95 GHz class I methanol masers achieved in a survey toward 57 of these new EGOs with the Mopra 22 m radio telescope demonstrates that the new EGOs are associated with outflows. Investigations of the mid-infrared properties and physical associations with other star formation tracers (e.g., infrared dark clouds, class I and II methanol masers, and millimeter Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey sources) reveal that the newly identified EGOs are very similar in nature to those in the sample of Cyganowski et al. All of the observational evidence supports the hypothesis that EGOs correspond to MYSOs at the earliest evolutionary stage, with ongoing outflow activity, and active rapid accretion.

  3. PHOTOMETRIC TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA CANDIDATES FROM THE THREE-YEAR SDSS-II SN SURVEY DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Masao; Connolly, Brian; Gladney, Larry; Bassett, Bruce; Dilday, Benjamin; Cambell, Heather; Lampeitl, Hubert; Nichol, Robert C.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Kessler, Richard; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Schneider, Donald P.; Smith, Mathew; Sollerman, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the three-year Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova (SN) Survey data and identify a sample of 1070 photometric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) candidates based on their multiband light curve data. This sample consists of SN candidates with no spectroscopic confirmation, with a subset of 210 candidates having spectroscopic redshifts of their host galaxies measured while the remaining 860 candidates are purely photometric in their identification. We describe a method for estimating the efficiency and purity of photometric SN Ia classification when spectroscopic confirmation of only a limited sample is available, and demonstrate that SN Ia candidates from SDSS-II can be identified photometrically with ∼91% efficiency and with a contamination of ∼6%. Although this is the largest uniform sample of SN candidates to date for studying photometric identification, we find that a larger spectroscopic sample of contaminating sources is required to obtain a better characterization of the background events. A Hubble diagram using SN candidates with no spectroscopic confirmation, but with host galaxy spectroscopic redshifts, yields a distance modulus dispersion that is only ∼20%-40% larger than that of the spectroscopically confirmed SN Ia sample alone with no significant bias. A Hubble diagram with purely photometric classification and redshift-distance measurements, however, exhibits biases that require further investigation for precision cosmology.

  4. Test-Retest Reliability of the Adaptive Chemistry Assessment Survey for Teachers: Measurement Error and Alternatives to Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshman, Jordan; Yezierski, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Determining the error of measurement is a necessity for researchers engaged in bench chemistry, chemistry education research (CER), and a multitude of other fields. Discussions regarding what constructs measurement error entails and how to best measure them have occurred, but the critiques about traditional measures have yielded few alternatives.…

  5. First-Year Spectroscopy for the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Chen; Romani, Roger W.; Sako, Masao; Marriner, John; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Choi, Changsu; Cinabro, David; DeJongh, Fritz; Depoy, Darren L.; Dilday, Ben; Doi, Mamoru; Frieman, Joshua A.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Hogan, Craig J.; Holtzman, Jon; Im, Myungshin; Jha, Saurabh; Kessler, Richard; Konishi, Kohki; Lampeitl, Hubert

    2008-03-25

    This paper presents spectroscopy of supernovae discovered in the first season of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. This program searches for and measures multi-band light curves of supernovae in the redshift range z = 0.05-0.4, complementing existing surveys at lower and higher redshifts. Our goal is to better characterize the supernova population, with a particular focus on SNe Ia, improving their utility as cosmological distance indicators and as probes of dark energy. Our supernova spectroscopy program features rapid-response observations using telescopes of a range of apertures, and provides confirmation of the supernova and host-galaxy types as well as precise redshifts. We describe here the target identification and prioritization, data reduction, redshift measurement, and classification of 129 SNe Ia, 16 spectroscopically probable SNe Ia, 7 SNe Ib/c, and 11 SNe II from the first season. We also describe our efforts to measure and remove the substantial host galaxy contamination existing in the majority of our SN spectra.

  6. Unusual broad-line Mg II emitters among luminous galaxies in the baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roig, Benjamin; Blanton, Michael R.; Ross, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Many classes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been observed and recorded since the discovery of Seyfert galaxies. In this paper, we examine the sample of luminous galaxies in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We find a potentially new observational class of AGNs, one with strong and broad Mg II λ2799 line emission, but very weak emission in other normal indicators of AGN activity, such as the broad-line Hα, Hβ, and the near-ultraviolet AGN continuum, leading to an extreme ratio of broad Hα/Mg II flux relative to normal quasars. Meanwhile, these objects' narrow-line flux ratios reveal AGN narrow-line regions with levels of activity consistent with the Mg II fluxes and in agreement with that of normal quasars. These AGN may represent an extreme case of the Baldwin effect, with very low continuum and high equivalent width relative to typical quasars, but their ratio of broad Mg II to broad Balmer emission remains very unusual. They may also be representative of a class of AGN where the central engine is observed indirectly with scattered light. These galaxies represent a small fraction of the total population of luminous galaxies (≅ 0.1%), but are more likely (about 3.5 times) to have AGN-like nuclear line emission properties than other luminous galaxies. Because Mg II is usually inaccessible for the population of nearby galaxies, there may exist a related population of broad-line Mg II emitters in the local universe which is currently classified as narrow-line emitters (Seyfert 2 galaxies) or low ionization nuclear emission-line regions.

  7. An ad hoc method for dual adjusting for measurement errors and nonresponse bias for estimating prevalence in survey data: Application to Iranian mental health survey on any illicit drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalagi, Kazem; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Motevalian, Seyed-Abbas; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Bakhtiyari, Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence estimates of binary variables in sample surveys are often subject to two systematic errors: measurement error and nonresponse bias. A multiple-bias analysis is essential to adjust for both biases. Methods In this paper, we linked the latent class log-linear and proxy pattern-mixture models to adjust jointly for measurement errors and nonresponse bias with missing not at random mechanism. These methods were employed to estimate the prevalence of any illicit drug use based on Iranian Mental Health Survey data. Results After jointly adjusting for measurement errors and nonresponse bias in this data, the prevalence (95% confidence interval) estimate of any illicit drug use changed from 3.41 (3.00, 3.81)% to 27.03 (9.02, 38.76)%, 27.42 (9.04, 38.91)%, and 27.18 (9.03, 38.82)% under "missing at random," "missing not at random," and an intermediate mode, respectively. Conclusions Under certain assumptions, a combination of the latent class log-linear and binary-outcome proxy pattern-mixture models can be used to jointly adjust for both measurement errors and nonresponse bias in the prevalence estimation of binary variables in surveys.

  8. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. IV. HELIUM AND CARBON RECOMBINATION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M. [Astronomy Department, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Balser, Dana S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA, 22903-2475 (United States); Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    The Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS) found hundreds of previously unknown Galactic regions of massive star formation by detecting hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) emission from candidate H II region targets. Since the HRDS nebulae lie at large distances from the Sun, they are located in previously unprobed zones of the Galactic disk. Here, we derive the properties of helium and carbon RRL emission from HRDS nebulae. Our target sample is the subset of the HRDS that has visible helium or carbon RRLs. This criterion gives a total of 84 velocity components (14% of the HRDS) with helium emission and 52 (9%) with carbon emission. For our highest quality sources, the average {sup 4}He{sup +}/H{sup +} abundance ratio by number, (y {sup +}), is 0.068 {+-} 0.023(1{sigma}). This is the same ratio as that measured for the sample of previously known Galactic H II regions. Nebulae without detected helium emission give robust y {sup +} upper limits. There are 5 RRL emission components with y {sup +} less than 0.04 and another 12 with upper limits below this value. These H II regions must have either a very low {sup 4}He abundance or contain a significant amount of neutral helium. The HRDS has 20 nebulae with carbon RRL emission but no helium emission at its sensitivity level. There is no correlation between the carbon RRL parameters and the 8 {mu}m mid-infrared morphology of these nebulae.

  9. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P < 0·001). Median total attack duration was 5·0 h and 9·0 h for patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II, respectively. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  10. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts.

  11. Statistical and systematic errors in the measurement of weak-lensing Minkowski functionals: Application to the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Yoshida, Naoki, E-mail: masato.shirasaki@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    The measurement of cosmic shear using weak gravitational lensing is a challenging task that involves a number of complicated procedures. We study in detail the systematic errors in the measurement of weak-lensing Minkowski Functionals (MFs). Specifically, we focus on systematics associated with galaxy shape measurements, photometric redshift errors, and shear calibration correction. We first generate mock weak-lensing catalogs that directly incorporate the actual observational characteristics of the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). We then perform a Fisher analysis using the large set of mock catalogs for various cosmological models. We find that the statistical error associated with the observational effects degrades the cosmological parameter constraints by a factor of a few. The Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey with a sky coverage of ∼1400 deg{sup 2} will constrain the dark energy equation of the state parameter with an error of Δw {sub 0} ∼ 0.25 by the lensing MFs alone, but biases induced by the systematics can be comparable to the 1σ error. We conclude that the lensing MFs are powerful statistics beyond the two-point statistics only if well-calibrated measurement of both the redshifts and the shapes of source galaxies is performed. Finally, we analyze the CFHTLenS data to explore the ability of the MFs to break degeneracies between a few cosmological parameters. Using a combined analysis of the MFs and the shear correlation function, we derive the matter density Ω{sub m0}=0.256±{sub 0.046}{sup 0.054}.

  12. Population-based survey of refractive error among school-aged children in rural northern China: the Heilongjiang eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijian; Xu, Keke; Wu, Shubin; Lv, Jia; Jin, Di; Song, Zhen; Wang, Zhongliang; Liu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of refractive error in the north of China is unknown. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of refractive error in school-aged children in a rural area of northern China. Cross-sectional study. The cluster random sampling method was used to select the sample. A total of 1700 subjects of 5 to 18 years of age were examined. All participants underwent ophthalmic evaluation. Refraction was performed under cycloplegia. Association of refractive errors with age, sex, and education was analysed. The main outcome measure was prevalence rates of refractive error among school-aged children. Of the 1700 responders, 1675 were eligible. The prevalence of uncorrected, presenting, and best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye was 6.3%, 3.0% and 1.2%, respectively. The prevalence of myopia was 5.0% (84/1675, 95% CI, 4.8%-5.4%) and of hyperopia was 1.6% (27/1675, 95% CI, 1.0%-2.2%). Astigmatism was evident in 2.0% of the subjects. Myopia increased with increasing age, whereas hyperopia and astigmatism were associated with younger age. Myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism were more common in females. We also found that prevalence of refractive error were associated with education. Myopia and astigmatism were more common in those with higher degrees of education. This report has provided details of the refractive status in a rural school-aged population. Although the prevalence of refractive errors is lower in the population, the unmet need for spectacle correction remains a significant challenge for refractive eye-care services. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. Modeling non-ignorable attrition and measurement error in panel surveys: an application to travel demand modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Brownstone, David; Golob, Thomas F.; Kazimi, Camilla

    1991-01-01

    Modern panel surveys frequently suffer from high and likely non-ignorable attrition, and transportation surveys suffer from poor travel time estimates. This paper examines new methods for adjusting forecasts and model estimates to account for these problems. The methods we describe are illustrated using a new panel survey of 1500 commuters in San Diego, California. These data are being collected to evaluate a federally-funded “Congestion Pricing†experiment investigating the impacts of all...

  14. Fault diagnosis of generation IV nuclear HTGR components – Part II: The area error enthalpy–entropy graph approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, C.P. du; Schoor, G. van

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Different uncorrelated fault signatures are derived for HTGR component faults. ► A multiple classifier ensemble increases confidence in classification accuracy. ► Detailed simulation model of system is not required for fault diagnosis. - Abstract: The second paper in a two part series presents the area error method for generation of representative enthalpy–entropy (h–s) fault signatures to classify malfunctions in generation IV nuclear high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) components. The second classifier is devised to ultimately address the fault diagnosis (FD) problem via the proposed methods in a multiple classifier (MC) ensemble. FD is realized by way of different input feature sets to the classification algorithm based on the area and trajectory of the residual shift between the fault-free and the actual operating h–s graph models. The application of the proposed technique is specifically demonstrated for 24 single fault transients considered in the main power system (MPS) of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). The results show that the area error technique produces different fault signatures with low correlation for all the examined component faults. A brief evaluation of the two fault signature generation techniques is presented and the performance of the area error method is documented using the fault classification index (FCI) presented in Part I of the series. The final part of this work reports the application of the proposed approach for classification of an emulated fault transient in data from the prototype Pebble Bed Micro Model (PBMM) plant. Reference data values are calculated for the plant via a thermo-hydraulic simulation model of the MPS. The results show that the correspondence between the fault signatures, generated via experimental plant data and simulated reference values, are generally good. The work presented in the two part series, related to the classification of component faults in the MPS of different

  15. Attempt to Determine the Prevalence of Two Inborn Errors of Primary Bile Acid Synthesis : Results of a European Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahnel, Jörg; Zöhrer, Evelyn; Fischler, Björn; D'Antiga, Lorenzo; Debray, Dominique; Dezsofi, Antal; Haas, Dorothea; Hadzic, Nedim; Jacquemin, Emmanuel; Lamireau, Thierry; Maggiore, Giuseppe; McKiernan, Pat J; Calvo, Pier Luigi; Verkade, Henkjan J; Hierro, Loreto; McLin, Valerie; Baumann, Ulrich; Gonzales, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Inborn errors of primary bile acid (BA) synthesis are genetic cholestatic disorders leading to accumulation of atypical BA with deficiency of normal BA. Unless treated with primary BA, chronic liver disease usually progresses to cirrhosis and liver failure before adulthood. We sought to

  16. Efficient Low Dissipative High Order Schemes for Multiscale MHD Flows. II; Minimization of Delta * B Numerical Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Yee, H. C.

    2003-01-01

    The generalization of a class of low-dissipative high order filter finite difference schemes for long time wave propagation of shock/turbulence/combustion compressible viscous gas dynamic flows to compressible MHD equations for structured curvilinear grids has been developed. The new scheme consists of a divergence free preserving high order spatial base scheme with a filter approach which can be divergence-free preserving depending on the type of filter operator being used, the method of applying the filter step, and the type of flow problem to be considered. Several variants of the filter approach that cater to different flow types are proposed. These filters provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of the divergence of the magnetic field (Delta * B) numerical error in the sense that no standard divergence cleaning is required. Performance evaluation of these variants, and the key role that the proper treatment of their corresponding numerical boundary conditions can play will be illustrated. Many levels of grid refinement and detailed comparison with several commonly used compressible MHD shock-capturing schemes will be sought. For certain MHD 2-D test problems, divergence free preservation of the magnetic fields of these filter schemes has been achieved.

  17. Survey II of public and leadership attitudes toward nuclear power development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    In August 1975, Ebasco Services Incorporated released results of a survey conducted by Louis Harris and Associates, Inc. to determine attitudes of the American public and its leaders toward nuclear power development in the U.S. Results showed, among other things, that the public favored building nuclear power plants; that they believed we have an energy shortage that will not go away soon; that they were not willing to make environmental sacrifices; and that, while favoring nuclear power development, they also had concerns about some aspects of nuclear power. Except for the environmental group, the leadership group felt the same way the public does. A follow-up survey was made in July 1976 to measure any shifts in attitudes. Survey II showed that one of the real worries that remains with the American public is the shortage of energy; additionally, the public and the leaders are concerned about the U.S. dependence on imported oil. With exception of the environmentalists, the public and its leaders support a host of measures to build energy sources, including: solar and oil shale development; speeding up the Alaskan pipeline; speeding up off-shore drilling; and building nuclear power plants. The public continues to be unwilling to sacrifice the environment. There is less conviction on the part of the public that electric power will be in short supply over the next decade. The public believes the days of heavy dependence on oil or hydroelectric power are coming to an end. By a margin of 3 to 1, the public favors building more nuclear power plants in the U.S., but some concerns about the risks have not dissipated. Even though the public is worried about radioactivity escaping into the atmosphere, they consider nuclear power generation more safe than unsafe

  18. Characteristics and verification of a car-borne survey system for dose rates in air: KURAMA-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, S; Yoshida, T; Tsutsumi, M; Saito, K

    2015-01-01

    The car-borne survey system KURAMA-II, developed by the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, has been used for air dose rate mapping after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. KURAMA-II consists of a CsI(Tl) scintillation detector, a GPS device, and a control device for data processing. The dose rates monitored by KURAMA-II are based on the G(E) function (spectrum-dose conversion operator), which can precisely calculate dose rates from measured pulse-height distribution even if the energy spectrum changes significantly. The characteristics of KURAMA-II have been investigated with particular consideration to the reliability of the calculated G(E) function, dose rate dependence, statistical fluctuation, angular dependence, and energy dependence. The results indicate that 100 units of KURAMA-II systems have acceptable quality for mass monitoring of dose rates in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparative clinical survey of the prevalence of refractive errors and eye diseases in urban and rural school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzma, Nazia; Kumar, B Santhosh; Khaja Mohinuddin Salar, B M; Zafar, Mohammed Atheshm; Reddy, V Devender

    2009-06-01

    To assess the prevalence of refractive error and common ocular diseases in school-aged children in urban and rural populations in and around Hyderabad, India. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 3314 school children, 1789 from urban areas and 1525 from rural areas. The examination included visual acuity measurements, retinoscopy and autorefraction under cycloplegia, examination of the anterior segment and external eye, and ocular motility evaluation. In the urban group the prevalence of uncorrected presenting and best-corrected visual impairment (prevalence of refractive error was greater (25.2%) in the urban than the rural group (8%). Myopia measured with autorefraction was observed in 51.4% of urban children and 16.7% in rural children. Increased literacy rate, duration of study hours, and older age of the child were found to have contributed more to the prevalence of myopia in the urban group. Hyperopia with autorefraction was found to be 3.3% in the urban and 3.1% in the rural group. Hyperopia was associated with younger age in the study group. Trachoma was the leading cause of ocular morbidity in the rural group (3.5%) compared with the urban group (0.16%). Night blindness was reported in 3.2% of children in the rural group and 0.33% in the urban group. Vitamin A deficiency, low socio-economic status, and poor personal and environmental hygienic practice were found to have a positive correlation with ocular morbidity among rural group children. Provision of health education, periodic visual screening programs, and primary eye care by trained health care personnel in the elementary schools will prevent the prevalence of refractive errors and common ocular diseases in school children.

  20. Distribution of angle kappa measurements with Orbscan II in a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; KhabazKhoob, Mehdi; Yazdani, Kamran; Mehravaran, Shiva; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2010-12-01

    To determine the mean angle kappa and its determinants in the population of Tehran, Iran. In a cross-sectional survey with random cluster sampling, a total of 442 participants aged >14 years were selected from 4 municipality districts of Tehran for Orbscan acquisitions. Exclusion criteria were history of eye surgery for refractive errors, cataract or glaucoma, and use of topical medication or any type of contact lens at the time of the study. Mean angle kappa in different age and gender groups and its association with other factors was assessed. Considering the high correlation between the right and left eyes, only results of the right eyes are presented. After applying exclusion criteria, 800 eyes (399 right eyes and 401 left eyes) were examined. Mean participant age was 40.6±16.8 years (range: 14 to 81 years), and 38.8% of eyes were from men. Mean angle kappa was 5.46±1.33° in total; 5.41±1.32° in men and 5.49±1.34° in women (P=.558). It decreased significantly with age; 0.015°/year (Pangle kappa reduces with age, and the inter-gender difference is not significant. Largest angle kappas were seen among individuals with emmetropia. Angle kappas were larger in the hypermetropic population compared to the myopic population. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Hydra II: A Faint and Compact Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy Found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Nidever, David L.; Besla, Gurtina; Olsen, Knut; Walker, Alistair R.; Vivas, A. Katherina; Gruendl, Robert A.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Blum, Robert D.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C.; Bell, Eric F.; Chu, You-Hua; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; de Boer, Thomas J. L.; Gallart, Carme; Jin, Shoko; Kunder, Andrea; Majewski, Steven R.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Monachesi, Antonela; Monelli, Matteo; Monteagudo, Lara; Noël, Noelia E. D.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Zaritsky, Dennis

    We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4 m Telescope. The new satellite is compact ({{r}h}=68 ± 11 pc) and faint ({{M}V}=-4.8 ± 0.3),

  2. The Unique Optical Design of the CTI-II Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, J. T.; MacFarlane, M.

    2006-12-01

    The CCD/Transit Instrument with Innovative Instrumentation (CTI-II) is being developed for precision ground-based astrometric and photometric astronomical observations. The 1.8m telescope will be stationary, near-zenith pointing and will feature a CCD-mosaic array operated in time-delay and integrate (TDI) mode to image a continuous strip of the sky in five bands. The heart of the telescope is a Nasmyth-like bent-Cassegrain optical system optimized to produce near diffraction-limited images with near zero distortion over a circular1.42 deg field. The optical design includes an f/2.2 parabolic ULE primary with no central hole salvaged from the original CTI telescope and adds the requisite hyperbolic secondary, a folding flat and a highly innovative all-spherical, five lens corrector which includes three plano surfaces. The reflective and refractive portions of the design have been optimized as individual but interdependent systems so that the same reflective system can be used with slightly different refractive correctors. At present, two nearly identical corrector designs are being evaluated, one fabricated from BK-7 glass and the other of fused silica. The five lens corrector consists of an air-spaced triplet separated from follow-on air-spaced doublet. Either design produces 0.25 arcsecond images at 83% encircled energy with a maximum of 0.0005% distortion. The innovative five lens corrector design has been applied to other current and planned Cassegrain, RC and super RC optical systems requiring correctors. The basic five lens approach always results in improved performance compared to the original designs. In some cases, the improvement in image quality is small but includes substantial reductions in distortion. In other cases, the improvement in image quality is substantial. Because the CTI-II corrector is designed for a parabolic primary, it might be especially useful for liquid mirror telescopes. We describe and discuss the CTI-II optical design with respect

  3. Radiation survey of first Hi-Art II Tomotherapy vault design in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A.; Jamema, S.V.; Pai, Rajeshree; Sharma, P.K. Dash; Deshpande, Deepak D.

    2009-01-01

    A vault as per government-regulation compliance with adequate shielding needs was designed and constructed for Hi-Art II Tomotherapy machine being the first in India. Radiation measurements around this Tomotherapy treatment vault were carried out to check the shielding adequacy of the source housing and the vault. It was mandatory to get this un-conventional machine 'Type Approved' by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in India. The aim of this paper was to report on the radiation levels measured during the radiation survey carried out for this machine. The radiation levels in and around the vault were measured for stationary as well as rotational treatment procedures with the largest open field size (5 cm x 40 cm) at the isocenter with and without scattering medium. The survey was performed at three locations near each wall surrounding the vault as well. The leakage radiation from the source housing was measured both in the patient plane outside the treatment field and one meter distance from the source outside the patient plane. The radiation levels both for stationary as well as rotational procedures were within 1 mR/h. No significance difference was observed in the radiation levels measured for rotational procedures with and without scattering medium. The leakage radiation in the patient plane was found to be 0.04% (Tolerance 0.2%), while the head leakage was 0.007% (Tolerance 0.5%) of the dose rate at the isocenter. The treatment delivery with Tomotherapy does play safe radiation levels around the installation layout and also passes the leakage criteria as well.

  4. A Measurement of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter; /Notre Dame U.; Goobar, Ariel; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Hopp, Ulrich; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ. /Tokyo U.

    2010-03-01

    We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z {le} 0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 {le} z {le} 0.3. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of (0.37{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.17+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.55{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.13+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} (SNux = 10{sup -12}L{sub x{circle_dot}}{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be (0.31{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.18+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.49{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.15+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be (2.04{sub -1.11-0.04}{sup +1.99+0.07}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.36{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.84+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The ratio of the SN Ia rate in cluster early-type galaxies to that of the SN Ia rate in field early-type galaxies is 1.94{sub -0.91-0.015}{sup +1.31+0.043} and 3.02{sub -1.03-0.048}{sup +1.31+0.062}, for C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift, which probes the late time SN Ia delay distribution, shows only weak dependence on redshift. Combining our current measurements with previous measurements, we fit the cluster SN Ia rate data to a linear function of redshift, and find r{sub L} = [(0.49{sub -0.14}{sup +0.15}) + (0.91{sub -0.81}{sup +0.85}) x z] SNuB h{sup 2}. A comparison of the radial distribution of SNe in cluster to field early-type galaxies shows possible evidence for an enhancement of the SN rate in the cores of cluster early-type galaxies. With an observation of at most 3 hostless, intra-cluster SNe Ia, we estimate the fraction of cluster SNe that are

  5. A multi-institutional survey evaluating patient related QA – phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teichmann Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In phase I of the survey a planning intercomparison of patient-related QA was performed at 12 institutions. The participating clinics created phantom based IMRT and VMAT plans which were measured utilizing the ArcCheck diode array. Mobius3D (M3D was used in phase II. It acts as a secondary dose verification tool for patient-specific QA based on average linac beam data collected by Mobius Medical Systems. All Quasimodo linac plans will be analyzed for the continuation of the intercomparison. We aim to determine if Mobius3D is suited for use with diverse treatment techniques, if beam model customization is needed. Initially we computed first Mobius3D results by transferring all plans from phase I to our Mobius3D server. Because of some larger PTV mean dose differences we checked if output factor customization would be beneficial. We performed measurements and output factor correction to account for discrepancies in reference conditions. Compared to Mobius3D's preconfigured average beam data values, these corrected output factors differed by ±1.5% for field sizes between 7x7cm2 and 30x30cm2 and to −3.9% for 3x3cm2. Our method of correcting the output factors turns out good congruence to M3D's reference values for these medium field sizes.

  6. Addressing medical coding and billing part II: a strategy for achieving compliance. A risk management approach for reducing coding and billing errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Diane L; Norman, Helen; Burroughs, Valentine J

    2002-06-01

    Medical practice today, more than ever before, places greater demands on physicians to see more patients, provide more complex medical services and adhere to stricter regulatory rules, leaving little time for coding and billing. Yet, the need to adequately document medical records, appropriately apply billing codes and accurately charge insurers for medical services is essential to the medical practice's financial condition. Many physicians rely on office staff and billing companies to process their medical bills without ever reviewing the bills before they are submitted for payment. Some physicians may not be receiving the payment they deserve when they do not sufficiently oversee the medical practice's coding and billing patterns. This article emphasizes the importance of monitoring and auditing medical record documentation and coding application as a strategy for achieving compliance and reducing billing errors. When medical bills are submitted with missing and incorrect information, they may result in unpaid claims and loss of revenue to physicians. Addressing Medical Audits, Part I--A Strategy for Achieving Compliance--CMS, JCAHO, NCQA, published January 2002 in the Journal of the National Medical Association, stressed the importance of preparing the medical practice for audits. The article highlighted steps the medical practice can take to prepare for audits and presented examples of guidelines used by regulatory agencies to conduct both medical and financial audits. The Medicare Integrity Program was cited as an example of guidelines used by regulators to identify coding errors during an audit and deny payment to providers when improper billing occurs. For each denied claim, payments owed to the medical practice are are also denied. Health care is, no doubt, a costly endeavor for health care providers, consumers and insurers. The potential risk to physicians for improper billing may include loss of revenue, fraud investigations, financial sanction

  7. Transition Models with Measurement Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Magnac, Thierry; Visser, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate a transition model that allows for measurement errors in the data. The measurement errors arise because the survey design is partly retrospective, so that individuals sometimes forget or misclassify their past labor market transitions. The observed data are adjusted for errors via a measurement-error mechanism. The parameters of the distribution of the true data, and those of the measurement-error mechanism are estimated by a two-stage method. The results, based on ...

  8. Hydra II: A Faint and Compact Milky Way Dwarf Galaxy Found in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, NF; Nidever, DL; Besla, G; Olsen, K; Walker, AR; Vivas, AK; Gruendl, RA; Kaleida, CC; Muñoz, RR; Blum, RD; Saha, A; Conn, BC; Bell, EF; Chu, YH; Cioni, MRL

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4 m Telescope. The new satellite is compact (rh = 68 ± 11 pc) and faint (MV = -4.8 ± 0.3), but well within the realm of dwarf galaxies. The stellar distribution of Hydra II in the color-magnitude diagram is well-described by a m...

  9. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume III, Part II. Cultural Resources Survey, Pine and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    others), cacti, especially prickly pear ( Opuntia basilaris and others), saltbrush (Atriplex canescens), shadscale Ert r E-TR-48- III-II 17 (Atriplex...supplies were depleted by the settlers through plowing and hunting, and the slave trade, disease , and indentured servitude to the Mormons decimated the

  10. The Effect of Host Galaxies on Type Ia Supernovae in the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampeitl, Hubert; /Portsmouth U., ICG; Smith, Mathew; /Cape Town U. /Portsmouth U., ICG; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U., ICG; Bassett, Bruce; /South African Astron. Observ. /Cape Town U.; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Foley, Ryan J.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U.; Goobar, Ariel; /Stockholm U., OKC; Im, Myungshin; /Seoul Natl. U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway

    2010-05-01

    We present an analysis of the host galaxy dependencies of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) from the full three year sample of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. We re-discover, to high significance, the strong correlation between host galaxy type and the width of the observed SN light curve, i.e., fainter, quickly declining SNe Ia favor passive host galaxies, while brighter, slowly declining Ia's favor star-forming galaxies. We also find evidence (at between 2 to 3{sigma}) that SNe Ia are {approx_equal} 0.1 magnitudes brighter in passive host galaxies, than in star-forming hosts, after the SN Ia light curves have been standardized using the light curve shape and color variations: This difference in brightness is present in both the SALT2 and MCLS2k2 light curve fitting methodologies. We see evidence for differences in the SN Ia color relationship between passive and star-forming host galaxies, e.g., for the MLCS2k2 technique, we see that SNe Ia in passive hosts favor a dust law of R{sub V} {approx_equal} 1, while SNe Ia in star-forming hosts require R{sub V} {approx} 2. The significance of these trends depends on the range of SN colors considered. We demonstrate that these effects can be parameterized using the stellar mass of the host galaxy (with a confidence of > 4{sigma}) and including this extra parameter provides a better statistical fit to our data. Our results suggest that future cosmological analyses of SN Ia samples should include host galaxy information.

  11. The GSC-II-based survey of ancient cool white dwarfs I. The sample of spectroscopically confirmed WDs

    OpenAIRE

    Carollo, D.; Bucciarelli, B.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Lattanzi, M. G.; McLean, B.; Morbidelli, R.; Smart, R. L.; Spagna, A.; Terranegra, L.

    2005-01-01

    The GSC-II white dwarf survey was designed to identify faint and high proper motion objects, which we used to define a new and independent sample of cool white dwarfs. With this survey we aim to derive new constraints on the halo white dwarf space density. Also, these data can provide information on the age of thick disk and halo through the analysis of the luminosity function. On the basis of astrometric and photometric parameters, we selected candidates with mu > 0.28 as/yr and R_F > 16 in ...

  12. Medication Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for You Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Errors and Patient Safety Centers for Disease Control and ... Quality Chasm Series National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  13. A Hubble Space Telescope Survey of the Disk Cluster Population of M31. II. Advanced Camera for Surveys Pointings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienke, O. K.; Hodge, P. W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey of star clusters in M31 based on archival images from the Hubble Space Telescope. Paper I reported results from images obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and this paper reports results from the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The ACS survey has yielded a total of 339 star clusters, 52 of which—mostly globular clusters—were found to have been cataloged previously. As for the previous survey, the luminosity function of the clusters drops steeply for absolute magnitudes fainter than MV = -3 the implied cluster mass function has a turnover for masses less than a few hundred solar masses. The color-integrated magnitude diagram of clusters shows three significant features: (1) a group of very red, luminous objects: the globular clusters, (2) a wide range in color for the fainter clusters, representing a considerable range in age and reddening, and (3) a maximum density of clusters centered approximately at V = 21, B - V = 0.30, V - I = 0.50, where there are intermediate-age, intermediate-mass clusters with ages close to 500 million years and masses of about 2000 solar masses. We give a brief qualitative interpretation of the distribution of clusters in the CMDs in terms of their formation and destruction rates. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for research in astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  14. Evaluation of peak overlap in migration-time distributions determined by organelle capillary electrophoresis: Type-II error analogy based on statistical-overlap theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe M; Arriaga, Edgar A

    2009-08-28

    Organelles commonly are separated by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with laser-induced-fluorescence detection. Usually, it is assumed that peaks observed in the CE originate from single organelles, with negligible occurrence of peak overlap. Under this assumption, migration-time and mobility distributions are obtained by partitioning the CE into different regions and counting the number of observed peaks in each region. In this paper, criteria based on statistical-overlap theory (SOT) are developed to test the assumption of negligible peak overlap and to predict conditions for its validity. For regions of the CE having constant peak density, the numbers of peaks (i.e., intensity profiles of single organelles) and observed peaks (i.e., maxima) are modeled by probability distributions. For minor peak overlap, the distributions partially merge, and their mergence is described by an analogy to the Type-II error of hypothesis testing. Criteria are developed for the amount of peak overlap, at which the number of observed peaks has an 85% or 90% probability of lying within the 95% confidence interval of the number of peaks of single organelles. For this or smaller amounts of peak overlap, the number of observed peaks is a good approximation to the number of peaks. A simple procedure is developed for evaluating peak overlap, requiring determination of only the peak standard deviation, the duration of the region occupied by peaks, and the number of observed peaks in the region. The procedure can be applied independently to each region of the partitioned CE. The procedure is applied to a mitochondrial CE.

  15. Quantifying behavioural determinants relating to health professional reporting of medication errors: a cross-sectional survey using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqubaisi, Mai; Tonna, Antonella; Strath, Alison; Stewart, Derek

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the behavioural determinants of health professional reporting of medication errors in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and to explore any differences between respondents. A cross-sectional survey of patient-facing doctors, nurses and pharmacists within three major hospitals of Abu Dhabi, the UAE. An online questionnaire was developed based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF, a framework of behaviour change theories). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify components and internal reliability determined. Ethical approval was obtained from a UK university and all hospital ethics committees. Two hundred and ninety-four responses were received. Questionnaire items clustered into six components of knowledge and skills, feedback and support, action and impact, motivation, effort and emotions. Respondents generally gave positive responses for knowledge and skills, feedback and support and action and impact components. Responses were more neutral for the motivation and effort components. In terms of emotions, the component with the most negative scores, there were significant differences in terms of years registered as health professional (those registered longest most positive, p = 0.002) and age (older most positive, p Theoretical Domains Framework to quantify the behavioural determinants of health professional reporting of medication errors. • Questionnaire items relating to emotions surrounding reporting generated the most negative responses with significant differences in terms of years registered as health professional (those registered longest most positive) and age (older most positive) with no differences for gender and health profession. • Interventions based on behaviour change techniques mapped to emotions should be prioritised for development.

  16. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. VII. Fe II* emission in star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Hayley; Bouché, Nicolas; Contini, Thierry; Paalvast, Mieke; Boogaard, Leindert; Maseda, Michael; Bacon, Roland; Blaizot, Jérémy; Brinchmann, Jarle; Epinat, Benoît; Feltre, Anna; Marino, Raffaella Anna; Muzahid, Sowgat; Richard, Johan; Schaye, Joop; Verhamme, Anne; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2017-11-01

    Non-resonant Fe II* (λ2365, λ2396, λ2612, λ2626) emission can potentially trace galactic winds in emission and provide useful constraints to wind models. From the 3.15' × 3.15' mosaic of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF) obtained with the VLT/MUSE integral field spectrograph, we identify a statistical sample of 40 Fe II* emitters and 50 MgIII (λλ2796,2803) emitters from a sample of 271 [O II]λλ3726,3729 emitters with reliable redshifts from z = 0.85-1.50 down to 2 × 10-18 (3σ) ergs s-1 cm-2 (for [O II]), covering the M⋆ range from 108-1011 M⊙. The Fe II* and Mg II emitters follow the galaxy main sequence, but with a clear dichotomy. Galaxies with masses below 109 M⊙ and star formation rates (SFRs) of ≲ 1 M⊙ yr-1 have MgIII emission without accompanying Fe II* emission, whereas galaxies with masses above 1010 M⊙ and SFRs ≳ 10 M⊙ yr-1 have Fe II* emission without accompanying MgIII emission. Between these two regimes, galaxies have both MgIII and Fe II* emission, typically with MgIII P Cygni profiles. Indeed, the MgIII profile shows a progression along the main sequence from pure emission to P Cygni profiles to strong absorption, due to resonant trapping. Combining the deep MUSE data with HST ancillary information, we find that galaxies with pure MgIII emission profiles have lower SFR surface densities than those with either MgIII P Cygni profiles or Fe II* emission. These spectral signatures produced through continuum scattering and fluorescence, MgIII P Cygni profiles and Fe II* emission, are better candidates for tracing galactic outflows than pure MgIII emission, which may originate from HIII regions. We compare the absorption and emission rest-frame equivalent widths for pairs of FeIII transitions to predictions from outflow models and find that the observations consistently have less total re-emission than absorption, suggesting either dust extinction or non-isotropic outflow geometries.

  17. Operator errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuefer; Lindauer

    1980-01-01

    Besides that at spectacular events a combination of component failure and human error is often found. Especially the Rasmussen-Report and the German Risk Assessment Study show for pressurised water reactors that human error must not be underestimated. Although operator errors as a form of human error can never be eliminated entirely, they can be minimized and their effects kept within acceptable limits if a thorough training of personnel is combined with an adequate design of the plant against accidents. Contrary to the investigation of engineering errors, the investigation of human errors has so far been carried out with relatively small budgets. Intensified investigations in this field appear to be a worthwhile effort. (orig.)

  18. Sampling error in timber surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin Hasel

    1938-01-01

    Various sampling strategies are evaluated for efficiency in an interior ponderosa pine forest. In a 5760 acre tract, efficiency was gained by stratifying into quarter acre blocks and sampling randomly from within. A systematic cruise was found to be superior for volume estimation.

  19. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; Smith, Russell J.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lucey, John R.; Jogee, Shardha; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Chiboucas, Kristin; Davies, Jonathan I.; del Burgo, Carlos; Erwin, Peter; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hudson, Michael J.; Huxor, Avon; Jenkins, Leigh; Karick, Arna; Khosroshahi, Habib; Kourkchi, Ehsan; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lotz, Jennifer; Marzke, Ronald O.; Marinova, Irina; Matkovic, Ana; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Miller, Neal A.; Mobasher, Bahram; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Okamura, Sadanori; Percival, Sue; Phillipps, Steven; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Price, James; Sharples, Ray M.; Tully, R. Brent; Valentijn, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ~50% of the core high-density region in

  20. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; Smith, Russell J.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lucey, John R.; Jogee, Shardha; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Chiboucas, Kristin; Davies, Jonathan I.; del Burgo, Carlos; Erwin, Peter; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hudson, Michael J.; Huxor, Avon; Jenkins, Leigh; Karick, Arna; Khosroshahi, Habib; Kourkchi, Ehsan; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lotz, Jennifer; Marzke, Ronald O.; Marinova, Irina; Matkovic, Ana; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Miller, Neal A.; Mobasher, Bahram; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Okamura, Sadanori; Percival, Sue; Phillipps, Steven; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Price, James; Sharples, Ray M.; Tully, R. Brent; Valentijn, Edwin

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ~50% of the core high-density region in

  1. What's for Lunch? II. A 1990 Survey of Options in the School Lunch Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Patricia McGrath; And Others

    This report provides information on the content of school lunches offered to middle school children in the public schools. A total of 163 middle schools in 42 states responded to the school lunch survey. Survey findings are given on: (1) the contents of the main course, vegetable and fruit offerings, desserts, and beverages; and (2) lunches…

  2. Predictors of BMI Vary along the BMI Range of German Adults – Results of the German National Nutrition Survey II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kilson; Krems, Carolin; Heuer, Thorsten; Roth, Alexander; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to identify predictors of BMI in German adults by considering the BMI distribution and to determine whether the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Methods The sample included 9,214 adults aged 18–80 years from the German National Nutrition Survey II (NVS II). Quantile regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between BMI and the following predictors: age, sports activities, socio-economic status (SES), healthy eating index-NVS II (HEI-NVS II), dietary knowledge, sleeping duration and energy intake as well as status of smoking, partner relationship and self-reported health. Results Age, SES, self-reported health status, sports activities and energy intake were the strongest predictors of BMI. The important outcome of this study is that the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Especially, energy intake, health status and SES were marginally associated with BMI in normal-weight subjects; this relationships became stronger in the range of overweight, and were strongest in the range of obesity. Conclusions Predictors of BMI and the strength of these associations vary across the BMI distribution in German adults. Consequently, to identify predictors of BMI, the entire BMI distribution should be considered. PMID:28219069

  3. Medical error

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    is only when mistakes are recognised that learning can occur...All our previous medical training has taught us to fear error, as error is associated with blame. This fear may lead to concealment and this is turn can lead to fraud'. How real this fear is! All of us, during our medical training, have had the maxim 'prevention is.

  4. Galactic bulge population II Cepheids in the VVV survey: period-luminosity relations and a distance to the Galactic centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Rejkuba, M.; Minniti, D.; Surot, F.; Valenti, E.; Zoccali, M.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Romaniello, M.; Kanbur, S. M.; Singh, H. P.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Multiple stellar populations of different ages and metallicities reside in the Galactic bulge that trace its structure and provide clues to its formation and evolution. Aims: We present the near-infrared observations of population II Cepheids in the Galactic bulge from VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) survey. The JHKs photometry together with optical data from Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) survey provide an independent estimate of the distance to the Galactic centre. The old, metal-poor and low-mass population II Cepheids are also investigated as useful tracers for the structure of the Galactic bulge. Methods: We identify 340 population II Cepheids in the VVV survey Galactic bulge catalogue based on their match with the OGLE-III Catalogue. The single-epoch JH and multi-epoch Ks observations complement the accurate periods and optical (VI) mean-magnitudes from OGLE. The sample consisting of BL Herculis and W Virginis subtypes is used to derive period-luminosity relations after correcting mean-magnitudes for the extinction. Our Ks-band period-luminosity relation, Ks = -2.189(0.056) [log (P)-1] + 11.187(0.032), is consistent with published work for BL Herculis and W Virginis variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Results: We present a combined OGLE-III and VVV catalogue with periods, classification, mean magnitudes, and extinction for 264 Galactic bulge population II Cepheids that have good-quality Ks-band light curves. The absolute magnitudes for population II Cepheids and RR Lyraes calibrated using Gaia and Hubble Space Telescope parallaxes, together with calibrated magnitudes for Large Magellanic Cloud population II Cepheids, are used to obtain a distance to the Galactic centre, R0 = 8.34 ± 0.03(stat.) ± 0.41(syst.), which changes by with different extinction laws. While noting the limitation of small number statistics, we find that the present sample of population II Cepheids in the Galactic bulge shows a nearly spheroidal

  5. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report; Miljoeovervaaking av olje- og gassfelt i Region II i 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner OEst, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  6. High-velocity streams in the Milky Way halo with the SDSS and GSC-II kinematic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spagna A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We explore the stellar halo of the Milky Way to search for fossil signatures of past mergers, consisting of streams of particles torn from their progenitors during the process of hierarchical merging. We examine a representative sample of about 2 700 halo subdwarfs in the solar neighborhood, selected from a new kinematic survey produced by means of spectrophotometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and high-quality proper motions derived from multi-epoch positions using the Guide Star Catalog II. We find statistical evidence for discrete overdensities, likely possible accretion remnants. This methodology and the quality of the selected sample are an efficient means to discover new members of known streams and to identify new streams themselves, and set the basis for future studies.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The HII Region Discovery Survey (HRDS). II. (Anderson+, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. D.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, D. S.; Rood, R. T.

    2011-08-01

    Our observations were made with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) 100m telescope from 2008 June through 2010 October. We assembled our target list from the following multi-frequency, large solid angle Galactic surveys: the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA) Galactic Plane Survey at 21cm HI and continuum (VGPS: Stil et al. 2006AJ....132.1158S), the NRAO VLA Sky Survey at 20cm continuum (NVSS: Condon et al. 1998, Cat. VIII/65), the Southern Galactic Plane Survey at 21cm HI and continuum (SGPS: Haverkorn et al. 2006ApJS..167..230H), the VLA MAGPIS at 20cm continuum (Helfand et al. 2006, Cat. J/AJ/131/2525), and the Spitzer 24um MIPSGAL survey (Carey et al. 2009PASP..121...76C). Our analysis here also uses 8.0um data from the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE: Benjamin et al. 2003PASP..115..953B), which were obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. (4 data files).

  8. Linear feature detection algorithm for astronomical surveys - II. Defocusing effects on meteor tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektešević, Dino; Vinković, Dejan; Rasmussen, Andrew; Ivezić, Željko

    2018-03-01

    Given the current limited knowledge of meteor plasma micro-physics and its interaction with the surrounding atmosphere and ionosphere, meteors are a highly interesting observational target for high-resolution wide-field astronomical surveys. Such surveys are capable of resolving the physical size of meteor plasma heads, but they produce large volumes of images that need to be automatically inspected for possible existence of long linear features produced by meteors. Here, we show how big aperture sky survey telescopes detect meteors as defocused tracks with a central brightness depression. We derive an analytic expression for a defocused point source meteor track and use it to calculate brightness profiles of meteors modelled as uniform brightness discs. We apply our modelling to meteor images as seen by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope telescopes. The expression is validated by Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations of photons travelling through the atmosphere and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope telescope optics. We show that estimates of the meteor distance and size can be extracted from the measured full width at half-maximum and the strength of the central dip in the observed brightness profile. However, this extraction becomes difficult when the defocused meteor track is distorted by the atmospheric seeing or contaminated by a long-lasting glowing meteor trail. The full width at half-maximum of satellite tracks is distinctly narrower than meteor values, which enables removal of a possible confusion between satellites and meteors.

  9. Survey of Nurses\\' Viewpoints on Causes of Medicinal Errors and Barriers to Reporting in Pediatric Units in Hospitals of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Seidi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Patient safety is the principal concern of current health care delivery systems, and several recent studies initiated by the Institute of Medicine have reported a high incidence of medicinal errors. Of the approximately 44000-98000 patient deaths reported each year because of medical errors, 7000 are attributed to medicinal errors. The purpose of this study was to determine nurses' perceptions of causes of medicinal errors and barriers to reporting them in the pediatric wards of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study recruited156 nurses working in general pediatric units via the convenience sample method. A questionnaire containing four sections was used: the first section on demographic information; the second on the reasons for medicinal errors; the third on the estimation of the percentage of medicinal errors occurring in the units; and the final section on the reasons for failing to report the medicinal errors. Results: The most important medicinal errors from the nurses' viewpoint were failure to check medicinal orders (73.9% and errors in the medication administration (64%. The nurses estimated that only 45% of all the medicinal errors were reported, and they cited a lack of knowledge about unit policies and routines (59.8% and negligence to report (59.8% as the most important reasons for the failure to report the errors. Conclusion: We need to improve the accuracy of medicinal error reporting by nurses and to provide a hospital environment conducive to preventing errors from occurring.

  10. Study of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy from the DART Ca II triplet survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, G.; Tolstoy, E.; Helmi, A.; Irwin, M.; Parisi, P.; Hill, V.; Jablonka, P.

    We use Very Large Telescope (VLT)/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) intermediate-resolution (R˜ 6500) spectra of individual red giant branch stars in the near-infrared Ca II triplet (CaT) region to investigate the wide-area metallicity properties and internal kinematics of the

  11. Seroepidemiological Survey of HTLV-I/II in Blood Donors of Mazandaran in 1999.

    OpenAIRE

    N. Tabarestani; R. F. Hosseini; ِA. Ajami

    2000-01-01

    SummaryBackground and purpose: HTL-I/II viruses of the Retroviridae family are known to be the causes of various diseases. They are transmitted by blood transfusion, sexual contact and breast milk. As of contaminated mothers. These viral infections are endemic in certain regions, Epidemiological studies appear to be necessary in the country. Blood donors from different transfusion Centers were investigated in a pilot study.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, blood samples of 180...

  12. Quality assurance and human error effects on the structural safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertero, R.; Lopez, R.; Sarrate, M.

    1991-01-01

    Statistical surveys show that the frequency of failure of structures is much larger than that expected by the codes. Evidence exists that human errors (especially during the design process) is the main cause for the difference between the failure probability admitted by codes and the reality. In this paper, the attenuation of human error effects using tools of quality assurance is analyzed. In particular, the importance of the independent design review is highlighted, and different approaches are discussed. The experience from the Atucha II project, as well as the USA and German practice on independent design review, are summarized. (Author)

  13. Einstein's error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterflood, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    In discussing Einstein's Special Relativity theory it is claimed that it violates the principle of relativity itself and that an anomalous sign in the mathematics is found in the factor which transforms one inertial observer's measurements into those of another inertial observer. The apparent source of this error is discussed. Having corrected the error a new theory, called Observational Kinematics, is introduced to replace Einstein's Special Relativity. (U.K.)

  14. The diesel exhaust in miners study: II. Exposure monitoring surveys and development of exposure groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coble, J.B.; Stewart, P.A.; Vermeulen, R.; Yereb, D.; Stanevich, R.; Blair, A.; Silverman, D.T.; Attfield, M.

    2010-01-01

    Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Nainital-Cape Survey. II. Null results (Joshi+, 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S.; Mary, D. L.; Martinez, P.; Kurtz, D. W.; Girish, V.; Seetha, S.; Sagar, R.; Ashoka, B. N.

    2007-02-01

    For the Nainital-Cape Survey, high-speed photometric observations of Ap and Am star candidates are carried out from ARIES (Manora Peak, Nainital) using a three-channel fast photometer attached to the ARIES 104-cm Sampurnanand telescope. (1 data file).

  16. Mammalian Survey Techniques for Level II Natural Resource Inventories on Corps of Engineers Projects (Part 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    managers must realize that it is seldom possible to meet all sampling criteria, and meth - ods involving direct sightings often provide incomplete counts of...and mule deer (O. hemionus) are the most common ungulates surveyed on Corps lands (Figure 2). Census methods available for deer include the Hahn

  17. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey : II. First public data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sanchez, S. F.; Barrado, D.; Bekeraite, S.; Bomans, D. J.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Catalan-Torrecilla, C.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Garcia-Benito, R.; Gonzalez Delgado, R. M.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Johnson, B. D.; Kupko, D.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Miskolczi, A.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Perez, E.; Perez, I.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Schilling, U.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, J.; Alves, J.; de Amorim, A. L.; Backsmann, N.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Cortijo, C.; Dettmar, R. -J.; Demleitner, M.; Diaz, A. I.; Enke, H.; Florido, E.; Flores, H.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; Garcia-Lorenzo, B.; Gomes, J. M.; Gruel, N.; Haines, T.; Holmes, L.; Jungwiert, B.; Kalinova, V.; Kehrig, C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Klar, J.; Lehnert, M. D.; Lopez-Sanchez, A. R.; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A.; Marmol-Queralto, E.; Marquez, I.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Molla, M.; del Olmo, A.; Meidt, S. E.; Papaderos, P.; Puschnig, J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Roth, M. M.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Spekkens, K.; Singh, R.; Stanishev, V.; Trager, S. C.; Vilchez, J. M.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.

    We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005

  18. CALIFA, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. II. First public data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husemann, B.; Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Barrado, D.; Bekerait*error*ė, S.; Bomans, D. J.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; García-Benito, R.; González Delgado, R. M.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Johnson, B. D.; Kupko, D.; López-Fernandez, R.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mast, D.; Miskolczi, A.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Pérez, E.; Pérez, I.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Schilling, U.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, J.; Alves, J.; de Amorim, A. L.; Backsmann, N.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Cortijo, C.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Demleitner, M.; Díaz, A. I.; Enke, H.; Florido, E.; Flores, H.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Gomes, J. M.; Gruel, N.; Haines, T.; Holmes, L.; Jungwiert, B.; Kalinova, V.; Kehrig, C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Klar, J.; Lehnert, M. D.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Márquez, I.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; del Olmo, A.; Meidt, S. E.; Papaderos, P.; Puschnig, J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Roth, M. M.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Spekkens, K.; Singh, R.; Stanishev, V.; Trager, S. C.; Vilchez, J. M.; Wild, V.; Wisotzki, L.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.

    We present the first public data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005

  19. Uncorrected refractive errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovin S Naidoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC, were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship.

  20. Uncorrected refractive errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin S; Jaggernath, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC), were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR) Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship.

  1. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Sakon, Itsuki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kawamura, Akiko; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2013-01-01

    We performed a near-infrared spectroscopic survey toward an area of ∼10 deg 2 of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the infrared satellite AKARI. Observations were carried out as part of the AKARI Large-area Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LSLMC). The slitless multi-object spectroscopic capability of the AKARI/IRC enabled us to obtain low-resolution (R ∼ 20) spectra in 2-5 μm for a large number of point sources in the LMC. As a result of the survey, we extracted about 2000 infrared spectra of point sources. The data are organized as a near-infrared spectroscopic catalog. The catalog includes various infrared objects such as young stellar objects (YSOs), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, supergiants, and so on. It is shown that 97% of the catalog sources have corresponding photometric data in the wavelength range from 1.2 to 11 μm, and 67% of the sources also have photometric data up to 24 μm. The catalog allows us to investigate near-infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their infrared spectral energy distributions. In addition, it is estimated that about 10% of the catalog sources are observed at more than two different epochs. This enables us to study a spectroscopic variability of sources by using the present catalog. Initial results of source classifications for the LSLMC samples are presented. We classified 659 LSLMC spectra based on their near-infrared spectral features by visual inspection. As a result, it is shown that the present catalog includes 7 YSOs, 160 C-rich AGBs, 8 C-rich AGB candidates, 85 O-rich AGBs, 122 blue and yellow supergiants, 150 red super giants, and 128 unclassified sources. Distributions of the classified sources on the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are discussed in the text. Continuous wavelength coverage and high spectroscopic sensitivity in 2-5 μm can only be achieved by space observations. This is an unprecedented large-scale spectroscopic survey toward the LMC in the near

  2. Northern dwarf and low surface brightness galaxies. II - The Green Bank neutral hydrogen survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen E.; Thuan, Trinh X.; Mangum, Jeffrey G.; Miller, John

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports neutral hydrogen observations of a large sample of dwarf and other low surface brightness galaxies. A detailed discussion and error analysis of the observations are presented, and spectra are displayed for 329 galaxies detected for the first time, or detected with substantially better signal-to-noise ratios than achieved previously. The positions on the sky of 667 galaxies meeting the present selection criteria north of delta = 38 deg are shown. The distribution of the redshifts of galaxies detected at Green Bank is illustrated. The Green Bank detections tapered off strongly below the median H I flux of 3.7 Jy km/s detected at Arecibo: only 12 percent of the Green Bank sample was detected with smaller fluxes.

  3. Main errors in the IMS in studying wells by the method of reflected waves. Osnovnyye pogreshnosti IIS pri issledovaniya skvazhin metodom otrazhennykh voln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koldobskiy, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    An examination is made of the method errors in the information-measurement system for measurement of the coefficient of reflection of ultrasonic pulses from the wall of an uncased well. It is indicated that the greatest errors in the measurements are caused by the change in temperature and hydrostatic pressure along the well shaft, as well as skewing of the well probe because of the presence of caverns, irregularities in the well walls, etc. An evaluation was made of the influence of damping of the acoustic energy in the well fluid on the measurement of the reflection coefficient.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Survey of Centaurus A's Baryonic Structures II. (Taylor+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. A.; Puzia, T. H.; Munoz, R. P.; Mieske, S.; Lancon, A.; Zhang, H.; Eigenthaler, P.; Bovill, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    The Survey of Centaurus A's Baryonic Structures is an optical survey of the nearby giant elliptical galaxy NGC5128 (Centaurus A) using the Dark Energy Camera. This work focussed on identifying globular cluster candidates of 22 sq. degrees centred on NGC5128. In doing so we produced a list of ~4.4x105 point, and point-like sources in the optical u'g'r'i'z' bands with 50/90% completeness limits of at least 24.08/23.62, 22.67/22.27, 22.46/22.00, 22.05/21.63, and 21.71/21.34 AB mags, respectively. The same data is also included for a list of ~3000 highly probable globular cluster candidates Positional data is typically accurate to at least 0.5". (4 data files).

  5. Visual servoing in medical robotics: a survey. Part II: tomographic imaging modalities--techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mahdi; Najmaei, Nima; Khoshnam, Mahta; Patel, Rajni

    2015-03-01

    Intraoperative application of tomographic imaging techniques provides a means of visual servoing for objects beneath the surface of organs. The focus of this survey is on therapeutic and diagnostic medical applications where tomographic imaging is used in visual servoing. To this end, a comprehensive search of the electronic databases was completed for the period 2000-2013. Existing techniques and products are categorized and studied, based on the imaging modality and their medical applications. This part complements Part I of the survey, which covers visual servoing techniques using endoscopic imaging and direct vision. The main challenges in using visual servoing based on tomographic images have been identified. 'Supervised automation of medical robotics' is found to be a major trend in this field and ultrasound is the most commonly used tomographic modality for visual servoing. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Test program element II blanket and shield thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing, experimental facility survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available.

  7. Test program element II blanket and shield thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing, experimental facility survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available

  8. A selection of hot subluminous stars in the GALEX survey - II. Subdwarf atmospheric parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Németh, Péter; Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 427, č. 3 (2012), s. 2180-2211 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300030908; GA AV ČR IAA301630901; GA ČR GAP209/10/0967 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : catalogues * surveys * abundance Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.521, year: 2012

  9. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. II. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T., E-mail: mkpresco@physics.ucsb.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Using a systematic broadband search technique, we have carried out a survey for large Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} {sup b}lobs{sup )} at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within 8.5 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field, corresponding to a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h {sup -3} {sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}. Here, we present our spectroscopic observations of candidate giant Ly{alpha} nebulae. Of 26 candidates targeted, 5 were confirmed to have Ly{alpha} emission at 1.7 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.7, 4 of which were new discoveries. The confirmed Ly{alpha} nebulae span a range of Ly{alpha} equivalent widths, colors, sizes, and line ratios, and most show spatially extended continuum emission. The remaining candidates did not reveal any strong emission lines, but instead exhibit featureless, diffuse, blue continuum spectra. Their nature remains mysterious, but we speculate that some of these might be Ly{alpha} nebulae lying within the redshift desert (i.e., 1.2 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.6). Our spectroscopic follow-up confirms the power of using deep broadband imaging to search for the bright end of the Ly{alpha} nebula population across enormous comoving volumes.

  10. THE RISE AND FALL OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES IN THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, Brian T.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Kessler, Richard; Frieman, Joshua A.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Bassett, Bruce; Smith, Mathew; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Benjamin; Kasen, Daniel; Marriner, John; Nichol, Robert C.; Riess, Adam G.; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P.; Sollerman, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the rise and fall times of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. From a set of 391 light curves k-corrected to the rest-frame B and V bands, we find a smaller dispersion in the rising portion of the light curve compared to the decline. This is in qualitative agreement with computer models which predict that variations in radioactive nickel yield have less impact on the rise than on the spread of the decline rates. The differences we find in the rise and fall properties suggest that a single 'stretch' correction to the light curve phase does not properly model the range of SN Ia light curve shapes. We select a subset of 105 light curves well observed in both rise and fall portions of the light curves and develop a '2-stretch' fit algorithm which estimates the rise and fall times independently. We find the average time from explosion to B-band peak brightness is 17.38 ± 0.17 days, but with a spread of rise times which range from 13 days to 23 days. Our average rise time is shorter than the 19.5 days found in previous studies; this reflects both the different light curve template used and the application of the 2-stretch algorithm. The SDSS-II supernova set and the local SNe Ia with well-observed early light curves show no significant differences in their average rise-time properties. We find that slow-declining events tend to have fast rise times, but that the distribution of rise minus fall time is broad and single peaked. This distribution is in contrast to the bimodality in this parameter that was first suggested by Strovink from an analysis of a small set of local SNe Ia. We divide the SDSS-II sample in half based on the rise minus fall value, t r - t f ≤ 2 days and t r - t f > 2 days, to search for differences in their host galaxy properties and Hubble residuals; we find no difference in host galaxy properties or Hubble residuals in our sample.

  11. The Rise and Fall of Type Ia Supernova Light Curves in the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, Brian T.; /Notre Dame U.; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U.; Kessler, Richard; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Frieman, Joshua A.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Jha, Saurabh W.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Kasen, Daniel; /UC, Santa Cruz; Marriner, John; /Fermilab; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U., ICG /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the rise and fall times of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. From a set of 391 light curves k-corrected to the rest-frame B and V bands, we find a smaller dispersion in the rising portion of the light curve compared to the decline. This is in qualitative agreement with computer models which predict that variations in radioactive nickel yield have less impact on the rise than on the spread of the decline rates. The differences we find in the rise and fall properties suggest that a single 'stretch' correction to the light curve phase does not properly model the range of SN Ia light curve shapes. We select a subset of 105 light curves well observed in both rise and fall portions of the light curves and develop a '2-stretch' fit algorithm which estimates the rise and fall times independently. We find the average time from explosion to B-band peak brightness is 17.38 {+-} 0.17 days, but with a spread of rise times which range from 13 days to 23 days. Our average rise time is shorter than the 19.5 days found in previous studies; this reflects both the different light curve template used and the application of the 2-stretch algorithm. The SDSS-II supernova set and the local SNe Ia with well-observed early light curves show no significant differences in their average rise-time properties. We find that slow-declining events tend to have fast rise times, but that the distribution of rise minus fall time is broad and single peaked. This distribution is in contrast to the bimodality in this parameter that was first suggested by Strovink (2007) from an analysis of a small set of local SNe Ia. We divide the SDSS-II sample in half based on the rise minus fall value, t{sub r} - t{sub f} {approx}< 2 days and t{sub r} - t{sub f} > 2 days, to search for differences in their host galaxy properties and Hubble residuals; we find no difference in host galaxy properties or Hubble

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chandra ACIS survey in nearby galaxies. II (Wang+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Qiu, Y.; Liu, J.; Bregman, J. N.

    2018-03-01

    Based on the recently completed Chandra/ACIS survey of X-ray point sources in nearby galaxies, we study the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) for X-ray point sources in different types of galaxies and the statistical properties of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Uniform procedures are developed to compute the detection threshold, to estimate the foreground/background contamination, and to calculate the XLFs for individual galaxies and groups of galaxies, resulting in an XLF library of 343 galaxies of different types. With the large number of surveyed galaxies, we have studied the XLFs and ULX properties across different host galaxy types, and confirm with good statistics that the XLF slope flattens from lenticular (α{\\sim}1.50{\\pm}0.07) to elliptical ({\\sim}1.21{\\pm}0.02), to spirals ({\\sim}0.80{\\pm}0.02), to peculiars ({\\sim}0.55{\\pm}0.30), and to irregulars ({\\sim}0.26{\\pm}0.10). The XLF break dividing the neutron star and black hole binaries is also confirmed, albeit at quite different break luminosities for different types of galaxies. A radial dependency is found for ellipticals, with a flatter XLF slope for sources located between D25 and 2D25, suggesting the XLF slopes in the outer region of early-type galaxies are dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries in globular clusters. This study shows that the ULX rate in early-type galaxies is 0.24{\\pm}0.05 ULXs per surveyed galaxy, on a 5σ confidence level. The XLF for ULXs in late-type galaxies extends smoothly until it drops abruptly around 4x1040erg/s, and this break may suggest a mild boundary between the stellar black hole population possibly including 30M{\\sun} black holes with super-Eddington radiation and intermediate mass black holes. (1 data file).

  13. The Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS). II. Optical Imaging and Photometric Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Hisanori; Kosugi, George; Akiyama, Masayuki; Takata, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Ichi; Iwata, Ikuru; Kajisawa, Masaru; Yasuda, Naoki; Doi, Mamoru; Ouchi, Masami; Simpson, Chris; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Toru; Furusawa, Junko; Morokuma, Tomoki; Ishida, Catherine M.; Aoki, Kentaro; Fuse, Tetsuharu; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Iye, Masanori; Karoji, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kodama, Tadayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Nakata, Fumiaki; Noumaru, Jun'ichi; Ogasawara, Ryusuke; Okamura, Sadanori; Saito, Tomoki; Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2008-05-01

    We present multi-wave band optical imaging data obtained from observations of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS). The survey field, centered at R .A . = 02h18m00s, decl . = - 05°00'00'', has been the focus of a wide range of multiwavelength observing programs spanning from X-ray to radio wavelengths. A large part of the optical imaging observations are carried out with Suprime-Cam on Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea in the course of Subaru Telescope "Observatory Projects." This paper describes our optical observations, data reduction and analysis procedures employed, and the characteristics of the data products. A total area of 1.22 deg2 is covered in five contiguous subfields, each of which corresponds to a single Suprime-Cam field of view (~34' × 27'), in five broadband filters, B, V, Rc, i', and z', to the depths of B = 28.4, V = 27.8, Rc = 27.7, i' = 27.7, and z' = 26.6, respectively (AB, 3 σ, phi = 2''). The data are reduced and compiled into five multi-wave band photometric catalogs, separately for each Suprime-Cam pointing. The i'-band catalogs contain about 900,000 objects, making the SXDS catalogs one of the largest multi-wave band catalogs in corresponding depth and area coverage. The SXDS catalogs can be used for an extensive range of astronomical applications such as the number density of the Galactic halo stars to the large-scale structures at the distant universe. The number counts of galaxies are derived and compared with those of existing deep extragalactic surveys. The optical data, the source catalogs, and configuration files used to create the catalogs are publicly available via the SXDS Web page (http://www.naoj.org/Science/SubaruProject/SXDS/index.html). Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  14. The HIX galaxy survey II: HI kinematics of HI eXtreme galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-01-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected HI content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these HI eXtreme (HIX) galaxies to be so HI-rich. We model the HI kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed HIX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model Dark Sage. We find that (1...

  15. ONLINE PORNOGRAPHY AND SEXUALITY: SOME RESULTS OF EU KIDS ONLINE SURVEY II IN THE ROMANIAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA MARINESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article intends to analyze the exposure of Romanian children and teens to sexually explicit message and the so-called „sexting” activities they perform in the online environment. The main research topic to which we try to find some answers is: are young people more exposed to risks because they view sexually explicit content online and send sexual messages to others? Our results validate the risk migration hypothesis, the blurring boundaries between the online and offline worlds enabling the migration of risk from the real world to the internet and the reverse. At the same time, the date of EU Kinds Online II validate the vulnerability hypothesis, according to which the harm declared by the children following the exposure to sexually explicit images and the receiving the sexual messages is the result of their socio-demographic vulnerabilities

  16. Preliminary Results of Detailed Chemical Abundance Analysis of Milky Way Satellite Galaxy Reticulum II Discovered in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Daniel; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Li, Ting; Dark Energy Survey Milky Way Science Group

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary results from abundance analysis of stars in Milky Way satellite galaxies found in the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES has discovered 16 candidate satellite galaxies of the Milky Way in its first two years of operation. Since January 2015, three candidates have subsequently been revealed to be dark matter-dominated by spectroscopic follow-up studies of their kinematics, confirming their status as satellite galaxies. Spectroscopic follow-up of the remaining 13 candidates is underway. We have analyzed high resolution VLT/GIRAFFE spectra of member stars in one of these satellite galaxies, Reticulum II. Using equivalent width measurement and spectral synthesis methods, we measure the abundances of Iron and other species in order to begin to understand the chemical content of these Milky Way satellites.

  17. Inpatients’ medical prescription errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Melo Santos Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify and quantify the most frequent prescription errors in inpatients’ medical prescriptions. Methods: A survey of prescription errors was performed in the inpatients’ medical prescriptions, from July 2008 to May 2009 for eight hours a day. Rresults: At total of 3,931 prescriptions was analyzed and 362 (9.2% prescription errors were found, which involved the healthcare team as a whole. Among the 16 types of errors detected in prescription, the most frequent occurrences were lack of information, such as dose (66 cases, 18.2% and administration route (26 cases, 7.2%; 45 cases (12.4% of wrong transcriptions to the information system; 30 cases (8.3% of duplicate drugs; doses higher than recommended (24 events, 6.6% and 29 cases (8.0% of prescriptions with indication but not specifying allergy. Cconclusion: Medication errors are a reality at hospitals. All healthcare professionals are responsible for the identification and prevention of these errors, each one in his/her own area. The pharmacist is an essential professional in the drug therapy process. All hospital organizations need a pharmacist team responsible for medical prescription analyses before preparation, dispensation and administration of drugs to inpatients. This study showed that the pharmacist improves the inpatient’s safety and success of prescribed therapy.

  18. Refractive Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Refractive Errors in Children En Español Read in Chinese How does the ... birth and can occur at any age. The prevalence of myopia is low in US children under the age of eight, but much higher ...

  19. Brazil Geological Basic Survey Program - Ponte Nova - Sheet SF.23-X-B-II - Minas Gerais State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandalise, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The present report refers to the Ponte Nova Sheet (SF.23-X-B-II) systematic geological mapping, on the 1:100.000 scale. The Sheet covers the Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais State, in the Mantiqueira Geotectonic Province, to the eastern part of Sao Francisco Geotectonic Province, as defined in the project. The high grade metamorphic rocks to low amphibolite, occurring in the area were affected by a marked low angle shearing transposition, and show diphtheritic effects. Archaean to Proterozoic ages are attributed to the metamorphites mostly by comparison to similar types of the region. Three deformed events were registered in the region. Analysis of the crustal evolution pattern based on geological mapping, laboratorial analyses, gravimetric and air magnetometry data, and available geochronologic data is given in the 6. Chapter, Part II, in the text. Major element oxides, trace-elements, and rare-earths elements were analysed to establish parameters for the rocks environment elucidation. Geochemical survey was carried out with base on pan concentrated and stream sediments distributed throughout the Sheet. Gneisses quarries (industrial rocks) in full exploration activity have been registered, as well as sand and clay deposits employed in construction industry. Metallogenetic/Provisional analysis points out the area as a favorable one for gold prospection. (author)

  20. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. II. DATA DESCRIPTION AND SOURCE CATALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Derek; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Hoyos, Carlos; Balcells, Marc; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Jogee, Shardha; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ∼50% of the core high-density region in Coma. Observations were performed for 25 fields that extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (∼1.75 Mpc or 1 0 ) with a total coverage area of 274 arcmin 2 . The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the southwest region of the cluster. In this paper, we present reprocessed images and SEXTRACTOR source catalogs for our survey fields, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for ∼73,000 unique objects; approximately one-half of our detections are brighter than the 10σ point-source detection limit at F814W = 25.8 mag (AB). The slight majority of objects (60%) are unresolved or only marginally resolved by ACS. We estimate that Coma members are 5%-10% of all source detections, which consist of a large population of unresolved compact sources (primarily globular clusters but also ultra-compact dwarf galaxies) and a wide variety of extended galaxies from a cD galaxy to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The red sequence of Coma member galaxies has a color-magnitude relation with a constant slope and dispersion over 9 mag (-21 F814W < -13). The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in 2008 August. The images and catalogs described

  1. Deep Chandra Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud. II. Timing Analysis of X-Ray Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, JaeSub; Antoniou, Vallia; Zezas, Andreas; Drake, Jeremy J.; Plucinsky, Paul P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Haberl, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbach straße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sasaki, Manami [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Sternwartstrasse 7, 96049 Bamberg (Germany); Laycock, Silas, E-mail: jaesub@head.cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We report the timing analysis results of X-ray pulsars from a recent deep Chandra survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We analyzed a total exposure of 1.4 Ms from 31 observations over a 1.2 deg{sup 2} region in the SMC under a Chandra X-ray Visionary Program. Using the Lomb–Scargle and epoch-folding techniques, we detected periodic modulations from 20 pulsars and a new candidate pulsar. The survey also covered 11 other pulsars with no clear sign of periodic modulation. The 0.5–8 keV X-ray luminosity ( L {sub X} ) of the pulsars ranges from 10{sup 34} to 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1} at 60 kpc. All of the Chandra sources with L {sub X} ≳ 4 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1} exhibit X-ray pulsations. The X-ray spectra of the SMC pulsars (and high-mass X-ray binaries) are in general harder than those of the SMC field population. All but SXP 8.02 can be fitted by an absorbed power-law model with a photon index of Γ ≲ 1.5. The X-ray spectrum of the known magnetar SXP 8.02 is better fitted with a two-temperature blackbody model. Newly measured pulsation periods of SXP 51.0, SXP 214, and SXP 701, are significantly different from the previous XMM-Newton and RXTE measurements. This survey provides a rich data set for energy-dependent pulse profile modeling. Six pulsars show an almost eclipse-like dip in the pulse profile. Phase-resolved spectral analysis reveals diverse spectral variations during pulsation cycles: e.g., for an absorbed power-law model, some exhibit an (anti)-correlation between absorption and X-ray flux, while others show more intrinsic spectral variation (i.e., changes in photon indices).

  2. Civilians in World War II and DSM-IV mental disorders: results from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E; Betancourt, Theresa S; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G; Ten Have, Margreet; Kessler, Ronald C

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Adults (n = 3370) who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders.

  3. Civilians in World War II and DSM-IV mental disorders: Results from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E.; Betancourt, Theresa S.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G.; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G.; Have, Margreet ten; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Methods Adults (n= 3,370)who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Results Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders. (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Conclusions Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders. PMID:29119266

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: California-Kepler Survey (CKS). II. Properties (Johnson+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. A.; Petigura, E. A.; Fulton, B. J.; Marcy, G. W.; Howard, A. W.; Isaacson, H.; Hebb, L.; Cargile, P. A.; Morton, T. D.; Weiss, L. M.; Winn, J. N.; Rogers, L. A.; Sinukoff, E.; Hirsch, L. A.

    2017-11-01

    The California-Kepler Survey (CKS) project and goals are described in detail in Paper I (Petigura et al. 2017, Cat. J/AJ/154/107) of this series. In brief, between 2012 and 2015, we obtained high-resolution (R~50000) spectra of 1305 stars identified as Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) with Keck/HIRES. We used an exposure meter to achieve a uniform signal-to-noise ratio ~45 per HIRES pixel on blaze near 5500Å. Using these spectra, we derived effective temperature (Teff), surface gravity (logg), metallicity ([Fe/H]), and projected stellar rotation velocity (vsini). In this work, we convert the observed spectroscopic properties of Paper I (Petigura et al. 2017, Cat. J/AJ/154/107) into physical stellar and planetary properties. (2 data files).

  5. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume II. Inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, R.F. III; Sharma, R.K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 33 power plants located on inland waters other than the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  6. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume II. Inland waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, III, Richard F.; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 33 power plants located on inland waters other than the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  7. The California- Kepler Survey. II. Precise Physical Properties of 2025 Kepler Planets and Their Host Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, John Asher; Cargile, Phillip A.; Sinukoff, Evan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Petigura, Erik A.; Howard, Andrew W. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States); Fulton, Benjamin J.; Hirsch, Lea A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hebb, Leslie [Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States); Morton, Timothy D.; Winn, Joshua N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Weiss, Lauren M. [Institut de Recherche sur les Exoplanètes, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Rogers, Leslie A., E-mail: petigura@caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    We present stellar and planetary properties for 1305 Kepler Objects of Interest hosting 2025 planet candidates observed as part of the California- Kepler Survey. We combine spectroscopic constraints, presented in Paper I, with stellar interior modeling to estimate stellar masses, radii, and ages. Stellar radii are typically constrained to 11%, compared to 40% when only photometric constraints are used. Stellar masses are constrained to 4%, and ages are constrained to 30%. We verify the integrity of the stellar parameters through comparisons with asteroseismic studies and Gaia parallaxes. We also recompute planetary radii for 2025 planet candidates. Because knowledge of planetary radii is often limited by uncertainties in stellar size, we improve the uncertainties in planet radii from typically 42% to 12%. We also leverage improved knowledge of stellar effective temperature to recompute incident stellar fluxes for the planets, now precise to 21%, compared to a factor of two when derived from photometry.

  8. A ROSAT survey of Wolf-Rayet galaxies - II. The extended sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ian R.; Strickland, David K.

    1998-11-01

    We present results from an ongoing X-ray survey of Wolf-Rayet (WR) galaxies, a class of objects believed to be very young starbursts. This paper extends the first X-ray survey of WR galaxies by Stevens & Strickland by studying WR galaxies identified subsequent to the original WR galaxy catalogue of Conti. Out of a sample of 40 new WR galaxies a total of 10 have been observed with the ROSAT PSPC, and of these seven have been detected (NGC 1365, NGC 1569, I Zw 18, NGC 3353, NGC 4449, NGC 5408 and a marginal detection of NGC 2366). Of these, all are dwarf starbursts except for NGC 1365, which is a barred spiral galaxy possibly with an active nucleus. We also report on observations of the related emission-line galaxy IRAS 0833+6517. The X-ray properties of these galaxies are broadly in line with those found for the original sample; they are X-ray overluminous compared with their blue luminosity and have thermal spectra with typically kT~0.4-1.0keV. There are some oddities: NGC 5408 is very overluminous in X-rays, even compared with other WR galaxies; I Zw 18 has a harder X-ray spectrum; NGC 1365, although thought to contain an active nucleus, has X-ray properties that are broadly similar to other WR galaxies, and we suggest that the X-ray emission from NGC 1365 is due to starburst activity. A good correlation between X-ray and blue luminosity is found for the WR galaxy sample as a whole. However, when just dwarf galaxies are considered there is little evidence of correlation. We discuss the implications of these results on our understanding of the X-ray emission from WR galaxies and suggest that the best explanation for the X-ray activity is starburst activity from a young starburst region.

  9. THE SWIFT AGN AND CLUSTER SURVEY. II. CLUSTER CONFIRMATION WITH SDSS DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bregman, Joel N., E-mail: Rhiannon.D.Griffin-1@ou.edu, E-mail: xdai@ou.edu, E-mail: ckochanek@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: jbregman@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We study 203 (of 442) Swift AGN and Cluster Survey extended X-ray sources located in the SDSS DR8 footprint to search for galaxy over-densities in three-dimensional space using SDSS galaxy photometric redshifts and positions near the Swift cluster candidates. We find 104 Swift clusters with a >3σ galaxy over-density. The remaining targets are potentially located at higher redshifts and require deeper optical follow-up observations for confirmation as galaxy clusters. We present a series of cluster properties including the redshift, brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) magnitude, BCG-to-X-ray center offset, optical richness, and X-ray luminosity. We also detect red sequences in ∼85% of the 104 confirmed clusters. The X-ray luminosity and optical richness for the SDSS confirmed Swift clusters are correlated and follow previously established relations. The distribution of the separations between the X-ray centroids and the most likely BCG is also consistent with expectation. We compare the observed redshift distribution of the sample with a theoretical model, and find that our sample is complete for z ≲ 0.3 and is still 80% complete up to z ≃ 0.4, consistent with the SDSS survey depth. These analysis results suggest that our Swift cluster selection algorithm has yielded a statistically well-defined cluster sample for further study of cluster evolution and cosmology. We also match our SDSS confirmed Swift clusters to existing cluster catalogs, and find 42, 23, and 1 matches in optical, X-ray, and Sunyaev–Zel’dovich catalogs, respectively, and so the majority of these clusters are new detections.

  10. The POINT-AGAPE survey II: An Unrestricted Search for Microlensing Events towards M31

    CERN Document Server

    Belokurov, V; Evans, N W; Hewett, P C; Baillon, Paul; Novati, S C; Carr, B J; Creze, M; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Gould, A; Jetzer, P; Kaplan, J; Kerins, E; Paulin-Henriksson, S; Smartt, S J; Stalin, C S; Tsapras, Y; Weston, M J; Jetzer, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    An automated search is carried out for microlensing events using a catalogue of 44554 variable superpixel lightcurves derived from our three-year monitoring program of M31. Each step of our candidate selection is objective and reproducible by a computer. Our search is unrestricted, in the sense that it has no explicit timescale cut. So, it must overcome the awkward problem of distinguishing long-timescale microlensing events from long-period stellar variables. The basis of the selection algorithm is the fitting of the superpixel lightcurves to two different theoretical models, using variable star and blended microlensing templates. Only if microlensing is preferred is an event retained as a possible candidate. Further cuts are made with regard to (i) sampling, (ii) goodness of fit of the peak to a Paczynski curve, (iii) consistency of the microlensing hypothesis with the absence of a resolved source, (iv) achromaticity, (v) position in the colour-magnitude diagram and (vi) signal-to-noise ratio. Our results a...

  11. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; Den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of a HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially-completed survey still covers approximately 50% of the core high density region in Coma. Observations were performed for twenty-five fields with a total coverage area of 274 aremin(sup 2), and extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (approximately 1.75 Mpe or 1 deg). The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the south-west region of the cluster. In this paper we present SEXTRACTOR source catalogs generated from the processed images, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for 76,000 objects that consist of roughly equal numbers of extended galaxies and unresolved objects. Approximately two-thirds of all detections are brighter than F814W=26.5 mag (AB), which corresponds to the 10sigma, point-source detection limit. We estimate that Coma members are 5-10% of the source detections, including a large population of compact objects (primarily GCs, but also cEs and UCDs), and a wide variety of extended galaxies from cD galaxies to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in August 2008. The images and catalogs described in this study relate to our second data release.

  12. Refractive errors survey in primary school children (6-12 year old) in 2 provinces: Bangkok and Nakhonpathom (one year result).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingyong, Penpimol

    2010-10-01

    Refractive error is an important cause of preventable visual impairment and blindness worldwide. Population-based studies will continue to be a key part in identification ofthe magnitude and the importance of this common eye disease. To assess the prevalence of the refractive error in primary school-aged children in Bangkok and Nakhonpathom together with the provision of the appropriately free of charge spectacles. A Population-based cross-sectional analytic study was conducted between October 2008 and September 2009. Random selection of geographically defined clusters was used to identify the study sample. The examination included visual acuity (VA) by Snellen chart and pinhole correction, autorefraction under cycloplegic refraction, ocular motility evaluation, examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus. Ophthalmologists screened for ocular abnormalities. Among 2340 children, 1100 in Bangkok and 1240 in Nakhonpathom were examined The prevalence of refractive error in Bangkok and Nakhornpathom were 12.7% and 5.7% respectively. Refractive error was the cause in 97.6% of eyes with reduced vision, amblyopia in 0.5%, other causes in 0.8%, and unexplained causes in 1.1%. The present study showed a relative high prevalence of uncorrected refractive error in the central part of Thailand especially in Bangkok. Eye health education and screening is recommended to evaluate the need for refractive correction with appropriate prescription of spectacles.

  13. The Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars survey: II. Instrumental effects of six ground-based observing campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altavilla, G.; Marinoni, S.; Pancino, E.; Galleti, S.; Ragaini, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Cocozza, G.; Bragaglia, A.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castro, A.; Di Fabrizio, L.; Federici, L.; Figueras, F.; Gebran, M.; Jordi, C.; Masana, E.; Schuster, W.; Valentini, G.; Voss, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia SpectroPhotometric Standard Stars (SPSS) survey started in 2006, was awarded almost 450 observing nights and accumulated almost 100 000 raw data frames with both photometric and spectroscopic observations. Such large observational effort requires careful, homogeneous, and automatic data reduction and quality control procedures. In this paper, we quantitatively evaluate instrumental effects that might have a significant (i.e., ≥ 1 %) impact on the Gaia SPSS flux calibration. The measurements involve six different instruments, monitored over the eight years of observations dedicated to the Gaia flux standards campaigns: DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, EFOSC2@NTT and ROSS@REM in La Silla, CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, and LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir. We examine and quantitatively evaluate the following effects: CCD linearity and shutter times, calibration frames stability, lamp flexures, second order contamination, light polarization, and fringing. We present methods to correct for the relevant effects which can be applied to a wide range of observational projects at similar instruments. Based on data obtained with BFOSC@Cassini in Loiano, Italy; EFOSC2@NTT in La Silla, Chile; DOLORES@TNG in La Palma, Spain; CAFOS@2.2 m in Calar Alto, Spain; LaRuca@1.5 m in San Pedro Mártir, Mexico (see acknowledgements for more details).

  14. The HIX galaxy survey II: HI kinematics of HI eXtreme galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-02-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected HI content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these HI eXtreme (HIX) galaxies to be so HI-rich. We model the H I kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed HIX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model DARK SAGE. We find that (1) H I discs in HIX galaxies are more likely to be warped and more likely to host H I arms and tails than in the control galaxies, (2) the average H I and average stellar column density of HIX galaxies is comparable to the control sample, (3) HIX galaxies have higher H I and baryonic specific angular momenta than control galaxies, (4) most HIX galaxies live in higher-spin haloes than most control galaxies. These results suggest that HIX galaxies are H I-rich because they can support more H I against gravitational instability due to their high specific angular momentum. The majority of the HIX galaxies inherits their high specific angular momentum from their halo. The H I content of HIX galaxies might be further increased by gas-rich minor mergers. This paper is based on data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) through the large program C 2705.

  15. Far-infrared data for symbiotic stars. II. The IRAS survey observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, S.J.; Fernandez-Castro, T.; Stencel, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    IRAS survey data for all known symbiotic binaries are reported. S type systems have 25 micron excesses much larger than those of single red giant stars, suggesting that these objects lose mass more rapidly than do normal giants. D type objects have far-IR colors similar to those of Mira variables, implying mass-loss rate of about 10 to the -6th solar masses/yr. The near-IR extinctions of the D types indicate that their Mira components are enshrouded in optically thick dust shells, while their hot companions lie outside the shells. If this interpretation of the data is correct, then the very red near-IR colors of D type symbiotic stars are caused by extreme amounts of dust absorption rather than dust emission. The small group of D prime objects possesses far-IR colors resembling those of compact planetary nebulae or extreme OH/IR stars. It is speculated that these binaries are not symbiotic stars at all, but contain a hot compact star and an exasymptotic branch giant which is in the process of ejecting a planetary nebula shell. 42 references

  16. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASAR LENS SEARCH. II. STATISTICAL LENS SAMPLE FROM THETHIRD DATA RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, N; Oguri, M; Becker, R H; Shin, M; Richards, G T; Hennawi, J F; White, R L; Pindor, B; Strauss, M A; Kochanek, C S; Johnston, D E; Gregg, M D; Kayo, I; Eisenstein, D; Hall, P B; Castander, F J; Clocchiatti, A; Chiu, K; Kawano, Y; Scranton, R; Frieman, J; Keeton, C R; Morokuma, T; Rix, H; Turner, E L; Burless, S; Brunner, R J; Sheldon, E S; Bahcall, N A; Fukugita, M

    2007-09-13

    We report the first results of our systematic search for strongly lensed quasars using the spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Among 46,420 quasars from the SDSS Data Release 3 ({approx}4188 deg{sup 2}), we select a subsample of 22,683 quasars that are located at redshifts between 0.6 and 2.2 and are brighter than the Galactic extinction corrected i-band magnitude of 19.1. We identify 220 lens candidates from the quasar subsample, for which we conduct extensive and systematic follow-up observations in optical and near-infrared wavebands, in order to construct a complete lensed quasar sample at image separations between 1-inch and 20-inch and flux ratios of faint to bright lensed images larger than 10{sup -0.5}. We construct a statistical sample of 11 lensed quasars. Ten of these are galaxy-scale lenses with small image separations ({approx} 1-inch - 2-inch) and one is a large separation (15-inch) system which is produced by a massive cluster of galaxies, representing the first statistical sample of lensed quasars including both galaxy- and cluster-scale lenses. The Data Release 3 spectroscopic quasars contain an additional 11 lensed quasars outside the statistical sample.

  17. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  18. The H IX galaxy survey - II. H I kinematics of H I eXtreme galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.

    2018-05-01

    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected H I content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these H I eXtreme (H IX) galaxies to be so H I-rich. We model the H I kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed H IX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model DARK SAGE. We find that (1) H I discs in H IX galaxies are more likely to be warped and more likely to host H I arms and tails than in the control galaxies, (2) the average H I and average stellar column density of H IX galaxies is comparable to the control sample, (3) H IX galaxies have higher H I and baryonic specific angular momenta than control galaxies, (4) most H IX galaxies live in higher spin haloes than most control galaxies. These results suggest that H IX galaxies are H I-rich because they can support more H I against gravitational instability due to their high specific angular momentum. The majority of the H IX galaxies inherits their high specific angular momentum from their halo. The H I content of H IX galaxies might be further increased by gas-rich minor mergers. This paper is based on data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array through the large program C 2705.

  19. The Taurus Boundary of Stellar/Substellar (TBOSS) Survey. II. Disk Masses from ALMA Continuum Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Duong, K.; Patience, J.; Bulger, J.; van der Plas, G.; Ménard, F.; Pinte, C.; Jackson, A. P.; Bryden, G.; Turner, N. J.; Harvey, P.; Hales, A.; De Rosa, R. J.

    2018-02-01

    We report 885 μm ALMA continuum flux densities for 24 Taurus members spanning the stellar/substellar boundary with spectral types from M4 to M7.75. Of the 24 systems, 22 are detected at levels ranging from 1.0 to 55.7 mJy. The two nondetections are transition disks, though other transition disks in the sample are detected. Converting ALMA continuum measurements to masses using standard scaling laws and radiative transfer modeling yields dust mass estimates ranging from ∼0.3 to 20 M ⊕. The dust mass shows a declining trend with central object mass when combined with results from submillimeter surveys of more massive Taurus members. The substellar disks appear as part of a continuous sequence and not a distinct population. Compared to older Upper Sco members with similar masses across the substellar limit, the Taurus disks are brighter and more massive. Both Taurus and Upper Sco populations are consistent with an approximately linear relationship in M dust to M star, although derived power-law slopes depend strongly upon choices of stellar evolutionary model and dust temperature relation. The median disk around early-M stars in Taurus contains a comparable amount of mass in small solids as the average amount of heavy elements in Kepler planetary systems on short-period orbits around M-dwarf stars, with an order of magnitude spread in disk dust mass about the median value. Assuming a gas-to-dust ratio of 100:1, only a small number of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs have a total disk mass amenable to giant planet formation, consistent with the low frequency of giant planets orbiting M dwarfs.

  20. Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) II: Spectral Homogeneity Among Hungaria Family Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Michael P.; Emery, Joshua; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Lindsay, Sean S.; MacLennan, Eric M.; Cartwright, Richard; Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.; Thomas, Cristina A.; Lorenzi, Vania

    2017-10-01

    Spectral observations of asteroid family members provide valuable information regarding parent body interiors, the source regions of near-Earth asteroids, and the link between meteorites and their parent bodies. Hungaria family asteroids constitute the closest samples to the Earth from a collisional family (~1.94 AU), permitting observations of smaller fragments than accessible for Main Belt families. We have carried out a ground-based observational campaign - Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) - to record reflectance spectra of these preserved samples from the inner-most primordial asteroid belt. During HARTSS phase one (Lucas et al. [2017]. Icarus 291, 268-287) we found that ~80% of the background population is comprised of stony S-complex asteroids that exhibit considerable spectral and mineralogical diversity. In HARTSS phase two, we turn our attention to family members and hypothesize that the Hungaria collisional family is homogeneous. We test this hypothesis through taxonomic classification, albedo estimates, and spectral properties.During phase two of HARTSS we acquired near-infrared (NIR) spectra of 50 new Hungarias (19 family; 31 background) with SpeX/IRTF and NICS/TNG. We analyzed X-type family spectra for NIR color indices (0.85-J J-K), and a subtle ~0.9 µm absorption feature that may be attributed to Fe-poor orthopyroxene. Surviving fragments of an asteroid collisional family typically exhibit similar taxonomies, albedos, and spectral properties. Spectral analysis of X-type Hungaria family members and independently calculated WISE albedo determinations for 428 Hungaria asteroids is consistent with this scenario. Furthermore, ~1/4 of the background population exhibit similar spectral properties and albedos to family X-types.Spectral observations of 92 Hungaria region asteroids acquired during both phases of HARTSS uncover a compositionally heterogeneous background and spectral homogeneity down to ~2 km for collisional family

  1. CHROMOSPHERIC VARIABILITY IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY M DWARFS. II. SHORT-TIMESCALE Hα VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, E. A.; Berger, E.; Laskar, T.; Knapp, G. R.; Gunn, J. E.; Loomis, C. P.; Lupton, R. H.; Schlegel, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive study of short-timescale chromospheric Hα variability in M dwarfs using the individual 15 minute spectroscopic exposures for 52, 392 objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our sample contains about 10 3 -10 4 objects per spectral type bin in the range M0-M9, with a typical number of three exposures per object (ranging up to a maximum of 30 exposures). Using this extensive data set, we find that about 16% of the sources exhibit Hα emission in at least one exposure, and of those about 45% exhibit Hα emission in all of the available exposures. As in previous studies of Hα activity (L Hα /L bol ), we find a rapid increase in the fraction of active objects from M0-M6. However, we find a subsequent decline in later spectral types that we attribute to our use of the individual spectra. Similarly, we find saturated activity at a level of L Hα /L bol ∼ 10 -3.6 for spectral types M0-M5 followed by a decline to about 10 -4.3 in the range M7-M9. Within the sample of objects with Hα emission, only 26% are consistent with non-variable emission, independent of spectral type. The Hα variability, quantified in terms of the ratio of maximum to minimum Hα equivalent width (R EW ), exhibits a rapid rise from M0 to M5, followed by a plateau and a possible decline in M9 objects. In particular, variability with R EW ∼> 10 is only observed in objects later than M5, and survival analysis indicates a probability of ∼ EW values for M0-M4 and M5-M9 are drawn from the same distribution. We further find that for an exponential distribution, the R EW values follow N(R EW ) ∝ exp[ - (R EW - 1)/2.3] for M0-M4 and ∝exp[ - (R EW - 1)/2.9] for M5-M9. Finally, comparing objects with persistent and intermittent Hα emission, we find that the latter exhibit greater variability. Based on these results, we conclude that Hα variability in M dwarfs on timescales of 15 minutes to 1 hr increases with later spectral type, and that the variability is

  2. Young massive stars in the ISOGAL survey. II. The catalogue of bright YSO candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felli, M.; Testi, L.; Schuller, F.; Omont, A.

    2002-09-01

    The 7 and 15 mu m observations of selected fields in the Galactic Plane obtained with ISOCAM during the ISOGAL program offer a unique possibility to search for previously unknown YSOs, undetected by IRAS because of lower sensitivity or confusion problems. In a previous paper (Felli et al. \\cite{FCTOS00}) we established criteria of general validity to select YSOs from the much larger population of Post Main Sequence (Post-MS) stars present in the ISOGAL fields by comparing radio and IR observations of five fields located at l ~ +45deg. The selection was based primarily on the position of the point sources in the [15]-[7]-[15] diagram, which involves only ISOGAL data and allows to find possible YSOs using the survey data alone. In the present work we revise the adopted criteria by comparing radio-identified UC HII regions and ISOGAL observations over a much larger region. The main indications of the previous analysis are confirmed, but the criteria for selecting YSO candidates had to be revised to select only bright objects, in order to limit the contamination of the sample by Post-MS stars. The revised criteria ([15]le4 .5, [7]-[15]ge1 .8) are then used to extract YSO candidates from the ISOGAL Point Source Catalogue in preparation. We select a total of 715 YSO candidates, corresponding to ~ 2% of the sources with good detections at 7 and 15 mu m. The results are presented in a table form that provides an unique input list of small diameter, le 6 arcsec, Galactic YSO candidates. The global properties of the sample of YSO candidates are briefly discussed. This is paper No. 11 in a refereed journal based on data from the ISOGAL project. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA. Table 3 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http

  3. Survey of total error of precipitation and homogeneous HDL-cholesterol methods and simultaneous evaluation of lyophilized saccharose-containing candidate reference materials for HDL-cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Cobbaert (Christa); H. Baadenhuijsen; L. Zwang (Louwerens); C.W. Weykamp; P.N. Demacker; P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Standardization of HDL-cholesterol is needed for risk assessment. We assessed for the first time the accuracy of HDL-cholesterol testing in The Netherlands and evaluated 11 candidate reference materials (CRMs). METHODS: The total error (TE) of

  4. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca II K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Loyd, R. O. Parke; Brown, Alexander; Mason, James P.; Schneider, P. Christian; Tilley, Matt A.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Buccino, Andrea; Froning, Cynthia S.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Linsky, Jeffrey; Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Redfield, Seth; Kowalski, Adam; Miguel, Yamila; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Rugheimer, Sarah; Segura, Antígona; Roberge, Aki; Vieytes, Mariela

    2017-07-01

    Characterizing the UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of an exoplanet host star is critically important for assessing its planet’s potential habitability, particularly for M dwarfs, as they are prime targets for current and near-term exoplanet characterization efforts and atmospheric models predict that their UV radiation can produce photochemistry on habitable zone planets different from that on Earth. To derive ground-based proxies for UV emission for use when Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations are unavailable, we have assembled a sample of 15 early to mid-M dwarfs observed by HST and compared their nonsimultaneous UV and optical spectra. We find that the equivalent width of the chromospheric Ca II K line at 3933 Å, when corrected for spectral type, can be used to estimate the stellar surface flux in ultraviolet emission lines, including H I Lyα. In addition, we address another potential driver of habitability: energetic particle fluxes associated with flares. We present a new technique for estimating soft X-ray and >10 MeV proton flux during far-UV emission line flares (Si IV and He II) by assuming solar-like energy partitions. We analyze several flares from the M4 dwarf GJ 876 observed with HST and Chandra as part of the MUSCLES Treasury Survey and find that habitable zone planets orbiting GJ 876 are impacted by large Carrington-like flares with peak soft X-ray fluxes ≥10-3 W m-2 and possible proton fluxes ˜102-103 pfu, approximately four orders of magnitude more frequently than modern-day Earth.

  5. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca ii K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Loyd, R. O. Parke; Mason, James P. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 600 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Schneider, P. Christian [European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Tilley, Matt A. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Kowalski, Adam [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 2000 Colorado Ave., Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo J. D. [Dpto. de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (FCEN), Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Froning, Cynthia S. [Department of Astronomy/McDonald Observatory, C1400, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hawley, Suzanne L. [Astronomy Department, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Redfield, Seth [Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Miguel, Yamila [Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, Boulevard de l’Observatoire, CS 34229 F-06304 NICE Cedex 4 (France); Newton, Elisabeth R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rugheimer, Sarah, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of St. Andrews, Irvine Building, North Street, St. Andrews, KY16 9AL (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-07-01

    Characterizing the UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of an exoplanet host star is critically important for assessing its planet’s potential habitability, particularly for M dwarfs, as they are prime targets for current and near-term exoplanet characterization efforts and atmospheric models predict that their UV radiation can produce photochemistry on habitable zone planets different from that on Earth. To derive ground-based proxies for UV emission for use when Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) observations are unavailable, we have assembled a sample of 15 early to mid-M dwarfs observed by HST and compared their nonsimultaneous UV and optical spectra. We find that the equivalent width of the chromospheric Ca ii K line at 3933 Å, when corrected for spectral type, can be used to estimate the stellar surface flux in ultraviolet emission lines, including H i Ly α . In addition, we address another potential driver of habitability: energetic particle fluxes associated with flares. We present a new technique for estimating soft X-ray and >10 MeV proton flux during far-UV emission line flares (Si iv and He ii) by assuming solar-like energy partitions. We analyze several flares from the M4 dwarf GJ 876 observed with HST and Chandra as part of the MUSCLES Treasury Survey and find that habitable zone planets orbiting GJ 876 are impacted by large Carrington-like flares with peak soft X-ray fluxes ≥10{sup −3} W m{sup −2} and possible proton fluxes ∼10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} pfu, approximately four orders of magnitude more frequently than modern-day Earth.

  6. Medication Errors - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay BC; Nikhitha MK; Patel Sunil B

    2015-01-01

    In this present review article, regarding medication errors its definition, medication error problem, types of medication errors, common causes of medication errors, monitoring medication errors, consequences of medication errors, prevention of medication error and managing medication errors have been explained neatly and legibly with proper tables which is easy to understand.

  7. The Segue K giant survey. II. A catalog of distance determinations for the Segue K giants in the galactic halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Xiang-Xiang; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ma, Zhibo; Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; Beers, Timothy C.; Ivans, Inese I.; Jacobson, Heather R.; Johnson, Jennifer; Lee, Young Sun; Lucatello, Sara; Rockosi, Constance M.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Yanny, Brian; Zhao, Gang; Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We present an online catalog of distance determinations for 6036 K giants, most of which are members of the Milky Way's stellar halo. Their medium-resolution spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration are used to derive metallicities and rough gravity estimates, along with radial velocities. Distance moduli are derived from a comparison of each star's apparent magnitude with the absolute magnitude of empirically calibrated color-luminosity fiducials, at the observed (g – r) 0 color and spectroscopic [Fe/H]. We employ a probabilistic approach that makes it straightforward to properly propagate the errors in metallicities, magnitudes, and colors into distance uncertainties. We also fold in prior information about the giant-branch luminosity function and the different metallicity distributions of the SEGUE K-giant targeting sub-categories. We show that the metallicity prior plays a small role in the distance estimates, but that neglecting the luminosity prior could lead to a systematic distance modulus bias of up to 0.25 mag, compared to the case of using the luminosity prior. We find a median distance precision of 16%, with distance estimates most precise for the least metal-poor stars near the tip of the red giant branch. The precision and accuracy of our distance estimates are validated with observations of globular and open clusters. The stars in our catalog are up to 125 kpc from the Galactic center, with 283 stars beyond 50 kpc, forming the largest available spectroscopic sample of distant tracers in the Galactic halo.

  8. Change in the height of Korean children and adolescents: analysis from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey II and V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Na Yung; Shin, Ha Young; Kim, Jae Hyun; Moon, Jin Soo; Lee, Chong Guk

    2015-09-01

    The mean adult height of Koreans has increased since nationwide anthropological measurements began in 1967. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in heights of Korean late adolescents and young adults within and between the Second and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES II and V). Koreans aged ≤22 years with available measurements of height were enrolled from the KNHANES surveys (KNHANES II: n=3,372 [1,732 males and 1,640 females]; KNHANES V: n=6,190 [3,198 males and 2,992 females]). Differences in the height of KNHANES respondents within and between surveys were evaluated according to age and sex. In KNHANES II, there was no significant difference in height between males aged 17-19 years and those aged 20-22 years (174.3±0.5 cm vs. 174.3±0.6 cm, P=0.995). Females aged 20-22 years were taller than those aged 17-19 years (159.8±0.4 cm vs. 161.0±0.4 cm, P=0.017). Females aged 17-19 years were significantly taller in KNHANES V than in KNHANES II (161.2±0.3 cm vs. 159.8±0.4 cm, P=0.004). Respondents aged 20-22 years were taller in KNHANES V than in KNHANES II, although not significantly so; the difference was 0.3±0.8 cm in males (P=0.721) and 0.5±0.6 cm in females (P=0.386). Koreans appear to continue growing even in their late adolescence and early twenties. Consequently, it may be necessary to expand the reference age ranges of the Korean growth chart. Additionally, a longitudinal growth survey is needed to determine growth patterns and secular trend in height among Koreans.

  9. Error Budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinyard, Natalia Sergeevna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Theodore Sonne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-04

    We calculate opacity from k (hn)=-ln[T(hv)]/pL, where T(hv) is the transmission for photon energy hv, p is sample density, and L is path length through the sample. The density and path length are measured together by Rutherford backscatter. Δk = $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial T$ ΔT + $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial (pL)$. We can re-write this in terms of fractional error as Δk/k = Δ1n(T)/T + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission itself is calculated from T=(U-E)/(V-E)=B/B0, where B is transmitted backlighter (BL) signal and B0 is unattenuated backlighter signal. Then ΔT/T=Δln(T)=ΔB/B+ΔB0/B0, and consequently Δk/k = 1/T (ΔB/B + ΔB$_0$/B$_0$ + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission is measured in the range of 0.2

  10. Heuristic errors in clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Melanie; Guerrasio, Jeannette

    2016-08-01

    Errors in clinical reasoning contribute to patient morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the types of heuristic errors made by third-year medical students and first-year residents. This study surveyed approximately 150 clinical educators inquiring about the types of heuristic errors they observed in third-year medical students and first-year residents. Anchoring and premature closure were the two most common errors observed amongst third-year medical students and first-year residents. There was no difference in the types of errors observed in the two groups. Errors in clinical reasoning contribute to patient morbidity and mortality Clinical educators perceived that both third-year medical students and first-year residents committed similar heuristic errors, implying that additional medical knowledge and clinical experience do not affect the types of heuristic errors made. Further work is needed to help identify methods that can be used to reduce heuristic errors early in a clinician's education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A New Extension of the Binomial Error Model for Responses to Items of Varying Difficulty in Educational Testing and Attitude Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Wiley

    Full Text Available We put forward a new item response model which is an extension of the binomial error model first introduced by Keats and Lord. Like the binomial error model, the basic latent variable can be interpreted as a probability of responding in a certain way to an arbitrarily specified item. For a set of dichotomous items, this model gives predictions that are similar to other single parameter IRT models (such as the Rasch model but has certain advantages in more complex cases. The first is that in specifying a flexible two-parameter Beta distribution for the latent variable, it is easy to formulate models for randomized experiments in which there is no reason to believe that either the latent variable or its distribution vary over randomly composed experimental groups. Second, the elementary response function is such that extensions to more complex cases (e.g., polychotomous responses, unfolding scales are straightforward. Third, the probability metric of the latent trait allows tractable extensions to cover a wide variety of stochastic response processes.

  12. Objectives and methodology of Romanian SEPHAR II Survey. Project for comparing the prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors in two East-European countries: Romania and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorobantu, Maria; Tautu, Oana-Florentina; Darabont, Roxana; Ghiorghe, Silviu; Badila, Elisabeta; Dana, Minca; Dobreanu, Minodora; Baila, Ilarie; Rutkowski, Marcin; Zdrojewski, Tomasz

    2015-08-12

    Comparing results of representative surveys conducted in different East-European countries could contribute to a better understanding and management of cardiovascular risk factors, offering grounds for the development of health policies addressing the special needs of this high cardiovascular risk region of Europe. The aim of this paper was to describe the methodology on which the comparison between the Romanian survey SEPHAR II and the Polish survey NATPOL 2011 results is based. SEPHAR II, like NATPOL 2011, is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a representative sample of the adult Romanian population (18 to 80 years) and encompasses two visits with the following components: completing the study questionnaire, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and collection of blood and urine samples. From a total of 2223 subjects found at 2860 visited addresses, 2044 subjects gave written consent but only 1975 subjects had eligible data for the analysis, accounting for a response rate of 69.06%. Additionally we excluded 11 subjects who were 80 years of age (NATPOL 2011 included adult subjects up to 79 years). Therefore, the sample size included in the statistical analysis is 1964. It has similar age groups and gender structure as the Romanian population aged 18-79 years from the last census available at the moment of conducting the survey (weight adjustments for epidemiological analyses range from 0.48 to 8.7). Sharing many similarities, the results of SEPHAR II and NATPOL 2011 surveys can be compared by a proper statistical method offering crucial information regarding cardiovascular risk factors in a high-cardiovascular risk European region.

  13. THE MUSCLES TREASURY SURVEY. II. INTRINSIC LY α AND EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA OF K AND M DWARFS WITH EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Loyd, R. O. Parke [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 600 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Redfield, Seth [Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459-0123 (United States); Schneider, P. Christian [European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Wood, Brian E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Froning, Cynthia [Dept. of Astronomy C1400, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Miguel, Yamila [Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, CNRS, Blvd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice cedex 4 (France); Rugheimer, Sarah [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Irvine Building, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9AL (United Kingdom); Walkowicz, Lucianne, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu [The Adler Planetarium, 1300 S Lakeshore Dr, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States)

    2016-06-20

    The ultraviolet (UV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of low-mass (K- and M-type) stars play a critical role in the heating and chemistry of exoplanet atmospheres, but are not observationally well-constrained. Direct observations of the intrinsic flux of the Ly α line (the dominant source of UV photons from low-mass stars) are challenging, as interstellar H i absorbs the entire line core for even the closest stars. To address the existing gap in empirical constraints on the UV flux of K and M dwarfs, the MUSCLES Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Survey has obtained UV observations of 11 nearby M and K dwarfs hosting exoplanets. This paper presents the Ly α and extreme-UV spectral reconstructions for the MUSCLES targets. Most targets are optically inactive, but all exhibit significant UV activity. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique to correct the observed Ly α profiles for interstellar absorption, and we employ empirical relations to compute the extreme-UV SED from the intrinsic Ly α flux in ∼100 Å bins from 100–1170 Å. The reconstructed Ly α profiles have 300 km s{sup −1} broad cores, while >1% of the total intrinsic Ly α flux is measured in extended wings between 300 and 1200 km s{sup −1}. The Ly α surface flux positively correlates with the Mg ii surface flux and negatively correlates with the stellar rotation period. Stars with larger Ly α surface flux also tend to have larger surface flux in ions formed at higher temperatures, but these correlations remain statistically insignificant in our sample of 11 stars. We also present H i column density measurements for 10 new sightlines through the local interstellar medium.

  14. Phase I Cultural Resources Survey and Archeological Inventory of the Proposed Carrollton Revetment Project, Orleans Parish, Louisiana. Volume II of II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    REVETMENT PROJECT, ORLEANS PARISH, LOUISIANA VOLUME II of II FINAL REPORT NOVEMBER 2004 PREPARED FOR: U.S. ARMY CoRPs OF ENGINEERS NEW ORLEANS DISTRICT P.O...situated on the batture side of the Broadway to Walnut New Levee, approximately 240 m (787.4 ft) south of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans... terracotta , drainage pipe, and yellowware), 22 misc. metal items (Masterlock keys [1924 to present], wire nails, watchband, and wire pail), 78 glass shards

  15. Smartphones vs PCs: Does the Device Affect the Web Survey Experience and the Measurement Error for Sensitive Topics? - A Replication of the Mavletova & Couper’s 2013 Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Toninelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available More and more respondents use mobile devices to complete web surveys. These devices have different characteristics, if compared to PCs (e.g. smaller screen sizes and higher portability. These characteristics can affect the survey responses, mostly when a questionnaire includes sensitive questions. This topic was already studied by Mavletova and Couper (2013, through a two-wave experiment comparing PCs and mobile devices results for the same respondents in a Russian opt-in panel. We replicated this cross-over design, focusing on an opt-in panel for Spain, involving 1,800 panellists and comparing PCs and smartphones. Our results support most of Mavletova and Couper’s (2013 findings (e.g. generally the used device does not significantly affect the reporting of sensitive information, confirming their robustness over the two studied countries. For other results (e.g. trust in data confidentiality, we found differences that can be justified by the diverse context/culture or by the quick changes that are still characterizing the mobile web survey participation.

  16. Measurements of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae at Redshift z < ~0.3 from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Smith, Mathew; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /Portsmouth U.; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; /UC, Berkeley; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.

    2010-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The adopted sample of supernovae (SNe) includes 516 SNe Ia at redshift z {approx}< 0.3, of which 270 (52%) are spectroscopically identified as SNe Ia. The remaining 246 SNe Ia were identified through their light curves; 113 of these objects have spectroscopic redshifts from spectra of their host galaxy, and 133 have photometric redshifts estimated from the SN light curves. Based on consideration of 87 spectroscopically confirmed non-Ia SNe discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey, we estimate that 2.04{sub -0.95}{sup +1.61}% of the photometric SNe Ia may be misidentified. The sample of SNe Ia used in this measurement represents an order of magnitude increase in the statistics for SN Ia rate measurements in the redshift range covered by the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. If we assume a SN Ia rate that is constant at low redshift (z < 0.15), then the SN observations can be used to infer a value of the SN rate of r{sub V} = (2.69{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.34+0.21}) x 10{sup -5} SNe yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} (H{sub 0}/(70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1})){sup 3} at a mean redshift of {approx} 0.12, based on 79 SNe Ia of which 72 are spectroscopically confirmed. However, the large sample of SNe Ia included in this study allows us to place constraints on the redshift dependence of the SN Ia rate based on the SDSS-II Supernova Survey data alone. Fitting a power-law model of the SN rate evolution, r{sub V} (z) = A{sub p} x ((1+z)/(1+z{sub 0})){sup {nu}}, over the redshift range 0.0 < z < 0.3 with z{sub 0} = 0.21, results in A{sub p} = (3.43{sub -0.15}{sup +0.15}) x 10{sup -5} SNe yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} (H{sub 0}/(70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1})){sup 3} and {nu} = 2.04{sub -0.89}{sup +0.90}.

  17. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. II. Spectroscopic redshifts and comparisons to color selections of high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, H.; Bacon, R.; Brinchmann, J.; Richard, J.; Contini, T.; Conseil, S.; Hamer, S.; Akhlaghi, M.; Bouché, N.; Clément, B.; Desprez, G.; Drake, A. B.; Hashimoto, T.; Leclercq, F.; Maseda, M.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Paalvast, M.; Tresse, L.; Ventou, E.; Kollatschny, W.; Boogaard, L. A.; Finley, H.; Marino, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Wisotzki, L.

    2017-11-01

    We have conducted a two-layered spectroscopic survey (1' × 1' ultra deep and 3' × 3' deep regions) in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) with the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE). The combination of a large field of view, high sensitivity, and wide wavelength coverage provides an order of magnitude improvement in spectroscopically confirmed redshifts in the HUDF; i.e., 1206 secure spectroscopic redshifts for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) continuum selected objects, which corresponds to 15% of the total (7904). The redshift distribution extends well beyond z> 3 and to HST/F775W magnitudes as faint as ≈ 30 mag (AB, 1σ). In addition, 132 secure redshifts were obtained for sources with no HST counterparts that were discovered in the MUSE data cubes by a blind search for emission-line features. In total, we present 1338 high quality redshifts, which is a factor of eight increase compared with the previously known spectroscopic redshifts in the same field. We assessed redshifts mainly with the spectral features [O II] at z< 1.5 (473 objects) and Lyα at 2.9

  18. Finding errors in big data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puts, Marco; Daas, Piet; de Waal, A.G.

    No data source is perfect. Mistakes inevitably creep in. Spotting errors is hard enough when dealing with survey responses from several thousand people, but the difficulty is multiplied hugely when that mysterious beast Big Data comes into play. Statistics Netherlands is about to publish its first

  19. Modeling coherent errors in quantum error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of quantum error correcting codes is typically done using a stochastic, Pauli channel error model for describing the noise on physical qubits. However, it was recently found that coherent errors (systematic rotations) on physical data qubits result in both physical and logical error rates that differ significantly from those predicted by a Pauli model. Here we examine the accuracy of the Pauli approximation for noise containing coherent errors (characterized by a rotation angle ɛ) under the repetition code. We derive an analytic expression for the logical error channel as a function of arbitrary code distance d and concatenation level n, in the small error limit. We find that coherent physical errors result in logical errors that are partially coherent and therefore non-Pauli. However, the coherent part of the logical error is negligible at fewer than {ε }-({dn-1)} error correction cycles when the decoder is optimized for independent Pauli errors, thus providing a regime of validity for the Pauli approximation. Above this number of correction cycles, the persistent coherent logical error will cause logical failure more quickly than the Pauli model would predict, and this may need to be combated with coherent suppression methods at the physical level or larger codes.

  20. Cardiovascular prevention guidelines in daily practice: a comparison of EUROASPIRE I, II, and III surveys in eight European countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kotseva, Kornelia

    2009-03-14

    The first and second EUROASPIRE surveys showed high rates of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease. The third EUROASPIRE survey was done in 2006-07 in 22 countries to see whether preventive cardiology had improved and if the Joint European Societies\\' recommendations on cardiovascular disease prevention are being followed in clinical practice.

  1. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic detail survey, Lost Creek, Washington area. Volume II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    Maps and the data from the aerial surveys are included in this report. The purposes of the surveys were to acquire and compile geologic and other information in order to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the USA

  2. The Exoplanet Mass-Ratio Function From the MOA-II Survey: Discovery of a Break and Likely Peak at a Neptune Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, D.; Bennett, D. P.; Sumi, T.; Bond, I. A.; Rogers, L. A.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Bhattacharya, A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of the statistical analysis of planetary signals discovered in MOA-II microlensing survey alert system events from 2007 to 2012. We determine the survey sensitivity as a function of planet star mass ratio, q, and projected planet star separation, s, in Einstein radius units. We find that the mass-ratio function is not a single power law, but has a change in slope at q approx.10(exp -4), corresponding to approx. 20 Stellar Mass for the median host-star mass of approx. 0.6 M. We find significant planetary signals in 23 of the 1474 alert events that are well-characterized by the MOA-II survey data alone. Data from other groups are used only to characterize planetary signals that have been identified in the MOA data alone. The distribution of mass ratios and separations of the planets found in our sample are well fit by a broken power-law model. We also combine this analysis with the previous analyses of Gould et al. and Cassan et al., bringing the total sample to 30 planets. The unbroken power-law model is disfavored with a p-value of 0.0022, which corresponds to a Bayes factor of 27 favoring the broken power-law model. These results imply that cold Neptunes are likely to be the most common type of planets beyond the snow line.

  3. The Critical Error of World War II,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    University and its component institutions, the National War College and the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. The purpose of this series is to...land. We were, therefore, instructed to seek information about localities where we had no intention of landing. I sent my dear pal, Major Hotaling , who

  4. First Results from the Herschel and ALMA Spectroscopic Surveys of the SMC: The Relationship between [C II]-bright Gas and CO-bright Gas at Low Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Katherine E.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Wolfire, Mark; Warren, Steven R.; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Croxall, Kevin; Pellegrini, Eric; Smith, John-David; Rubio, Monica; Indebetouw, Remy; Israel, Frank P.; Meixner, Margaret; Roman-Duval, Julia; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Muller, Erik; Verdugo, Celia; Zinnecker, Hans; Okada, Yoko

    2018-02-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) provides the only laboratory to study the structure of molecular gas at high resolution and low metallicity. We present results from the Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of the SMC (HS3), which mapped the key far-IR cooling lines [C II], [O I], [N II], and [O III] in five star-forming regions, and new ALMA 7 m array maps of {}12{CO} and {}13{CO} (2-1) with coverage overlapping four of the five HS3 regions. We detect [C II] and [O I] throughout all of the regions mapped. The data allow us to compare the structure of the molecular clouds and surrounding photodissociation regions using {}13{CO}, {}12{CO}, [C II], and [O I] emission at ≲ 10\\prime\\prime (value at high {A}V in the centers of the clouds and fall to ∼ 1/5{--}1/10× the Milky Way value in the outskirts, indicating the presence of translucent molecular gas not traced by bright {}12{CO} emission. We estimate the amount of molecular gas traced by bright [C II] emission at low {A}V and bright {}12{CO} emission at high {A}V. We find that most of the molecular gas is at low {A}V and traced by bright [C II] emission, but that faint {}12{CO} emission appears to extend to where we estimate that the {{{H}}}2-to-H I transition occurs. By converting our {{{H}}}2 gas estimates to a CO-to-{{{H}}}2 conversion factor (X CO), we show that X CO is primarily a function of {A}V, consistent with simulations and models of low-metallicity molecular clouds. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  5. The Associated Absorption Features in Quasar Spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. Mg II Absorption Doublets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Huang, Wei-Rong; Pang, Ting-Ting; Huang, Hong-Yan; Pan, Da-Sheng; Yao, Min; Nong, Wei-Jing; Lu, Mei-Mei

    2018-03-01

    Using the SDSS spectra of quasars included in the DR7Q or DR12Q catalogs, we search for Mg II λλ2796, 2803 narrow absorption doublets in the spectra data around Mg II λ2798 emission lines. We obtain 17,316 Mg II doublets, within the redshift range of 0.3299 ≤ z abs ≤ 2.5663. We find that a velocity offset of υ r 6000 km s‑1. If associated Mg II absorbers are defined by υ r present at least one associated Mg II system with {W}{{r}}λ 2796≥slant 0.2 \\mathringA . The fraction of associated Mg II systems with high-velocity outflows correlates with the average luminosities of their central quasars, indicating a relationship between outflows and the quasar feedback power. The υ r distribution of the outflow Mg II absorbers is peaked at 1023 km s‑1, which is smaller than the corresponding value of the outflow C IV absorbers. The redshift number density evolution of absorbers (dn/dz) limited by υ r > ‑3000 km s‑1 differs from that of absorbers constrained by υ r > 2000 km s‑1. Absorbers limited by υ r > 2000 km s‑1 and higher values exhibit profiles similar to dn/dz. In addition, the dn/dz is smaller when absorbers are constrained with larger υ r . The distributions of equivalent widths, and the ratio of {W}rλ 2796/{W}rλ 2803, are the same for associated and intervening systems, and independent of quasar luminosity.

  6. THE SECOND SURVEY OF THE MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD BY NANTEN. II. STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Akiko; Mizuno, Yoji; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Onishi, Toshikazu; Fukui, Yasuo; Fillipovic, Miroslav D.; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Kim, Sungeun; Mizuno, Akira

    2009-01-01

    We studied star formation activities in the molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We have utilized the second catalog of 272 molecular clouds obtained by NANTEN to compare the cloud distribution with signatures of massive star formation including stellar clusters, and optical and radio H II regions. We find that the molecular clouds are classified into three types according to the activities of massive star formation: Type I shows no signature of massive star formation; Type II is associated with relatively small H II region(s); and Type III with both H II region(s) and young stellar cluster(s). The radio continuum sources were used to confirm that Type I giant molecular clouds (GMCs) do not host optically hidden H II regions. These signatures of massive star formation show a good spatial correlation with the molecular clouds in the sense that they are located within ∼100 pc of the molecular clouds. Among possible ideas to explain the GMC types, we favor that the types indicate an evolutionary sequence; i.e., the youngest phase is Type I, followed by Type II, and the last phase is Type III, where the most active star formation takes place leading to cloud dispersal. The number of the three types of GMCs should be proportional to the timescale of each evolutionary stage if a steady state of massive star and cluster formation is a good approximation. By adopting the timescale of the youngest stellar clusters, 10 Myr, we roughly estimate the timescales of Types I, II, and III to be 6 Myr, 13 Myr, and 7 Myr, respectively, corresponding to a lifetime of 20-30 Myr for the GMCs with a mass above the completeness limit, 5 x 10 4 M sun .

  7. An Impurity Emission Survey in the near UV and Visible Spectral Ranges of Electron Cyclotron Heated (ECH) Plasma in the TJ-II Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.

    2001-01-01

    We report on a near-ultraviolet and visible spectroscopic survey (220-600 nm) of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heated plasmas created in the TJ-II stellarator, with central electron temperatures up to 2 keV and central electron densities up to 1.7 x 10 ''19 m''-3. Approximately 1200 lines from thirteen elements have been identified. The purpose of the work is to identify the principal impurities and spectral lines present in TJ-II plasmas, as well as their possible origin to search for transitions from highly ionised ions. This work will act as a base for identifying suitable transitions for following the evolution of impurities under different operating regimens and multiplet systems for line polarisation studies. It is intended to use the database creates as a spectral line reference for comparing spectra under different operating and plasma heating regimes. (Author)

  8. An Impurity Emission Survey in the near UV and Visible Spectral Ranges of Electron Cyclotron Heated (ECH) Plasma in the TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.

    2001-07-01

    We report on a near-ultraviolet and visible spectroscopic survey (220-600 nm) of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heated plasmas created in the TJ-II stellarator, with central electron temperatures up to 2 keV and central electron densities up to 1.7 x 10 ''19 m''-3. Approximately 1200 lines from thirteen elements have been identified. The purpose of the work is to identify the principal impurities and spectral lines present in TJ-II plasmas, as well as their possible origin to search for transitions from highly ionised ions. This work will act as a base for identifying suitable transitions for following the evolution of impurities under different operating regimens and multiplet systems for line polarisation studies. It is intended to use the database creates as a spectral line reference for comparing spectra under different operating and plasma heating regimes. (Author)

  9. The Impact of Repeated Lying on Survey Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Chesney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects on results of participants completing a survey more than once, a phenomenon known as farming. Using data from a real social science study as a baseline, three strategies that participants might use to farm are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. Findings show that farming influences survey results and can cause both statistical hypotheses testing Type I (false positive and Type II (false negative errors in unpredictable ways.

  10. Interferometric GPS Attitude: A Stochastic Error Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    i’attitude SPG ainsi que les erreurs d’attitude observdes durant ressai en mer. II caracterise ces erreurs come 6tant des procedures stochastiques. ..-’II...the multipath error, which changes with satellite geometry. The satellites, in 12 hour orbits , move through about 33 degrees in 4,000 seconds, which

  11. OBSERVATIONS OF Mg II ABSORPTION NEAR z ∼ 1 GALAXIES SELECTED FROM THE DEEP2 REDSHIFT SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovegrove, Elizabeth; Simcoe, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    We study the frequency of Mg II absorption in the outer halos of galaxies at z = 0.6-1.4 (with median z = 0.87), using new spectra obtained of 10 background quasars with galaxy impact parameters of b r = 0.15-1.0 A, though not all absorbers correlate with DEEP galaxies. We find five unique absorbers within Δv = 500 km s -1 and b r > 1.0 A, consistent with other samples of galaxy-selected Mg II systems. We speculate that Mg II systems with 0.3 r r are more likely to reflect the more recent star-forming history of their associated galaxies.

  12. Learning from prescribing errors

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, B

    2002-01-01

    

 The importance of learning from medical error has recently received increasing emphasis. This paper focuses on prescribing errors and argues that, while learning from prescribing errors is a laudable goal, there are currently barriers that can prevent this occurring. Learning from errors can take place on an individual level, at a team level, and across an organisation. Barriers to learning from prescribing errors include the non-discovery of many prescribing errors, lack of feedback to th...

  13. Gemini NIFS survey of feeding and feedback processes in nearby active galaxies - II. The sample and surface mass density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Riffel, R.; Davies, R.; Bianchin, M.; Diniz, M. R.; Schönell, A. J.; Burtscher, L.; Crenshaw, M.; Fischer, T. C.; Dahmer-Hahn, L. G.; Dametto, N. Z.; Rosario, D.

    2018-02-01

    We present and characterize a sample of 20 nearby Seyfert galaxies selected for having BAT 14-195 keV luminosities LX ≥ 1041.5 erg s-1, redshift z ≤ 0.015, being accessible for observations with the Gemini Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) and showing extended [O III]λ5007 emission. Our goal is to study Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) feeding and feedback processes from near-infrared integral-field spectra, which include both ionized (H II) and hot molecular (H2) emission. This sample is complemented by other nine Seyfert galaxies previously observed with NIFS. We show that the host galaxy properties (absolute magnitudes MB, MH, central stellar velocity dispersion and axial ratio) show a similar distribution to those of the 69 BAT AGN. For the 20 galaxies already observed, we present surface mass density (Σ) profiles for H II and H2 in their inner ˜500 pc, showing that H II emission presents a steeper radial gradient than H2. This can be attributed to the different excitation mechanisms: ionization by AGN radiation for H II and heating by X-rays for H2. The mean surface mass densities are in the range (0.2 ≤ ΣH II ≤ 35.9) M⊙ pc-2, and (0.2 ≤ ΣH2 ≤ 13.9)× 10-3 M⊙ pc-2, while the ratios between the H II and H2 masses range between ˜200 and 8000. The sample presented here will be used in future papers to map AGN gas excitation and kinematics, providing a census of the mass inflow and outflow rates and power as well as their relation with the AGN luminosity.

  14. Getting to the Source: a Survey of Quantitative Data Sources Available to the Everyday Librarian: Part II: Data Sources from Specific Library Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Goddard

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a two-part article that provides a survey of data sources which are likely to be immediately available to the typical practitioner who wishes to engage in statistical analysis of collections and services within his or her own library. Part I outlines the data elements which can be extracted from web server logs, and discusses web log analysis tools. Part II looks at logs, reports, and data sources from proxy servers, resource vendors, link resolvers, federated search engines, institutional repositories, electronic reference services, and the integrated library system.

  15. High-velocity streams in the Milky Way halo with the SDSS and GSC-II kinematic survey

    OpenAIRE

    Spagna A.; Smart R.L.; Lattanzi M.G.; Re Fiorentin P.; Beers T.C.; Curir A.

    2012-01-01

    We explore the stellar halo of the Milky Way to search for fossil signatures of past mergers, consisting of streams of particles torn from their progenitors during the process of hierarchical merging. We examine a representative sample of about 2 700 halo subdwarfs in the solar neighborhood, selected from a new kinematic survey produced by means of spectrophotometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and high-quality proper motions derived from multi-epoch positions using the Guide Star...

  16. The LAMOST survey of background quasars in the vicinity of the Andromeda and Triangulum galaxies. II. Results from the commissioning observations and the pilot surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huo, Zhi-Ying; Bai, Zhong-Rui; Chen, Jian-Jun; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Du, Bing; Jia, Lei; Lei, Ya-Juan [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Xiao-Wei; Yuan, Hai-Bo [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Huang, Yang; Zhang, Hui-Hua [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yan, Lin [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chu, Jia-Ru; Chu, Yao-Quan; Hu, Hong-Zhuan [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Cui, Xiang-Qun; Hou, Yong-Hui; Hu, Zhong-Wen; Jiang, Fang-Hua, E-mail: zhiyinghuo@bao.ac.cn [Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210042 (China); and others

    2013-06-01

    We present new quasars discovered in the vicinity of the Andromeda and Triangulum galaxies with the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope, also named the Guoshoujing Telescope, during the 2010 and 2011 observational seasons. Quasar candidates are selected based on the available Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Kitt Peak National Observatory 4 m telescope, Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey optical, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer near-infrared photometric data. We present 509 new quasars discovered in a stripe of ∼135 deg{sup 2} from M31 to M33 along the Giant Stellar Stream in the 2011 pilot survey data sets, and also 17 new quasars discovered in an area of ∼100 deg{sup 2} that covers the central region and the southeastern halo of M31 in the 2010 commissioning data sets. These 526 new quasars have i magnitudes ranging from 15.5 to 20.0, redshifts from 0.1 to 3.2. They represent a significant increase of the number of identified quasars in the vicinity of M31 and M33. There are now 26, 62, and 139 known quasars in this region of the sky with i magnitudes brighter than 17.0, 17.5, and 18.0, respectively, of which 5, 20, and 75 are newly discovered. These bright quasars provide an invaluable collection with which to probe the kinematics and chemistry of the interstellar/intergalactic medium in the Local Group of galaxies. A total of 93 quasars are now known with locations within 2.°5 of M31, of which 73 are newly discovered. Tens of quasars are now known to be located behind the Giant Stellar Stream, and hundreds are behind the extended halo and its associated substructures of M31. The much enlarged sample of known quasars in the vicinity of M31 and M33 can potentially be utilized to construct a perfect astrometric reference frame to measure the minute proper motions (PMs) of M31 and M33, along with the PMs of substructures associated with the Local Group of galaxies. Those PMs are some of the most fundamental properties of the Local

  17. Error Grid Analysis for Arterial Pressure Method Comparison Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugel, Bernd; Grothe, Oliver; Nicklas, Julia Y

    2018-04-01

    The measurement of arterial pressure (AP) is a key component of hemodynamic monitoring. A variety of different innovative AP monitoring technologies became recently available. The decision to use these technologies must be based on their measurement performance in validation studies. These studies are AP method comparison studies comparing a new method ("test method") with a reference method. In these studies, different comparative statistical tests are used including correlation analysis, Bland-Altman analysis, and trending analysis. These tests provide information about the statistical agreement without adequately providing information about the clinical relevance of differences between the measurement methods. To overcome this problem, we, in this study, propose an "error grid analysis" for AP method comparison studies that allows illustrating the clinical relevance of measurement differences. We constructed smoothed consensus error grids with calibrated risk zones derived from a survey among 25 specialists in anesthesiology and intensive care medicine. Differences between measurements of the test and the reference method are classified into 5 risk levels ranging from "no risk" to "dangerous risk"; the classification depends on both the differences between the measurements and on the measurements themselves. Based on worked examples and data from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II database, we show that the proposed error grids give information about the clinical relevance of AP measurement differences that cannot be obtained from Bland-Altman analysis. Our approach also offers a framework on how to adapt the error grid analysis for different clinical settings and patient populations.

  18. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  19. Part two: Error propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this chapter include a discussion of exact results as related to nuclear materials management and accounting in nuclear facilities; propagation of error for a single measured value; propagation of error for several measured values; error propagation for materials balances; and an application of error propagation to an example of uranium hexafluoride conversion process

  20. Learning from Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Legaz, Juan Enrique; Soubeyran, Antoine

    2003-01-01

    We present a model of learning in which agents learn from errors. If an action turns out to be an error, the agent rejects not only that action but also neighboring actions. We find that, keeping memory of his errors, under mild assumptions an acceptable solution is asymptotically reached. Moreover, one can take advantage of big errors for a faster learning.

  1. Domestic violence and immigration status among Latina mothers in the child welfare system: findings from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being II (NSCAW II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonnaya, Ijeoma Nwabuzor; Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Kohl, Patricia L

    2015-01-01

    Many children involved with the child welfare system witness parental domestic violence. The association between children's domestic violence exposure and child welfare involvement may be influenced by certain socio-cultural factors; however, minimal research has examined this relationship. The current study compares domestic violence experiences and case outcomes among Latinas who are legal immigrants (n=39), unauthorized immigrants (n=77), naturalized citizens (n=30), and US-born citizen mothers (n=383) reported for child maltreatment. This analysis used data from the second round of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Mothers were asked about whether they experienced domestic violence during the past year. In addition, data were collected to assess if (a) domestic violence was the primary abuse type reported and, if so, (b) the maltreatment allegation was substantiated. Results show that naturalized citizens, legal residents, and unauthorized immigrants did not differ from US-born citizens in self-reports of domestic violence; approximately 33% of mothers reported experiences of domestic violence within the past year. Yet, unauthorized immigrants were 3.76 times more likely than US-born citizens to have cases with allegations of domestic violence as the primary abuse type. Despite higher rates of alleged domestic violence, unauthorized citizens were not more likely than US-born citizens to have these cases substantiated for domestic violence (F(2.26, 153.99)=0.709, p=.510). Findings highlight that domestic violence is not accurately accounted for in families with unauthorized immigrant mothers. We recommend child welfare workers are trained to properly assess and fulfill the needs of immigrant families, particularly as it relates to domestic violence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spectroscopic survey of the Galaxy with Gaia - II. The expected science yield from the Radial Velocity Spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, MI; Vallenari, A; Turon, C; Munari, U; Katz, D; Bono, G; Cropper, M; Helmi, A; Robichon, N; Thevenin, F; Vidrih, S; Zwitter, T; Arenou, F; Baylac, MO; Bertelli, G; Bijaoui, A; Boschi, F; Castelli, F; Crifo, F; David, M; Gomboc, A; Gomez, A; Haywood, M; Jauregi, U; de Laverny, P; Lebreton, Y; Marrese, P; Marsh, T; Mignot, S; Morin, D; Pasetto, S; Perryman, M; Prsa, A; Recio-Blanco, A; Royer, F; Sellier, A; Siviero, A; Sordo, R; Soubiran, C; Tomasella, L; Viala, Y

    2005-01-01

    The Gaia mission is designed as a Galaxy explorer, and will measure simultaneously, in a survey mode, the five or six phase-space parameters of all stars brighter than 20th magnitude, as well as providing a description of their astrophysical characteristics. These measurements are obtained by

  3. Industry Wage Surveys: Banking and Life Insurance, December 1976. Part I--Banking. Part II--Life Insurance. Bulletin 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Carl

    This report presents the results of a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine wages and related benefits in (1) the banking industry and (2) for employees in home offices and regional head offices of life insurance carriers. Part 1 discusses banking industry characteristics and presents data for tellers and selected…

  4. A CFH12k lensing survey of X-ray luminous galaxy clusters - II. Weak lensing analysis and global correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardeau, S.; Soucail, G.; Kneib, J.-P.; Czoske, O.; Ebeling, H.; Hudelot, P.; Smail, I.; Smith, G. P.

    Aims. We present a wide-field multi-color survey of a homogeneous sample of eleven clusters of galaxies for which we measure total masses and mass distributions from weak lensing. This sample, spanning a small range in both X-ray luminosity and redshift, is ideally suited to determining the

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Main-belt asteroids polarimetric survey. II. (Gil-Hutton+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Canada-Assandri, M.

    2012-01-01

    Results for the objects observed during the polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids. The observations were carried out during different observing runs between May 2004 and November 2009 at the 2.15m telescope of the CASLEO, San Juan, Argentina, using the Torino and CASPROF polarimeters. (3 data files).

  6. The SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts – II. New FRB discoveries and their follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhandari, S.; Keane, E.F.; Barr, E.D.; Jameson, A.; Petroff, E.; Johnston, S.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N.D.R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Caleb, M.; Eatough, R.P.; Flynn, C.; Green, J.A.; Jankowski, F.; Kramer, M.; Krishnan, V Venkatraman; Morello, V.; Possenti, A.; Stappers, B.; Tiburzi, C.; van Straten, W.; Andreoni, I.; Butterley, T.; Chandra, P.; Cooke, J.; Corongiu, A.; Coward, D.M.; Dhillon, V.S.; Dodson, R.; Hardy, L.K.; Howell, E.J.; Jaroenjittichai, P.; Klotz, A.; Littlefair, S.P.; Marsh, T.R.; Mickaliger, M.; Muxlow, T.; Perrodin, D.; Pritchard, D.; Sawangwit, U.; Terai, T.; Tominaga, N.; Torne, P.; Totani, T.; Trois, A.; Turpin, D.; Niino, Y.; Wilson, R.W.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Brânzas, H.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A.F.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schussler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzocca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of four Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) in the ongoing SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts at the Parkes Radio Telescope: FRBs 150610, 151206, 151230 and 160102. Our real-time discoveries have enabled us to conduct extensive, rapid multimessenger follow-up at 12 major

  7. Human Trafficking in the United States. Part II. Survey of U.S. Government Web Resources for Publications and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigabutra-Roberts, Anchalee

    2012-01-01

    This second part of a two-part series is a survey of U.S. government web resources on human trafficking in the United States, particularly of the online publications and data included on agencies' websites. Overall, the goal is to provide an introduction, an overview, and a guide on this topic for library staff to use in their research and…

  8. Correction of Frequent English Writing Errors by Using Coded Indirect Corrective Feedback and Error Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chaiwat Tantarangsee

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study are 1) to study the frequent English writing errors of students registering the course: Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and 2) to find out the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and writing error treatments. Samples include 28 2nd year English Major students, Faculty of Education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Tool for experimental study includes the lesson plan of the cours...

  9. Medication errors: prescribing faults and prescription errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velo, Giampaolo P; Minuz, Pietro

    2009-06-01

    1. Medication errors are common in general practice and in hospitals. Both errors in the act of writing (prescription errors) and prescribing faults due to erroneous medical decisions can result in harm to patients. 2. Any step in the prescribing process can generate errors. Slips, lapses, or mistakes are sources of errors, as in unintended omissions in the transcription of drugs. Faults in dose selection, omitted transcription, and poor handwriting are common. 3. Inadequate knowledge or competence and incomplete information about clinical characteristics and previous treatment of individual patients can result in prescribing faults, including the use of potentially inappropriate medications. 4. An unsafe working environment, complex or undefined procedures, and inadequate communication among health-care personnel, particularly between doctors and nurses, have been identified as important underlying factors that contribute to prescription errors and prescribing faults. 5. Active interventions aimed at reducing prescription errors and prescribing faults are strongly recommended. These should be focused on the education and training of prescribers and the use of on-line aids. The complexity of the prescribing procedure should be reduced by introducing automated systems or uniform prescribing charts, in order to avoid transcription and omission errors. Feedback control systems and immediate review of prescriptions, which can be performed with the assistance of a hospital pharmacist, are also helpful. Audits should be performed periodically.

  10. Management of the open book APC II pelvis: Survey results from pelvic and acetabular surgeons in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, James R; Murphy, Colin; Quansah, Ben; Carrothers, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    The results of this questionnaire show that the opinion of pelvic and acetabular surgeons in the UK and Republic of Ireland vary as to the best method of fixation for APC II pelvic injuries. A single anterior plate and single sacroiliac joint (SIJ) screw was the most popular fixation method, chosen by 34%. 74% favour a single, opposed to two orthogonal anterior plates. Posterior fixation supplementing anterior plating is preferred by 63% of surgeons, 58% use a single versus 42% two SIJ screws. Case by case assessment and intraoperative screening to assess stability is essential when considering whether to stabilise the SIJ.

  11. Learning from Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Janet

    2017-01-03

    Although error avoidance during learning appears to be the rule in American classrooms, laboratory studies suggest that it may be a counterproductive strategy, at least for neurologically typical students. Experimental investigations indicate that errorful learning followed by corrective feedback is beneficial to learning. Interestingly, the beneficial effects are particularly salient when individuals strongly believe that their error is correct: Errors committed with high confidence are corrected more readily than low-confidence errors. Corrective feedback, including analysis of the reasoning leading up to the mistake, is crucial. Aside from the direct benefit to learners, teachers gain valuable information from errors, and error tolerance encourages students' active, exploratory, generative engagement. If the goal is optimal performance in high-stakes situations, it may be worthwhile to allow and even encourage students to commit and correct errors while they are in low-stakes learning situations rather than to assiduously avoid errors at all costs.

  12. The Einstein@Home Gamma-ray Pulsar Survey. II. Source Selection, Spectral Analysis, and Multiwavelength Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Clark, C. J.; Pletsch, H. J.; Guillemot, L.; Johnson, T. J.; Torne, P.; Champion, D. J.; Deneva, J.; Ray, P. S.; Salvetti, D.; Kramer, M.; Aulbert, C.; Beer, C.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bock, O.; Camilo, F.; Cognard, I.; Cuéllar, A.; Eggenstein, H. B.; Fehrmann, H.; Ferrara, E. C.; Kerr, M.; Machenschalk, B.; Ransom, S. M.; Sanpa-Arsa, S.; Wood, K.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the analysis of 13 gamma-ray pulsars discovered in the Einstein@Home blind search survey using Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 data. The 13 new gamma-ray pulsars were discovered by searching 118 unassociated LAT sources from the third LAT source catalog (3FGL), selected using the Gaussian Mixture Model machine-learning algorithm on the basis of their gamma-ray emission properties being suggestive of pulsar magnetospheric emission. The new gamma-ray pulsars have pulse profiles and spectral properties similar to those of previously detected young gamma-ray pulsars. Follow-up radio observations have revealed faint radio pulsations from two of the newly discovered pulsars and enabled us to derive upper limits on the radio emission from the others, demonstrating that they are likely radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars. We also present results from modeling the gamma-ray pulse profiles and radio profiles, if available, using different geometric emission models of pulsars. The high discovery rate of this survey, despite the increasing difficulty of blind pulsar searches in gamma rays, suggests that new systematic surveys such as presented in this article should be continued when new LAT source catalogs become available.

  13. Part I. Synthesis and characterization of C2 substituted imidazolium room temperature ionic liquids. Part II. Survey and analysis of organic chemistry textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Elliot G.

    Part I. Among room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), those derived from the imidazolium cation are the most common. RTILs have generally been viewed solely as solvents, but they are able to participate in certain types of reactions, particularly due to the relatively high acidity at the imidazolium C2. Deprotonation affords N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), which can cause unwanted side reactions. Consequently, the major limitation of imidazolium RTILs is that they cannot be used as solvents in highly basic reactions such as the Baylis-Hillman and Grignard reactions. This work reveals a convenient route for the preparation of C2-substituted imidazolium ionic liquids. This method involves the alkylation of N-heterocyclic carbenes, which are readily generated from the C2-unsubstituted imidazolium ionic liquids. It works well for nonfunctionalized alkyl chlorides and less well for alkyl bromides and iodides, likely due to competing elimination reactions. The resulting C2-substituted salts can be transformed into ionic liquids via standard anion metathesis reactions. Part II. Recent advances in media and the increasingly encyclopedic nature of traditional textbooks have made their role in college classes uncertain. In an effort to discover what is really being taught in organic chemistry courses across the US, a survey of organic chemistry professors in all 50 states was conducted to determine what material is covered in their organic chemistry courses for science majors. Survey Monkey, an online survey program, was used to construct a short 10-item survey which was sent to organic chemistry professors at various types of institutions across the nation. We sent out 2417 surveys and received 489 responses. The results of this survey revealed what topics the professors believe is core material and what they feel is extraneous. Additionally, this research identifies the things these professors would like to see changed in the organic chemistry texts. From the open

  14. Synthesizing exoplanet demographics from radial velocity and microlensing surveys. II. The frequency of planets orbiting M dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clanton, Christian; Gaudi, B. Scott, E-mail: clanton@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    In contrast to radial velocity (RV) surveys, results from microlensing surveys indicate that giant planets with masses greater than the critical mass for core accretion (∼0.1 M {sub Jup}) are relatively common around low-mass stars. Using the methodology developed in the first paper, we predict the sensitivity of M-dwarf RV surveys to analogs of the population of planets inferred by microlensing. We find that RV surveys should detect a handful of super-Jovian (>M {sub Jup}) planets at the longest periods being probed. These planets are indeed found by RV surveys, implying that the demographic constraints inferred from these two methods are consistent. Finally, we combine the results from both methods to estimate planet frequencies spanning wide regions of parameter space. We find that the frequency of Jupiters and super-Jupiters (1 ≲ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub Jup} ≲ 13) with periods 1 ≤ P/days ≤ 10{sup 4} is f{sub J}=0.029{sub −0.015}{sup +0.013}, a median factor of 4.3 (1.5-14 at 95% confidence) smaller than the inferred frequency of such planets around FGK stars of 0.11 ± 0.02. However, we find the frequency of all giant planets with 30 ≲ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub ⊕} ≲ 10{sup 4} and 1 ≤ P/days ≤ 10{sup 4} to be f{sub G}=0.15{sub −0.07}{sup +0.06}, only a median factor of 2.2 (0.73-5.9 at 95% confidence) smaller than the inferred frequency of such planets orbiting FGK stars of 0.31 ± 0.07. For a more conservative definition of giant planets (50 ≲ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub ⊕} ≲ 10{sup 4}), we find f{sub G{sup ′}}=0.11±0.05, a median factor of 2.2 (0.73-6.7 at 95% confidence) smaller than that inferred for FGK stars of 0.25 ± 0.05. Finally, we find the frequency of all planets with 1 ≤ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub ⊕} ≤ 10{sup 4} and 1 ≤ P/days ≤ 10{sup 4} to be f{sub p} = 1.9 ± 0.5.

  15. Field error lottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C.J.; McVey, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Quimby, D.C. (Spectra Technology, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The level of field errors in an FEL is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is utilization of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond mechanical tolerances of {plus minus}25{mu}m, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure utilizing direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids. II. Results for 58 B- and C-type objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada-Assandri, M.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: We present results of a polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids at Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito (CASLEO), San Juan, Argentina. The aims of this survey are to increase the database of asteroid polarimetry, to estimate diversity in polarimetric properties of asteroids that belong to different taxonomic classes, and to search for objects that exhibit anomalous polarimetric properties. Methods: The data were obtained with the Torino and CASPROF polarimeters at the 2.15m telescope. The Torino polarimeter is an instrument that allows simultaneous measurement of polarization in five different bands, and the CASPROF polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation. Results: The survey began in 2003, and up to 2009 data on a sample of more than 170 asteroids were obtained. In this paper the results for 58 B- and C-type objects are presented, most of them polarimetrically observed for the first time. Using these data we find phase-polarization curves and polarimetric parameters for these taxonomic classes. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.Tables 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/539/A115

  17. Inborn errors of metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolism - inborn errors of ... Bodamer OA. Approach to inborn errors of metabolism. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 205. Rezvani I, Rezvani GA. An ...

  18. Photometric redshifts for the next generation of deep radio continuum surveys - II. Gaussian processes and hybrid estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kenneth J.; Jarvis, Matt J.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Röttgering, Huub J. A.

    2018-04-01

    Building on the first paper in this series (Duncan et al. 2018), we present a study investigating the performance of Gaussian process photometric redshift (photo-z) estimates for galaxies and active galactic nuclei detected in deep radio continuum surveys. A Gaussian process redshift code is used to produce photo-z estimates targeting specific subsets of both the AGN population - infrared, X-ray and optically selected AGN - and the general galaxy population. The new estimates for the AGN population are found to perform significantly better at z > 1 than the template-based photo-z estimates presented in our previous study. Our new photo-z estimates are then combined with template estimates through hierarchical Bayesian combination to produce a hybrid consensus estimate that outperforms both of the individual methods across all source types. Photo-z estimates for radio sources that are X-ray sources or optical/IR AGN are significantly improved in comparison to previous template-only estimates - with outlier fractions and robust scatter reduced by up to a factor of ˜4. The ability of our method to combine the strengths of the two input photo-z techniques and the large improvements we observe illustrate its potential for enabling future exploitation of deep radio continuum surveys for both the study of galaxy and black hole co-evolution and for cosmological studies.

  19. Phase II Characterization Survey of the USNS Bridge (T-AOE 10), Military Sealift Fleet Support Command, Naval Station, Norfolk, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALTIC, NICK A

    2012-08-30

    In March 2011, the USNS Bridge was deployed off northeastern Honshu, Japan with the carrier USS Ronald Reagan to assist with relief efforts after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. During that time, the Bridge was exposed to air-borne radioactive materials leaking from the damaged Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. The proximity of the Bridge to the air-borne impacted area resulted in the contamination of the ship’s air-handling systems and the associated components, as well as potential contamination of other ship surfaces due to either direct intake/deposition or inadvertent spread from crew/operational activities. Preliminary surveys in the weeks after the event confirmed low-level contamination within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ductwork and systems, and engine and other auxiliary air intake systems. Some partial decontamination was performed at that time. In response to the airborne contamination event, Military Sealift Fleet Support Command (MSFSC) contracted Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under provisions of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to assess the radiological condition of the Bridge. Phase I identified contamination within the CPS filters, ventilation systems, miscellaneous equipment, and other suspect locations that could not accessed at that time (ORAU 2011b). Because the Bridge was underway during the characterization, all the potentially impacted systems/spaces could not be investigated. As a result, MSFSC contracted with ORAU to perform Phase II of the characterization, specifically to survey systems/spaces previously inaccessible. During Phase II of the characterization, the ship was in port to perform routine maintenance operations, allowing access to the previously inaccessible systems/spaces.

  20. Drug Errors in Anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Kumar Jain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Medication errors are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. The incidence of these drug errors during anaesthesia is not certain. They impose a considerable financial burden to health care systems apart from the patient losses. Common causes of these errors and their prevention is discussed.

  1. ATC operational error analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The primary causes of operational errors are discussed and the effects of these errors on an ATC system's performance are described. No attempt is made to specify possible error models for the spectrum of blunders that can occur although previous res...

  2. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - OTÁP2014. II. Energy and macronutrient intake of the Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkadi Nagy, Eszter; Bakacs, Márta; Illés, Éva; Nagy, Barbara; Varga, Anita; Kis, Orsolya; Schreiberné Molnár, Erzsébet; Martos, Éva

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess and monitor the dietary habits and nutrient intake of Hungarian adults. Three-day dietary records were used for dietary assessment, the sample was representative for the Hungarian population aged ≥18ys by gender and age. The mean proportion of energy from fat was higher (men: 38 energy%, women: 37 energy%), that from carbohydrates was lower (men: 45 energy%, women: 47 energy%) than recommended, the protein intake is adequate. Unfavorable change compared to the previous survey in 2009 was the increase of fat and saturated fatty acid energy percent in women, the decrease in fruit and vegetable consumption, which explains the decreased fiber intake. An increasing trend in added sugar energy percent in each age groups of both genders was observed compared to 2009. Interventions focusing on the promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption and decreasing of saturated fat and added sugar intake are needed. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(15), 587-597.

  3. THE GOULD’S BELT DISTANCES SURVEY (GOBELINS). II. DISTANCES AND STRUCTURE TOWARD THE ORION MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Loinard, Laurent; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Morelia 58089 (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Torres, Rosa M. [Centro Universitario de Tonalá, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Nuevo Perifrico No. 555, Ejido San José, Tatepozco, C.P. 48525, Tonalá, Jalisco, México (Mexico); Galli, Phillip A. B. [Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000, Grenoble (France); Boden, Andrew F. [Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Briceño, Cesar [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Tobin, John J., E-mail: mkounkel@umich.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We present the results of the Gould’s Belt Distances Survey of young star-forming regions toward the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex. We detected 36 young stellar objects (YSOs) with the Very Large Baseline Array, 27 of which have been observed in at least three epochs over the course of two years. At least half of these YSOs belong to multiple systems. We obtained parallax and proper motions toward these stars to study the structure and kinematics of the Complex. We measured a distance of 388 ± 5 pc toward the Orion Nebula Cluster, 428 ± 10 pc toward the southern portion L1641, 388 ± 10 pc toward NGC 2068, and roughly ∼420 pc toward NGC 2024. Finally, we observed a strong degree of plasma radio scattering toward λ Ori.

  4. Profiling Occupant Behaviour in Danish Dwellings using Time Use Survey Data - Part II: Time-related Factors and Occupancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmes, V.M.; Li, R.; Andersen, R.K.

    2018-01-01

    occupant profiles for prediction of energy use to reduce the gap between predicted and real building energy consumptions. In this study, we exploit diary-based Danish Time Use Surveys for understanding and modelling occupant behaviour in the residential sector in Denmark. This paper is a continuation......Occupant behaviour has been shown to be one of the key driving factors of uncertainty in prediction of energy consumption in buildings. Building occupants affect building energy use directly and indirectly by interacting with building energy systems such as adjusting temperature set......-points, switching lights on/off, using electrical devices and opening/closing windows. Furthermore, building inhabitants’ daily activity profiles clearly shape the timing of energy demand in households. Modelling energy-related human activities throughout the day, therefore, is crucial to defining more realistic...

  5. Molecular-cloud-scale Chemical Composition. II. Mapping Spectral Line Survey toward W3(OH) in the 3 mm Band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yuri [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Harada, Nanase [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Shimonishi, Takashi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramakiazaaoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Sakai, Nami [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-10-10

    To study a molecular-cloud-scale chemical composition, we conducted a mapping spectral line survey toward the Galactic molecular cloud W3(OH), which is one of the most active star-forming regions in the Perseus arm. We conducted our survey through the use of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope, and observed the area of 16′ × 16′, which corresponds to 9.0 pc × 9.0 pc. The observed frequency ranges are 87–91, 96–103, and 108–112 GHz. We prepared the spectrum averaged over the observed area, in which eight molecular species (CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, CS, SO, C{sup 18}O, and {sup 13}CO) are identified. On the other hand, the spectrum of the W3(OH) hot core observed at a 0.17 pc resolution shows the lines of various molecules such as OCS, H{sub 2}CS CH{sub 3}CCH, and CH{sub 3}CN in addition to the above species. In the spatially averaged spectrum, emission of the species concentrated just around the star-forming core, such as CH{sub 3}OH and HC{sub 3}N, is fainter than in the hot core spectrum, whereas emission of the species widely extended over the cloud such as CCH is relatively brighter. We classified the observed area into five subregions according to the integrated intensity of {sup 13}CO, and evaluated the contribution to the averaged spectrum from each subregion. The CCH, HCN, HCO{sup +}, and CS lines can be seen even in the spectrum of the subregion with the lowest {sup 13}CO integrated intensity range (<10 K km s{sup −1}). Thus, the contributions of the spatially extended emission is confirmed to be dominant in the spatially averaged spectrum.

  6. Transcriptome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of Putative Chrysanthemum HD-Zip I and II Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip transcription factor family is a key transcription factor family and unique to the plant kingdom. It consists of a homeodomain and a leucine zipper that serve in combination as a dimerization motif. The family can be classified into four subfamilies, and these subfamilies participate in the development of hormones and mediation of hormone action and are involved in plant responses to environmental conditions. However, limited information on this gene family is available for the important chrysanthemum ornamental species (Chrysanthemum morifolium. Here, we characterized 17 chrysanthemum HD-Zip genes based on transcriptome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 17 CmHB genes were distributed in the HD-Zip subfamilies I and II and identified two pairs of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and four pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. The software MEME was used to identify 7 putative motifs with E values less than 1e-3 in the chrysanthemum HD-Zip factors, and they can be clearly classified into two groups based on the composition of the motifs. A bioinformatics analysis predicted that 8 CmHB genes could be targeted by 10 miRNA families, and the expression of these 17 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized. The results presented here will promote research on the various functions of the HD-Zip gene family members in plant hormones and stress responses.

  7. Spectroscopic survey of Kepler stars - II. FIES/NOT observations of A- and F-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczura, E.; Polińska, M.; Murphy, S. J.; Smalley, B.; Kołaczkowski, Z.; Jessen-Hansen, J.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Lykke, J. M.; Triviño Hage, A.; Michalska, G.

    2017-09-01

    We have analysed high-resolution spectra of 28 A and 22 F stars in the Kepler field, observed using the Fibre-Fed Échelle Spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We provide spectral types, atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances for 50 stars. Balmer, Fe I and Fe II lines were used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities and microturbulent velocities. We determined chemical abundances and projected rotational velocities using a spectrum synthesis technique. Effective temperatures calculated by spectral energy distribution fitting are in good agreement with those determined from the spectral line analysis. The stars analysed include chemically peculiar stars of the Am and λ Boo types, as well as stars with approximately solar chemical abundances. The wide distribution of projected rotational velocity, vsin I, is typical for A and F stars. The microturbulence velocities obtained are typical for stars in the observed temperature and surface gravity ranges. Moreover, we affirm the results of Niemczura et al. that Am stars do not have systematically higher microturbulent velocities than normal stars of the same temperature.

  8. Feasibility study for an airborne high-sensitivity gamma-ray survey of Alaska. Phase II (final) report: 1976--1979 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This study constitutes a determination of the extent to which it is feasible to use airborne, high-sensitivity gamma spectrometer systems for uranium reconnaissance in the State of Alaska, and specification of a preliminary plan for surveying the entire state of the 1975--1979 time frame. Phase I included the design of a program to survey the highest priority areas in 1975 using available aircraft and spectrometer equipment. This has now resulted in a contract for 10,305 flight line miles to cover about 11 of the 1:250,000 scale quadrangles using a DC-3 aircraft with an average 6.25 x 25 mile grid of flight line. Phase II includes the design of alternative programs to cover the remaining 128 quadrangles using either a DC-3 and a Bell 205A helicopter or a Helio Stallion STOL aircraft and a Bell 205A helicopter during 1976-1979. The 1976-1979 time frame allows some time for possible new system developments in both airborne gamma-ray spectrometers and in ancillary equipment, and these are outlined. (auth)

  9. Pattern Of Refractive Errors Among Computer Users In A Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Refractive error is a common cause of ocular morbidity. Computer use is associated with eye strain which may be due to refractive errors. Objective: To ascertain the prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among computer users. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 560 computer users in Enugu urban, ...

  10. Issues in environmental survey design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iachan, R.

    1989-01-01

    Several environmental survey design issues are discussed and illustrated with surveys designed by Research Triangle Institute statisticians. Issues related to sampling and nonsampling errors are illustrated for indoor air quality surveys, radon surveys, pesticide surveys, and occupational and personal exposure surveys. Sample design issues include the use of auxiliary information (e.g. for stratification), and sampling in time. We also discuss the reduction and estimation of nonsampling errors, including nonresponse and measurement bias

  11. Survey of eight dimensions quality of life for patients with diabetes type II, referred to Sanandaj diabetes center in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Khaledi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Diabetes is a chronic disease; the patients suffer from diabetes needs a special care. One of the programs to help these kinds of patients is to analyze their quality of life, which was carried out through a nursing disciplinary program by a cross sectional study during 2009. Materials & Methods: 198 type II diabetic patients who were referred to diabetic center of an educational hospital, affiliated to Sanandaj medical university were selected randomly, they were interviewed and obtained a written permission to join this study, then asked to fill up SF-36 questionnaires, and finally, the data from the questionnaires were analyzed by the SPSS software program. Results: The results showed the quality of life of diabetes patients (55.6% with respect to their physical fitness were acceptable. Whereas, in case of play in the physical role 67.7% were not acceptable but in case of the physical pain 45.3% had physical pain and effects on public health 45.6% were moderately effected, in case of energy and vitality 35.4% were not acceptable, in case of social functioning 38.5% were favorable, in case of emotional role 75.8% were undesirable and finally considering psycho mental health 49.5% were in the desirable limit. Statistical analysis for evaluation of relationship between quality of life and demographic data, were carried out by using "ANOVA” test. Conclusion: This study showed that the quality of life in all the group of study were at moderate level. In order to improve the quality of life in diabetes patients it is suggested that planners and managers should pay enough attention to support the physical, mental and social well being of the diabetes patients.

  12. Engineering survey planning for the alignment of a particle accelerator: part II. Design of a reference network and measurement strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira Leão, Rodrigo; Raffaelo Baldo, Crhistian; Collucci da Costa Reis, Maria Luisa; Alves Trabanco, Jorge Luiz

    2018-03-01

    The building blocks of particle accelerators are magnets responsible for keeping beams of charged particles at a desired trajectory. Magnets are commonly grouped in support structures named girders, which are mounted on vertical and horizontal stages. The performance of this type of machine is highly dependent on the relative alignment between its main components. The length of particle accelerators ranges from small machines to large-scale national or international facilities, with typical lengths of hundreds of meters to a few kilometers. This relatively large volume together with micrometric positioning tolerances make the alignment activity a classical large-scale dimensional metrology problem. The alignment concept relies on networks of fixed monuments installed on the building structure to which all accelerator components are referred. In this work, the Sirius accelerator is taken as a case study, and an alignment network is optimized via computational methods in terms of geometry, densification, and surveying procedure. Laser trackers are employed to guide the installation and measure the girders’ positions, using the optimized network as a reference and applying the metric developed in part I of this paper. Simulations demonstrate the feasibility of aligning the 220 girders of the Sirius synchrotron to better than 0.080 mm, at a coverage probability of 95%.

  13. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. II. X-Ray Point Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first survey results of hard X-ray point sources in the Galactic Center (GC) region by NuSTAR. We have discovered 70 hard (3-79 keV) X-ray point sources in a 0.6 deg2 region around Sgr A* with a total exposure of 1.7 Ms, and 7 sources in the Sgr B2 field with 300 ks. We identify...... persistent luminous X-ray binaries (XBs) and the likely run-away pulsar called the Cannonball. New source-detection significance maps reveal a cluster of hard (>10 keV) X-ray sources near the Sgr. A diffuse complex with no clear soft X-ray counterparts. The severe extinction observed in the Chandra spectra...... indicate that the X-ray spectra of the NuSTAR sources should have kT > 20 keV on average for a single temperature thermal plasma model or an average photon index of Gamma = 1.5-2 for a power-law model. These findings suggest that the GC X-ray source population may contain a larger fraction of XBs with high...

  14. A Deep Proper Motion Catalog Within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Footprint. II. The White Dwarf Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C.; von Hippel, Ted; Kilic, Mukremin; Liebert, James W.; Williams, Kurtis A.; DeGennaro, Steven; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Dame, Kyra; Gianninas, A.; Brown, Warren R.

    2017-01-01

    A catalog of 8472 white dwarf (WD) candidates is presented, selected using reduced proper motions from the deep proper motion catalog of Munn et al. Candidates are selected in the magnitude range 16Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging footprint. Distances, bolometric luminosities, and atmospheric compositions are derived by fitting SDSS ugriz photometry to pure hydrogen and helium model atmospheres (assuming surface gravities {log} {\\text{}}g=8). The disk white dwarf luminosity function (WDLF) is constructed using a sample of 2839 stars with 5.5< {M}{bol}< 17, with statistically significant numbers of stars cooler than the turnover in the luminosity function. The WDLF for the halo is also constructed, using a sample of 135 halo WDs with 5< {M}{bol}< 16. We find space densities of disk and halo WDs in the solar neighborhood of 5.5+/- 0.1× {10}-3 {{pc}}-3 and 3.5+/- 0.7× {10}-5 {{pc}}-3, respectively. We resolve the bump in the disk WDLF due to the onset of fully convective envelopes in WDs, and see indications of it in the halo WDLF as well.

  15. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.; Conrow, T.P.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1990-01-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling. 105 refs

  16. The Fornax Cluster VLT Spectroscopic Survey II - Planetary Nebulae kinematics within 200 kpc of the cluster core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiniello, C.; Napolitano, N. R.; Arnaboldi, M.; Tortora, C.; Coccato, L.; Capaccioli, M.; Gerhard, O.; Iodice, E.; Spavone, M.; Cantiello, M.; Peletier, R.; Paolillo, M.; Schipani, P.

    2018-03-01

    We present the largest and most spatially extended planetary nebulae (PNe) catalog ever obtained for the Fornax cluster. We measured velocities of 1452 PNe out to 200 kpc in the cluster core using a counter-dispersed slitless spectroscopic technique with data from FORS2 on the VLT. With such extended spatial coverage, we can study separately the stellar halos of some of the cluster main galaxies and the intracluster light. In this second paper of the Fornax Cluster VLT Spectroscopic Survey (FVSS), we identify and classify the emission-line sources, describe the method to select PNe and calculate their coordinates and velocities from the dispersed slitless images. From the PN 2D velocity map we identify stellar streams that are possibly tracing the gravitational interaction of NGC 1399 with NGC 1404 and NGC 1387. We also present the velocity dispersion profile out to ˜200 kpc radii, which shows signatures of a superposition of the bright central galaxy and the cluster potential, with the latter clearly dominating the regions outside R˜1000″(˜100 kpc).

  17. Aircraft system modeling error and control error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Nilesh V. (Inventor); Kaneshige, John T. (Inventor); Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S. (Inventor); Burken, John J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for modeling error-driven adaptive control of an aircraft. Normal aircraft plant dynamics is modeled, using an original plant description in which a controller responds to a tracking error e(k) to drive the component to a normal reference value according to an asymptote curve. Where the system senses that (1) at least one aircraft plant component is experiencing an excursion and (2) the return of this component value toward its reference value is not proceeding according to the expected controller characteristics, neural network (NN) modeling of aircraft plant operation may be changed. However, if (1) is satisfied but the error component is returning toward its reference value according to expected controller characteristics, the NN will continue to model operation of the aircraft plant according to an original description.

  18. WHITE DWARF-RED DWARF SYSTEMS RESOLVED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE. II. FULL SNAPSHOT SURVEY RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farihi, J.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, S.

    2010-01-01

    Results are presented for a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys high-resolution imaging campaign of 90 white dwarfs with known or suspected low-mass stellar and substellar companions. Of the 72 targets that remain candidate and confirmed white dwarfs with near-infrared excess, 43 are spatially resolved into two or more components, and a total of 12 systems are potentially triples. For 68 systems where a comparison is possible, 50% have significant photometric distance mismatches between their white dwarf and M dwarf components, suggesting that white dwarf parameters derived spectroscopically are often biased due to the cool companion. Interestingly, 9 of the 30 binaries known to have emission lines are found to be visual pairs and hence widely separated, indicating an intrinsically active cool star and not irradiation from the white dwarf. There is a possible, slight deficit of earlier spectral types (bluer colors) among the spatially unresolved companions, exactly the opposite of expectations if significant mass is transferred to the companion during the common envelope phase. Using the best available distance estimates, the low-mass companions to white dwarfs exhibit a bimodal distribution in projected separation. This result supports the hypothesis that during the giant phases of the white dwarf progenitor, any unevolved companions either migrate inward to short periods of hours to days, or outward to periods of hundreds to thousands of years. No intermediate projected separations of a few to several AU are found among these pairs. However, a few double M dwarfs (within triples) are spatially resolved in this range, empirically demonstrating that such separations were readily detectable among the binaries with white dwarfs. A straightforward and testable prediction emerges: all spatially unresolved, low-mass stellar and substellar companions to white dwarfs should be in short-period orbits. This result has implications for substellar companion and

  19. The SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts - II. New FRB discoveries and their follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, S.; Keane, E. F.; Barr, E. D.; Jameson, A.; Petroff, E.; Johnston, S.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Caleb, M.; Eatough, R. P.; Flynn, C.; Green, J. A.; Jankowski, F.; Kramer, M.; Krishnan, V. Venkatraman; Morello, V.; Possenti, A.; Stappers, B.; Tiburzi, C.; van Straten, W.; Andreoni, I.; Butterley, T.; Chandra, P.; Cooke, J.; Corongiu, A.; Coward, D. M.; Dhillon, V. S.; Dodson, R.; Hardy, L. K.; Howell, E. J.; Jaroenjittichai, P.; Klotz, A.; Littlefair, S. P.; Marsh, T. R.; Mickaliger, M.; Muxlow, T.; Perrodin, D.; Pritchard, T.; Sawangwit, U.; Terai, T.; Tominaga, N.; Torne, P.; Totani, T.; Trois, A.; Turpin, D.; Niino, Y.; Wilson, R. W.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brânzaş, H.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Moursli, R. Cherkaoui El; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A. F.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Palma, I. Di; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Bojaddaini, I. El; Khayati, N. El; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Gregoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pǎvǎlaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzocca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2018-04-01

    We report the discovery of four Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) in the ongoing SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts at the Parkes Radio Telescope: FRBs 150610, 151206, 151230 and 160102. Our real-time discoveries have enabled us to conduct extensive, rapid multimessenger follow-up at 12 major facilities sensitive to radio, optical, X-ray, gamma-ray photons and neutrinos on time-scales ranging from an hour to a few months post-burst. No counterparts to the FRBs were found and we provide upper limits on afterglow luminosities. None of the FRBs were seen to repeat. Formal fits to all FRBs show hints of scattering while their intrinsic widths are unresolved in time. FRB 151206 is at low Galactic latitude, FRB 151230 shows a sharp spectral cut-off, and FRB 160102 has the highest dispersion measure (DM = 2596.1 ± 0.3 pc cm-3) detected to date. Three of the FRBs have high dispersion measures (DM > 1500 pc cm-3), favouring a scenario where the DM is dominated by contributions from the intergalactic medium. The slope of the Parkes FRB source counts distribution with fluences >2 Jy ms is α =-2.2^{+0.6}_{-1.2} and still consistent with a Euclidean distribution (α = -3/2). We also find that the all-sky rate is 1.7^{+1.5}_{-0.9}× 10^3FRBs/(4π sr)/day above {˜ }2{ }{Jy}{ }{ms} and there is currently no strong evidence for a latitude-dependent FRB sky rate.

  20. Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants, Stage II Protection of concrete - State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Ylva (CBI, Boraas (Sweden)); Henriksson, Gunilla (SP, Boraas (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    A pilot study on the degradation and corrosion of concrete in biological treatment plants was conducted in 2009/2010 in a Waste Refinery Project WR-27 'Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants'. The results showed that the concrete does not have sufficient resistance in the current aggressive plant environment. Furthermore, it is stated that some form of surface protection system is needed to ensure the good performance of concrete constructions, and that the system must withstand the aggressive environment and the traffic that occurs on site. Consequently, a new study was proposed in order to develop specifications for surface protection of concrete in aggressive food waste environments. Results from that study are presented in this report. The report includes various types of waterproofing/protection coating for concrete in biological treatment plants. A number of proposals from the industry are presented in the light of results from project WR-27, i.e., the materials must, among other things, withstand the aggressive leachate from waste food at temperatures up to 70 deg C, and some degree of wear. Some systems are compared in terms of technical material properties as reported by the manufacturer. It turns out that different testing methods were used, and the test results are thus generally not directly comparable. A proposal for a test program has been developed, focusing on chemical resistance and wear resistance. A test solution corresponding to leachate is specified. Laboratory tests for verification of the proposed methodology and future requirements are proposed, as well as test sites and follow-up in the field

  1. Error detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Eric J.

    2013-06-11

    An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).

  2. Apical Periodontitis and Endodontic Treatment in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus: Comparative Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadi, Leena

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients compared with nondiabetic patients and to examine the effect of glycemic control on the prevalence of AP. Radiographs of a group of DM patients were compared with those of a matched nondiabetic group to identify AP. The diabetic group was subdivided according to the level of glycemic control into two subgroups: A well-controlled DM and a poorly controlled DM. The periapical index score was used to assess the periapical status. All groups were compared in regard to the presence of AP lesions, the number of end-odontically treated teeth (ET), and the percentage of failure of endodontically treated teeth (AP/ET ratio). Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0, Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used for all the analyses; p ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The prevalence of AP was higher in diabetic group than in the nondiabetic group (13.5 vs 11.9% respectively). Diabetic group had more teeth with endodontic treatment ET compared with nondiabetic group (4.18 vs 1.82% respectively); this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001) along with higher AP/ET ratio (27.7 vs 19.3 respectively). The poorly controlled DM group had a higher prevalence of AP lesions compared with the well-controlled DM group (18.29 vs 9.21 respectively). This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001); they also had a higher percentage of ET (5.55 vs 3.13% respectively) and AP/ ET ratio (32.0 vs 21.8% respectively). This survey demonstrates a higher prevalence of AP in DM patients compared with nondiabetic group, with an increased prevalence of persistent chronic AP. Compared with a well-controlled diabetic group, a poor glycemic control may be associated with a higher prevalence of AP and increased rate of endodontic failures. Counseling diabetic patients, particularly those with poor glycemic control, about the risk of

  3. Errors in Neonatology

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Boldrini; Rosa T. Scaramuzzo; Armando Cuttano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Danger and errors are inherent in human activities. In medical practice errors can lean to adverse events for patients. Mass media echo the whole scenario. Methods: We reviewed recent published papers in PubMed database to focus on the evidence and management of errors in medical practice in general and in Neonatology in particular. We compared the results of the literature with our specific experience in Nina Simulation Centre (Pisa, Italy). Results: In Neonatology the main err...

  4. Correction for quadrature errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, A.; Christensen, Erik Lintz

    1994-01-01

    In high bandwidth radar systems it is necessary to use quadrature devices to convert the signal to/from baseband. Practical problems make it difficult to implement a perfect quadrature system. Channel imbalance and quadrature phase errors in the transmitter and the receiver result in error signals......, which appear as self-clutter in the radar image. When digital techniques are used for generation and processing or the radar signal it is possible to reduce these error signals. In the paper the quadrature devices are analyzed, and two different error compensation methods are considered. The practical...

  5. Error probabilities in default Bayesian hypothesis testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Xin; Hoijtink, Herbert; Mulder, J,

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the classical type I and type II error probabilities of default Bayes factors for a Bayesian t test. Default Bayes factors quantify the relative evidence between the null hypothesis and the unrestricted alternative hypothesis without needing to specify prior distributions for

  6. The GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS). II. Metallicity distributions and alpha element abundances at fixed Galactic latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, O. A.; Zoccali, M.; Vasquez, S.; Hill, V.; Rejkuba, M.; Valenti, E.; Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Renzini, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Minniti, D.; Brown, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Aims: We investigate metallicity and α-element abundance gradients along a Galactic longitude strip, at latitude b ~ -4°, with the aim of providing observational constraints for the structure and origin of the Milky Way bulge. Methods: High-resolution (R ~ 22 500) spectra for 400 K giants, in four fields within -4.8° ≲ b ≲ -3.4° and -10° ≲ l ≲ +10°, were obtained within the GIRAFFE Inner Bulge Survey (GIBS) project. To this sample we added another ~400 stars in Baade's Window at (l,b) = (1°,-4°), observed with the identical instrumental configuration: FLAMES GIRAFFE in Medusa mode with HR13 setup. All target stars lie within the red clump of the bulge colour-magnitude diagram, thus minimising contamination from the disc or halo stars. The spectroscopic stellar surface parameters were derived with an automatic method based on the GALA code, while the [Ca/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] abundances as a function of [Fe/H] were derived through a comparison with the synthetic spectra using MOOG. We constructed the metallicity distributions for the entire sample, and for each field individually, in order to investigate the presence of gradients or field-to-field variations in the shape of the distributions. Results: The metallicity distributions in the five fields are consistent with being drawn from a single parent population, indicating the absence of a gradient along the major axis of the Galactic bar. The global metallicity distribution is nicely fitted by two Gaussians. The metal-poor component is rather broad, with a mean at ⟨ [Fe/H] ⟩ = -0.31 dex and σ = 0.31 dex. The metal-rich component is narrower, with mean ⟨ [Fe/H] ⟩ = + 0.26 and σ = 0.2 dex. The [Mg/Fe] ratio follows a tight trend with [Fe/H], with enhancement with respect to solar in the metal-poor regime similar to the value observed for giant stars in the local thick disc. [Ca/Fe] abundances follow a similar trend, but with a considerably larger scatter than [Mg/Fe]. A decrease in [Mg/Fe] is

  7. Prevalence surveys as part of a strategic plan to prevent healthcare associated infections. The experience of the University Hospital "Federico II" of Naples, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montella, E; Triassi, M; Bellopede, R; Reis, W; Palladino, R; Di Silverio, P

    2014-01-01

    The care-associated infections (HAI) are the most serious complication associated with medical care. They are the cause of diseases for patients and economic damage to public health. The University "Federico II" of Naples decided to monitor the HAI, repeating the prevalence survey conducted earlier in 2011 in order to analyze the phenomenon of infection and to evaluate the possible correlation with risk factors. The Survey was conducted according to ECDC criteria. Considered that the study carried out in 2011 was conducted following the same methodology, to compare the results of the year 2012 the prevalence rates of both years were standardized. For the year 2012, the number of patients enrolled in the study and stratification of patients by age and sex were similar to data collected in 2011. It was very interesting to find the prevalence of HAI standardized reduced in 2012 compared to 2011. As a matter of fact, in fact, that the standardized prevalence of HAI for the year 2012 was 3.1%, one percentage point lower than in 2011 (4.4%). The practical training and direct regarded as the most appropriate approach in order to make health professionals aware in the field of health care-associated infections, as well as the system of selfcontrol peripheral for the correct application of the procedures, as well as epidemiological surveillance active, measured through rates of incidence, at the same time allow the monitoring of the phenomenon is infectious and the application of corrective measures that prevent its onset. The choice to make again an epidemiological study of prevalence with the same methodology ensures, in fact, two advantages: the comparability of the data, both at intra-company both at regional, national and international evaluation of the effectiveness of corrective actions.

  8. Action errors, error management, and learning in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Michael; Keith, Nina

    2015-01-03

    Every organization is confronted with errors. Most errors are corrected easily, but some may lead to negative consequences. Organizations often focus on error prevention as a single strategy for dealing with errors. Our review suggests that error prevention needs to be supplemented by error management--an approach directed at effectively dealing with errors after they have occurred, with the goal of minimizing negative and maximizing positive error consequences (examples of the latter are learning and innovations). After defining errors and related concepts, we review research on error-related processes affected by error management (error detection, damage control). Empirical evidence on positive effects of error management in individuals and organizations is then discussed, along with emotional, motivational, cognitive, and behavioral pathways of these effects. Learning from errors is central, but like other positive consequences, learning occurs under certain circumstances--one being the development of a mind-set of acceptance of human error.

  9. Medical error and disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew A; Gallagher, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    Errors occur commonly in healthcare and can cause significant harm to patients. Most errors arise from a combination of individual, system, and communication failures. Neurologists may be involved in harmful errors in any practice setting and should familiarize themselves with tools to prevent, report, and examine errors. Although physicians, patients, and ethicists endorse candid disclosure of harmful medical errors to patients, many physicians express uncertainty about how to approach these conversations. A growing body of research indicates physicians often fail to meet patient expectations for timely and open disclosure. Patients desire information about the error, an apology, and a plan for preventing recurrence of the error. To meet these expectations, physicians should participate in event investigations and plan thoroughly for each disclosure conversation, preferably with a disclosure coach. Physicians should also anticipate and attend to the ongoing medical and emotional needs of the patient. A cultural change towards greater transparency following medical errors is in motion. Substantial progress is still required, but neurologists can further this movement by promoting policies and environments conducive to open reporting, respectful disclosure to patients, and support for the healthcare workers involved. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Learning from Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Although error avoidance during learning appears to be the rule in American classrooms, laboratory studies suggest that it may be a counterproductive strategy, at least for neurologically typical students. Experimental investigations indicate that errorful learning followed by corrective feedback is beneficial to learning. Interestingly, the…

  11. Discussion of medical errors in morbidity and mortality conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierluissi, Edgar; Fischer, Melissa A; Campbell, Andre R; Landefeld, C Seth

    2003-12-03

    Morbidity and mortality conferences in residency programs are intended to discuss adverse events and errors with a goal to improve patient care. Little is known about whether residency training programs are accomplishing this goal. To determine the frequency at which morbidity and mortality conference case presentations include adverse events and errors and whether the errors are discussed and attributed to a particular cause. Prospective survey conducted by trained physician observers from July 2000 through April 2001 on 332 morbidity and mortality conference case presentations and discussions in internal medicine (n = 100) and surgery (n = 232) at 4 US academic hospitals. Frequencies of presentation of adverse events and errors, discussion of errors, and attribution of errors. In internal medicine morbidity and mortality conferences, case presentations and discussions were 3 times longer than in surgery conferences (34.1 minutes vs 11.7 minutes; P =.001), more time was spent listening to invited speakers (43.1% vs 0%; Pinternal medicine case presentations included adverse events (37 [37%] vs 166 surgery case presentations [72%]; Perrors causing an adverse event (18 [18%] vs 98 [42%], respectively; P =.001). When an error caused an adverse event, the error was discussed as an error less often in internal medicine (10 errors [48%] vs 85 errors in surgery [77%]; P =.02). Errors were attributed to a particular cause less often in medicine than in surgery conferences (8 [38%] of 21 medicine errors vs 88 [79%] of 112 surgery errors; Perrors, conference leaders in both internal medicine and surgery infrequently used explicit language to signal that an error was being discussed and infrequently acknowledged having made an error. Our findings call into question whether adverse events and errors are routinely discussed in internal medicine training programs. Although adverse events and errors were discussed frequently in surgery cases, teachers in both surgery and internal

  12. Errors in neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caranci, Ferdinando; Tedeschi, Enrico; Leone, Giuseppe; Reginelli, Alfonso; Gatta, Gianluca; Pinto, Antonio; Squillaci, Ettore; Briganti, Francesco; Brunese, Luca

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 4 % of radiologic interpretation in daily practice contains errors and discrepancies that should occur in 2-20 % of reports. Fortunately, most of them are minor degree errors, or if serious, are found and corrected with sufficient promptness; obviously, diagnostic errors become critical when misinterpretation or misidentification should significantly delay medical or surgical treatments. Errors can be summarized into four main categories: observer errors, errors in interpretation, failure to suggest the next appropriate procedure, failure to communicate in a timely and a clinically appropriate manner. Misdiagnosis/misinterpretation percentage should rise up in emergency setting and in the first moments of the learning curve, as in residency. Para-physiological and pathological pitfalls in neuroradiology include calcification and brain stones, pseudofractures, and enlargement of subarachnoid or epidural spaces, ventricular system abnormalities, vascular system abnormalities, intracranial lesions or pseudolesions, and finally neuroradiological emergencies. In order to minimize the possibility of error, it is important to be aware of various presentations of pathology, obtain clinical information, know current practice guidelines, review after interpreting a diagnostic study, suggest follow-up studies when appropriate, communicate significant abnormal findings appropriately and in a timely fashion directly with the treatment team.

  13. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and copper (II) complexes of N, N' – bis(benzoin)ethylenediiminato have been prepared and characterized by infrared, elemental analysis, conductivity measurements and solubility. The potentiometric, and elemental analyses studies of the complexes revealed 1:1 ...

  14. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  15. Disclosure of medical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlow, Anne; Stevens, Polly; Harrison, Christine; Laxer, Ronald M

    2006-12-01

    The 1999 release of the Institute of Medicine's document To Err is Human was akin to removing the lid of Pandora's box. Not only were the magnitude and impact of medical errors now apparent to those working in the health care industry, but consumers or health care were alerted to the occurrence of medical events causing harm. One specific solution advocated was the disclosure to patients and their families of adverse events resulting from medical error. Knowledge of the historical perspective, ethical underpinnings, and medico-legal implications gives us a better appreciation of current recommendations for disclosing adverse events resulting from medical error to those affected.

  16. Prioritising the prevention of medication handling errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsche, Thilo; Niemann, Dorothee; Mayer, Yvonne; Ingram, Katrin; Hoppe-Tichy, Torsten; Haefeli, Walter E

    2008-12-01

    Medication errors are frequent in a hospital setting and often caused by inappropriate drug handling. Systematic strategies for their prevention however are still lacking. We developed and applied a classification model to categorise medication handling errors and defined the urgency of correction on the basis of these findings. Nurses on medical wards (including intensive and intermediate care units) of a 1,680-bed teaching hospital. In a prospective observational study we evaluated the prevalence of 20 predefined medication handling errors on the ward. In a concurrent questionnaire survey, we assessed the knowledge of the nurses on medication handling. The severity of errors observed in individual areas was scored considering prevalence, potential risk of an error, and the involved drug. These scores and the prevalence of corresponding knowledge deficits were used to define the urgency of preventive strategies according to a four-field decision matrix. Prevalence and potential risk of medication handling errors, corresponding knowledge deficits in nurses committing the errors, and priority of quality improvement. In 1,376 observed processes 833 medication handling errors were detected. Errors concerning preparation (mean 0.88 errors per observed process [95% CI: 0.81-0.96], N = 645) were more frequent than administration errors (0.36 [0.32-0.41], N = 701, P drugs (1.10 [1.00-1.19], N = 492) were more often involved in errors than enteral drugs (0.32 [0.28-0.36], N = 794, P drugs, 81.6% by uncomplicated drugs, and 6.9% by nutritional supplements or diluents without active ingredient. According to the decision matrix that also considered knowledge deficits two error types concerning enteral drugs (flaws in light protection and prescribing information) were given maximum priority for quality improvement. For parenteral drugs five errors (incompatibilities, flaws in hygiene, duration of administration, check for visible abnormalities, and again prescribing

  17. Cognitive styles: errors in directional judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Raffaella; Giusberti, Fiorella

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies on spatial memory have shown that, in judging direction, participants are more accurate and faster when a map is aligned with the perspective of the spatial layout they had learned (alignment effect). Rossano and Warren (1989 Perception 18 215-229) have shown that when participants have to do a contra-aligned judgment they can either answer correctly, or make alignment or mirror-image errors. We think that the kind of response depends on the different way in which people acquire environmental knowledge: landmark, route, and survey. We hypothesise that landmark and route participants show alignment effects and make, respectively, alignment errors and mirror-image errors, whereas survey participants do not show an alignment effect. An experiment is reported in which participants performed three tasks in order to distinguish their cognitive style. We selected thirty landmark, thirty route, and twenty-eight survey participants. They were then submitted to directional judgment tasks to verify whether the alignment effect was present and to observe the kind of responses. The results revealed that survey participants did not show an alignment effect, and that the kind of errors could depend on the directional judgment task participants had to do, and not only on the cognitive style.

  18. Error management for musicians: an interdisciplinary conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke eKruse-Weber

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Musicians tend to strive for flawless performance and perfection, avoiding errors at all costs. Dealing with errors while practicing or performing is often frustrating and can lead to anger and despair, which can explain musicians’ generally negative attitude toward errors and the tendency to aim for errorless learning in instrumental music education. But even the best performances are rarely error-free, and research in general pedagogy and psychology has shown that errors provide useful information for the learning process. Research in instrumental pedagogy is still neglecting error issues; the benefits of risk management (before the error and error management (during and after the error are still underestimated. It follows that dealing with errors is a key aspect of music practice at home, teaching, and performance in public. And yet, to be innovative, or to make their performance extraordinary, musicians need to risk errors. Currently, most music students only acquire the ability to manage errors implicitly - or not at all. A more constructive, creative and differentiated culture of errors would balance error tolerance and risk-taking against error prevention in ways that enhance music practice and music performance. The teaching environment should lay the foundation for the development of these abilities. In this contribution, we survey recent research in aviation, medicine, economics, psychology, and interdisciplinary decision theory that has demonstrated that specific error-management training can promote metacognitive skills that lead to better adaptive transfer and better performance skills. We summarize how this research can be applied to music, and survey relevant research that is specifically tailored to the needs of musicians, including generic guidelines for risk and error management in music teaching and performance. On this basis, we develop a conceptual framework for risk management that can provide orientation for further

  19. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutter, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis...

  20. Rounding errors in weighing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeach, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    When rounding error is large relative to weighing error, it cannot be ignored when estimating scale precision and bias from calibration data. Further, if the data grouping is coarse, rounding error is correlated with weighing error and may also have a mean quite different from zero. These facts are taken into account in a moment estimation method. A copy of the program listing for the MERDA program that provides moment estimates is available from the author. Experience suggests that if the data fall into four or more cells or groups, it is not necessary to apply the moment estimation method. Rather, the estimate given by equation (3) is valid in this instance. 5 tables

  1. Spotting software errors sooner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, D.

    1989-01-01

    Static analysis is helping to identify software errors at an earlier stage and more cheaply than conventional methods of testing. RTP Software's MALPAS system also has the ability to check that a code conforms to its original specification. (author)

  2. Error Reporting Logic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaspan, Ciera; Quan, Trisha; Aldrich, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    ... it. In this paper, we introduce error reporting logic (ERL), an algorithm and tool that produces succinct explanations for why a target system violates a specification expressed in first order predicate logic...

  3. Pedal Application Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This project examined the prevalence of pedal application errors and the driver, vehicle, roadway and/or environmental characteristics associated with pedal misapplication crashes based on a literature review, analysis of news media reports, a panel ...

  4. Prevalence and pattern of prescription errors in a Nigerian kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine (i) the prevalence and pattern of prescription errors in our Centre and, (ii) appraise pharmacists' intervention and correction of identified prescription errors. Design: A descriptive, single blinded cross-sectional study. Setting: Kidney Care Centre is a public Specialist hospital. The monthly patient ...

  5. Spelling Errors in Adults with a Form of Familial Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Bruce F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Compares the spelling errors on the Wide Range Achievement Test II made by adults with an apparent autosomal dominant form of dyslexia to those made by their normal adult relatives and by spelling-age matched normal controls using a computerized error evaluation program. (HOD)

  6. Design for Error Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1983-01-01

    An important aspect of the optimal design of computer-based operator support systems is the sensitivity of such systems to operator errors. The author discusses how a system might allow for human variability with the use of reversibility and observability.......An important aspect of the optimal design of computer-based operator support systems is the sensitivity of such systems to operator errors. The author discusses how a system might allow for human variability with the use of reversibility and observability....

  7. Ten-Year Changes in the Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Physical Activity among Polish Adults Aged 20 to 74 Years. Results of the National Multicenter Health Surveys WOBASZ (2003-2005 and WOBASZ II (2013-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kwaśniewska

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate ten-year changes in physical activity (PA patterns and sociodemographic determinants among adult residents of Poland.The study comprised two independent samples of randomly selected adults aged 20-74 years participating in the National Multicentre Health Survey WOBASZ (2003-2005; n = 14572 and WOBASZ II (2013-2014; n = 5694. In both surveys the measurements were performed by six academic centers in all 16 voivodships of Poland (108 measurement points in each survey. Sociodemographic data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire in both surveys. Physical activity was assessed in three domains: leisure-time, occupational and commuting physical activity.Leisure-time PA changed substantially between the surveys (p<0.001. The prevalence of subjects being active on most days of week fell in both genders in the years 2003-2014 (37.4% vs 27.3% in men; 32.7% vs 28.3% in women. None or occasional activity increased from 49.6% to 56.8% in men, while remained stable in women (55.2% vs 54.9%. In both WOBASZ surveys the likelihood of physical inactivity was higher in less educated individuals, smokers and those living in large agglomerations (p<0.01. No significant changes were observed in occupational activity in men between the surveys, while in women percentage of sedentary work increased from 43.4% to % 49.4% (p<0.01. Commuting PA decreased significantly in both genders (p<0.001. About 79.3% of men and 71.3% of women reported no active commuting in the WOBASZ II survey.The observed unfavourable changes in PA emphasize the need for novel intervention concepts in order to reverse this direction. Further detailed monitoring of PA patterns in Poland is of particular importance.

  8. Research trend on human error reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, Sadaoki

    1990-01-01

    Human error has been the problem in all industries. In 1988, the Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, USA, carried out the worldwide survey on the human error in all industries in relation to the fatal accidents in mines. There was difference in the results according to the methods of collecting data, but the proportion that human error took in the total accidents distributed in the wide range of 20∼85%, and was 35% on the average. The rate of occurrence of accidents and troubles in Japanese nuclear power stations is shown, and the rate of occurrence of human error is 0∼0.5 cases/reactor-year, which did not much vary. Therefore, the proportion that human error took in the total tended to increase, and it has become important to reduce human error for lowering the rate of occurrence of accidents and troubles hereafter. After the TMI accident in 1979 in USA, the research on man-machine interface became active, and after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 in USSR, the problem of organization and management has been studied. In Japan, 'Safety 21' was drawn up by the Advisory Committee for Energy, and also the annual reports on nuclear safety pointed out the importance of human factors. The state of the research on human factors in Japan and abroad and three targets to reduce human error are reported. (K.I.)

  9. Type Ia Supernova Properties as a Function of the Distance to the Host Galaxy in the SDSS-II SN Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbany, Lluis [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Barcelona (Spain); et al.

    2012-08-20

    We use type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey to search for dependencies between SN Ia properties and the projected distance to the host galaxy center, using the distance as a proxy for local galaxy properties (local star-formation rate, local metallicity, etc.). The sample consists of almost 200 spectroscopically or photometrically confirmed SNe Ia at redshifts below 0.25. The sample is split into two groups depending on the morphology of the host galaxy. We fit light-curves using both MLCS2k2 and SALT2, and determine color (AV, c) and light-curve shape (delta, x1) parameters for each SN Ia, as well as its residual in the Hubble diagram. We then correlate these parameters with both the physical and the normalized distances to the center of the host galaxy and look for trends in the mean values and scatters of these parameters with increasing distance. The most significant (at the 4-sigma level) finding is that the average fitted AV from MLCS2k2 and c from SALT2 decrease with the projected distance for SNe Ia in spiral galaxies. We also find indications that SNe in elliptical galaxies tend to have narrower light-curves if they explode at larger distances, although this may be due to selection effects in our sample. We do not find strong correlations between the residuals of the distance moduli with respect to the Hubble flow and the galactocentric distances, which indicates a limited correlation between SN magnitudes after standardization and local host metallicity.

  10. Comparison of food consumption and nutrient intake assessed with three dietary assessment methods: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straßburg, Andrea; Eisinger-Watzl, Marianne; Krems, Carolin; Roth, Alexander; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2017-11-30

    Comparison of food consumption, nutrient intake and underreporting of diet history interviews, 24-h recalls and weighed food records to gain further insight into specific strength and limitations of each method and to support the choice of the adequate dietary assessment method. For 677 participants (14-80 years) of the German National Nutrition Survey II confidence intervals for food consumption and nutrient intake were calculated on basis of bootstrapping samples, Cohen's d for the relevance of differences, and intraclass correlation coefficients for the degree of agreement of dietary assessment methods. Low energy reporters were identified with Goldberg cut-offs. In 7 of 18 food groups diet history interviews showed higher consumption means than 24-h recalls and weighed food records. Especially mean values of food groups perceived as socially desirable, such as fruit and vegetables, were highest for diet history interviews. For "raw" and "cooked vegetables", the diet history interviews showed a mean consumption of 144 and 109 g/day in comparison with 68 and 70 g/day in 24-h recalls and 76 and 75 g/day in weighed food records, respectively. For "fruit", diet history interviews showed a mean consumption of 256 g/day in comparison with 164 g/day in 24-h recalls and 147 g/day in weighed food records. No major differences regarding underreporting of energy intake were found between dietary assessment methods. With regard to estimating food consumption and nutrient intake, 24-h recalls and weighed food records showed smaller differences and better agreement than pairwise comparisons with diet history interviews.

  11. Errors in radiographic recognition in the emergency room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, C.A.; Cooperstein, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    For 6 months we monitored the frequency and type of errors in radiographic recognition made by radiology residents on call in our emergency room. A relatively low error rate was observed, probably because the authors evaluated cognitive errors only, rather than include those of interpretation. The most common missed finding was a small fracture, particularly on the hands or feet. First-year residents were most likely to make an error, but, interestingly, our survey revealed a small subset of upper-level residents who made a disproportionate number of errors

  12. Human error in aviation operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, David C.

    1988-01-01

    The role of human error in commercial and general aviation accidents and the techniques used to evaluate it are reviewed from a human-factors perspective. Topics addressed include the general decline in accidents per million departures since the 1960s, the increase in the proportion of accidents due to human error, methods for studying error, theoretical error models, and the design of error-resistant systems. Consideration is given to information acquisition and processing errors, visually guided flight, disorientation, instrument-assisted guidance, communication errors, decision errors, debiasing, and action errors.

  13. Error monitoring in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens eMaidhof

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To err is human, and hence even professional musicians make errors occasionally during their performances. This paper summarizes recent work investigating error monitoring in musicians, i.e. the processes and their neural correlates associated with the monitoring of ongoing actions and the detection of deviations from intended sounds. EEG Studies reported an early component of the event-related potential (ERP occurring before the onsets of pitch errors. This component, which can be altered in musicians with focal dystonia, likely reflects processes of error detection and/or error compensation, i.e. attempts to cancel the undesired sensory consequence (a wrong tone a musician is about to perceive. Thus, auditory feedback seems not to be a prerequisite for error detection, consistent with previous behavioral results. In contrast, when auditory feedback is externally manipulated and thus unexpected, motor performance can be severely distorted, although not all feedback alterations result in performance impairments. Recent studies investigating the neural correlates of feedback processing showed that unexpected feedback elicits an ERP component after note onsets, which shows larger amplitudes during music performance than during mere perception of the same musical sequences. Hence, these results stress the role of motor actions for the processing of auditory information. Furthermore, recent methodological advances like the combination of 3D motion capture techniques with EEG will be discussed. Such combinations of different measures can potentially help to disentangle the roles of different feedback types such as proprioceptive and auditory feedback, and in general to derive at a better understanding of the complex interactions between the motor and auditory domain during error monitoring. Finally, outstanding questions and future directions in this context will be discussed.

  14. Learning from errors in radiology to improve patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Shaista Afzal; Masroor, Imrana; Shafqat, Gulnaz

    2013-10-01

    To determine the views and practices of trainees and consultant radiologists about error reporting. Cross-sectional survey. Radiology trainees and consultant radiologists in four tertiary care hospitals in Karachi approached in the second quarter of 2011. Participants were enquired as to their grade, sub-specialty interest, whether they kept a record/log of their errors (defined as a mistake that has management implications for the patient), number of errors they made in the last 12 months and the predominant type of error. They were also asked about the details of their department error meetings. All duly completed questionnaires were included in the study while the ones with incomplete information were excluded. A total of 100 radiologists participated in the survey. Of them, 34 were consultants and 66 were trainees. They had a wide range of sub-specialty interest like CT, Ultrasound, etc. Out of the 100 responders, 49 kept a personal record/log of their errors. In response to the recall of approximate errors they made in the last 12 months, 73 (73%) of participants recorded a varied response with 1 - 5 errors mentioned by majority i.e. 47 (64.5%). Most of the radiologists (97%) claimed receiving information about their errors through multiple sources like morbidity/mortality meetings, patients' follow-up, through colleagues and consultants. Perceptual error 66 (66%) were the predominant error type reported. Regular occurrence of error meetings and attending three or more error meetings in the last 12 months was reported by 35% participants. Majority among these described the atmosphere of these error meetings as informative and comfortable (n = 22, 62.8%). It is of utmost importance to develop a culture of learning from mistakes by conducting error meetings and improving the process of recording and addressing errors to enhance patient safety.

  15. Pediatric antidepressant medication errors in a national error reporting database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinke, Michael L; Bundy, David G; Shore, Andrew D; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Morlock, Laura L; Miller, Marlene R

    2010-01-01

    To describe inpatient and outpatient pediatric antidepressant medication errors. We analyzed all error reports from the United States Pharmacopeia MEDMARX database, from 2003 to 2006, involving antidepressant medications and patients younger than 18 years. Of the 451 error reports identified, 95% reached the patient, 6.4% reached the patient and necessitated increased monitoring and/or treatment, and 77% involved medications being used off label. Thirty-three percent of errors cited administering as the macrolevel cause of the error, 30% cited dispensing, 28% cited transcribing, and 7.9% cited prescribing. The most commonly cited medications were sertraline (20%), bupropion (19%), fluoxetine (15%), and trazodone (11%). We found no statistically significant association between medication and reported patient harm; harmful errors involved significantly more administering errors (59% vs 32%, p = .023), errors occurring in inpatient care (93% vs 68%, p = .012) and extra doses of medication (31% vs 10%, p = .025) compared with nonharmful errors. Outpatient errors involved significantly more dispensing errors (p errors due to inaccurate or omitted transcription (p errors. Family notification of medication errors was reported in only 12% of errors. Pediatric antidepressant errors often reach patients, frequently involve off-label use of medications, and occur with varying severity and type depending on location and type of medication prescribed. Education and research should be directed toward prompt medication error disclosure and targeted error reduction strategies for specific medication types and settings.

  16. Learning from Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Lendita Kryeziu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “Errare humanum est”, a well known and widespread Latin proverb which states that: to err is human, and that people make mistakes all the time. However, what counts is that people must learn from mistakes. On these grounds Steve Jobs stated: “Sometimes when you innovate, you make mistakes. It is best to admit them quickly, and get on with improving your other innovations.” Similarly, in learning new language, learners make mistakes, thus it is important to accept them, learn from them, discover the reason why they make them, improve and move on. The significance of studying errors is described by Corder as: “There have always been two justifications proposed for the study of learners' errors: the pedagogical justification, namely that a good understanding of the nature of error is necessary before a systematic means of eradicating them could be found, and the theoretical justification, which claims that a study of learners' errors is part of the systematic study of the learners' language which is itself necessary to an understanding of the process of second language acquisition” (Corder, 1982; 1. Thus the importance and the aim of this paper is analyzing errors in the process of second language acquisition and the way we teachers can benefit from mistakes to help students improve themselves while giving the proper feedback.

  17. Calculating SPRT Interpolation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipe, E.; Gentil, S.; Lóio, I.; Bosma, R.; Peruzzi, A.

    2018-02-01

    Interpolation error is a major source of uncertainty in the calibration of standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT) in the subranges of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). This interpolation error arises because the interpolation equations prescribed by the ITS-90 cannot perfectly accommodate all the SPRTs natural variations in the resistance-temperature behavior, and generates different forms of non-uniqueness. This paper investigates the type 3 non-uniqueness for fourteen SPRTs of five different manufacturers calibrated over the water-zinc subrange and demonstrates the use of the method of divided differences for calculating the interpolation error. The calculated maximum standard deviation of 0.25 mK (near 100°C) is similar to that observed in previous studies.

  18. Errors in Neonatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Boldrini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Danger and errors are inherent in human activities. In medical practice errors can lean to adverse events for patients. Mass media echo the whole scenario. Methods: We reviewed recent published papers in PubMed database to focus on the evidence and management of errors in medical practice in general and in Neonatology in particular. We compared the results of the literature with our specific experience in Nina Simulation Centre (Pisa, Italy. Results: In Neonatology the main error domains are: medication and total parenteral nutrition, resuscitation and respiratory care, invasive procedures, nosocomial infections, patient identification, diagnostics. Risk factors include patients’ size, prematurity, vulnerability and underlying disease conditions but also multidisciplinary teams, working conditions providing fatigue, a large variety of treatment and investigative modalities needed. Discussion and Conclusions: In our opinion, it is hardly possible to change the human beings but it is likely possible to change the conditions under they work. Voluntary errors report systems can help in preventing adverse events. Education and re-training by means of simulation can be an effective strategy too. In Pisa (Italy Nina (ceNtro di FormazIone e SimulazioNe NeonAtale is a simulation center that offers the possibility of a continuous retraining for technical and non-technical skills to optimize neonatological care strategies. Furthermore, we have been working on a novel skill trainer for mechanical ventilation (MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications, MERESSINA. Finally, in our opinion national health policy indirectly influences risk for errors. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  19. Estimation of the limit of detection with a bootstrap-derived standard error by a partly non-parametric approach. Application to HPLC drug assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    Bootstrap, HPLC, limit of blank, limit of detection, non-parametric statistics, type I and II errors......Bootstrap, HPLC, limit of blank, limit of detection, non-parametric statistics, type I and II errors...

  20. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  1. Learning from Errors: Critical Incident Reporting in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartmeier, Martin; Ottl, Eva; Bauer, Johannes; Berberat, Pascal Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize error reporting as a strategy for informal workplace learning and investigate nurses' error reporting cost/benefit evaluations and associated behaviors. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal survey study was carried out in a hospital setting with two measurements (time 1 [t1]:…

  2. Prevalence of refractive errors among junior high school students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among school children, uncorrected refractive errors have a considerable impact on their participation and learning in class. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of refractive error among students in the Ejisu-Juabeng Municipality of Ghana. A survey with multi-stage sampling was undertaken. We interviewed ...

  3. Friendship at work and error disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yen Mao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Organizations rely on contextual factors to promote employee disclosure of self-made errors, which induces a resource dilemma (i.e., disclosure entails costing one's own resources to bring others resources and a friendship dilemma (i.e., disclosure is seemingly easier through friendship, yet the cost of friendship is embedded. This study proposes that friendship at work enhances error disclosure and uses conservation of resources theory as underlying explanation. A three-wave survey collected data from 274 full-time employees with a variety of occupational backgrounds. Empirical results indicated that friendship enhanced error disclosure partially through relational mechanisms of employees’ attitudes toward coworkers (i.e., employee engagement and of coworkers’ attitudes toward employees (i.e., perceived social worth. Such effects hold when controlling for established predictors of error disclosure. This study expands extant perspectives on employee error and the theoretical lenses used to explain the influence of friendship at work. We propose that, while promoting error disclosure through both contextual and relational approaches, organizations should be vigilant about potential incongruence.

  4. Error management in audit firms: Error climate, type, and originator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gold, A.H.; Gronewold, U.; Salterio, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how the treatment of audit staff who discover errors in audit files by superiors affects their willingness to report these errors. The way staff are treated by superiors is labelled as the audit office error management climate. In a "blame-oriented" climate errors are not

  5. Error tolerance: an evaluation of residents' repeated motor coordination errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Katherine E; Gwillim, Eran C; Ray, Rebecca D; D'Angelo, Anne-Lise D; Cohen, Elaine R; Fiers, Rebekah M; Rutherford, Drew N; Pugh, Carla M

    2016-10-01

    The study investigates the relationship between motor coordination errors and total errors using a human factors framework. We hypothesize motor coordination errors will correlate with total errors and provide validity evidence for error tolerance as a performance metric. Residents' laparoscopic skills were evaluated during a simulated laparoscopic ventral hernia repair for motor coordination errors when grasping for intra-abdominal mesh or suture. Tolerance was defined as repeated, failed attempts to correct an error and the time required to recover. Residents (N = 20) committed an average of 15.45 (standard deviation [SD] = 4.61) errors and 1.70 (SD = 2.25) motor coordination errors during mesh placement. Total errors correlated with motor coordination errors (r[18] = .572, P = .008). On average, residents required 5.09 recovery attempts for 1 motor coordination error (SD = 3.15). Recovery approaches correlated to total error load (r[13] = .592, P = .02). Residents' motor coordination errors and recovery approaches predict total error load. Error tolerance proved to be a valid assessment metric relating to overall performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Error Correcting Codes -34 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science, Bangalore. Her interests are in. Theoretical Computer. Science. SERIES I ARTICLE. Error Correcting Codes. 2. The Hamming Codes. Priti Shankar. In the first article of this series we showed how redundancy introduced into a message transmitted over a noisy channel could improve the reliability of transmission. In.

  7. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March 1997 pp 33-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/03/0033-0047 ...

  8. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    focused pictures of Triton, Neptune's largest moon. This great feat was in no small measure due to the fact that the sophisticated communication system on Voyager had an elaborate error correcting scheme built into it. At Jupiter and Saturn, a convolutional code was used to enhance the reliability of transmission, and at ...

  9. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It was engineering on the grand scale. - the use of new material for .... ROAD REPAIRSCE!STOP}!TL.,ZBFALK where errors occur in both the message as well as the check symbols, the decoder would be able to correct all of these (as there are not more than 8 .... before it is conveyed to the master disc. Modulation caters for.

  10. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  11. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sound quality is, in essence, obtained by accurate waveform coding and decoding of the audio signals. In addition, the coded audio information is protected against disc errors by the use of a Cross Interleaved Reed-Solomon Code (CIRC). Reed-. Solomon codes were discovered by Irving Reed and Gus Solomon in 1960.

  12. Errors and ozone measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcpeters, Richard D.; Gleason, James F.

    1993-01-01

    It is held that Mimm's (1993) comparison of hand-held TOPS instrument data with the Nimbus 7 satellite's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer's (TOMS) ozone data was intrinsically flawed, in that the TOMS data were preliminary and therefore unsuited for quantitative analysis. It is noted that the TOMS calibration was in error.

  13. Random errors revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that the random errors of sound intensity estimates can be much larger than the theoretical minimum value determined by the BT-product, in particular under reverberant conditions and when there are several sources present. More than ten years ago it was shown that one can predict...

  14. Team errors: definition and taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou, Kunihide; Reason, James

    1999-01-01

    In error analysis or error management, the focus is usually upon individuals who have made errors. In large complex systems, however, most people work in teams or groups. Considering this working environment, insufficient emphasis has been given to 'team errors'. This paper discusses the definition of team errors and its taxonomy. These notions are also applied to events that have occurred in the nuclear power industry, aviation industry and shipping industry. The paper also discusses the relations between team errors and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs). As a result, the proposed definition and taxonomy are found to be useful in categorizing team errors. The analysis also reveals that deficiencies in communication, resource/task management, excessive authority gradient, excessive professional courtesy will cause team errors. Handling human errors as team errors provides an opportunity to reduce human errors

  15. Exposure of UK industrial plumbers to asbestos, Part II: Awareness and responses of plumbers to working with asbestos during a survey in parallel with personal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Delphine; Burdett, Garry

    2007-03-01

    Throughout the European Union, millions tonnes of asbestos were used in the manufacture of products for building and for industrial installations. Today, in the UK, it is estimated that over half a million non-domestic premises alone have asbestos-containing materials in them and it is recognized that those working in building maintenance trades continue to be at significant risk. In part II, the awareness of UK plumbers to when they are working with asbestos was investigated and compared with the monitored levels reported in part I. The plumbers were issued by post with passive samplers, activity logs to monitor a working week and a questionnaire. The activity logs were used to assess whether maintenance workers were knowingly or unknowingly exposed to airborne asbestos fibres during a course of a working week. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on their: age, employment status, current and past perception of the frequency which they work with asbestos and knowledge of the precautions that should be taken to limit exposure and risk. Approximately 20% of workers reported on the sample log that they had worked with asbestos. There was a high correlation (93%) between the sampling log replies that they were knowingly working with asbestos and measured asbestos on the passive sampler. However, some 60% of the samples had >5 microm long asbestos structures found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis suggesting that the plumbers were aware of about only one-third of their contacts with asbestos materials throughout the week. This increased to just over one half of the plumbers being aware of their contact based on the results for phase contrast microscopy (PCM) countable asbestos fibres. The results from the questionnaire found that over half of the plumbers replying thought that they disturb asbestos only once a year and 90% of them thought they would work with asbestos for<10 h year-1. Their expectations and awareness of work with

  16. Organizational Climate, Stress, and Error in Primary Care: The MEMO Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linzer, Mark; Manwell, Linda B; Mundt, Marlon; Williams, Eric; Maguire, Ann; McMurray, Julia; Plane, Mary B

    2005-01-01

    .... Physician surveys assessed office environment and organizational climate (OC). Stress was measured using a 4-item scale, past errors were self reported, and the likelihood of future errors was self-assessed using the OSPRE...

  17. Quantitative analysis of error mode, error effect and criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pengcheng; Zhang Li; Xiao Dongsheng; Chen Guohua

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative method of human error mode, effect and criticality is developed in order to reach the ultimate goal of Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The criticality identification matrix of human error mode and task is built to identify the critical human error mode and task and the critical organizational root causes on the basis of the identification of human error probability, error effect probability and the criticality index of error effect. Therefore, this will be beneficial to take targeted measures to reduce and prevent the occurrence of critical human error mode and task. Finally, the application of the technique is explained through the application example. (authors)

  18. Inborn Errors of Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezgu, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism are single gene disorders resulting from the defects in the biochemical pathways of the body. Although these disorders are individually rare, collectively they account for a significant portion of childhood disability and deaths. Most of the disorders are inherited as autosomal recessive whereas autosomal dominant and X-linked disorders are also present. The clinical signs and symptoms arise from the accumulation of the toxic substrate, deficiency of the product, or both. Depending on the residual activity of the deficient enzyme, the initiation of the clinical picture may vary starting from the newborn period up until adulthood. Hundreds of disorders have been described until now and there has been a considerable clinical overlap between certain inborn errors. Resulting from this fact, the definite diagnosis of inborn errors depends on enzyme assays or genetic tests. Especially during the recent years, significant achievements have been gained for the biochemical and genetic diagnosis of inborn errors. Techniques such as tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for biochemical diagnosis and microarrays and next-generation sequencing for the genetic diagnosis have enabled rapid and accurate diagnosis. The achievements for the diagnosis also enabled newborn screening and prenatal diagnosis. Parallel to the development the diagnostic methods; significant progress has also been obtained for the treatment. Treatment approaches such as special diets, enzyme replacement therapy, substrate inhibition, and organ transplantation have been widely used. It is obvious that by the help of the preclinical and clinical research carried out for inborn errors, better diagnostic methods and better treatment approaches will high likely be available. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A HERSCHEL SURVEY OF THE [N II] 205 {mu}m LINE IN LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: THE [N II] 205 {mu}m EMISSION AS A STAR FORMATION RATE INDICATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yinghe; Gao Yu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C. Kevin; Lord, S.; Howell, J.; Appleton, P.; Mazzarella, J.; Schulz, B. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Isaak, K. G. [ESA Astrophysics Missions Division, ESTEC, PO Box 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and ITCP, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Diaz-Santos, T.; Surace, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Iwasawa, K. [ICREA and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Leech, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Petric, A. O. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Van der Werf, P. P., E-mail: yhzhao@ipac.caltech.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    We present, for the first time, a statistical study of [N II] 205 {mu}m line emission for a large sample of local luminous infrared galaxies using Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SPIRE FTS) data. For our sample of galaxies, we investigate the correlation between the [N II] luminosity (L{sub [N{sub II]}}) and the total infrared luminosity (L{sub IR}), as well as the dependence of L{sub [N{sub II]}}/L{sub IR} ratio on L{sub IR}, far-infrared colors (IRAS f{sub 60}/f{sub 100}), and the [O III] 88 {mu}m to [N II] luminosity ratio. We find that L{sub [N{sub II]}} correlates almost linearly with L{sub IR} for non-active galactic nucleus galaxies (all having L{sub IR} < 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }) in our sample, which implies that L{sub [N{sub II]}} can serve as a star formation rate tracer which is particularly useful for high-redshift galaxies that will be observed with forthcoming submillimeter spectroscopic facilities such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. Our analysis shows that the deviation from the mean L{sub [N{sub II]}}-L{sub IR} relation correlates with tracers of the ionization parameter, which suggests that the scatter in this relation is mainly due to the variations in the hardness, and/or ionization parameter, of the ambient galactic UV field among the sources in our sample.

  20. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  1. Nurse perceptions of organizational culture and its association with the culture of error reporting: a case of public sector hospitals in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafree, Sara Rizvi; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Fischer, Florian

    2016-01-05

    There is an absence of formal error tracking systems in public sector hospitals of Pakistan and also a lack of literature concerning error reporting culture in the health care sector. Nurse practitioners have front-line knowledge and rich exposure about both the organizational culture and error sharing in hospital settings. The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between organizational culture and the culture of error reporting, as perceived by nurses. The authors used the "Practice Environment Scale-Nurse Work Index Revised" to measure the six dimensions of organizational culture. Seven questions were used from the "Survey to Solicit Information about the Culture of Reporting" to measure error reporting culture in the region. Overall, 309 nurses participated in the survey, including female nurses from all designations such as supervisors, instructors, ward-heads, staff nurses and student nurses. We used SPSS 17.0 to perform a factor analysis. Furthermore, descriptive statistics, mean scores and multivariable logistic regression were used for the analysis. Three areas were ranked unfavorably by nurse respondents, including: (i) the error reporting culture, (ii) staffing and resource adequacy, and (iii) nurse foundations for quality of care. Multivariable regression results revealed that all six categories of organizational culture, including: (1) nurse manager ability, leadership and support, (2) nurse participation in hospital affairs, (3) nurse participation in governance, (4) nurse foundations of quality care, (5) nurse-coworkers relations, and (6) nurse staffing and resource adequacy, were positively associated with higher odds of error reporting culture. In addition, it was found that married nurses and nurses on permanent contract were more likely to report errors at the workplace. Public healthcare services of Pakistan can be improved through the promotion of an error reporting culture, reducing staffing and resource shortages and the

  2. Investigating Medication Errors in Educational Health Centers of Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mohammadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Medication errors can be a threat to the safety of patients. Preventing medication errors requires reporting and investigating such errors. The present study was conducted with the purpose of investigating medication errors in educational health centers of Kermanshah. Material and Methods: The present research is an applied, descriptive-analytical study and is done as a survey. Error Report of Ministry of Health and Medical Education was used for data collection. The population of the study included all the personnel (nurses, doctors, paramedics of educational health centers of Kermanshah. Among them, those who reported the committed errors were selected as the sample of the study. The data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and Chi 2 Test using SPSS version 18. Results: The findings of the study showed that most errors were related to not using medication properly, the least number of errors were related to improper dose, and the majority of errors occurred in the morning. The most frequent reason for errors was staff negligence and the least frequent was the lack of knowledge. Conclusion: The health care system should create an environment for detecting and reporting errors by the personnel, recognizing related factors causing errors, training the personnel and create a good working environment and standard workload.

  3. Transformative possibilities of communication in medical error cases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Sawako; Kawahara, Kazuo; Algren, Margaret

    2011-02-01

    This study examines perceptions of persons who experienced a medical error and elements that may serve to open communication with those who experienced a medical error in Japan. Survey of individuals who reported a previous medical error in their care and those who did not. Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya metropolitan areas, and in Fukuoka, Shimane and Miyagi rural townships in Japan. Questionnaires were distributed to 80 people who had experienced a medical error and 300 people who had not. Prevalence of views, expectations and psychological needs regarding medical error. Forty (50%) questionnaires from those who experienced the errors and 201 (67%) from those who did not experience a medical error were completed. Among those who experienced error, 95% (38/40) preferred to be informed of a medical error immediately by senior personnel (57.7%: 23/40). Those who had not experienced error preferred to be informed by a directly responsible provider (87.6%: 176/201). The perception differences regarding who should break bad news showed statistical significance (Pmedical error by senior medical personnel and medical providers should create an environment to continue 'communication' in order to accommodate shifting perspectives of those who experienced the error.

  4. Prescription errors in psychiatry - a multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Jean; Haw, Camilla; Taylor, David

    2006-07-01

    Medication errors are an important cause of patient morbidity and mortality, of which there have been few reports in psychiatry, especially in the UK. Our aim was to examine the nature, frequency and potential severity of prescribing errors in UK mental health units in a prospective, 1 week survey of errors detected by pharmacy staff in nine NHS trusts. Pharmacists checked 22036 prescription items. In total, 523 errors meeting the study definition were detected (2.4% of prescription items checked). Prescription writing errors (77.4%) were most common, while decision-making errors accounted for 22.6% of errors. In 280 (53.5%) cases the prescribed drug had been administered before the error was detected. Most errors were of doubtful or minor importance but 22 (4.3%) were deemed likely to result in serious adverse effects or death. The error detection rate varied fourfold between trusts. Prescribing errors are fairly common in psychiatry. A small proportion of errors have the potential for serious harm. Pharmacy staff have an important role to play in their management.

  5. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  6. Factors associated with disclosure of medical errors by housestaff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronman, Andrea C; Paasche-Orlow, Michael; Orlander, Jay D

    2012-04-01

    Attributes of the organisational culture of residency training programmes may impact patient safety. Training environments are complex, composed of clinical teams, residency programmes, and clinical units. We examined the relationship between residents' perceptions of their training environment and disclosure of or apology for their worst error. Anonymous, self-administered surveys were distributed to Medicine and Surgery residents at Boston Medical Center in 2005. Surveys asked residents to describe their worst medical error, and to answer selected questions from validated surveys measuring elements of working environments that promote learning from error. Subscales measured the microenvironments of the clinical team, residency programme, and clinical unit. Univariate and bivariate statistical analyses examined relationships between trainee characteristics, their perceived learning environment(s), and their responses to the error. Out of 109 surveys distributed to residents, 99 surveys were returned (91% overall response rate), two incomplete surveys were excluded, leaving 97: 61% internal medicine, 39% surgery, 59% male residents. While 31% reported apologising for the situation associated with the error, only 17% reported disclosing the error to patients and/or family. More male residents disclosed the error than female residents (p=0.04). Surgery residents scored higher on the subscales of safety culture pertaining to the residency programme (p=0.02) and managerial commitment to safety (p=0.05). Our Medical Culture Summary score was positively associated with disclosure (p=0.04) and apology (p=0.05). Factors in the learning environments of residents are associated with responses to medical errors. Organisational safety culture can be measured, and used to evaluate environmental attributes of clinical training that are associated with disclosure of, and apology for, medical error.

  7. Video Error Correction Using Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie David L

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of any data is always subject to corruption due to errors, but video transmission, because of its real time nature must deal with these errors without retransmission of the corrupted data. The error can be handled using forward error correction in the encoder or error concealment techniques in the decoder. This MPEG-2 compliant codec uses data hiding to transmit error correction information and several error concealment techniques in the decoder. The decoder resynchronizes more quickly with fewer errors than traditional resynchronization techniques. It also allows for perfect recovery of differentially encoded DCT-DC components and motion vectors. This provides for a much higher quality picture in an error-prone environment while creating an almost imperceptible degradation of the picture in an error-free environment.

  8. Video Error Correction Using Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, David L.; Mersereau, Russell M.

    2002-12-01

    The transmission of any data is always subject to corruption due to errors, but video transmission, because of its real time nature must deal with these errors without retransmission of the corrupted data. The error can be handled using forward error correction in the encoder or error concealment techniques in the decoder. This MPEG-2 compliant codec uses data hiding to transmit error correction information and several error concealment techniques in the decoder. The decoder resynchronizes more quickly with fewer errors than traditional resynchronization techniques. It also allows for perfect recovery of differentially encoded DCT-DC components and motion vectors. This provides for a much higher quality picture in an error-prone environment while creating an almost imperceptible degradation of the picture in an error-free environment.

  9. Error reduction in surgical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Raouf E

    2006-05-01

    Because of its complex nature, surgical pathology practice is inherently error prone. Currently, there is pressure to reduce errors in medicine, including pathology. To review factors that contribute to errors and to discuss error-reduction strategies. Literature review. Multiple factors contribute to errors in medicine, including variable input, complexity, inconsistency, tight coupling, human intervention, time constraints, and a hierarchical culture. Strategies that may reduce errors include reducing reliance on memory, improving information access, error-proofing processes, decreasing reliance on vigilance, standardizing tasks and language, reducing the number of handoffs, simplifying processes, adjusting work schedules and environment, providing adequate training, and placing the correct people in the correct jobs. Surgical pathology is a complex system with ample opportunity for error. Significant error reduction is unlikely to occur without a sustained comprehensive program of quality control and quality assurance. Incremental adoption of information technology and automation along with improved training in patient safety and quality management can help reduce errors.

  10. Nonclassical measurements errors in nonlinear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Edith; Mulalic, Ismir

    that contains very detailed information about incomes. This gives a unique opportunity to learn about the magnitude and nature of the measurement error in income reported by the respondents in the Danish NTS compared to income from the administrative register (correct measure). We find that the classical...... of a households face. In this case an important policy parameter is the effect of income (reflecting the household budget) on the choice of travel mode. This paper deals with the consequences of measurement error in income (an explanatory variable) in discrete choice models. Since it is likely to give misleading...... estimates of the income effect it is of interest to investigate the magnitude of the estimation bias and if possible use estimation techniques that take the measurement error problem into account. We use data from the Danish National Travel Survey (NTS) and merge it with administrative register data...

  11. Human Error In Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Nancy M.; Rouse, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Report presents results of research aimed at understanding causes of human error in such complex systems as aircraft, nuclear powerplants, and chemical processing plants. Research considered both slips (errors of action) and mistakes (errors of intention), and influence of workload on them. Results indicated that: humans respond to conditions in which errors expected by attempting to reduce incidence of errors; and adaptation to conditions potent influence on human behavior in discretionary situations.

  12. Error Control for Network-on-Chip Links

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    As technology scales into nanoscale regime, it is impossible to guarantee the perfect hardware design. Moreover, if the requirement of 100% correctness in hardware can be relaxed, the cost of manufacturing, verification, and testing will be significantly reduced. Many approaches have been proposed to address the reliability problem of on-chip communications. This book focuses on the use of error control codes (ECCs) to improve on-chip interconnect reliability. Coverage includes detailed description of key issues in NOC error control faced by circuit and system designers, as well as practical error control techniques to minimize the impact of these errors on system performance. Provides a detailed background on the state of error control methods for on-chip interconnects; Describes the use of more complex concatenated codes such as Hamming Product Codes with Type-II HARQ, while emphasizing integration techniques for on-chip interconnect links; Examines energy-efficient techniques for integrating multiple error...

  13. Reporting Self-Made Errors: The Impact of Organizational Error-Management Climate and Error Type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gold, A.H.; Gronewold, U.; Salterio, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    We study how an organization's error-management climate affects organizational members' beliefs about other members' willingness to report errors that they discover when chance of error detection by superiors and others is extremely low. An error-management climate, as a component of the

  14. A 1.4 deg2 blind survey for C II], C III] and C IV at z ˜ 0.7-1.5 - I. Nature, morphologies and equivalent widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroe, Andra; Sobral, David; Matthee, Jorryt; Calhau, João; Oteo, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    While traditionally associated with active galactic nuclei (AGN), the properties of the C II] (λ = 2326 Å), C III] (λ, λ = 1907, 1909 Å) and C IV (λ, λ = 1549, 1551 Å) emission lines are still uncertain as large, unbiased samples of sources are scarce. We present the first blind, statistical study of C II], C III] and C IV emitters at z ˜ 0.68, 1.05, 1.53, respectively, uniformly selected down to a flux limit of ˜4 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-1 through a narrow-band survey covering an area of ˜1.4 deg2 over COSMOS and UDS. We detect 16 C II], 35 C III] and 17 C IV emitters, whose nature we investigate using optical colours as well as Hubble Space Telescope (HST), X-ray, radio and far-infrared data. We find that z ˜ 0.7 C II] emitters are consistent with a mixture of blue (UV slope β = -2.0 ± 0.4) star-forming (SF) galaxies with discy HST structure and AGN with Seyfert-like morphologies. Bright C II] emitters have individual X-ray detections as well as high average black hole accretion rates (BHARs) of ˜0.1 M⊙ yr-1. C III] emitters at z ˜ 1.05 trace a general population of SF galaxies, with β = -0.8 ± 1.1, a variety of optical morphologies, including isolated and interacting galaxies and low BHAR (frame equivalent widths (EWs) that could be as large as 50-100 Å. AGN or spatial offsets between the UV continuum stellar disc and the line-emitting regions may explain the large EW. These bright C II], C III] and C IV emitters are ideal candidates for spectroscopic follow-up to fully unveil their nature.

  15. On the Correspondence between Mean Forecast Errors and Climate Errors in CMIP5 Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, H. -Y.; Xie, S.; Klein, S. A.; Williams, K. D.; Boyle, J. S.; Bony, S.; Douville, H.; Fermepin, S.; Medeiros, B.; Tyteca, S.; Watanabe, M.; Williamson, D.

    2014-02-01

    The present study examines the correspondence between short- and long-term systematic errors in five atmospheric models by comparing the 16 five-day hindcast ensembles from the Transpose Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project II (Transpose-AMIP II) for July–August 2009 (short term) to the climate simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and AMIP for the June–August mean conditions of the years of 1979–2008 (long term). Because the short-term hindcasts were conducted with identical climate models used in the CMIP5/AMIP simulations, one can diagnose over what time scale systematic errors in these climate simulations develop, thus yielding insights into their origin through a seamless modeling approach. The analysis suggests that most systematic errors of precipitation, clouds, and radiation processes in the long-term climate runs are present by day 5 in ensemble average hindcasts in all models. Errors typically saturate after few days of hindcasts with amplitudes comparable to the climate errors, and the impacts of initial conditions on the simulated ensemble mean errors are relatively small. This robust bias correspondence suggests that these systematic errors across different models likely are initiated by model parameterizations since the atmospheric large-scale states remain close to observations in the first 2–3 days. However, biases associated with model physics can have impacts on the large-scale states by day 5, such as zonal winds, 2-m temperature, and sea level pressure, and the analysis further indicates a good correspondence between short- and long-term biases for these large-scale states. Therefore, improving individual model parameterizations in the hindcast mode could lead to the improvement of most climate models in simulating their climate mean state and potentially their future projections.

  16. Diagnostic errors in pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, George A.; Voss, Stephan D.; Melvin, Patrice R.; Graham, Dionne A.

    2011-01-01

    Little information is known about the frequency, types and causes of diagnostic errors in imaging children. Our goals were to describe the patterns and potential etiologies of diagnostic error in our subspecialty. We reviewed 265 cases with clinically significant diagnostic errors identified during a 10-year period. Errors were defined as a diagnosis that was delayed, wrong or missed; they were classified as perceptual, cognitive, system-related or unavoidable; and they were evaluated by imaging modality and level of training of the physician involved. We identified 484 specific errors in the 265 cases reviewed (mean:1.8 errors/case). Most discrepancies involved staff (45.5%). Two hundred fifty-eight individual cognitive errors were identified in 151 cases (mean = 1.7 errors/case). Of these, 83 cases (55%) had additional perceptual or system-related errors. One hundred sixty-five perceptual errors were identified in 165 cases. Of these, 68 cases (41%) also had cognitive or system-related errors. Fifty-four system-related errors were identified in 46 cases (mean = 1.2 errors/case) of which all were multi-factorial. Seven cases were unavoidable. Our study defines a taxonomy of diagnostic errors in a large academic pediatric radiology practice and suggests that most are multi-factorial in etiology. Further study is needed to define effective strategies for improvement. (orig.)

  17. Primary care pediatricians’ interest in diagnostic error reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hardeep; Ruberman, Sarah; Adelman, Jason; Choi, Steven J.; O’Donnell, Heather; Stein, Ruth E.K.; Brady, Tammy M.; Heo, Moonseong; Lehmann, Christoph U.; Kairys, Steven; Rice-Conboy, Elizabeth; Theissen, Keri; Bundy, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnostic errors causing harm in children are understudied, resulting in a knowledge gap regarding pediatricians’ interest in reducing their incidence. Methods Electronic survey of general pediatricians focusing on diagnostic error incidence, errors they were interested in trying to improve, and errors reduced by their electronic health record (EHR). Results Of 300 contacted pediatricians, 77 (26%) responded, 58 (19%) served ambulatory patients, and 48 (16%) completed the entire questionnaire. Of these 48, 17 (35%) reported making a diagnostic error at least monthly, and 16 (33%) reported making a diagnostic error resulting in an adverse event at least annually. Pediatricians were “most” interested in “trying to improve” missed diagnosis of hypertension (17%), delayed diagnosis due to missed subspecialty referral (15%), and errors associated with delayed follow-up of abnormal laboratory values (13%). Among the 44 pediatricians with an EHR, 16 (36%) said it reduced the likelihood of missing obesity and 14 (32%) said it reduced the likelihood of missing hypertension. Also, 15 (34%) said it helped avoid delays in follow-up of abnormal laboratory values. A third (36%) reported no help in diagnostic error reduction from their EHR. Conclusions Pediatricians self-report an appreciable number of diagnostic errors and were most interested in preventing high frequency, non-life-threatening errors. There exists a need to leverage EHRs to support error reduction efforts. PMID:28111611

  18. Screening for inborn errors of metabolism among mentally retarded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of different types of inborn errors of metabolism among the mentally retarded patients at the Witrand Care and Rehabilitation Centre. were determined by means of a biochemical screening survey. These results are compared with those of other surveys in South Africa and abroad. One important result points ...

  19. Optimizing learning of a locomotor task: amplifying errors as needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal-Crespo, Laura; López-Olóriz, Jorge; Jaeger, Lukas; Riener, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Research on motor learning has emphasized that errors drive motor adaptation. Thereby, several researchers have proposed robotic training strategies that amplify movement errors rather than decrease them. In this study, the effect of different robotic training strategies that amplify errors on learning a complex locomotor task was investigated. The experiment was conducted with a one degree-of freedom robotic stepper (MARCOS). Subjects were requested to actively coordinate their legs in a desired gait-like pattern in order to track a Lissajous figure presented on a visual display. Learning with three different training strategies was evaluated: (i) No perturbation: the robot follows the subjects' movement without applying any perturbation, (ii) Error amplification: existing errors were amplified with repulsive forces proportional to errors, (iii) Noise disturbance: errors were evoked with a randomly-varying force disturbance. Results showed that training without perturbations was especially suitable for a subset of initially less-skilled subjects, while error amplification seemed to benefit more skilled subjects. Training with error amplification, however, limited transfer of learning. Random disturbing forces benefited learning and promoted transfer in all subjects, probably because it increased attention. These results suggest that learning a locomotor task can be optimized when errors are randomly evoked or amplified based on subjects' initial skill level.

  20. Distinguishing Errors in Measurement from Errors in Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Rulon D. Pope; Richard E. Just

    2003-01-01

    Typical econometric production practices under duality ignore the source of disturbances. We show that, depending on the source, a different approach to estimation is required. The typical approach applies under errors in factor input measurement rather than errors in optimization. An approach to the identification of disturbance sources is suggested. We find credible evidence in U.S. agriculture of errors in optimization compared to errors of measurement, and thus reject the typical specific...

  1. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  2. Association of resident fatigue and distress with perceived medical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Colin P; Tan, Angelina D; Habermann, Thomas M; Sloan, Jeff A; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2009-09-23

    Fatigue and distress have been separately shown to be associated with medical errors. The contribution of each factor when assessed simultaneously is unknown. To determine the association of fatigue and distress with self-perceived major medical errors among resident physicians using validated metrics. Prospective longitudinal cohort study of categorical and preliminary internal medicine residents at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Data were provided by 380 of 430 eligible residents (88.3%). Participants began training from 2003 to 2008 and completed surveys quarterly through February 2009. Surveys included self-assessment of medical errors, linear analog self-assessment of overall quality of life (QOL) and fatigue, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the PRIME-MD depression screening instrument, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Frequency of self-perceived, self-defined major medical errors was recorded. Associations of fatigue, QOL, burnout, and symptoms of depression with a subsequently reported major medical error were determined using generalized estimating equations for repeated measures. The mean response rate to individual surveys was 67.5%. Of the 356 participants providing error data (93.7%), 139 (39%) reported making at least 1 major medical error during the study period. In univariate analyses, there was an association of subsequent self-reported error with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (odds ratio [OR], 1.10 per unit increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.16; P = .002) and fatigue score (OR, 1.14 per unit increase; 95% CI, 1.08-1.21; P error was also associated with burnout (ORs per 1-unit change: depersonalization OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05-1.12; P errors when adjusted for burnout or depression. Among internal medicine residents, higher levels of fatigue and distress are independently associated with self-perceived medical errors.

  3. Payment Error Rate Measurement (PERM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PERM program measures improper payments in Medicaid and CHIP and produces error rates for each program. The error rates are based on reviews of the...

  4. Standard Errors for Matrix Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    Derives the asymptotic standard errors and intercorrelations for several matrix correlations assuming multivariate normality for manifest variables and derives the asymptotic standard errors of the matrix correlations for two factor-loading matrices. (SLD)

  5. Human Error in Pilotage Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Ernstsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pilotage operations require close interaction between human and machines. This complex sociotechnical system is necessary to safely and efficiently maneuver a vessel in constrained waters. A sociotechnical system consists of interdependent human- and technical variables that continuously must work together to be successful. This complexity is prone to errors, and statistics show that most these errors in the maritime domain are due to human components in the system (80 ? 85%. This explains the attention on research to reduce human errors. The current study deployed a systematic human error reduction and prediction approach (SHERPA to shed light on error types and error remedies apparent in pilotage operations. Data was collected using interviews and observation. Hierarchical task analysis was performed and 55 tasks were analyzed using SHERPA. Findings suggests that communication and action omission errors are most prone to human errors in pilotage operations. Practical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed.

  6. Error Detection in ESL Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Rogoveanu Raluca

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the role of error correction in the larger paradigm of ESL teaching and learning. It conceptualizes error as an inevitable variable in the process of learning and as a frequently occurring element in written and oral discourses of ESL learners. It also identifies specific strategies in which error can be detected and corrected and makes reference to various theoretical trends and their approach to error correction, as well as to the relation between language instructor...

  7. [The error, source of learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyeux, Stéphanie; Bohic, Valérie

    2016-05-01

    The error itself is not recognised as a fault. It is the intentionality which differentiates between an error and a fault. An error is unintentional while a fault is a failure to respect known rules. The risk of error is omnipresent in health institutions. Public authorities have therefore set out a series of measures to reduce this risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekwe, Carmen D; Carter, Randy L; Cullings, Harry M; Carroll, Raymond J

    2014-11-10

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Video Error Concealment Using Fidelity Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Akio; Takishima, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Hatori, Yoshinori

    We propose a method to prevent the degradation of decoded MPEG pictures caused by video transmission over error-prone networks. In this paper, we focus on the error concealment that is processed at the decoder without using any backchannels. Though there have been various approaches to this problem, they generally focus on minimizing the degradation measured frame by frame. Although this frame-level approach is effective in evaluating individual frame quality, in the sense of human perception, the most noticeable feature is the spatio-temporal discontinuity of the image feature in the decoded video image. We propose a novel error concealment algorithm comprising the combination of i) A spatio-temporal error recovery function with low processing cost, ii) A MB-based image fidelity tracking scheme, and iii) An adaptive post-filter using the fidelity information. It is demonstrated by experimental results that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the subjective degradation of corrupted MPEG video quality with about 30% of additional decoding processing power.

  10. Role of memory errors in quantum repeaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kraus, B.; Briegel, H.-J.; Duer, W.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the influence of memory errors in the quantum repeater scheme for long-range quantum communication. We show that the communication distance is limited in standard operation mode due to memory errors resulting from unavoidable waiting times for classical signals. We show how to overcome these limitations by (i) improving local memory and (ii) introducing two operational modes of the quantum repeater. In both operational modes, the repeater is run blindly, i.e., without waiting for classical signals to arrive. In the first scheme, entanglement purification protocols based on one-way classical communication are used allowing to communicate over arbitrary distances. However, the error thresholds for noise in local control operations are very stringent. The second scheme makes use of entanglement purification protocols with two-way classical communication and inherits the favorable error thresholds of the repeater run in standard mode. One can increase the possible communication distance by an order of magnitude with reasonable overhead in physical resources. We outline the architecture of a quantum repeater that can possibly ensure intercontinental quantum communication

  11. Barriers to medication error reporting among hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Dana N; Retrosi, Tina; Ostrowski, Gary

    2018-03-01

    The study purpose was to report medication error reporting barriers among hospital nurses, and to determine validity and reliability of an existing medication error reporting barriers questionnaire. Hospital medication errors typically occur between ordering of a medication to its receipt by the patient with subsequent staff monitoring. To decrease medication errors, factors surrounding medication errors must be understood; this requires reporting by employees. Under-reporting can compromise patient safety by disabling improvement efforts. This 2017 descriptive study was part of a larger workforce engagement study at a faith-based Magnet ® -accredited community hospital in California (United States). Registered nurses (~1,000) were invited to participate in the online survey via email. Reported here are sample demographics (n = 357) and responses to the 20-item medication error reporting barriers questionnaire. Using factor analysis, four factors that accounted for 67.5% of the variance were extracted. These factors (subscales) were labelled Fear, Cultural Barriers, Lack of Knowledge/Feedback and Practical/Utility Barriers; each demonstrated excellent internal consistency. The medication error reporting barriers questionnaire, originally developed in long-term care, demonstrated good validity and excellent reliability among hospital nurses. Substantial proportions of American hospital nurses (11%-48%) considered specific factors as likely reporting barriers. Average scores on most barrier items were categorised "somewhat unlikely." The highest six included two barriers concerning the time-consuming nature of medication error reporting and four related to nurses' fear of repercussions. Hospitals need to determine the presence of perceived barriers among nurses using questionnaires such as the medication error reporting barriers and work to encourage better reporting. Barriers to medication error reporting make it less likely that nurses will report medication

  12. Reducing nurse medicine administration errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosu, Rose; Jarrett, Patricia

    Errors in administering medicines are common and can compromise the safety of patients. This review discusses the causes of drug administration error in hospitals by student and registered nurses, and the practical measures educators and hospitals can take to improve nurses' knowledge and skills in medicines management, and reduce drug errors.

  13. Uncertainty quantification and error analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higdon, Dave M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Mark C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Habib, Salman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klein, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berliner, Mark [OHIO STATE UNIV.; Covey, Curt [LLNL; Ghattas, Omar [UNIV OF TEXAS; Graziani, Carlo [UNIV OF CHICAGO; Seager, Mark [LLNL; Sefcik, Joseph [LLNL; Stark, Philip [UC/BERKELEY; Stewart, James [SNL

    2010-01-01

    UQ studies all sources of error and uncertainty, including: systematic and stochastic measurement error; ignorance; limitations of theoretical models; limitations of numerical representations of those models; limitations on the accuracy and reliability of computations, approximations, and algorithms; and human error. A more precise definition for UQ is suggested below.

  14. Cardiovascular medication errors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Diana C; Bundy, David G; Shore, Andrew D; Morlock, Laura; Hicks, Rodney W; Miller, Marlene R

    2009-07-01

    We sought to describe pediatric cardiovascular medication errors and to determine patients and medications with more-frequently reported and/or more-harmful errors. We analyzed cardiovascular medication error reports from 2003-2004 for patients error, no harm; E-I, harmful error). Proportions of harmful reports were determined according to drug class and age group. "High-risk" drugs were defined as antiarrhythmics, antihypertensives, digoxin, and calcium channel blockers. A total of 147 facilities submitted 821 reports with community hospitals predominating (70%). Mean patient age was 4 years (median: 0.9 years). The most common error locations were NICUs, general care units, PICUs, pediatric units, and inpatient pharmacies. Drug administration, particularly improper dosing, was implicated most commonly. Severity analysis showed 5% "near misses," 91% errors without harm, and 4% harmful errors, with no reported fatalities. A total of 893 medications were cited in 821 reports. Diuretics were cited most frequently, followed by antihypertensives, angiotensin inhibitors, beta-adrenergic receptor blockers, digoxin, and calcium channel blockers. Calcium channel blockers, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, antiarrhythmics, and digoxin had the largest proportions of harmful events, although the values were not statistically significantly different from those for other drug classes. Infants medication errors reaching inpatients, in a national, voluntary, error-reporting database. Proportions of harmful errors were not significantly different by age or cardiovascular medication. Most errors were related to medication administration, largely due to improper dosing.

  15. Fisheries Disaster Survey, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Responses to selected questions from the Social and Economic Survey administered in spring and summer 2000 to recipients of the second round (Round II) of financial...

  16. What contributes to internists' willingness to disclose medical errors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linthorst, G E; Kallimanis-King, B L; Douwes Dekker, I; Hoekstra, J B L; de Haes, J C J M

    2012-06-01

    The release of the report 'To err is human' put medical safety and the disclosure of errors to the forefront of the health care agenda. Disclosure of medical errors by physicians is vital in this process. We studied the role of background and social psychological factors in internists' willingness to report medical errors. Survey among a random sample of internists from five teaching hospitals in the Netherlands, all internists and internists in training at the Departments of Internal Medicine of the participating hospitals. Questionnaires were received from 115 participants (response 51%). The willingness to disclose was related to the severity of the error, with the majority of near misses not reported to the head of department or the hospital error committees. Errors were more often reported to colleagues. Positive factors in favour of disclosing were reported more often than negative ones prohibiting disclosure. Motivation, behavioural control and social barriers were related to the disclosure of errors. Personal and social issues contributing to the will and addressed properly to stimulate disclosure. The creation of an atmosphere where disclosing errors is routine seems vital. In addition, it is essential to create a departmental culture where medical errors are discussed in a non-judgmental, safe environment. In order to improve reporting of medical errors, more emphasis should be placed on the individual barriers that preclude adequate reporting.

  17. Error-related potentials during continuous feedback: using EEG to detect errors of different type and severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eSpüler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When a person recognizes an error during a task, an error-related potential (ErrP can be measured as response. It has been shown that ErrPs can be automatically detected in tasks with time-discrete feedback, which is widely applied in the field of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs for error correction or adaptation. However, there are only a few studies that concentrate on ErrPs during continuous feedback.With this study, we wanted to answer three different questions: (i Can ErrPs be measured in electroencephalography (EEG recordings during a task with continuous cursor control? (ii Can ErrPs be classified using machine learning methods and is it possible to discriminate errors of different origins? (iii Can we use EEG to detect the severity of an error? To answer these questions, we recorded EEG data from 10 subjects during a video game task and investigated two different types of error (execution error, due to inaccurate feedback; outcome error, due to not achieving the goal of an action. We analyzed the recorded data to show that during the same task, different kinds of error produce different ErrP waveforms and have a different spectral response. This allows us to detect and discriminate errors of different origin in an event-locked manner. By utilizing the error-related spectral response, we show that also a continuous, asynchronous detection of errors is possible.Although the detection of error severity based on EEG was one goal of this study, we did not find any significant influence of the severity on the EEG.

  18. Error-related potentials during continuous feedback: using EEG to detect errors of different type and severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spüler, Martin; Niethammer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    When a person recognizes an error during a task, an error-related potential (ErrP) can be measured as response. It has been shown that ErrPs can be automatically detected in tasks with time-discrete feedback, which is widely applied in the field of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) for error correction or adaptation. However, there are only a few studies that concentrate on ErrPs during continuous feedback. With this study, we wanted to answer three different questions: (i) Can ErrPs be measured in electroencephalography (EEG) recordings during a task with continuous cursor control? (ii) Can ErrPs be classified using machine learning methods and is it possible to discriminate errors of different origins? (iii) Can we use EEG to detect the severity of an error? To answer these questions, we recorded EEG data from 10 subjects during a video game task and investigated two different types of error (execution error, due to inaccurate feedback; outcome error, due to not achieving the goal of an action). We analyzed the recorded data to show that during the same task, different kinds of error produce different ErrP waveforms and have a different spectral response. This allows us to detect and discriminate errors of different origin in an event-locked manner. By utilizing the error-related spectral response, we show that also a continuous, asynchronous detection of errors is possible. Although the detection of error severity based on EEG was one goal of this study, we did not find any significant influence of the severity on the EEG. PMID:25859204

  19. A chance to avoid mistakes human error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, Pablo; Obeso, Eduardo; Gomez, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    human factor contribution to the events 'The explanations of the error': The evolution of the human error concept and which are the causes that are behind him, are presented in this chapter. Several examples try to facilitate understanding. In the appendix II, we present a series of 'Cause Codes' used in the industry, trying to aid to the technicians when they are assessing and researching events. 'The battle against error': Its the main objective of the book. Present one after other, the tools that are managed in the nuclear industry in a practical way. What's, Who have to use it and When to use it, are described with sufficient detail so that anyone can assimilated the tool and, if is applicable, look for the implementation in his organization. (authors)

  20. Controlling errors in unidosis carts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Díaz Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify errors in the unidosis system carts. Method: For two months, the Pharmacy Service controlled medication either returned or missing from the unidosis carts both in the pharmacy and in the wards. Results: Uncorrected unidosis carts show a 0.9% of medication errors (264 versus 0.6% (154 which appeared in unidosis carts previously revised. In carts not revised, the error is 70.83% and mainly caused when setting up unidosis carts. The rest are due to a lack of stock or unavailability (21.6%, errors in the transcription of medical orders (6.81% or that the boxes had not been emptied previously (0.76%. The errors found in the units correspond to errors in the transcription of the treatment (3.46%, non-receipt of the unidosis copy (23.14%, the patient did not take the medication (14.36%or was discharged without medication (12.77%, was not provided by nurses (14.09%, was withdrawn from the stocks of the unit (14.62%, and errors of the pharmacy service (17.56% . Conclusions: It is concluded the need to redress unidosis carts and a computerized prescription system to avoid errors in transcription.Discussion: A high percentage of medication errors is caused by human error. If unidosis carts are overlooked before sent to hospitalization units, the error diminishes to 0.3%.

  1. Prioritising interventions against medication errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Marianne; Pape-Larsen, Louise; Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard

    Abstract Authors: Lisby M, Larsen LP, Soerensen AL, Nielsen LP, Mainz J Title: Prioritising interventions against medication errors – the importance of a definition Objective: To develop and test a restricted definition of medication errors across health care settings in Denmark Methods: Medication...... errors constitute a major quality and safety problem in modern healthcare. However, far from all are clinically important. The prevalence of medication errors ranges from 2-75% indicating a global problem in defining and measuring these [1]. New cut-of levels focusing the clinical impact of medication...... errors are therefore needed. Development of definition: A definition of medication errors including an index of error types for each stage in the medication process was developed from existing terminology and through a modified Delphi-process in 2008. The Delphi panel consisted of 25 interdisciplinary...

  2. Error adaptation in mental arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Charlotte; Imbo, Ineke; De Brauwer, Jolien; Brass, Marcel; Fias, Wim; Notebaert, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Until now, error and conflict adaptation have been studied extensively using simple laboratory tasks. A common finding is that responses slow down after errors. According to the conflict monitoring theory, performance should also improve after an error. However, this is usually not observed. In this study, we investigated whether the characteristics of the experimental paradigms normally used could explain this absence. More precisely, these paradigms have in common that behavioural adaptation has little room to be expressed. We therefore studied error and conflict adaptation effects in a task that encounters the richness of everyday life's behavioural adaptation--namely, mental arithmetic, where multiple solution strategies are available. In accordance with our hypothesis, we observed that post-error accuracy increases after errors in mental arithmetic. No support for conflict adaptation in mental arithmetic was found. Implications for current theories of conflict and error monitoring are discussed.

  3. A Survey of Beginning Crop Science Courses at 49 U.S. Universities. II. Laboratory Format, Teaching Methods, and Topical Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Krista L.; Karnok, Keith J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is the second of a two-part series which discusses the findings related to laboratory segments in the beginning crop science courses offered in Land Grant institutions. Survey results reveal that laboratories are used but employ traditional teaching rather than individualized or auto-tutorial techniques. (ML)

  4. THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE 350 MHz DRIFT-SCAN SURVEY II: DATA ANALYSIS AND THE TIMING OF 10 NEW PULSARS, INCLUDING A RELATIVISTIC BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Ryan S.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Archibald, Anne M.; Karako-Argaman, Chen [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Boyles, Jason; Lorimer, Duncan R.; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Cardoso, Rogerio F. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, 111 White Hall, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Ransom, Scott M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Stairs, Ingrid H.; Berndsen, Aaron; Cherry, Angus; McPhee, Christie A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hessels, Jason W. T.; Kondratiev, Vladislav I.; Van Leeuwen, Joeri [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Epstein, Courtney R. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pennucci, Tim [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Roberts, Mallory S. E. [Eureka Scientific Inc., 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602 (United States); Stovall, Kevin, E-mail: rlynch@physics.mcgill.ca [Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We have completed a 350 MHz Drift-scan Survey using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope with the goal of finding new radio pulsars, especially millisecond pulsars that can be timed to high precision. This survey covered {approx}10,300 deg{sup 2} and all of the data have now been fully processed. We have discovered a total of 31 new pulsars, 7 of which are recycled pulsars. A companion paper by Boyles et al. describes the survey strategy, sky coverage, and instrumental setup, and presents timing solutions for the first 13 pulsars. Here we describe the data analysis pipeline, survey sensitivity, and follow-up observations of new pulsars, and present timing solutions for 10 other pulsars. We highlight several sources-two interesting nulling pulsars, an isolated millisecond pulsar with a measurement of proper motion, and a partially recycled pulsar, PSR J0348+0432, which has a white dwarf companion in a relativistic orbit. PSR J0348+0432 will enable unprecedented tests of theories of gravity.

  5. A Study of General Education Astronomy Students' Understandings of Cosmology. Part II. Evaluating Four Conceptual Cosmology Surveys: A Classical Test Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Colin S.; Prather, Edward E.; Duncan, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    This is the second of five papers detailing our national study of general education astronomy students' conceptual and reasoning difficulties with cosmology. This article begins our quantitative investigation of the data. We describe how we scored students' responses to four conceptual cosmology surveys, and we present evidence for the inter-rater…

  6. Prescription errors in Brazilian hospitals: a multi-centre exploratory survey Erros de prescrição em hospitais brasileiros: um estudo exploratório multicêntrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Inocenti Miasso

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, millions of prescriptions do not follow the legal requirements necessary to guarantee the correct dispensing and administration of medication. This multi-centre exploratory study aimed to analyze the appropriateness of prescriptions at four Brazilian hospitals and to identify possible errors caused by inadequacies. The sample consisted of 864 prescriptions obtained at hospital medical clinics in January 2003. Data was collected by three nurse researchers during one week using a standard data sheet that included items about: the type of prescription; legibility; completeness; use of abbreviations; existence of changes and erasures. There were statistically significant differences between incomplete electronic prescriptions at hospital A, and handwritten ones from hospitals C (Ç2 = 12.703 and p No Brasil, milhões de prescrições não apresentam os requisitos legais necessários para garantir a correta dispensação e administração dos medicamentos. Este estudo multicêntrico exploratório objetivou analisar a adequação das prescrições em quatro hospitais brasileiros e identificar eventuais erros causados pelas inadequações. A amostra consistiu de 864 prescrições obtidas nas clínicas médicas dos hospitais em janeiro de 2003. Os dados foram coletados por três enfermeiras durante uma semana através de instrumento estruturado com variáveis sobre: tipo de prescrição; legibilidade; completude; presença de abreviações, alterações e rasuras. Houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre prescrição eletrônica no hospital A e manuscritas nos C (Ç2 = 12,703 e p < 0,001 e D (Ç2 = 14,074 e p < 0,001. Abreviações foram usadas em mais de 80% das receitas nos hospitais B, C e D. Alterações foram encontradas em prescrições de todos os hospitais, com níveis mais elevados no B (35,2% e A (25,3%. Este estudo identificou uma série de pontos vulneráveis na fase prescrição dos sistemas de medicação dos

  7. Errors in abdominal computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, S.; Marting, I.; Dixon, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Sixty-nine patients are presented in whom a substantial error was made on the initial abdominal computed tomography report. Certain features of these errors have been analysed. In 30 (43.5%) a lesion was simply not recognised (error of observation); in 39 (56.5%) the wrong conclusions were drawn about the nature of normal or abnormal structures (error of interpretation). The 39 errors of interpretation were more complex; in 7 patients an abnormal structure was noted but interpreted as normal, whereas in four a normal structure was thought to represent a lesion. Other interpretive errors included those where the wrong cause for a lesion had been ascribed (24 patients), and those where the abnormality was substantially under-reported (4 patients). Various features of these errors are presented and discussed. Errors were made just as often in relation to small and large lesions. Consultants made as many errors as senior registrar radiologists. It is like that dual reporting is the best method of avoiding such errors and, indeed, this is widely practised in our unit. (Author). 9 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  8. A Geomagnetic Reference Error Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, S.; Woods, A. J.; Nair, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    The accuracy of geomagnetic field models, such as the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and the World Magnetic Model (WMM), has benefitted tremendously from the ongoing series of satellite magnetic missions. However, what do we mean by accuracy? When comparing a geomagnetic reference model with a magnetic field measurement (for example of an electronic compass), three contributions play a role: (1) The instrument error, which is not subject of this discussion, (2) the error of commission, namely the error of the model coefficients themselves in representing the geomagnetic main field, and (3) the error of omission, comprising contributions to the geomagnetic field which are not represented in the reference model. The latter can further be subdivided into the omission of the crustal field and the omission of the disturbance field. Several factors have a strong influence on these errors: The error of commission primarily depends on the time elapsed since the last update of the reference model. The omission error for the crustal field depends on altitude of the measurement, while the omission error for the disturbance field has a strong latitudinal dependence, peaking under the auroral electrojets. A further complication arises for the uncertainty in magnetic declination, which is directly dependent on the strength of the horizontal field. Here, we present an error model which takes all of these factors into account. This error model will be implemented as an online-calculator, providing the uncertainty of the magnetic elements at the entered location and time.

  9. Sepsis: Medical errors in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorat, Marta; Jurek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Health, safety and medical errors are currently the subject of worldwide discussion. The authors analysed medico-legal opinions trying to determine types of medical errors and their impact on the course of sepsis. The authors carried out a retrospective analysis of 66 medico-legal opinions issued by the Wroclaw Department of Forensic Medicine between 2004 and 2013 (at the request of the prosecutor or court) in cases examined for medical errors. Medical errors were confirmed in 55 of the 66 medico-legal opinions. The age of victims varied from 2 weeks to 68 years; 49 patients died. The analysis revealed medical errors committed by 113 health-care workers: 98 physicians, 8 nurses and 8 emergency medical dispatchers. In 33 cases, an error was made before hospitalisation. Hospital errors occurred in 35 victims. Diagnostic errors were discovered in 50 patients, including 46 cases of sepsis being incorrectly recognised and insufficient diagnoses in 37 cases. Therapeutic errors occurred in 37 victims, organisational errors in 9 and technical errors in 2. In addition to sepsis, 8 patients also had a severe concomitant disease and 8 had a chronic disease. In 45 cases, the authors observed glaring errors, which could incur criminal liability. There is an urgent need to introduce a system for reporting and analysing medical errors in Poland. The development and popularisation of standards for identifying and treating sepsis across basic medical professions is essential to improve patient safety and survival rates. Procedures should be introduced to prevent health-care workers from administering incorrect treatment in cases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Contour Error Map Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceret, Francis; Lane, John; Immer, Christopher; Case, Jonathan; Manobianco, John

    2005-01-01

    The contour error map (CEM) algorithm and the software that implements the algorithm are means of quantifying correlations between sets of time-varying data that are binarized and registered on spatial grids. The present version of the software is intended for use in evaluating numerical weather forecasts against observational sea-breeze data. In cases in which observational data come from off-grid stations, it is necessary to preprocess the observational data to transform them into gridded data. First, the wind direction is gridded and binarized so that D(i,j;n) is the input to CEM based on forecast data and d(i,j;n) is the input to CEM based on gridded observational data. Here, i and j are spatial indices representing 1.25-km intervals along the west-to-east and south-to-north directions, respectively; and n is a time index representing 5-minute intervals. A binary value of D or d = 0 corresponds to an offshore wind, whereas a value of D or d = 1 corresponds to an onshore wind. CEM includes two notable subalgorithms: One identifies and verifies sea-breeze boundaries; the other, which can be invoked optionally, performs an image-erosion function for the purpose of attempting to eliminate river-breeze contributions in the wind fields.

  11. Common Preposition Errors Committed by Iranian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Yousefi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined some common problems involving prepositions in learning a second language. Many students learning English as a foreign language commonly commit mistakes in prepositions. The aim of this paper is to survey the causes of errors in the use of prepositions that are frequently made by Iranian students. A diagnostic test (35 Multiple choice item was constructed to test the students proficiency in using these prepositions. The prepositions selected for this purpose were; to, in, at, on, with, of, from, for, about, during, into under, over and by. This test was given to a group of 35 intermediate students. The results indicated that the errors committed by the students were due to both Inter-lingual and Intra-lingual interferences. It is hoped that this research will help teachers of English Language to be aware of these problems and re-evaluate their teaching approach.

  12. Teamwork and Clinical Error Reporting among Nurses in Korean Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jee-In; Ahn, Jeonghoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine levels of teamwork and its relationships with clinical error reporting among Korean hospital nurses. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional survey design. We distributed a questionnaire to 674 nurses in two teaching hospitals in Korea. The questionnaire included items on teamwork and the reporting of clinical errors. We measured teamwork using the Teamwork Perceptions Questionnaire, which has five subscales including team structure, leadership, situation monitori...

  13. HERSCHEL/PACS SURVEY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN TAURUS/AURIGA—OBSERVATIONS OF [O I] AND [C II], AND FAR-INFRARED CONTINUUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Christian D.; Sandell, Göran; Vacca, William D.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Mathews, Geoffrey; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Ménard, Francois; Pinte, Christophe; Podio, Linda; Thi, Wing-Fai; Barrado, David; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo; Dent, William R. F.; Eiroa, Carlos; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Grady, Carol; Roberge, Aki; Kamp, Inga; Vicente, Silvia; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory was used to observe ∼120 pre-main-sequence stars in Taurus as part of the GASPS Open Time Key project. Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer was used to measure the continuum as well as several gas tracers such as [O I] 63 μm, [O I] 145 μm, [C II] 158 μm, OH, H 2 O, and CO. The strongest line seen is [O I] at 63 μm. We find a clear correlation between the strength of the [O I] 63 μm line and the 63 μm continuum for disk sources. In outflow sources, the line emission can be up to 20 times stronger than in disk sources, suggesting that the line emission is dominated by the outflow. The tight correlation seen for disk sources suggests that the emission arises from the inner disk (<50 AU) and lower surface layers of the disk where the gas and dust are coupled. The [O I] 63 μm is fainter in transitional stars than in normal Class II disks. Simple spectral energy distribution models indicate that the dust responsible for the continuum emission is colder in these disks, leading to weaker line emission. [C II] 158 μm emission is only detected in strong outflow sources. The observed line ratios of [O I] 63 μm to [O I] 145 μm are in the regime where we are insensitive to the gas-to-dust ratio, neither can we discriminate between shock or photodissociation region emission. We detect no Class III object in [O I] 63 μm and only three in continuum, at least one of which is a candidate debris disk

  14. Dependence of fluence errors in dynamic IMRT on leaf-positional errors varying with time and leaf number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zygmanski, Piotr; Kung, Jong H.; Jiang, Steve B.; Chin, Lee

    2003-01-01

    In d-MLC based IMRT, leaves move along a trajectory that lies within a user-defined tolerance (TOL) about the ideal trajectory specified in a d-MLC sequence file. The MLC controller measures leaf positions multiple times per second and corrects them if they deviate from ideal positions by a value greater than TOL. The magnitude of leaf-positional errors resulting from finite mechanical precision depends on the performance of the MLC motors executing leaf motions and is generally larger if leaves are forced to move at higher speeds. The maximum value of leaf-positional errors can be limited by decreasing TOL. However, due to the inherent time delay in the MLC controller, this may not happen at all times. Furthermore, decreasing the leaf tolerance results in a larger number of beam hold-offs, which, in turn leads, to a longer delivery time and, paradoxically, to higher chances of leaf-positional errors (≤TOL). On the other end, the magnitude of leaf-positional errors depends on the complexity of the fluence map to be delivered. Recently, it has been shown that it is possible to determine the actual distribution of leaf-positional errors either by the imaging of moving MLC apertures with a digital imager or by analysis of a MLC log file saved by a MLC controller. This leads next to an important question: What is the relation between the distribution of leaf-positional errors and fluence errors. In this work, we introduce an analytical method to determine this relation in dynamic IMRT delivery. We model MLC errors as Random-Leaf Positional (RLP) errors described by a truncated normal distribution defined by two characteristic parameters: a standard deviation σ and a cut-off value Δx 0 (Δx 0 ∼TOL). We quantify fluence errors for two cases: (i) Δx 0 >>σ (unrestricted normal distribution) and (ii) Δx 0 0 --limited normal distribution). We show that an average fluence error of an IMRT field is proportional to (i) σ/ALPO and (ii) Δx 0 /ALPO, respectively, where

  15. Care seeking, complementary therapy and herbal medicine use among people with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease CAMELOT phase II: Surveying for diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manderson, Lenore; Oldenburg, Brian; Lin, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    prior to the survey, 43% of all respondents had used CAM products or practitioners, including 11% who used Western herbal medicines. The data offers considerable opportunities to tease out the drivers, costs and benefits of CAM use by people with chronic disease. Although findings will be published...... across a number of articles, here we profile the demographic and health status characteristics of survey respondents and compare the characteristics of users of naturopathy and Western herbal medicine practitioner with this.......Many Australians manage their health through the combined use of conventional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine, with substantial direct and indirect costs to government and consumers. Our interest was in the varied health practices of people with type 2 diabetes...

  16. Survey report for fiscal 1998. Survey of trends of new CO{sub 2} fixation technology using bacteria and algae (II); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Saikin sorui wo riyoshita atarashii nisanka tanso kotei gijutsu no doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The trend of technology is surveyed from a standpoint that, in the process of CO2 fixation using microbes for the production of useful substances, it is essential, in view of income/outgo balance and economy, to utilize their catalytic function. The survey centers about the feasibility of the utilization of organic wastes, cellulose wastes in particular, as an energy source. Special attention is paid to the energy of artificial light and laser beams. From a point of view that it is important to suppress cell multiplication and to effectively utilize only catalytic activity for the production of useful substances, the cell division mechanism of the Corynebacterium is analyzed, and the findings are compiled to facilitate the study as to whether the division may be controlled. A report is also prepared on the metabolic mechanism of a photosynthesizing bacterium that is judged to be the most promising species. Reference is made to aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Shown are the organic compounds that are formed by CO2 gas fixation thanks to microbial or enzymatic reactions. To emphasize their importance as an energy source and to explain the conversion of biomass into useful substances, the technology and economy of conversion into fuel compounds are surveyed. The production of ethanol out of organic wastes is evaluated in the way of LCA (life cycle assessment). (NEDO)

  17. The Usability-Error Ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkin, Peter L.; Beuscart-zephir, Marie-Catherine; Pelayo, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    in patients coming to harm. Often the root cause analysis of these adverse events can be traced back to Usability Errors in the Health Information Technology (HIT) or its interaction with users. Interoperability of the documentation of HIT related Usability Errors in a consistent fashion can improve our...... ability to do systematic reviews and meta-analyses. In an effort to support improved and more interoperable data capture regarding Usability Errors, we have created the Usability Error Ontology (UEO) as a classification method for representing knowledge regarding Usability Errors. We expect the UEO...... will grow over time to support an increasing number of HIT system types. In this manuscript, we present this Ontology of Usability Error Types and specifically address Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE), Electronic Health Records (EHR) and Revenue Cycle HIT systems....

  18. Statistical errors in Monte Carlo estimates of systematic errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, Byron P.

    2007-01-01

    For estimating the effects of a number of systematic errors on a data sample, one can generate Monte Carlo (MC) runs with systematic parameters varied and examine the change in the desired observed result. Two methods are often used. In the unisim method, the systematic parameters are varied one at a time by one standard deviation, each parameter corresponding to a MC run. In the multisim method (see ), each MC run has all of the parameters varied; the amount of variation is chosen from the expected distribution of each systematic parameter, usually assumed to be a normal distribution. The variance of the overall systematic error determination is derived for each of the two methods and comparisons are made between them. If one focuses not on the error in the prediction of an individual systematic error, but on the overall error due to all systematic errors in the error matrix element in data bin m, the number of events needed is strongly reduced because of the averaging effect over all of the errors. For simple models presented here the multisim model was far better if the statistical error in the MC samples was larger than an individual systematic error, while for the reverse case, the unisim model was better. Exact formulas and formulas for the simple toy models are presented so that realistic calculations can be made. The calculations in the present note are valid if the errors are in a linear region. If that region extends sufficiently far, one can have the unisims or multisims correspond to k standard deviations instead of one. This reduces the number of events required by a factor of k 2

  19. Statistical errors in Monte Carlo estimates of systematic errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Byron P.

    2007-01-01

    For estimating the effects of a number of systematic errors on a data sample, one can generate Monte Carlo (MC) runs with systematic parameters varied and examine the change in the desired observed result. Two methods are often used. In the unisim method, the systematic parameters are varied one at a time by one standard deviation, each parameter corresponding to a MC run. In the multisim method (see ), each MC run has all of the parameters varied; the amount of variation is chosen from the expected distribution of each systematic parameter, usually assumed to be a normal distribution. The variance of the overall systematic error determination is derived for each of the two methods and comparisons are made between them. If one focuses not on the error in the prediction of an individual systematic error, but on the overall error due to all systematic errors in the error matrix element in data bin m, the number of events needed is strongly reduced because of the averaging effect over all of the errors. For simple models presented here the multisim model was far better if the statistical error in the MC samples was larger than an individual systematic error, while for the reverse case, the unisim model was better. Exact formulas and formulas for the simple toy models are presented so that realistic calculations can be made. The calculations in the present note are valid if the errors are in a linear region. If that region extends sufficiently far, one can have the unisims or multisims correspond to k standard deviations instead of one. This reduces the number of events required by a factor of k2. The specific terms unisim and multisim were coined by Peter Meyers and Steve Brice, respectively, for the MiniBooNE experiment. However, the concepts have been developed over time and have been in general use for some time.

  20. Statistical errors in Monte Carlo estimates of systematic errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, Byron P. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)]. E-mail: byronroe@umich.edu

    2007-01-01

    For estimating the effects of a number of systematic errors on a data sample, one can generate Monte Carlo (MC) runs with systematic parameters varied and examine the change in the desired observed result. Two methods are often used. In the unisim method, the systematic parameters are varied one at a time by one standard deviation, each parameter corresponding to a MC run. In the multisim method (see ), each MC run has all of the parameters varied; the amount of variation is chosen from the expected distribution of each systematic parameter, usually assumed to be a normal distribution. The variance of the overall systematic error determination is derived for each of the two methods and comparisons are made between them. If one focuses not on the error in the prediction of an individual systematic error, but on the overall error due to all systematic errors in the error matrix element in data bin m, the number of events needed is strongly reduced because of the averaging effect over all of the errors. For simple models presented here the multisim model was far better if the statistical error in the MC samples was larger than an individual systematic error, while for the reverse case, the unisim model was better. Exact formulas and formulas for the simple toy models are presented so that realistic calculations can be made. The calculations in the present note are valid if the errors are in a linear region. If that region extends sufficiently far, one can have the unisims or multisims correspond to k standard deviations instead of one. This reduces the number of events required by a factor of k{sup 2}.

  1. Processor register error correction management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Gupta, Meeta S.

    2016-12-27

    Processor register protection management is disclosed. In embodiments, a method of processor register protection management can include determining a sensitive logical register for executable code generated by a compiler, generating an error-correction table identifying the sensitive logical register, and storing the error-correction table in a memory accessible by a processor. The processor can be configured to generate a duplicate register of the sensitive logical register identified by the error-correction table.

  2. Error estimation for pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Braga Neto, U

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first of its kind to discuss error estimation with a model-based approach. From the basics of classifiers and error estimators to more specialized classifiers, it covers important topics and essential issues pertaining to the scientific validity of pattern classification. Additional features of the book include: * The latest results on the accuracy of error estimation * Performance analysis of resubstitution, cross-validation, and bootstrap error estimators using analytical and simulation approaches * Highly interactive computer-based exercises and end-of-chapter problems

  3. Medication Errors in Outpatient Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrier, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    Medication errors may occur during parental administration of prescription and over-the-counter medications in the outpatient pediatric setting. Misinterpretation of medication labels and dosing errors are two types of errors in medication administration. Health literacy may play an important role in parents' ability to safely manage their child's medication regimen. There are several proposed strategies for decreasing these medication administration errors, including using standardized dosing instruments, using strictly metric units for medication dosing, and providing parents and caregivers with picture-based dosing instructions. Pediatric healthcare providers should be aware of these strategies and seek to implement many of them into their practices.

  4. [DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS IN INTERNAL MEDICINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattner, Ami

    2017-02-01

    Diagnostic errors remain an important target in improving the quality of care and achieving better health outcomes. With a relatively steady rate estimated at 10-15% in many settings, research aiming to elucidate mechanisms of error is highly important. Results indicate that not only cognitive mistakes but a number of factors acting together often culminate in a diagnostic error. Far from being 'unpreventable', several methods and techniques are suggested that may show promise in minimizing diagnostic errors. These measures should be further investigated and incorporated into all phases of medical education.

  5. Identifying Error in AUV Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Joseph; Merrill, Kaylani; O'Rourke, Michael; Rajala, Andrew G; Edwards, Dean B

    2006-01-01

    Mine Countermeasures (MCM) involving Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are especially susceptible to error, given the constraints on underwater acoustic communication and the inconstancy of the underwater communication channel...

  6. Investigation of Error Patterns in Geographical Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryer, David; Jacobs, Derya A.; Karayaz, Gamze; Gronbech, Chris; Jones, Denise R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the research conducted in this project is to develop a methodology to investigate the accuracy of Airport Safety Modeling Data (ASMD) using statistical, visualization, and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) techniques. Such a methodology can contribute to answering the following research questions: Over a representative sampling of ASMD databases, can statistical error analysis techniques be accurately learned and replicated by ANN modeling techniques? This representative ASMD sample should include numerous airports and a variety of terrain characterizations. Is it possible to identify and automate the recognition of patterns of error related to geographical features? Do such patterns of error relate to specific geographical features, such as elevation or terrain slope? Is it possible to combine the errors in small regions into an error prediction for a larger region? What are the data density reduction implications of this work? ASMD may be used as the source of terrain data for a synthetic visual system to be used in the cockpit of aircraft when visual reference to ground features is not possible during conditions of marginal weather or reduced visibility. In this research, United States Geologic Survey (USGS) digital elevation model (DEM) data has been selected as the benchmark. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNS) have been used and tested as alternate methods in place of the statistical methods in similar problems. They often perform better in pattern recognition, prediction and classification and categorization problems. Many studies show that when the data is complex and noisy, the accuracy of ANN models is generally higher than those of comparable traditional methods.

  7. Preanalytical Blood Sampling Errors in Clinical Settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehra, N.; Malik, A. H.; Arshad, Q.; Sarwar, S.; Aslam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Blood sampling is one of the common procedures done in every ward for disease diagnosis and prognosis. Daily hundreds of samples are collected from different wards but lack of appropriate knowledge of blood sampling by paramedical staff and accidental errors make the samples inappropriate for testing. Thus the need to avoid these errors for better results still remains. We carried out this research with an aim to determine the common errors during blood sampling; find factors responsible and propose ways to reduce these errors. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out at the Military and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi during February and March 2014. A Venous Blood Sampling questionnaire (VBSQ) was filled by the staff on voluntary basis in front of the researchers. The staff was briefed on the purpose of the survey before filling the questionnaire. Sample size was 228. Results were analysed using SPSS-21. Results: When asked in the questionnaire, around 61.6 percent of the paramedical staff stated that they cleaned the vein by moving the alcohol swab from inward to outwards while 20.8 percent of the staff reported that they felt the vein after disinfection. On contrary to WHO guidelines, 89.6 percent identified that they had a habit of placing blood in the test tube by holding it in the other hand, which should actually be done after inserting it into the stand. Although 86 percent thought that they had ample knowledge regarding the blood sampling process but they did not practice it properly. Conclusion: Pre analytical blood sampling errors are common in our setup. Eighty six percent participants though thought that they had adequate knowledge regarding blood sampling, but most of them were not adhering to standard protocols. There is a need of continued education and refresher courses. (author)

  8. A Hybrid Unequal Error Protection / Unequal Error Resilience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality layers are then assigned an Unequal Error Resilience to synchronization loss by unequally allocating the number of headers available for synchronization to them. Following that Unequal Error Protection against channel noise is provided to the layers by the use of Rate Compatible Punctured Convolutional ...

  9. Measurement Error and Equating Error in Power Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gary W.; Jiang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Power analysis is a fundamental prerequisite for conducting scientific research. Without power analysis the researcher has no way of knowing whether the sample size is large enough to detect the effect he or she is looking for. This paper demonstrates how psychometric factors such as measurement error and equating error affect the power of…

  10. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey, Colorado-Arizona area: Salton Sea NI II-9, Phoenix NI 12-7, El Centro NI II-12, AJO NI 12-10, Lukeville NH 12-1 quadrangles. Volume I. Narrative report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    A rotary-wing reconnaissance high sensitivity radiometric and magnetic survey, encompassing several 1:250,000 quadrangles in southwestern Arizona and southeastern California, was performed. The surveyed area consisted of approximately 9300 line miles. The radiometric data were corrected and normalized to 400 feet terrain clearance. The data were identified as to rock type by correlating the data samples with existing geologic maps. Statistics defining the mean and standard deviation of each rock type are presented as listings in Volume I of this report. The departure of the data from its corresponding mean rock type is computed in terms of standard deviation units and is presented graphically as anomaly maps in Volume II and as computer listings in microfiche form in Volume I. Profiles of the normalized averaged data are contained in Volume II and include traces of the potassium, uranium and thorium count rates, corresponding ratios, and several ancilliary sensor data traces, magnetometer, radio altimeter and barometric pressure height. A description of the local geology is provided, and a discussion of the magnetic and radiometric data is presented together with an evaluation of selected uranium anomalies

  11. The many faces of error disclosure: a common set of elements and a definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, Stephanie P; Hilborne, Lee H; Spiritus, Eugene M; Seymann, Gregory B; Keenan, Craig R; Shojania, Kaveh G; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Wenger, Neil S

    2007-06-01

    Patients want to know when errors happen in their care. Professional associations, ethicists, and patient safety experts endorse disclosure of medical error to patients. Surveys of physicians show that they believe harmful errors should be disclosed to patients, yet errors are often not disclosed. To understand the discrepancy between patients' expectations and physicians' behavior concerning error disclosure. We conducted focus groups to determine what constitutes disclosure of medical error. Twenty focus groups, 4 at each of 5 academic centers, included 204 hospital administrators, physicians, residents, and nurses. Qualitative analysis of the focus group transcripts with attention to examples of error disclosure by clinicians and hospital administrators. Clinicians and administrators considered various forms of communication about errors to be error disclosure. Six elements of disclosure identified from focus group transcripts characterized disclosures ranging from Full disclosure (including admission of a mistake, discussion of the error, and a link from the error to harm) to Partial disclosures, which included deferral, misleading statements, and inadequate information to "connect the dots." Descriptions involving nondisclosure of harmful errors were uncommon. Error disclosure may mean different things to clinicians than it does to patients. The various forms of communication deemed error disclosure by clinicians may explain the discrepancy between error disclosure beliefs and behaviors. We suggest a definition of error disclosure to inform practical policies and interventions.

  12. Photometric and Spectroscopic Survey of the Cluster [DBS2003] 156 Associated with the H II Region G331.1-0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, M. C.; Ortiz, R.; Abraham, Z.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2016-05-01

    The Norma section of the Milky Way is especially interesting because it crosses three spiral arms: Sagittarius-Carina, Scutum-Crux and the Norma arm itself. Distance determinations of embedded young stellar clusters can contribute to define the spiral structure in this part of the Galaxy. However, spectrophotometric distances were obtained for only a few of these clusters in Norma. We present a photometric and spectroscopic study in the NIR of the [DBS2003] 156 stellar cluster, associated with the H II region G331.1-0.5. We aim to find the ionizing sources of the H II region and determine its distance. The cluster was observed in the J, H, and {K}{{s}} bands and eight potential massive stars were chosen among the detected sources according to color criteria; subsequent spectroscopy of these candidates was performed with the Ohio State Infrared Imager/Spectrometer spectrograph attached to the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research 4.1 m telescope. We identified and classified spectroscopically four early-type stars: IRS 176 (O8 V), IRS 308 (O-type), IRS 310 (O6 V), and IRS 71 (B1 Iab). Based on the proximity of IRS 176 and 308 with the radio continuum emission peaks and their relative positions with respect to the warm dust mid-infrared emission, we concluded that these two stars are the main ionizing sources of the H ii region G331.1-0.5. The mean spectrophotometric distance of IRS 176 and 310 of 3.38 ± 0.58 kpc is similar to that obtained in a previous work for two early-type stars of the neighbor cluster [DBS2003] 157 of 3.29 ± 0.58 kpc. The narrow range of radial velocities of radio sources in the area of the clusters [DBS2003] 156 and 157 and their similar visual extinction indicate that these clusters are physically associated. A common distance of 3.34 ± 0.34 kpc is derived for the system [DBS2003] 156 and 157. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR), a joint project of the Ministério de Ci

  13. Error begat error: design error analysis and prevention in social infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Peter E D; Lopez, Robert; Edwards, David J; Goh, Yang M

    2012-09-01

    Design errors contribute significantly to cost and schedule growth in social infrastructure projects and to engineering failures, which can result in accidents and loss of life. Despite considerable research that has addressed their error causation in construction projects they still remain prevalent. This paper identifies the underlying conditions that contribute to design errors in social infrastructure projects (e.g. hospitals, education, law and order type buildings). A systemic model of error causation is propagated and subsequently used to develop a learning framework for design error prevention. The research suggests that a multitude of strategies should be adopted in congruence to prevent design errors from occurring and so ensure that safety and project performance are ameliorated. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Medication errors in hospitalised children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Elizabeth; Kinney, Sharon; Cranswick, Noel; Williams, Allison

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the characteristics of reported medication errors occurring among children in an Australian children's hospital, and to examine the types, causes and contributing factors of medication errors. A retrospective clinical audit was undertaken of medication errors reported to an online incident facility at an Australian children's hospital over a 4-year period. A total of 2753 medication errors were reported over the 4-year period, with an overall medication error rate of 0.31% per combined admission and presentation, or 6.58 medication errors per 1000 bed days. The two most common severity outcomes were: the medication error occurred before it reached the child (n = 749, 27.2%); and the medication error reached the child who required monitoring to confirm that it resulted in no harm (n = 1519, 55.2%). Common types of medication errors included overdose (n = 579, 21.0%) and dose omission (n = 341, 12.4%). The most common cause relating to communication involved misreading or not reading medication orders (n = 804, 29.2%). Key contributing factors involved communication relating to children's transfer across different clinical settings (n = 929, 33.7%) and the lack of following policies and procedures (n = 617, 22.4%). More than half of the reports (72.5%) were made by nurses. Future research should focus on implementing and evaluating strategies aimed at reducing medication errors relating to analgesics, anti-infectives, cardiovascular agents, fluids and electrolytes and anticlotting agents, as they are consistently represented in the types of medication errors that occur. Greater attention needs to be placed on supporting health professionals in managing these medications. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. A history of the Water Resources Branch of the United States Geological Survey: volume 4, years of World War II, July 1, 1939 to June 30, 1947

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follansbee, Robert

    1939-01-01

    This period extends from July 1, 1939, to June 30, 1947, and is called the years of World War II, although it was not until December 1941 that the United States entered the war which began in Europe in September 1939. By the beginning of the period, it was evident that this country might be drawn into the conflict and a rearmament program including the draft act , effective in September 1940, was started and prosecuted vigorously prior to December 1941, when the attack on Pearl Harbor forced us into the war. Although the war was not officially ended by June 1947, President Truman proclaimed the end of hostilities on December 31, 1946, thus terminating some of his war-time powers, and by further action terminated other war-time powers as of June 30, 1947.

  16. ON THE CLUSTER PHYSICS OF SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH AND X-RAY SURVEYS. II. DECONSTRUCTING THE THERMAL SZ POWER SPECTRUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, N.; Bond, J. R.; Pfrommer, C.; Sievers, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are a treasure-trove of cosmological information. Interpreting current experiments probing them are limited by theoretical uncertainties rather than by measurement errors. Here we focus on the secondary anisotropies resulting from the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect; the amplitude of which depends critically on the average thermal pressure profile of galaxy groups and clusters. To this end, we use a suite of hydrodynamical TreePM-SPH simulations that include radiative cooling, star formation, supernova feedback, and energetic feedback from active galactic nuclei. We examine in detail how the pressure profile depends on cluster radius, mass, and redshift and provide an empirical fitting function. We employ three different approaches for calculating the tSZ power spectrum: an analytical approach that uses our pressure profile fit, a semianalytical method of pasting our pressure fit onto simulated clusters, and a direct numerical integration of our simulated volumes. We demonstrate that the detailed structure of the intracluster medium and cosmic web affect the tSZ power spectrum. In particular, the substructure and asphericity of clusters increase the tSZ power spectrum by 10%-20% at l ∼ 2000-8000, with most of the additional power being contributed by substructures. The contributions to the power spectrum from radii larger than R 500 is ∼20% at l = 3000, thus clusters interiors (r 500 ) dominate the power spectrum amplitude at these angular scales.

  17. ON THE CLUSTER PHYSICS OF SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH AND X-RAY SURVEYS. II. DECONSTRUCTING THE THERMAL SZ POWER SPECTRUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St George, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Bond, J. R.; Pfrommer, C.; Sievers, J. L. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St George, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2012-10-20

    Secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are a treasure-trove of cosmological information. Interpreting current experiments probing them are limited by theoretical uncertainties rather than by measurement errors. Here we focus on the secondary anisotropies resulting from the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect; the amplitude of which depends critically on the average thermal pressure profile of galaxy groups and clusters. To this end, we use a suite of hydrodynamical TreePM-SPH simulations that include radiative cooling, star formation, supernova feedback, and energetic feedback from active galactic nuclei. We examine in detail how the pressure profile depends on cluster radius, mass, and redshift and provide an empirical fitting function. We employ three different approaches for calculating the tSZ power spectrum: an analytical approach that uses our pressure profile fit, a semianalytical method of pasting our pressure fit onto simulated clusters, and a direct numerical integration of our simulated volumes. We demonstrate that the detailed structure of the intracluster medium and cosmic web affect the tSZ power spectrum. In particular, the substructure and asphericity of clusters increase the tSZ power spectrum by 10%-20% at l {approx} 2000-8000, with most of the additional power being contributed by substructures. The contributions to the power spectrum from radii larger than R {sub 500} is {approx}20% at l = 3000, thus clusters interiors (r < R {sub 500}) dominate the power spectrum amplitude at these angular scales.

  18. The Nainital-Cape Survey. II. Report for pulsation in five chemically peculiar A-type stars and presentation of 140 null results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S.; Mary, D. L.; Martinez, P.; Kurtz, D. W.; Girish, V.; Seetha, S.; Sagar, R.; Ashoka, B. N.

    2006-08-01

    Aims.We search for photometric variability in chemically peculiar A type stars in the northern hemisphere. Methods: .High-speed photometric observations of Ap and Am star candidates have been carried out from ARIES (Manora Peak, Nainital) using a three-channel fast photometer attached to the ARIES 104-cm Sampurnanand telescope. Results: .This paper presents three new variables: HD 113878, HD 118660 and HD 207561. During the time span of the survey (1999 December to 2004 January) pulsations of the δ Sct type were also found for the two evolved Am stars HD 102480 and HD 98851, as reported in Joshi et al. (2002, 2003). Additionally, we present 140 null results of the survey for this time span. Conclusions: .The star HD 113878 pulsates with a period of 2.31 h, which is typical of δ Sct stars. HD 118660 exhibits multi-periodic variability with a prominent period of nearly 1 h. These periods need to be investigated and make HD 118660 a particularly interesting target for further observations. For HD 207561, a star classified as Am, a probable pulsation with a period of 6 min was found in the light curves obtained on two consecutive nights. Both HD 102480 and HD 98851 exhibit unusual alternating high and low amplitude maxima, with a period ratio of 2:1. The analysis of the null results confirms the photometric quality of the Nainital site.

  19. MALT-45: A 7 mm survey of the southern Galaxy - II. ATCA follow-up observations of 44 GHz class I methanol masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Christopher H.; Walsh, Andrew J.; Breen, Shari L.; Ellingsen, Simon P.; Voronkov, Maxim A.; Hyland, Lucas J.

    2017-11-01

    We detail interferometric observations of 44 GHz class I methanol masers detected by MALT-45 (a 7 mm unbiased auto-correlated spectral-line Galactic-plane survey) using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We detect 238 maser spots across 77 maser sites. Using high-resolution positions, we compare the class I CH3OH masers to other star formation maser species, including CS (1-0), SiO v = 0 and the H53 α radio-recombination line. Comparison between the cross- and auto-correlated data has allowed us to also identify quasi-thermal emission in the 44 GHz class I methanol maser line. We find that the majority of class I methanol masers have small spatial and velocity ranges (<0.5 pc and <5 km s-1), and closely trace the systemic velocities of associated clouds. Using 870 μm dust continuum emission from the ATLASGAL survey, we determine clump masses associated with class I masers, and find that they are generally associated with clumps between 1000 and 3000 M⊙. For each class I methanol maser site, we use the presence of OH masers and radio recombination lines to identify relatively evolved regions of high-mass star formation; we find that maser sites without these associations have lower luminosities and preferentially appear towards dark infrared regions.

  20. Human Error: A Concept Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Frederick D.

    2007-01-01

    Human error is the subject of research in almost every industry and profession of our times. This term is part of our daily language and intuitively understood by most people however, it would be premature to assume that everyone's understanding of human error s the same. For example, human error is used to describe the outcome or consequence of human action, the causal factor of an accident, deliberate violations,a nd the actual action taken by a human being. As a result, researchers rarely agree on the either a specific definition or how to prevent human error. The purpose of this article is to explore the specific concept of human error using Concept Analysis as described by Walker and Avant (1995). The concept of human error is examined as currently used in the literature of a variety of industries and professions. Defining attributes and examples of model, borderline, and contrary cases are described. The antecedents and consequences of human error are also discussed and a definition of human error is offered.

  1. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  2. Error Detection in Numeric Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    example, entering a wrong ISBN may result in purchase of a different book, entering a wrong debit card number may result in a debit from a wrong bank account. So, it is very important that these errors are detected during data entry so that the codes are rejected and the user cautioned. It is for this purpose that many error ...

  3. Barriers to Medical Error Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Rezaie, Shirin; Aghighi, Negar

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the prevalence of medical error underreporting and associated barriers. This cross-sectional study was performed from September to December 2012. Five hospitals, affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, in Hamedan, Iran were investigated. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants consisted of physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, interns, and staffs of radiology and laboratory departments. Overall, 50.26% of subjects had committed but not reported medical errors. The main reasons mentioned for underreporting were lack of effective medical error reporting system (60.0%), lack of proper reporting form (51.8%), lack of peer supporting a person who has committed an error (56.0%), and lack of personal attention to the importance of medical errors (62.9%). The rate of committing medical errors was higher in men (71.4%), age of 50-40 years (67.6%), less-experienced personnel (58.7%), educational level of MSc (87.5%), and staff of radiology department (88.9%). This study outlined the main barriers to reporting medical errors and associated factors that may be helpful for healthcare organizations in improving medical error reporting as an essential component for patient safety enhancement.

  4. Barriers to medical error reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Poorolajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to explore the prevalence of medical error underreporting and associated barriers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed from September to December 2012. Five hospitals, affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, in Hamedan,Iran were investigated. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants consisted of physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, interns, and staffs of radiology and laboratory departments. Results: Overall, 50.26% of subjects had committed but not reported medical errors. The main reasons mentioned for underreporting were lack of effective medical error reporting system (60.0%, lack of proper reporting form (51.8%, lack of peer supporting a person who has committed an error (56.0%, and lack of personal attention to the importance of medical errors (62.9%. The rate of committing medical errors was higher in men (71.4%, age of 50-40 years (67.6%, less-experienced personnel (58.7%, educational level of MSc (87.5%, and staff of radiology department (88.9%. Conclusions: This study outlined the main barriers to reporting medical errors and associated factors that may be helpful for healthcare organizations in improving medical error reporting as an essential component for patient safety enhancement.

  5. Issues with data and analyses: Errors, underlying themes, and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew W; Kaiser, Kathryn A; Allison, David B

    2018-03-13

    Some aspects of science, taken at the broadest level, are universal in empirical research. These include collecting, analyzing, and reporting data. In each of these aspects, errors can and do occur. In this work, we first discuss the importance of focusing on statistical and data errors to continually improve the practice of science. We then describe underlying themes of the types of errors and postulate contributing factors. To do so, we describe a case series of relatively severe data and statistical errors coupled with surveys of some types of errors to better characterize the magnitude, frequency, and trends. Having examined these errors, we then discuss the consequences of specific errors or classes of errors. Finally, given the extracted themes, we discuss methodological, cultural, and system-level approaches to reducing the frequency of commonly observed errors. These approaches will plausibly contribute to the self-critical, self-correcting, ever-evolving practice of science, and ultimately to furthering knowledge.

  6. A theory of human error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Clement, W. F.; Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Human errors tend to be treated in terms of clinical and anecdotal descriptions, from which remedial measures are difficult to derive. Correction of the sources of human error requires an attempt to reconstruct underlying and contributing causes of error from the circumstantial causes cited in official investigative reports. A comprehensive analytical theory of the cause-effect relationships governing propagation of human error is indispensable to a reconstruction of the underlying and contributing causes. A validated analytical theory of the input-output behavior of human operators involving manual control, communication, supervisory, and monitoring tasks which are relevant to aviation, maritime, automotive, and process control operations is highlighted. This theory of behavior, both appropriate and inappropriate, provides an insightful basis for investigating, classifying, and quantifying the needed cause-effect relationships governing propagation of human error.

  7. Onorbit IMU alignment error budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Star Tracker, Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS), and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) from a complex navigation system with a multitude of error sources were combined. A complete list of the system errors is presented. The errors were combined in a rational way to yield an estimate of the IMU alignment accuracy for STS-1. The expected standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 type alignments was determined to be 72 arc seconds per axis for star tracker alignments and 188 arc seconds per axis for COAS alignments. These estimates are based on current knowledge of the star tracker, COAS, IMU, and navigation base error specifications, and were partially verified by preliminary Monte Carlo analysis.

  8. Changes in intern attitudes toward medical error and disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjavand, Nielufar; Bachegowda, Lohith S; Gracely, Edward; Novack, Dennis H

    2012-07-01

    The 2000 Institute of Medicine report, 'To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System', focused the medical community on medical error. This focus led to educational initiatives and legislation designed to minimise errors and increase their disclosure. This study aimed to investigate whether increased general awareness about medical error has affected interns' attitudes toward medical error and disclosure by comparing responses to surveys of interns carried out at either end of the last decade. Two cohorts of interns for the academic years 1999, 2000 and 2001 (n = 304) and 2008 and 2009 (n = 206) at a university hospital were presented with two hypothetical scenarios involving errors that resulted in, respectively, no permanent harm and an adverse outcome. The interns were questioned regarding their likely responses to error and disclosure. We collected 510 surveys (100% response rate). For both scenarios, the percentage of interns who would be willing to fully disclose their mistakes increased substantially from 1999-2001 to 2008-2009 ('no permanent harm': 38% and 71%, respectively [p error disclosure decreased (70% and 52%, respectively), the percentage of interns who felt that 'medical mistakes are preventable if doctors know enough' decreased (49% and 31%, respectively), belief that competent doctors keep emotions and uncertainties to themselves decreased (51% and 14%, respectively), and agreement with leaving medicine if one (as an intern) caused harm or death decreased (50% and 3%, respectively). Prior training about medical mistakes increased more than four-fold between the cohorts. This comparison of intern responses to a survey administered at either end of the last decade reveals that there may have been some important changes in interns' intended disclosure practices and attitudes toward medical error. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  9. THE ARIZONA RADIO OBSERVATORY CO MAPPING SURVEY OF GALACTIC MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE W3 REGION IN CO J = 2-1, 13CO J = 2-1, AND CO J = 3-2 EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieging, John H.; Peters, William L.

    2011-01-01

    We present fully sampled 38'' resolution maps of the CO and 13 CO J = 2-1 lines in the molecular clouds toward the H II region complex W3. The maps cover a 2. 0 0 x 1. 0 67 section of the galactic plane and span -70 to -20 km s -1 (LSR) in velocity with a resolution of ∼1.3 km s -1 . The velocity range of the images includes all the gas in the Perseus spiral arm. We also present maps of CO J = 3-2 emission for a 0. 0 5 x 0. 0 33 area containing the H II regions W3 Main and W3(OH). The J = 3-2 maps have velocity resolution of 0.87 km s -1 and 24'' angular resolution. Color figures display the peak line brightness temperature, the velocity-integrated intensity, and velocity channel maps for all three lines, and also the (CO/ 13 CO) J = 2-1 line intensity ratios as a function of velocity. The line intensity image cubes are made available in standard FITS format as electronically readable files. We compare our molecular line maps with the 1.1 mm continuum image from the BOLOCAM Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). From our 13 CO image cube, we derive kinematic information for the 65 BGPS sources in the mapped field, in the form of Gaussian component fits.

  10. OPERATION SUN BEAM, SHOTS LITTLE FELLER I, II, JOHNIE BOY, and SMALL BOY. Project Officers’ Report. Project 2.8. Radiological Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-11

    Boy, and the 22nd Chemical Company from Fort McClellan, Alabama, commanded by Lt Richard D. ’ vde , made off- site ground surveys. Both groups were...0, N b.c 0 0 ~q ,’~ ’Sj 0~j 0100 114 .7’ W4 WI ...................................................-................ ~jSc>.~-.w~-.* -- - .. 2--F...0.11 0100 0.05 153 .09 7 831 0.15 0on1 0.a 1538 0.ŝ a um- 01 11 0.14 090 006ŕ 133o 0.05 9 130. 106 0.18 09W 0.03 1518 0.05 30 906 0.8 93 0.04 13*1 0.09

  11. Using large scale surveys to investigate seasonal variations in seabird distribution and abundance. Part II: The Bay of Biscay and the English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettex, Emeline; Laran, Sophie; Authier, Matthieu; Blanck, Aurélie; Dorémus, Ghislain; Falchetto, Hélène; Lambert, Charlotte; Monestiez, Pascal; Stéfan, Eric; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Seabird distributions and the associated seasonal variations remain challenging to investigate, especially in oceanic areas. Recent advances in telemetry have provided considerable information on seabird ecology, but still exclude small species, non-breeding birds and individuals from inaccessible colonies from any scientific survey. To overcome this issue and investigate seabird distribution and abundance in the eastern North Atlantic (ENA), large-scale aerial surveys were conducted in winter 2011-12 and summer 2012 over a 375,000 km2 area encompassing the English Channel (EC) and the Bay of Biscay (BoB). Seabird sightings, from 15 taxonomic groups, added up to 17,506 and 8263 sightings in winter and summer respectively, along 66,307 km. Using geostatistical methods, density maps were provided for both seasons. Abundance was estimated by strip transect sampling. Most taxa showed marked seasonal variations in their density and distribution. The highest densities were recorded during winter for most groups except shearwaters, storm-petrels, terns and large-sized gulls. Subsequently, the abundance in winter nearly reached one million individuals and was 2.5 times larger than in summer. The continental shelf and the slope in the BoB and the EC were identified as key areas for seabird conservation, especially during winter, as birds from northern Europe migrate southward after breeding. This large-scale study provided a synoptic view of the seabird community in the ENA, over two contrasting seasons. Our results highlight that oceanic areas harbour an abundant avifauna. Since most of the existing marine protected areas are restricted to the coastal fringe, the importance of oceanic areas in winter should be considered in future conservation plans. Our work will provide a baseline for the monitoring of seabird distribution at sea, and could inform the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  12. SPITZER ULTRA FAINT SURVEY PROGRAM (SURFS UP). II. IRAC-DETECTED LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES AT 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 BEHIND STRONG-LENSING CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kuang-Han; Bradač, Maruša; Hoag, Austin; Cain, Benjamin; Lubin, L. M.; Knight, Robert I. [University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Lemaux, Brian C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Brammer, Gabriel B. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Castellano, Marco; Amorin, Ricardo; Fontana, Adriano; Merlin, Emiliano [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Schmidt, Kasper B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Schrabback, Tim [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf Dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Linden, Anja von der, E-mail: khhuang@ucdavis.edu, E-mail: astrokuang@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We study the stellar population properties of the IRAC-detected 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 galaxy candidates from the Spitzer UltRa Faint SUrvey Program. Using the Lyman Break selection technique, we find a total of 17 galaxy candidates at 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 from Hubble Space Telescope images (including the full-depth images from the Hubble Frontier Fields program for MACS 1149 and MACS 0717) that have detections at signal-to-noise ratios  ≥ 3 in at least one of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm channels. According to the best mass models available for the surveyed galaxy clusters, these IRAC-detected galaxy candidates are magnified by factors of ∼1.2–5.5. Due to the magnification of the foreground galaxy clusters, the rest-frame UV absolute magnitudes M{sub 1600} are between −21.2 and −18.9 mag, while their intrinsic stellar masses are between 2 × 10{sup 8}M{sub ⊙} and 2.9 × 10{sup 9}M{sub ⊙}. We identify two Lyα emitters in our sample from the Keck DEIMOS spectra, one at z{sub Lyα} = 6.76 (in RXJ 1347) and one at z{sub Lyα} = 6.32 (in MACS 0454). We find that 4 out of 17 z ≳ 6 galaxy candidates are favored by z ≲ 1 solutions when IRAC fluxes are included in photometric redshift fitting. We also show that IRAC [3.6]–[4.5] color, when combined with photometric redshift, can be used to identify galaxies which likely have strong nebular emission lines or obscured active galactic nucleus contributions within certain redshift windows.

  13. Childhood adversities and adult psychiatric disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication II: associations with persistence of DSM-IV disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2010-02-01

    Although significant associations of childhood adversities (CAs) with adult mental disorders have been widely documented, associations of CAs with onset and persistence of disorders have not been distinguished. This distinction is important for conceptual and practical purposes. To examine the multivariate associations of 12 retrospectively reported CAs with persistence of adult DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Cross-sectional community survey. Household population in the United States. Nationally representative sample of 5692 adults. Recency of episodes was assessed separately for each of 20 lifetime DSM-IV mood, anxiety, disruptive behavior, and substance use disorders in respondents with a lifetime history of these disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Predictors of persistence were examined using backward recurrence survival models to predict time since most recent episode controlling for age at onset and time since onset. The CAs involving maladaptive family functioning (parental mental illness, substance use disorder, criminality, family violence, physical and sexual abuse, and neglect) but not other CAs were significantly but modestly related to persistence of mood, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders. Number of maladaptive family functioning CAs had statistically significant, but again substantively modest, subadditive associations with the same outcomes. Exposure to multiple other CAs was significantly associated with persistence of mood and anxiety disorders. Associations remained statistically significant throughout the life course, although the substantive size of associations indicated by simulations showing time to most recent episode would increase by only 1.6% (from a mean of 8.3 years to a mean of 8.4 years) in the absence of CAs. The overall statistically significant associations of CAs with adult DSM-IV/Composite International Diagnostic Interview disorders are due largely to

  14. THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE SURVEY OF THE ORION A AND B MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND DEMOGRAPHICS OF DUSTY YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megeath, S. T.; Kryukova, E.; Gutermuth, R.; Muzerolle, J.; Hora, J. L.; Myers, P. C.; Fazio, G. G.; Allen, L. E.; Flaherty, K.; Hartmann, L.; Pipher, J. L.; Stauffer, J.; Young, E. T.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the spatial distribution of dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) identified in the Spitzer Survey of the Orion Molecular clouds, augmenting these data with Chandra X-ray observations to correct for incompleteness in dense clustered regions. We also devise a scheme to correct for spatially varying incompleteness when X-ray data are not available. The local surface densities of the YSOs range from 1 pc −2 to over 10,000 pc −2 , with protostars tending to be in higher density regions. This range of densities is similar to other surveyed molecular clouds with clusters, but broader than clouds without clusters. By identifying clusters and groups as continuous regions with surface densities ≥10 pc −2 , we find that 59% of the YSOs are in the largest cluster, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), while 13% of the YSOs are found in a distributed population. A lower fraction of protostars in the distributed population is evidence that it is somewhat older than the groups and clusters. An examination of the structural properties of the clusters and groups shows that the peak surface densities of the clusters increase approximately linearly with the number of members. Furthermore, all clusters with more than 70 members exhibit asymmetric and/or highly elongated structures. The ONC becomes azimuthally symmetric in the inner 0.1 pc, suggesting that the cluster is only ∼2 Myr in age. We find that the star formation efficiency (SFE) of the Orion B cloud is unusually low, and that the SFEs of individual groups and clusters are an order of magnitude higher than those of the clouds. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the young low mass stars in the Orion clouds and the Orion OB 1 association, and we determine upper limits to the fraction of disks that may be affected by UV radiation from OB stars or dynamical interactions in dense, clustered regions

  15. Stellar substructures in the solar neighbourhood. II. Abundances of neutron-capture elements in the kinematic Group 3 of the Geneva-Copenhagen survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonkutė, E.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Nordström, B.; Ženovienė, R.

    2013-07-01

    Context. The evolution of chemical elements in a galaxy is linked to its star formation history. Variations in star formation history are imprinted in the relative abundances of chemical elements produced in different supernova events and asymptotic giant branch stars. Aims: We determine detailed elemental abundances of s- and r-process elements in stars belonging to Group 3 of the Geneva-Copenhagen survey and compare their chemical composition with Galactic disc stars. The aim is to look for possible chemical signatures that might give information about the formation history of this kinematic group of stars, which is suggested to correspond to remnants of disrupted satellites. Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, and were analysed with a differential model atmosphere method. Comparison stars were observed and analysed with the same method. Results: Abundances of chemical elements produced mainly by the s-process are similar to those in the Galactic thin-disc dwarfs of the same metallicity, while abundances of chemical elements produced predominantly by the r-process are overabundant. The similar elemental abundances are observed in Galactic thick-disc stars. Conclusions: The chemical composition together with the kinematic properties and ages of stars in Group 3 of the Geneva-Copenhagen survey support a gas-rich satellite merger scenario as the most likely explanation for the origin. The similar chemical composition of stars in Group 3 and the thick-disc stars might suggest that their formation histories are linked.

  16. THE SWIFT GRB HOST GALAXY LEGACY SURVEY. II. REST-FRAME NEAR-IR LUMINOSITY DISTRIBUTION AND EVIDENCE FOR A NEAR-SOLAR METALLICITY THRESHOLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krühler, T. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 København Ø (Denmark); Laskar, T.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chary, R. [US Planck Data Center, MS220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Postigo, A. de Ugarte [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Michałowski, M. J. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Schulze, S., E-mail: dperley@dark-cosmology.dk [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2016-01-20

    We present rest-frame near-IR (NIR) luminosities and stellar masses for a large and uniformly selected population of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using deep Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of 119 targets from the Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey spanning 0.03 < z < 6.3, and we determine the effects of galaxy evolution and chemical enrichment on the mass distribution of the GRB host population across cosmic history. We find a rapid increase in the characteristic NIR host luminosity between z ∼ 0.5 and z ∼ 1.5, but little variation between z ∼ 1.5 and z ∼ 5. Dust-obscured GRBs dominate the massive host population but are only rarely seen associated with low-mass hosts, indicating that massive star-forming galaxies are universally and (to some extent) homogeneously dusty at high redshift while low-mass star-forming galaxies retain little dust in their interstellar medium. Comparing our luminosity distributions with field surveys and measurements of the high-z mass–metallicity relation, our results have good consistency with a model in which the GRB rate per unit star formation is constant in galaxies with gas-phase metallicity below approximately the solar value but heavily suppressed in more metal-rich environments. This model also naturally explains the previously reported “excess” in the GRB rate beyond z ≳ 2; metals stifle GRB production in most galaxies at z < 1.5 but have only minor impact at higher redshifts. The metallicity threshold we infer is much higher than predicted by single-star models and favors a binary progenitor. Our observations also constrain the fraction of cosmic star formation in low-mass galaxies undetectable to Spitzer to be small at z < 4.

  17. Error analysis in solving mathematical problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovana Luiza Kliemann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey carried out within the Centre for Education Programme, in order to assist in improving the quality of the teaching and learning of Mathematics in Primary Education. From the study of the evaluative systems that constitute the scope of the research project, it was found that their focus is solving problems, and from this point, it began the development of several actions with the purpose of assisting the students in the process of solving them. One of these actions objected to analyze the errors presented by students in the 5th year in the interpretation, understanding, and problem-solving. We describe three games developed in six schools, with questions drawn from the “Prova Brasil” performed in previous years, in objective to diagnose the main difficulties presented by the students in solving the problems, besides helping them to verify possibilities to overcome such gaps. To reach the proposed objectives, a qualitative study was carried out in which the researchers were constantly involved during the process. After each meeting, there was an analysis of the responses developed to classify the errors in different categories. It was found that most students attended succeeded in solving the proposed problems, and major errors presented are related to the difficulty of interpretation.

  18. Simultaneous control of error rates in fMRI data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hakmook; Blume, Jeffrey; Ombao, Hernando; Badre, David

    2015-12-01

    The key idea of statistical hypothesis testing is to fix, and thereby control, the Type I error (false positive) rate across samples of any size. Multiple comparisons inflate the global (family-wise) Type I error rate and the traditional solution to maintaining control of the error rate is to increase the local (comparison-wise) Type II error (false negative) rates. However, in the analysis of human brain imaging data, the number of comparisons is so large that this solution breaks down: the local Type II error rate ends up being so large that scientifically meaningful analysis is precluded. Here we propose a novel solution to this problem: allow the Type I error rate to converge to zero along with the Type II error rate. It works because when the Type I error rate per comparison is very small, the accumulation (or global) Type I error rate is also small. This solution is achieved by employing the likelihood paradigm, which uses likelihood ratios to measure the strength of evidence on a voxel-by-voxel basis. In this paper, we provide theoretical and empirical justification for a likelihood approach to the analysis of human brain imaging data. In addition, we present extensive simulations that show the likelihood approach is viable, leading to "cleaner"-looking brain maps and operational superiority (lower average error rate). Finally, we include a case study on cognitive control related activation in the prefrontal cortex of the human brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Um exame dos modelos de redes de filas abertas aplicados a sistemas de manufatura discretos: parte II A survey on open queueing network models applied to discrete manufacturing systems: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. Bitran

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta a segunda (e última parte do nosso exame dos modelos de redes de filas abertas aplicados a sistemas de manufatura discretos. Nosso enfoque é em modelos de projeto e planejamento de job-shops. Na primeira parte (BITRAN & MORABITO, 1995b revisamos métodos de decomposição exatos e aproximados para modelos de avaliação de desempenho em sistemas com múltiplas classes de produtos e diversas estações de trabalho. Nesta segunda parte examinamos modelos de otimização de três categorias de problemas: a primeira minimiza o investimento de capital de maneira a atingir uma medida de desempenho (estoque em processo ou leadtime, a segunda busca otimizar a medida de desempenho sujeito às restrições de recursos, e a terceira explora resultados de pesquisas recentes com a redução de complexidade mediante reprojeto da planta e da partição de produtos.This paper presents the second (and last part of our survey on open queueing network models applied to discrete manufacturing systems. We focus on design and planning for job-shops. In the first part (Bitran and Morabito, 1995b we reviewed exact and approximate decomposition methods for performance evaluation models for single and multiple product class systems. The second part reviews optimization models of three categories of problems: the first minimizes capital investment subject to attaining a performance measure (WIP or leadtime, the second seeks to optimize the performance measure subject to resource constraints, and the third explores recent research developments in complexity reduction through shop redesign and products partitioning.

  20. THE SELF-CORRECTION OF ENGLISH SPEECH ERRORS IN SECOND LANGUANGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Santi Indriani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of second language (L2 learning is strongly influenced by the factors of error reconstruction that occur when the language is learned. Errors will definitely appear in the learning process. However, errors can be used as a step to accelerate the process of understanding the language. Doing self-correction (with or without giving cues is one of the examples. In the aspect of speaking, self-correction is done immediately after the error appears. This study is aimed at finding (i what speech errors the L2 speakers are able to identify, (ii of the errors identified, what speech errors the L2 speakers are able to self correct and (iii whether the self-correction of speech error are able to immediately improve the L2 learning. Based on the data analysis, it was found that the majority identified errors are related to noun (plurality, subject-verb agreement, grammatical structure and pronunciation.. B2 speakers tend to correct errors properly. Of the 78% identified speech errors, as much as 66% errors could be self-corrected accurately by the L2 speakers. Based on the analysis, it was also found that self-correction is able to improve L2 learning ability directly. This is evidenced by the absence of repetition of the same error after the error had been corrected.

  1. Stochastic Models of Human Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshamy, Maged; Elliott, Dawn M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Humans play an important role in the overall reliability of engineering systems. More often accidents and systems failure are traced to human errors. Therefore, in order to have meaningful system risk analysis, the reliability of the human element must be taken into consideration. Describing the human error process by mathematical models is a key to analyzing contributing factors. Therefore, the objective of this research effort is to establish stochastic models substantiated by sound theoretic foundation to address the occurrence of human errors in the processing of the space shuttle.

  2. Linear network error correction coding

    CERN Document Server

    Guang, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    There are two main approaches in the theory of network error correction coding. In this SpringerBrief, the authors summarize some of the most important contributions following the classic approach, which represents messages by sequences?similar to algebraic coding,?and also briefly discuss the main results following the?other approach,?that uses the theory of rank metric codes for network error correction of representing messages by subspaces. This book starts by establishing the basic linear network error correction (LNEC) model and then characterizes two equivalent descriptions. Distances an

  3. Gamma-spectrometric surveys in differentiated granites. II: the Joaquim Murtinho Granite in the Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex, Parana, SE Brazil; Levantamentos gamaespectrometricos em granitos diferenciados. II: O exemplo do Granito Joaquim Murtinho, Complexo Granitico Cunhaporanga, Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada; Fruchting, Allan [Votorantim Metais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: allan.fruchting@vmetais.com.br; Guimaraes, Gilson Burigo [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail: gburigo@ig.com.br; Alves, Luizemara Soares [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: luizemara@petrobras.com.br; Martin, Victor Miguel Oliveira; Ulbrich, Horstpeter Herberto Gustavo Jose [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], e-mail: vicmartin6@ig.com.br, e-mail: hulbrich@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Detailed mapping at the NW corner of the large Neo proterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), Parana state, SE Brazil, redefined the Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG), a late intrusion in CGC with an exposed area of about 10 km{sup 2}, made up mainly by evolved 'alaskites' (alkali-feldspar leuco granites). This unit is in tectonic contact with the Neoproterozoic-Eocambrian volcano-sedimentary Castro Group, to the W, and is intrusive into other less evolved granitic units of the CGC to the E. Petrographically, JMG shows mainly mesoperthite and quartz, with subordinate amounts of altered micas and some accessory phases, mainly zircon. The equi to inequigranular granites are usually deformed with cataclastic textures, are often brecciated, and may have miarolitic structures. Formation of late albite, sericite, carbonate and hematite was caused by deuteric and hydrothermal alteration. A gamma-ray spectrometric survey at 231 stations which measured total counts (TC), Ueq K%, eU ppm and eTh ppm was used to construct several direct and derived maps. Compared to neighboring units the JMG has significant anomalies, especially in the TC, %K, eTh and eU maps, although the differences are less obvious in some derived maps. These evolved granites are enriched in these three elements. Geochemical behavior of K, Th and U is used to analyse the results observed in maps. Enhanced weathering under a subtropical climate with moderate to high average temperatures and heavy rainfall affects mainly feldspars and biotite, and may also destabilize most U and Th-bearing accessory phases. Th is most likely retained in restite minerals in soils, being relatively immobile, while part of U may migrate as uranyl ion in oxidizing media. K is especially affected by feldspar alteration to K-free clays (mainly kaolinite), and may be completely leached. Gamma-ray spectrometric methods are valid tools to study facies in granitic rocks, especially in those that are enriched in K, Th and U

  4. Psychological safety and error reporting within Veterans Health Administration hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derickson, Ryan; Fishman, Jonathan; Osatuke, Katerine; Teclaw, Robert; Ramsel, Dee

    2015-03-01

    In psychologically safe workplaces, employees feel comfortable taking interpersonal risks, such as pointing out errors. Previous research suggested that psychologically safe climate optimizes organizational outcomes. We evaluated psychological safety levels in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals and assessed their relationship to employee willingness of reporting medical errors. We conducted an ANOVA on psychological safety scores from a VHA employees census survey (n = 185,879), assessing variability of means across racial and supervisory levels. We examined organizational climate assessment interviews (n = 374) evaluating how many employees asserted willingness to report errors (or not) and their stated reasons. Finally, based on survey data, we identified 2 (psychologically safe versus unsafe) hospitals and compared their number of employees who would be willing/unwilling to report an error. Psychological safety increased with supervisory level (P hospital (71% would report, 13% would not) were less willing to report an error than at the psychologically safe hospital (91% would, 0% would not). A substantial minority would not report an error and were willing to admit so in a private interview setting. Their stated reasons as well as higher psychological safety means for supervisory employees both suggest power as an important determinant. Intentions to report were associated with psychological safety, strongly suggesting this climate aspect as instrumental to improving patient safety and reducing costs.

  5. An international survey on hypoglycemia among insulin-treated type I and type II diabetes patients: Turkey cohort of the non-interventional IO HAT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emral, Rıfat; Tetiker, Tamer; Sahin, Ibrahim; Sari, Ramazan; Kaya, Ahmet; Yetkin, İlhan; Cil, Sefika Uslu; Tütüncü, Neslihan Başcıl

    2018-02-13

    Limited real-world data are currently available on hypoglycemia in diabetes patients. The International Operations Hypoglycemia Assessment Tool (IO HAT) study was designed to estimate hypoglycemia in insulin-treated type I (T1DM) and type II (T2DM) diabetes mellitus patients from 9 countries. The data from Turkey cohort are presented here. A non-interventional study to determine the hypoglycemia incidence, retrospectively and prospectively, in Turkish T1DM and T2DM patients using a 2-part self-assessment questionnaire. Overall, 2348 patients were enrolled in the Turkey cohort (T1DM = 306 patients, T2DM = 2042 patients). In T1DM patients, 96.8% patients reported hypoglycemic events (Incidence rate [IR]: 68.6 events per patient-year [ppy]), prospectively, while 74.0% patients reported hypoglycemic events (IR: 51.7 events ppy), retrospectively. In T2DM patients, 95.9% patients (IR: 28.3 events ppy) reported hypoglycemic events, prospectively, while 53.6% patients (IR: 23.0 events ppy) reported hypoglycemic events, retrospectively. Nearly all patients reported hypoglycemia during the prospective period. This is a first patient-reported dataset on hypoglycemia in Turkish, insulin-treated diabetes patients. A high incidence of patient-reported hypoglycemia confirms that hypoglycemia remains under-estimated. Hypoglycemia increased healthcare utilization impacting patients' quality of life. Hypoglycemia remains a common side effect with insulin-treatment and strategies to optimize therapy and reduce hypoglycemia occurrence in diabetes patients are required. Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02306681 (Date of registration: 12 Nov 2014; retrospectively registered).

  6. Radiology errors: are we learning from our mistakes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankad, K.; Hoey, E.T.D.; Jones, J.B.; Tirukonda, P.; Smith, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To question practising radiologists and radiology trainees at a large international meeting in an attempt to survey individuals about error reporting. Materials and methods: Radiologists attending the 2007 Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) annual meeting were approached to fill in a written questionnaire. Participants were questioned as to their grade, country in which they practised, and subspecialty interest. They were asked whether they kept a personal log of their errors (with an error defined as 'a mistake that has management implications for the patient'), how many errors they had made in the preceding 12 months, and the types of errors that had occurred. They were also asked whether their local department held regular discrepancy/errors meetings, how many they had attended in the preceding 12 months, and the perceived atmosphere at these meetings (on a qualitative scale). Results: A total of 301 radiologists with a wide range of specialty interests from 32 countries agreed to take part. One hundred and sixty-six of 301 (55%) of responders were consultant/attending grade. One hundred and thirty-five of 301 (45%) were residents/fellows. Fifty-nine of 301 (20%) of responders kept a personal record of their errors. The number of errors made per person per year ranged from none (2%) to 16 or more (7%). The majority (91%) reported making between one and 15 errors/year. Overcalls (40%), under-calls (25%), and interpretation error (15%) were the predominant error types. One hundred and seventy-eight of 301 (59%) of participants stated that their department held regular errors meeting. One hundred and twenty-seven of 301 (42%) had attended three or more meetings in the preceding year. The majority (55%) who had attended errors meetings described the atmosphere as 'educational.' Only a small minority (2%) described the atmosphere as 'poor' meaning non-educational and/or blameful. Conclusion: Despite the undeniable importance of learning from errors

  7. The Bolocam 1.1 mm Lockman Hole Galaxy Survey: SHARC II 350 μm Photometry and Implications for Spectral Models, Dust Temperatures, and Redshift Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, G. T.; Glenn, J.; Egami, E.; Rieke, G. H.; Ivison, R. J.; Yun, M. S.; Aguirre, J. E.; Maloney, P. R.; Haig, D.

    2006-05-01

    We present 350 μm photometry of all 17 galaxy candidates in the Lockman Hole detected in a 1.1 mm Bolocam survey. Several of the galaxies were previously detected at 850 μm, at 1.2 mm, in the infrared by Spitzer, and in the radio. Nine of the Bolocam galaxy candidates were detected at 350 μm, and two new candidates were serendipitously detected at 350 μm (bringing the total in the literature detected in this way to three). Five of the galaxies have published spectroscopic redshifts, enabling investigation of the implied temperature ranges and a comparison of photometric redshift techniques. For z~2.5 thermally emitting galaxies, λ=350 μm lies near the spectral energy distribution peak. Thus, luminosities can be measured without extrapolating to the peak from detection wavelengths of λ>=850 μm. Characteristically, the galaxy luminosities lie in the range 1.0-1.2×1013 Lsolar, with dust temperatures in the range 40-70 K, depending on the choice of spectral index and wavelength of unit optical depth. The implied dust masses are (3-5)×108 Msolar. We find that the far-infrared to radio relation for star-forming ULIRGs systematically overpredicts the radio luminosities and overestimates redshifts on the order of Δz~1, whereas redshifts based on either submillimeter data alone or the 1.6 μm stellar bump and PAH features are more accurate.

  8. Second Byurakan spectral sky survey. II. Results for region centered on alpha 09h50m, delta +55 deg 00 arcmin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markarian, B.E.; Stepanian, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The second list of objects in the Second Biurakan Spectral Sky Survey of the region centered on alpha 09h50m, delta +55 deg 00 arcmin is given. The list contains data on 110 objects and galaxies of a peculiar physical nature and 24 blue stars. The observations were made with the 40-52 arcsec Schmidt telescope of the Biurakan Astrophysical Observatory with a set of three objective prisms using Kodak IIIaJ and IIIaF emulsions sensitized in nitrogen. The area is found to contain 20 quasar candidates and four Seyfert galaxies, 27 blue stellar objects, 24 galaxies with an appreciable ultraviolet continuum, and 39 emission galaxies without appreciable ultraviolet radiation. The surface brightness of the quasars and Seyferts on the considered area down to the limiting magnitude 19.5 M is more than 1.5 per square degree with allowance for the already known quasars. The surface density of emission galaxies is about four per square degree. 7 references

  9. Error Analysis Of Clock Time (T), Declination (*) And Latitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ), latitude (Φ), longitude (λ) and azimuth (A); which are aimed at establishing fixed positions and orientations of survey points and lines on the earth surface. The paper attempts the analysis of the individual and combined effects of error in time ...

  10. refractive error status of patients in bayelsa state, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adebayo Adio

    hyperopia (>+0.50D) to be 20.6% in Bangladesh. A recent national survey in Pakistan reported that refractive error is the commonest cause of moderate visual impairment (VA <6/18 to. $6/60) accounting for 43%, followed by cataract. A hospital-based. 8. Correspondence: A Koroye-Egbe, Niger Delta University Teaching ...

  11. Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT) program to measure improper payments in the Medicare...

  12. Quantile Regression With Measurement Error

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Ying

    2009-08-27

    Regression quantiles can be substantially biased when the covariates are measured with error. In this paper we propose a new method that produces consistent linear quantile estimation in the presence of covariate measurement error. The method corrects the measurement error induced bias by constructing joint estimating equations that simultaneously hold for all the quantile levels. An iterative EM-type estimation algorithm to obtain the solutions to such joint estimation equations is provided. The finite sample performance of the proposed method is investigated in a simulation study, and compared to the standard regression calibration approach. Finally, we apply our methodology to part of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project growth data, a longitudinal study with an unusual measurement error structure. © 2009 American Statistical Association.

  13. Numerical optimization with computational errors

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J

    2016-01-01

    This book studies the approximate solutions of optimization problems in the presence of computational errors. A number of results are presented on the convergence behavior of algorithms in a Hilbert space; these algorithms are examined taking into account computational errors. The author illustrates that algorithms generate a good approximate solution, if computational errors are bounded from above by a small positive constant. Known computational errors are examined with the aim of determining an approximate solution. Researchers and students interested in the optimization theory and its applications will find this book instructive and informative. This monograph contains 16 chapters; including a chapters devoted to the subgradient projection algorithm, the mirror descent algorithm, gradient projection algorithm, the Weiszfelds method, constrained convex minimization problems, the convergence of a proximal point method in a Hilbert space, the continuous subgradient method, penalty methods and Newton’s meth...

  14. Aging transition by random errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongkui; Ma, Ning; Xu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the effects of random errors on the oscillating behaviors have been studied theoretically and numerically in a prototypical coupled nonlinear oscillator. Two kinds of noises have been employed respectively to represent the measurement errors accompanied with the parameter specifying the distance from a Hopf bifurcation in the Stuart-Landau model. It has been demonstrated that when the random errors are uniform random noise, the change of the noise intensity can effectively increase the robustness of the system. While the random errors are normal random noise, the increasing of variance can also enhance the robustness of the system under certain conditions that the probability of aging transition occurs reaches a certain threshold. The opposite conclusion is obtained when the probability is less than the threshold. These findings provide an alternative candidate to control the critical value of aging transition in coupled oscillator system, which is composed of the active oscillators and inactive oscillators in practice.

  15. The uncorrected refractive error challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovin Naidoo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Refractive error affects people of all ages, socio-economic status and ethnic groups. The most recent statistics estimate that, worldwide, 32.4 million people are blind and 191 million people have vision impairment. Vision impairment has been defined based on distance visual acuity only, and uncorrected distance refractive error (mainly myopia is the single biggest cause of worldwide vision impairment. However, when we also consider near visual impairment, it is clear that even more people are affected. From research it was estimated that the number of people with vision impairment due to uncorrected distance refractive error was 107.8 million,1 and the number of people affected by uncorrected near refractive error was 517 million, giving a total of 624.8 million people.

  16. Investigation of Medication Errors: A Prescription Survey from Sri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 11 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Negligence, genuine error, and litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, David

    2013-01-01

    David H SohnDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USAAbstract: Not all medical injuries are the result of negligence. In fact, most medical injuries are the result either of the inherent risk in the practice of medicine, or due to system errors, which cannot be prevented simply through fear of disciplinary action. This paper will discuss the differences between adverse events, negligence, and system errors; the current medical malpractice tort syst...

  18. DGSAT: Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Amateur Telescopes. II. A catalogue of isolated nearby edge-on disk galaxies and the discovery of new low surface brightness systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, C.; Javanmardi, B.; Martínez-Delgado, D.; Kroupa, P.; Teuwen, K.

    2017-07-01

    The connection between the bulge mass or bulge luminosity in disk galaxies and the number, spatial and phase space distribution of associated dwarf galaxies is a discriminator between cosmological simulations related to galaxy formation in cold dark matter and generalised gravity models. Here, a nearby sample of isolated Milky Way-class edge-on galaxies is introduced, to facilitate observational campaigns to detect the associated families of dwarf galaxies at low surface brightness. Three galaxy pairs with at least one of the targets being edge-on are also introduced. Approximately 60% of the catalogued isolated galaxies contain bulges of different size, while the remaining objects appear to be bulgeless. Deep images of NGC 3669 (small bulge, with NGC 3625 at the edge of the image) and NGC 7814 (prominent bulge), obtained with a 0.4 m aperture, are also presented, resulting in the discovery of two new dwarf galaxy candidates, NGC 3669-DGSAT-3 and NGC 7814-DGSAT-7. Eleven additional low surface brightness galaxies are identified, previously notified with low quality measurement flags in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Integrated magnitudes, surface brightnesses, effective radii, Sersic indices, axis ratios, and projected distances to their putative major hosts are displayed. At least one of the galaxies, NGC 3625-DGSAT-4, belongs with a surface brightness of μr ≈ 26 mag arcsec-2 and effective radius >1.5 kpc to the class of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs). NGC 3669-DGSAT-3, the galaxy with the lowest surface brightness in our sample, may also be an UDG.

  19. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS): the United States of America in 2011 chapter II: phosphodiesterase inhibitors utilization among English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeer, Osama

    2013-02-01

    Utility of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEi's) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) has been the focus of experimental and clinical studies. However, public preferences, attitudes, and experiences with PDEi's are rarely addressed from a population/epidemiology viewpoint. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS) is a worldwide epidemiologic study of sexuality and sexual disorders, first launched in the Middle East in 2010, followed by the United States in 2011. To describe the utilization rates, trends, and attitudes toward PDEi's in the United States in the year 2011. GOSS was randomly deployed to English-speaking male Web surfers in the United States via paid advertising on Facebook®, comprising 146 questions. Utilization rates and preferences for PDEi's by brand. Six hundred three subjects participated; mean age 53.43 years ± 13.9. Twenty-three point seven percent used PDEi's on more consistent basis, 37.5% of those with ED vs. 15.6% of those without ED (recreational users). Unrealistic safety concerns including habituation were pronounced. Seventy-nine point six percent of utilization was on prescription basis. PDEi's were purchased through pharmacies (5.3% without prescription) and in 16.5% over the Internet (68% without prescription). Nine point six percent nonprescription users suffered coronary heart disease. Prescription use was inclined toward sildenafil, generally, and particularly in severe cases, and shifted toward tadalafil in moderate ED and for recreational use, followed by vardenafil. Nonprescription utilization trends were similar, except in recreational use where sildenafil came first. In the United States unrealistic safety concerns over PDEi's utility exist and should be addressed. Preference for particular PDEi's over the others is primarily dictated by health-care providers, despite lack of guidelines that govern physician choice. Online and over-the-counter sales of PDEi's are common, and can expose a subset of users to health

  20. Large Interstellar Polarisation Survey. II. UV/optical study of cloud-to-cloud variations of dust in the diffuse ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenmorgen, R.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Bagnulo, S.; Cox, N. L. J.; Cami, J.; Peest, C.

    2018-03-01

    It is well known that the dust properties of the diffuse interstellar medium exhibit variations towards different sight-lines on a large scale. We have investigated the variability of the dust characteristics on a small scale, and from cloud-to-cloud. We use low-resolution spectro-polarimetric data obtained in the context of the Large Interstellar Polarisation Survey (LIPS) towards 59 sight-lines in the Southern Hemisphere, and we fit these data using a dust model composed of silicate and carbon particles with sizes from the molecular to the sub-micrometre domain. Large (≥6 nm) silicates of prolate shape account for the observed polarisation. For 32 sight-lines we complement our data set with UVES archive high-resolution spectra, which enable us to establish the presence of single-cloud or multiple-clouds towards individual sight-lines. We find that the majority of these 35 sight-lines intersect two or more clouds, while eight of them are dominated by a single absorbing cloud. We confirm several correlations between extinction and parameters of the Serkowski law with dust parameters, but we also find previously undetected correlations between these parameters that are valid only in single-cloud sight-lines. We find that interstellar polarisation from multiple-clouds is smaller than from single-cloud sight-lines, showing that the presence of a second or more clouds depolarises the incoming radiation. We find large variations of the dust characteristics from cloud-to-cloud. However, when we average a sufficiently large number of clouds in single-cloud or multiple-cloud sight-lines, we always retrieve similar mean dust parameters. The typical dust abundances of the single-cloud cases are [C]/[H] = 92 ppm and [Si]/[H] = 20 ppm.

  1. How trainees would disclose medical errors: educational implications for training programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew A; Bell, Sigall K; Krauss, Melissa J; Garbutt, Jane; Dunagan, W Claiborne; Fraser, Victoria J; Levinson, Wendy; Larson, Eric B; Gallagher, Thomas H

    2011-04-01

    The disclosure of harmful errors to patients is recommended, but appears to be uncommon. Understanding how trainees disclose errors and how their practices evolve during training could help educators design programmes to address this gap. This study was conducted to determine how trainees would disclose medical errors. We surveyed 758 trainees (488 students and 270 residents) in internal medicine at two academic medical centres. Surveys depicted one of two harmful error scenarios that varied by how apparent the error would be to the patient. We measured attitudes and disclosure content using scripted responses. Trainees reported their intent to disclose the error as 'definitely' (43%), 'probably' (47%), 'only if asked by patient' (9%), and 'definitely not' (1%). Trainees were more likely to disclose obvious errors than errors that patients were unlikely to recognise (55% versus 30%; p error rather than only an adverse event had occurred. Regarding apologies, trainees were split between conveying a general expression of regret (52%) and making an explicit apology (46%). Respondents at higher levels of training were less likely to use explicit apologies (trend p errors (odds ratio 1.40, p = 0.03). Trainees may not be prepared to disclose medical errors to patients and worrisome trends in trainee apology practices were observed across levels of training. Medical educators should intensify efforts to enhance trainees' skills in meeting patients' expectations for the open disclosure of harmful medical errors. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  2. Pb II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    ., 2009) biomaterials. However, the ..... reported for various microorganisms by various researchers (Gong et al., 2005). At biomass ... the increase in initial Pb (II) was also observed for removal of Pb (II) by loofa sponge immobilized Aspergillus.

  3. Plane and geodetic surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Aylmer

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionAim And ScopeClassification Of SurveysThe Structure Of This BookGeneral Principles Of SurveyingErrorsRedundancyStiffnessAdjustmentPlanning And Record KeepingPrincipal Surveying ActivitiesEstablishing Control NetworksMappingSetting OutResectioningDeformation MonitoringAngle MeasurementThe Surveyor's CompassThe ClinometerThe Total StationMaking ObservationsChecks On Permanent AdjustmentsDistance MeasurementGeneralTape MeasurementsOptical Methods (Tachymetry)Electromagnetic Distance Measurement (EDM)Ultrasonic MethodsGNSSLevellingTheoryThe InstrumentTechniqueBookingPermanent Adjustmen

  4. Quantum error correction for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devitt, Simon J; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2013-01-01

    Quantum error correction (QEC) and fault-tolerant quantum computation represent one of the most vital theoretical aspects of quantum information processing. It was well known from the early developments of this exciting field that the fragility of coherent quantum systems would be a catastrophic obstacle to the development of large-scale quantum computers. The introduction of quantum error correction in 1995 showed that active techniques could be employed to mitigate this fatal problem. However, quantum error correction and fault-tolerant computation is now a much larger field and many new codes, techniques, and methodologies have been developed to implement error correction for large-scale quantum algorithms. In response, we have attempted to summarize the basic aspects of quantum error correction and fault-tolerance, not as a detailed guide, but rather as a basic introduction. The development in this area has been so pronounced that many in the field of quantum information, specifically researchers who are new to quantum information or people focused on the many other important issues in quantum computation, have found it difficult to keep up with the general formalisms and methodologies employed in this area. Rather than introducing these concepts from a rigorous mathematical and computer science framework, we instead examine error correction and fault-tolerance largely through detailed examples, which are more relevant to experimentalists today and in the near future. (review article)

  5. Medical Error and Moral Luck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbeling, Dieneke

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses the concept of moral luck. Moral luck is discussed in the context of medical error, especially an error of omission that occurs frequently, but only rarely has adverse consequences. As an example, a failure to compare the label on a syringe with the drug chart results in the wrong medication being administered and the patient dies. However, this error may have previously occurred many times with no tragic consequences. Discussions on moral luck can highlight conflicting intuitions. Should perpetrators receive a harsher punishment because of an adverse outcome, or should they be dealt with in the same way as colleagues who have acted similarly, but with no adverse effects? An additional element to the discussion, specifically with medical errors, is that according to the evidence currently available, punishing individual practitioners does not seem to be effective in preventing future errors. The following discussion, using relevant philosophical and empirical evidence, posits a possible solution for the moral luck conundrum in the context of medical error: namely, making a distinction between the duty to make amends and assigning blame. Blame should be assigned on the basis of actual behavior, while the duty to make amends is dependent on the outcome.

  6. Measurement error in stylised and diary data on time use

    OpenAIRE

    Kan, Â Man Yee; Pudney, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the nature of measurement error in time use data. Analysis of ‘stylised’ recall questionnaire estimates and diary-based estimates of housework time from the same respondents gives evidence of systematic biases in the stylised estimates and large random errors in both types of data. We examine the effect of these measurement problems on three common types of statistical analyses in which the time use variable is used as: (i) a dependent variable, (ii) an explanatory variable...

  7. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  8. Measurement error in income and schooling, and the bias for linear estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Martinello, Alessandro

    with Danish administrative registers. We find that measurement error in surveys is classical for annual gross income but non-classical for years of schooling, causing a 21% amplification bias in IV estimators of returns to schooling. Using a 1958 Danish schooling reform, we contextualize our result......The characteristics of measurement error determine the bias of linear estimators. We propose a method for validating economic survey data allowing for measurement error in the validation source, and we apply this method by validating Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) data...... with an estimate of the income returns to schooling....

  9. Measurement error in income and schooling, and the bias of linear estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Martinello, Alessandro

    with Danish administrative registers. We find that measurement error in surveys is classical for annual gross income but non-classical for years of schooling, causing a 21% amplification bias in IV estimators of returns to schooling. Using a 1958 Danish schooling reform, we contextualize our result......The characteristics of measurement error determine the bias of linear estimators. We propose a method for validating economic survey data allowing for measurement error in the validation source, and we apply this method by validating Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) data...... with an estimate of the income returns to schooling....

  10. The IRAM-30 m line survey of the Horsehead PDR. II. First detection of the l-C3H+ hydrocarbon cation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pety, J.; Gratier, P.; Guzmán, V.; Roueff, E.; Gerin, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Bardeau, S.; Sievers, A.; Le Petit, F.; Le Bourlot, J.; Belloche, A.; Talbi, D.

    2012-12-01

    Context. Pure gas-phase chemistry models do not succeed in reproducing the measured abundances of small hydrocarbons in the interstellar medium. Information on key gas-phase progenitors of these molecules sheds light on this problem. Aims: We aim to constrain the chemical content of the Horsehead mane with a millimeter unbiased line survey at two positions, namely the photo-dissociation region (PDR) and the nearby shielded core. This project revealed a consistent set of eight unidentified lines toward the PDR position. We associate them to the l-C3H+ hydrocarbon cation, which enables us to constrain the chemistry of small hydrocarbons. We observed the lowest detectable J line in the millimeter domain along a cut toward the illuminating direction to constrain the spatial distribution of the l-C3H+ emission perpendicular to the photo-dissociation front. Methods: We simultaneously fit 1) the rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of a linear rotor; and 2) the Gaussian line shapes located at the eight predicted frequencies. A rotational diagram is then used to infer the excitation temperature and the column density. We finally compare the abundance to the results of the Meudon PDR photochemical model. Results: Six out of the eight unidentified lines observable in the millimeter bands are detected with a signal-to-noise ratio from 6 to 19 toward the Horsehead PDR, while the two last ones are tentatively detected. Mostly noise appears at the same frequency toward the dense core, located less than 40'' away. Moreover, the spatial distribution of the species integrated emission has a shape similar to radical species such as HCO, and small hydrocarbons such as C2H, which show enhanced abundances toward the PDR. The observed lines can be accurately fitted with a linear rotor model, implying a 1Σ ground electronic state. The deduced rotational constant value is B = 11 244.9512 ± 0.0015 MHz, close to that of l-C3H. Conclusions: This is the first detection of the l

  11. Learning a locomotor task: with or without errors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Schneider, Jasmin; Jaeger, Lukas; Riener, Robert

    2014-03-04

    Robotic haptic guidance is the most commonly used robotic training strategy to reduce performance errors while training. However, research on motor learning has emphasized that errors are a fundamental neural signal that drive motor adaptation. Thus, researchers have proposed robotic therapy algorithms that amplify movement errors rather than decrease them. However, to date, no study has analyzed with precision which training strategy is the most appropriate to learn an especially simple task. In this study, the impact of robotic training strategies that amplify or reduce errors on muscle activation and motor learning of a simple locomotor task was investigated in twenty two healthy subjects. The experiment was conducted with the MAgnetic Resonance COmpatible Stepper (MARCOS) a special robotic device developed for investigations in the MR scanner. The robot moved the dominant leg passively and the subject was requested to actively synchronize the non-dominant leg to achieve an alternating stepping-like movement. Learning with four different training strategies that reduce or amplify errors was evaluated: (i) Haptic guidance: errors were eliminated by passively moving the limbs, (ii) No guidance: no robot disturbances were presented, (iii) Error amplification: existing errors were amplified with repulsive forces, (iv) Noise disturbance: errors were evoked intentionally with a randomly-varying force disturbance on top of the no guidance strategy. Additionally, the activation of four lower limb muscles was measured by the means of surface electromyography (EMG). Strategies that reduce or do not amplify errors limit muscle activation during training and result in poor learning gains. Adding random disturbing forces during training seems to increase attention, and therefore improve motor learning. Error amplification seems to be the most suitable strategy for initially less skilled subjects, perhaps because subjects could better detect their errors and correct them

  12. Predictors of Errors of Novice Java Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringula, Rex P.; Manabat, Geecee Maybelline A.; Tolentino, Miguel Angelo A.; Torres, Edmon L.

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive study determined which of the sources of errors would predict the errors committed by novice Java programmers. Descriptive statistics revealed that the respondents perceived that they committed the identified eighteen errors infrequently. Thought error was perceived to be the main source of error during the laboratory programming…

  13. Learning time-dependent noise to reduce logical errors: real time error rate estimation in quantum error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ming-Xia; Li, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Quantum error correction is important to quantum information processing, which allows us to reliably process information encoded in quantum error correction codes. Efficient quantum error correction benefits from the knowledge of error rates. We propose a protocol for monitoring error rates in real time without interrupting the quantum error correction. Any adaptation of the quantum error correction code or its implementation circuit is not required. The protocol can be directly applied to the most advanced quantum error correction techniques, e.g. surface code. A Gaussian processes algorithm is used to estimate and predict error rates based on error correction data in the past. We find that using these estimated error rates, the probability of error correction failures can be significantly reduced by a factor increasing with the code distance.

  14. Should Medical Errors Be Disclosed to Pediatric Patients? Pediatricians' Attitudes Toward Error Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaitis, Irini N; Schinasi, Dana Aronson; Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2016-07-01

    Limited data exist on medical error disclosure in pediatrics. We sought to assess physicians' attitudes toward error disclosure to parents and pediatric patients. An anonymous survey was distributed to 1200 members of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Surveys included 1 of 4 possible cases that only varied by patient age (16 or 9 years old) and by whether the medical error resulted in reversible or irreversible harm. Statistical analyses included chi-square, Bonferroni-adjusted P values, Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, and logistic regressions including key demographic factors, patient age, and error reversibility. The response rate was 40% (474 of 1186). Overall, 98% of respondents believed it was very important to disclose medical errors to parents versus 57% to pediatric patients (P < .0001). Respondents believed that medical errors could be disclosed to developmentally appropriate pediatric patients at a mean age of 12.15 years old (SD 3.33), but not below a mean age of 10.25 years old (SD 3.55). Most respondents (72%) believed that physicians and parents should jointly decide whether to disclose to pediatric patients. When disclosing to pediatric patients, 88% of respondents believed that physicians should disclose with the parents present. Logistic regressions found only patient age (odds ratio 18.65, 95% confidence interval 9.20-37.8) and error reversibility (odds ratio 2.90, 95% confidence interval 1.73-4.86) to affect attitudes toward disclosure to pediatric patients. Respondent sex, year of medical school graduation, and area of practice had no effect on disclosure attitudes. Most respondents endorse disclosing medical errors to parents and older pediatric patients, particularly when irreversible harm occurs. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantifying geocode location error using GIS methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Bennett R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP collects maternal address information at the time of delivery for infants and fetuses with birth defects. These addresses have been geocoded by two independent agencies: (1 the Georgia Division of Public Health Office of Health Information and Policy (OHIP and (2 a commercial vendor. Geographic information system (GIS methods were used to quantify uncertainty in the two sets of geocodes using orthoimagery and tax parcel datasets. Methods We sampled 599 infants and fetuses with birth defects delivered during 1994–2002 with maternal residence in either Fulton or Gwinnett County. Tax parcel datasets were obtained from the tax assessor's offices of Fulton and Gwinnett County. High-resolution orthoimagery for these counties was acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey. For each of the 599 addresses we attempted to locate the tax parcel corresponding to the maternal address. If the tax parcel was identified the distance and the angle between the geocode and the residence were calculated. We used simulated data to characterize the impact of geocode location error. In each county 5,000 geocodes were generated and assigned their corresponding Census 2000 tract. Each geocode was then displaced at a random angle by a random distance drawn from the distribution of observed geocode location errors. The census tract of the displaced geocode was determined. We repeated this process 5,000 times and report the percentage of geocodes that resolved into incorrect census tracts. Results Median location error was less than 100 meters for both OHIP and commercial vendor geocodes; the distribution of angles appeared uniform. Median location error was approximately 35% larger in Gwinnett (a suburban county relative to Fulton (a county with urban and suburban areas. Location error occasionally caused the simulated geocodes to be displaced into incorrect census tracts; the median percentage

  16. A new approach to reduce the mapping error of landslide inventory maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Michele; Marchesini, Ivan; Bucci, Francesco; Cardinali, Mauro; Rossi, Mauro; Taylor, Faith; Malamud, Bruce; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2013-04-01

    Landslide inventory maps are key in documenting the type and extent of mass movements in local to regional areas, for both geomorphological studies and landslide hazard assessment. Geomorphologists usually prepare landslide inventories by aerial photo interpretation (API) of stereoscopic images aided by field surveys. Criteria adopted for visual image analyses are derived from the heuristic interpretation of photographic and morphological features of the image, such as shape, size, color tone, texture and pattern. The established (traditional) procedure for transferring photo-interpreted information to a GIS environment involves the manual drawing of information from the aerial photograph to the topographic base map. In this stage, mapping (i.e., positioning, shape, size) errors can occur due to (i) the change in scale, from the aerial photographs to the topographic map, (ii) object deformation in the stereoscopic model, due to the vertical exaggeration and the conical projection of the aerial photographs, (iii) differences in topography in the different cartographic media (aerial photographs and base maps). We recently developed a method to reduce mapping errors which exploits the ortho-rectification of the aerial photograph and the photo-interpreted thematic layers, thus avoiding manual transferring of information to the topographic map. The technique was evaluated in a test area of about 50 km2 in the neighboring of Taormina (Sicily, Southern Italy), where the information concerning mass movement was transferred to two inventory maps using the traditional and ortho-rectification technique. More than 500 landslides pairs have been compared in this test region, ranging in landlside area between 102 and 107 m2. The mapping error associated with the mapped features has been evaluated by calculating the mismatch index for each landslide pair as: E = (A U B)-(A ? B)/(A U B), where A is a landslide of the inventory obtained using the manual drawing approach and B is a

  17. Teamwork and clinical error reporting among nurses in Korean hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jee-In; Ahn, Jeonghoon

    2015-03-01

    To examine levels of teamwork and its relationships with clinical error reporting among Korean hospital nurses. The study employed a cross-sectional survey design. We distributed a questionnaire to 674 nurses in two teaching hospitals in Korea. The questionnaire included items on teamwork and the reporting of clinical errors. We measured teamwork using the Teamwork Perceptions Questionnaire, which has five subscales including team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication. Using logistic regression analysis, we determined the relationships between teamwork and error reporting. The response rate was 85.5%. The mean score of teamwork was 3.5 out of 5. At the subscale level, mutual support was rated highest, while leadership was rated lowest. Of the participating nurses, 522 responded that they had experienced at least one clinical error in the last 6 months. Among those, only 53.0% responded that they always or usually reported clinical errors to their managers and/or the patient safety department. Teamwork was significantly associated with better error reporting. Specifically, nurses with a higher team communication score were more likely to report clinical errors to their managers and the patient safety department (odds ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence intervals [1.05, 3.14]). Teamwork was rated as moderate and was positively associated with nurses' error reporting performance. Hospital executives and nurse managers should make substantial efforts to enhance teamwork, which will contribute to encouraging the reporting of errors and improving patient safety. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Preventing statistical errors in scientific journals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence for a high prevalence of statistical reporting errors in psychology and other scientific fields. These errors display a systematic preference for statistically significant results, distorting the scientific literature. There are several possible causes for this systematic error

  19. Improving disclosure of medical error through educational program as a first step toward patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan Woong; Myung, Sun Jung; Eo, Eun Kyung; Chang, Yerim

    2017-03-04

    Although physicians believe that medical errors should be disclosed to patients and their families, they often hesitate to do so. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of an education program for medical error disclosure. In 2015, six medical interns and 79 fourth-year medical students participated in this study. The education program included practice of error disclosure using a standardized patient scenario, feedback, and short didactic sessions. Participant performance was evaluated with a previously developed rating scale that measures error disclosure performance on five specific component skills. Following education program, we surveyed participant perceptions of medical error disclosure with varying severity of error outcome and their satisfaction with the education program using a 5-point Likert scale. We also surveyed the change of attitude or confidence of participants after education program. The performance score was not significantly different between medical interns and medical students (p = 0.840). Following the education program, 65% of participants said that they had become more confident in coping with medical errors, and most participants (79.7%) were satisfied with the education program. They also indicated that they felt a greater duty to disclose medical errors and deliver an apology when the medical error outcome is more severe. An education program for disclosing medical errors was helpful in improving confidence in medical error disclosure. Extending the program to more diverse scenarios and a more diverse group of physicians is needed.

  20. Negligence, genuine error, and litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohn DH

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available David H SohnDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USAAbstract: Not all medical injuries are the result of negligence. In fact, most medical injuries are the result either of the inherent risk in the practice of medicine, or due to system errors, which cannot be prevented simply through fear of disciplinary action. This paper will discuss the differences between adverse events, negligence, and system errors; the current medical malpractice tort system in the United States; and review current and future solutions, including medical malpractice reform, alternative dispute resolution, health courts, and no-fault compensation systems. The current political environment favors investigation of non-cap tort reform remedies; investment into more rational oversight systems, such as health courts or no-fault systems may reap both quantitative and qualitative benefits for a less costly and safer health system.Keywords: medical malpractice, tort reform, no fault compensation, alternative dispute resolution, system errors

  1. Large errors and severe conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, D L; Van Wormer, L A

    2002-01-01

    Physical parameters that can assume real-number values over a continuous range are generally represented by inherently positive random variables. However, if the uncertainties in these parameters are significant (large errors), conventional means of representing and manipulating the associated variables can lead to erroneous results. Instead, all analyses involving them must be conducted in a probabilistic framework. Several issues must be considered: First, non-linear functional relations between primary and derived variables may lead to significant 'error amplification' (severe conditions). Second, the commonly used normal (Gaussian) probability distribution must be replaced by a more appropriate function that avoids the occurrence of negative sampling results. Third, both primary random variables and those derived through well-defined functions must be dealt with entirely in terms of their probability distributions. Parameter 'values' and 'errors' should be interpreted as specific moments of these probabil...

  2. Sensation seeking and error processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ya; Sheng, Wenbin; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-09-01

    Sensation seeking is defined by a strong need for varied, novel, complex, and intense stimulation, and a willingness to take risks for such experience. Several theories propose that the insensitivity to negative consequences incurred by risks is one of the hallmarks of sensation-seeking behaviors. In this study, we investigated the time course of error processing in sensation seeking by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) while high and low sensation seekers performed an Eriksen flanker task. Whereas there were no group differences in ERPs to correct trials, sensation seeking was associated with a blunted error-related negativity (ERN), which was female-specific. Further, different subdimensions of sensation seeking were related to ERN amplitude differently. These findings indicate that the relationship between sensation seeking and error processing is sex-specific. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. Diagnostic errors in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudela, Pere; Carreres, Anna; Ballester, Mònica

    2017-08-22

    Diagnostic errors have to be recognised as a possible adverse event inherent to clinical activity and incorporate them as another quality indicator. Different sources of information report their frequency, although they may still be underestimated. Contrary to what one could expect, in most cases, it does not occur in infrequent diseases. Causes can be complex and multifactorial, with individual cognitive aspects, as well as the health system. These errors can have an important clinical and socioeconomic impact. It is necessary to learn from diagnostic errors in order to develop an accurate and reliable system with a high standard of quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Orbit IMU alignment: Error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive accuracy analysis of orbit inertial measurement unit (IMU) alignments using the shuttle star trackers was completed and the results are presented. Monte Carlo techniques were used in a computer simulation of the IMU alignment hardware and software systems to: (1) determine the expected Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) manual mode IMU alignment accuracy; (2) investigate the accuracy of alignments in later shuttle flights when the automatic mode of star acquisition may be used; and (3) verify that an analytical model previously used for estimating the alignment error is a valid model. The analysis results do not differ significantly from expectations. The standard deviation in the IMU alignment error for STS-1 alignments was determined to the 68 arc seconds per axis. This corresponds to a 99.7% probability that the magnitude of the total alignment error is less than 258 arc seconds.

  5. Synthetic aperture interferometry: error analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Amiya; Coupland, Jeremy

    2010-07-10

    Synthetic aperture interferometry (SAI) is a novel way of testing aspherics and has a potential for in-process measurement of aspherics [Appl. Opt.42, 701 (2003)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.42.000701 A method to measure steep aspherics using the SAI technique has been previously reported [Appl. Opt.47, 1705 (2008)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.47.001705 Here we investigate the computation of surface form using the SAI technique in different configurations and discuss the computational errors. A two-pass measurement strategy is proposed to reduce the computational errors, and a detailed investigation is carried out to determine the effect of alignment errors on the measurement process.

  6. Synthetic aperture interferometry: error analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Amiya; Coupland, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic aperture interferometry (SAI) is a novel way of testing aspherics and has a potential for in-process measurement of aspherics [Appl. Opt.42, 701 (2003)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.42.000701 A method to measure steep aspherics using the SAI technique has been previously reported [Appl. Opt.47, 1705 (2008)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.47.001705 Here we investigate the computation of surface form using the SAI technique in different configurations and discuss the computational errors. A two-pass measurement strategy is proposed to reduce the computational errors, and a detailed investigation is carried out to determine the effect of alignment errors on the measurement process.

  7. Medication errors in pediatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishoej, Rikke Mie; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to describe medication errors (MEs) in hospitalized children reported to the national mandatory reporting and learning system, the Danish Patient Safety Database (DPSD). MEs were extracted from DPSD from the 5-year period of 2010–2014. We included reports from public hospitals...... on patients aged 0–17 years and categorized by reporters as medication-related. Reports from psychiatric wards and outpatient clinics were excluded. A ME was defined as any medication-related error occurring in the medication process whether harmful or not. MEs were categorized as harmful if they resulted...... in actual harm or interventions to prevent harm. MEs were further categorized according to occurrence in the medication process, type of error, and the medicines involved. A total of 2071 MEs including 487 harmful MEs were identified. Most MEs occurred during prescribing (40.8%), followed by dispensing (38...

  8. Student Errors in Fractions and Possible Causes of These Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Nuri Can; Yazlik, Derya Ozlem

    2017-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine the errors and misunderstandings of 5th and 6th grade middle school students in fractions and operations with fractions. For this purpose, the case study model, which is a qualitative research design, was used in the research. In the study, maximum diversity sampling, which is a purposeful sampling method,…

  9. Errors of Inference Due to Errors of Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Robert L.; Werts, Charles E.

    Failure to consider errors of measurement when using partial correlation or analysis of covariance techniques can result in erroneous conclusions. Certain aspects of this problem are discussed and particular attention is given to issues raised in a recent article by Brewar, Campbell, and Crano. (Author)

  10. Reward positivity: Reward prediction error or salience prediction error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Sepideh; Holroyd, Clay B

    2016-08-01

    The reward positivity is a component of the human ERP elicited by feedback stimuli in trial-and-error learning and guessing tasks. A prominent theory holds that the reward positivity reflects a reward prediction error signal that is sensitive to outcome valence, being larger for unexpected positive events relative to unexpected negative events (Holroyd & Coles, 2002). Although the theory has found substantial empirical support, most of these studies have utilized either monetary or performance feedback to test the hypothesis. However, in apparent contradiction to the theory, a recent study found that unexpected physical punishments also elicit the reward positivity (Talmi, Atkinson, & El-Deredy, 2013). The authors of this report argued that the reward positivity reflects a salience prediction error rather than a reward prediction error. To investigate this finding further, in the present study participants navigated a virtual T maze and received feedback on each trial under two conditions. In a reward condition, the feedback indicated that they would either receive a monetary reward or not and in a punishment condition the feedback indicated that they would receive a small shock or not. We found that the feedback stimuli elicited a typical reward positivity in the reward condition and an apparently delayed reward positivity in the punishment condition. Importantly, this signal was more positive to the stimuli that predicted the omission of a possible punishment relative to stimuli that predicted a forthcoming punishment, which is inconsistent with the salience hypothesis. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Analysis of Medication Error Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, Paul D.; Young, Jonathan; Santell, John; Hicks, Rodney; Posse, Christian; Fecht, Barbara A.

    2004-11-15

    In medicine, as in many areas of research, technological innovation and the shift from paper based information to electronic records has created a climate of ever increasing availability of raw data. There has been, however, a corresponding lag in our abilities to analyze this overwhelming mass of data, and classic forms of statistical analysis may not allow researchers to interact with data in the most productive way. This is true in the emerging area of patient safety improvement. Traditionally, a majority of the analysis of error and incident reports has been carried out based on an approach of data comparison, and starts with a specific question which needs to be answered. Newer data analysis tools have been developed which allow the researcher to not only ask specific questions but also to “mine” data: approach an area of interest without preconceived questions, and explore the information dynamically, allowing questions to be formulated based on patterns brought up by the data itself. Since 1991, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) has been collecting data on medication errors through voluntary reporting programs. USP’s MEDMARXsm reporting program is the largest national medication error database and currently contains well over 600,000 records. Traditionally, USP has conducted an annual quantitative analysis of data derived from “pick-lists” (i.e., items selected from a list of items) without an in-depth analysis of free-text fields. In this paper, the application of text analysis and data analysis tools used by Battelle to analyze the medication error reports already analyzed in the traditional way by USP is described. New insights and findings were revealed including the value of language normalization and the distribution of error incidents by day of the week. The motivation for this effort is to gain additional insight into the nature of medication errors to support improvements in medication safety.

  12. ERROR HANDLING IN INTEGRATION WORKFLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey M. Nazarenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation experiments performed while solving multidisciplinary engineering and scientific problems require joint usage of multiple software tools. Further, when following a preset plan of experiment or searching for optimum solu- tions, the same sequence of calculations is run multiple times with various simulation parameters, input data, or conditions while overall workflow does not change. Automation of simulations like these requires implementing of a workflow where tool execution and data exchange is usually controlled by a special type of software, an integration environment or plat- form. The result is an integration workflow (a platform-dependent implementation of some computing workflow which, in the context of automation, is a composition of weakly coupled (in terms of communication intensity typical subtasks. These compositions can then be decomposed back into a few workflow patterns (types of subtasks interaction. The pat- terns, in their turn, can be interpreted as higher level subtasks.This paper considers execution control and data exchange rules that should be imposed by the integration envi- ronment in the case of an error encountered by some integrated software tool. An error is defined as any abnormal behavior of a tool that invalidates its result data thus disrupting the data flow within the integration workflow. The main requirementto the error handling mechanism implemented by the integration environment is to prevent abnormal termination of theentire workflow in case of missing intermediate results data. Error handling rules are formulated on the basic pattern level and on the level of a composite task that can combine several basic patterns as next level subtasks. The cases where workflow behavior may be different, depending on user's purposes, when an error takes place, and possible error handling op- tions that can be specified by the user are also noted in the work.

  13. The epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Nicola; Duggan, Edel; Williams, David J P; Tracey, Joseph A

    2011-07-01

    Medication errors are widely reported for hospitalised patients, but limited data are available for medication errors that occur in community-based and clinical settings. Epidemiological data from poisons information centres enable characterisation of trends in medication errors occurring across the healthcare spectrum. The objective of this study was to characterise the epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) of Ireland. A 3-year prospective study on medication errors reported to the NPIC was conducted from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2009 inclusive. Data on patient demographics, enquiry source, location, pharmaceutical agent(s), type of medication error, and treatment advice were collated from standardised call report forms. Medication errors were categorised as (i) prescribing error (i.e. physician error), (ii) dispensing error (i.e. pharmacy error), and (iii) administration error involving the wrong medication, the wrong dose, wrong route, or the wrong time. Medication errors were reported for 2348 individuals, representing 9.56% of total enquiries to the NPIC over 3 years. In total, 1220 children and adolescents under 18 years of age and 1128 adults (≥ 18 years old) experienced a medication error. The majority of enquiries were received from healthcare professionals, but members of the public accounted for 31.3% (n = 736) of enquiries. Most medication errors occurred in a domestic setting (n = 2135), but a small number occurred in healthcare facilities: nursing homes (n = 110, 4.68%), hospitals (n = 53, 2.26%), and general practitioner surgeries (n = 32, 1.36%). In children, medication errors with non-prescription pharmaceuticals predominated (n = 722) and anti-pyretics and non-opioid analgesics, anti-bacterials, and cough and cold preparations were the main pharmaceutical classes involved. Medication errors with prescription medication predominated for adults (n = 866) and the major medication

  14. The epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Medication errors are widely reported for hospitalised patients, but limited data are available for medication errors that occur in community-based and clinical settings. Epidemiological data from poisons information centres enable characterisation of trends in medication errors occurring across the healthcare spectrum. AIM: The objective of this study was to characterise the epidemiology and type of medication errors reported to the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) of Ireland. METHODS: A 3-year prospective study on medication errors reported to the NPIC was conducted from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2009 inclusive. Data on patient demographics, enquiry source, location, pharmaceutical agent(s), type of medication error, and treatment advice were collated from standardised call report forms. Medication errors were categorised as (i) prescribing error (i.e. physician error), (ii) dispensing error (i.e. pharmacy error), and (iii) administration error involving the wrong medication, the wrong dose, wrong route, or the wrong time. RESULTS: Medication errors were reported for 2348 individuals, representing 9.56% of total enquiries to the NPIC over 3 years. In total, 1220 children and adolescents under 18 years of age and 1128 adults (>\\/= 18 years old) experienced a medication error. The majority of enquiries were received from healthcare professionals, but members of the public accounted for 31.3% (n = 736) of enquiries. Most medication errors occurred in a domestic setting (n = 2135), but a small number occurred in healthcare facilities: nursing homes (n = 110, 4.68%), hospitals (n = 53, 2.26%), and general practitioner surgeries (n = 32, 1.36%). In children, medication errors with non-prescription pharmaceuticals predominated (n = 722) and anti-pyretics and non-opioid analgesics, anti-bacterials, and cough and cold preparations were the main pharmaceutical classes involved. Medication errors with prescription medication predominated for

  15. Human Error and Organizational Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecxandrina DEACONU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern for performance is a topic that raises interest in the businessenvironment but also in other areas that – even if they seem distant from thisworld – are aware of, interested in or conditioned by the economy development.As individual performance is very much influenced by the human resource, wechose to analyze in this paper the mechanisms that generate – consciously or not–human error nowadays.Moreover, the extremely tense Romanian context,where failure is rather a rule than an exception, made us investigate thephenomenon of generating a human error and the ways to diminish its effects.

  16. Trends in medical error education: are we failing our residents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Corey K; Fischer, Melissa A; Walsh, Kathleen E

    2013-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has called for physician education as a key step in medical error prevention. In our 2002 national survey, pediatric resident education about medical error prevention was sporadic. We sought to describe the amount and type of pediatric resident training about medical errors and to assess the change in training since 2002. We surveyed a national sample of 50 pediatric chief residents randomly selected from the 198 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited residency programs from August to November 2010. The 31-item telephone survey was developed from the 2002 survey, with the addition of 10 items about electronic learning and resident quality improvement projects. The survey included 4 domains: current patient safety curriculum, chief resident knowledge, learning from medical errors, and demographics. We phoned 55 chief residents and contacted 51. Fifty participated (90% participation rate). Ninety-four percent of chief residents stated that their program had a formalized curriculum to discuss medical errors, compared to only 50% (P medical error should be systemic change. The primary method for educating residents about medical error reported was informal teaching. Ninety-two percent reported never or rarely discussing medical error in an outpatient setting. Seventy-four percent of chief residents reported that they never or rarely learn from an error made by an attending physician, and 50% never or rarely learned from an error made by a fellow resident. Although resident education about medical errors has improved since 2002, opportunities to model learning from mistakes are frequently missed. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Management of human error by design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Earl

    1988-01-01

    Design-induced errors and error prevention as well as the concept of lines of defense against human error are discussed. The concept of human error prevention, whose main focus has been on hardware, is extended to other features of the human-machine interface vulnerable to design-induced errors. In particular, it is pointed out that human factors and human error prevention should be part of the process of transport certification. Also, the concept of error tolerant systems is considered as a last line of defense against error.

  18. Investigation of Sound Speed Errors in Adaptive Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that adaptive beam-formers provide a significant increase of resolution and contrast, when the propagation speed is known precisely. This paper demonstrates the influence of sound speed errors on two adaptive beamformers; the minimum variance (MV) beamformer...... and the amplitude and phase (APES) beamformer. Simulations of a single point target are carried out in Field II, and a percentage error is applied on the speed of sound. As the error increases, MV and APES provide amplitude drops of 17 dB and 3 dB on the signal strength. Two approaches to overcome this amplitude...... decrease of resolution. From the investigations, it is concluded the performance of the adaptive beamformers are not outperformed by the conventional delay-and-sum beamformer....

  19. Learning (from) the errors of a systems biology model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Benjamin; Frőhlich, Holger; Kschischo, Maik

    2016-02-11

    Mathematical modelling is a labour intensive process involving several iterations of testing on real data and manual model modifications. In biology, the domain knowledge guiding model development is in many cases itself incomplete and uncertain. A major problem in this context is that biological systems are open. Missed or unknown external influences as well as erroneous interactions in the model could thus lead to severely misleading results. Here we introduce the dynamic elastic-net, a data driven mathematical method which automatically detects such model errors in ordinary differential equation (ODE) models. We demonstrate for real and simulated data, how the dynamic elastic-net approach can be used to automatically (i) reconstruct the error signal, (ii) identify the target variables of model error, and (iii) reconstruct the true system state even for incomplete or preliminary models. Our work provides a systematic computational method facilitating modelling of open biological systems under uncertain knowledge.

  20. The Survey Checklist (Manifesto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Hunter; Artino, Anthony R

    2018-03-01

    Checklists can mitigate a multitude of high-cost mistakes in fields ranging from surgery to aviation. As part of a standard protocol, checklists may provide many benefits, including improved equity and communication among team members and more efficient integration of different processes during complex tasks. Mostly, though, checklists serve as easy, efficient means to remind professionals of what they already know but can easily forget. By improving processes, checklists can reduce procedural errors, miscommunications, and even deaths. Although the stakes of writing a survey are rarely as high as they are for performing surgery or piloting a plane, checklists can improve the quality of surveys in medical education. In this Perspective, the authors propose a survey checklist to serve the same core function as surgical checklists-to reduce error. That is, a survey checklist can help medical education practitioners and researchers gather more accurate responses. Designers can use the checklist in the appendix to guide item creation processes or to help evaluate the quality of existing surveys. The checklist focuses on formulating items, crafting response options, and formatting/organizing the whole survey.