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Sample records for survey findings suggest

  1. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo

    1992-01-01

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  2. SpaceWire Tiger Team Findings and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishac, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    This technical report intends to highlight the key findings and recommendations of the SpaceWire Tiger Team for the CoNNeCT project. It covers findings which are technical in nature, covering design concepts and approaches.

  3. Autolysis: a plausible finding suggestive of long ESD procedure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jong Jin; Chun, Hoon Jai; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Kim, Yong Sik; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang; Chae, Yang-Seok

    2012-04-01

    Autolysis is the enzymatic digestion of cells by the action of its own enzymes, and it mostly occurs in dying or dead cells. It has previously been suggested that prolonged procedure time could lead to autolytic changes from the periphery of the endoscopic submucosal dissection specimens. Recently, the authors have experienced a case of autolysis; due to the presence of ulcer, fibrosis, and frequent bleeding from the cut surface, it took 6 hours to complete the resection. More than halfway through the resection; bluish purple discoloration of the part of the dissected flap where the dissection was initiated was noticed. Histologic examination of this site showed diffuse distortion of epithelial lining and cellular architectures along with loss of cell components, compatible with autolysis. Because autolysis could theoretically pose a potential problem regarding the evaluation of resection margin, endoscopists and pathologists should communicate with each other for a reliable pathologic decision.

  4. World Fertility Survey: Major Findings and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Fertility Survey, London (England).

    A survey was conducted in 42 developing countries and in 20 developed countries to determine fertility practices and trends. Both individual and household questionnaires were used by interviewers to gather data. Findings concerning marriage patterns, contraception, reproductive motivation, childspacing, breastfeeding, maternal and child health,…

  5. Isolated breast vasculitis manifested as breast edema with suggestive sonographic findings: a case report with imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Young; Joo, Mee

    2017-04-01

    Early diagnosis of breast vasculitis (BV) is difficult because this condition is rare and occasionally mimics breast cancer clinically or radiologically. It may present as systemic disease or as an isolated lesion in the breast, without systemic evidence. When vasculitis appears in the breast, it also might manifest as a tumor-like lesion, and in previous cases, tissue acquisition was needed for confirmation of the diagnosis because of BV's resemblance to inflammatory breast cancer. We report a case of isolated BV that was suspected of being inflammatory breast cancer clinically, but manifested as bilateral breast edema on mammography. In this case, sonographic findings included not only nonspecific edema findings that might be seen in other cases, but also suggestive findings of hypoechoic circumferential arterial wall thickening with perivascular fat infiltrations that are similar to the halo sign in large arteries but have not been reported in the breast. These are helpful for presumptive diagnosis of BV using ultrasound.

  6. MR imaging findings suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscal, Eyal; De Guzman, Marietta M.; Myones, Barry L. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine and Pediatric Rheumatology Center, Houston, TX (United States); Traipe, Elfrides; Hunter, Jill V. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Brey, Robin L. [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Department of Neurology, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Endothelial damage, hypertension and cytotoxic medications may serve as risk factors for the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in systemic lupus erythematosus. There have been few case reports of these findings in pediatric lupus patients. We describe clinical and neuroimaging findings in children and adolescents with lupus and a PRES diagnosis. We identified all clinically acquired brain MRIs of lupus patients at a tertiary care pediatric hospital (2002-2008). We reviewed clinical features, conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of patients with gray- and white-matter changes suggestive of vasogenic edema and PRES. Six pediatric lupus patients presenting with seizures and altered mental status had MRI findings suggestive of PRES. In five children clinical and imaging changes were seen in conjunction with hypertension and active renal disease. MRI abnormalities were diffuse and involved frontal regions in five children. DWI changes reflected increased apparent diffusivity coefficient (unrestricted diffusion in all patients). Clinical and imaging changes significantly improved with antihypertensive and fluid management. MRI changes suggestive of vasogenic edema and PRES may be seen in children with active lupus and hypertension. The differential diagnosis of seizures and altered mental status should include PRES in children, as it does in adults. (orig.)

  7. MR imaging findings suggestive of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscal, Eyal; De Guzman, Marietta M.; Myones, Barry L.; Traipe, Elfrides; Hunter, Jill V.; Brey, Robin L.

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial damage, hypertension and cytotoxic medications may serve as risk factors for the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in systemic lupus erythematosus. There have been few case reports of these findings in pediatric lupus patients. We describe clinical and neuroimaging findings in children and adolescents with lupus and a PRES diagnosis. We identified all clinically acquired brain MRIs of lupus patients at a tertiary care pediatric hospital (2002-2008). We reviewed clinical features, conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of patients with gray- and white-matter changes suggestive of vasogenic edema and PRES. Six pediatric lupus patients presenting with seizures and altered mental status had MRI findings suggestive of PRES. In five children clinical and imaging changes were seen in conjunction with hypertension and active renal disease. MRI abnormalities were diffuse and involved frontal regions in five children. DWI changes reflected increased apparent diffusivity coefficient (unrestricted diffusion in all patients). Clinical and imaging changes significantly improved with antihypertensive and fluid management. MRI changes suggestive of vasogenic edema and PRES may be seen in children with active lupus and hypertension. The differential diagnosis of seizures and altered mental status should include PRES in children, as it does in adults. (orig.)

  8. Helicopter Parents Help Students, Survey Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Helicopter parents, notorious for hovering over their college-age children, may actually help students thrive, according to this year's National Survey of Student Engagement. Students whose parents intervene on their behalf--38 percent of freshmen and 29 percent of seniors--are more active in and satisfied with college, says the monstrous annual…

  9. Key Findings of AAP Store Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendes, Bob; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Results of the Association of American Publishers "College Bookstore Marketing Survey" in the fall of 1976 are summarized. The intent was to improve college textbook publisher services to college stores in the areas of order fulfillment, publication scheduling, print quantities, shipping, billing, and processing of returns. (LBH)

  10. A Novel Mutation on RAF1 in Association with Fetal Findings Suggestive of Noonan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneitel, Anna W; Norby, Audrey; Vettraino, Ivana; Treadwell, Marjorie C

    2015-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a multisystem genetic disorder caused by genes encoding proteins involved in the RAS-MAPK pathway. Affected fetuses have variable presentations ranging from the absence of prenatal findings to increased nuchal fold, cystic hygromas, pleural effusions, cardiac malformations, or skin edema. We describe a male fetus who had features consistent with Noonan syndrome at the time of fetal anatomic survey, including hydrops and a possible cardiac defect. Subsequent scan revealed persistent bilateral pleural effusions (with predominance of lymphocytes). After bilateral thoracoamniotic shunt placement, the fetus did well and delivered at term. Prenatal testing revealed an S650F missense mutation in the RAF1 gene, which had not previously been associated with Noonan syndrome.

  11. Marketing midwifery education: findings from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, S C

    1996-03-01

    to collect information from a sample of identified customers (midwives and midwifery managers employed by health authorities and trusts) in order to develop a marketing strategy for a Department of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Care. two descriptive and analytical surveys using questionnaires. mid- and west Wales, UK. randomly selected sample of 75 midwives and census sample of eight midwifery managers working within the National Health Service. quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. organisations have to define, and listen carefully, to their customers and offer courses which are appropriate, related to clinical midwifery practice and have titles that accurately reflect the content. Midwives are enthusiastically committed to continuing education despite the current difficulties. Word of mouth and personal recommendation remains the most effective form of advertising. University departments of nursing and midwifery can easily become removed from clinical practice. Education assists practitioners in changing and adapting to a new order; it is also crucial in developing skills in critical thinking and analysis. New skills are needed if practice is to improve. academic departments can easily become remote and out of touch with the needs of clinicians and midwifery managers. Departments must take steps to define the customer, listen carefully to what they want and make every effort to provide continuing education for midwives that is relevant, responsive, accessible and attainable. The benefits of education also must be marketed.

  12. Findings in cystourethrography that suggest lower urinary tract dysfunction in children with vesicoureteral reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Barroso Jr

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Children with lower urinary tract dysfunction and vesicoureteral reflux, at cystography assessment, frequently present alterations in the lower urinary tract anatomy such as dilated posterior urethra, irregularity of the bladder wall and diverticula. However, the significance of these findings is unknown. The objective of this study is to evaluate the incidence of these findings, their time of disappearance and their correlation with the severity of the reflux. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 193 children with vesicoureteral reflux, considered simple, in the age group above 5 years at the moment of diagnosis, were analyzed. The recommendation for follow-up of these patients was one voiding cystoureterography (VCUG each year. Only patients with a minimum of 2 VCUGs performed in a period of at least 6 months were considered. The VCUGs were classified as positive and negative in relation to findings that were characteristic of lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD. RESULTS: From the 193 children analyzed, 50 (26% presented positive VCUG and 143 negative VCUG. From the patients without symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction (n = 135, 12 (9% presented positive VCUG and 123 (91% a negative VCUG. From the patients with negative VCUG, 68 (48% presented unilateral reflux and 75 (52% presented bilateral reflux. From those with positive VCUG, 26 (52% had unilateral reflux and 24 bilateral reflux (48%. This difference was not statistically significant. A higher incidence of grade II reflux was more evident in patients with negative VCUG and degree III in patients with positive VCUG (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that 64% of the patients with LUTD and reflux presented findings in the VCUG that suggest dysfunction.

  13. Biomechanical findings in rats undergoing fascial reconstruction with graft materials suggested as an alternative to polypropylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinovic, M L; Ozog, Y; Spelzini, F; Pottier, C; De Ridder, D; Deprest, J

    2010-03-01

    Graft materials used for pelvic floor reinforcement should still be considered as investigational and, therefore, evaluated experimentally and within clinical trials. The present report describes our biomechanical findings in rats implanted with selected novel implant materials, which in recent years have been suggested as alternatives to plain polypropylene (PP) meshes. Full thickness abdominal wall defects were primarily repaired by the implant of interest. Experiments involved eight different implant materials: two partly degradable synthetic implants, that is, a hybrid of polyglactin 910 with PP (Vypro II) and collagen coated PP (Pelvitex); two non-cross linked (Surgisis, InteXēn LP) and two cross-linked materials (Pelvicol, Pelvisoft) and two porous modifications of InteXēn LP and Pelvicol implants. At different time points (7, 14, 30, and 90 days), the implants and surrounding host tissue (explant) were harvested and tensiometry was performed. Tensile strength and location of breakage were recorded. In general resorbable non-cross linked collagen matrices and porous materials were weaker after 90 days; similar behavior was seen for implant materials alone and their construction with the surrounding native tissue. Both non-porous and porous modification of InteXēn LP appeared at 90 days as a very thin layer of collagen that was two-thirds, respectively one-third of the initial thickness. In experimental conditions, sufficient strength was obtained only after 3 months, and PP containing constructs appeared as the strongest though reconstruction with Pelvicol showed comparable outcomes. Lower values for strength of non-cross linked and porous collagen materials are questioning their efficacy for pelvic floor reconstruction. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales (GSS1 and GSS2): empirical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R.; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2012-01-01

    In study 1 (n = 51, M age = 21.4 years, SD = 5.7), the validity of the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales (Pires, 2011) was shown through the comparison of means of the original (Gudjonsson, 1997) and the translated scales and the analysis of the correlations between the GSS1 and GSS2 scores. The relationships between interrogative suggestibility and the big five were also addressed and the results point to independence between suggestibility and personality, which ...

  15. CT findings suggesting anastomotic leak and predicting the recovery period following gastric surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Jung Hoon; Shin, Cheong-Il; Kim, Se Hyung; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    To assess diagnostic performance of routine CT for detecting anastomotic leak after gastric surgery, and analyse the relationship between recovery period and CT findings. We included 179 patients who underwent immediate CT and fluoroscopy after gastric surgery. Two reviewers retrospectively rated the possibility of leak on CT using a five-point scale focused on predefined CT findings. They also evaluated CT findings. Patients were categorised as: Group I, leak on fluoroscopy; Group II, possible leak on CT but negative on fluoroscopy; Group III, no leak. We analysed the relationship between recovery period and group. Area under the curve for detecting leak on CT was 0.886 in R1 and 0.668 in R2 with moderate agreement (k = 0.482). Statistically common CT findings for leak included discontinuity, large amount of air-fluid and wall thickening at anastomosis site (p < 0.05). Discontinuity at anastomosis site and a large air-fluid collection were independently associated with leak (p < 0.05). The recovery period including hospitalisation and postoperative fasting period was longer in Group I than Group II or III (p < 0.05). Group II showed a longer recovery period than Group III (p < 0.05). Postoperative routine CT was useful for predicting anastomotic leak using specific findings, and for predicting length of recovery period. (orig.)

  16. Suggestions to authors of the reports of the United States Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1958-01-01

    Knowledge acquired by the Geological Survey through programs of research and investigations has no value to the public if it remains in office files or in the minds of the scientists and engineers who did the work. The full discharge of the Survey's responsibilities is attained only by making its acquired knowledge available promptly and effectively to all people who will find it of interest and use. And, to insure effectiveness, reports must be not only accurate but so clearly and simply written that they are easy to read and understand.

  17. Echocardiographic Findings Suggestive of Infective Endocarditis in Asymptomatic Danish Injection Drug Users Attending Urban Injection Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Anna; Søholm, Helle; Dalsgaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) account for a considerable number of the hospitalizations for infective endocarditis (IE), but the prevalence of diagnosed and unrecognized IE in IDUs is unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of valvular abnormalities suggestive of IE in IDUs...

  18. Why do generic drugs fail to achieve an adequate market share in Greece? Empirical findings and policy suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasopoulos, T; Charonis, A; Athanasakis, K; Kyriopoulos, J; Pavi, E

    2017-03-01

    Since 2010, the memoranda of understanding were implemented in Greece as a measure of fiscal adjustment. Public pharmaceutical expenditure was one of the main focuses of this implementation. Numerous policies, targeted on pharma spending, reduced the pharmaceutical budget by 60.5%. Yet, generics' penetration in Greece remained among the lowest among OECD countries. This study aims to highlight the factors that affect the perceptions of the population on generic drugs and to suggest effective policy measures. The empirical analysis is based on a national cross-sectional survey that was conducted through a sample of 2003 individuals, representative of the general population. Two ordinal logistic regression models were constructed in order to identify the determinants that affect the respondents' beliefs on the safety and the effectiveness of generic drugs. The empirical findings presented a positive and statistically significant correlation with income, bill payment difficulties, safety and effectiveness of drugs, prescription and dispensing preferences and the views toward pharmaceutical companies. Also, age and trust toward medical community have a positive and statistically significant correlation with the perception on the safety of generic drugs. Policy interventions are suggested on the bases of the empirical results on 3 major categories; (a) information campaigns, (b) incentives to doctors and pharmacists and (c) to strengthen the bioequivalence control framework and the dissemination of results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioremediation via Methanotrophy: Overview of Recent Findings and Suggestions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eSemrau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbially-mediated bioremediation of polluted sites has been a subject of much research over the past 30 years, with many different compounds shown to be degraded under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Aerobic-mediated bioremediation commonly examines the use of methanotrophs, microorganisms that consume methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Given the diverse environments in which methanotrophs have been found, the range of substrates they can degrade and the fact that they can be easily stimulated with the provision of methane and oxygen, these microorganisms in particular have been examined for aerobic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The physiological and phylogenetic diversity of methanotrophy, however, has increased substantially in just the past five years. Here in this review, the current state of knowledge of methanotrophy, particularly as it applies to pollutant degradation is summarized, and suggestions for future research provided.

  20. Phylogenetic findings suggest possible new habitat and routes of infection of human eumyctoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, G Sybren; Ahmed, Sarah A; Najafzadeh, Mohammad J; Sutton, Deanna A; Keisari, Maryam Saradeghi; Fahal, Ahmed H; Eberhardt, Ursala; Verkleij, Gerard J; Xin, Lian; Stielow, Benjamin; van de Sande, Wendy W J

    2013-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a traumatic fungal infection in tropical and subtropical areas that may lead to severe disability. Madurella mycetomatis is one of the prevalent etiologic agents in arid Northeastern Africa. The source of infection has not been clarified. Subcutaneous inoculation from plant thorns has been hypothesized, but attempts to detect the fungus in relevant material have remained unsuccessful. The present study aims to find clues to reveal the natural habitat of Madurella species using a phylogenetic approach, i.e. by comparison of neighboring taxa with known ecology. Four species of Madurella were included in a large data set of species of Chaetomium, Chaetomidium, Thielavia, and Papulaspora (n = 128) using sequences of the universal fungal barcode gene rDNA ITS and the partial LSU gene sequence. Our study demonstrates that Madurella species are nested within the Chaetomiaceae, a family of fungi that mainly inhabit animal dung, enriched soil, and indoor environments. We hypothesize that cattle dung, ubiquitously present in rural East Africa, plays a significant role in the ecology of Madurella. If cow dung is an essential factor in inoculation by Madurella, preventative measures may involve the use of appropriate footwear in addition to restructuring of villages to reduce the frequency of contact with etiologic agents of mycetoma. On the other hand, the Chaetomiaceae possess a hidden clinical potential which needs to be explored.

  1. Local physeal widening on MR imaging: an incidental finding suggesting prior metaphyseal insult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laor, T.; Hartman, A.L.; Jaramillo, D.

    1997-01-01

    To offer a descriptive review which characterizes and evaluates the significance of local physeal widening, (cartilaginous signal extending from the physis into the adjacent metaphysis), identified on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MR images (recollected from exams performed between 1988 and 1995) of 31 metaphyses in 22 children where we recognized local physeal widening were examined retrospectively. These areas of physeal widening were evaluated for morphology, depth, location, signal intensity, and the coexistence of epiphyseal alterations. The characteristics of the signal abnormalities were correlated with the duration and type of any identifiable insult to the adjacent metaphysis, and with the development of growth disturbance. Twenty-six metaphyses had identifiable insults (19 single event and 7 sustained or repetitive). The widened physes were of focal tongue (n = 15), broad band (n 10), or mixed (n = 6) morphology. Most (n = 27) areas of widening were isointense with the physeal cartilage on all sequences. Subsequent growth disturbance was more likely when the metaphyseal insult was a single event rather than sustained or repetitive (P = 0.023), with focal tongues (P = 0.029), and with centrally located lesions (P = 0.030). In five cases, the adjacent epiphysis showed signal abnormalities; all developed growth disturbance. Histologic examinations available in two limbs confirmed that the MR findings represented extensions of hypertrophic physeal chondrocytes into the metaphysis. Incidentally observed local physeal widening in a growing bone may represent the imprint of a previous or ongoing interference with endochondral ossification from a prior metaphyseal insult, rather than a primary metaphyseal disorder. Single event insults, physeal widening of focal tongue morphology, central distribution in the metaphysis, and concomitant epiphyseal signal abnormalities on MR imaging are significant predictors of subsequent growth disturbance. (orig.). With 9

  2. The National Map Customer Requirements: Findings from Interviews and Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Larry; Coray, Kevin E.; Poore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to receive customer feedback and to understand data and information requirements for The National Map. This report provides results and findings from interviews and surveys and will guide policy and operations decisions about data and information requirements leading to the development of a 5-year strategic plan for the National Geospatial Program. These findings are based on feedback from approximately 2,200 customers between February and August 2008. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted more than 160 interviews with 200 individuals. The American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) and the International Map Trade Association (IMTA) surveyed their memberships and received feedback from over 400 members. The Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) received feedback from over 1,600 of its U.S.-based software users through an online survey sent to customers attending the ESRI International User Conference in the summer of 2008. The results of these surveys were shared with the USGS and have been included in this report.

  3. Suggestion, hypnosis and hypnotherapy: a survey of use, knowledge and attitudes of anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldrey, J C; Cyna, A M

    2004-10-01

    Clinical hypnosis is a skill of using words and gestures (frequently called suggestions) in particular ways to achieve specific outcomes. It is being increasingly recognised as a useful intervention for managing a range of symptoms, especially pain and anxiety. We surveyed all 317 South Australian Fellows and trainees registered with ANZCA to determine their use, knowledge of, and attitudes towards positive suggestion, hypnosis and hypnotherapy in their anaesthesia practice. The response rate was 218 anaesthetists (69%). The majority of respondents (63%) rated their level of knowledge on this topic as below average. Forty-eight per cent of respondents indicated that there was a role for hypnotherapy in clinical anaesthesia, particularly in areas seen as traditional targets for the modality, i.e. pain and anxiety states. Nearly half of the anaesthetists supported the use of hypnotherapy and positive suggestions within clinical anaesthesia. Those respondents who had experience of clinical hypnotherapy were more likely to support hypnosis teaching at undergraduate or postgraduate level when compared with those with no experience.

  4. Mesenteric vascular occlusion: Comparison of ancillary CT findings between arterial and venous occlusions and independent CT findings suggesting life-threatening events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Yon Cheong; Wu, Cheng Hsien; Wang, Li Jen; Chen, Huan Wu; Lin, Being Chuan; Huang, Chen Chih

    2013-01-01

    To compare the ancillary CT findings between superior mesenteric artery thromboembolism (SMAT) and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (SMVT), and to determine the independent CT findings of life-threatening mesenteric occlusion. Our study was approved by the institution review board. We included 43 patients (21 SMAT and 22 SMVT between 1999 and 2008) of their median age of 60.0 years, and retrospectively analyzed their CT scans. Medical records were reviewed for demographics, management, surgical pathology diagnosis, and outcome. We compared CT findings between SMAT and SMVT groups. Multivariate analysis was conducted to determine the independent CT findings of life-threatening mesenteric occlusion. Of 43 patients, 24 had life-threatening mesenteric occlusion. Death related to mesenteric occlusion was 32.6%. A thick bowel wall (p < 0.001), mesenteric edema (p < 0.001), and ascites (p = 0.009) were more frequently associated with SMVT, whereas diminished bowel enhancement (p = 0.003) and paralytic ileus (p = 0.039) were more frequent in SMAT. Diminished bowel enhancement (OR = 20; p = 0.007) and paralytic ileus (OR = 16; p = 0.033) were independent findings suggesting life-threatening mesenteric occlusion. The ancillary CT findings occur with different frequencies in SMAT and SMVT. However, the independent findings indicating life-threatening mesenteric occlusion are diminished bowel wall enhancement and paralytic ileus.

  5. Professional Problems Experienced by Information Technology Teachers and Suggested Solutions: Longitudinal Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafize Keser

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the opinions of teacher candidates in the fourth year of Computer Education & Instructional Technologies department (CEIT on the Problems Experienced by Information Technology (IT Teachers and Suggested Solutions and it has been designed in case study routine taking place within qualitative research tradition and in a longitudinal survey model. The final year IT teacher candidates receiving education in Ankara University Educational Sciences Faculty CEIT department in academic years 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 have formed the study group of the research (N=123. The data obtained in the research by open-end questionnaire have been analysed and interpreted by inductive encoding technique, freuency analysis and descriptive content analysis. At the end of the study carried out, it has been determined that the IT teacher candidates have handled in two sub-dimensions the problems experienced by the IT teachers, these being, problems towards the courses the IT teachers attend and problems regarding the professional lives of IT teachers and suggested solutions in line with these. The leading problems towards the courses the IT teachers attend are that the courses are optional, the courses are grade-free, the course hours are few, the significance of IT not being comprehended very well by the executives, teachers, parents and students, inadequacy of physical means of IT classes and references of the course. And, the main problems regarding professional lives of IT course teachers are the duty, power and responsibility of IT teachers not made clear enough, difficulties in formative teacher practice, course hours which have to be completed by IT teachers not being able to be completed and problem of permanent staff, the courses that must be attended by IT teachers being taugth by teachers from other branches, lack of executives and experts trained from a field to supervise IT and formative teachers. And, the suggested leading

  6. EBRI 2008 recent retirees survey: report of findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Ruth; Greenwald, Mathew; Copeland, Craig; VanDerhei, Jack; Salisbury, Dallas

    2008-07-01

    Understanding how to achieve longer work lives: The 2008 Recent Retirees Survey was undertaken to better understand the tools and practices that might encourage workers to postpone their retirement and remain longer with their company. Why do people retire when they do? Respondents typically retired from employers for one of four reasons: retirement becomes affordable, lack of job satisfaction, a desire for more personal or family time, and/or their own health status. Narrow window for asking people to work longer: One of the major findings from the survey is that employers have a narrow window of up to two years in which they may be able to intervene to change retiring workers' decisions by offering them incentives to remain with the company. Employers may just need to ask: Many retirees report they would have been open to an approach from their employer asking them to stay longer with the company. Sixty-one percent say they would have viewed the experience positively. Just 10 percent indicate they would have reacted negatively to an approach asking them to delay their retirement. Work incentives vary in appeal: The survey tested a total of 19 possible incentives that might encourage retiring workers to postpone retirement. Four of these appear especially likely to be successful: Half of retirees (48 percent) indicate that feeling truly needed for an assignment would have been extremely or very effective in encouraging them to delay their retirement. Moreover, of those ranking this as one of the top two most effective incentives, 72 percent say it might have prompted them to stay at least two more years with the company. Half of retirees with a defined benefit pension state receiving a full pension while working part time would have been effective in delaying their retirement (50 percent), and almost as many feel this way about receiving a partial pension while working part time (44 percent). Seven in 10 of those rating each among the top two most effective

  7. Findings from Survey Administered to Weatherization Training Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes results of a survey administered to directors of weatherization training centers that receive funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The survey presents results related to questions on training offered and future plans.

  8. Ground-breaking research into Ghanaian sex-workers suggests high awareness. Country surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The first nationwide research into prostitution in Ghana has been completed by Dr. Matilida Pappoe. She has found that there has been exponential growth in prostitution over the past three years in the country. While 10 years ago, people would not openly talk about prostitution, now that people's friends are increasingly entering the trade, people freely discuss prostitution. The research indicates that this growth is linked to the negative effects of macroeconomic policies aimed at economic growth, such as structural adjustment. For example, 39 of 121 sex workers studied claimed to have begun working as a prostitute after their trading businesses collapsed. Study findings suggest a high level of AIDS awareness among Ghanaian prostitutes. Prostitutes in Ghana are considered to be either seaters or roamers. Seaters are a loosely organized group of women who tend to work from a common compound, attracting customers by sitting in the doorway of their rooms. They typically report to an older retired sex worker who settles disputes and raises credit if one of the women must pay a police fine. Seaters are largely 30-45 years old and work in industrial centers. Roamers, however, tend to be 20-30 years old, work in coastal towns, and are usually better educated. They move from place to place and are probably at lower risk of contracting HIV due to the higher rates they charge and the correspondingly lower number of clients they entertain. Roamers seem to have higher rates of condom use and clients who are aware of the dangers. Roamers, too, are not organized as a group and may even often be highly competitive. Their work in the isolation of hotels makes them particularly vulnerable. Economic necessity has therefore increasingly drawn Ghanaian women into the sex trade, while Ghanaian men who typically support two or three women in exchange for sex, but can no longer do so due to current economic conditions, turn to occasional sex with prostitutes. This paper notes that

  9. Conscientious refusals to refer: Findings from a national physician survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Michael P.; Antiel, Ryan M.; Tilburt, Jon C.; Mueller, Paul S.; Curlin, Farr A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Regarding controversial medical services, many have argued that if physicians cannot in good conscience provide a legal medical intervention for which a patient is a candidate, they should refer the requesting patient to an accommodating provider. This study examines what US physicians think a doctor is obligated to do when the doctor thinks it would be immoral to provide a referral. Method We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 2000 U.S. physicians from all specialties. Our primary criterion variable was agreement that physicians have a professional obligation to refer patients for all legal medical services for which the patients are candidates, even if the physician believes that such a referral is immoral. Results Of 1895 eligible physicians, 1032 (55%) responded. Fifty-seven percent of physicians agreed that doctors must refer patients regardless of whether or not the doctor believes the referral itself is immoral. Holding this opinion was independently associated with being more theologically pluralistic, describing oneself as sociopolitically liberal, and indicating that respect for patient autonomy is the most important bioethical principle in one’s practice (multivariable odds ratios, 1.6 to 2.4). Conclusions Physicians are divided about a professional obligation to refer when the physician believes that referral itself is immoral. These data suggest there is no uncontroversial way to resolve conflicts posed when patients request interventions that their physicians cannot in good conscience provide. PMID:21335574

  10. Abnormal immune system development and function in schizophrenia helps reconcile diverse findings and suggests new treatment and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Sherry; Kinney, Dennis K

    2015-08-18

    Extensive research implicates disturbed immune function and development in the etiology and pathology of schizophrenia. In addition to reviewing evidence for immunological factors in schizophrenia, this paper discusses how an emerging model of atypical immune function and development helps explain a wide variety of well-established - but puzzling - findings about schizophrenia. A number of theorists have presented hypotheses that early immune system programming, disrupted by pre- and perinatal adversity, often combines with abnormal brain development to produce schizophrenia. The present paper focuses on the hypothesis that disruption of early immune system development produces a latent immune vulnerability that manifests more fully after puberty, when changes in immune function and the thymus leave individuals more susceptible to infections and immune dysfunctions that contribute to schizophrenia. Complementing neurodevelopmental models, this hypothesis integrates findings on many contributing factors to schizophrenia, including prenatal adversity, genes, climate, migration, infections, and stress, among others. It helps explain, for example, why (a) schizophrenia onset is typically delayed until years after prenatal adversity, (b) individual risk factors alone often do not lead to schizophrenia, and (c) schizophrenia prevalence rates actually tend to be higher in economically advantaged countries. Here we discuss how the hypothesis explains 10 key findings, and suggests new, potentially highly cost-effective, strategies for treatment and prevention of schizophrenia. Moreover, while most human research linking immune factors to schizophrenia has been correlational, these strategies provide ethical ways to experimentally test in humans theories about immune function and schizophrenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A remarkable finding that suggests the existence of a new groundwater biome based on chemoautotrophic resources, named

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Negrea

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An important work of subterranean biology, signed by Francis Dov Por, Ophel: a groundwater biome based on chemoautotrophic resources. The global significance of the Ayyalon cave finds, Israel is presented and discussed in the present paper. The subject is a remarkable discovery suggesting the existence of a new aquatic subterranean biome autonomous energy based the author calls Ophel, the Hebrew word for “darkness” and “netherworld”. For F.D. Por, this biome links different marine chemosynthetic ecosystems in a global biospheric entity. Finally, F.D. POR hypothesizes on the existence of three overlapped biospheres: the bacteriosphere in the depths of the planet’s crust, which does not require light or oxygen; the aphotic, subterranean deuterobiosphere, formed of bacterial chemosynthesis based eukaryotes and limited-supplied dissolved oxygen from above-ground; the above-ground eubiosphere, based on aerobic photosynthesis. I would like to emphasize that, at my suggestion, Prof. Dr. F.D. Por participated at the 18th International Symposium of Biospeleology from Cluj-Napoca (Romania at 10th to 15th July 2006 where he mentioned for the first time orally some data on the Ayyalon Cave and the Ophel biome.

  12. New Zealand Nurses’ Perceptions of Spirituality and Spiritual care: Qualitative Findings from a National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Egan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the qualitative findings from the first national survey of New Zealand nurses’ views on spirituality and spiritual care. The importance of spirituality as a core aspect of holistic nursing care is gaining momentum. Little is currently known about New Zealand nurses’ understandings, perceptions and experience of spirituality. Design: A descriptive online survey. Method: A random sample of 2000 individuals resident in New Zealand whose occupation on the New Zealand electoral roll suggested nursing was their current or past occupation were invited via postcard to participate in an online survey. This paper reports on the free response section of the survey. Findings: Overall, 472 invitees responded (24.1%. From the respondents, 63% completed at least one of the optional free response sections. Thematic analysis generated three metathemes: ‘The role of spirituality in nursing practice’, ‘Enabling best practice’, and ‘Creating a supportive culture’. Conclusions: Spirituality was predominantly valued as a core aspect of holistic nursing care. However, clarity is needed surrounding what constitutes spiritual care and how this intersects with professional responsibilities and boundaries. Participants’ insights suggest a focus on improving the consistency and quality of spiritual care by fostering inter-professional collaboration, and improved provision of resources and educational opportunities.

  13. Clionid sponge surveys on the Florida Reef Tract suggest land-based nutrient inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward-Paige, Christine A.; Risk, Michael J.; Sherwood, Owen A.; Jaap, Walter C.

    2005-01-01

    Bioerosion by Cliona delitrix and Cliona lampa was assessed at 43 sites along the Florida Reef Tract, USA, in the summer of 2001. Sponge abundances were estimated using rapid visual assessment. Tissue samples of sponges were taken for analysis of δ 15 N. Comparison samples were taken from Belize. Annual trends in sponge abundance were estimated from archived videos covering the period from 1996 to 2001. Sites with the greatest boring sponge size and cover were in the Backcountry and Lower Keys, where total nitrogen, ammonium, and δ 15 N levels were highest. The sites with the largest relative increase of C. delitrix and C. lampa over the 5 year period were in the Upper Keys, where the greatest relative decline in stony coral cover has occurred. Florida sponge δ 15 N values were 5.2(±0.1)%, suggesting the influence of human waste; in comparison, offshore Belize samples were 2.1(±0.1)%. These results suggest sewage contamination of the Florida Reef Tract, shifting the carbonate balance from construction to destruction

  14. Clionid sponge surveys on the Florida Reef Tract suggest land-based nutrient inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward-Paige, Christine A. [School of Geography and Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada)]. E-mail: cwardpai@dal.ca; Risk, Michael J. [School of Geography and Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Sherwood, Owen A. [Department of Earth Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4J1 (Canada); Jaap, Walter C. [Florida Marine Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Florida (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Bioerosion by Cliona delitrix and Cliona lampa was assessed at 43 sites along the Florida Reef Tract, USA, in the summer of 2001. Sponge abundances were estimated using rapid visual assessment. Tissue samples of sponges were taken for analysis of {delta} {sup 15}N. Comparison samples were taken from Belize. Annual trends in sponge abundance were estimated from archived videos covering the period from 1996 to 2001. Sites with the greatest boring sponge size and cover were in the Backcountry and Lower Keys, where total nitrogen, ammonium, and {delta} {sup 15}N levels were highest. The sites with the largest relative increase of C. delitrix and C. lampa over the 5 year period were in the Upper Keys, where the greatest relative decline in stony coral cover has occurred. Florida sponge {delta} {sup 15}N values were 5.2({+-}0.1)%, suggesting the influence of human waste; in comparison, offshore Belize samples were 2.1({+-}0.1)%. These results suggest sewage contamination of the Florida Reef Tract, shifting the carbonate balance from construction to destruction.

  15. Intratumor heterogeneous distribution of 10B-compounds suggested by the radiobiological findings from in vivo mouse studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, S.; Ono, K.; Sakurai, Y.; Takagaki, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Kinashi, Y.; Akaboshi, M.; Akuta, K.

    2000-01-01

    After continuous labeling with or without 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), SCC VII tumor-bearing mice received one of the following treatments in vivo; 1) Tumor excision right after thermal neutron irradiation following sodium borocaptate- 10 B (BSH) or p-boronophenylalanine- 10 B (BPA) administration. 2) Tumor excision 5 min through 72 h after thermal neutron or γ-ray irradiation. 3) Determination of hypoxic fraction (HF) of implanted tumors by γ-ray test irradiation 5 min through 72 h after thermal neutron or γ-ray irradiation. 4) Determination of the tumor sensitivity to γ-rays 0-24 h after thermal neutron or γ-ray irradiation. The following results were obtained; 1) BSH and BPA sensitized quiescent (Q) and total (proliferating (P) + Q) tumor cells, respectively, and the use of 10 B-compound, especially BPA, widened the sensitivity difference between Q and total cells. 2) The use of 10 B-compound, especially BPA, increased the repair capacity from potentially lethal damage (PLDR) and induced PLDR pattern like post-γ-ray irradiation. 3) Reoxygenation after thermal neutron irradiation following 10 B-compound, especially BPA, administration occurred slowly, compared with after neutron irradiation only and looked like after γ-ray irradiation. 4) The use of 10 B-compound, especially BPA, promoted sublethal damage repair (SLDR) in total cells and the recruitment from Q to P state, compared with after thermal neutron irradiation alone. All these findings suggested the difficulty in distribution of 10 B-compound, especially BPA, in Q cells and the heterogeneity in intratumor distribution of 10 B-compound. (author)

  16. Aerobic Fitness Linked to Cortical Brain Development in Adolescent Males: Preliminary Findings Suggest a Possible Role of BDNF Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M.; Keenan, Madison F.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been shown to impact brain structure and cognition in children and adults. Exercise-induced activation of a growth protein known as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is thought to contribute to such relationships. To date, however, no study has examined how aerobic fitness relates to cortical brain structure during development and if BDNF genotype moderates these relationships. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FreeSurfer, the current study examined how aerobic fitness relates to volume, thickness, and surface area in 34 male adolescents, 15 to 18 years old. Moreover, we examined if the val66met BDNF genotype moderated these relationships. We hypothesized that aerobic fitness would relate to greater thickness and volumes in frontal, parietal, and motor regions, and that these relationships would be less robust in individuals carrying a Met allele, since this genotype leads to lower BDNF expression. We found that aerobic fitness positively related to right rostral middle frontal cortical volume in all adolescents. However, results also showed BDNF genotype moderated the relationship between aerobic fitness and bilateral medial precuneus surface area, with a positive relationship seen in individuals with the Val/Val allele, but no relationship detected in those adolescents carrying a Met allele. Lastly, using self-reported levels of aerobic activity, we found that higher-fit adolescents showed larger right medial pericalcarine, right cuneus and left precuneus surface areas as compared to their low-fit peers. Our findings suggest that aerobic fitness is linked to cortical brain development in male adolescents, and that more research is warranted to determine how an individual’s genes may influence these relationships. PMID:27445764

  17. Aerobic Fitness Linked to Cortical Brain Development in Adolescent Males: Preliminary Findings Suggest a Possible Role of BDNF Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Keenan, Madison F; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been shown to impact brain structure and cognition in children and adults. Exercise-induced activation of a growth protein known as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is thought to contribute to such relationships. To date, however, no study has examined how aerobic fitness relates to cortical brain structure during development and if BDNF genotype moderates these relationships. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FreeSurfer, the current study examined how aerobic fitness relates to volume, thickness, and surface area in 34 male adolescents, 15 to 18 years old. Moreover, we examined if the val66met BDNF genotype moderated these relationships. We hypothesized that aerobic fitness would relate to greater thickness and volumes in frontal, parietal, and motor regions, and that these relationships would be less robust in individuals carrying a Met allele, since this genotype leads to lower BDNF expression. We found that aerobic fitness positively related to right rostral middle frontal cortical volume in all adolescents. However, results also showed BDNF genotype moderated the relationship between aerobic fitness and bilateral medial precuneus surface area, with a positive relationship seen in individuals with the Val/Val allele, but no relationship detected in those adolescents carrying a Met allele. Lastly, using self-reported levels of aerobic activity, we found that higher-fit adolescents showed larger right medial pericalcarine, right cuneus and left precuneus surface areas as compared to their low-fit peers. Our findings suggest that aerobic fitness is linked to cortical brain development in male adolescents, and that more research is warranted to determine how an individual's genes may influence these relationships.

  18. Findings from the most recent Medical Library Association salary survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Marc; McMullen, Thomas D.; Corcoran, Kate

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The objective is to provide information on basic issues in library management identified by the Medical Library Association's (MLA's) seventh triennial salary survey. Methods: The survey was a Web-based questionnaire. A nonrandom sample of persons was obtained by posting messages to MLA's membership and to the MEDLIB-L email discussion list. Employed MLA members and nonmembers employed in medical library settings filled out a Web-based form designed using common gateway interface (CGI) programming. Results: Six hundred forty-five usable responses were analyzed by the Hay Group and presented in the MLA publication, Hay Group/MLA 2001 Compensation and Benefits Survey. Results from the 2001 survey in this article focus on pay and job satisfaction. Salary survey results since 1983 were analyzed to review trends in seniority, diversity, and pay equity. Conclusions: Given the age progression of respondents from 1983 to 2001, it is clear that succession planning is a core issue for medical libraries. Although efforts to create more diversity in medical libraries in member organizations have started to yield results, pay for white respondents has increased at a higher rate than for other racial categories. The authors found that the pay-for-performance system in the organizations of approximately two-thirds of the respondents is suboptimized and that most of the reasons medical librarians cite for leaving their organization can be addressed and potentially changed by management. Results from the eighth salary survey, slated to be conducted in the fall of 2004, will further track these trends and issues. PMID:15494762

  19. Children's Work Under Market Conditions. (Findings of a Sociological Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, G. M.; Plotkin, M. M.; Shirinskii, V. I.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the results of a survey of more than 1200 Russian adolescents concerning the conflict between work and education commitments. Reveals that almost one in four students work parttime, mainly in unskilled jobs, to purchase fashionable goods. Discusses implications and possible responses to this situation. (MJP)

  20. Immediate CT findings following embolization of cerebral aneurysms: suggestion of blood-brain barrier or vascular permeability change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Seung Kug; Kim, Yong Sun; Lee, Hui Jung; Kim, Gab Chul; Park, Jaechan

    2008-01-01

    Although endovascular techniques are widely used for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms, the immediate postprocedural brain CT findings have not been reported. Therefore, in the present study we assessed the immediate postprocedural brain CT findings following the uneventful coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms. Included in the study were 59 patients with 61 cerebral aneurysms after uncomplicated coil embolization. Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage was present with 32 of the 61 aneurysms. All patients underwent a brain CT scan just before and within 2 h after the endovascular treatment. If the postprocedural CT scan revealed any new findings, a follow-up CT scan and/or MRI were performed within 24 h. The variables related to the abnormal CT findings were also evaluated. Among the 61 immediate brain CT scans, 26 (43%) showed abnormal findings, including cortical contrast enhancement (n=21, 34%), subarachnoid contrast enhancement (n=8, 13%), intraventricular contrast enhancement (n=5, 8%), and striatal contrast enhancement (n=2, 3%). Single or mixed CT findings were also seen. None of the 61 aneurysms was associated with new neurological symptoms after endovascular treatment, and all patients made an uneventful recovery. Abnormal findings were more likely to be found with lower body weight and with increased corrected amounts of contrast material and heparin (P<0.05). After uneventful endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms, the immediate brain CT findings can reveal various patterns of abnormal contrast enhancement. Recognizing the immediate brain CT findings is important, as they can mimic various diseases. (orig.)

  1. Large scale surveys suggest limited mercury availability in tropical north Queensland (Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, Timothy D.; Halliday, Ian A.; Howley, Christina; Sinnamon, Vivian; Bunn, Stuart E.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the threat of mercury (Hg) to consumers in food webs of Australia's wet–dry tropics. This is despite high concentrations in similar biomes elsewhere and a recent history of gold mining that could lead to a high degree of exposure for biota. We analysed Hg in water, sediments, invertebrates and fishes in rivers and estuaries of north Queensland, Australia to determine its availability and biomagnification in food webs. Concentrations in water and sediments were low relative to other regions of Hg concern, with only four of 138 water samples and five of 60 sediment samples above detection limits of 0.1 μg L −1 and 0.1 μg g −1 , respectively. Concentrations of Hg in fishes and invertebrates from riverine and wetland food webs were well below international consumption guidelines, including those in piscivorous fishes, likely due to low baseline concentrations and limited rates of biomagnification (average slope of log Hg vs. δ 15 N = 0.08). A large fish species of recreational, commercial, and cultural importance (the barramundi, Lates calcarifer), had low concentrations that were below consumption guidelines. Observed variation in Hg concentrations in this species was primarily explained by age and foraging location (floodplain vs. coastal), with floodplain feeders having higher Hg concentrations than those foraging at sea. These analyses suggest that there is a limited threat of Hg exposure for fish-eating consumers in this region. - Highlights: ► Hg concentrations in freshwaters and sediments of north Queensland were low. ► Biomagnification of Hg through riverine food webs was limited. ► Barramundi, a predatory fish, had low concentrations meaning low risk for consumers. ► Floodplain-feeding barramundi had higher Hg concentrations than coastal feeders.

  2. Genomic survey, gene expression analysis and structural modeling suggest diverse roles of DNA methyltransferases in legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Garg

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases, namely Methyltransferase (MET, Chromomethylase (CMT and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM, which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2 subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes.

  3. National Survey of Prison Health Care: Selected Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruschak, Laura; Chari, Karishma A; Simon, Alan E; DeFrances, Carol J

    2016-07-01

    This report presents selected findings on the provision of health care services in U.S. state prisons. Findings on admissions testing for infectious disease, cardiovascular risk factors, and mental health conditions, as well as the location of the provision of care and utilization of telemedicine are all included. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  4. Intoxicated workers: findings from a national Australian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidd, Ken; Roche, Ann M; Buisman-Pijlman, Femke

    2011-09-01

    To identify prevalence of alcohol and drug use and intoxication at work. A total of 9,828 Australian workers ≥14 years old. Australia 2007. Work-place alcohol use and drug use, intoxication at work, industry and occupation of employment. Secondary analysis of a large nationally representative survey involving descriptive and weighted multivariate logistic regressions. Differential patterns were identified by drug type, worker characteristics and occupational setting, controlling for demographic variables. Nearly 9% of workers surveyed (8.7%) usually drank alcohol at work and 0.9% usually used drugs at work. Attending work under the influence of alcohol was more prevalent (5.6%) than attending work under the influence of drugs (2.0%), and significantly more likely among young, male, never married workers with no dependent children. Hospitality industry workers were 3.5 times more likely than other workers to drink alcohol and two to three times more likely to use drugs at work or attend work under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Other high-risk industries and occupations included construction, financial services, tradespersons and unskilled workers. More than one in 20 Australian workers admit to having worked under the influence of alcohol and almost one in 50 report attending work under the influence of psychoactive drugs. The rates are higher for some industries, such as the hospitality industry, than others. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. What style of leadership do women in STEMM fields perform? Findings from an international survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Nash

    Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that women in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM fields are underrepresented in leadership globally. However, little is known about how leadership styles of women in STEMM relate to this underrepresentation. This article discusses findings from a survey examining how 61 women in STEMM define leadership and describe their own leadership styles. Using content analysis and drawing on Full Range Leadership Model factors, findings suggest that women define leadership and describe their own leadership styles using transformational factors. However, there was no consistency in how participants defined ideal leadership or how they defined their own leadership styles. This finding unsettles ideas of distinctly gendered leadership styles. We argue that expectations that leadership will be performed in distinctly gendered styles may be contributing to the underrepresentation of women in leadership roles in STEMM.

  6. What style of leadership do women in STEMM fields perform? Findings from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Meredith; Davies, Amanda; Moore, Robyn

    2017-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that women in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) fields are underrepresented in leadership globally. However, little is known about how leadership styles of women in STEMM relate to this underrepresentation. This article discusses findings from a survey examining how 61 women in STEMM define leadership and describe their own leadership styles. Using content analysis and drawing on Full Range Leadership Model factors, findings suggest that women define leadership and describe their own leadership styles using transformational factors. However, there was no consistency in how participants defined ideal leadership or how they defined their own leadership styles. This finding unsettles ideas of distinctly gendered leadership styles. We argue that expectations that leadership will be performed in distinctly gendered styles may be contributing to the underrepresentation of women in leadership roles in STEMM.

  7. Pediatric otitis media in Fiji: Survey findings 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Te-Yung; Rafai, Eric; Wang, Pa-Chun; Bai, Chiy-Huey; Jiang, Peng-Long; Huang, Shu-Nuan; Chen, You-Ju; Chao, Yi-Ting; Wang, Chen-Hsu; Chang, Chia-Hsiu

    2016-06-01

    Otitis media (OM), as a common infectious disease, is a major cause of hearing impairment among the general population. OM remains a major public health threat in the Pacific islands, but the risks of OM have not been thoroughly explored in this region. The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence, clinical features, and quality-of-life impacts of OM in Fiji. In the medical service trip entitled "Healing and Hope - Taiwan Cathay Heart and Hearing Medical Mission to Fiji" (TCHHMMF), we conducted a cross-sectional OM survey study in Suva and Sigatoka areas (Korolevu, Cuvu, and Lomawai) in the summer of 2015. The otitis media - 6 (OM-6) was used to survey the OM-related quality of life. In the 467 pediatric patients (aged 0-18 years old) screened, 13 (2.78%) have acute otitis media (AOM), 37 (7.92%) have otitis media with effusion (OME), and 19 (4.1%) have chronic otitis media (COM). Age (OR 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36-0.77) is a significant predictor of AOM, whereas male gender (OR 2.46, 95% CI: 1.13-5.37), smoke exposure (OR 2.81, 95% CI: 1.01-7.82), and concomitant chronic sinusitis (OR 6.05, 95% CI: 2.31-15.88) are significant predictors of OME. The mean OM-6 item scores are highest in caregiver concerns (3.8), physical suffering (3.7), and hearing loss (3.4) domains. OM is an important primary care disease in Fiji that remains under-served. It is critical to educate professionals, parents, and patients to detect and to improve care for OM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Diet in Saudi Arabia: findings from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Afshin, Ashkan; Daoud, Farah; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad A; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Mokdad, Ali H

    2017-04-01

    No recent original studies on the pattern of diet are available for Saudi Arabia at the national level. The present study was performed to describe the consumption of foods and beverages by Saudi adults. The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS) was conducted in 2013. Data were collected through interviews and anthropometric measurements were done. A diet history questionnaire was used to determine the amount of consumption for eighteen food or beverage items in a typical week. The study was a household survey in all thirteen administrative regions of Saudi Arabia. Participants were 10 735 individuals aged 15 years or older. Mean daily consumption was 70·9 (se 1·3) g for fruits, 111·1 (se 2·0) g for vegetables, 11·6 (se 0·3) g for dark fish, 13·8 (se 0·3) g for other fish, 44·2 (se 0·7) g for red meat, 4·8 (se 0·2) g for processed meat, 10·9 (se 0·3) g for nuts, 219·4 (se 5·1) ml for milk and 115·5 (se 2·6) ml for sugar-sweetened beverages. Dietary guideline recommendations were met by only 5·2 % of individuals for fruits, 7·5 % for vegetables, 31·4 % for nuts and 44·7 % for fish. The consumption of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages was high in young adults. Only a small percentage of the Saudi population met the dietary recommendations. Programmes to improve dietary behaviours are urgently needed to reduce the current and future burden of disease. The promotion of healthy diets should target both the general population and specific high-risk groups. Regular assessments of dietary status are needed to monitor trends and inform interventions.

  9. A "recipe" for culture change? Findings from the THRIVE survey of culture change adopters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Amy; Cohen, Lauren W; Reed, David; Nolet, Kimberly; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2014-02-01

    Descriptions of culture change adoption are often complex and varied, creating a challenge for those seeking guidance about which of the many components of culture change to adopt and in what order and combination. To begin to address this question, members of The Research Initiative Valuing Eldercare (THRIVE) developed and distributed an online survey to 327 known culture change adopters. Of these, 164 (50%) completed the survey. Data were analyzed to identify adopted components, co-occurrence of adopted components, and differences in these across various types of nursing home models (i.e., traditional unit, household, and small house). Our findings support unique co-occurrence of components across nursing home models. Results also show that homes with more traditional environments have been able to implement certain culture change components without large capital investments required by renovations. The adoption patterns suggest that the co-occurrence of components should be considered when pursuing organizational transformations to support culture change.

  10. (18)F-FDG positron-emission tomography/computed tomography findings of radiographic lesions suggesting old healed tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Paeng, Jin Chul; Nam, Hyun-Yeol; Lee, Ji Sun; Lee, Sang-Min; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2014-03-01

    The presence of radiographic lesions suggesting old healed tuberculosis (TB) is one of the strongest risk factors for the subsequent development of active TB. We elucidated the metabolic activity of radiographic lesions suggesting old healed TB using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT). This cross-sectional study included 63 participants with radiographic lesions suggesting old healed TB and with available (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) measured in the lesions, the clinical characteristics, results of the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) were analyzed. The SUVmax in old healed TB was 1.5 or higher among nine (14.3%) participants. Age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03-1.46), history of previous TB (aOR, 60.43; 95% CI, 1.71-2131.65), and extent of the lesions (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02-1.75) were associated with higher SUVmax. The positive rates for the TST and IGRA were not different between groups with and without increased FDG uptake. Increased FDG uptake on (18)F-FDG PET/CT was observed in a subset of patients with radiographic lesions suggesting old healed TB. Given that the factors associated with increased FDG uptake are known risk factors for TB development, the possibility exists that participants with old healed TB lesions with higher SUV on (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans might be at higher risk for active TB.

  11. Survey on In-vehicle Technology Use: Results and Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K. Kamalanathsharma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of advanced technology in automobiles has increased dramatically in the past couple of years. Driver-assisting gadgets such as navigation systems, advanced cruise control, collision avoidance systems, and other safety systems have moved down the ladder from luxury to more basic vehicles. Concurrently, auto manufacturers are also designing and testing driving algorithms that can assist with basic driving tasks, many of which are being continuously scrutinized by traffic safety agencies to ensure that these systems do not pose a safety hazard. The research presented in this paper brings a third perspective to in-vehicle technology by conducting a two-stage survey to collect public opinion on advanced in-vehicle technology. Approximately 64 percent of the respondents used a smartphone application to assist with their travel. The top-used applications were navigation and real-time traffic information systems. Among those who used smartphones during their commutes, the top-used applications were navigation and entertainment.

  12. Social media and suicide prevention: findings from a stakeholder survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROBINSON, Jo; RODRIGUES, Maria; FISHER, Steve; BAILEY, Eleanor; HERRMAN, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly among young adults. The rapid growth of social media and its heavy use by young adults presents new challenges and opportunities for suicide prevention. Social media sites are commonly used for communicating about suicide-related behavior with others, which raises the possibility of using social media to help prevent suicide. However, the use of social media varies widely between different suicide prevention advocates. The role this type of intervention should play in a community’s overall suicide prevention strategy remains a matter of debate. Aim Explore the ways in which stakeholders use social media for suicide prevention and assess their views about the potential utility of social media as a suicide prevention tool. Methods A 12-week stakeholder consultation that involved the online administration and completion of surveys by 10 individuals who conduct research about suicide and social media, 13 organizations that use social media for suicide prevention purposes, and 64 users of social media. Results Social media was seen as a useful means of delivering a range of suicide prevention activities. Respondents reported that the key benefits of social media were the opportunity to obtain emotional support from others, to express one’s feelings, to talk to others with similar problems, and to provide help to others. The social media site believed to hold most potential for delivering suicide prevention activities was Facebook. There were concerns about potential risks of social media, but respondents felt the potential benefits outweighed the risks. Conclusions Social media was recognized by different types of stakeholders as holding potential for delivering suicide prevention activities. More research is required to establish the efficacy and safety of potential social media-based interventions and ethical standards and protocols to ensure that such interventions are delivered safely need to be

  13. Energy Efficiency in Small Server Rooms: Field Surveys and Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Iris [Hoi; Greenberg, Steve; Mahdavi, Roozbeh; Brown, Richard; Tschudi, William

    2014-08-11

    Fifty-seven percent of US servers are housed in server closets, server rooms, and localized data centers, in what are commonly referred to as small server rooms, which comprise 99percent of all server spaces in the US. While many mid-tier and enterprise-class data centers are owned by large corporations that consider energy efficiency a goal to minimize business operating costs, small server rooms typically are not similarly motivated. They are characterized by decentralized ownership and management and come in many configurations, which creates a unique set of efficiency challenges. To develop energy efficiency strategies for these spaces, we surveyed 30 small server rooms across eight institutions, and selected four of them for detailed assessments. The four rooms had Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) values ranging from 1.5 to 2.1. Energy saving opportunities ranged from no- to low-cost measures such as raising cooling set points and better airflow management, to more involved but cost-effective measures including server consolidation and virtualization, and dedicated cooling with economizers. We found that inefficiencies mainly resulted from organizational rather than technical issues. Because of the inherent space and resource limitations, the most effective measure is to operate servers through energy-efficient cloud-based services or well-managed larger data centers, rather than server rooms. Backup power requirement, and IT and cooling efficiency should be evaluated to minimize energy waste in the server space. Utility programs are instrumental in raising awareness and spreading technical knowledge on server operation, and the implementation of energy efficiency measures in small server rooms.

  14. Social media and suicide prevention: findings from a stakeholder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jo; Rodrigues, Maria; Fisher, Steve; Bailey, Eleanor; Herrman, Helen

    2015-02-25

    Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly among young adults. The rapid growth of social media and its heavy use by young adults presents new challenges and opportunities for suicide prevention. Social media sites are commonly used for communicating about suicide-related behavior with others, which raises the possibility of using social media to help prevent suicide. However, the use of social media varies widely between different suicide prevention advocates. The role this type of intervention should play in a community's overall suicide prevention strategy remains a matter of debate. Explore the ways in which stakeholders use social media for suicide prevention and assess their views about the potential utility of social media as a suicide prevention tool. A 12-week stakeholder consultation that involved the online administration and completion of surveys by 10 individuals who conduct research about suicide and social media, 13 organizations that use social media for suicide prevention purposes, and 64 users of social media. Social media was seen as a useful means of delivering a range of suicide prevention activities. Respondents reported that the key benefits of social media were the opportunity to obtain emotional support from others, to express one's feelings, to talk to others with similar problems, and to provide help to others. The social media site believed to hold most potential for delivering suicide prevention activities was Facebook. There were concerns about potential risks of social media, but respondents felt the potential benefits outweighed the risks. Social media was recognized by different types of stakeholders as holding potential for delivering suicide prevention activities. More research is required to establish the efficacy and safety of potential social media-based interventions and ethical standards and protocols to ensure that such interventions are delivered safely need to be developed and implemented.

  15. Clinical, instrumental, serological and histological findings suggest that hemophilia B may be less severe than hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Daniela; Linari, Silvia; Manetti, Mirko; Romano, Eloisa; Sofi, Francesco; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Carulli, Christian; Innocenti, Massimo; Ibba-Manneschi, Lidia; Castaman, Giancarlo

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that patients with severe hemophilia B may have a less severe disease compared to severe hemophilia A. To investigate clinical, radiological, laboratory and histological differences in the arthropathy of severe hemophilia A and hemophilia B, 70 patients with hemophilia A and 35 with hemophilia B with at least one joint bleeding were consecutively enrolled. Joint bleedings (50), regimen of treatment (prophylaxis/on demand), World Federation of Hemophilia, Pettersson and ultrasound scores, serum soluble RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin were assessed in all patients. RANK, RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin expression was evaluated in synovial tissue from 18 hemophilia A and 4 hemophilia B patients. The percentage of patients with either 10-50 or more than 50 hemarthrosis was greater in hemophilia A than in hemophilia B (Phemophilia B (PHemophilia (36.6 vs. 20.2; Phemophilia A patients. Serum osteoprotegerin and soluble RANK ligand were decreased in hemophilia A versus hemophilia B (Phemophilia A patients. In conclusion, the reduced number of hemarthrosis, the lower World Federation of Hemophilia and ultrasound scores, and higher osteoprotegerin expression in serum and synovial tissue in hemophilia B suggest that hemophilia B is a less severe disease than hemophilia A. Osteoprotegerin reduction seems to play a pivotal role in the progression of arthropathy in hemophilia A. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  16. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joscelyne, Amy; Knuckey, Sarah; Satterthwaite, Margaret L; Bryant, Richard A; Li, Meng; Qian, Meng; Brown, Adam D

    2015-01-01

    Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work.

  17. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Joscelyne

    Full Text Available Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work.

  18. Consistency of students’ conceptions of wave propagation: Findings from a conceptual survey in mechanical waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apisit Tongchai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We recently developed a multiple-choice conceptual survey in mechanical waves. The development, evaluation, and demonstration of the use of the survey were reported elsewhere [A. Tongchai et al., Developing, evaluating and demonstrating the use of a conceptual survey in mechanical waves, Int. J. Sci. Educ. 31, 2437 (2009ISEDEB0950-069310.1080/09500690802389605]. We administered the survey to 902 students from seven different groups ranging from high school to second year university. As an outcome of that analysis we were able to identify several conceptual models which the students seemed to be using when answering the questions in the survey. In this paper we attempt to investigate the strength with which the students were committed to these conceptual models, as evidenced by the consistency with which they answered the questions. For this purpose we focus on the patterns of student responses to questions in one particular subtopic, wave propagation. This study has three main purposes: (1 to investigate the consistency of student conceptions, (2 to explore the relative usefulness of different analysis techniques, and (3 to determine what extra information a study of consistency can give about student understanding of basic concepts. We used two techniques: first, categorizing and counting, which is widely used in the science education community, and second, model analysis, recently introduced into physics education research. The manner in which categorizing and counting is used is very diverse while model analysis has been employed only in prescriptive ways. Research studies have reported that students often use their conceptual models inconsistently when solving a series of questions that test the same idea. Our results support their conclusions. Moreover, our findings suggest that students who have had more experiences in physics learning seem to use the scientifically accepted models more consistently. Further, the two analysis techniques

  19. Consistency of students’ conceptions of wave propagation: Findings from a conceptual survey in mechanical waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernchok Soankwan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We recently developed a multiple-choice conceptual survey in mechanical waves. The development, evaluation, and demonstration of the use of the survey were reported elsewhere [ A. Tongchai et al. Int. J. Sci. Educ. 31 2437 (2009]. We administered the survey to 902 students from seven different groups ranging from high school to second year university. As an outcome of that analysis we were able to identify several conceptual models which the students seemed to be using when answering the questions in the survey. In this paper we attempt to investigate the strength with which the students were committed to these conceptual models, as evidenced by the consistency with which they answered the questions. For this purpose we focus on the patterns of student responses to questions in one particular subtopic, wave propagation. This study has three main purposes: (1 to investigate the consistency of student conceptions, (2 to explore the relative usefulness of different analysis techniques, and (3 to determine what extra information a study of consistency can give about student understanding of basic concepts. We used two techniques: first, categorizing and counting, which is widely used in the science education community, and second, model analysis, recently introduced into physics education research. The manner in which categorizing and counting is used is very diverse while model analysis has been employed only in prescriptive ways. Research studies have reported that students often use their conceptual models inconsistently when solving a series of questions that test the same idea. Our results support their conclusions. Moreover, our findings suggest that students who have had more experiences in physics learning seem to use the scientifically accepted models more consistently. Further, the two analysis techniques have different advantages and disadvantages. Our findings show that model analysis can be used in more diverse ways, provides

  20. Policy Influence on Consumers’ Evolution into Prosumers—Empirical Findings from an Exploratory Survey in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Kotilainen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy sector is in transition to a flexible and sustainable energy system based on renewable energy sources. This complex transition is affecting multiple levels in the sociotechnical system. One driver of the transition is climate change that enforces the policy push from the macro level to change the way energy is produced, delivered, and used. As part of the energy system evolution, the role of the end user in the energy sector is undergoing profound changes, and consumers are increasingly being empowered to participate actively in the production and use of energy. This article investigates how policies might affect consumers’ interests in becoming prosumers of energy. We explore consumers’ attitudes toward using renewable energy technologies (RET by means of an empirical consumer survey that was conducted in five European countries. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM method was utilized to analyze the survey results. Our findings suggest that both economic and non-economic policies affect consumer attitudes toward using renewable energy technologies. We conclude that policies have different effects on consumers and prosumers, who have already made the decision to adopt renewable energy solutions. Based on the findings, we propose a set of policy and managerial implications.

  1. Explaining public satisfaction with health-care systems: findings from a nationwide survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Neil; Duckett, Jane

    2016-06-01

    To identify factors associated with health-care system satisfaction in China. Recent research suggests that socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported health, income and insurance, ideological beliefs, health-care utilization, media use and perceptions of services may affect health-care system satisfaction, but the relative importance of these factors is poorly understood. New data from China offer the opportunity to test theories about the sources of health-care system satisfaction. Stratified nationwide survey sample analysed using multilevel logistic regression. 3680 Chinese adults residing in family dwellings between 1 November 2012 and 17 January 2013. Satisfaction with the way the health-care system in China is run. We find only weak associations between satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported health and income. We do, however, find that satisfaction is strongly associated with having insurance and belief in personal responsibility for meeting health-care costs. We also find it is negatively associated with utilization, social media use, perceptions of access as unequal and perceptions of service providers as unethical. To improve satisfaction, Chinese policymakers - and their counterparts in countries with similar health-care system characteristics - should improve insurance coverage and the quality of health services, and tackle unethical medical practices. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Project: The 1991 Nevada State telephone survey: Key findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.H.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.

    1991-05-01

    The 1991 Nevada State Telephone Survey was implemented by Decision Research on behalf of the State of Nevada, Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) as part of an ongoing socioeconomic impact assessment study. The scope of this survey was considerably smaller than a previous survey conducted in 1989 and focused more upon public evaluations of the Yucca Mountain repository program and the trust Nevadans currently addressing the siting issues. In order to provide place in key public officials who are Longitudinal data on the repository program, the 1991 questionnaire consisted of questions that were used in the 1989 NWPO survey which was conducted by Mountain West Research. As a result, the findings from this survey are compared with analogous items from the 1989 survey, and with the results from a survey commissioned by the Las Vegas Review-Journal and reported in their issue of October 21, 1990. The Review-Journal survey was conducted by Bruce Merri11 of the Arizona State University Media Research Center. A more complete comparison of the 1989 and 1991 surveys sponsored by NWPO is possible since the researchers at Decision Research had access to both these databases. The only source of information for the Review-Journal findings was the articles published in the Fall, 1990. The findings of the 1991 survey show that Nevadans oppose the federal government attempts to locate a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. They support a policy of opposition on the part of Nevada officials. They believe that Nevadans should have the final say in whether to accept the repository or not, and they reject the proposition that benefits from the repository program will outweigh the harms. These findings are very similar to survey results from 1989 and 1990 and once again demonstrate very widespread public opposition by Nevadans to the current federal repository program

  3. Assessment of the Farm Management of Culling Cattle: A Survey of Existing Practices and Suggestions for Drafting of Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattasi, Alessandro Russo; Cesano, Lorenzo; Botta, Michelangelo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate different aspects regarding culled cattle and to suggest operating procedures for their correct management. Information collected in Piedmont region allowed for an assessment of the number of cattle put down on the farm, a quantification of slaughters performed in urgency and emergency (SUS/SES) and a headcount of those which died during farming. The survey highlighted the limited use of euthanasia or putting down compared to the number of cases of SUS/SES which were approximately ten times higher. If cattle displays severe health problems, such as a multifactorial disease like downer cow, the farmer has to decide rapidly the treatment to avoid cattle distress. A checklist has been developed and a flow chart has been revised to assist farmers and vets to quicken the decision-taking process and to manage the cattle in a more efficient manner. During this study a number of different problems have been stressed out. Particularly, the shortcomings in the training of operators commissioned to manage the animals, the inadequacy of structures used for the sheltering and slaughter of bovines on the farm, and differences in the operating procedures for culled cattle across the territory. From the obtained results, we can conclude that it is necessary to adopt a transversal approach, so that the information regarding these animals (welfare, health status, drug treatments and destination) will be uniform and adequate during all the steps of production, to ensure animal welfare and food safety. PMID:27800327

  4. Assessment of the farm management of culling cattle: a survey of existing practices and suggestions for drafting of best practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Russo Frattasi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate different aspects regarding culled cattle and to suggest operating procedures for their correct management. Information collected in Piedmont region allowed for an assessment of the number of cattle put down on the farm, a quantification of slaughters performed in urgency and emergency (SUS/SES and a headcount of those which died during farming. The survey highlighted the limited use of euthanasia or putting down compared to the number of cases of SUS/SES which were approximately ten times higher. If cattle displays severe health problems, such as a multifactorial disease like downer cow, the farmer has to decide rapidly the treatment to avoid cattle distress. A checklist has been developed and a flow chart has been revised to assist farmers and vets to quicken the decision-taking process and to manage the cattle in a more efficient manner. During this study a number of different problems have been stressed out. Particularly, the shortcomings in the training of operators commissioned to manage the animals, the inadequacy of structures used for the sheltering and slaughter of bovines on the farm, and differences in the operating procedures for culled cattle across the territory. From the obtained results, we can conclude that it is necessary to adopt a transversal approach, so that the information regarding these animals (welfare, health status, drug treatments and destination will be uniform and adequate during all the steps of production, to ensure animal welfare and food safety.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis and survey of Apis cerana strain of Sacbrood virus (AcSBV) in Taiwan suggests a recent introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Fone; Mehmood, Shahid; Huang, Shaokang; Chen, Yue-Wen; Ko, Chong-Yu; Su, Songkun

    2017-06-01

    The Sacbrood virus (SBV) is widely distributed in European honey bees, Apis mellifera. AcSBV, a distinct SBV strain in Asian honey bees (A. cerana) causes larva death before pupation and often depopulates colonies, leading to collapse. It is the most severe disease in A. cerana beekeeping. AcSBV infects A. cerana in most natural habitats, yet occurrences were not reported in Taiwan before 2015 and were not a concern for local beekeepers. However, in 2016, A. cerana beekeepers in central Taiwan reported SBV-like symptoms. We screened samples of larvae using RT-PCR and surveyed asymptomatic apiaries in north Taiwan. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that AcSBV isolates from central Taiwan were introduced; all isolates had high similarity in sequences to AcSBV genomes identified in mainland China, Vietnam, and Korea and distinct differences to SBV sequence identified in Taiwan. The overall prevalence in symptomatic colonies was low. No latent infections were detected in asymptomatic colonies. The AcSBV epizootic may not yet have reached its highest potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pension coverage among the baby boomers: initial findings from a 1993 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J R

    1994-01-01

    Using data from a series of supplements to the Current Population Survey, this article presents findings on workers' coverage under employer-sponsored retirement plans in 1993, and recent trends in coverage. The analysis focuses on workers 25-54, a group that includes the baby boom generation. Among all wage and salary workers in this age range (including government employees and part-time workers), 55 percent reported participating in a retirement plan on their current primary jobs, and an additional 3 percent were covered from other jobs. After a modest decline in the early 1980's, the coverage rate has remained essentially unchanged over the past 10 years, and limited data suggest that the baby boomers are doing about as well on pension coverage as older workers at similar points in their careers. Beneath this relative stability in overall coverage, however, at least two important changes have occurred: a significant narrowing of the gender gap in coverage and a shift in types of retirement plans. Increasing numbers of workers are being covered solely by 401(k)-type plans, a development that raises new uncertainties about the form and amount of future benefits. On the other hand, limited data in this study suggest that 401(k) plans may be serving their intended purpose for the majority of workers who have them.

  7. Editorial summary: findings from a survey on the Danish study progress reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarauw, Laura Louise; Madsen, Simon Ryberg

    The summary presents the key findings from the first comprehensive survey of what students expect of the Danish Study Progress Reform. The summarised report is based on a survey conducted among 4.354 university students, who were asked to assess how they expect to manage their time and prioritise...... their activities in light of the Study Progress Reform’s requirements for faster completion. The survey was distributed in April 2015 as part of a politically independent research project funded by the Danish Council for Independent Research/Humanities (FKK)....

  8. New Zealand dental technicians and continuing education: findings from a qualitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Vivienne R; Pang, Lilian C Y; Aarts, John M

    2012-06-01

    Under the 2003 Health Practitioners Competence Assurance (HPCA) Act, New Zealand registered dental technicians are subject to mandatory Continuing Professional Development (CPD) requirements. Internationally, little published literature has examined dental technicians' perspectives of CPD and CPD needs, and there is no published literature relating to the New Zealand context. Available research highlights the importance of CPD for maintaining high professional standards, ensuring patient safety, allowing dental technicians to keep abreast of current research and technological advances, fostering peer networks, and promoting job satisfaction. In 2009, an online open-ended questionnaire was developed to examine New Zealand dental and clinical dental technicians' perspectives of CPD and their perceived CPD needs. In total, 45 New Zealand registered dental technicians responded. Questionnaire responses provided rich qualitative insights into dental technicians' wide-ranging perceptions of CPD, factors that make CPD involvement more or less difficult and more or less desirable, and ways in which CPD access and relevance might be improved. This paper discusses the survey findings in the light of the existing literature on CPD and in relation to the unique New Zealand regulatory environment. It highlights the factors which respondents identified as shaping their CPD decisions, barriers to CPD engagement, perceived CPD needs, suggestions as to how the current CPD system could be improved, and areas for future research.

  9. The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) : Design, Current Status, and Selected Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Verhulst, Frank C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on

  10. The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): Design, Current Status, and Selected Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on continuity, discontinuity, risk, and protective…

  11. Marriage characteristics and reproductive health of adolescents in Turkey: findings from Demographic and Health Surveys 1998 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Sabahat; Adali, Tuğba

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent marriage is an important issue given its social and medical consequences. This study focuses on the recent trends in adolescent marriage and reproductive health in Turkey to provide insights for action. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys of 1998 and 2008 were used. Adolescent marriage and reproductive health indicators were assessed for urban-rural residences, demographic regions and educational levels. Logistic regression was used to predict marriage and birth in adolescence. Despite the decrease in the proportion of married adolescents from 1998 to 2008, the findings suggest no improvement in some marriage characteristics. In both surveys, over 60% of ever-married adolescents had been pregnant at least once. There is an increase in contraceptive use and antenatal care. Our findings showed that in Turkey, women living in rural areas, from poor households, with more traditional parental families, with less education, and who are not working are more likely to get married in their adolescent ages.

  12. GROUP FINDING IN THE STELLAR HALO USING PHOTOMETRIC SURVEYS: CURRENT SENSITIVITY AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sanjib; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Majewski, Steven R.; Bullock, James; Munoz, Ricardo R.

    2011-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) provided the first deep and global photometric catalogs of stars in our halo and not only clearly mapped its structure but also demonstrated the ubiquity of substructure within it. Future surveys promise to push such catalogs to ever increasing depths and larger numbers of stars. This paper examines what can be learned from current and future photometric databases using group-finding techniques. We compare groups recovered from a sample of M-giants from 2MASS with those found in synthetic surveys of simulated ΛCDM stellar halos that were built entirely from satellite accretion events and demonstrate broad consistency between the properties of the two sets. We also find that these recovered groups are likely to represent the majority of high-luminosity (L > 5 x 10 6 L sun ) satellites accreted within the last 10 Gyr and on orbits with apocenters within 100 kpc. However, the sensitivity of the M-giant survey to accretion events that were either ancient from low-luminosity objects or those on radial orbits is limited because of the low number of stars, bias toward high-metallicity stars, and the shallow depth (distance explored only out to 100 kpc from the Sun). We examine the extent to which these limitations are addressed by current and future surveys, in particular catalogs of main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) stars from SDSS and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and of RR Lyrae stars from LSST or PanSTARRS. The MSTO and RR Lyrae surveys are more sensitive to low-luminosity events (L ∼ 10 5 L sun or less) than the 2MASS M-giant sample. Additionally, RR Lyrae surveys, with superior depth, are also good at detecting events on highly eccentric orbits whose debris tends to lie beyond 100 kpc. When combined we expect these photometric surveys to provide a comprehensive picture of the last 10 Gyr of Galactic accretion. Events older than this are too phase mixed to be discovered. Pushing

  13. Source finding in linear polarization for LOFAR, and SKA predecessor surveys, using Faraday moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnes, J. S.; Heald, G.; Junklewitz, H.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Haverkorn, M.; Van Eck, C. L.; Riseley, C. J.; Brentjens, M.; Horellou, C.; Vacca, V.; Jones, D. I.; Horneffer, A.; Paladino, R.

    2018-03-01

    The optimal source-finding strategy for linear polarization data is an unsolved problem, with many inhibitive factors imposed by the technically challenging nature of polarization observations. Such an algorithm is essential for Square Kilometre Array (SKA) pathfinder surveys, such as the Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR), as data volumes are significant enough to prohibit manual inspection. We present a new strategy of `Faraday Moments' for source-finding in linear polarization with LOFAR, using the moments of the frequency-dependent full-Stokes data (i.e. the mean, standard deviation, skewness, and excess kurtosis). Through simulations of the sky, we find that moments can identify polarized sources with a high completeness: 98.5 per cent at a signal to noise of 5. While the method has low reliability, rotation measure (RM) synthesis can be applied per candidate source to filter out instrumental and spurious detections. This combined strategy will result in a complete and reliable catalogue of polarized sources that includes the full sensitivity of the observational bandwidth. We find that the technique can reduce the number of pixels on which RM Synthesis needs to be performed by a factor of ≈1 × 105 for source distributions anticipated with modern radio telescopes. Through tests on LOFAR data, we find that the technique works effectively in the presence of diffuse emission. Extensions of this method are directly applicable to other upcoming radio surveys such as the POlarization Sky Survey of the Universe's Magnetism with the Australia Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder, and the SKA itself.

  14. Preparing for severe contrast media reactions in children - results of a national survey, a literature review and a suggested protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.; Paterson, A.; Edgar, D.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To identify current practices within paediatric radiology in the UK with regard to the use of prophylactic medication, prior to administering intravenous (IV) radiocontrast medium (RCM). In addition, the pre-injection risk management strategies of the departments questioned was to be evaluated, and using consensus opinion, a protocol for managing patients identified as being at high risk for an adverse reaction to RCM was to be outlined. Materials and methods: An online survey of paediatric radiology consultants representing all geographic regions of the UK was carried out. The questions asked included an assessment of the risk factors for adverse reactions to RCM, and how such reactions are anticipated and managed. The questionnaire asked about the perceived indications for, and the use of prophylactic medication prior to RCM administration. Results: A response rate of 51% was achieved. The majority of respondents felt that a history of previous RCM reaction was an indication to administer prophylactic drugs prior to a further dose of RCM. No other risk factor was believed to require prophylactic medication. Conclusion: Using information obtained from the survey, a literature search was performed to assess the evidence available in support of each practice. A protocol was devised to identify children at risk of an adverse reaction to RCM, and guide the use of prophylactic medication in this group of patients. The survey highlighted considerable variability in the risk-assessment and management practices within paediatric radiology in the UK. The derived protocol may guide radiologists' management of children at risk for an RCM reaction.

  15. Pilot Survey of Physician Assistants Regarding Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Providers Suggests Role for Workplace Nondiscrimination Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewton, Tiffany A; Lingas, Elena O

    2015-12-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) medical providers in the United States have historically faced discrimination from their peers. To assess current workplace culture and attitudes, and to evaluate awareness of workplace and professional policies regarding LGBT discrimination, we sent a cross-sectional survey to 163 PAs (Physician Assistants). Respondents had an overall positive attitude towards LGBT providers, yet the majority was not aware of relevant policy statements (>60%). A significant association existed between policy awareness and LGBT inclusivity (Pharassment (P=.017). Despite improved societal attitudes toward LGBT providers, non-discriminatory work environments for LGBT physician assistants may relate to greater awareness of specific workplace policy standards.

  16. Access to and Satisfaction with Prenatal Care Among Pregnant Women with Physical Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Monika; Akobirshoev, Ilhom; Moring, Nechama Sammet; Long-Bellil, Linda; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Smith, Lauren D; Iezzoni, Lisa I

    2017-12-01

    Previous qualitative studies suggest that women with physical disabilities face disability-specific barriers and challenges related to prenatal care accessibility and quality. This study aims to examine the pregnancy and prenatal care experiences and needs of U.S. mothers with physical disabilities and their perceptions of their interactions with their maternity care clinicians. We conducted the first survey of maternity care access and experiences of women with physical disabilities from 37 states. The survey was disseminated in partnership with disability community agencies and via social media and targeted U.S. women with a range of physical disabilities who had given birth in the past 10 years. The survey included questions regarding prenatal care quality and childbirth and labor experiences. A total of 126 women with various physical disability types from 37 states completed the survey. Almost half of the respondents (53.2%) reported that their physical disability was a big factor in their selection of a maternity care provider and 40.3% of women reported that their prenatal care provider knew little or nothing about the impact of their physical disability on their pregnancy. Controlling for maternal demographic characteristics and use of mobility equipment, women who reported that their prenatal care provider lacked knowledge of disability and those who felt they were not given adequate information were more likely to report unmet needs for prenatal care. The findings from this study suggest the need for training and education for clinicians regarding the prenatal care needs of women with physical disabilities.

  17. Inequalities in health status among rural residents: EQ-5D findings from household survey China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Wei, Xiaolin; Ma, Aixia; Chung, Roger Y

    2014-05-19

    This study analyzed inequalities in health status among different socioeconomic and demographic rural residents covered by the New Rural Cooperative Medical System in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lian Yungang City, China. A total of 337 respondents, who were selected by using a multistage stratified systematic random sampling method, completed the surveys. A questionnaire consisting of EQ-5D and demographic and socioeconomic information was adopted for data collection, and was administered by face-to-face interviews. Multiple regression models were employed to examine the differences in the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and the EQ-5D dimensions. Compared with those with lower education attainment, the respondents with higher education levels tended to report a higher VAS score (β = 2.666, 95% CI: 0.978 to 6.310), and were less likely to suffer from pain/discomfort (OR = 3.968; 95% CI: 1.447 to 10.880). The singles were more likely than the married to report moderate or extreme problems in usual activities (OR = 4.583; 95% CI: 1.188 to 17.676) and mobility (OR = 10.666; 95% CI: 2.464 to 6.171). However, no statistically significant differences were identified between the respondents with different income levels in the VAS score and EQ-5D dimensions. This study suggests that the singles and the people with lower education levels are high-risk groups for poorer health status in the Chinese rural population. The findings from this study warrant further investigation.

  18. From Antarctica or Asia? New colonization scenario for Australian-New Guinean narrow mouth toads suggested from the findings on a mysterious genus Gastrophrynoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Norhayati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microhylidae is a geographically widespread family of anurans. Although several extensive molecular analyses have attempted to elucidate their subfamilial relationships, and correlate these with Mesozoic and Cenozoic continental drifts, consensus has not been reached. Further, generic level relationships have not been well investigated in some microhylid subfamilies, and therefore subfamilial affiliations of some genera are still unclear. To elucidate the phylogenetic positions of two mysterious Asian genera, Gastrophrynoides and Phrynella, and to better understand the trans-continental distributions of microhylid taxa, we performed molecular phylogenetic and dating analyses using the largest molecular dataset applied to these taxa to date. Results Six nuclear and two mitochondrial genes (approx. 8 kbp were sequenced from 22 microhylid frog species representing eight subfamilies. The maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses could not fully elucidate the subfamilial relationships, suggesting a rapid radiation of these taxa between 85 and 66 million years ago. In contrast, generic relationships of Asian microhylines were generally well resolved. Conclusion Our results clearly showed that one of two problematic Asian genera, Phrynella, was nested in the clade of the Asian subfamily Microhylinae. By contrast, Gastrophrynoides occupied the most basal position of the Australian-New Guinean subfamily Asterophryinae. The estimated divergence of Gastrophrynoides from other asterophryine was unexpectedly around 48 million years ago. Although a colonization scenario via Antarctica to the Australian-New Guinean landmass has been suggested for Asterophryinae, our finding suggested a novel colonization route via Indo-Eurasia.

  19. High-Percentage Pathological Findings in Obese Patients Suggest that Esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy Should Be Made Mandatory Prior to Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Mizelle; Bhasker, Aparna Govil; Kantharia, Nimisha S; Lakdawala, Muffazal

    2018-04-21

    ᅟ: Obesity is a global epidemic and will soon become the number one priority in healthcare management. Bariatric surgery causes a significant improvement in obesity and its related complications. Pre-operative esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) is done by several bariatric surgical teams across the world but is still not mandatory. To study the percentage of symptomatic and asymptomatic pathological EGD findings in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and to analyze whether these findings influence the eventual choice of bariatric surgery. All patients posted for bariatric surgery at our institute from January 2015 to March 2017 had a pre-operative EGD done by the same team of endoscopists. In this study, totally, 675 patients were assessed prior to routine bariatric surgery. 78.52% of all pre-operative patients had an abnormal EGD. The most common endoscopic abnormalities found were hiatus hernia (52.44%), gastritis (46.22%), presence of Helicobacter (H.) pylori (46.67%), reflux esophagitis (16.89%), Barrett's esophagus (1.78%), gastric erosions (13.19%), and polyps (7.41%). Fifty patients had upper gastrointestinal polyps: 41 in the stomach, 3 in the esophagus, and 6 in the duodenum, mostly benign hyperplastic or inflammatory polyps. Two patients had gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), 6 leiomyoma, and 6 neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Of those with endoscopic evidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), 70 (60.03%) of patients were asymptomatic. The pre-operative EGD findings resulted in a change of the planned surgical procedure in 67 (9.93%) patients. Our study suggests that a large percentage of patients undergoing bariatric surgery have pathologically significant endoscopic findings of which a significant number are asymptomatic; this can lead to a change in the planned bariatric procedure in a section of patients; hence, we believe that EGD should be made mandatory as a pre-operative investigation in all bariatric surgery patients.

  20. Trends in the Use of Premium and Discount Cigarette Brands: Findings from the ITC US Surveys (2002–2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Monica E.; Driezen, Pete; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Hyland, Andrew; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Cummings, K. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper was to examine trends in the use of premium and discount cigarette brands and determine correlates of type of brand used and brand switching. Methods Data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) US adult smoker cohort survey were analyzed. The total study sample included 6669 adult cigarette smokers recruited and followed from 2002 to 2011 over eight different survey waves. Each survey wave included an average of 1700 smokers per survey with replenishment of those lost to follow-up. Results Over the eight survey waves, a total of 260 different cigarette brands were reported by smokers, of which 17% were classified as premium and 83% as discount brands. Marlboro, Newport, and Camel were the most popular premium brands reported by smokers in our sample over all eight survey waves. The percentage of smokers using discount brands increased between 2002 and 2011, with a marked increase in brand switching from premium to discount cigarettes observed after 2009 corresponding to the $0.61 increase in the federal excise tax on cigarettes. Cigarette brand preferences varied by age group and income levels with younger, higher income smokers more likely to report smoking premium brand cigarettes, while older, middle and lower income, heavier smokers were more likely to report using discount brands. Conclusions Our data suggest that demographic and smoking trends favor the continued growth of low priced cigarette brands. From a tobacco control perspective, the findings from this study suggest that governments should consider enacting stronger minimum pricing laws in order to keep the base price of cigarettes high, since aggressive price marketing will likely continue to be used by manufacturers to compete for the shrinking pool of remaining smokers in the population. PMID:24092600

  1. Trends in the use of premium and discount cigarette brands: findings from the ITC US Surveys (2002-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Monica E; Driezen, Pete; Fong, Geoffrey T; Chaloupka, Frank J; Hyland, Andrew; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carpenter, Matthew J; Cummings, K Michael

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine trends in the use of premium and discount cigarette brands and determine correlates of type of brand used and brand switching. Data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) US adult smoker cohort survey were analysed. The total study sample included 6669 adult cigarette smokers recruited and followed from 2002 to 2011 over eight different survey waves. Each survey wave included an average of 1700 smokers per survey with replenishment of those lost to follow-up. Over the eight survey waves, a total of 260 different cigarette brands were reported by smokers, of which 17% were classified as premium and 83% as discount brands. Marlboro, Newport, and Camel were the most popular premium brands reported by smokers in our sample over all eight survey waves. The percentage of smokers using discount brands increased between 2002 and 2011, with a marked increase in brand switching from premium to discount cigarettes observed after 2009 corresponding to the $0.61 increase in the federal excise tax on cigarettes. Cigarette brand preferences varied by age group and income levels with younger, higher income smokers more likely to report smoking premium brand cigarettes, while older, middle and lower income, heavier smokers were more likely to report using discount brands. Our data suggest that demographic and smoking trends favour the continued growth of low priced cigarette brands. From a tobacco control perspective, the findings from this study suggest that governments should consider enacting stronger minimum pricing laws in order to keep the base price of cigarettes high, since aggressive price marketing will likely continue to be used by manufacturers to compete for the shrinking pool of remaining smokers in the population.

  2. Are EM surveys effective in finding drilling sumps in northern Alberta?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muloin, T.; Finlayson, N.

    2005-01-01

    Many non-intrusive environmental and geotechnical problems can be solved by using geophysical electromagnetic (EM) surveys. The oil and gas industry produces large volumes of brines containing hydrocarbons, which if spilled, cause soils to have elevated conductivities resulting from increases in pore water ionic strength. EM surveys are used to guide and reduce clean up costs by delineating and mapping salt impacted areas through the detection of faint changes in ground conductivity. Recent changes to Alberta Environment's well site reclamation certification process requires the delineation of all drilling sumps that do not have adequate drilling mud disposal information. As a result, EM surveys are used more frequently to find suspected saline drilling mud sumps as part of the second phase of a site assessment process. Data from several recent phase 2 site assessments were reviewed to determine if EM surveys are useful in locating drilling sumps. The sites included abandoned oil and gas leases throughout northern Alberta. Information from EM surveys was correlated with empirical lab data and on-site observations

  3. Civic life and democratic citizenship in Qatar: Findings from the First Qatar World Values Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gengler, Justin; Tessler, Mark; Al-Emadi, Darwish; Diop, Abdoulaye

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the Arab nation that has remained least affected by the regional upheaval that has gripped much of the Middle East and North Africa since the beginning of 2011: the Gulf state of Qatar. Using previously unavailable data from the inaugural Qatar World Values Survey administered in December 2010, we explore the political orientations of ordinary Qatari citizens. Specifically, we extend several recent empirical analyses that suggest a conditional relationship between c...

  4. Urban heat stress: novel survey suggests health and fitness as future avenue for research and adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Christian; Honold, Jasmin; Lauf, Steffen; Lakes, Tobia

    2017-04-01

    Extreme heat has tremendous adverse effects on human health. Heat stress is expected to further increase due to urbanization, an aging population, and global warming. Previous research has identified correlations between extreme heat and mortality. However, the underlying physical, behavioral, environmental, and social risk factors remain largely unknown and comprehensive quantitative investigation on an individual level is lacking. We conducted a new cross-sectional household questionnaire survey to analyze individual heat impairment (self-assessed and reported symptoms) and a large set of potential risk factors in the city of Berlin, Germany. This unique dataset (n = 474) allows for the investigation of new relationships, especially between health/fitness and urban heat stress. Our analysis found previously undocumented associations, leading us to generate new hypotheses for future research: various health/fitness variables returned the strongest associations with individual heat stress. Our primary hypothesis is that age, the most commonly used risk factor, is outperformed by health/fitness as a dominant risk factor. Related variables seem to more accurately represent humans’ cardiovascular capacity to handle elevated temperature. Among them, active travel was associated with reduced heat stress. We observed statistical associations for heat exposure regarding the individual living space but not for the neighborhood environment. Heat stress research should further investigate individual risk factors of heat stress using quantitative methodologies. It should focus more on health and fitness and systematically explore their role in adaptation strategies. The potential of health and fitness to reduce urban heat stress risk means that encouraging active travel could be an effective adaptation strategy. Through reduced CO2 emissions from urban transport, societies could reap double rewards by addressing two root causes of urban heat stress: population health and

  5. Characteristics of residential energy consumption in China: Findings from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xinye; Wei, Chu; Qin, Ping; Guo, Jin; Yu, Yihua; Song, Feng; Chen, Zhanming

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of 1450 households in 26 Chinese provinces was undertaken in 2012 to identify the characteristics and potential driving forces of residential energy consumption in China. The survey covers six areas: household characteristics, dwelling characteristics, kitchen and home appliances, space heating and cooling, residential transportation, and electricity billing, metering, and pricing options. The results show that a typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms standard coal equivalent, which is approximately 44 percent of the 2009 level in the United States and 38 percent of the 2008 level in the EU-27. District heating, natural gas, and electricity are three major residential energy sources, while space heating, cooking, and water heating are three major end-use activities. Moreover, the results suggest a large urban–rural gap in terms of energy sources and purpose of usage. Commercial energy is used mainly for space heating in urban areas, while biomass dominates mainly for cooking purpose in rural areas. The survey results can help decision makers and scholars identify energy conservation opportunities, and evaluate the effectiveness of energy policies. - Highlights: • We develop the first comprehensive survey of residential energy consumption in China. • A typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms coal equivalent. • Space heating accounts for half of energy demand. • A large rural–urban gap exists in terms of energy sources and end-use activities. • Results reveal challenges and opportunities for China's energy policy

  6. How do adolescent girls and boys perceive symptoms suggestive of endometriosis among their peers? Findings from focus group discussions in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jhumka; Cardoso, Lauren F; Harris, Courtney S; Dance, Arielle D; Seckin, Tamer; Baker, Nina; Ferguson, Yvonne O

    2018-06-04

    Symptoms of endometriosis, including pelvic pain, back and nerve pain, and gastrointestinal pain, often begin in adolescence. Yet, research on the experience of these debilitating symptoms among young people is scarce. Of particular concern is the influence of adolescent girls' social context. This study qualitatively examined how, among adolescents, endometriosis and symptoms suggestive of endometriosis is perceived at the family, peer/school and community/society levels. Eight focus groups were conducted; vignettes were used to elicit participants' perceptions of factors that may shape girls' experiences of endometriosis. Data were analysed using constant comparison analysis. An ethnically diverse sample of girls and boys ages 14-18 (n=54) residing in New York City. Fifteen themes emerged and were distilled to eight cross-cutting factors that influence perceptions of endometriosis at different levels of the ecological model: distrust of community healthcare providers, societal stigma of menstruation, peer stigma of endometriosis symptoms, distrust of school healthcare providers, lack of endometriosis knowledge among peers and school personnel, inequitable gender norms, invisibility of symptoms and the stigma of teen sex among parents. Further, these factors may compound symptoms' impact on individual girl's social, educational and emotional well-being. Findings underscore the importance of understanding the social environment of girls experiencing symptoms suggestive of endometriosis and educating and engaging their peers, family and school personnel to create a supportive, informed social climate. Efforts should specifically include stigma reduction campaigns targeted towards female and male adolescents. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Applying species-tree analyses to deep phylogenetic histories: challenges and potential suggested from a survey of empirical phylogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Hayley C; Knowles, L Lacey

    2015-02-01

    difficulties with MCMC convergence and estimation of requisite population genetic parameters for coalescent-based approaches. Despite these difficulties, the findings generally support the utility of species-tree analyses for the estimation of species relationships throughout the ToL. We discuss strategies for successful application of species-tree approaches to deep phylogenies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Income Inequality and Adolescent Gambling Severity: Findings from a Large-Scale Italian Representative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natale Canale

    2017-08-01

    factor that increases the likelihood of becoming an at-risk or problem gambler. Findings of the study suggest that wealth distribution within societies affected by economic policies may indirectly have an influence adolescent gambling behaviors.

  9. A small unconditional non-financial incentive suggests an increase in survey response rates amongst older general practitioners (GPs): a randomised controlled trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pit, Sabrina Winona; Hansen, Vibeke; Ewald, Dan

    2013-07-30

    Few studies have investigated the effect of small unconditional non-monetary incentives on survey response rates amongst GPs or medical practitioners. This study assessed the effectiveness of offering a small unconditional non-financial incentive to increase survey response rates amongst general practitioners within a randomised controlled trial (RCT). An RCT was conducted within a general practice survey that investigated how to prolong working lives amongst ageing GPs in Australia. GPs (n = 125) were randomised to receive an attractive pen or no pen during their first invitation for participation in a survey. GPs could elect to complete the survey online or via mail. Two follow up reminders were sent without a pen to both groups. The main outcome measure was response rates. The response rate for GPs who received a pen was higher in the intervention group (61.9%) compared to the control group (46.8%). This study did not find a statistically significant effect of a small unconditional non-financial incentive (in the form of a pen) on survey response rates amongst GPs (Odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.85 (0.91 to 3.77). No GPs completed the online version. A small unconditional non-financial incentives, in the form of a pen, may improve response rates for GPs.

  10. Mortality patterns in Vietnam, 2006: Findings from a national verbal autopsy survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair Timothy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate nationally representative statistics on total and cause-specific mortality in Vietnam are lacking due to incomplete capture in government reporting systems. This paper presents total and cause-specific mortality results from a national verbal autopsy survey conducted first time in Vietnam in conjunction with the annual population change survey and discusses methodological and logistical challenges associated with the implementation of a nation-wide assessment of mortality based on surveys. Verbal autopsy interviews, using the WHO standard questionnaire, were conducted with close relatives of the 6798 deaths identified in the 2007 population change survey in Vietnam. Data collectors were health staff recruited from the commune health station who undertook 3-day intensive training on VA interview. The Preston-Coale method assessed the level of completeness of mortality reporting from the population change survey. The number of deaths in each age-sex grouping is inflated according to the estimate of completeness to produce an adjusted number of deaths. Underlying causes of death were aggregated to the International Classification of Diseases Mortality Tabulation List 1. Leading causes of death were tabulated by sex for three broad age groups: 0-14 years; 15-59 years; and 60 years and above. Findings Completeness of mortality reporting was 69% for males and 54% for females with substantial regional variation. The use of VA has resulted in 10% of deaths being classified to ill-defined among males, and 15% among females. More ill-defined deaths were reported among the 60 year or above age group. Incomplete death reporting, wide geographical dispersal of deaths, extensive travel between households, and substantial variation in local responses to VA interviews challenged the implementation of a national mortality and cause of death assessment based on surveys. Conclusions Verbal autopsy can be a viable tool to identify cause

  11. Factors Associated With Volunteering Among Racial/Ethnic Groups: Findings From the California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly J; Lee, S Hannah

    2017-06-01

    The present study investigated how volunteering was influenced by individual resources and social capital among four racial/ethnic groups of adults aged 50 and older. The data came from the California Health Interview Survey, a statewide sample that includes non-Hispanic Whites ( n = 18,927), non-Hispanic Asians ( n = 2,428), non-Hispanic Blacks ( n = 1,265), and Hispanics ( n = 3,799). Logistic regression models of volunteering were estimated to explore the effects of human and social capital within and across the racial/ethnic groups. Compared to Whites, racial/ethnic minority adults volunteered less. Although education was a significant predictor of volunteering across all groups, the findings indicated group-specific factors related to human and social capital. Results showed similarities and differences associated with volunteer participation among diverse racial/ethnic groups. The findings underscore the importance of understanding ways of creating inclusive opportunities for civic engagement among an increasingly diverse population.

  12. Organizational Religious Behavior among Older African Americans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Wallace, John M; Jackson, James S

    2009-07-01

    This study utilizes data from the older African American sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (n=837) to examine the sociodemographic and denominational correlates of organizational religious involvement among older African Americans. Six measures of organizational religious participation are utilized, including two measures of time allocation for organized religious pursuits. The findings indicate significant gender, region, marital status and denominational differences in organizational religiosity. Of particular note, although older black women generally displayed higher levels of religious participation, older black men spent more hours per week in other activities at their place of worship. The findings are discussed in relation to prior work in the area of religious involvement among older adults. New directions for research on religious time allocation are outlined.

  13. Findings from the 2011 EBRI/MGA Consumer Engagement in Health Care Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, Paul

    2011-12-01

    SEVENTH ANNUAL SURVEY: This Issue Brief presents findings from the 2011 EBRI/MGA Consumer Engagement in Health Care Survey. This study is based on an online survey of 4,703 privately insured adults ages 21-64 to provide nationally representative data regarding the growth of consumer-driven health plans (CDHPs) and high-deductible health plans (HDHPs), and the impact of these plans and consumer engagement more generally on the behavior and attitudes of adults with private health insurance coverage. Findings from this survey are compared with EBRI's findings from earlier surveys. ENROLLMENT CONTINUES TO GROW: The survey finds continued growth in consumer-driven health plans: In 2011, 7 percent of the population was enrolled in a CDHP, up from 5 percent in 2010. Enrollment in HDHPs increased from 14 percent in 2010 to 16 percent in 2011. The 7 percent of the population with a CDHP represents 8.4 million adults ages 21-64 with private insurance, while the 16 percent with a HDHP represents 19.3 million people. Among the 19.3 million individuals with an HDHP, 38 percent (or 7.3 million) reported that they were eligible for a health savings ccount (HSA) but did not have such an account. Overall, 15.8 million adults ages 21-64 with private insurance, representing 13.1 percent of that market, were either in a CDHP or were in an HDHP that was eligible for an HSA but had not opened the account. When their children are counted, about 21 million individuals with private insurance, representing about 12 percent of the market, were either in a CDHP or an HSA-eligible plan. MORE COST-CONSCIOUS BEHAVIOR: Individuals in CDHPs were more likely than those with traditional coverage to exhibit a number of cost-conscious behaviors. They were more likely to say that they had checked whether their plan would cover care; asked for a generic drug instead of a brand name; talked to their doctor about treatment options and costs; talked to their doctor about prescription drug options and costs

  14. Where to Publish and Find Ontologies? A Survey of Ontology Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Aquin, Mathieu; Noy, Natalya F.

    2011-01-01

    One of the key promises of the Semantic Web is its potential to enable and facilitate data interoperability. The ability of data providers and application developers to share and reuse ontologies is a critical component of this data interoperability: if different applications and data sources use the same set of well defined terms for describing their domain and data, it will be much easier for them to “talk” to one another. Ontology libraries are the systems that collect ontologies from different sources and facilitate the tasks of finding, exploring, and using these ontologies. Thus ontology libraries can serve as a link in enabling diverse users and applications to discover, evaluate, use, and publish ontologies. In this paper, we provide a survey of the growing—and surprisingly diverse—landscape of ontology libraries. We highlight how the varying scope and intended use of the libraries a ects their features, content, and potential exploitation in applications. From reviewing eleven ontology libraries, we identify a core set of questions that ontology practitioners and users should consider in choosing an ontology library for finding ontologies or publishing their own. We also discuss the research challenges that emerge from this survey, for the developers of ontology libraries to address. PMID:22408576

  15. Chinese Smokers’ Cigarette Purchase Behaviors, Cigarette Prices and Consumption: Findings from the ITC China Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background While cigarette purchasing behavior has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviors and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world’s largest cigarette consumer. Objective The goal of this study is to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviors, and estimate the impact of these behaviors on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socio-economic differences in compensatory purchase behaviors, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviors, cigarette prices, and cigarette consumption. Methods Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations (GEE) method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves - Wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), Wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and Wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010) - of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers’ self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviors were analyzed. Findings Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase

  16. Monitoring HIV Prevention Programme Outcomes among Key Populations in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinita Bhattacharjee

    Full Text Available In preparation for the implementation of the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/15-2018/19, the Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme facilitated a national polling booth survey as part of a baseline assessment of HIV-related risk behaviours among FSWs, MSM, and PWID, and their utilization of existing preventive interventions, as well as structural factors that may influence KPs' vulnerability to HIV. The survey was conducted among "key populations" (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs to understand current HIV risk and prevention behaviours, utilization of existing programmes and services, and experiences of violence. In total, 3,448 female sex workers, 1,308 men who have sex with men, and 690 people who inject drugs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth survey sessions from seven priority sites. Survey responses were aggregated and descriptive statistics derived. In general, reported condom use among all key populations was quite high with paying clients, and lower with regular, non-paying partners. Many participants reported unavailability of condoms or clean injecting equipment within the past month. Exposure to, and utilization of, existing HIV prevention services varied significantly among the groups, and was reported least commonly by female sex workers. Encouragingly, approximately three-quarters of all key population members reported receiving an HIV test in the past three months. All key population groups reported experiencing high levels of physical and sexual violence from partners/clients, and/or arrest and violence by law enforcement officials. Although some of the findings are encouraging, there is room for improvement in HIV prevention programmes and services for key populations across Kenya.

  17. Differences in perception: How the experts look at energy efficiency (findings from a Finnish survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virkki-Hatakka, Terhi; Luoranen, Mika; Ikävalko, Markku

    2013-01-01

    Using energy efficiently is generally considered to be essential for a continuing prosperous future. As a result, improving efficiency has become a focus of attention, and recently a lot of time and effort has been expended to develop new energy efficiency methodologies and technologies. Considering the amount of focused attention, the rate of improvement has not been encouraging. Human behaviour is an important factor of the energy efficiency challenge, and research has revealed several consumer profiles with significantly different perceptions on energy issues. In this study, the focus is not on consumers but on energy efficiency professionals. A number of Finnish energy efficiency professionals from both the private and public sectors were surveyed revealing that experts have decidedly different perceptions regarding energy efficiency. Our analysis of survey results suggests that energy efficiency expertise comes from a variety of educational and professional backgrounds, and that instead of working on common ground, experts with differing perspectives are endeavouring to make progress in a complex and multifaceted arena. Focusing on specific areas in which players need to share a common understanding of terminology and where common and clearly stated goals can be established should result in an acceleration of efficiency improvement results. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency professionals from both private and public sectors were surveyed. • Perceptions of energy efficiency vary, which delays improvement progress. • The educational background and professional affiliation do influence to perceptions. • For energy efficiency progress, target-audience specific guiding actions are needed

  18. Evidence-based speech-language pathology practices in schools: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lavae M; Ireland, Marie; Hall-Mills, Shannon; Flynn, Perry

    2013-07-01

    This study documented evidence-based practice (EBP) patterns as reported by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) employed in public schools during 2010-2011. Using an online survey, practioners reported their EBP training experiences, resources available in their workplaces, and the frequency with which they engage in specific EBP activities, as well as their resource needs and future training format preferences. A total of 2,762 SLPs in 28 states participated in the online survey, 85% of whom reported holding the Certificate of Clinical Competence in Speech-Language Pathology credential. Results revealed that one quarter of survey respondents had no formal training in EBP, 11% of SLPs worked in school districts with official EBP procedural guidelines, and 91% had no scheduled time to support EBP activities. The majority of SLPs posed and researched 0 to 2 EBP questions per year and read 0 to 4 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) journal articles per year on either assessment or intervention topics. Use of ASHA online resources and engagement in EBP activities were documented to be low. However, results also revealed that school-based SLPs have high interest in additional training and resources to support scientifically based practices. Suggestions for enhancing EBP support in public schools and augmenting knowledge transfer are provided.

  19. Institutional racism in public health contracting: Findings of a nationwide survey from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Came, H; Doole, C; McKenna, B; McCreanor, T

    2018-02-01

    Public institutions within New Zealand have long been accused of mono-culturalism and institutional racism. This study sought to identify inconsistencies and bias by comparing government funded contracting processes for Māori public health providers (n = 60) with those of generic providers (n = 90). Qualitative and quantitative data were collected (November 2014-May 2015), through a nationwide telephone survey of public health providers, achieving a 75% response rate. Descriptive statistical analyses were applied to quantitative responses and an inductive approach was taken to analyse data from open-ended responses in the survey domains of relationships with portfolio contract managers, contracting and funding. The quantitative data showed four sites of statistically significant variation: length of contracts, intensity of monitoring, compliance costs and frequency of auditing. Non-significant data involved access to discretionary funding and cost of living adjustments, the frequency of monitoring, access to Crown (government) funders and representation on advisory groups. The qualitative material showed disparate provider experiences, dependent on individual portfolio managers, with nuanced differences between generic and Māori providers' experiences. This study showed that monitoring government performance through a nationwide survey was an innovative way to identify sites of institutional racism. In a policy context where health equity is a key directive to the health sector, this study suggests there is scope for New Zealand health funders to improve their contracting practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Working Conditions and Lifestyle of Female Surgeons Affiliated to the Japan Neurosurgical Society: Findings of Individual and Institutional Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Takamitsu; Shibui, Soichiro; Kato, Yoko; Matsumura, Akira; Yamasaki, Mami; Date, Isao; Hongo, Kazuhiro; Kuroda, Satoshi; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Nakao, Naoyuki; Sakurada, Kaori; Shimokawa, Shoko; Kayama, Takamasa

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the working conditions of female neurosurgeons in Japan, two surveys were conducted by The Japan Neurosurgical Society: one involving female neurosurgeons themselves and the other involving the chiefs of neurosurgical departments. The responses were received from 224 (43.8%) female neurosurgeons and 496 (61.2%) departmental chiefs. About half (50.2%) of the female neurosurgeons were married and 39.2% had children (average number of children, 1.27). Their work was full-time in 80.6% of cases; on average, they worked 51.9 h per week, had night duty 2.8 times per month, and had 5.7 days off per month. Many of them stated that they were satisfied with their job status, but about half of them reported difficulty in maintaining a correct work-life balance. Among the institutions surveyed, 29% had female neurosurgeons. The survey of departmental chiefs revealed that the proxies for maternity leave were not available at most institutions, and that there was only limited availability of night child care (41%) or sick child care (39%); female neurosurgeons did not appear to be well-informed of these support systems. These findings suggest that apart from systematic approaches already in place, female neurosurgeons would prefer to have more understanding from their peers and chiefs.

  1. Going solo: Findings from a survey of women aging without a partner and who do not have children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Lambert, Nicky; Long, Ellouise; Brady, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Greater longevity in the UK population has led to the increasing diversity of women experiencing aging in a multitude of ways. Internationally, gender inequalities in aging are still relatively invisible within both government policy and everyday life for particular groups of women. This article explores the concept of women growing older "solo"-by which we mean women who find themselves nonpartnered and aging without children as they move into later life. We report on the findings from a mixed-methods survey of 76 solo women in the UK aged 50 years and over, used to provide a broader overview of the issues and challenges they face as they move into later life. Qualitative data from the survey captured respondents' perspectives about the links between their relationships status and well-being in later life and highlighted specific cumulative disadvantages emerging for some women as a result of their solo lifestyles. We discuss two key themes that were identified, "solo-loneliness" and "meaningful futures," in conjunction with the relevant literature and make suggestions for future research within gender and aging studies that could enhance more positive approaches to solo lifestyles.

  2. Findings from a Clinical Learning Needs Survey at Ireland's first children's hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Claire; Hillis, Rowan

    2015-12-01

    Caring for children with life-limiting conditions places exceptional demands on health professionals. Staff require the optimal skills and expertise necessary to provide the highest quality of care and to achieve this it is essential to understand their learning requirements. The aim is to share the main findings from a Clinical Learning Needs Survey conducted at LauraLynn, currently Ireland's only children's hospice. To date no other Irish service has conducted a formal identification of professional learning and development needs specific to the Irish context. The findings from the study assist workforce planning by providing a glimpse into the immediate study needs of staff working in a children's palliative care setting. The study had two main aims: a) Assist clinical staff within one organisation to identify their own professional learning priorities in children's palliative care and b) Inform the design and delivery of a responsive suite of workshops, programmes and study sessions for children's palliative care. The study identified the key learning needs as end-of-life care, palliative emergencies, communication skill development and bereavement support. These findings are similar to those found internationally and demonstrate the commitment of a new organisation to ensure that specific employee learning requirements are met if the organisation and wider specialty of Irish children's palliative care is to continue its evolution.

  3. Low Back Pain Prevalence and Associated Factors in Iranian Population: Findings from the National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Biglarian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are very few studies that had a sample size sufficient to explore the association between factors related to low back pain in a representative sample of the Iranian population. Objective. To examine the relationship between sociodemographic factors, smoking, obesity, and low back pain in Iranian people. Methods. We used Iranian adults respondents (n=25307 from the National Health Survey. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of low back pain was found in 29.3% of the studied sample. High age, female sex, being married, obesity, low-economic index, being smoker, in a rural residence, and low educational attainment, all increased the odds of low back pain. Conclusions. Our findings add to the evidence on the importance of obesity in relation to low back pain. These results can be used as a basis to reinforce health programs to prevent obesity.

  4. Findings From the INANE Survey on Student Papers Submitted to Nursing Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Maureen Shawn; Newland, Jamesetta A; Owens, Jacqueline K

    Nursing students are often encouraged or required to submit scholarly work for consideration for publication but most manuscripts or course assignment papers do not meet journal standards and consume valuable resources from editors and peer reviewers. The International Academy of Nursing Editors (INANE) is a group of nurse editors and publishers dedicated to promoting best practices in publishing in the nursing literature. In August 2014, editors at INANE's annual meeting voiced frustrations over multiple queries, poorly written student papers, and lack of proper behavior in following through. This article describes the findings of a survey distributed to INANE members to seek feedback about submissions by students. Fifty-three (53) members responded to an online anonymous survey developed by the INANE Student Papers Work Group. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics for Likert-type questions and content analysis of open-ended questions. Quantitative data revealed that most editors reported problems with student papers across all levels of graduate programs. Six themes emerged from the qualitative data: submissions fail to follow author guidelines; characteristics of student submissions; lack of professional behavior from students; lack of professional behavior from faculty; editor responses to student submissions; and faculty as mentors. These themes formed the basis for recommendations and strategies to improve student scholarly writing. Overall, editors endorsed supporting new scholars in the publication process but faculty engagement was integral to student success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of smoking cessation between education groups: findings from 2 US National Surveys over 2 decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yue-Lin; Gamst, Anthony C; Cummins, Sharon E; Wolfson, Tanya; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2015-02-01

    We examined smoking cessation rate by education and determined how much of the difference can be attributed to the rate of quit attempts and how much to the success of these attempts. We analyzed data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, 1991-2010) and the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS, 1992-2011). Smokers (≥ 25 years) were divided into lower- and higher-education groups (≤ 12 years and >12 years). A significant difference in cessation rate between the lower- and the higher-education groups persisted over the last 2 decades. On average, the annual cessation rate for the former was about two thirds that of the latter (3.5% vs 5.2%; Peducation group have consistently lagged behind their higher-education counterparts in quitting. In addition to the usual concern about improving their success in quitting, tobacco control programs need to find ways to increase quit attempts in this group.

  6. Marketing health educators to employers: survey findings, interpretations, and considerations for the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambescia, Stephen F; Cottrell, Randall R; Capwell, Ellen; Auld, M Elaine; Mullen Conley, Kathleen; Lysoby, Linda; Goldsmith, Malcolm; Smith, Becky

    2009-10-01

    In July 2007, a market research report was produced by Hezel Associates on behalf of five sponsoring health education profession member organizations and the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing. The purpose of the survey was to learn about current or potential employers' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward health educators and the health education profession and their future hiring practices. This article presents the background leading up to the production of this report, the major findings of the survey of employers, recommendations from the market research group regarding core messages, and implications for the profession having discovered for the first time information about employers' understanding of professionally prepared health educators. The article discusses the umbrella and key messages that may be incorporated into a marketing plan and other recommendations by the firm that should assist health educators in marketing the profession. Furthermore, this article presents reactions by leaders in this field to these messages and recommendations and concludes with next steps in this project and a call for the overall need to market the profession of health education.

  7. Beliefs about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults in Cambodia: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yel, Daravuth; Bui, Anthony; Job, Jayakaran S; Knutsen, Synnove; Singh, Pramil N

    2013-09-01

    There remains a very high rate of smoked and smokeless tobacco use in the Western Pacific Region. The most recent findings from national adult tobacco surveys indicate that very few daily users of tobacco intend to quit tobacco use. In Cambodia, a nation that is predominantly Buddhist, faith-based tobacco control programs have been implemented where, under the fifth precept of Buddhism that proscribes addictive behaviors, monks were encouraged to quit tobacco and temples have been declared smoke-free. In the present study, we included items on a large national tobacco survey to examine the relation between beliefs (faith-based, other) about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults (18 years and older). In a stratified, multistage cluster sample (n=13,988) of all provinces of Cambodia, we found that (1) 88-93% believe that Buddhist monks should not use tobacco, buy tobacco, or be offered tobacco during a religious ceremony; (2) 86-93% believe that the Wat (temple) should be a smoke-free area; (3) 93-95% believe that tobacco is addictive in the same way as habits (opium, gambling, alcohol) listed under the fifth precept of Buddhism; and (4) those who do not use tobacco are significantly more likely to cite a Buddhist principle as part of their anti-tobacco beliefs. These data indicate that anti-tobacco sentiments are highly prevalent in the Buddhist belief system of Cambodian adults and are especially evident among non-users of tobacco. Our findings indicate that faith-based initiatives could be an effective part of anti-tobacco campaigns in Cambodia.

  8. The pediatric resident training on tobacco project: baseline findings from the Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymowitz, Norman; Schwab, Joseph; Haddock, Christopher keith; Pyle, Sara; Moore, Glenisha; Meshberg, Sarah

    2005-07-01

    Pediatricians have an important and unique role to play in the anti-tobacco arena. They may prevent relapse to smoking in women who stopped smoking during pregnancy, encourage parents to protect infants and young children from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), prevent the onset of smoking in children and adolescents, and help patients and parents who smoke or use other forms of tobacco to quit. Unfortunately, few pediatricians intervene on tobacco use or ETS, and few pediatric residency training programs prepare residents to address tobacco. The Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project is a 4-year randomized prospective study of the effectiveness of training pediatric residents to intervene on tobacco in patients and parents. In this paper, we present findings from the Baseline Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey. Fifteen pediatric residency training programs participated in the Pediatric Residency Training on Tobacco Project, and they were assigned randomly to special and standard training conditions. The Baseline Parent/Guardian Tobacco Survey was administered to 1770 participants, a minimum of 100 from each site. The Parent/Guardian Survey was designed to describe the population under study. It addressed demographic information, family tobacco use, rules concerning smoking in the home and elsewhere, smoking behavior and beliefs, and parent/guardian reports of resident intervention on tobacco. Data analyses described the population served by Continuity Clinics associated with the pediatric residency training programs and determined the degree to which residents addressed tobacco in parents/guardians. The parents/guardians were primarily low-income African American and Hispanic females. Approximately 20% reported that they smoked cigarettes, and about 60% prohibited smoking in their home. Seventy percent of the parents reported that the resident asked about cigarette smoking, and about half indicated that the resident talked with them about ETS. However, only

  9. Survey of college climates at all 28 US colleges and schools of veterinary medicine: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Lisa M; Carmichael, K Paige

    2014-01-01

    In April 2011, a nationwide survey of all 28 US veterinary schools was conducted to determine the comfort level (college climate) of veterinary medical students with people from whom they are different. The original hypothesis was that some historically underrepresented students, especially those who may exhibit differences from the predominant race, ethnicity, religion, gender, or sexual orientation, experience a less welcoming college climate. Nearly half of all US students responded to the survey, allowing investigators to make conclusions from the resulting data at a 99% CI with an error rate of less than 2% using Fowler's sample-size formula. Valuable information was captured despite a few study limitations, such as occasional spurious data reporting and little ability to respond in an open-ended manner (most questions had a finite number of allowed responses). The data suggest that while overall the majority of the student population is comfortable in American colleges, some individuals who are underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM) may not feel the same level of acceptance or inclusivity on veterinary school campuses. Further examination of these data sets may explain some of the unacceptably lower retention rates of some of these URVM students on campuses.

  10. Widespread survey finds no evidence of Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) in Gulf of Mexico oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Susan E; Paterno, Jenny; Scarpa, Emily; Stokes, Nancy A; Kim, Yungkul; Powell, Eric N; Bushek, David

    2011-02-22

    The advent of molecular detection assays has provided a set of very sensitive tools for the detection of pathogens in marine organisms, but it has also raised problems of how to interpret positive signals that are not accompanied by visual confirmation. PCR-positive results have recently been reported for Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX), a pathogen of the oyster Crassostrea virginica in 31 of 40 oysters from 6 sites in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Histological confirmation of the PCR results was not undertaken, and no haplosporidian has been reported from the numerous histological studies and surveys of oysters in the region. To further investigate the possibility that H. nelsoni is present in this region, we sampled 210 oysters from 40 sites around the Gulf of Mexico and Puerto Rico using PCR and 180 of these using tissue-section histology also. None of the oysters showed evidence of H. nelsoni by PCR or of any haplosporidian by histology. We cannot, therefore, confirm that H. nelsoni is present and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Our results do not prove that H. nelsoni is absent from the region, but taken together with results from previous histological surveys, they suggest that for the purposes of controlling oyster importation, the region should continue to be considered free of the parasite.

  11. Findings from the 2012 EBRI/MGA Consumer Engagement in Health Care Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, Paul

    2012-12-01

    The 2012 EBRI/MGA Consumer Engagement in Health Care Survey finds continued slow growth in consumer-driven health plans: 10 percent of the population was enrolled in a CDHP, up from 7 percent in 2011. Enrollment in HDHPs remained at 16 percent. Overall, 18.6 million adults ages 21-64 with private insurance, representing 15.4 percent of that market, were either in a CDHP or were in an HDHP that was eligible for an HSA. When their children were counted, about 25 million individuals with private insurance, representing about 14.6 percent of the market, were either in a CDHP or an HSA-eligible plan. This study finds evidence that adults in a CDHP and those in an HDHP were more likely than those in a traditional plan to exhibit a number of cost-conscious behaviors. While CDHP enrollees, HDHP enrollees, and traditional-plan enrollees were about equally likely to report that they made use of quality information provided by their health plan, CDHP enrollees were more likely to use cost information and to try to find information about their doctors' costs and quality from sources other than the health plan. CDHP enrollees were more likely than traditional-plan enrollees to take advantage of various wellness programs, such as health-risk assessments, health-promotion programs, and biometric screenings. In addition, financial incentives mattered more to CDHP enrollees than to traditional-plan enrollees. It is clear that the underlying characteristics of the populations enrolled in these plans are different: Adults in a CDHP were significantly more likely to report being in excellent or very good health. Adults in a CDHP and those in a HDHP were significantly less likely to smoke than were adults in a traditional plan, and they were significantly more likely to exercise. CDHP and HDHP enrollees were also more likely than traditional-plan enrollees to be highly educated. As the CDHP and HDHP markets continue to expand and more enrollees are enrolled for longer periods of time

  12. Imaging findings in a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome: a survey using advanced modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronooh, Pegah [Dental School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibafar, Ali Reza [TABA Medical Imaging Center, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Houshyar, Maneli; Nafarzade, Shima [Oral Pathology Department, Babol Dental School, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an infrequent multi-systemic disease which is characterized by multiple keratocysts in the jaws, calcification of falx cerebri, and basal cell carcinomas. We report a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome in a 23-year-old man with emphasis on image findings of keratocyctic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) on panoramic radiograph, computed tomography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and Ultrasonography (US). In this case, pericoronal lesions were mostly orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) concerning the MR and US study, which tended to recur less. The aim of this report was to clarify the characteristic imaging features of the syndrome-related keratocysts that can be used to differentiate KCOT from OOC. Also, our findings suggested that the recurrence rate of KCOTs might be predicted based on their association to teeth.

  13. Imaging findings in a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome: a survey using advanced modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronoosh, Pegah; Shakibafar, Ali Reza; Houshyar, Maneli; Nafarzade, Shima

    2011-12-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an infrequent multi-systemic disease which is characterized by multiple keratocysts in the jaws, calcification of falx cerebri, and basal cell carcinomas. We report a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome in a 23-year-old man with emphasis on image findings of keratocyctic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) on panoramic radiograph, computed tomography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and Ultrasonography (US). In this case, pericoronal lesions were mostly orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) concerning the MR and US study, which tended to recur less. The aim of this report was to clarify the characteristic imaging features of the syndrome-related keratocysts that can be used to differentiate KCOT from OOC. Also, our findings suggested that the recurrence rate of KCOTs might be predicted based on their association to teeth.

  14. Imaging findings in a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome: a survey using advanced modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronooh, Pegah; Shakibafar, Ali Reza; Houshyar, Maneli; Nafarzade, Shima

    2011-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an infrequent multi-systemic disease which is characterized by multiple keratocysts in the jaws, calcification of falx cerebri, and basal cell carcinomas. We report a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome in a 23-year-old man with emphasis on image findings of keratocyctic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) on panoramic radiograph, computed tomography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and Ultrasonography (US). In this case, pericoronal lesions were mostly orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) concerning the MR and US study, which tended to recur less. The aim of this report was to clarify the characteristic imaging features of the syndrome-related keratocysts that can be used to differentiate KCOT from OOC. Also, our findings suggested that the recurrence rate of KCOTs might be predicted based on their association to teeth.

  15. Findings from the 2009 EBRI/MGA Consumer Engagement in Health Care Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, Paul

    2009-12-01

    FIFTH ANNUAL SURVEY: This Issue Brief presents findings from the 2009 EBRI/MGA Consumer Engagement in Health Care Survey, which provides nationally representative data regarding the growth of consumer-driven health plans (CDHPs) and high-deductible health plans (HDHPs), and the impact of these plans and consumer engagement more generally on the behavior and attitudes of adults with private health insurance coverage. Findings from this survey are compared with four earlier annual surveys. ENROLLMENT LOW BUT GROWING: In 2009, 4 percent of the population was enrolled in a CDHP, up from 3 percent in 2008. Enrollment in HDHPs increased from 11 percent in 2008 to 13 percent in 2009. The 4 percent of the population with a CDHP represents 5 million adults ages 21-64 with private insurance, while the 13 percent with a HDHP represents 16.2 million people. Among the 16.2 million individuals with an HDHP, 38 percent (or 6.2 million) reported that they were eligible for a health savings account (HSA) but did not have such an account. Overall, 11.2 million adults ages 21-64 with private insurance, representing 8.9 percent of that market, were either in a CDHP or were in an HDHP that was eligible for an HSA, but had not opened the account. MORE COST-CONSCIOUS BEHAVIOR: Individuals in CDHPs were more likely than those with traditional coverage to exhibit a number of cost-conscious behaviors. They were more likely to say that they had checked whether the plan would cover care; asked for a generic drug instead of a brand name; talked to their doctor about prescription drug options, other treatments, and costs; asked their doctor to recommend a less costly prescription drug; developed a budget to manage health care expenses; checked prices before getting care; and used an online cost-tracking tool. CDHP MORE ENGAGED IN WELLNESS PROGRAMS: CDHP enrollees were more likely than traditional plan enrollees to report that they had the opportunity to fill out a health risk assessment

  16. Epidemiology of adulthood drowning deaths in Bangladesh: Findings from a nationwide health and injury survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Jahangir; Biswas, Animesh; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Rahman, Fazlur; Rahman, Aminur

    2017-01-01

    Background: Annual global death due to drowning accounts for 372,000 lives, 90% of which occur in low and middle income countries. Life in Bangladesh exposes adults and children to may water bodies for daily household needs, and as a result drowning is common. In Bangladesh, due to lack of systemic data collection, drowning among adults is unknown; most research is focused on childhood drowning. The aim of the present study was to explore the epidemiology of adulthood drowning deaths in Bangladesh. Methodology: A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted from January to December in 2003 among 171,366 rural and urban households, with a sample of 819,429 individuals to determine the epidemiology of adulthood drowning in Bangladesh.   Results:   Annual fatal drowning incidence among adults was 5.85/100,000 individuals. Of these, 71.4% were male and 28.6% were female (RR 2.39). In total, 90% of the fatalities were from rural areas. Rural populations were also found to have a 8.58 times higher risk of drowning than those in urban areas. About 95% of drowning occurred in natural water bodies. About 61.6% of the deaths occurred at the scene followed by 33.5% at the home. Of the drowning fatalities, 67% took place in water bodies within 100 meters of the household. Among the drowning fatalities 78.4% occurred in daylight between 7.00 and 18.00. Over 97% of the victims were from poor socio economic conditions with a monthly income tk. 6,000 ($94) or less. Only 25.5% of incidences were reported to the police station. Conclusions: Every year a significant number of adults die due to drowning in Bangladesh.  Populations living in rural areas, especially men, were the main victims of drowning. This survey finding might help policy makers and scientists to understand the drowning scenario among adults in Bangladesh.

  17. Factors Associated with Initiation of Ecstasy Use among US Adolescents: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Liu, Xinhua; Fan, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Aims To investigate adolescent pathways to ecstasy use by (1) examining how early onsets of smoking, drinking, and marijuana use are related to a child’s risk of initiation of ecstasy use and (2) assessing the influence of other individual and parental factors on ecstasy use initiation. Methods Data on 6,426 adolescents (12–17 years old at baseline) from the National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY), a longitudinal, nationally-representative household survey of youth and their parents, were used in the analyses. Information on youth substance use, including ecstasy use, as well as familial and parental characteristics, was available. Results Initiation of ecstasy use is predicted by an adolescent’s early initiation of smoking, drinking, or marijuana use. In particular, early initiation either of marijuana use, or of both smoking and drinking, increases a child’s risk for ecstasy use initiation. Among the familial and parental variables, parent drug use emerged as significantly predictive of child initiation of ecstasy use; living with both parents and close parental monitoring, on the other hand, are negatively associated with ecstasy use initiation, and may be protective against it. At the individual level, sensation seeking tendencies and positive attitudes toward substance use, as well as close associations with deviant peers, are predictive of adolescent initiation of ecstasy use. Conclusion Our findings on the risk and protective factors for initiation of ecstasy use, especially with regard to factors that are modifiable, will be useful for prevention programs targeting youth use not only of ecstasy, but also of other drugs. PMID:19781862

  18. A bulletin on survey findings of China's national population and reproductive health in 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H

    1998-08-01

    This article presents findings from the 1997 State Family Planning Commission's KAP survey in China. The aim was to assess reproductive health and contraception and the future needs for family planning management. The national sample included 1041 sampling points in 337 counties among 186,089 registered persons in the first demographic stage and 15,213 persons in the second in-depth KAP stage of the survey. The average age at first marriage of women was 1.5 years higher in 1997 than in 1990. The birthrate declined, and fertility remained stable at below replacement levels. Contraceptive usage among women of childbearing ages was 83.4%. 9.2% relied on male sterilization, 40% relied on female sterilization, 43.4% used IUDs, and 4.1% used condoms. 25.5% of married reproductive age women had an unwanted pregnancy due to contraceptive failure. 62.5% of women of childbearing age received contraceptives free of charge. 28.6% received contraceptive supplies from retail shops. 39.1% who had a contraceptive operation had access to pre-operative counseling, and 50.9% received post-operative counseling. 23.5% had follow-up visits. The average age of menarche was 15.2 years. The average age of menopause was 44.8 years. Gynecological discomfort increased with age. 63% consulted doctors. 58.5% fully breast-fed for over 6 months. 57.3% had knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases, and 63.5% had heard of AIDS. 75% were happy with their sexual lives. 7.8% nationally had received at least one kind of economic assistance or skill training, of whom 50.6% had access to loans or poverty alleviation funds.

  19. Who purchases cigarettes from cheaper sources in China? Findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tingting; Huang, Jidong; Sung, Hai-Yen; Ong, Michael K; Mao, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Yuan; Fong, Geoffrey T; Max, Wendy

    2014-03-01

    The availability of cigarettes from cheaper sources constitutes a major challenge to public health throughout the world, including China, because it may counteract price-based tobacco control policies. The goal of this study was to identify factors associated with purchasing cigarettes from cheaper sources among adult smokers in China. Data were analysed from Waves 1 to 3 of the International Tobacco Control China Survey conducted in 2006-2009 among adult smokers in six cities in China (N=7980). One survey question asked, "In the last 6 months, have you purchased cheaper cigarettes than you can get from local stores for economic reasons?" We examined whether sociodemographic factors and smoking intensity were associated with purchasing cigarettes from cheaper sources using the general estimating equations model. Sociodemographic factors considered were gender, age, marital status, monthly household income, education, employment status and city of residence. 15.6% of smokers reported purchasing cigarettes from cheaper sources. After controlling for other covariates, the associations of the behaviour of purchasing cigarettes from cheaper sources with age (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.49, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.92 for age 18-24 compared with age 55+) and with income (AOR=2.93, 95% CI 2.27 to 3.79 for low income compared with high income) were statistically significant, but there was no statistically significant relationship with smoking intensity. Our findings indicate that young and low-income smokers are more likely than older and high-income smokers to purchase cigarettes from cheaper sources in China. Tobacco control policies that reduce the availability of cigarettes from cheaper sources could have an impact on reducing cigarette consumption among young and low-income smokers in China.

  20. How Would Children Register Their Own Births? Insights from a Survey of Students Regarding Birth Registration Knowledge and Policy Suggestions in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Pelowski

    Full Text Available Birth registration and obtaining physical birth certificates impose major challenges in developing countries, with impact on child and community health, education, planning, and all levels of development. However despite initiatives, universal registration is elusive, leading to calls for new approaches to understanding the decisions of parents. In this paper, we report results of a survey of students in grades six to eight (age ~12-16 in an under-registered area of Kenya regarding their own understanding of registration issues and their suggestions for improvement. These students were selected because they themselves were also nearing the age for high school enrollment/entrance examinations, which specifically requires possession of a birth certificate. This assessment was also a companion to our previous representative survey of adults in the same Kenyan region, allowing for parent-child comparison. Results supported previous research, showing that only 43% had birth certificates. At the same time, despite these low totals, students were themselves quite aware of registration factors and purposes. The students also made quite prescient sources for understanding their households' motivations, with many of their suggestions-for focus on communication of pragmatic benefits, or automatic measures shifting responsibility from parents-mirroring our own previous suggestions, and showing a level of pragmatism not witnessed when surveying their parents. This paper therefore adds evidence to the discussion of registration policy planning. More generally, it also builds on an important trend regarding the treatment of children as stakeholders and important sources of information, and raising an intriguing new avenue for future research.

  1. The Hawaiian Rhodophyta Biodiversity Survey (2006-2010): a summary of principal findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Alison R; Kurihara, Akira; Conklin, Kimberly Y; Sauvage, Thomas; Presting, Gernot G

    2010-11-22

    The Hawaiian red algal flora is diverse, isolated, and well studied from a morphological and anatomical perspective, making it an excellent candidate for assessment using a combination of traditional taxonomic and molecular approaches. Acquiring and making these biodiversity data freely available in a timely manner ensures that other researchers can incorporate these baseline findings into phylogeographic studies of Hawaiian red algae or red algae found in other locations. A total of 1,946 accessions are represented in the collections from 305 different geographical locations in the Hawaiian archipelago. These accessions represent 24 orders, 49 families, 152 genera and 252 species/subspecific taxa of red algae. One order of red algae (the Rhodachlyales) was recognized in Hawaii for the first time and 196 new island distributional records were determined from the survey collections. One family and four genera are reported for the first time from Hawaii, and multiple species descriptions are in progress for newly discovered taxa. A total of 2,418 sequences were generated for Hawaiian red algae in the course of this study--915 for the nuclear LSU marker, 864 for the plastidial UPA marker, and 639 for the mitochondrial COI marker. These baseline molecular data are presented as neighbor-joining trees to illustrate degrees of divergence within and among taxa. The LSU marker was typically most conserved, followed by UPA and COI. Phylogenetic analysis of a set of concatenated LSU, UPA and COI sequences recovered a tree that broadly resembled the current understanding of florideophyte red algal relationships, but bootstrap support was largely absent above the ordinal level. Phylogeographic trends are reported here for some common taxa within the Hawaiian Islands and include examples of those with, as well as without, intraspecific variation. The UPA and COI markers were determined to be the most useful of the three and are recommended for inclusion in future algal

  2. The Hawaiian Rhodophyta Biodiversity Survey (2006-2010: a summary of principal findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conklin Kimberly Y

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hawaiian red algal flora is diverse, isolated, and well studied from a morphological and anatomical perspective, making it an excellent candidate for assessment using a combination of traditional taxonomic and molecular approaches. Acquiring and making these biodiversity data freely available in a timely manner ensures that other researchers can incorporate these baseline findings into phylogeographic studies of Hawaiian red algae or red algae found in other locations. Results A total of 1,946 accessions are represented in the collections from 305 different geographical locations in the Hawaiian archipelago. These accessions represent 24 orders, 49 families, 152 genera and 252 species/subspecific taxa of red algae. One order of red algae (the Rhodachlyales was recognized in Hawaii for the first time and 196 new island distributional records were determined from the survey collections. One family and four genera are reported for the first time from Hawaii, and multiple species descriptions are in progress for newly discovered taxa. A total of 2,418 sequences were generated for Hawaiian red algae in the course of this study - 915 for the nuclear LSU marker, 864 for the plastidial UPA marker, and 639 for the mitochondrial COI marker. These baseline molecular data are presented as neighbor-joining trees to illustrate degrees of divergence within and among taxa. The LSU marker was typically most conserved, followed by UPA and COI. Phylogenetic analysis of a set of concatenated LSU, UPA and COI sequences recovered a tree that broadly resembled the current understanding of florideophyte red algal relationships, but bootstrap support was largely absent above the ordinal level. Phylogeographic trends are reported here for some common taxa within the Hawaiian Islands and include examples of those with, as well as without, intraspecific variation. Conclusions The UPA and COI markers were determined to be the most useful of the three

  3. Novel 12S mtDNA findings in sloths (Pilosa, Folivora and anteaters (Pilosa, Vermilingua suggest a true case of long branch attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudene Barros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We sequenced 12S RNA mtDNA for the majority of the extant species of sloths and anteaters and compared our results with previous data obtained by our group using 16S RNA mtDNA in the same specimens and to GenBank sequences of the extinct giant sloth Mylodon. Our results suggest that pigmy-anteaters may be a case of the long-branch attraction phenomenon and also show the large genetic difference between the Amazonian and Atlantic forest three-toed sloths, contrasting with the small differences observed between the two non-Atlantic forest forms of sloths. These results have important implications for the taxonomy of sloths and anteaters and strongly suggest the placement of pigmy anteaters in their own family (Cyclopidae and raising the taxonomic status of Bradypus torquatus to a genus.

  4. Facilitators and barriers to the successful implementation of pediatric antibacterial drug trials: Findings from CTTI's survey of investigators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Corneli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An urgent need exists to develop new antibacterial drugs for children. We conducted research with investigators of pediatric antibacterial drug trials to identify facilitators and barriers in the conduct of these trials. Seventy-three investigators completed an online survey assessing the importance of 15 facilitators (grouped in 5 topical categories and the severity of 36 barriers (grouped in 6 topical categories to implementing pediatric antibacterial drug trials. Analysis focused on the identification of key factors that facilitate the successful implementation of pediatric antibacterial drug trials and the key barriers to implementation. Almost all investigators identified two factors as very important facilitators: having site personnel for enrollment and having adequate funding. Other top factors were related to staffing. Among the barriers, factors related to parent concerns and consent were prominent, particularly obtaining parental consent when there was disagreement between parents, concerns about the number of blood draws, and concerns about the number of invasive procedures. Having overly narrow eligibility criteria was also identified as a major barrier. The survey findings suggest three areas in which to focus efforts to help facilitate ongoing drug development: (1 improving engagement with parents of children who may be eligible to enroll in a pediatric antibacterial drug trial, (2 broadening inclusion criteria to allow more participants to enroll, and (3 ensuring adequate staffing and establishing sustainable financial strategies, such as funding pediatric trial networks. The pediatric antibacterial drug trials enterprise is likely to benefit from focused efforts by all stakeholders to remove barriers and enhance facilitation.

  5. Psychiatric correlates of past year adult bullying behaviors: Findings from the National Epidemiology Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Katherine A; Thorisdottir, Audur S; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2016-12-30

    Previous research on bully perpetration and psychiatric outcomes has been limited to examination of lifetime associations and has not included evaluation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), despite previously reported correlations between PTSD and anger and aggression. The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the association between bullying behaviour and mental disorders within a past-year framework. Data was obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n=34,653), a nationally-representative survey of American adults. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between bullying behaviour and psychiatric diagnosis. A total of 239 individuals (138 males, 101 females) reported engaging in bullying behaviour within the past-year. Mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders were all more common among bully perpetrators compared to others. Of note, strong associations were found between PTSD and bully perpetration. Findings from the current study demonstrate strong associations between bullying perpetration and mental health concerns. The proximity of bullying behaviors and mental health concerns may be important, suggesting avenues for efforts at intervention and bullying prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and Trends in Domestic Violence in South Korea: Findings From National Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Yop; Oh, Sehun; Nam, Seok In

    2016-05-01

    To examine trends in the prevalence of domestic violence since 1997, 1 year prior to the introduction of legislative countermeasures and accompanying services in South Korea, and to analyze what socio-demographic characteristics of perpetrators contribute to spousal violence and whether there were any changes in risk factors over time. This study used two sets of nationally representative household samples: married or cohabiting couples of 1,540 from the 1999 national survey and 3,269 from the 2010 National Survey of Domestic Violence. Frequency analysis was used to measure the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV), and cross-tabulation, correlation, and logistic regression analyses were used to look for socio-demographic risk factors of spousal physical violence and patterns of change over time. The frequency analysis showed that the IPV prevalence dropped by approximately 50%, from 34.1% in 1999 to 16.5% in 2010, though it was still higher than many other countries. The cross-tabulation and logistic regression analyses suggested that men with low socio-demographic characteristics were generally more violent, though this tendency did not apply to women. Instead, younger women seemed to be more violent than older women. Last, different levels of household income were associated with different levels of IPV in 2010, but no linear trend was detected. In this study, IPV prevalence trends and risk factors of two different time periods were discussed to provide implications for tackling the IPV problem. Future countermeasures must build on understanding about men with low socio-demographic status and younger women, who were more violent in marital relationships. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Consistency of Students' Conceptions of Wave Propagation: Findings from a Conceptual Survey in Mechanical Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongchai, Apisit; Sharma, Manjula Devi; Johnston, Ian D.; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Soankwan, Chernchok

    2011-01-01

    We recently developed a multiple-choice conceptual survey in mechanical waves. The development, evaluation, and demonstration of the use of the survey were reported elsewhere [A. Tongchai et al. Int. J. Sci. Educ. 31 2437 (2009)]. We administered the survey to 902 students from seven different groups ranging from high school to second year…

  8. Novel 12S mtDNA findings in sloths (Pilosa, Folivora) and anteaters (Pilosa, Vermilingua) suggest a true case of long branch attraction

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Maria Claudene; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio

    2008-01-01

    We sequenced 12S RNA mtDNA for the majority of the extant species of sloths and anteaters and compared our results with previous data obtained by our group using 16S RNA mtDNA in the same specimens and to GenBank sequences of the extinct giant sloth Mylodon. Our results suggest that pigmy-anteaters may be a case of the long-branch attraction phenomenon and also show the large genetic difference between the Amazonian and Atlantic forest three-toed sloths, contrasting with the small differences...

  9. Predictors of smoking cessation behavior among Bangladeshi adults: findings from ITC Bangladesh survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu S; Driezen, Pete; Quah, Anne C K; Nargis, Nigar; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Research findings on the predictors of smoking cessation behavior identified in Western countries may not be generalizable to smokers in the Southeast Asian countries (i.e., Bangladesh). This study examined the factors associated with smoking cessation behavior (quit attempts and smoking cessation) among a representative sample of Bangladeshi adults. Data from Wave 1 (2009) and Wave 2 (2010) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Survey in Bangladesh, a face-to-face survey of adult smokers, were analysed. Households were sampled using a stratified multistage design and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Respondents included in the study are 1,861 adult daily smokers (cigarette only or dual use of cigarette and bidi) in the Wave 1 survey who completed the Wave 2 follow up. Of the smokers (N = 1,861), 98 % were male, 18 % illiterate, 78 % married and 42 % were aged 40 or above; 89 % were cigarette smokers and 11 % were dual users (cigarette & bidi). Overall, 21.8 % of the baseline smokers made quit attempts (that is, making at least one quit attempt that lasted for at least 24 hours) during the 11- to 12-month interval between Waves 1 and 2 with only 4.1 % quitting successfully (that is, smokers who had stopped smoking for at least 6 months at the time of the Wave 2 survey). Significant predictors of attempts to quit included: residing areas outside Dhaka (OR = 3.41), being aged 40 or older (OR = 1.53), having a monthly income of above BDT10,000 (US$126) versus below BDT 5,000 (US$63) (OR = 1.57), intending to quit sometime in the future (OR = 1.73). Respondents not working indoors/outside the home were less likely to have made a quit attempt than those with no workplace restrictions on smoking (OR = 0.62). Predictors of successful smoking cessation included: being aged 40 or older (OR = 3.11), perceiving self-rated health as good or excellent (OR = 2.40), and an increased level of self-efficacy (OR = 1

  10. Eating disorder behaviors are increasing: findings from two sequential community surveys in South Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipa J Hay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an increase in the prevalence of eating disorders is inconsistent. Our aim was to determine change in the population point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors over a 10-year period. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eating disorder behaviors were assessed in consecutive general population surveys of men and women conducted in 1995 (n = 3001, 72% respondents and 2005 (n = 3047, 63.1% respondents. Participants were randomly sampled from households in rural and metropolitan South Australia. There was a significant (all p<0.01 and over two-fold increase in the prevalence of binge eating, purging (self-induced vomiting and/or laxative or diuretic misuse and strict dieting or fasting for weight or shape control among both genders. The most common diagnosis in 2005 was either binge eating disorder or other "eating disorders not otherwise specified" (EDNOS; n = 119, 4.2%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this population sample the point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors increased over the past decade. Cases of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, as currently defined, remain uncommon.

  11. Report of fact finding survey on atomic energy industries in FY1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. summarized the results of 31st fact finding survey on atomic energy industries, which investigated and analyzed the actual status and future perspective of the expenditure, sales and personnel related to atomic energy in electric power, mining and manufacture and trading companies in FY1989. As to the state of activities of atomic energy industries, the expenditure related to atomic energy of electric power companies was 1633.7 billion yen, decrease by 7 % as compared with the previous fiscal year. The main factors are that the construction works of nuclear power stations came to temporary pause, and the operation and maintenance expenses for power stations turned to decrease due to the mechanization of inspection and the decrease of expendables. The sales related to atomic energy of mining and manufacturing companies was 1728.3 billion yen, which is the highest so far, and is increase by 18 % as compared with the previous fiscal year. Due to the diversification of atomic energy market, the manufacture for service field and others grew by 64 %, and the mechanization of production seemed to advance. The backlog of mining and manufacturing companies which is the index of future market trend was as high as 3526 billion yen. (K.I.)

  12. Job satisfaction and perceived future roles of Malaysian dental therapists: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, A; Mohd Nor, N A; Ab-Murat, N; Jaafar, N

    2015-08-01

    To assess Malaysian dental therapists' perceptions of their job satisfaction and future roles. A nationwide postal survey involving all Malaysian dental therapists who met the inclusion criteria (n = 1726). The response rate was 76.8%. All respondents were females; mean age 35.4 years (SD = 8.4). Majority were married (85.5%) and more than one-half had a working experience of income (45.2%), allowances (45.2%) and non-commensurate between pay and performance (44.0%). Majority perceived their role as very important in routine clinical tasks such as examination and diagnosis, preventive treatment, extraction of deciduous teeth and oral health promotion. However, fewer than one-half consider complex treatment such as placement of preformed crowns on deciduous teeth (37.1%) and extraction of permanent teeth (37.2%) as very important tasks. Majority expressed high career satisfaction with most aspects of their employment but expressed low satisfaction in remuneration, lack of career advancement opportunities and administrative tasks. We conclude that most Malaysian dental therapists have positive perceptions of their current roles but do not favour wider expansion of their roles. These findings imply that there was a need to develop a more attractive career pathway for therapists to ensure sustainability of effective primary oral healthcare delivery system for Malaysia's children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Occupational physical activities, working hours and outcome of pregnancy: findings from the Southampton Women's Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzini, M; Coggon, D; Godfrey, K; Inskip, H; Crozier, S; Palmer, K T

    2009-10-01

    To investigate risks of physical activity at work by pregnancy trimester, including the effects on head and abdominal circumference. At 34 weeks of gestation we interviewed 1327 mothers from the prospective Southampton Women's Survey (SWS); we asked about their activities (working hours, standing/walking, kneeling/squatting, trunk bending, lifting and night shifts) in jobs held at each of 11, 19 and 34 weeks of gestation, and subsequently ascertained four birth outcomes (preterm delivery, small for gestational age (SGA) and reduced head or abdominal circumference) blinded to employment history. Risk of preterm delivery was elevated nearly threefold in women whose work at 34 weeks entailed trunk bending for >1 h/day. Small head circumference was more common in babies born to women who worked for >40 h/week. However, no statistically significant associations were found with SGA or small abdominal circumference, and preterm delivery showed little association with long working hours, lifting, standing or shift work. There is a need for more research on trunk bending late in pregnancy, and on the relationship of work to reduced head circumference. Our findings on several other occupational exposures common among pregnant workers are reassuring.

  14. Mental Health Status of Double Minority Adolescents: Findings from National Cross-Sectional Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Szu-Ying; Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs; Fenaughty, John; Clark, Terryann; Denny, Simon

    2017-06-01

    Little population-based work has been published about the mental health of adolescents with both sexual/gender (SG) and ethnic minority (i.e. double minority) status. This study aimed to provide an overview on their mental health. Analysis of data from a total of 17,607 high school students from New Zealand's 2007 and 2012 cross-sectional nationally representative Adolescent Health Surveys, including a total of 1306 (7.4%) SG minority participants, of whom 581 (3.3%) were also an ethnic minority. SG minority status, minority ethnicity, and female sex were associated with higher mental distress and poorer well-being. Generally speaking, double minority students reported poorer mental health than SG majority students of the same ethnicity, but reported better mental health than SG minority New Zealand European students. Explanations and future directions for research were suggested to further explore how double minority students negotiate mental health in the context of their communities/cultures in New Zealand.

  15. Sex differences and sexual orientation differences in personality: findings from the BBC Internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard A

    2008-02-01

    Analyzing a large international data set generated by a BBC Internet survey, I examined sex differences and sexual orientation differences in six personality traits: extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, disagreeable assertiveness, masculine versus feminine occupational preferences (MF-Occ), and self-ascribed masculinity-femininity (Self-MF). Consistent with previous research, sex differences and sexual orientation differences were largest for MF-Occ and for Self-MF. In general, heterosexual-homosexual differences mirrored sex differences in personality, with gay men shifted in female-typical and lesbians in male-typical directions. Bisexual men scored intermediate between heterosexual and gay men on MF-Occ; however, they were slightly more feminine than gay men on Self-MF. Bisexual women scored intermediate between heterosexual women and lesbians on both MF-Occ and Self-MF. Sex differences and sexual orientation differences in MF-Occ, Self-MF, and other personality traits were consistent across five nations/world regions (the UK, USA, Canada, Australia/New Zealand, and Western Europe), thereby suggesting a biological component to these differences.

  16. Chronic Disease Prevalence and Medicare Advantage Market Penetration: Findings From the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven W; Bernell, Stephanie Lazarus; Casim, Faizan M; Wilmott, Jennifer; Pearson, Lindsey; Byler, Caitlin M; Zhang, Zidong

    2015-01-01

    By March 2015, 30% of all Medicare beneficiaries were enrolled in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans. Research to date has not explored the impacts of MA market penetration on individual or population health outcomes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationships between MA market penetration and the beneficiary's portfolio of cardiometabolic diagnoses. This study uses 2004 to 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component data to construct an aggregate index that captures multiple diagnoses in one outcome measure (Chronic Disease Severity Index [CDSI]). The MEPS data for 8089 Medicare beneficiaries are merged with MA market penetration data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Ordinary least squares regressions are run with SAS 9.3 to model the effects of MA market penetration on CDSI. The results suggest that each percentage increase in MA market penetration is associated with a greater than 2-point decline in CDSI (lower burden of cardiometabolic chronic disease). Spill-over effects may be driving improvements in the cardiometabolic health of beneficiary populations in counties with elevated levels of MA market penetration.

  17. Belief in life after death and mental health: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Koenig, Harold G; Ellison, Christopher G; Galek, Kathleen; Krause, Neal

    2006-07-01

    The present study examined the association between belief in life after death and six measures of psychiatric symptomology in a national sample of 1403 adult Americans. A statistically significant inverse relationship was found between belief in life after death and symptom severity on all six symptom clusters that were examined (i.e., anxiety, depression, obsession-compulsion, paranoia, phobia, and somatization) after controlling for demographic and other variables (e.g., stress and social support) that are known to influence mental health. No significant association was found between the frequency of attending religious services and any of the mental health measures. The results are discussed in terms of the potentially salubrious effects of religious belief systems on mental health. These findings suggest that it may be more valuable to focus on religious beliefs than on religious practices and behaviors in research on religion and mental health.

  18. Subjective well-being and national satisfaction: findings from a worldwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mike; Tay, Louis; Diener, Ed

    2011-02-01

    We examined the relationship between satisfaction with one's country (national satisfaction) and subjective well-being utilizing data from a representative worldwide poll. National satisfaction was a strong positive predictor of individual-level life satisfaction, and this relationship was moderated by household income, household conveniences, residential mobility, country gross domestic product per capita, and region (Western vs. non-Western country). When individuals are impoverished or more bound to their culture and surroundings, national satisfaction more strongly predicts life satisfaction. In contrast, reverse trends were found in analyses predicting life satisfaction from satisfaction in other domains (health, standard of living, and job). These patterns suggest that people are more likely to use proximate factors to judge life satisfaction where conditions are salutary, or individualism is salient, but are more likely to use perceived societal success to judge life satisfaction where life conditions are difficult, or collectivism predominates. Our findings invite new research directions and can inform quality-of-life therapies.

  19. First household survey on drug abuse in São Paulo, Brazil, 1999: principal findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: In order to establish prevention programs regarding psychotropic drug use that are adapted to specific populations it is, first of all, important to have data on the realities of such consumption. Single data points are not enough for drawing up a profile of society in relation to drugs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this household survey was to determine the incidence of illegal drug, alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic medication use, and thus the number of persons dependent on drugs, alcohol and nicotine, and to evaluate their perception regarding how easy it is to obtain psychotropic drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: Epidemiological survey. SETTING: All of the 24 cities in the State of Sao Paulo with more 200,000 inhabitants participated in the study. METHOD: The sampling was constructed from weighted probabilistic stratified conglomerates obtained via two-stage selection. In each municipality sampled, census sectors (generally 200-300 households were first selected. Then, households and a respondent were selected to provide information from his/her point of view. The SAMHSA questionnaire (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Public Health was used, after translation and adaptation to Brazilian conditions. RESULTS: A total of 2,411 persons aged 12-65 years old were interviewed, of whom 39.9% weremen. Lifetime use of any psychotropic drug other than alcohol and tobacco was 11.6%: much less than in the U.S. (34.8%. The alcohol dependence rate was 6%, similar to findings from other countries. Marijuana was the illegal drug most cited as used daily (6.6%: a prevalence much lower than in the U.S. (32.0%. Inhalant use was next in frequency of use (2.7%: about 10 times less than in the United Kingdom (20%. Cocaine use (2.1% was about 5 times less than in the U.S. (10.6%. There was no report of heroin use, although there was a surprisingly high perception regarding the ease of obtaining heroin: 38.3% said it was

  20. WFIRST: The Exoplanet Microlensing Survey Tells Us Where We Can Find the Cool Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David; Gaudi, B. Scott; WFIRST Microlensing Science Investigation Team

    2018-01-01

    The WFIRST Exoplanet microlensing survey will complete a demographic survey of all types of planets ranging from ~0.5 AU to planets that have become unbound from the stellar systems of their birth. WFIRST's sensitivity extends down below the mass of Mars (or 0.1 Earth masses,and it is sensitive to analogs of all the planets in the Solar System, except for Mercury. When combined with Kepler's statistical census of hot and warm planets in short period orbits, WFIRST's exoplanet microlensing survey will give us a complete picture the mass and separation distribution of all types of planets. The current plans for this survey are presented, and recent developments relating to the WFIRST exoplanet microlensing survey will be presented, including recent ground-based microlensing results that challenge current theories of planet formation. Opportunities for community involvement in the WFIRST exoplanet microlensing survey will be mentioned.

  1. Three Mile Island telephone survey: preliminary report on procedures and findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, C.B.

    1979-10-01

    This report describes the methodology used in, and the results of, a telephone survey conducted in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant. The survey is part of a study of the socioeconomic impacts of nuclear power plant construction and operation at Three Mile Island, and eleven other nuclear power plant sites. The survey covers the areas of evacuation behavior, information processing, short-term accident effects, continuing effects of the accident, and respondent's evaluation of TMI and nuclear power in general. Approximately 1500 households in the vicinity of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant participated in the survey, which was conducted in July and August 1979

  2. Estimating the size of illicit tobacco consumption in Brazil: findings from the global adult tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Roberto Magno; Szklo, André Salem; Souza, Mirian Carvalho de; de Almeida, Liz Maria

    2017-01-01

    Brazil experienced a large decline in smoking prevalence between 2008 and 2013. Tax rate increases since 2007 and a new tobacco tax structure in 2012 may have played an important role in this decline. However, continuous tax rate increases pushed up cigarette prices over personal income growth and, therefore, some consumers, especially lower income individuals, may have migrated to cheaper illicit cigarettes. To use tobacco surveillance data to estimate the size of illicit tobacco consumption before and after excise tax increases. We defined a threshold price and compared it with purchasing prices obtained from two representative surveys conducted in 2008 and 2013 to estimate the proportion of illicit cigarette use among daily smokers. Generalised linear model was specified to understand whether the absolute difference in proportions over time differed by sociodemographic groups and consumption levels. Our findings were validated using an alternative method. Total proportion of illicit daily consumption increased from 16.6% to 31.1% between 2008 and 2013. We observed a pattern of unadjusted absolute decreases in cigarette smoking prevalence and increases in the proportion of illicit consumption, irrespective of gender, age, educational level, area of residence and amount of cigarettes consumed. The strategy of raising taxes has increased government revenues, reduced smoking prevalence and resulted in an increased illicit trade. Surveillance data can be used to provide information on illicit tobacco trade to help in the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) article 15 and the FCTC Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Quality of physician communication about human papillomavirus vaccine: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Melissa B; Malo, Teri L; Shah, Parth D; Hall, Megan E; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-11-01

    Improving the quality of physicians' recommendations for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is critical to addressing low coverage. Thus, we sought to describe HPV vaccine communication practices among primary care physicians. Pediatricians and family physicians (n = 776) completed our national online survey in 2014. We assessed the quality of their HPV vaccine recommendations on strength of endorsement (i.e., saying the vaccine is important), timeliness (recommending it by ages 11-12), consistency (recommending it routinely vs. using a risk-based approach), and urgency (recommending same-day vaccination). A sizeable minority of physicians reported that they do not strongly endorse HPV vaccine (27%) or deliver timely recommendations for girls (26%) or boys (39%). Many physicians (59%) used a risk-based approach to recommending HPV vaccine, and only half (51%) usually recommended same-day vaccination. Overall recommendation quality was lower among physicians who were uncomfortable talking about HPV vaccine or who believed parents did not value it. Quality was higher among physicians who began discussions by saying the child was due for HPV vaccine versus giving information or eliciting questions. Many physicians in our national sample reported recommending HPV vaccine inconsistently, behind schedule, or without urgency. These practices likely contribute to under-immunization among adolescents, and may convey ambivalence to parents. As one of the first studies to assess multiple aspects of recommendation quality, these findings can inform the many state and national initiatives that aim to improve communication about HPV vaccine so as to address the persistent underuse of a powerful tool for cancer prevention. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Trend in the affordability of tobacco products in Bangladesh: findings from the ITC Bangladesh Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargis, Nigar; Stoklosa, Michal; Drope, Jeffrey; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne C K; Driezen, Pete; Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J; Hussain, A K M Ghulam

    2018-04-19

    The price of tobacco products in relation to the income of tobacco users-affordability-is recognised as a key determinant of tobacco use behaviour. The effectiveness of a price increase as a deterrent to tobacco use depends on how much price increases in relation to the income of the potential users. The aim of this paper is to examine the distribution of and trends in the affordability of tobacco products in Bangladesh. Using four waves of International Tobacco Control Survey data on Bangladesh, this study measures affordability of tobacco products at the individual level as the ratio of self-reported price and self-reported income. The trends in affordability by brand categories of cigarettes and of bidi and smokeless tobacco are estimated using multivariate linear regression analysis. Despite significant increase in price, the affordability of cigarettes increased between 2009 and 2014-2015 due to income growth outpacing price increase. The increase was disproportionately larger for more expensive brands. The affordability of bidis increased over this period as well. The affordability of smokeless tobacco products remained unchanged between 2011-2012 and 2014-2015. The tax increases that were implemented during 2009-2015 were not enough to increase tobacco product prices sufficiently to outweigh the effect of income growth, and to reduce tobacco consumption. The findings from this research inform policymakers that in countries experiencing rapid economic growth, significant tax increases are needed to counteract the effect of income growth, in order for the tax increases to be effective in reducing tobacco use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Paternal Pregnancy Intention and Breastfeeding Duration: Findings from the National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenborn, Jordyn T; Masho, Saba W; Ratliff, Scott

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Despite the benefits of breastfeeding, less than a fifth of American mothers breastfeed for the recommended duration. Paternal support plays a major role in maternal and child health outcomes; however, the influence of paternal pregnancy intention on breastfeeding duration is under investigated. This study examines the relationship between fathers' pregnancy intention and breastfeeding duration. Methods Data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth were analyzed using cross-sectional methodology. Women who were pregnant, never received medical help to become pregnant, whose partner was aged 18-49 years, and who responded to questions related to paternal pregnancy intention and breastfeeding were included in the analysis (N = 2089). Multinomial logistic regression, odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated. There was a statistically significant interaction between father's age and father's pregnancy intention (P = 0.0385) and all models were stratified by paternal age. Results Fathers aged 18-24 years with a mistimed pregnancy were 2.3 times more likely to have a child who was never breastfed, (AOR 2.27, 95 % CI 1.39-3.70) and 1.7 times more likely to have a child who was breastfed 6 months or less (AOR 1.69, 95 % CI 1.28-2.23) compared to fathers with an intended pregnancy. No statistically significant association was observed among fathers aged 25-49 years. Conclusion Findings from this study show a relationship between mistimed pregnancies and breastfeeding duration among younger fathers. Healthcare professionals should develop breastfeeding interventions targeting fathers and young families.

  6. Therapy service use among individuals with fragile X syndrome: findings from a US parent survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G E; Ausderau, K K; Raspa, M; Bishop, E; Mallya, U; Bailey, D B

    2013-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is known to be associated with a range of developmental challenges, yet the occurrence and intensity of therapy services along with associated factors have not been determined. In a US national survey, caregivers provided information regarding the therapy services received by their sons (n = 1013) and daughters (n = 283) with FXS (from birth to 63 years; mean = 15.6 years, SD = 10.6). Caregivers reported (1) type, (2) amount, (3) location, and (4) overall satisfaction with services. Associations with other child variables and family income were also examined. Key findings included that 72% of males and 47% of females were currently receiving at least one type of therapy service; the most common services for both males and females were speech-language therapy (ST) and occupational therapy (OT). Overall, males were more likely to receive therapy services as well as a greater number of services than females. Autism status was significantly associated with both males and females receiving ST and males receiving OT and behaviour management therapy. Therapies were provided in a variety of locations, and parents were generally satisfied with the amount and quality of therapy services. Age-related declines were evident in the use of services for both males and females, with very few individuals receiving any therapy services after 20 years of age. This study provides a baseline description of the current state of therapy services for children with FXS, laying a foundation for future research and recommendations for service provision and policy. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  7. General practitioner attitudes towards prescribing aspirin to carriers of Lynch Syndrome: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samuel G; Foy, Robbie; McGowan, Jennifer; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Burn, John; Brown, Karen; Side, Lucy; Cuzick, Jack

    2017-10-01

    A dose non-inferiority study comparing 100 mg, 300 mg and 600 mg of aspirin for cancer prevention among Lynch Syndrome carriers is underway (Colorectal Adenoma/Carcinoma Prevention Programme trial 3, CaPP3). To guide implementation of the findings, we investigated general practitioner (GP) attitudes towards aspirin prescribing for Lynch Syndrome carriers. We surveyed 1007 UK GPs (9.6% response rate). Using a within-subjects design, GPs read a statement on harms and benefits of aspirin and indicated their willingness to prescribe aspirin at three doses (100 mg, 300 mg, 600 mg). Approximately two-thirds (70.8%) of GPs had heard of Lynch Syndrome or its associated names, and among those 46.7% were aware of the cancer preventive effects of aspirin among carriers. Two-thirds (68.1%) of GPs reported feeling comfortable discussing harms and benefits of aspirin with a Lynch Syndrome patient. Willingness to prescribe was 91.3% at 100 mg, and declined to 81.8% at 300 mg and 62.3% at 600 mg (p Lynch Syndrome patient in practice (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.01-2.05, p = 0.045). GPs report limited awareness of Lynch Syndrome and the preventive effects of aspirin among carriers. To ensure the optimal dose identified in the CaPP3 trial is readily available to patients, prescribing guidance and strategies to educate GPs should be developed.

  8. Genital human papillomavirus infection among women in Bangladesh: findings from a population-based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quamrun Nahar

    Full Text Available There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine.We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler. HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using a consensus primer set.Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13-4.11 compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05-3.55 compared to women whose husbands lived with them.The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening.

  9. A large survey among European trainees in clinical microbiology and infectious disease on training systems and training adequacy: identifying the gaps and suggesting improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, E; Ong, D S Y; Martin-Quiros, A; Skevaki, C; Cortez, J; Dedić, K; Maraolo, A E; Dušek, D; Maver, P J; Sanguinetti, M; Tacconelli, E

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to perform a survey among European clinical microbiology (CM) and infectious disease (ID) trainees on training satisfaction, training tools, and competency assessment. An online, anonymous survey in the English language was carried out between April and July 2015. There were 25 questions: seven in a 5-point Likert scale (1: worst scenario, 5: best scenario) and the remainder as closed multiple-choice questions in five areas (satisfaction, adequacy, system, mentorship, and evaluation of training). Included were 419 respondents (215 CM, 159 ID, and 45 combined CM/ID) from 31 European countries [mean age (standard deviation) 32.4 (5.3) years, 65.9 % women]. Regarding satisfaction on the training scheme, CM and ID scored 3.6 (0.9) and 3.2 (1.0), respectively. These scores varied between countries, ranging from 2.5 (1.0) for Italian ID to 4.3 (0.8) for Danish CM trainees. The majority of respondents considered training in management and health economics inadequate and e-learning and continuing medical education programs insufficient. Many trainees (65.3 % of CM and 62.9 % of ID) would like to have more opportunities to spend a part of their training abroad and expected their mentor to be more involved in helping with future career plans (63.5 % of CM and 53.4 % of ID) and practical skills (53.0 % of CM and 61.2 % of ID). Two-thirds of the respondents across the specialties agreed that a European exam should be developed, but half of them thought it should not be made mandatory. This survey shows high heterogeneity in training conditions in European countries, identifies perceived gaps in training, and suggests areas for improvements.

  10. Findings from the 2013 NZCER Primary and Intermediate Schools National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Zealand Council for Educational Research, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The New Zealand Council for Educational Research (NZCER) primary and intermediate schools national survey was carried out in July-August 2013. NZCER questioned principals, teachers and trustees at a representative sample of schools, and sought the views of a random sample of 1 in 4 parents in 36 of these schools. In all, the survey gathered data…

  11. Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges: Findings from a 2015 CASE Survey. CASE White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Building on the inaugural survey conducted three years prior, the 2015 CASE Community College Alumni Relations survey collected additional insightful data on staffing, structure, communications, engagement, and fundraising. This white paper features key data on alumni relations programs at community colleges across the United States. The paper…

  12. A Survey of Former Drafting & Engineering Design Technology Students. Summary Findings of Respondents District-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyer-Culver, Betty

    In fall 2001 staff of the Los Rios Community College District Office of Institutional Research collaborated with occupational deans, academic deans, and faculty to develop and administer a survey of former Drafting and Engineering Design Technology students. The survey was designed to determine how well courses had met the needs of former drafting…

  13. Finding the State Story in the National Lake Survey Data with an Excel Exploratory Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) surveyed over 1200 U.S. lakes in the summer of 2007, evaluating lake quality based on water quality, physical habitat, and indicators of biological and recreational condition. An upcoming national report will summarize survey results primarily ...

  14. A Survey of Former Nursing (RN and LVN) Students. Summary Findings of Respondents District-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyer, Culver-Betty

    In fall 2001 staff of the Los Rios Community College District Office of Institutional Research collaborated with occupational deans, academic deans, and faculty to develop and administer a survey of former nursing (RN and LVN) students. The survey was designed to determine how well courses had met the needs of former nursing students who earned…

  15. Sexual orientation and mental and physical health status: findings from a Dutch population survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandfort, T.G.M.; Bakker, F.; Schellevis, F.G.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. METHODS: Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001

  16. Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

  17. Rates of interventions in labor and birth across Canada: findings of the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Beverley; Kaczorowski, Janusz; O'Brien, Beverley; Royle, Cathie

    2012-09-01

    Rates of interventions in labor and birth should be similar across a country if evidence-based practice guidelines are followed. This assumption is tested by comparison of some practices across the 13 provinces and territories of Canada. The objective of this study was to describe the wide provincial and territorial variations in rates of routine interventions and practices during labor and birth as reported by women in the Maternity Experiences Survey of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System. A sample of 8,244 eligible women was identified from a randomly selected sample of recently born infants drawn from the May 2006 Canadian Census. The sample was stratified by province and territory. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted with participating birth mothers by Statistics Canada on behalf of the Public Health Agency of Canada. Interviews took an average of 45 minutes and were completed when infants were between 5 and 10 months old (9-14 mo in the territories). Completed responses were obtained from 6,421 women (78%). Provincial and territorial variations in rates of routine intervention used during labor and birth are reported. The percentage range of mothers' experience of induction (range 30.9%), epidural (53.7%), continuous electronic fetal monitoring (37.9%), and medication-free pain management during labor (40.7%) are provided, in addition to the use of episiotomy (14.1%) or "stitches" (48.3%), being in a "flat lying position" (42.2%), and having their legs in stirrups for birth (35.7%). Wide variations in the use of most of the interventions were found, ranging from 14.1 percent to 53.7 percent. Rates of intervention in labor and birth showed considerable variation across Canada, suggesting that usage is not always evidence based but may be influenced by a variety of other factors. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Food Consumption Patterns: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimah, A K; Safiah, M; Jamal, K; Haslinda, Siti; Zuhaida, H; Rohida, S; Fatimah, S; Norazlin, Siti; Poh, B K; Kandiah, M; Zalilah, M S; Wan Manan, W M; Fatimah, S; Azmi, M Y

    2008-03-01

    This study reports the food consumption patterns of adults aged 18 to 59 years in the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) carried out between October 2002 and December 2003. A total of 6,742 subjects comprising 3,274 men and 3,468 women representing the northern, central , southern and east coast of Peninsular Malaysia as well as Sabah and Sarawak were interviewed. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) which consisted of 126 food items was used to evaluate the food consumption pattern (habitual food intake) of the respondents during the previous one- year period. The results demonstrate that nasi putih (cooked rice) was consumed by 97% of the population twice daily (average 2½ plates per day). Other food items consumed daily were marine fish, (one medium fish per day), green leafy vegetables (one cup per day) and sweetened condensed milk (three teaspoons per day. The mean frequencies for daily intake of rice, leafy vegetables, marine fish, local kuih, anchovy (ikan bilis) and biscuits were significantly higher among the rural compared to the urban adults. In contrast, more urban dwellers consumed chicken and eggs more frequently than their rural counterparts. More men than women consumed chicken and eggs more frequently. Malaysian adults showed a satisfactory habit of drinking plain water, with 99% drinking at least six glasses of plain water daily. Other beverages such as tea (47%), coffee (28%), chocolate-based drinks (23%) and cordial syrup (11%) were also consumed on daily basis, however, in a smaller proportion of the population. There were differences in the prevalence of daily consumption of foods when comparing urban and rural population, and also between men and women. The prevalence of daily consumption of marine fish among rural and urban adults was 51% and 34% respectively. For sweetened condensed milk, men and women consumed 43% and 28% respectively; however, more women drank full cream milk than men. Between the age groups, 21

  19. Hierarchy of Identities in the Macedonian Multicultural Society. Findings from a Survey of Student Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristova, Lidija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In multicultural societies as the Macedonian one, the attachment of citizens to particular identity traits is important for the democratic stability and peace. The aim of this paper is to find out how students from different ethnic origins in the R. Macedonia relate to their identity traits, especially to their national and ethnic identities, and relative to other identity traits. The basic assumptions are based on a phenomenon called "minority effect", according to which members of minority groups tend to attach greater importance to minority affiliations that are particularly important for their group identity (language, religion, ethnicity, tradition, etc.. Aside from importance of identity traits, the emotional and behavioural components of these attachments were also examined. The research results show that regardless of the ethnic origin, students attach greatest importance to their identities connected to their immediate social environment (family, friends, but also religion. In accordance with the “minority effect” hypothesis, religion and then ethnicity, are perceived by the ethnic Albanians as a strong cohesive and mobilising factor, whereas that is not the case with the ethnic Macedonians. When it comes to nationality, the responses suggest that for ethnic Albanians it has marginal importance (through the cognitive, emotional and the action component, while ethnic Macedonians show controversial relation to their national identity.

  20. Prevalence of e-cigarette in China: preliminary findings from two surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Guoze Feng; Yi Nan; Yuan Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Background China is the world´s largest tobacco producer and consumer, in recent years has become the world´s largest producer of e-cigarette. According to media reports, China-made e-cigarette is mainly exported to foreign countries, and e-cigarette are not popular in China, but such conclusions need support from surveillance data. Methods Data of 2015 China Adult Tobacco Survey (CATS) and International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project China Survey (ITC...

  1. Evaluations of Yucca Mountain survey findings about the attitudes, opinions, and evaluations of nuclear waste disposal and Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.H.; Slovic, P.; Mertz, C.K.; Toma, J.

    1990-09-01

    This report provides findings from three surveys conducted during the Fall 1989 as part of the socioeconomic research program sponsored by the Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects. The US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) in 1982 and defined specific oversight responsibilities, including studies of socioeconomic effects and impacts, to the states in which potential high-level nuclear waste repositories might be located. The NWPA was amended in 1987 and Yucca Mountain, Nevada was designated as the only site to be characterized (studied in detail) as a location for the nation's first repository. These surveys were conducted so they could provide information to the state of Nevada in its evaluation of the Yucca Mountain project. This report presents information from these surveys on two major areas. First, respondent evaluations of environmental hazards, especially nuclear waste facilities are reported. Second, an analysis is made of the Nevada State Survey to examine the public response to the positions taken by the officials and institutions of Nevada in regard to the Yucca Mountain project. The survey data support a finding that the respondents from all three surveys are seriously concerned about the environmental effects of technological facilities and hazards. The evaluations of a nuclear waste repository especially is viewed as likely to produce adverse events and impacts in every aspect of its implementation, operation or long-term existence. When compared to other industrial or technological activities, a high-level nuclear waste repository is seen as the most feared and least acceptable. 36 tabs

  2. Causes of adult female deaths in Bangladesh: findings from two National Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Quamrun; El Arifeen, Shams; Jamil, Kanta; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2015-09-18

    Assessment of causes of death and changes in pattern of causes of death over time are needed for programmatic purposes. Limited national level data exist on the adult female causes of death in Bangladesh. Using data from two nationally representation surveys, the 2001 and 2010 Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Surveys (BMMS), the paper examines the causes of adult female death, aged 15-49 years, and changes in the patterns of these deaths. In both surveys, all household deaths three years prior to the survey were identified. Adult female deaths were then followed by a verbal autopsy (VA) using the WHO structured questionnaire. Two physicians independently reviewed the VA forms to assign a cause of death using the ICD-10; in case of disagreement, a third physician made an independent review and assigned a cause of death. The overall mortality rates for women aged 15-49 in 2001 and 2010 were 182 per 100,000 and 120 per 100,000 respectively. There is a shift in the pattern of causes of death during the period covered by the two surveys. In the 2001 survey, the main causes of death were maternal (20 %), followed by diseases of the circulatory system (15 %), malignancy (14 %) and infectious diseases (13 %). However, in the 2010 survey, malignancies were the leading cause (21 %), followed by diseases of the circulatory system (16 %), maternal causes (14 %) and infectious diseases (8 %). While maternal deaths remained the number one cause of death among 20-34 years old in both surveys, unnatural deaths were the main cause for teenage deaths, and malignancies were the main cause of death for older women. Although there is an increasing trend in the proportion of women who died in hospitals, in both surveys most women died at home (74 % in 2001 and 62 % in 2010). The shift in the pattern of causes of adult female deaths is in agreement with the overall change in the disease pattern from communicable to non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh. Suicide and other violent deaths as

  3. What do health workers in Timor-Leste want, know and do? Findings from a national health labour market survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaohui; Witter, Sophie; Zaman, Rashid U; Engelhardt, Kay; Hafidz, Firdaus; Julia, Fernanda; Lemiere, Christophe; Sullivan, Eileen B; Saldanha, Estanislau; Palu, Toomas; Lievens, Tomas

    2016-11-18

    The objectives of this study were to understand the labour market dynamics among health workers, including their preferences and concerns, and to assess the skills, competence and performance (i.e. the 'know-do gap') of doctors working in Timor-Leste. This cross-sectional survey was implemented in all 13 districts of Timor-Leste in 2014. We surveyed 443 health workers, including 175 doctors, 150 nurses and 118 midwives (about 20% of the health workers in the country). We also observed 632 clinical consultations with doctors, including 442 direct clinical observations, and tested 190 vignettes. The study highlights some positive findings, including the gender balance of health workers overall, the concentration of doctors in rural areas, the high overall reported satisfaction of staff with their work and high motivation, the positive intention to stay in the public sector, the feeling of being well prepared by training for work, the relatively frequent and satisfactory supervisions, and the good attitudes towards patients as identified in observations and vignettes. However, some areas require more investigations and investments. The overall clinical performance of the doctors was very good in terms of attitude and moderate in regard to history taking, health education and treatment. However, the average physical examination performance score was low. Doctors performed better with simulated cases than the real cases in general, which means they have better knowledge and skills than they actually demonstrated. The factors that were significantly associated with the clinical performance of doctors were location of the health facility (urban doctors were better) and consultation time (cases with more consultation time were better). Regression analysis suggests that lack of knowledge was significantly associated with lack of performance, while lack of motivation and equipment were not significant. The survey provides essential information for workforce planning and for

  4. Determining health personnel's application trends of new guidelines for preoperative fasting: findings from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadağ, Mevlüde; Pekin İşeri, Ozge

    2014-06-01

    For over a century, the discontinuation of oral food intake preoperatively after midnight has been routinely applied. Although routine fasting during the night before elective surgery has been abandoned by many modern centers, preoperative fasting after midnight continues as a routine practice. The purpose of this study was to determine trends in health personnel's application of new guidelines for preoperative fasting. The research sample of this descriptive study consisted of 73 nurses and physicians who were working in the surgical clinics during the time when the study was conducted and who agreed to participate in the study. The data of the study were collected using a questionnaire designed by the researchers. Of the health personnel included in the study group, 43.8% routinely kept adult patients fasting after midnight, 34.2% discontinued solid food intake 8 hours preoperatively, 5.5% discontinued solid food intake 6 hours preoperatively, and 34.2% discontinued the intake of clear and particulate liquids 4 to 8 hours preoperatively. Compliance of the American Society of Anesthesiologists' "2-4-6-8 rule" by health staff was very low. This study was carried out in a hospital and based on the statements of health staff. Therefore, the findings of the study are suggestive in nature and cannot be generalized. We recommend that the study should be conducted with larger sample groups and that actual preoperative fasting periods of the patients should be determined. Copyright © 2014 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictors of certification in infection prevention and control among infection preventionists: APIC MegaSurvey findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalp, Ericka L; Harris, Jeanette J; Zawistowski, Grace

    2018-06-06

    The 2015 APIC MegaSurvey was completed by 4,078 members to assess infection prevention practices. This study's purpose was to examine MegaSurvey results to relate infection preventionist (IP) certification status with demographic characteristics, organizational structure, compensation benefits, and practice and competency factors. Descriptive statistics were used to examine population characteristics and certification status. Bivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate relationships between independent variables and certification status. Variables demonstrating statistical significance (P Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling the relationship between obesity and mental health in children and adolescents: findings from the Health Survey for England 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summerbell Carolyn D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A number of studies have reported significant associations between obesity and poor psychological wellbeing in children but findings have been inconsistent. Methods: This study utilised data from 3,898 children aged 5-16 years obtained from the Health Survey for England 2007. Information was available on Body Mass Index (BMI, parental ratings of child emotional and behavioural health (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, self-reported physical activity levels and sociodemographic variables. A multilevel modelling approach was used to allow for the clustering of children within households. Results: Curvilinear relationships between both internalising (emotional and externalising (behavioural symptoms and adjusted BMI were observed. After adjusting for potential confounders the relationships between obesity and psychological adjustment (reported externalising and internalising symptoms remained statistically significant. Being overweight, rather than obese, had no impact on overall reported mental health. 17% of children with obesity were above the suggested screening threshold for emotional problems, compared to 9% of non-obese children. Allowing for clustering and potential confounding variables children classified as obese had an odds ratio (OR of 2.13 (95% CI 1.39 to 3.26 for being above the screening threshold for an emotional disorder compared to non-obese young people. No cross-level interactions between household income and the relationships between obesity and internalising or externalising symptoms were observed. Conclusions: In this large, representative, UK-based community sample a curvilinear association with emotional wellbeing was observed for adjusted BMI suggesting the possibility of a threshold effect. Further research could focus on exploring causal relationships and developing targeted interventions.

  7. Findings on education in Bogota (Colombia based on a 2014 multipurpose survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Barragán Moreno

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on education of the Multipurpose Survey of the year 2014, financed by the District Department of Planning of the city of Bogotá and developed by the National Statistics Department. This study focuses on determining the main reasons why people of school age did not do so at the time of the survey, and in characterizing the educational levels of household heads and their spouses or partners as referring adults in the households surveyed. The survey was applied to a sample of 61,725 people, who according to the sample design represent 7,794,463 inhabitants of urban areas in Bogota. Using descriptive and data mining techniques, it is stated that the two main reasons for not studying are the lack of money and the need to work. In addition, marital status is a more determinant predictor than sex or socioeconomic stratum. Single people are motivated to earn a college degree when they have had access to higher education at some point in their life. When studying the information of household heads, a similar behavior was observed, because the reasons for not studying were practically the same. Unplanned pregnancy and living with a partner are not outstanding reasons.

  8. Social and Emotional Learning: Perspectives from America's Schools. Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Editorial Projects in Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    To better understand educators' views of social and emotional learning, the Education Week Research Center invited users of edweek.org--"Education Week'"s flagship website--to participate in an online survey in April 2015. A total of 709 people participated, with 562 deemed qualified based on self-identification as a K-12 teacher or…

  9. Internet Gambling, Health, Smoking and Alcohol Use: Findings from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark; Wardle, Heather; Orford, Jim; Sproston, Kerry; Erens, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This study provides analysis of a representative national sample of Internet gamblers. Using participant data from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (n = 9003 adults aged 16 years and over), all participants who had gambled online, bet online, and/or who had used a betting exchange in the last 12 months (6% of the total sample) were…

  10. The 2015 National Canadian Homeless Youth Survey: Mental Health and Addiction Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A; Gaetz, Stephen; O'Grady, Bill

    2017-07-01

    This study was designed to provide a representative description of the mental health of youth accessing homelessness services in Canada. It is the most extensive survey in this area to date and is intended to inform the development of mental health and addiction service and policy for this marginalized population. This study reports mental health-related data from the 2015 "Leaving Home" national youth homelessness survey, which was administered through 57 agencies serving homeless youth in 42 communities across the country. This self-reported, point-in-time survey assessed a broad range of demographic information, pre-homelessness and homelessness variables, and mental health indicators. Survey data were obtained from 1103 youth accessing Canadian homelessness services in the Nunavut territory and all Canadian provinces except for Prince Edward Island. Forty-two per cent of participants reported 1 or more suicide attempts, 85.4% fell in a high range of psychological distress, and key indicators of risk included an earlier age of the first episode of homelessness, female gender, and identifying as a sexual and/or gender minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2 spirit [LGBTQ2S]). This study provides clear and compelling evidence of a need for mental health support for these youth, particularly LGBTQ2S youth and female youth. The mental health concerns observed here, however, must be considered in the light of the tremendous adversity in all social determinants faced by these youth, with population-level interventions best leveraged in prevention and rapid response.

  11. Ecstasy Use and Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jueun; Fan, Bin; Liu, Xinhua; Kerner, Nancy; Wu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between ecstasy use and suicidal behavior among adolescents in the United States was examined. Data from the adolescent subsample (ages 12-17, N = 19,301) of the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse were used in the analyses. Information on adolescent substance use, suicidal behaviors, and related sociodemographic, family,…

  12. Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges: Findings from a 2012 CASE Survey. CASE White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Andrew; Heaton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, CASE founded the Center for Community College Advancement to provide training and resources to help community colleges build and sustain effective fundraising, alumni relations and communications and marketing programs. This white paper summarizes the results of a groundbreaking survey on alumni relations programs at community colleges…

  13. A Delphi Survey on Citizenship Education in Asean Countries: Findings for Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Hajah Sallimah Haji Mohammed; Laxman, Kumar; Jawawi, Rosmawijah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Delphi Survey was to elucidate Bruneian Education experts' responses to five questions regarding their knowledge and understanding of the charateristics of citizenship education viz. Environment, Coexistence, Culture, Social Justice and Equity, Democracy, Sustainable Development, Interdependence, Foreign Language, Social Welfare,…

  14. Evidence-Based Speech-Language Pathology Practices in Schools: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, LaVae M.; Ireland, Marie; Hall-Mills, Shannon; Flynn, Perry

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study documented evidence-based practice (EBP) patterns as reported by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) employed in public schools during 2010-2011. Method: Using an online survey, practioners reported their EBP training experiences, resources available in their workplaces, and the frequency with which they engage in specific EBP…

  15. Finding Autonomy in Activity: Development and Validation of a Democratic Classroom Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Eun Hye; Glassman, Michael; Kim, Yunhwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper developed a Democratic Classroom Survey to measure students' perceived democratic environment of the classroom. Perceived democratic environment is one of the most important variables for understanding classroom activity and indeed any type of group activity, but actually measuring perceptions in an objective manner has been…

  16. Finding Clusters of Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using Voronoi Tessellation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rita S.J., Kim

    2001-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has obtained 450 square degrees of photometric scan data, in five bands (u', g', r', i', z'), which the authors use to identify clusters of galaxies. They illustrate how they do star-galaxy separation, and present a simple and elegant method of detecting over-densities in the galaxy distribution, using the Voronoi Tessellation

  17. Self-Injurious Behavior and Fragile X Syndrome: Findings from the National Fragile X Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Frank J.; Byiers, Breanne J.; Raspa, Melissa; Bishop, Ellen; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    We used National Fragile X Survey data in order to examine reported self-injurious behavior (SIB) to (a) generate lifetime and point prevalence estimates, (b) document detailed features of SIB (frequency, types, location, severity) in relation to gender, and (c) compare comorbid conditions between matched pairs (SIB vs. no SIB). Results indicate…

  18. Energy and Nutrient Intakes: Findings from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnalini, K; Zalilah, M S; Safiah, M Y; Tahir, A; Siti Haslinda, M D; Siti Rohana, D; Khairul Zarina, M Y; Mohd Hasyami, S; Normah, H

    2008-03-01

    Nutrition surveys based on a representative sample of the Malaysian adult population have hitherto not been reported. In 2003, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, conducted the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS), the first and largest nutrition survey in the country which aimed to provide detailed quantitative information on nutritional status, food and nutrient intakes, and physical activity pattern on a nationwide representative sample of adult subjects between the ages of 18 and 59 years. The survey covered four zones in Peninsular Malaysia (Central, Southern, Northern and East Coast), Sabah and Sarawak. This paper presents the mean and selected percentiles of energy and nutrient intake of 6886 subjects by selected demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Energy contributions by macronutrients and dietary adequacy in relation to the Recommended Nutrient Intake for Malaysians are also described. Information on dietary intake was collected by trained nutritionists using a one day 24-hour diet recall. Dietary data were analysed using Nutritionist Pro, a diet analysis software and statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS ver. 13.0. In most of the demographic and socioeconomic groups, males had higher mean energy (1776 kcal) and nutrient intake and percent achievement of RNI than females (1447 kcal). The proportions of calories derived from macronutrients were within the recommendations for a healthy diet. Intake of micronutrients such as iron, calcium and vitamin A was about 50% of RNI particularly in women. Sodium intake of Malaysians, not reported in earlier studies, is also made available. Under-reporting using the EI/BMR ratio was found in half of the population studied. The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Malaysian adult population. Regular nutrition surveys are needed at the national level to provide valuable information on trends in food and nutrient intake, particularly among age

  19. Chinese smokers' cigarette purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and consumption: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    While cigarette purchasing behaviour has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviours and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world's largest cigarette consumer. The aim of the present study was to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviours, and estimate the impact of these behaviours on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socioeconomic differences in compensatory purchase behaviours, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and cigarette consumption. Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves--wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010)--of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers' self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviours were analysed. Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase behaviours. Those behaviours led to reductions

  20. Quitting activity and tobacco brand switching: findings from the ITC-4 Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Genevieve A; Swift, Elena; Partos, Timea; Borland, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Among Australian smokers, to examine associations between cigarette brand switching, quitting activity and possible causal directions by lagging the relationships in different directions. Current smokers from nine waves (2002 to early 2012) of the ITC-4 Country Survey Australian dataset were surveyed. Measures were brand switching, both brand family and product type (roll-your-own versus factory-made cigarettes) reported in adjacent waves, interest in quitting, recent quit attempts, and one month sustained abstinence. Switching at one interval was unrelated to concurrent quit interest. Quit interest predicted switching at the following interval, but the effect disappeared once subsequent quit attempts were controlled for. Recent quit attempts more strongly predicted switching at concurrent (OR 1.34, 95%CI=1.18-1.52, pbrand switching does not affect subsequent quitting. Brand switching does not appear to interfere with quitting. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  1. Perceptions of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy: findings from the REVIVE survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Murray A

    2014-07-01

    Symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA), including dyspareunia and vaginal dryness, have a distinct negative impact on a woman's quality of life. The REVIVE survey highlighted the lack of awareness of VVA symptoms among postmenopausal women with vaginal symptoms, with many women reluctant to initiate discussions with their healthcare professionals despite the presence of vaginal symptoms. The REVIVE survey also provided insights into women's views of VVA treatments. Women reported displeasure with the vaginal administration route, lack of symptom relief with over-the-counter products, and concerns about the safety of estrogen therapies. With the high prevalence of VVA, obstetricians/gynecologists should become vigilant in identifying women with VVA by implementing screening and discussion of symptoms during routine office visits - providing patients with information about appropriate therapies based on the severity and impact of symptoms, keeping in mind individual preferences and perceptions.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Christine Bergmann; Dirk Baier

    2018-01-01

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumpt...

  3. Gifts to Colleges Rose 8.2% in 2011, Survey Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemiller, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The author discusses the results of an annual "Voluntary Support of Education" survey by the Council for Aid to Education. According to the report, after two lackluster years, donations to U.S. colleges and universities rose last year by a healthy 8.2 percent, to an estimated $30.3-billion. The total raised comes close to the amount seen in 2008,…

  4. Prevalence of asthma in Saudi adults: findings from a national household survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Daoud, Farah; Tuffaha, Marwa; Kravitz, Hannah; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad A; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-07-28

    There are not enough data on the epidemiology of asthma in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We analyzed data from a national household survey conducted in KSA in 2013 to estimate prevalence, associated risk factors and control measurements of asthma. The Saudi Health Interview Survey was a cross-sectional national multistage survey of 10,735 individuals aged 15 years or older. The survey included a detailed household questionnaire and a physical exam. We used self-reported clinical diagnosis of asthma to assess prevalence of asthma. The prevalence of asthma in KSA was 4.05 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 3.54-4.62 %). Asthma was less frequent in individuals with higher education but higher in former smokers and obese individuals. Around 76.7 % of asthma patients (95 % CI: 70.6-82.0 %) experienced an asthmatic attack, and 61.6 % (95 % CI: 54.4-68.4 %) visited a hospital/emergency room because of asthma during the past year. Asthma attack was less frequent in older patients (odds ratio [OR] = 0.78, 95 %CI: 0.59-0.96 for each decade of life). Current use of medication for asthma was highly associated with asthma attacks (OR = 9.14, 95 % CI: 3.29-25.38). Asthma attack was also more frequent in individuals who were exposed to secondhand smoking (OR = 2.17, 95 %CI: 1.05-4.45) and those who were obese (OR = 3.01, 95 %CI: 1.34-6.78). Saudi Arabia has a relatively low prevalence of diagnosed asthma; however, many of the patients with known asthma do not have it under good control. Our study calls for programs to inform patients about the importance and proper means of controlling their condition. Implementing and monitoring of clinical guidelines can also help to improve asthma control among patients as well as identify undiagnosed cases.

  5. Recruitment methods for survey research: Findings from the Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerman, William J; Jackson, Natalie; Roumie, Christianne L; Harris, Paul A; Rosenbloom, S Trent; Pulley, Jill; Wilkins, Consuelo H; Williams, Neely A; Crenshaw, David; Leak, Cardella; Scherdin, Jon; Muñoz, Daniel; Bachmann, Justin; Rothman, Russell L; Kripalani, Sunil

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to report survey response rates and demographic characteristics of eight recruitment approaches to determine acceptability and effectiveness of large-scale patient recruitment among various populations. We conducted a cross sectional analysis of survey data from two large cohorts. Patients were recruited from the Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network using clinic-based recruitment, research registries, and mail, phone, and email approaches. Response rates are reported as patients who consented for the survey divided by the number of eligible patients approached. We contacted more than 90,000 patients and 13,197 patients completed surveys. Median age was 56.3years (IQR 40.9, 67.4). Racial/ethnic distribution was 84.1% White, non-Hispanic; 9.9% Black, non-Hispanic; 1.8% Hispanic; and 4.0% other, non-Hispanic. Face-to-face recruitment had the highest response rate of 94.3%, followed by participants who "opted-in" to a registry (76%). The lowest response rate was for unsolicited emails from the clinic (6.1%). Face-to-face recruitment enrolled a higher percentage of participants who self-identified as Black, non-Hispanic compared to other approaches (18.6% face-to-face vs. 8.4% for email). Technology-enabled recruitment approaches such as registries and emails are effective for recruiting but may yield less racial/ethnic diversity compared to traditional, more time-intensive approaches. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Characteristics of users and usage of different types of electronic cigarettes: findings from an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    Studying users of e-cigarettes is important to help determine whether these devices aid smoking cessation. Obtaining data in representative samples is difficult, but online surveys of users may begin to build a picture. Therefore, this study aimed, through a large online survey, to describe usage and characteristics of users of e-cigarettes. Cross-sectional internet survey between 2012 and 2014. A total of 2807 current e-cigarette users enrolled via e-cigarette and smoking cessation websites, who lived in France (n = 988), the United States (n = 579), Switzerland (n = 310), the United Kingdom (n = 143) and other countries (n = 787). Type of e-cigarette used: pre-filled cartridges (n = 71), unmodified refillable tanks (n = 758), modified refillable tanks (n = 392), patterns of use, perceived effects. Pre-filled models were perceived to be less effective than unmodified refillable tanks for smoking cessation by former smokers ('definitely helped': 74% vs. 94%, P Addiction.

  7. The Training of Epidemiologists and Diversity in Epidemiology: Findings from the 2006 Congress of Epidemiology Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia D.; Spirtas, Robert; Bethune, Lisa; Mays, Vickie; Freeman, Vincent L.; Cozier, Yvette C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In the past decade, we have witnessed increasing numbers of individuals entering the field of epidemiology. With the increase also has come a diversity of training and paths by which individuals entered the field. The purpose of this survey was characterization of the epidemiology workforce, its job diversity, and continuing education needs. Methods The Minority Affairs and Membership committees of the American College of Epidemiology (ACE) prepared and administered a workforce survey to identify racial/ethnic diversity, demographic background, workplace type, credentials, income, subspecialties, and continuing education needs of epidemiologists. The survey was self-administered to attendees of the Second North American Congress of Epidemiology in June 2006. Results A sample of 397 respondents of the 1348 registered for the Congress was captured (29.5% response). Epidemiologists who participated were from 36 states and 18 countries; 54.6% were trained at the doctoral level; 19.1% earned $120,001 or more a year. A wide range of epidemiology subspecialties and continuing education needs were identified. Conclusions This preliminary snapshot of epidemiologists indicates a wide range of training mechanisms, workplace sites, and subspecialties. Results indicate a need for examination of the core graduate training needs of epidemiologist as well as responding to desired professional development needs through the provision of continuing educations efforts. PMID:19344867

  8. A survey of motif finding Web tools for detecting binding site motifs in ChIP-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Tam L; Huang, Chun-Hsi

    2014-02-20

    ChIP-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing) has provided the advantage for finding motifs as ChIP-Seq experiments narrow down the motif finding to binding site locations. Recent motif finding tools facilitate the motif detection by providing user-friendly Web interface. In this work, we reviewed nine motif finding Web tools that are capable for detecting binding site motifs in ChIP-Seq data. We showed each motif finding Web tool has its own advantages for detecting motifs that other tools may not discover. We recommended the users to use multiple motif finding Web tools that implement different algorithms for obtaining significant motifs, overlapping resemble motifs, and non-overlapping motifs. Finally, we provided our suggestions for future development of motif finding Web tool that better assists researchers for finding motifs in ChIP-Seq data.

  9. Psychotic experiences and disability: Findings from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hans; Koyanagi, Ai; Kelleher, Ian; DeVylder, Jordan

    2018-03-01

    Psychotic experiences are associated with a number of poor clinical outcomes, including multimorbid psychopathology, suicidal behavior, and poor treatment response. We wished to investigate the relationship between psychotic experiences and disability, including the following domains: cognition, mobility, self-care, social interaction, role functioning, and days out of role. We used three nationally representative and racially/ethnically diverse samples of the general US adult population: the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), the National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS), and the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Multi-variable logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations between lifetime psychotic experiences (visual and auditory hallucinatory experiences and delusional ideation; WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview psychosis screen) and 30-day impairments in functioning across disability domains (using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule II). In all three samples, models were adjusted for socio-demographics and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. In the NCS-R, models were also adjusted for chronic health conditions. Across all three studies, our adjusted models showed that people with disability had anywhere from about 1.5 to over 3 times the odds of reporting lifetime psychotic experiences, depending on the domain. This was true for each disability domain, except self-care in the NLAAS and in the NSAL. Psychotic experiences are markers of risk for disability across a wide range of domains. This may explain the elevated rates of service utilization among individuals who report psychotic experiences and supports the need to assess for and respond to psychotic experiences even in the absence of psychotic disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of spiritual healer use: findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jeff; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates sociodemographic and health-related correlates of use of a spiritual healer for medical help. A large national, multiracial-multiethnic data source permits a more comprehensive investigation than was possible in previous studies. It also enables a closer focus on socioeconomic disadvantage and health need as determinants of utilization. Respondents are from the National Survey of American Life: Coping with Stress in the 21st Century (NSAL), a nationally representative multi-stage area-probability survey of U.S. adult African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites conducted from 2001 to 2003. The sample contains 6082 adults aged 18 and over. NSAL respondents were surveyed about lifetime use of alternative providers for medical care or advice. Response categories included two types of spiritual healers: faith healers and psychics. These outcomes were logistically regressed, separately, onto 10 sociodemographic or health-related indicators: race/ethnicity, age, gender, marital status, education, household income, region, medical care use, insurance coverage, and self-rated health. Lifetime utilization of a faith healer is more prevalent among respondents in good health and less prevalent among Caribbean Blacks and never married persons. Users of a psychic healer are more likely to be educated, residents of the Northeast or West, and previously married, and less likely to report excellent health. Use a spiritual healer is not due, on average, to poor education, marginal racial/ethnic or socioeconomic status, dire health straits, or lack of other healthcare options. To some extent, the opposite appears to be true. Use of a spiritual healer is not associated with fewer social and personal resources or limitations in health or healthcare. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Men with Sexual Problems and Their Partners: Findings from the International Survey of Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Raymond C; Heiman, Julia R; Long, J Scott; Fisher, William A; Sand, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of sexual function problems in men have focused on the individual male and related sociodemographic characteristics, individual risk factors and lifestyle concomitants, or medical comorbidities. Insufficient attention has been given to the role of sexual and relationship satisfaction and, more particularly, to the perspective of the couple as causes or correlates of sexual problems in men or women. Previously, we reported results of the first large, multi-national study of sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness in 1,009 midlife and older couples in five countries (Brazil, Germany, Japan, Spain, U.S.). For the present study, we examined, within each problem, the association of four major sexual problems in men (loss of sexual desire, erectile problems, premature ejaculation, delayed/absent orgasm) and multiple problems, with male and female partners' assessments of physical intimacy, sexual satisfaction, and relationship happiness, as well as associations with well-known health and psychosocial correlates of sexual problems in men. Sexual problem rates of men in our survey were generally similar to rates observed in past surveys in the general population, and similar risk factors (age, relationship duration, overall health) were associated with lack of desire, anorgasmia, or erection difficulties in our sample. As in previous surveys, there were few correlates of premature ejaculation. As predicted, men with one or more sexual problems reported decreased relationship happiness as well as decreased sexual satisfaction compared to men without sexual problems. Moreover, female partners of men with sexual problems had reduced relationship happiness and sexual satisfaction, although these latter outcomes were less affected in the women than the men. The association of men's sexual problems with men's and women's satisfaction and relationship happiness were modest, as these couples in long-term, committed relationships were notable for their

  12. Milk Donation Awareness of Parents, Health Workers and Lactation Consultants: Survey Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Olga L. Lukoyanova; Tatyana E. Borovik; Irina A. Belyaeva; Leyla S. Namazova-Baranova; Galina V. Yatsyk; Elena V. Shepkina; Ulyana M. Lebedeva; Vladimir I. Phurtsev; Yakov Ya. Yakovlev; Lyudmila N. Sophronova; Liliana A. Dautova; Olga V. Nodvikova; Anna L. Karpova; Nonna V. Klyueva

    2016-01-01

    Background. Today, in Russia there is no practice of using donor milk in hospitals, while abroad it is a common technique of caring for premature and low-weight infants.Objective: Our aim was to study the milk donation awareness of parents of children under the age of 1, health workers and lactation consultants.Methods. A sample survey was carried out.Results. The study involved 2,332 respondents from 13 medical institutions in 11 cities and towns located in 6 federal districts of the Russian...

  13. Teaching psychosomatic (biopsychosocial) medicine in United States medical schools: survey findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldstein, S R; Neumann, S A; Drossman, D A; Novack, D H

    2001-01-01

    A survey of US medical schools regarding the incorporation of psychosomatic (biopsychosocial) medicine topics into medical school curriculum was conducted. The perceived importance and success of this curriculum, barriers to teaching psychosomatic medicine, and curricular needs were also assessed. From August 1997 to August 1999, representatives of US medical schools were contacted to complete a survey instrument either by telephone interview or by written questionnaire. Survey responses were received from 54 of the 118 US medical schools contacted (46%). Responses were obtained from representatives of both public (57%) and private (43%) institutions. Only 20% of respondents indicated that their schools used the term "psychosomatic medicine"; the terms "behavioral medicine" (63%) and "biopsychosocial medicine" (41%) were used more frequently. Coverage of various health habits (eg, substance use and exercise) ranged from 52% to 96%. The conceptualization and/or measurement of psychosocial factors (eg, stress and social support) was taught by 80% to 93% of schools. Teaching about the role of psychosocial factors in specific disease states or syndromes ranged from 33% (renal disease) to 83% (cardiovascular disease). Coverage of treatment-related issues ranged from 44% (relaxation/biofeedback) to 98% (doctor-patient communication). Topics in psychosomatic medicine were estimated to comprise approximately 10% (median response) of the medical school curriculum. On a scale of 1 (lowest) to 10 (highest), ratings of the relative importance of this curriculum averaged 7 (SD = 2.5; range = 2-10). Student response to the curriculum varied from positive to mixed to negative. Perceived barriers to teaching psychosomatic medicine included limited resources (eg, time, money, and faculty), student and faculty resistance, and a lack of continuity among courses. Sixty-three percent of respondents expressed an interest in receiving information about further incorporation of topics in

  14. Active case finding of tuberculosis in Europe: a Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (TBNET) survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, G H; Ditiu, L; Migliori, G B

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis control depends on successful case finding and treatment of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Passive case finding is widely practised: the present study aims to ascertain the consensus and possible improvements in active case finding across Europe. Recommendations...... from national guidelines were collected from 50 countries of the World Health Organization European region using a standard questionnaire. Contacts are universally screened for active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Most countries (>70%) screen those with HIV infection, prisoners...... and in-patient contacts. Screening of immigrants is related to their contribution to national rates of tuberculosis. Only 25 (50%) out of 50 advise a request for symptoms in their guidelines. A total of 36 (72%) out of 50 countries recommend sputum examination for those with a persistent cough; 13...

  15. Trends in adult exposure to secondhand smoke in vehicles: Findings from the 2009-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday

    2015-10-01

    A growing number of jurisdictions have implemented smoke-free vehicles when children are present due to the substantial health effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). Prior studies on the prevalence of SHS exposure in vehicles have mainly focused on adolescents. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of SHS exposure in vehicles among Canadian adults. A repeated cross-sectional data on youth and adult data were drawn from the 2009-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey (n=58, 195). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the socio-demographic correlates of exposure to SHS in vehicles. Overall, 19% in 2009 and 18% in 2012 of adults reported SHS exposure in vehicles in the past month. Disparities in the SHS exposure prevalence were observed, with a higher SHS exposure among current smokers, former smokers, males, younger adults, living in a household with smoking-related exposure, and those with less education. The multivariable analyses showed significant associations between socio-demographic characteristics and SHS exposure. Higher odds SHS exposure was found for those younger (aged 20-24, OR=16.27, CI=11.09-23.88; 25-44, OR=6.12, CI=4.14-9.06; 45-64, OR=2.79, CI=1.95-4.02) compared to those aged 65 and over. Likewise, those with less education had greater odds of SHS exposure. Findings suggest that adults SHS exposure is high, especially for young adults and those with less education. Adult passengers may need protection from SHS given that no level of SHS exposure is safe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Variation in choice of study design: findings from the Epidemiology Design Decision Inventory and Evaluation (EDDIE) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Paul E; Ryan, Patrick B; Overhage, J Marc; Schuemie, Martijn J; Hartzema, Abraham G; Welebob, Emily

    2013-10-01

    Researchers using observational data to understand drug effects must make a number of analytic design choices that suit the characteristics of the data and the subject of the study. Review of the published literature suggests that there is a lack of consistency even when addressing the same research question in the same database. To characterize the degree of similarity or difference in the method and analysis choices made by observational database research experts when presented with research study scenarios. On-line survey using research scenarios on drug-effect studies to capture method selection and analysis choices that follow a dependency branching based on response to key questions. Voluntary participants experienced in epidemiological study design solicited for participation through registration on the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership website, membership in particular professional organizations, or links in relevant newsletters. Description (proportion) of respondents selecting particular methods and making specific analysis choices based on individual drug-outcome scenario pairs. The number of questions/decisions differed based on stem questions of study design, time-at-risk, outcome definition, and comparator. There is little consistency across scenarios, by drug or by outcome of interest, in the decisions made for design and analyses in scenarios using large healthcare databases. The most consistent choice was the cohort study design but variability in the other critical decisions was common. There is great variation among epidemiologists in the design and analytical choices that they make when implementing analyses in observational healthcare databases. These findings confirm that it will be important to generate empiric evidence to inform these decisions and to promote a better understanding of the impact of standardization on research implementation.

  17. Occurrence and impact of xerostomia among dentate adult New Zealanders: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, A M L; Broadbent, J M; Thomson, W M

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence, associations and impact of xerostomia in a nationally representative sample of dentate adult community-dwelling New Zealanders aged 18 years and over. The data were collected from a representative sample of 2209 adults, as part of the 2009 New Zealand Oral Health Survey (NZOHS). Data were collected using face-to-face interviews, dental examinations and the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Data analysis used appropriate weighting for all procedures to account for the complex survey design. The overall prevalence estimate for xerostomia was 13.1% (95% CI 11.7, 14.7), and it was more common among females. Those in the 75+  and 25-34 age groups were more likely (odds ratios of 6.5 and 4.0, respectively) to have xerostomia. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and clinical oral disease, the mean OHIP-14 score among xerostomics was 50% higher than among those who did not have the condition. These data indicate that xerostomia is a common condition which can affect quality of life among people of all ages. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  18. Firearm ownership among American veterans: findings from the 2015 National Firearm Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Emily C; Azrael, Deborah; Simonetti, Joseph A; Miller, Matthew

    2017-12-19

    While the majority of veteran suicides involve firearms, no contemporary data describing firearm ownership among US veterans are available. This study uses survey data to describe the prevalence of firearm ownership among a nationally representative sample of veterans, as well as veterans' reasons for firearm ownership. A cross-sectional, nationally representative web-based survey conducted in 2015. Nearly half of all veterans own one or more firearms (44.9%, 95% CI 41.3-48.6%), with male veterans more commonly owning firearms than do female veterans (47.2%, 95% CI 43.4-51.0% versus 24.4%, 95%CI 15.6-36.1%). Most veteran firearm owners own both handguns and long guns (56.5%, 95% CI 51.1-61.8%); a majority cite protection as a primary reason for firearm ownership (63.1%, 95% CI 58.2-67.8%). The current study is the first to provide detailed, nationally representative information about firearm ownership among U.S. veterans. Better understanding firearm ownership among veterans can usefully inform ongoing suicide prevention efforts aiming to facilitate lethal means safety among vulnerable veterans during at-risk periods.

  19. Organizational Strategies to Implement Hospital Pressure Ulcer Prevention Programs: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOBAN, LYNN M.; KIM, LINDA; YUAN, ANITA H.; MILTNER, REBECCA S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim To describe the presence and operationalization of organizational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer prevention programs across acute care hospitals in a large, integrated healthcare system. Background Comprehensive pressure ulcer programs include nursing interventions such as use of a risk assessment tool and organizational strategies such as policies and performance monitoring to embed these interventions into routine care. The current literature provides little detail about strategies used to implement pressure ulcer prevention programs. Methods Data were collected by an email survey to all Chief Nursing Officers in Veterans Health Administration acute care hospitals. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were used to summarize survey responses and evaluate relationships between some variables. Results Organizational strategies that support pressure ulcer prevention program implementation (policy, committee, staff education, wound care specialists, and use of performance data) were reported at high levels. Considerable variations were noted in how these strategies were operationalized within individual hospitals. Conclusion Organizational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer preventive programs are often not optimally operationalized to achieve consistent, sustainable performance. Implications for Nursing Management The results of this study highlight the role and influence of nurse leaders on pressure ulcer prevention program implementation. PMID:27487972

  20. Trends in youth internet victimization: findings from three youth internet safety surveys 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa M; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the trends in youth reports of unwanted online sexual solicitation, harassment, and exposure to pornography over time. The study was based on three separate cross-sectional national telephone surveys of approximately 1,500 youth Internet users, aged 10 through 17 years. Data were collected in 2000, 2005, and 2010. Nine percent of youth reported an unwanted sexual solicitation in 2010. This continued the decline in unwanted sexual solicitations that occurred between 2000 (19%) and 2005 (13%), resulting in a total 50% decrease between 2000 and 2010. Twenty-three percent of youth reported an unwanted exposure to pornography, a decline from 34% in 2005, following an increase between 2000 and 2005 (25% to 34%). However, marking the only trend to show an increase over the past 5 years, 11% of youth reported an online harassment experience, which was an increase from 9% in 2005, and 6% in 2000. Some differences in these trends were noted for subgroups of youth across age, gender, and race. The trends in unwanted experiences online over the past decade identified by three Youth Internet Safety Surveys may contradict impressions that the general population, professionals, and the media have about what is happening. Trends provide evidence for some optimism that protective adaptations to the online environment have been successful; however, online harassment appears to be increasing for youth, particularly girls, and may require additional mobilization. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Smokers' reactions to FDA regulation of tobacco products: Findings from the 2009 ITC United States survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fix Brian V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On June 22, 2009, the US FDA was granted the authority to regulate tobacco products through the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA. The intent is to improve public health through regulations on tobacco product marketing and tobacco products themselves. This manuscript reports baseline data on smokers' attitudes and beliefs on specific issues relevant to the FSPTCA. Method Between November 2009 and January 2010, a telephone survey among a nationally representative sample of n = 678 smokers in the US was performed as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC United States Survey. Participants answered a battery of questions on their attitudes and beliefs about aspects of the FSPTCA. Results Most smokers were unaware of the new FDA tobacco regulations. Smokers indicated support for banning cigarette promotion and nearly a quarter supported requiring tobacco companies to sell cigarettes in plain packaging. Seventy two percent of smokers supported reducing nicotine levels to make cigarettes less addictive if nicotine was made easily available in non-cigarette form. Conclusion Most smokers were limited in their understanding of efforts to regulate tobacco products in general. Smokers were supportive of efforts to better inform the public about health risks, restrict advertising, and make tobacco products less addictive.

  2. Organisational strategies to implement hospital pressure ulcer prevention programmes: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soban, Lynn M; Kim, Linda; Yuan, Anita H; Miltner, Rebecca S

    2017-09-01

    To describe the presence and operationalisation of organisational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer prevention programmes across acute care hospitals in a large, integrated health-care system. Comprehensive pressure ulcer programmes include nursing interventions such as use of a risk assessment tool and organisational strategies such as policies and performance monitoring to embed these interventions into routine care. The current literature provides little detail about strategies used to implement pressure ulcer prevention programmes. Data were collected by an e-mail survey to all chief nursing officers in Veterans Health Administration acute care hospitals. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were used to summarise survey responses and evaluate relationships between some variables. Organisational strategies that support implementation of a pressure ulcer prevention programme (policy, committee, staff education, wound care specialists, and use of performance data) were reported at high levels. Considerable variations were noted in how these strategies were operationalised within individual hospitals. Organisational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer preventive programmes are often not optimally operationalised to achieve consistent, sustainable performance. The results of the present study highlight the role and influence of nurse leaders on pressure ulcer prevention program implementation. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Current Tobacco Use Among Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Adult Tobacco Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R.; Tynan, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of tobacco use among US adults. Methods. We used data from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a national landline and cell phone survey of adults aged 18 years and older, to estimate current use of any tobacco; cigarettes; cigars, cigarillos, or small cigars; chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip; water pipes; snus; and pipes. We stratified estimates by gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, sexual orientation, and US state. Results. National prevalence of current use was 25.2% for any tobacco; 19.5% for cigarettes; 6.6% for cigars, cigarillos, or small cigars; 3.4% for chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip; 1.5% for water pipes; 1.4% for snus; and 1.1% for pipes. Tobacco use was greatest among respondents who were male, younger, of non-Hispanic “other” race/ethnicity, less educated, less wealthy, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. Prevalence ranged from 14.1% (Utah) to 37.4% (Kentucky). Conclusions. Tobacco use varies by geography and sociodemographic factors, but remains prevalent among US adults. Evidence-based prevention strategies are needed to decrease tobacco use and the health and economic burden of tobacco-related diseases. PMID:22994278

  4. Women's attitudes to safe-induced abortion in Iran: Findings from a pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhani, Nader; Cleary, Michelle; Zarei, Abbas; Lopez, Violeta

    2018-01-01

    To explore attitudes to safe-induced abortion among pregnant women in Iran. In Islamic teachings, abortion is generally forbidden. However in specific circumstances, abortion may be permitted and currently, in Iran, the law allows termination of pregnancy only if three specialist physicians confirm that the pregnancy outcome may be harmful for the mother during pregnancy or after birth. Pilot, descriptive survey. A 15-item structured questionnaire focusing on attitudes to safe-induced abortion was developed and pilot tested. Participants were pregnant women who were referred to the Legal Medical Centre (July-December 2015) to obtain permission for abortion. On obtaining their informed consent, the women were asked to respond to each item if they agreed (Yes) or disagreed (No). Only their age, education, employment, marital status and religion were obtained. Of the 80 survey participants referred for a safe-induced abortion, 90% were carrying foetuses with a diagnosed congenital malformation and 10% were experiencing complications of pregnancy that endangered their health. The majority of women (85%) perceived abortion to be dangerous to health; 86% indicated that partners should be involved in decision-making about abortion, while 83% believed that public health officials should have complete control of abortion law. There is a need to improve women's and couples' awareness and practice of effective contraceptive methods. Further research is needed to better understand the complex issues that lead to unintended pregnancies and abortions considering religious beliefs and cultural and legal contexts. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Teaching Motivational Interviewing Skills to Psychiatry Trainees: Findings of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele, Misoo; Brown, Julie; Ibrahim, Hicham; Jha, Manish K

    2016-02-01

    The authors report on the current status of motivational interviewing education and training director attitudes about providing it to psychiatry residents. Training directors of general, child/adolescent and addiction psychiatry training programs were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey. Of the 333 training directors who were invited to participate, 66 of 168 (39.3%) general, 41 of 121 (33.9%) child/adolescent, and 19 of 44 (43.2%) addiction psychiatry training directors completed the survey. The authors found that 90.9% of general, 80.5% of child/adolescent, and 100% of addiction psychiatry training programs provided motivational interviewing education. Most programs used multiple educational opportunities; the three most common opportunities were didactics, clinical practice with formal supervision, and self-directed reading. Most training directors believed that motivational interviewing was an important skill for general psychiatrists. The authors also found that 83.3% of general, 87.8% of child/adolescent, and 94.7% of addiction psychiatry training directors reported that motivational interviewing should be taught during general psychiatry residency. Motivational interviewing skills are considered important for general psychiatrists and widely offered by training programs. Competency in motivational interviewing skills should be considered as a graduation requirement in general psychiatry training programs.

  6. Changes in depression stigma after the Germanwings crash - Findings from German population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Mnich, Eva; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Kofahl, Christopher; Makowski, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Media coverage of the Germanwings plane crash intensely focused on the co-pilot's mental illness and was criticized for potentially increasing depression stigma. We explored whether stigma beliefs towards persons with depression changed in April 2015 (about one month after the crash) compared to 2014. Telephone surveys among the adult population were conducted in Munich, Germany (N=650 in 2014 and N=601 in 2015). In both surveys, four components of stigma were assessed: (1) characteristics ascribed to persons with a depression, (2) belief in a continuum of symptoms from mental health to mental illness, (3) emotional reactions to people afflicted by depression (fear, anger, and pro-social reactions), and (4) desire for social distance. Some stigmatizing attitudes have increased after the crash. More specifically, we found more pronounced changes in the attributes ascribed (stereotypes) and in the perceived separation from persons afflicted (continuum beliefs) than in the emotional reactions and the desire for social distance. However, overall increase in depression stigma was smaller than expected as changes were not statistically significant in the majority of the analyzed items. Due to the study design no causal interpretation of results is possible. Moreover, evidence presented is confined to a regional German sample. A single devastating event and related media coverage seem to have a limited impact on public stigmatizing attitudes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Survey of laboratory findings in suspected cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Denmark from 1990 to 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Tegtmeier, C.L.; Nielsen, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of the laboratory findings in suspected cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Denmark from I June 1990 to '31 December 2000 is presented. During this period BSE was a notifiable disease, and the heads of suspected cases were submitted according to the legislation on BSE....... A total of 176 submissions were made, mostly from bovines with neurological disorders and mainly during the last 3 years of this period. Lesions or other laboratory findings consistent with severe neurological disorders were found in 115 cases. The most frequent diagnosis was encephalic 41 p listeriosis...

  8. Perception and evaluation of risks. Findings of the 'Baden-Wuerttemberg Risk Survey 2001'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwick, M.M.; Renn, O. (eds.)

    2002-05-01

    Since most of the empirical work on risk perception has been conducted in the 1970s and few studies are available that claim to span the full range of psychological, sociological and cultural variables, the Center of Technology Assessment in Stuttgart (Germany) has conducted a representative survey in the German State of Baden-Wuerttemberg on risk perception in the general population. In addition, a qualitative investigation based on a sample of 62 respondents was launched in 2001. The objective of the study was to determine the relative importance of psychometric, stigma-related, social value-related, trust-related and cultural variables in explaining risk perception and acceptance. The following report summarizes the results of these investigations. (orig.)

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively. PMID:29415426

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Christine Bergmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk

    2018-02-06

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively.

  12. HPV vaccine hesitancy: findings from a statewide survey of health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gilkey, Melissa B; Dempsey, Amanda F

    2014-01-01

    Health care provider recommendations are critical for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake. We sought to describe providers' HPV vaccine recommendation practices and explore their perceptions of parental hesitancy. A statewide sample (n = 575) of Minnesota health care providers (20% pediatricians, 47% family medicine physicians, and 33% nurse practitioners) completed our online survey in April 2013. Only 76% of health care providers reported routinely recommending HPV vaccine for girls ages 11 to 12 years, and far fewer (46%) did so for boys (p parents' concerns (74%), but many lacked time to probe reasons (47%) or believed that they could not change parents' minds (55%). Higher levels of self-efficacy and outcome expectations were associated with routine recommendations (p HPV vaccine. Improving providers' self-efficacy to address hesitancy may be important for improving vaccination rates. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Classification and correlates of eating disorders among Blacks: findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Baser, Raymond E; Matusko, Niki; Faison, Nakesha; Jackson, James S

    2013-02-01

    To assess classification adjustments and examine correlates of eating disorders among Blacks. The National Survey of American Life (NSAL) was conducted from 2001-2003 and consisted of adults (n=5,191) and adolescents (n=1,170). The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI-World Health Organization 2004-modified) and DSM-IV-TR eating disorder criteria were used. Sixty-six percent of African American and 59% Caribbean Black adults were overweight or obese, while 30% and 29% of adolescents were overweight or obese. Although lifetime rates of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were low, binge eating disorder was high for both ethnic groups among adults and adolescents. Eliminating certain classification criteria resulted in higher rates of eating disorders for all groups. Culturally sensitive criteria should be incorporated into future versions of Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM) classifications for eating disorders that consider within-group ethnic variations.

  14. Screen time in Mexican children: findings from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ian; Medina, Catalina; Pedroza, Andrea; Barquera, Simón

    2013-01-01

    To provide descriptive information on the screen time levels of Mexican children. 5 660 children aged 10-18 years from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012) were studied. Screen time (watching television, movies, playing video games and using a computer) was self-reported. On average, children engaged in 3 hours/day of screen time, irrespective of gender and age. Screen time was higher in obese children, children from the northern and Federal District regions of the country, children living in urban areas, and children in the highest socioeconomic status and education categories. Approximately 33% of 10-14 year olds and 36% of 15-18 year olds met the screen time guideline of ≤ 2 hours/day. 10-18 year old Mexican children accumulate an average of 3 hours/day of screen time. Two thirds of Mexican children exceed the recommended maximal level of time for this activity.

  15. Domestic violence in consanguineous marriages - findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Masood Ali

    2016-10-01

    Domestic violence is a pandemic and estimated to affect one in three women globally, in their lifetime. Marriages within blood relations in Pakistan are common. In this study a secondary analysis of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012-13 was done to study the prevalence and profile of domestic violence in the context of consanguineous marriages in Pakistan. Almost 65% of women had some kind of blood relationship with their husbands. Women having a blood relationship with husbands were more likely to report having ever been subjected to marital control behaviours, emotional and physical violence by their husbands, compared to ones without such relationship. However, these associations fail to reach statistical significance; underscoring the ubiquitous nature of marital control and violence. More effective public health education campaigns for just and equal treatment of wives by their husbands to speedily curb the scourge of domestic violence in the country are needed.

  16. Cigarette demand is responsive to higher prices: findings from a survey of University students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, Nadia J; Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2016-11-01

    To estimate the price elasticity of cigarette demand for university students aged 18-24 years in Jordan. Questions from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey were adapted and administered to students from 10 public universities in Jordan in 2014. A two-part econometric model of cigarette demand was estimated. Nearly one-third of university students in Jordan smoke, purchasing 33.2 packs per month and paying 1.70 Jordanian dinars on average (US$2.40) for a pack of 20 cigarettes. The price elasticity of cigarette demand was estimated to be -1.15. Higher taxes may be particularly effective in reducing smoking among University students in Jordan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Eating Habits of Malaysian Children: Findings of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age. © 2016 APJPH.

  18. The Impact of the Malaysian Minimum Cigarette Price Law: Findings from the ITC Malaysia Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C.; Ross, Hana; Omar, Maizurah; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Study the effects of the 2011 Malaysian minimum price law (MPL) on prices of licit and illicit cigarette brands. Identify barriers to the MPL achieving positive public health effects. Methods The International Tobacco Control Project's Southeast Asia survey collected information on Malaysian smokers' cigarette purchases (n=7,520) in five survey waves between 2005 and 2012. Consumption-weighted comparisons of proportions tests and adjusted Wald tests were used to evaluate changes over time in violation rates of the inflation-adjusted MPL, the proportion of illicit cigarette purchases, and mean prices. Results After the passage of the MPL, the proportion of licit brand cigarette purchases that were below the inflation-adjusted 2011 minimum price level fell substantially (before 3.9%, after 1.8%, p=0.002), while violation of the MPL for illicit brand cigarette purchases was unchanged (before 89.8%, after 91.9%, p=0.496). At the same time, the mean real price of licit cigarettes rose (p=0.006) while the mean real price of illicit cigarettes remained unchanged (p=0.134). The proportion of illicit cigarette purchases rose as well (before 13.4%, after 16.5%, p=0.041). Discussion The MPL appears not to have meaningfully changed cigarette prices in Malaysia, as licit brand prices remained well above and illicit brand prices remained well below the minimum price level before and after MPL's implementation. The increasing proportion of illicit cigarettes on the market may have undermined any positive health effects of the Malaysian MPL. The illicit cigarette trade must be addressed before a full evaluation of the Malaysian MPL's impact on public health can take place. The authors encourage the continued use of specific excise tax increases to reliably increase the price and decrease the consumption of cigarettes in Malaysia and elsewhere. PMID:25808666

  19. Core courses in public health laboratory science and practice: findings from 2006 and 2011 surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoy, John M; Beck, Angela J; Boulton, Matthew L; Kim, Deborah H; Wichman, Michael D; Luedtke, Patrick F

    2013-01-01

    We identified academic training courses or topics most important to the careers of U.S. public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratory (PHEAL) scientist-managers and directors, and determined what portions of the national PHEAL workforce completed these courses. We conducted electronic national surveys in 2006 and 2011, and analyzed data using numerical ranking, Chi-square tests comparing rates, and Spearman's formula measuring rank correlation. In 2006, 40 of 50 PHEAL directors identified 56 course topics as either important, useful, or not needed for someone in their position. These course topics were then ranked to provide a list of 31 core courses. In 2011, 1,659 of approximately 5,555 PHEAL scientific and technical staff, using a subset of 25 core courses, evidenced higher core course completion rates associated with higher-level job classification, advanced academic degree, and age. The 2011 survey showed that 287 PHEAL scientist-managers and directors, on average, completed 37.7% (n=5/13) of leadership/managerial core courses and 51.7% (n=6/12) of scientific core courses. For 1,659 laboratorians in all scientific and technical classifications, core-subject completion rates were higher in local laboratories (42.8%, n=11/25) than in state (36.0%, n=9/25), federal (34.4%, n=9/25), and university (31.2%, n=8/25) laboratories. There is a definable range of scientific, leadership, and managerial core courses needed by PHEAL scientist-managers and directors to function effectively in their positions. Potential PHEAL scientist-managers and directors need greater and continuing access to these courses, and academic and practice entities supporting development of this workforce should adopt curricula and core competencies aligned with these course topics.

  20. Whole grain intakes in Irish adults: findings from the National Adults Nutrition Survey (NANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Clare B; Devlin, Niamh F; Buffini, Maria; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J; Nugent, Anne P; McNulty, Breige A

    2018-01-20

    Observational studies link high whole grain intakes to reduced risk of many chronic diseases. This study quantified whole grain intakes in the Irish adult population and examined the major contributing sources. It also investigated potential dietary strategies to improve whole grain intakes. Whole grain intakes were calculated in a nationally representative sample of 1500 Irish adults using data from the most recent national food survey, the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). Food consumption was assessed, at brand level where possible, using a 4-day semi-weighed food diary with whole grain content estimated from labels on a dry matter basis. Mean daily whole grain intakes were 27.8 ± 29.4 g/day, with only 19% of the population meeting the quantity-specific recommendation of 48 g per day. Wheat was the highest contributor to whole grain intake at 66%, followed by oats at 26%. High whole grain intakes were associated with higher dietary intakes of fibre, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, and a higher alternative Mediterranean Diet Score. Whole grain foods were most frequently eaten at breakfast time. Regression analysis revealed that consumption of an additional 10 g of whole grain containing 'ready-to-eat breakfast cereals', 'rice or pastas', or 'breads' each day would increase intake of whole grains by an extra 5, 3.5, and 2.7 g, respectively. This study reveals low intakes of whole grains in Irish adults. Recommending cereals, breads, and grains with higher whole grain content as part of public health campaigns could improve whole grain intakes.

  1. Health risk behaviours of Palestinian youth: findings from a representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Al-Khammash, Umaiyeh; Shaheen, Mohammed; Brown, Ryan; Goutam, Prodyumna; Karam, Rita; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Massad, Salwa

    2018-05-03

    There is little systematic information about health risk behaviours among youth in Middle Eastern countries, leaving public health authorities unprepared to deal with emerging public health threats at a time of major social change. The Palestinian Youth Health Risk study investigates patterns of risk behaviours among Palestinian youth, their perceptions of the risks and benefits of such behaviours, and the relationship of exposure to violence with mental health and engagement in risk behaviours. We conducted a representative survey among 2500 individuals aged 15-24 years in the West Bank and East Jerusalem, permitting reliable comparison across sex and rural-urban divisions. A stratified 2-stage random sample was drawn from the 2007 population census, with strata formed by crossing the 12 governorates with urban, rural and refugee camp locations. Within strata, 208 survey clusters were sampled with probability proportional to size. Within each cluster, 14 households with youth of the appropriate age were sampled. Among youth aged 20-24 years, 22.4% of males and 11.6% of females reported trying alcohol; 10.5% of males and 4.3% of females reported trying drugs. Almost one quarter of unmarried youth aged 20-24 years reported any sexual experience. Tobacco use is high, even among younger youth (45.4% of males and 21.2% of females aged 15-19 smoke). Risk behaviours are higher among males, older youth and in urban areas and refugee camps. While smoking is of particular concern, prevention outreach for all behaviours should be directed at subgroups and areas identified as highest risk. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).

  2. Who is food-insecure in California? Findings from the California Women's Health Survey, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Lucia; Baumrind, Nikki; Dumbauld, Sheila

    2007-06-01

    To identify factors associated with food insecurity in California women. The California Women's Health Survey is an ongoing annual telephone survey that collects data about health-related attitudes and behaviours from a randomly selected sample of women. Food insecurity of the women was measured by a 6-item subset of the Food Security Module. Statistical procedures included chi-square tests, t-tests, logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance. California, USA. Four thousand and thirty-seven women (18 years or older). Prevalence of food insecurity was 25.7%. After controlling for income, factors associated with greater food insecurity were Hispanic or Black race/ethnicity; less than a 12th grade education; being unmarried; less than 55 years old; being Spanish-speaking; having spent less than half of one's life in the USA; sadness/depression; feeling overwhelmed; poor physical/mental health interfering with activities; and fair to poor general health. Among Food Stamp Program (FSP) participants, 71% were food-insecure. Among FSP-eligible women who had not applied for the programme, the prevalence of food insecurity was lower among women responding that they did not need food stamps than in women giving other reasons for not applying (23.9% vs. 66.9%, P < 0.001). Factors associated with food insecurity in FSP recipients included being unable to make food stamps last for 30 days, feeling overwhelmed, and having a birthplace in Mexico or Central America. Along with several socio-economic variables, poor physical and mental health is associated with food insecurity. Whether food insecurity is a cause or effect of poor health remains in question.

  3. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  4. Measurement Equivalence in ADL and IADL Difficulty Across International Surveys of Aging: Findings From the HRS, SHARE, and ELSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Judith D.; Brandt, Jason; Pezzin, Liliana E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the measurement equivalence of items on disability across three international surveys of aging. Method. Data for persons aged 65 and older were drawn from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS, n = 10,905), English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, n = 5,437), and Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, n = 13,408). Differential item functioning (DIF) was assessed using item response theory (IRT) methods for activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) items. Results. HRS and SHARE exhibited measurement equivalence, but 6 of 11 items in ELSA demonstrated meaningful DIF. At the scale level, this item-level DIF affected scores reflecting greater disability. IRT methods also spread out score distributions and shifted scores higher (toward greater disability). Results for mean disability differences by demographic characteristics, using original and DIF-adjusted scores, were the same overall but differed for some subgroup comparisons involving ELSA. Discussion. Testing and adjusting for DIF is one means of minimizing measurement error in cross-national survey comparisons. IRT methods were used to evaluate potential measurement bias in disability comparisons across three international surveys of aging. The analysis also suggested DIF was mitigated for scales including both ADL and IADL and that summary indexes (counts of limitations) likely underestimate mean disability in these international populations. PMID:22156662

  5. The prevalence of depression and associated factors in Ethiopia: findings from the National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailemariam Solomon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating mental health into primarily health care and studying risk for mental health particularly depression needs assessment of different factors including those that impede diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. But so far the numbers of literature for local context to analyze risk factors for depression and its treatment are scare. The objective of this study was to assess risk factors and health service attendance for depression among adults, in Ethiopia. Methods For this analysis, data from the Ethiopian National health survey was used. The Ethiopian national health survey studied 4,925 adults aged 18 years and older to obtain among other things, data on depression episodes, socio-demographic, chronic diseases, life style factors and treatment receiving for depression episodes in the past twelve months using questionnaire from world health organization (WHO. Prevalence of Depression in respondents based on ICD-10 criteria was estimated and logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for depression and treatment receiving. Results The prevalence of depressive episode was 9.1% (95% CI: 8.39-9.90. In a Univariate analysis, residence, age, marital status, educational status, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases (heart diseases, diabetic mellitus and arthritis and alcohol drinking status were associated with depression. After full adjustment for possible confounding, odds ratios for depression were significantly higher only for older age, divorced and widowed, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases and alcohol drinking status. The proportion of attending health service among those with depression episodes was 22.9%. After full control for all socio-demographic variables the only predictor variable was educational status, being in grade 5–8 had a higher odds (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.23-5.43 and 9–12 grade (OR=1.8 95% CI: 1.45-6.12 of attending service for depressive

  6. Te Rau Hinengaro: the New Zealand Mental Health Survey: overview of methods and findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J Elisabeth; Oakley Browne, Mark A; Scott, Kate M; McGee, Magnus A; Baxter, Joanne; Kokaua, Jesse

    2006-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence and severity of anxiety, mood, substance and eating disorders in New Zealand, and associated disability and treatment. A nationwide face-to-face household survey of residents aged 16 years and over was undertaken between 2003 and 2004. Lay interviewers administered a computerized fully structured diagnostic interview, the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Oversampling doubled the number of Māori and quadrupled the number of Pacific people. The outcomes reported are demographics, period prevalences, 12 month severity and correlates of disorder, and contact with the health sector, within the past 12 months. The response rate was 73.3%. There were 12,992 participants (2,595 Māori and 2,236 Pacific people). Period prevalences were as follows: 39.5% had met criteria for a DSM-IV mental disorder at any time in their life before interview, 20.7% had experienced disorder within the past 12 months and 11.6% within the past month. In the past 12 months, 4.7% of the population experienced serious disorder, 9.4% moderate disorder and 6.6% mild disorder. A visit for mental health problems was made to the health-care sector in the past 12 months by 58.0% of those with serious disorder, 36.5% with moderate disorder, 18.5% with mild disorder and 5.7% of those not diagnosed with a disorder. The prevalence of disorder and of serious disorder was higher for younger people and people with less education or lower household income. In contrast, these correlates had little relationship to treatment contact, after adjustment for severity. Compared with the composite Others group, Māori and Pacific people had higher prevalences of disorder, unadjusted for sociodemographic correlates, and were less likely to make treatment contact, in relation to need. Mental disorder is common in New Zealand. Many people with current disorder are not receiving treatment, even among those

  7. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy by Brazilian geographic regions: findings from the National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Souza Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Marques, Aline Pinto; Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero

    2016-11-17

    The demographic shift and epidemiologic transition in Brazil have drawn attention to ways of measuring population health that complement studies of mortality. In this paper, we investigate regional differences in healthy life expectancy based on information from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013. In the survey, a three-stage cluster sampling (census tracts, households and individuals) with stratification of the primary sampling units and random selection in all stages was used to select 60,202 Brazilian adults (18 years and over). Healthy life expectancies (HLE) were estimated by Sullivan's method according to sex, age and geographic region, using poor self-rated health for defining unhealthy status. Logistic regression models were used to investigate socioeconomic and regional inequalities in poor self-rated health, after controlling by sex and age. Wide disparities by geographic region were found with the worst indicators in the North and Northeast regions, whether considering educational attainment, material deprivation, or health care utilization. Life expectancy at birth for women and men living in the richest regions was 5 years longer than for those living in the less wealthy regions. Modeling the variation across regions for poor self-rated health, statistically significant effects (p < 0.001) were found for the North and Northeast when compared to the Southeast, even after controlling for age, sex, diagnosis of at least one non-communicable chronic disease, and schooling or socioeconomic class. Marked regional inequalities in HLE were found, with the loss of healthy life much higher among residents of the poorest regions, especially among the elderly. By combining data on self-rated health status and mortality in a single indicator, Healthy Life Expectancy, this study demonstrated the excess burden of poor health experienced by populations in the less wealthy regions of Brazil. To mitigate the effects of social exclusion, the development of strategies

  8. The impact of the Malaysian minimum cigarette price law: findings from the ITC Malaysia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C; Ross, Hana; Omar, Maizurah; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-07-01

    Study the effects of the 2011 Malaysian minimum price law (MPL) on prices of licit and illicit cigarette brands. Identify barriers to the MPL achieving positive public health effects. The International Tobacco Control Project's Southeast Asia survey collected information on Malaysian smokers' cigarette purchases (n=7520) in five survey waves between 2005 and 2012. Consumption-weighted comparisons of proportions tests and adjusted Wald tests were used to evaluate changes over time in violation rates of the inflation-adjusted MPL, the proportion of illicit cigarette purchases and mean prices. After the passage of the MPL, the proportion of licit brand cigarette purchases that were below the inflation-adjusted 2011 minimum price level fell substantially (before 3.9%, after 1.8%, p=0.002), while violation of the MPL for illicit brand cigarette purchases was unchanged (before 89.8%, after 91.9%, p=0.496). At the same time, the mean real price of licit cigarettes rose (p=0.006), while the mean real price of illicit cigarettes remained unchanged (p=0.134). The proportion of illicit cigarette purchases rose as well (before 13.4%, after 16.5%, p=0.041). The MPL appears not to have meaningfully changed cigarette prices in Malaysia, as licit brand prices remained well above and illicit brand prices remained well below the minimum price level before and after MPL's implementation. The increasing proportion of illicit cigarettes on the market may have undermined any positive health effects of the Malaysian MPL. The illicit cigarette trade must be addressed before a full evaluation of the Malaysian MPL's impact on public health can take place. The authors encourage the continued use of specific excise tax increases to reliably increase the price and decrease the consumption of cigarettes in Malaysia and elsewhere. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Dental caries in Uruguayan adults and elders: findings from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Licet; Liberman, Judith; Abreu, Soledad; Mangarelli, Carolina; Correa, Marcos B; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Lorenzo, Susana; Nascimento, Gustavo G

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess dental caries status and associated factors in Uruguayan adults and elders using data from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey. Data were representative of the country as a whole. Socio-demographic information was collected with a closed questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed by clinical examination using the DMFT index. The final sample consisted of 769 participants. Mean DMFT was 15.20 and 24.12 for the 35-44 and 65-74-year age groups, respectively. Mean number of decayed teeth was 1.70 in adults and 0.66 in elders. Multivariate analyses showed higher prevalence of dental caries associated with age 65-74 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, presence of gingivitis; for decayed teeth, age 35-44 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, infrequent tooth brushing, need for oral health care, and presence of root caries showed higher severity. Uruguayan adults and elders from disadvantaged backgrounds concentrated a heavier burden of dental caries.

  10. Ethnic density as a buffer for psychotic experiences: findings from a national survey (EMPIRIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das-Munshi, Jayati; Bécares, Laia; Boydell, Jane E; Dewey, Michael E; Morgan, Craig; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Prince, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    Aetiological mechanisms underlying ethnic density associations with psychosis remain unclear. To assess potential mechanisms underlying the observation that minority ethnic groups experience an increased risk of psychosis when living in neighbourhoods of lower own-group density. Multilevel analysis of nationally representative community-level data (from the Ethnic Minorities Psychiatric Illness Rates in the Community survey), which included the main minority ethnic groups living in England, and a White British group. Structured instruments assessed discrimination, chronic strains and social support. The Psychosis Screening Questionnaire ascertained psychotic experiences. For every ten percentage point reduction in own-group density, the relative odds of reporting psychotic experiences increased 1.07 times (95% CI 1.01-1.14, P = 0.03 (trend)) for the total minority ethnic sample. In general, people living in areas of lower own-group density experienced greater social adversity that was in turn associated with reporting psychotic experiences. People resident in neighbourhoods of higher own-group density experience 'buffering' effects from the social risk factors for psychosis.

  11. The impact of methamphetamine use on subjective well-being in an Internet survey: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2007-04-01

    Methamphetamine is one of the most widely used stimulants worldwide. Common reasons for use of the drug include efforts to improve or enhance one's life and to uplift one's mood. Nevertheless, acute effects of the drug lead to temporary improvements in mood followed by negative affect. The purpose of the present study was to expand on the current literature and examine other aspects of mood and satisfaction with life in methamphetamine users. Over 6000 adults completed an Internet survey and reported on depression, apathy, satisfaction with life, happiness, and subjective well-being, in addition to measures of methamphetamine use. We compared those who had used methamphetamine at least once within the past year (N = 610) to those who had never used (N = 6063). Methamphetamine use accounted for significant variance in depression, apathy, satisfaction with life, happiness, and subjective well-being even when alcohol and other drugs served as covariates. Methamphetamine use may decrease one's subjective well-being instead of enhancing it, which is contradictory to the perceptions of many users. Increasing awareness about methamphetamine's negative impact on mood and life satisfaction might help decrease prevalence of the drug's use and associated troubles. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Binge Eating, Purging, or Both: Eating Disorder Psychopathology Findings from an Internet Community Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD) on clinically significant variables and examine the utility of once versus twice-weekly diagnostic thresholds for disturbed eating behaviors. Method 234 women with BN, BED, or PD were identified through self-report measures via an online survey and categorized based on either once-weekly or twice-weekly disturbed eating behaviors. Results BN emerged as a more severe disorder than BED and PD. The three groups differed significantly in self-reported restraint and disinhibition and the BN and BED groups reported higher levels of depression than PD. For BN, those engaging in behaviors twice-weekly versus once-weekly were more symptomatic. Discussion The BN, BED, and PD groups differed in clinically meaningful ways. Future research need to clarify the relationship between mood disturbances and eating behaviors. Reducing the twice-weekly behavior threshold for BN would capture individuals with clinically significant eating disorders, though the twice-weekly threshold may provide important information about disorder severity for both BN and BED. PMID:19862702

  13. Correlates of consumer trust in online health information: findings from the health information national trends survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinjiao

    2011-01-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in consumers seeking health information online. However, the quality of such information remains questionable, and the trustworthiness of online health information has become a hot topic, whereas little attention has been paid to how consumers evaluate online health information credibility. This study builds on theoretical perspectives of trust such as personal-capital-based, social-capital-based, and transfer-based, and it examines various correlates of consumer trust in online health information. The author analyzed the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey data (N = 7,674). Results showed that consumer trust in online health information did not correlate with personal capital such as income, education, and health status. Social capital indicated by visiting social networking Web sites was not associated with trust in online health information either. Nevertheless, trust in online health information transferred from traditional mass media and government health agencies to the Internet, and it varied by such information features as easiness to locate and to understand. Age appeared to be a key factor in understanding the correlates of trust in online health information. Theoretical and empirical implications of the results are discussed.

  14. Psychosocial work factors and sleep problems: findings from the French national SIP survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazelle, Emilie; Chastang, Jean-François; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed at exploring the cross-sectional and prospective associations between psychosocial work factors and sleep problems. The study population consisted of a national representative sample of the French working population (SIP survey). The sample sizes were 7506 and 3555 for the cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Sleep problems were defined by either sleep disturbances or insufficient sleep duration at least several times a week. Psychosocial work factors included classical (job strain model factors) and emergent factors (recognition, insecurity, role/ethical conflict, emotional demands, work-life imbalance, etc.). Occupational factors related to working time/hours and physical work environment were also included as well as covariates related to factors outside work. Statistical analyses were performed using weighted Poisson regression analysis. In the cross-sectional analyses, psychological demands, low social support, low recognition, emotional demands, perception of danger, work-life imbalance and night work were found to be associated with sleep problems. In the prospective analyses, psychological demands and night work were predictive of sleep problems. Using a less conservative method, more factors were found to be associated with sleep problems. Dose-response associations were observed, showing that the more frequent the exposure to these factors, the higher the risk of sleep problems. No effect of repeated exposure was found on sleep problems. Classical and emergent psychosocial work factors were associated with sleep problems. More prospective studies and prevention policies may be needed.

  15. Cigarette brand loyalty in Australia: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Genevieve A; Swift, Elena; Borland, Ron; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    There is little academic research on tobacco brand loyalty and switching, and even less in restrictive marketing environments such as Australia. This paper examines tobacco brand family loyalty, reasons for choice of brand and the relation between these and sociodemographic variables over a period of 10 years in Australia. Data from current Australian smokers from 9 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation 4-Country Survey covering the period from 2002 to early 2012. Key measures reported were having a regular brand, use for at least 1 year, brand stability (derived from same reported brand at successive waves), and reasons for choosing brands. Measures of brand loyalty showed little change across the period, with around 80% brand stability and 95% reporting a regular brand. Older adults were more brand-loyal than those under 25. Young people's brand choice was influenced more by friends, whereas older adults were more concerned about health. Price was the most reported reason for brand switching. Those in the higher income tertiles showed more loyalty than those in the lowest. The least addicted smokers also showed less brand loyalty. We found no clear relationship between brand loyalty and policies that were implemented to affect tobacco use. Levels of brand loyalty in Australia are quite high and consistent, and do not appear to have been influenced greatly by changes in tobacco control policies.

  16. Use of routine interventions in vaginal labor and birth: findings from the Maternity Experiences Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Beverley; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Levitt, Cheryl; Dzakpasu, Susie; O'Brien, Beverley; Lee, Lily; Boscoe, Madeline; Young, David

    2009-03-01

    Intervention rates in maternity practices vary considerably across Canadian provinces and territories. The objective of this study was to describe the use of routine interventions and practices in labor and birth as reported by women in the Maternity Experiences Survey of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System. Rates of interventions and practices are considered in the light of current evidence and both Canadian and international recommendations. A sample of 8,244 estimated eligible women was identified from a randomly selected sample of recently born infants drawn from the May 2006 Canadian Census and stratified primarily by province and territory. Birth mothers living with their infants at the time of interview were invited to participate in a computer-assisted telephone interview conducted by Statistics Canada on behalf of the Public Health Agency of Canada. Interviews averaged 45 minutes long and were completed when infants were between 5 and 10 months old (9-14 mo in the territories). Completed responses were obtained from 6,421 women (78%). Women frequently reported electronic fetal monitoring, a health care practitioner starting or speeding up their labor (or trying to do so), epidural anesthesia, episiotomy, and a supine position for birth. Some women also reported pubic or perineal shaves, enemas, and pushing on the top of their abdomen. Several practices and interventions were commonly reported in labor and birth in Canada, although evidence and Canadian and international guidelines recommend against their routine use. Practices not recommended for use at all, such as shaving, were also reported.

  17. Movies and TV influence tobacco use in India: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, K; Ackerson, Leland K; Sorensen, Glorian; Gupta, Prakash C

    2010-06-29

    Exposure to mass media may impact the use of tobacco, a major source of illness and death in India. The objective is to test the association of self-reported tobacco smoking and chewing with frequency of use of four types of mass media: newspapers, radio, television, and movies. We analyzed data from a sex-stratified nationally-representative cross-sectional survey of 123,768 women and 74,068 men in India. All models controlled for wealth, education, caste, occupation, urbanicity, religion, marital status, and age. In fully-adjusted models, monthly cinema attendance is associated with increased smoking among women (relative risk [RR]: 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.31) and men (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.12-1.23) and increased tobacco chewing among men (RR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.11-1.20). Daily television and radio use is associated with higher likelihood of tobacco chewing among men and women, while daily newspaper use is related to lower likelihood of tobacco chewing among women. In India, exposure to visual mass media may contribute to increased tobacco consumption in men and women, while newspaper use may suppress the use of tobacco chewing in women. Future studies should investigate the role that different types of media content and media play in influencing other health behaviors.

  18. Daily Energy Intake from Meals and Afternoon Snacks: Findings from the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalilah, M S; Mirnalini, K; Safiah, M Y; Tahir, A; Siti Haslinda, M D; Siti Rohana, D; Khairul Zarina, M Y; Hasyami, S Mohd; Normah, H; Fatimah, A Siti

    2008-03-01

    Meal and snack patterns are associated with energy and nutrient intakes and consequently health and nutritional status. The aim of this paper is to describe the percentage of daily energy intake from meals and afternoon snack among Malaysian adults. The study included a representative sample of adults aged 18-59 years (n=7349) from a nationwide Food Consumption Survey conducted by the Ministry of Health. Information on dietary intake was obtained using a one day 24-hour diet recall (24-HDR). Dietary data on 6886 adults were analysed using Nutritionist ProTM and statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS 13.0. The median percentage of daily energy intake is reported only for adults consuming meals and afternoon tea and by socio-demographic characteristics as well as body mass index (BMI) status. More than 80% of Malaysian adults consumed morning meals, lunch and dinner and 54% reported having afternoon tea. The median percentage of energy intake from morning meals, lunch, dinner and afternoon tea was 29.9%, 30.5%, 32.4% and 17%, respectively. There were variations in the median percentage of energy from meals and snacks according to the socio-demographic variables and BMI status. It is important to understand the eating patterns of Malaysians as the information can assist in efforts to address obesity and diet-related chronic diseases among adults.

  19. Physical Activity Levels Among Adults in Uganda: Findings From a Countrywide Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guwatudde, David; Kirunda, Barbara E; Wesonga, Ronald; Mutungi, Gerald; Kajjura, Richard; Kasule, Hafisa; Muwonge, James; Bahendeka, Silver K

    2016-09-01

    Being physically active is associated with lower risk of many noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). We analyzed physical activity (PA) data collected as part of Uganda's countrywide NCD risk factor survey conducted in 2014, to describe PA levels in Uganda. PA data were collected on the domains of work, travel and leisure. We calculated the percentage of participants meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) PA recommendations, and the types of intense-specific duration of PA. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to identify factors associated with meeting WHO PA recommendations. Of the 3987 participants, 3758 (94.3%) met the WHO PA recommendations. Work-related PA of moderate intensity, and travel-related PA contributed most to participants' overall weekly duration of PA, each contributing 49.6% and 25.2% respectively. The median weekly duration of all moderate-intensity PA was 1470 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] = 540 to 2460). Weekly duration of all vigorous-intensity PA was low with a median of 0 minutes (IQR = 0 to 1080). The median daily sedentary time was 120 minutes (IQR = 60 to 240). Factors significantly associated with meeting WHO PA recommendations were body mass index and level of education. PA levels in Uganda are high, mostly achieved through travel and work-related activities of moderate intensity.

  20. Patients' expectations of orthodontic treatment: part 2--findings from a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, M S; Newton, J T

    2007-03-01

    To describe patients' and their parents' expectations of orthodontic treatment. A questionnaire survey of 100 patients and their primary care-givers attending a new patient orthodontic consultant clinic, at a teaching hospital. GKT Orthodontic Department, King's College Dental Hospital, London, UK. The sample consisted of 100 participants who completed the questionnaire, including 50 patients aged 12-14 years who had been referred to the orthodontic department for treatment. One parent of each patient was also invited to participate. Participants completed a valid questionnaire measure of orthodontic expectations that was tested for reliability and validity. Descriptive analysis of the responses was undertaken, and comparisons of children's and parents' expectations, in addition to ethnicity, were made. Patients and parents have similar expectations of treatment, with the exception of expectations of duration of orthodontic treatment (Pexpectations of the initial orthodontic assessment visit, the likelihood of wearing headgear, the impact of orthodontic treatment on diet, and the reaction of peers to treatment (Pexpectations regarding the initial visit, headgear and dietary restrictions (Pparents share similar expectations of orthodontic treatment for most aspects of care, although parents are more realistic in their estimation of the duration of treatment and the initial visit. The expectations of patients differ from those of their parents with regard to dietary and drink restrictions in relation to orthodontic treatment. Ethnicity significantly influences expectations of orthodontic treatment, and this may relate to differences in the patients' and their parents' assessed outcome of care.

  1. Report of fact-finding survey for atomic energy industry, fiscal year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In fiscal year 1994, the economy in Japan progressed in the state of gradual restoration of business condition, and the real economical growth rate turned to 0.5% plus. The total supply of primary energy increased by 5.4% as compared with the last year. Nuclear power took 11.3% of total energy supply, which is the highest so far. The share of nuclear power generation in total generated electric power became 31.3%. The nuclear power stations that started operation were two plants, and as of the end of the fiscal year, 48 nuclear power plants with the installed capacity of 40.37 million kW were in operation. Five plants of 4997 MW were under construction. The long term plan on the research, development and utilization of atomic energy was shown as the plan up to 2010. The outlay related to nuclear power of electric power business increased by 7% as compared with the last year, but the sales related to atomic energy of mining and manufacturing industries decreased by 12%. The market of nuclear reactor materials becomes smaller, and maintenance, service and fuel cycle fields show growth, in this way, the structural change is advancing. The results of survey are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Screen time in Mexican children: findings from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Janssen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide descriptive information on the screen time levels of Mexican children. Materials and methods. 5 660 children aged 10-18 years from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012 were studied. Screen time (watching television, movies, playing video games and using a computer was self-reported. Results. On average, children engaged in 3 hours/day of screen time, irrespective of gender and age. Screen time was higher in obese children, children from the northern and Federal District regions of the country, children living in urban areas, and children in the highest socioeconomic status and education categories. Approximately 33% of 10-14 year olds and 36% of 15-18 year olds met the screen time guideline of ≤2 hours/day. Conclusions. 10-18 year old Mexican children accumulate an average of 3 hours/day of screen time. Two thirds of Mexican children exceed the recommended maximal level of time for this activity.

  3. Cyclists' experiences of harassment from motorists: findings from a survey of cyclists in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Garrard, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Harassment from motorists is a major constraint on cycling that has been under-researched. We examined incidence and correlates of harassment of cyclists. Cyclists in Queensland, Australia were surveyed in 2009 about their experiences of harassment while cycling, from motor vehicle occupants. Respondents also indicated the forms of harassment they experienced. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine gender and other correlates of harassment. Of 1830 respondents, 76% of men and 72% of women reported harassment in the previous 12 months. The most reported forms of harassment were driving too close (66%), shouting abuse (63%), and making obscene gestures/sexual harassment (45%). Older age, overweight/obesity, less cycling experience (harassment, while living in highly advantaged areas (SEIFA deciles 8 or 9), cycling for recreation, and cycling for competition were associated with increased likelihood of harassment. Gender was not associated with reports of harassment. Efforts to decrease harassment should include a closer examination of the circumstances that give rise to harassment, as well as fostering road environments and driver attitudes and behaviors that recognize that cyclists are legitimate road users. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cyclists’ experiences of harassment from motorists: findings from a survey of cyclists in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Garrard, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Harassment from motorists is a major constraint on cycling that has been under-researched. We examined incidence and correlates of harassment of cyclists. Methods Cyclists in Queensland, Australia were surveyed in 2009 about their experiences of harassment while cycling, from motor vehicle occupants. Respondents also indicated the forms of harassment they experienced. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine gender and other correlates of harassment. Results Of 1830 respondents, 76% of men and 72% of women reported harassment in the previous 12 months. The most reported forms of harassment were driving too close (66%), shouting abuse (63%), and making obscene gestures/sexual harassment (45%). Older age, overweight/obesity, less cycling experience (<2 years) and less frequent cycling (<3 days/week) were associated with less likelihood of harassment, while living in highly advantaged areas (SEIFA deciles 8 or 9), cycling for recreation, and cycling for competition were associated with increased likelihood of harassment. Gender was not associated with reports of harassment. Conclusions Efforts to decrease harassment should include a closer examination of the circumstances that give rise to harassment, as well as fostering road environments and driver attitudes and behaviors that recognize that cyclists are legitimate road users. PMID:22001076

  5. Comparison of Self-Reported Telephone Interviewing and Web-Based Survey Responses: Findings From the Second Australian Young and Well National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Tracey A; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B

    2017-01-01

    analysis showed respondents who were male (beta=−.19, P=.048) or who were not in employment, education, or training (NEET; beta=−.32, P=.001) were significantly more likely to provide different responses on matched items when responding in the CATI as compared with the Web-based self-report survey. The Web-based self-report survey, however, demonstrated some evidence of avidity and attrition bias. Conclusions Compared with CATI, Web-based self-report surveys are highly cost-effective and had higher rates of self-disclosure on sensitive items, particularly for respondents who identify as male and NEET. A drawback to Web-based surveying methodologies, however, includes the limited control over avidity bias and the greater incidence of attrition bias. These findings have important implications for further development of survey methods in the area of health and well-being, especially when considering research topics (in this case diagnosis, suicidal ideation, sexting, and body image) and groups that are being recruited (young people, males, and NEET). PMID:28951382

  6. Comparison of Self-Reported Telephone Interviewing and Web-Based Survey Responses: Findings From the Second Australian Young and Well National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Alyssa C; Ellis, Louise A; Davenport, Tracey A; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B

    2017-09-26

    (beta=-.19, P=.048) or who were not in employment, education, or training (NEET; beta=-.32, P=.001) were significantly more likely to provide different responses on matched items when responding in the CATI as compared with the Web-based self-report survey. The Web-based self-report survey, however, demonstrated some evidence of avidity and attrition bias. Compared with CATI, Web-based self-report surveys are highly cost-effective and had higher rates of self-disclosure on sensitive items, particularly for respondents who identify as male and NEET. A drawback to Web-based surveying methodologies, however, includes the limited control over avidity bias and the greater incidence of attrition bias. These findings have important implications for further development of survey methods in the area of health and well-being, especially when considering research topics (in this case diagnosis, suicidal ideation, sexting, and body image) and groups that are being recruited (young people, males, and NEET). ©Alyssa C Milton, Louise A Ellis, Tracey A Davenport, Jane M Burns, Ian B Hickie. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 26.09.2017.

  7. Active case finding of tuberculosis in Europe: a Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (TBNET) survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, G.H.; Ditiu, L.; Migliori, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    countries do not, even if the chest radiograph suggests tuberculosis. Nearly all countries (49 out of 50) use tuberculin skin testing (TST); 27 (54%) out of 50 countries also perform chest radiography irrespective of the TST result. Interpretation of the TST varies widely. All countries use 6-9 months...... of isoniazid for treatment of LTBI, with an estimated median (range) uptake of 55% (5-92.5%). Symptoms and sputum examination could be used more widely when screening for active tuberculosis. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection might be better focused by targeted use of interferon-gamma release assays...

  8. Consumer satisfaction with tertiary healthcare in China: findings from the 2015 China National Patient Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Hu, Guangyu; Ma, Jing; Chen, Yin; Wu, Laiyang; Liu, Qiannan; Hu, Jia; Livoti, Christine; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Yuanli

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to develop understanding of Chinese patient satisfaction with tertiary hospitals. The study draws on data collected from the 2015 China National Patient Survey. A Likert five-point scale was used to formulate the questionnaires. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression analysis were conducted. A structured questionnaire was used by 1432 interviewers to interview 27 475 outpatients and 19 938 inpatients in 136 tertiary hospitals from 31 provinces. Outpatients in the dispensing area and inpatients in the discharging area were randomly interviewed. Key domains of the questionnaire include the layout of service functions, environment maintenance, process management, quality of care, humane care and the patient-doctor relationship. Within each domain, several indicators were set, and each indicator was given a statement. The overall satisfaction scores are 4.42 ± 0.68 and 4.67 ± 0.62 for outpatient and inpatient, respectively. The domains with highest satisfaction are 'diagnosis and treatment' for outpatient and 'nursing care' for inpatient. Outpatients were least satisfied with long waiting time, while inpatients were least satisfied with the food. The strongest predictor of overall satisfaction appears to be 'patient-doctor relationship' for both outpatients (OR = 3.53, 95% CI: 3.17-3.92) and inpatients (OR = 7.34, 95% CI: 5.55-9.70). Chinese hospitals need to pay more attention to offering more humane care to patients, hospital environment and process management improvement, reducing waiting times for seeing doctors and outpatient testing, and improving amenity services such as better food in the wards. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Is poor mental health a risk factor for retirement? Findings from a longitudinal population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Sarah C; Butterworth, Peter; Rodgers, Bryan

    2012-05-01

    Poor mental health may influence people's decisions about, and ability to, keep working into later adulthood. The identification of factors that drive retirement provides valuable information for policymakers attempting to mitigate the effects of population ageing. This study examined whether mental health predicts subsequent retirement in a general population sample, and whether this association varied with the timing of retirement. Longitudinal data from 2,803 people aged 45-75 years were drawn from five waves of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Discrete-time survival analyses were used to estimate the association between mental health and retirement. Mental health was measured using the Mental Health Index (MHI-5). The relative influences of other health, social, financial, and work-related predictors of retirement were considered to determine the unique contribution of mental health to retirement behaviour. Poor mental health was associated with higher rates of retirement in men (hazard rate ratio, HRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.29), and workforce exit more generally in women (HRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.22). These associations varied with the timing of retirement and were driven by early retirees specifically. Physical functioning, income, social activity, job conditions (including job stress for women and job control for men), and aspects of job satisfaction also predicted subsequent retirement. Poor mental and physical health predict workforce departure in mid-to-late adulthood, particularly early retirement. Strategies to accommodate health conditions in the workplace may reduce rates of early retirement and encourage people to remain at work into later adulthood.

  10. Cigarette smoking risk-reducing beliefs: Findings from the United States Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Annette R; Coa, Kisha I; Nguyen, Anh B

    2017-09-01

    Cigarette smoking risk-reducing beliefs are ideas that certain health promoting behaviors (e.g., exercise) may mitigate the risks associated with smoking. The objective of this study was to describe smoking risk-reducing beliefs and the belief that quitting can reduce the harmful effects of smoking among the U.S. adult population and the associations between these beliefs, current smoking status, and sociodemographics. Data were from the Health Information National Trends Survey 4 (HINTS 4) Cycles 3 and 4 (2013-2014; N=6862). Descriptive analyses were conducted to examine bivariate associations among the quit smoking belief, smoking risk-reducing beliefs, and covariates. Weighted ordinal logistic regression models examined the adjusted associations between smoking status and sociodemographics, with quit smoking belief and risk-reducing beliefs. Eighty-two percent of the population reported that quitting cigarette smoking can help reduce the harmful effects of smoking a lot: former smokers and individuals with higher educational attainment were more likely to endorse this belief than never smokers and those with lower educational attainment. Many people endorsed smoking risk-reducing beliefs about exercise (79.3%), fruits and vegetables (71.8%), vitamins (67.2%), and sleep (68.5%). Former smokers were less likely to subscribe to these beliefs than never smokers. Vulnerable populations who may be most at risk of smoking attributable morbidity and mortality were more likely to endorse risk-reducing beliefs. Future studies are needed to better understand how risk-reducing beliefs are formed and if modifying these beliefs may help to reduce cigarette smoking in the U.S. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Asthma outcomes in children and adolescents with multiple morbidities: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R; Leo, Harvey L; Baptist, Alan P; Cao, Yanyun; Brown, Randall W

    2015-06-01

    More Americans are managing multiple chronic conditions (MCCs), and trends are particularly alarming in youth. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and distribution of 9 chronic conditions in children and adolescents with and without asthma, and adverse asthma outcomes associated with having MCCs. Cross-sectional interview data from the National Health Interview Survey were analyzed (N = 66,790) between 2007 and 2012 in youth 0 to 17 years of age. Bivariate analysis methods and multivariate generalized linear regression were used to examine associations. Five percent of children with asthma had 1 or more coexisting health conditions. The prevalence of 1 or more comorbidities was greater among those with asthma than those without (5.07% [95% CI: 4.5-5.6] vs. 2.73% [95% CI: 2.6-2.9]). Those with asthma were twice as likely to have co-occurring hypertension (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.2 [95% CI: 1.5-3.2]) and arthritis (PR = 2.7 [95% CI: 1.8-4.0]) compared with those without asthma. Every additional chronic condition with asthma was associated with a greater likelihood of an asthma attack (PR = 1.1 [95% CI: 1.0-1.2]), all-cause emergency department visits (PR = 1.3 [95% CI: 1.1-1.5]), and missed school days (PR = 2.3 [95% CI: 1.7-3.2]). Children and adolescents with asthma in the US who suffer from MCCs have increased asthma symptoms, missed school days, and all-cause emergency department visits. Further research on optimal management strategies for this group is needed. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P types I/II, respectively. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  13. Lung function and metabolic syndrome: Findings of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010*

    Science.gov (United States)

    FORD, Earl S.; CUNNINGHAM, Timothy J.; MERCADO, Carla I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Considerable uncertainty remains about obstructive lung function (OLF) in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the present study was to examine pulmonary function status in adults with and without MetS. Methods We used data from 3109 participants aged ≥20 years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010. Subjects’ MetS status was established on the basis of the 2009 harmonizing definition. Participants received spirometry. Results After age adjustment, 79.3% (SE 1.1) of participants with MetS had normal lung function, 8.7% (0.9) had restrictive lung function (RLF), 7.1% (0.8) had mild OLF, and 4.8% (0.6) had moderate OLF or worse. Among participants without MetS, these estimates were 78.7% (1.2), 3.9% (0.6), 10.9% (1.1), and 6.4% (0.8), respectively. After multiple adjustment, participants with MetS were more likely to have RLF (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.67, 2.90) and less likely to have any OLF (aPR 0.73; 95% CI 0.62, 0.86) than those without MetS. Furthermore, participants with MetS had lower mean levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1 % predicted, forced vital capacity (FVC), and FVC % predicted, but a higher FEV1/FVC ratio than participants without MetS. Mean levels of FEV1, FEV1 % predicted, FVC, and FVC % predicted declined significantly, but not the FEV1/FVC ratio, as the number of components increased. Conclusions Compared with adults without MetS, spirometry is more likely to show a restrictive pattern and less likely to show an obstructive pattern among adults with MetS. PMID:26677470

  14. Sociodemographic differences in triggers to quit smoking: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeli, E; West, R

    2008-12-01

    Reasons for quitting smoking and triggers that finally precipitate a quit attempt are not necessarily the same thing. We sought to assess variation in reported triggers of attempts to stop smoking as a function of age, gender and socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional household survey in England. A total of 2441 smokers and ex-smokers aged 16 and over, who reported making at least one serious quit attempt in the last 12 months, were recruited. The main outcome measure was participants' responses to the question "What finally triggered your most recent quit attempt?". Respondents selected from a list of options or specified a trigger not on the list. In the event, smokers typically reported as triggers similar factors as have previously been reported as "reasons". "A concern about future health problems" (28.5%) was the most commonly cited trigger followed by "health problems I had at the time" (18%) and then "a decision that smoking was too expensive" (12.2%). The most common external trigger was advice from a health professional (5.6%). Future health concern was more common in smokers with higher socioeconomic status (SES), whereas cost and current health problems were more often cited by lower SES smokers. Younger smokers were more likely to report their quit attempt being triggered by a TV advertisement while older smokers were more likely to cite advice from a health professional. Concern about future health problems was cited less often by 16 to 24 year olds and those aged 65+ than those aged 25 to 64 years. There are significant differences in reported triggers for quit attempts as a function of sociodemographic factors. Most notably, smokers with higher SES are more likely to report concern about future health whereas those from lower SES are more likely to cite cost and current health problems.

  15. Thyroid hormones and electrocardiographic parameters: findings from the third national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyi Zhang

    Full Text Available Altered thyroid status exerts a major effect on the heart. Individuals with hypo- or hyperthyroidism showed various changes in electrocardiograms. However, little is known about how variations in thyroid hormone levels within the normal range affect electrical activities of the heart in the general population.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 5,990 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Serum total T4 was measured by immunoassay and TSH was measured by chemiluminescent assay. We categorized T4 and TSH into 7 groups with cut-offs at the 5(th, 20(th, 40(th, 60(th, 80(th, and 95(th percentiles of the weighted population distribution. Electrocardiographic parameters were measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. We found a positive linear association between serum total T4 level and heart rate in men, and a U-shape association between T4 and PR interval in men and women. TSH level was positively associated with QRS interval in men, while a U-shape association between TSH and QRS was observed in women. No clear graded association between thyroid hormones and corrected QT or JT was found, except that men in the highest category of T4 levels appeared to have longer corrected QT and JT, and men in the lowest category of T4 appeared to have shorter corrected QT and JT.Variation in thyroid hormone levels in the general population, even within the normal range, was associated with various ECG changes.

  16. Willingness to Exchange Health Information via Mobile Devices: Findings From a Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Katrina J; Yu, Mandi; Riley, William T; Patel, Vaishali; Hughes, Penelope; Marchesini, Kathryn; Atienza, Audie A

    2016-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of mobile devices offers unprecedented opportunities for patients and health care professionals to exchange health information electronically, but little is known about patients' willingness to exchange various types of health information using these devices. We examined willingness to exchange different types of health information via mobile devices, and assessed whether sociodemographic characteristics and trust in clinicians were associated with willingness in a nationally representative sample. We analyzed data for 3,165 patients captured in the 2013 Health Information National Trends Survey. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to test differences in willingness. Ordinal logistic regression analysis assessed correlates of willingness to exchange 9 types of information separately. Participants were very willing to exchange appointment reminders (odds ratio [OR] = 6.66; 95% CI, 5.68-7.81), general health tips (OR = 2.03; 95% CI, 1.74-2.38), medication reminders (OR = 2.73; 95% CI, 2.35-3.19), laboratory/test results (OR = 1.76; 95% CI, 1.62-1.92), vital signs (OR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.48-1.80), lifestyle behaviors (OR = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.24-1.58), and symptoms (OR = 1.62; 95% CI, 1.46-1.79) as compared with diagnostic information. Older adults had lower odds of being more willing to exchange any type of information. Education, income, and trust in health care professional information correlated with willingness to exchange certain types of information. Respondents were less willing to exchange via mobile devices information that may be considered sensitive or complex. Age, socioeconomic factors, and trust in professional information were associated with willingness to engage in mobile health information exchange. Both information type and demographic group should be considered when developing and tailoring mobile technologies for patient-clinician communication. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  17. Client satisfaction in a faith-based health network: findings from a survey in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumba, Constance Sibongile; Kabali, Kenneth; Miyonga, Jonathan; Mugadu, Jairus; Lakidi, Luke; Kerchan, Patrick; Tumwesigye, Tonny

    2017-09-01

    Client satisfaction surveys are important in evaluating quality of the healthcare processes and contribute to health service improvements by assisting health program managers to develop appropriate strategies. The goal of this study was to assess clients' level of satisfaction with services provided by private-not-for-profit member health facilities affiliated to Uganda Protestant Medical Bureau. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using an interviewer-administered questionnaire conducted in 254/278 (91%) of UPMB member health facilities between 27th April and 14th July 2014 among 927 clients. The tool measured ten dimensions of the care-seeking experience namely; health facility access; waiting time; health providers; support staff; rights; payments; facilities and environment; consent; confidentiality; and the overall care seeking experience. Logistic regression was utilised for multivariate analysis. Overall client satisfaction was found to be high within the UPMB network (84.2%). Most of the client satisfaction dimensions were rated above 70% except payments and rights. There was evidence of association with marital status; single/never married were 3.05 times more likely to be dissatisfied compared to widowed. Clients attending HCIII were less likely to be dissatisfied compared to those attending HCII (OR=0.51, 95% CI: 0.25-1.05). Post-secondary education (OR=1.79; 95% CI 1.01-3.17), being formally employed (OR=2.78, 95% CI: 0.91-8.48) or unemployed (OR=3.34, 95% CI: 1.00-11.17), attendance at a hospital (OR=2.15, 95% CI: 1.36- 3.41) were also associated with high dissatisfaction levels with payments. This study found a high level of satisfaction with services in the UPMB network but recorded low client satisfaction with the dimensions of rights and payments. Health workers should take time to explain rights and entitlement as well as charges levied to clients.

  18. The working practices and job satisfaction of dental therapists: findings of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, D E; Corrigan, M; Newton, J T

    2000-10-28

    To describe the working practices and level of job satisfaction of dental therapists in the United Kingdom. Postal questionnaire survey of 380 dental therapists registered with the General Dental Council. Only 13% of dental therapists are also qualified as dental hygienists. Around 75% of those registered with the GDC are currently employed as dental therapists. Of those not currently working as dental therapists most were either working as hygienists or caring for their children at home. Over 90% of those working as therapists are employed within the Community Dental Service. About half work part-time. Part-time working is more common among respondents with childcare responsibilities. Most dental therapists are employed in clinical roles, and perform a limited range of treatments. A small proportion appear to have been asked to undertake duties which are not currently legal for them to perform. Three-quarters of those who were currently working as dental therapists had taken career breaks at some point, the most common reasons for such a break being a change in career and/or child rearing. The respondents expressed a high level of job satisfaction, particularly among older dental therapists. Dental therapy offers a potentially rewarding career in terms of job satisfaction. Any planned increase in the numbers of training places for dental therapists should their role be expanded, for example to include working in general dental practice, would need to take cognisance of the high rate of part-time working and the proportion who could be expected to take career breaks at some point in their working lives, as is the case with female dental practitioners.

  19. Social Aspects of Education Integration (Based on Survey Findings on Uniform State Examination and Education Affordability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya V. Kolacheva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the purpose of this article is to study the opinion of interested and non-professional segment of society regarding the Uniform State Exam on mathematics and affordability of higher education in Russia. The authors checked the hypothesis of interconnection between social opinion and changes in the exam procedure, economic and socio-demographic situation, educational system reformation and integration of educational space in the RF and other countries. Materials and Methods: we studied the survey data of students in Togliatti State University, their parents or legal representatives between 2009–2016. We processed the results by methods of probability assessment with the help of complex features reflecting possibilities of the applicants admitted to higher educational institutions and social affordability of higher education. Results: we theoretically grounded and developed the method of social opinion study about the Uniform State Exam and affordability of higher education in the region. Dynamics of social opinion was studied with the help of adapted probability rates describing either quantitative or qualitative features of social processes. We studied and analyzed scientific papers devoted to the attitude of society to secondary school final exams, admission to higher education institutions, and social mobility of the applicants and determined theoretical background of education space integration with the education sy stems of other countries. Discussion and Conclusions: the research showed that even in the region with visible economic and socio-demographic problems the concerned part of society gradually understands that the Uniform State Exam serves to keep education quality in the country making it more affordable. The results of the study may be useful to specialists in the field of education, as well as int eresting to the general public.

  20. Fact-finding survey of nosocomial infection control in hospitals in Vietnam and application to training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Hiroshi; Hung, Nguyen Viet; Thu, Truong Anh

    2009-12-01

    Nosocomial infection control is crucial for improving the quality of medical care. It is also indispensable for implementing effective control measures for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the possible occurrence of a human influenza pandemic. The present authors, in collaboration with Vietnamese hospital staff, performed a fact-finding survey of nosocomial infection control in hospitals in northern Vietnam and compared the results with those of a survey conducted 4 years previously. Remarkable improvement was recognized in this period, although there were considerable differences between the central hospitals in Hanoi and local hospitals. In the local hospitals, basic techniques and the systems for infection control were regarded as insufficient, and it is necessary to improve these techniques and systems under the guidance of hospitals in the central area. Based on the results of the survey, programs were prepared and training courses were organized in local hospitals. Evaluation conducted after the training courses showed a high degree of satisfaction among the trainees. The results of the survey and the training courses conducted during the study period are expected to contribute to the improvement of nosocomial infection control in remote areas of Vietnam.

  1. Civil Society Action and Governance in Vietnam: Selected Findings from an Empirical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Wischermann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, findings from 300 standardized interviews with representatives of Civic Organizations in Ho Chi Minh-City and Ha Noi are presented. Following a view of civil society as a specific mode of social action and interaction, data analysis unveils the existence of core dimensions of such action (respect, empathy/ sympathy, and the willingness to compromise and stick to agreed-upon rules, though the respective values of those dimensions vary strongly. Inseparably linked with such civil society action of whatever kind is consensus-seeking, an aversion to conflicts, and an affinity to synthesis. These attitudes and practices, dominating various Civic Organizations’ internal decision-making processes, represent elements of authoritarian political thinking in Civic Organizations’ leaders’ mindsets and courses of action. Combined, those characteristics make up civil society action “in Vietnamese colours”.

  2. Serological & molecular diagnostic surveys combined with examining hematological profiles suggest increased levels of infection & hematological response of cattle to babesiosis infections compared to native buffaloes in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Babesiosis threatens the development of the cattle and buffaloes industries in Egypt and improved control is needed. The main objectives of this study are surveying the presence of bovine babesiosis in distinct selected bovine and buffalo populations in Egypt using novel molecular and pr...

  3. Health-related job loss: findings from a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Christine; Poole, Jason; Palmer, Keith T; Coggon, David

    2007-03-01

    To explore the frequency, nature, determinants and outcome of health-related job loss (HRJL) in men sampled from the general population of three rural areas. Data on lifetime occupational history, including any HRJL, were obtained as part of a postal survey of men aged 24-70 years in three rural areas of England and Wales. Incidence rates were calculated for first health-related loss of a job that had been held for >or=1 year. Associations with risk factors were examined by Poisson regression, and by application of conditional logistic regression in a nested case-control study. HRJL was reported by 1408 (13%) of the 10 559 men who had held long-term jobs. The incidence rose steeply with age for cardiorespiratory and neurological disorders, but for accidents and poisoning the trend was, if anything, in the reverse direction. An increase in incidence over time was most marked for musculoskeletal disorders and mental illness, and much less prominent for cardiorespiratory and neurological disease. In comparison with other occupations, the risk was lower in agricultural workers (odds ratio (OR) 0.6, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.8), and higher in policemen (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.7) and teachers (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.7), this differential being even greater for HRJL caused by mental illness. Risk was also increased in employees relative to the self-employed (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.7 to 2.3). Shift work was associated with a higher incidence of job loss caused by mental illness (OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.1-2.2), and heavy lifting with HRJL caused by musculoskeletal disorders (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.0 to 3.5). After HRJL, 61% of subjects had subsequently obtained further long-term employment, usually within 1 year. In the population studied, HRJL has become increasingly common, especially in relation to musculoskeletal disorders and mental illness. In addition to being associated with ergonomic stresses in the workplace, it may be importantly influenced by cultural and economic factors. Future research

  4. Mental disorders in megacities: findings from the Sao Paulo megacity mental health survey, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Helena Andrade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: World population growth is projected to be concentrated in megacities, with increases in social inequality and urbanization-associated stress. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA provides a forewarning of the burden of mental disorders in urban settings in developing world. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of recently active DSM-IV mental disorders. We examined socio-demographic correlates, aspects of urban living such as internal migration, exposure to violence, and neighborhood-level social deprivation with 12-month mental disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: A representative cross-sectional household sample of 5,037 adults was interviewed face-to-face using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, to generate diagnoses of DSM-IV mental disorders within 12 months of interview, disorder severity, and treatment. Administrative data on neighborhood social deprivation were gathered. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate individual and contextual correlates of disorders, severity, and treatment. Around thirty percent of respondents reported a 12-month disorder, with an even distribution across severity levels. Anxiety disorders were the most common disorders (affecting 19.9%, followed by mood (11%, impulse-control (4.3%, and substance use (3.6% disorders. Exposure to crime was associated with all four types of disorder. Migrants had low prevalence of all four types compared to stable residents. High urbanicity was associated with impulse-control disorders and high social deprivation with substance use disorders. Vulnerable subgroups were observed: women and migrant men living in most deprived areas. Only one-third of serious cases had received treatment in the previous year. DISCUSSION: Adults living in São Paulo megacity had prevalence of mental disorders at greater levels than similar surveys conducted in other areas of the world. Integration of mental health promotion

  5. [Socioeconomic differentials in health and health related behaviors: findings from the Korea Youth Panel Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Sung-Il; Yang, Seungmi; Lee, Moo-Song

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic differentials for the health and health related behaviors among South Korean middle school students. A nationwide cross-sectional interview survey of 3,449 middle school second-grade students and their parents was conducted using a stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method. The response rate was 93.3%. The socioeconomic position indicators were based on self-reported information from the students and their parents: parental education, father's occupational class, monthly family income, out-of-pocket expenditure for education, housing ownership, educational expectations, educational performance and the perceived economic hardships. The outcome variables that were measured were also based on the self-reported information from the students. The health measures included self-rated health conditions, psychological or mental problems, the feelings of loneliness at school, the overall satisfaction of life and the perceived level of stress. The health related behaviors included were smoking, alcohol drinking, sexual intercourse, violence, bullying and verbal and physical abuse by parents. Socioeconomic differences for the health and health related behaviors were found among the eighth grade boys and girls of South Korea. However, the pattern varied with gender, the socioeconomic position indicators and the outcome measures. The prevalence rates of the overall dissatisfaction with life for both genders differed according to most of the eight socioeconomic position indicators. All the health measures were significantly different according to the perceived economic hardship. However, the socioeconomic differences in the self-rated health conditions and the psychosocial or mental problems were not clear. The students having higher socioeconomic position tended to be a perpetrator of bullying while those students with lower socioeconomic position were more likely to be a victim. The perceived economic hardships predicted the health

  6. Lung function and metabolic syndrome: Findings of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S; Cunningham, Timothy J; Mercado, Carla I

    2014-11-01

    Considerable uncertainty remains about obstructive lung function( OLF) in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of the present study was to examine pulmonary function status in adults with and without MetS. We used data from 3109 participants aged ≥20 years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. Subjects'MetS status was established on the basis of the 2009 harmonizing definition. Participants received spirometry. After age adjustment, 79.3% (SE 1.1) of participants with MetS had normal lung function, 8.7% (0.9) had restrictive lung function (RLF), 7.1% (0.8) had mild OLF, and 4.8% (0.6) had moderate OLF or worse. Among participants without MetS, these estimates were 78.7% (1.2), 3.9% (0.6), 10.9%(1.1), and 6.4% (0.8), respectively. After multiple adjustment, participants with MetS were more likely to have RLF (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.67, 2.90) and less likely to have any OLF (aPR 0.73; 95% CI 0.62, 0.86) than those without MetS. Furthermore, participants with MetS had lower mean levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1 % predicted, forced vital capacity (FVC), and FVC % predicted, but a higher FEV1/FVC ratio than participants without MetS. Mean levels of FEV1, FEV1 % predicted, FVC, and FVC % predicted declined significantly, but not the FEV1/FVC ratio, as the number of components increased. Compared with adults without MetS, spirometry is more likely to show a restrictive pattern and less likely to show an obstructive pattern among adults with MetS. 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Milk Donation Awareness of Parents, Health Workers and Lactation Consultants: Survey Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Lukoyanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Today, in Russia there is no practice of using donor milk in hospitals, while abroad it is a common technique of caring for premature and low-weight infants.Objective: Our aim was to study the milk donation awareness of parents of children under the age of 1, health workers and lactation consultants.Methods. A sample survey was carried out.Results. The study involved 2,332 respondents from 13 medical institutions in 11 cities and towns located in 6 federal districts of the Russian Federation, including 1,134 mothers, 413 fathers, 692 health workers, and 93 lactation consultants. 1,007 (65.1% parents (mothers and fathers and 541 (68.9% specialists (health workers and lactation consultants believe that feeding of a sick newborn with donor milk is useful in the absence of breast milk. Only 609 (39.4% parents and 363 (46.2% professionals would agree to use donor milk for their children in the absence or lack of mother’s milk. Only 1/3 of the respondents — 560 (36.2% parents and 259 (33.0% professionals — believe that donor milk is safe. 565 (36.5% parents and 475 (60.5% professionals have heard something about breast milk banks and 1,013 (65.5% parents and 449 (57.2% professionals believe that the establishment of such banks is reasonable. Most of the mothers (830; 73.2% involved in the study would agree to become breast milk donors, and 219 (53% fathers would approve their wives’ decision to become donors.Conclusion. The study has revealed low respondents’ awareness of the use and safety of donor milk. However, most of the mothers are willing to become breast milk donors. More than half of the parents and professionals involved in the study believe that it is reasonable to create milk banks.

  8. Mental Disorders in Megacities: Findings from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Laura Helena; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Andreoni, Solange; Silveira, Camila Magalhães; Alexandrino-Silva, Clovis; Siu, Erica Rosanna; Nishimura, Raphael; Anthony, James C.; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Kessler, Ronald C.; Viana, Maria Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Background World population growth is projected to be concentrated in megacities, with increases in social inequality and urbanization-associated stress. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) provides a forewarning of the burden of mental disorders in urban settings in developing world. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of recently active DSM-IV mental disorders. We examined socio-demographic correlates, aspects of urban living such as internal migration, exposure to violence, and neighborhood-level social deprivation with 12-month mental disorders. Methods and Results A representative cross-sectional household sample of 5,037 adults was interviewed face-to-face using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), to generate diagnoses of DSM-IV mental disorders within 12 months of interview, disorder severity, and treatment. Administrative data on neighborhood social deprivation were gathered. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate individual and contextual correlates of disorders, severity, and treatment. Around thirty percent of respondents reported a 12-month disorder, with an even distribution across severity levels. Anxiety disorders were the most common disorders (affecting 19.9%), followed by mood (11%), impulse-control (4.3%), and substance use (3.6%) disorders. Exposure to crime was associated with all four types of disorder. Migrants had low prevalence of all four types compared to stable residents. High urbanicity was associated with impulse-control disorders and high social deprivation with substance use disorders. Vulnerable subgroups were observed: women and migrant men living in most deprived areas. Only one-third of serious cases had received treatment in the previous year. Discussion Adults living in São Paulo megacity had prevalence of mental disorders at greater levels than similar surveys conducted in other areas of the world. Integration of mental health promotion and care into the

  9. Corporate characteristics and worksite health promotion programs: survey findings from Fortune 500 companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, R B; Lengermann, J J

    1988-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the nature and extent of worksite health promotion programs in Fortune 500 companies. Growth and interest in worksite health promotion continues at a remarkable rate. Fortune 500 firms are a good barometer of the state of the art of programs in work settings because these companies have large numbers of employees, an interest in cost savings, and expertise to invest in innovative efforts. Data collection consisted of questionnaires sent to the medical officer or Chief Executive Officer of all companies appearing on the 1984 Fortune 500 list. The following issues were addressed: whether companies offered worksite programs; what health promotion activities were provided in their programs; whether organizations had plans to start up or expand programs; what organizational support existed for programs (i.e. who pays, on whose time employees participate, when activities are offered, and what types of personnel are hired to staff programs); and whether these companies applied needs assessments, evaluation and cost analysis in their programs. Differences in these characteristics were examined in relation to the organizational variables of size (number of employees), Fortune 500 rank and type of industry (low-technology versus high-technology). The response rate for the survey was 49.4% (n = 247). Results of the study indicate a high level of health promotion activity in Fortune 500 firms. Out of the total group of respondents, two-thirds (n = 164) report having worksite programs and two-thirds of organizations with programs have plans to expand their health promotion offerings. One-third of responding organizations without programs planned to initiate them. The health promotion activities provided are numerous and varied, and within units that have programs rates of employee eligibility are reported to be high. However, the participation rates reported are appreciably lower. It is of special interest that, in general, the higher ranked

  10. Receipt and Perceived Helpfulness of Mental Illness Information: Findings from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Annette L; Brooker, Joanne; Hasking, Penelope; Clarke, David; Meadows, Graham

    2017-10-20

    The distribution of mental illness information is a crucial element of mental health promotion initiatives. We assessed the receipt and perceived helpfulness of such information in Australia. Data from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing indicated that, during the year prior to the survey, 33.7% of Australians received mental illness information; of these, 51.2% found it helpful. Among people with a mental disorder, 46.1% received information; of these, 67.4% found it helpful. Non-English speakers and the socially disadvantaged were less likely to receive mental illness information. Older and less educated respondents were less likely to both receive mental illness information and find it helpful. Mental health service users were more likely to receive mental illness information perceived as helpful than those who had not accessed such services. Better targeted information interventions are required to ensure those most likely to benefit receive mental illness-related information.

  11. Suicidal ideation among individuals whose parents have divorced: findings from a representative Canadian community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Dalton, Angela D

    2011-05-15

    This study used a large, nationally representative sample to examine the gender-specific association between parental divorce and the cumulative lifetime incidence of suicidal ideation. Known risk factors for suicidal ideation, such as childhood stressors, socioeconomic factors, adult health behaviors and stressors, marital status, and any history of mood and/or anxiety disorders were controlled. Gender-specific analyses revealed that for men, the parental divorce-suicidal ideation relationship remained statistically significant even when the above-listed cluster of risk factors were included in the analyses (odds ratio (OR)=2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.56, 3.58). For women, the association between parental divorce and suicidal ideation was reduced to non-significance when other adverse childhood experiences were included in the analyses (full adjustment OR=1.04, 95% CI=0.72, 1.50). These findings indicate a need for screening of suicidal ideation among individuals, particularly men and those with mood and/or anxiety disorders, who have experienced parental divorce. Future research should focus on the mechanisms linking parental divorce and suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nine cases of nonpalpable testicular mass. An incidental finding in a large scale ultrasonography survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avci, A.; Eken, C.; Ozgok, Y.; Erol, B.

    2008-01-01

    Nonpalpable testicular masses are usually diagnosed during routine ultrasonography (US) examinations for other conditions. There are conflicting results on the final diagnosis and management of these lesions. In the present study we report the results of a large US series of 5104 patients on nonpalpable testicular masses and discuss the management of these patients. This retrospective observational study was performed in a secondary care military hospital. A total of 5104 patients underwent a US and 11 of them were diagnosed as having a nonpalpable testicular mass. These 11 patients also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two of them refused surgery and were excluded from the study. The remaining nine patients underwent intraoperative US-guided localization and excisional biopsy of the non-palpable testicular parenchymal mass. A radical orchiectomy was required in all of them. US and MRI findings, frozen and final pathology results were recorded. The median age of study subjects was 24 years. The final pathology revealed a malign tumor in eight patients and an inflammatory mass in one patient. There were inconsistent results in four patients between frozen section analysis and final pathology. MRI improved the definition of the solid masses in all patients. MRI enhances the certainty of the diagnosis of malignity in nonpalpable testicular masses, particularly in conditions that generally can not be diagnosed with ultrasonography alone. Frozen section analysis is not an accredited method in diagnosing malign lesions in non-palpable testicular masses. (author)

  13. Coordination difficulties and self-esteem: a review and findings from a New Zealand survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Matthew; Hanger, Nicola; Frampton, Christopher; Watkins, William

    2012-12-01

    Children and adolescents with significant coordination difficulties have consistently been found to have lower self-esteem in relation to athletic competence and physical ability. However, findings in relation to global self-esteem have been mixed. This study aimed to investigate the self-esteem of children and adolescents with a diagnosis of dyspraxia in a large New Zealand sample. A confidential postal questionnaire was sent to all members of the Dyspraxia Support Group of New Zealand. Children and adolescents aged seven to 18 years with a diagnosis of dyspraxia were asked to complete the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale 2nd edition (PHCSCS-2), while parents were asked about a range of factors which might affect self-esteem including possible coexisting conditions. There was a response rate of 20% with 75 valid responses. Coexisting conditions were common including 50.7% with a diagnosis of dyslexia or another learning disorder. Children and adolescents with dyspraxia scored significantly lower than PHCSCS-2 norms on the physical appearance and attributes, intellectual and school status and popularity subscales and also the PHCSCS-2 total score, indicating lower global self-esteem. This study strengthens the evidence that an association exists in children and adolescents between having significant coordination difficulties and lower global self-esteem. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  14. SURVEY OF GROSS AND HISTOPATHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN TWO WINTERING SUBPOPULATIONS OF SANDHILL CRANES ( ANTIGONE CANADENSIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Martha; Bertram, Miranda; Rech, Raquel; Hamer, Gabriel L; Hamer, Sarah A

    2018-01-01

    :  Sandhill Cranes ( Antigone canadensis) of the midcontinent population (MCP) and Rocky Mountain population (RMP) are migratory game birds with stable populations that travel between Canada and the southern US and Mexico. In the winters of 2012-14, we performed gross and histologic examinations of 43 hunter-harvested Sandhill Cranes in Texas (MCP) and New Mexico (RMP) to assess the impact of disease on populations. Lesions were significantly more common in the MCP relative to the RMP, likely reflecting differential environmental exposure to pathogens and parasites. Grossly, liver nodules and esophageal granulomas were present in 8-39% of birds. In feces from over half of birds, we found coccidian oocysts with mitochondrial gene sequences identical to those of Eimeria gruis and Eimeria reichenowi previously obtained from sympatric Whooping Cranes ( Grus americana). Over one-quarter of birds had liver and cardiac lesions suggestive of disseminated visceral coccidiosis. We documented proliferative colitis due to Cryptosporidium in a wild Sandhill Crane. Additionally, several endoparasites were found in histologic sections from several cranes, including a bird with respiratory trematodiasis and two birds with Tetrameres sp. in the proventriculus associated with ductal ectasia. In addition to describing lesions and parasites that impact Sandhill Crane health, these pathology data may also be relevant for the conservation of endangered Whooping Cranes using a surrogate species approach.

  15. Development of snow water equivalent survey methods using airborne gamma measurements. Research progress, January 1975--September 1975 and suggested directions for future work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.; Jupiter, C.

    1975-01-01

    This is a summary of the progress made during the period March 1975 through September 1975 on EG and G's support of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for development of airborne techniques for measurement of the water equivalent of snow and soil moisture. The work included a series of snow and soil moisture surveys and development of a new detector and data acquisition system. The status of this work is summarized here together with a review of plans for the immediate future

  16. Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Preliminary Findings From a Sample of Primarily LGBQ-Identified Survey Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Corina; Koon-Magnin, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study is among the first to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and rape myth adherence using a nationwide survey of primarily lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) respondents (n = 184). The more established Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale and a modified Male Rape Survey serve as the primary instruments to test both rape myth adherence and instrument-appropriateness. Results suggest that respondents were most likely to support myths that discredit sexual assault allegations or excuse rape as a biological imperative and least likely to support myths related to physical resistance. Consistent with previous work, men exhibited higher levels of rape myth adherence than women. Regarding sexual orientation, respondents who identified as queer consistently exhibited lower levels of rape myth adherence than respondents who identified as gay.

  17. Are Gasoline Prices a Factor in Residential Relocation Decisions? Preliminary Findings from the American Housing Survey, 1996–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Guangqing; Boydstun, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    Residential relocation choice is affected by numerous factors, but gasoline prices as a potential factor have not been investigated. This study examines gasoline price changes and residential relocation choice using 1996–2008 American Housing Survey data. We found higher gasoline prices are associated with a higher percentage of movers choosing locations closer to workplaces. The findings have implications for addressing the impacts of volatile gasoline prices on land use planning and policies; resilient “smart cities or communities” are one possible solution. PMID:29658959

  18. Future of Health: Findings from a survey of stakeholders on the future of health and healthcare in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jennie; d'Angelo, Camilla; Gangitano, Lorenzo; Freeman, Jon

    2018-04-01

    This article presents findings from a survey conducted by RAND Europe at the request of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) to gather and synthesise stakeholder views on the future of health and healthcare in England in 20 to 30 years' time. The aim of the research was to generate an evidenced-based picture of the future health and healthcare needs, and how it might differ from today, in order to inform strategic discussions about the future priorities of the NIHR and the health and social care research communities more broadly. The survey provided a rich and varied dataset based on responses from 300 stakeholders in total. A wide range of fields were represented, including public health, social care, primary care, cancer, genomics, mental health, geriatrics, child health, patient advocacy and health policy. The respondent group also included a number of professional and private stakeholder categories, such as clinicians, policy experts, academics and patient and public representatives. The study findings validate a number of prominent health research priorities currently visible in England, such as antimicrobial resistance, the burden of dementia and age-related multi-morbidity, digital health and genomics. Interest in these areas and other themes, such as mental health, health inequalities and transforming health service models, cut across multiple disciplinary boundaries. However, it is clear that there are a variety of views among stakeholders on the relative importance of these areas of focus, and the best approach to manage their emergence in the coming decades. The full dataset of survey responses, for which permission to share was given, is a useful resource for those seeking to engage with a particular issue in more depth. The dataset can be found on NIHR's website at: http://nihr.ac.uk/news-and-events/documents/quotes.xls.

  19. Insights, attitudes and perceptions about asthma and its treatment: findings from a multinational survey of patients from 8 Asia-Pacific countries and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Philip J; Salvi, Sundeep; Lin, Jiangtao; Cho, Young Joo; Eng, Philip; Abdul Manap, Roslina; Boonsawat, Watchara; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Faruqi, Rab A; Moreno-Cantu, Jorge J; Fish, James E; Ho, James Chung-Man

    2013-08-01

    The Asthma Insight and Management (AIM) survey was conducted in North America, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region and Latin America to characterize patients' insights, attitudes and perceptions about their asthma and its treatment. We report findings from the Asia-Pacific survey. Asthma patients (≥12 years) from Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand were surveyed. Patients answered 53 questions exploring general health, diagnosis/history, symptoms, exacerbations, patient burden, disease management, medications/treatments and patient's attitudes. The Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines were used to assess asthma control. The survey was conducted by random digit telephone dialling (Australia, China and Hong Kong) or by random face-to-face interviews (India, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand). There were 80 761 households screened. Data from 3630 patients were collected. Wide disparity existed between objective measures of control and patient perception. Reported exacerbations during the previous year ranged from 19% (Hong Kong) to 67% (India). Reported unscheduled urgent/emergency visits to a doctor's office/hospital/clinic in the previous year ranged from 15% (Hong Kong) to 46% (Taiwan). Patients who reported having controlled asthma in the previous month ranged from 27% (South Korea) to 84% (Taiwan). Substantial functional and emotional limitations due to asthma were identified by 13% (South Korea) to 78% (India) of patients. Asthma has a profound impact on patients' well-being despite the availability of effective treatments and evidence-based management guidelines. Substantial differences across the surveyed countries exist, suggesting unmet, country-specific cultural and educational needs. A large proportion of asthma patients overestimate their level of control. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Regret and rationalization among smokers in Thailand and Malaysia: findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Omar, Maizurah; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Borland, Ron

    2009-07-01

    To test whether differences of history and strength in tobacco control policies will influence social norms, which, in turn, will influence quit intentions, by influencing smokers' regret and rationalization. The data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Southeast Asia Survey, a cohort survey of representative samples of adult smokers in Thailand (N = 2,000) and Malaysia (N = 2,006). The survey used a stratified multistage sampling design. Measures included regret, rationalization, social norms, and quit intention. Thai smokers were more likely to have quit intentions than Malaysian smokers. This difference in quit intentions was, in part, explained by the country differences in social norms, regret, and rationalization. Reflecting Thailand's history of stronger tobacco control policies, Thai smokers, compared with Malaysian smokers, perceived more negative social norms toward smoking, were more likely to regret, and less likely to rationalize smoking. Mediational analyses revealed that these differences in social norms, accounted, in part, for the country-quit intention relation and that regret and rationalization accounted, in part, for the social norm-quit intention relation. The results suggest that social norms toward smoking, which are shaped by tobacco control policies, and smokers' regret and rationalization influence quit intentions.

  1. Mental health service use and need for care of Australians without diagnoses of mental disorders: findings from a large epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobevski, I; Rosen, A; Meadows, G

    2017-12-01

    While epidemiological surveys worldwide have found a considerable proportion of people using mental health services not to have a diagnosis of a mental disorder, with possible implications of service overuse, other work has suggested that most people without a current diagnosis who used services exhibited other indicators of need. The aims of the present study were, using somewhat different categorisations than previous work, to investigate whether: (1) Australians without a diagnosis of a mental disorder who used mental health services had other indicators of need; and (2) how rate and frequency of service use in Australia related to level of need, then to discuss the findings in light of recent developments in Australian Mental Health Policy and other epidemiological and services research findings. Data from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (NSMHWB) 2007 was analysed. Most people using mental health services had evident indicators of need for mental health care (MHC), and most of those with lower evident levels of need did not make heavy use of services. Only a small proportion of individuals without any disorders or need indicators received MHC (4%). Although this latter group comprises a fair proportion of service users when extrapolating to the Australian population (16%), the vast majority of these individuals only sought brief primary-care or counselling treatment rather than consultations with psychiatrists. Access and frequency of MHC consultations were highest for people with diagnosed lifetime disorders, followed by people with no diagnosed disorders but other need indicators, and least for people with no identified need indicators. Limitations include some disorders not assessed in interview and constraints based on survey size to investigate subgroups defined, for instance, by socioeconomic advantage and disadvantage individually or by characteristics of area. MHC for individuals with no recognised disorders or other

  2. The balanced scorecard as a potential instrument for supporting planning and improvement in accounting education: Comparative survey findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJ Cronje

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is firstly a comparison of the components of a potential balanced scorecard for accounting departments of universities in South Africa and Australia. Secondly, the various suggested measurement criteria of the balanced scorecard components are also compared. The findings of the research paper indicate no significant differences. The conclusion is that the balanced scorecard constitutes a potential instrument for supporting the planning and improvement of the accounting education environment.

  3. Global pathways to men's caregiving: mixed methods findings from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey and the Men Who Care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Wallace, Jane; Barker, Gary; Eads, Marci; Levtov, Ruti

    2014-01-01

    Promoting men's participation in unpaid care work is part of the Programme of Action for the International Conference on Population and Development. However, men's involvement in care work does not mirror the advances women have made in paid work outside the home. This mixed method study explores which men are more involved in caregiving, and what childhood and adulthood factors influence their level of involvement. Quantitative research presents findings from 1169 men across six countries with children aged 0-4, and a qualitative study presents findings from in-depth interviews with 83 men engaged in atypical caregiving practices. Survey research finds that being taught to care for children, witnessing one's father take care of one's siblings, respondents' present attitudes about gender equality and having outside help (or none, in some cases) were all also associated with men's higher level of involvement. Qualitative research reveals that men's experiences of violence, the normalisation of domestic work as children and life circumstances rather than greater-than-average beliefs in gender equality all propelled them into care work. Findings suggest that engaging more men into care work implies changes to policies and structural realities in the workplace coupled with changing gender attitudes. These insights inform policy and practice aimed at promoting greater involvement in care work by men.

  4. What affects authors' and editors' use of reporting guidelines? Findings from an online survey and qualitative interviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fuller

    Full Text Available To identify and understand, through data from multiple sources, some of the factors that affect authors' and editors' decisions to use reporting guidelines in the publication of health research.Mixed methods study comprising an online survey and semi-structured interviews with a sample of authors (online survey: n = 56; response rate = 32%; semi-structured interviews: n = 5 and journal editors (online survey: n = 43; response rate = 27%; semi-structured interviews: n = 6 involved in publishing health and medical research. Participants were recruited from an earlier study examining the effectiveness of the TREND reporting guideline.Four types of factors interacted to affect authors' and editors' likelihood of reporting guideline use; individual (e.g., having multiple reasons for use of reporting guidelines; the professional culture in which people work; environmental (e.g., policies of journals; and, practical (e.g., having time to use reporting guidelines. Having multiple reasons for using reporting guidelines was a particularly salient factor in facilitating reporting guidelines use for both groups of participants.Improving the completeness and consistency of reporting of research studies is critical to the integrity and synthesis of health research. The use of reporting guidelines offers one potentially efficient and effective means for achieving this, but decisions to use (or not use reporting guidelines take many factors into account. These findings could be used to inform future studies that might, for example, test the factors that we have identified within a wider theoretical framework for understanding changes in professional practices. The use of reporting guidelines by senior professionals appears to shape the expectations of what constitutes best practice and can be assimilated into the culture of a field or discipline. Without evidence of effectiveness of reporting guidelines, and sustained, multifaceted efforts to improve reporting

  5. Predictors of job satisfaction among academic family medicine faculty: Findings from a faculty work-life and leadership survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Paul; White, David; Meaney, Christopher; Kwong, Jeffrey; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence

    2017-03-01

    To identify predictors of job satisfaction among academic family medicine faculty members. A comprehensive Web-based survey of all faculty members in an academic department of family medicine. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with job satisfaction. The Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario and its 15 affiliated community teaching hospitals and community-based teaching practices. All 1029 faculty members in the Department of Family and Community Medicine were invited to complete the survey. Faculty members' demographic and practice information; teaching, clinical, administration, and research activities; leadership roles; training needs and preferences; mentorship experiences; health status; stress levels; burnout levels; and job satisfaction. Faculty members' perceptions about supports provided, recognition, communication, retention, workload, teamwork, respect, resource distribution, remuneration, and infrastructure support. Faculty members' job satisfaction, which was the main outcome variable, was obtained from the question, "Overall, how satisfied are you with your job?" Of the 1029 faculty members, 687 (66.8%) responded to the survey. Bivariate analyses revealed 26 predictors as being statistically significantly associated with job satisfaction, including faculty members' ratings of their local department and main practice setting, their ratings of leadership and mentorship experiences, health status variables, and demographic variables. The multivariable analyses identified the following 5 predictors of job satisfaction: the Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales of emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment; being born in Canada; the overall quality of mentorship that was received being rated as very good or excellent; and teamwork being rated as very good or excellent. The findings from this study show that job satisfaction among academic

  6. Medical leadership arrangements in English healthcare organisations: findings from a national survey and case studies of NHS trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Helen; Ham, Chris; Snelling, Iain; Spurgeon, Peter

    2013-11-01

    This project sought to describe the involvement of doctors in leadership roles in the NHS and the organisational structures and management processes in use in NHS trusts. A mixed methods approach was adopted combining a questionnaire survey of English NHS trusts and in-depth case studies of nine organisations who responded to the survey. Respondents identified a number of challenges in the development of medical leadership, and there was often perceived to be an engagement gap between medical leaders and doctors in clinical roles. While some progress has been made in the development of medical leadership in the NHS in England, much remains to be done to complete the journey that started with the Griffiths Report in 1983. We conclude that a greater degree of professionalism needs to be brought to bear in the development of medical leadership. This includes developing career structures to make it easier for doctors to take on leadership roles; providing training, development and support in management and leadership at different stages of doctors' careers; and ensuring that pay and other rewards are commensurate with the responsibilities of medical leaders. The time commitment of medical leaders and the proportion of doctors in leadership roles both need to increase. The paper concludes considering the implications of these findings for other health systems. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Predictors of smoking in cars with nonsmokers: findings from the 2007 Wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sara C; Fong, Geoffrey T; Borland, Ron; Hyland, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the proportion and characteristics of smokers who smoke in cars with nonsmokers across four countries and the potentially modifiable correlates of this behavior. Respondents included a total of 6,786 current adult smokers from Wave 6 (September 2007-February 2008) of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a random digit-dial telephone survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. Reports of smoking in cars with nonsmokers ranged from a low of 29% in Australia and the United Kingdom, to 34% in Canada, and to a high of 44% in the United States. Daily smokers who were from the United States, male, and younger were the most likely to smoke in cars with nonsmokers. Several potentially modifiable factors were also found to be related to this behavior, including smoke-free homes and beliefs about the dangers of cigarette smoke exposure to nonsmokers. A considerable proportion of smokers continue to smoke in cars with nonsmokers across the four countries, particularly in the United States. Public health campaigns should educate smokers about the hazards of cigarette smoke exposure and promote the need for smoke-free cars. These findings provide a foundation of evidence relevant for jurisdictions that are considering banning smoking in cars.

  8. Impact of point-of-sale tobacco display bans: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Cummings, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing restrictions in Australia and Canada, in relation to the United Kingdom and the United States where there were no such restrictions during the study period (2006–10). The data came from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a prospective multi-country cohort survey of adult smokers. In jurisdictions where POS display bans were implemented, smokers’ reported exposure to tobacco marketing declined markedly. From 2006 to 2010, in Canada, the percentages noticing POS tobacco displays declined from 74.1 to 6.1% [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.26, P advertising decreased from 40.3 to 14.1% (adjusted OR = 0.61, P marketing in the United States and United Kingdom remained high during this period. In parallel, there were declines in reported exposures to other forms of advertising/promotion in Canada and Australia, but again, not in the United States or United Kingdom. Impulse purchasing of cigarettes was lower in places that enacted POS display bans. These findings indicate that implementing POS tobacco display bans does result in lower exposure to tobacco marketing and less frequent impulse purchasing of cigarettes. PMID:23640986

  9. What nurses and midwives want: Findings from the national survey on workplace climate and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Peter J; Tham, Tse Leng; Gill, Fenella J

    2018-02-26

    A discussion of the findings from a nationwide study of workplace and well-being issues of Australian nurses and midwives. Current discourse only provides a fragmented understanding of a multifaceted nature of working conditions and well-being, necessitating a more holistic investigation to identify critical workplace issues within these professions. Discussion paper. A national survey conducted in July 2016 involving Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation members. The literature supporting this paper focuses on the nursing and midwifery workforce and studies on attraction and retention issues. Workplace policies and practices in place in health care organizations that are within the control of management are key factors in the negative issues associated with the profession from the survey. Proactive and targeted interventions particularly aimed at salient issues of work intensification, declining engagement, and effective voice mechanisms are needed to address these crucial issues if the attrition of individuals from nursing and midwifery occupations is going to be ameliorated. To alleviate workforce issues pushing nurses and midwives to the tipping point of exiting the professions, health care organizations need to take a proactive stance in addressing issues under the control of management. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Regional differences in awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion in China: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Lin; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Wu, Xi; Li, Qiang; Wu, Changbao; Foong, Kin

    2010-04-01

    To examine whether levels of, and factors related to, awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion differ across six cities in China. Data from wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey (April to August 2006) were analysed. The ITC China Survey employed a multistage sampling design in Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a total of 4763 smokers and 1259 non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion. The overall levels of noticing advertisements varied considerably by city. Cities reporting lower levels of advertising tended to report higher levels of point of sale activity. Noticing tobacco industry promotions was associated with more positive attitudes to tobacco companies. The awareness of tobacco advertising and promotional activities was not homogeneous across the six Chinese cities, suggesting variations in the tobacco industry's activities and the diversity of implementing a central set of laws to restrict tobacco promotion. This study clearly demonstrates the need to work with the implementation agencies if national laws are to be properly enforced.

  11. Health/functioning characteristics, gambling behaviors and gambling-related motivations in adolescents stratified by gambling problem severity: Findings from a high-school survey

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    Yip, Sarah W.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    In adults, different levels of gambling problem severity are differentially associated with measures of health and general functioning, gambling behaviors and gambling-related motivations. Here we present data from a survey of 2,484 Connecticut high school students, and investigate the data stratifying by gambling problem severity based on DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Problem/pathological gambling was associated with a range of negative functions; e.g., poor academic performance, substance use, dysphoria/depression, and aggression. These findings suggest a need for improved interventions related to adolescent gambling and a need for additional research into the relationship (e.g., mediating factors) between gambling and risk and protective behaviors. PMID:21999494

  12. Sources of information used to support quality use of medicines: findings from a national survey of nurse practitioners in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas; Stasa, Helen; Cashin, Andrew; Stuart, Meg; Dunn, Sandra V

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sources, both print and electronic formats, which Australian nurse practitioners (NPs) currently use to obtain information regarding quality use of medicines (QUM). An additional aim was to document NPs' preferences for continuing education in relation to QUM. A national electronic survey of Australian NPs was conducted in 2007 and again in 2010. Eighty percent of respondents accessed information on QUM from professional literature, which may include scholarly journal articles, reports, and independent publications. There was a decrease in the percentage of respondents who obtained information from drug industry representatives. NPs prefer to receive medicines information in an electronic form, rather than a paper-based version, and over the time period more NPs are utilizing electronic sources rather than paper. These findings provide important insights into medical information products for the developers who may be able to use these results to ensure that their products meet the needs of NP clinicians. Additionally, the finding that NPs prefer to receive their continuing information related to medicines in electronic format, but also highly value conference proceedings, may help to inform future planning of NP education needs in relation to QUM. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  13. Reciprocal Family, Friendship and Church Support Networks of African Americans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Mouzon, Dawne M; Nguyen, Ann W; Chatters, Linda M

    2016-12-01

    This study examined reciprocal support networks involving extended family, friends and church members among African Americans. Our analysis examined specific patterns of reciprocal support (i.e., received only, gave only, both gave and received, neither gave or received), as well as network characteristics (i.e., contact and subjective closeness) as correlates of reciprocal support. The analysis is based on the African American sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Overall, our findings indicate that African Americans are very involved in reciprocal support networks with their extended family, friends and church members. Respondents were most extensively involved in reciprocal supports with extended family members, followed closely by friends and church networks. Network characteristics (i.e., contact and subjective closeness) were significantly and consistently associated with involvement with reciprocal support exchanges for all three networks. These and other findings are discussed in detail. This study complements previous work on the complementary roles of family, friend and congregational support networks, as well as studies of racial differences in informal support networks.

  14. Patient-reported outcomes and therapeutic affordances of social media: findings from a global online survey of people with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolli, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo

    2015-01-22

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from social media use in chronic disease management continue to emerge. While many published articles suggest the potential for social media is positive, there is a lack of robust examination into mediating mechanisms that might help explain social media's therapeutic value. This study presents findings from a global online survey of people with chronic pain (PWCP) to better understand how they use social media as part of self-management. Our aim is to improve understanding of the various health outcomes reported by PWCP by paying close attention to therapeutic affordances of social media. We wish to examine if demographics of participants underpin health outcomes and whether the concept of therapeutic affordances explains links between social media use and PROs. The goal is for this to help tailor future recommendations for use of social media to meet individuals' health needs and improve clinical practice of social media use. A total of 231 PWCP took part in a global online survey investigating PROs from social media use. Recruited through various chronic disease entities and social networks, participants provided information on demographics, health/pain status, social media use, therapeutic affordances, and PROs from use. Quantitative analysis was performed on the data using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation, and cluster analysis. The total dataset represented 218 completed surveys. The majority of participants were university educated (67.0%, 146/218) and female (83.9%, 183/218). More than half (58.7%, 128/218) were married/partnered and not working for pay (75.9%, 88/116 of these due to ill health). Fibromyalgia (46.6%, 55/118) and arthritis (27.1%, 32/118) were the most commonly reported conditions causing pain. Participants showed a clear affinity for social network site use (90.0%, 189/210), followed by discussion forums and blogs. PROs were consistent, suggesting that social media positively impact psychological

  15. Patient-Reported Outcomes and Therapeutic Affordances of Social Media: Findings From a Global Online Survey of People With Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from social media use in chronic disease management continue to emerge. While many published articles suggest the potential for social media is positive, there is a lack of robust examination into mediating mechanisms that might help explain social media’s therapeutic value. This study presents findings from a global online survey of people with chronic pain (PWCP) to better understand how they use social media as part of self-management. Objective Our aim is to improve understanding of the various health outcomes reported by PWCP by paying close attention to therapeutic affordances of social media. We wish to examine if demographics of participants underpin health outcomes and whether the concept of therapeutic affordances explains links between social media use and PROs. The goal is for this to help tailor future recommendations for use of social media to meet individuals’ health needs and improve clinical practice of social media use. Methods A total of 231 PWCP took part in a global online survey investigating PROs from social media use. Recruited through various chronic disease entities and social networks, participants provided information on demographics, health/pain status, social media use, therapeutic affordances, and PROs from use. Quantitative analysis was performed on the data using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation, and cluster analysis. Results The total dataset represented 218 completed surveys. The majority of participants were university educated (67.0%, 146/218) and female (83.9%, 183/218). More than half (58.7%, 128/218) were married/partnered and not working for pay (75.9%, 88/116 of these due to ill health). Fibromyalgia (46.6%, 55/118) and arthritis (27.1%, 32/118) were the most commonly reported conditions causing pain. Participants showed a clear affinity for social network site use (90.0%, 189/210), followed by discussion forums and blogs. PROs were consistent, suggesting that social

  16. Neighborhood deprivation and smoking and quit behavior among smokers in Mexico: Findings from the ITC Mexico Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L.; Thrasher, James F.; de Miera Juárez, Belén Sáenz; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Osman, Amira; Siahpush, Mohammad; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Background In high-income countries (HICs), higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher levels of smoking. Few studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have investigated the role of the neighborhood environment on smoking behavior. Objective To determine whether neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is related to smoking intensity, quit attempts, quit success, and smoking relapse among a cohort of smokers in Mexico from 2010–2012. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 4–6 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Mexico Survey. Data were linked to the Mexican government’s composite index of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, which is based on 2010 Mexican Census data. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood deprivation and individual smoking behaviors. Findings Contrary to past findings in HICs, higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower smoking intensity. Quit attempts showed a U-shaped pattern whereby smokers living in high/very high deprivation neighborhoods and smokers living in very low deprivation neighborhoods were more likely to make a quit attempt than smokers living in other neighborhoods. We did not find significant differences in neighborhood deprivation on relapse or successful quitting, with the possible exception of people living in medium-deprivation neighborhoods having a higher likelihood of successful quitting than people living in very low deprivation neighborhoods (p=0.06). Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic environments in Mexico appear to operate in an opposing manner to those in HICs. Further research should investigate whether rapid implementation of strong tobacco control policies in LMICs, as occurred in Mexico during the follow-up period, avoids the concentration of tobacco-related disparities among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. PMID:25170022

  17. Reliability of a retail food store survey and development of an accompanying retail scoring system to communicate survey findings and identify vendors for healthful food and marketing initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Observational. Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store scoring methodology weighted to emphasize availability of healthful food. Type A intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) with absolute agreement definition or a κ test for measures using ranges as categories. Measures of availability and price of fruits and vegetables performed well in reliability testing (κ = 0.681-0.800). Items for vegetable quality were better than for fruit (ICC 0.708 vs 0.528). Kappa scores indicated low to moderate agreement (0.372-0.674) on external store marketing measures and higher scores for internal store marketing. "Next to" the checkout counter was more reliable than "within 6 feet." Health departments using the store scoring system reported it as the most useful communication of neighborhood findings. There was good reliability of the measures among the research pairs. The local store scores can show the need to bring in resources and to provide access to fruits and vegetables and other healthful food. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiology of adulthood drowning deaths in Bangladesh: Findings from a nationwide health and injury survey [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jahangir Hossain

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Annual global death due to drowning accounts for 372,000 lives, 90% of which occur in low and middle income countries. Life in Bangladesh exposes adults and children to may water bodies for daily household needs, and as a result drowning is common. In Bangladesh, due to lack of systemic data collection, drowning among adults is unknown; most research is focused on childhood drowning. The aim of the present study was to explore the epidemiology of adulthood drowning deaths in Bangladesh. Methodology: A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted from January to December in 2003 among 171,366 rural and urban households, with a sample of 819,429 individuals to determine the epidemiology of adulthood drowning in Bangladesh.   Results:  Annual fatal drowning incidence among adults was 5.85/100,000 individuals. Of these, 71.4% were male and 28.6% were female (RR 2.39. In total, 90% of the fatalities were from rural areas. Rural populations were also found to have a 8.58 times higher risk of drowning than those in urban areas. About 95% of drowning occurred in natural water bodies. About 61.6% of the deaths occurred at the scene followed by 33.5% at the home. Of the drowning fatalities, 67% took place in water bodies within 100 meters of the household. Among the drowning fatalities 78.4% occurred in daylight between 7.00 and 18.00. Over 97% of the victims were from poor socio economic conditions with a monthly income tk. 6,000 ($94 or less. Only 25.5% of incidences were reported to the police station. Conclusions: Every year a significant number of adults die due to drowning in Bangladesh.  Populations living in rural areas, especially men, were the main victims of drowning. This survey finding might help policy makers and scientists to understand the drowning scenario among adults in Bangladesh.

  19. Women's exposure to intimate partner violence and child malnutrition: findings from demographic and health surveys in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Shirin; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2014-07-01

    Domestic violence, in particular intimate partner violence (IPV), has been recognized as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women of reproductive age. The effects of IPV against women on their children's health, especially their nutritional status has received less attention but needs to be evaluated to understand the comprehensive public health implications of IPV. The aim of current study was to investigate the association between women's exposure to IPV and their children's nutritional status, using data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). Logistic regression models were used to estimate association between ever-married women's lifetime exposure to physical and sexual violence by their spouses and nutritional status of their children under 5 years. Of 2042 women in the BDHS survey with at least one child under 5 years of age, 49.4% reported lifetime experience of physical partner violence while 18.4% reported experience of sexual partner violence. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in their children under 5 years was 44.3%, 18.4% and 42.0%, respectively. Women were more likely to have a stunted child if they had lifetime experience of physical IPV [odds ratio n = 2027 (OR)adj, 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-1.79] or had been exposed to sexual IPV (n = 2027 OR(adj), 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02-1.61). The present findings contribute to growing body of evidence showing that IPV can also compromise children's growth, supporting the need to incorporate efforts to address IPV in child health and nutrition programmes and policies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Impact of Patient-Provider Race, Ethnicity, and Gender Concordance on Cancer Screening: Findings from Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Jyoti; Rotter, David; Tsui, Jennifer; Llanos, Adana A M; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Demissie, Kitaw

    2017-12-01

    Background: Racial and ethnic minorities experience lower rates of cancer screening compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). Previous studies evaluating the role of patient-provider race, ethnicity, or gender concordance in cancer screening have been inconclusive. Methods: In a cross-sectional analysis using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), data from 2003 to 2010 were assessed for associations between patient-provider race, ethnicity, and/or gender concordance and, screening (American Cancer Society guidelines) for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer. Multivariable logistic analyses were conducted to examine associations of interest. Results: Of the 32,041 patient-provider pairs in our analysis, more than 60% of the patients were NHW, 15% were non-Hispanic black (NHB), and 15% were Hispanic. Overall, patients adherent to cancer screening were more likely to be non-Hispanic, better educated, married, wealthier, and privately insured. Patient-provider gender discordance was associated with lower rates of breast [OR, 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76-0.90], cervical (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.91), and colorectal cancer (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.79-0.90) screening in all patients. This association was also significant after adjusting for racial and/or ethnic concordance. Conversely, among NHWs and NHBs, patient-provider racial and/or ethnic concordance was not associated with screening. Among Hispanics, patient-provider ethnic discordant pairs had higher breast (58% vs. 52%) and colorectal cancer (45% vs. 39%) screening rates compared with concordant pairs. Conclusions: Patient-provider gender concordance positively affected cancer screening. Patient-provider ethnic concordance was inversely associated with receipt of cancer screening among Hispanics. This counter-intuitive finding requires further study. Impact: Our findings highlight the importance of gender concordance in improving cancer screening rates. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26

  1. Psychosocial Problems Syndemically Increase Adolescent Substance Use: Findings From a Cross-sectional Survey of 82,812 Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Deng, Jianxiong; Gao, Xue; Xu, Yan; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of studies have indicated the associations between substance use and psychosocial problems in adolescents. However, few of them have examined whether these psychosocial problems form a syndemic, which means the co-occurrence of psychosocial problems accompanied by additional effects on substance use.We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 82,812 Chinese adolescents who were selected using a multistage random procedure. Bivariate associations were estimated between selected syndemic indicators and adolescent substance use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the syndemic indicator count score (the count of syndemic indicators) and adolescent substance use. In addition, cluster analysis was used to partition participants reporting at least one of syndemic indicators to assess associations between resolved cluster memberships and adolescent substance use.All selected syndemic indicators were associated with each other and with adolescent substance use. As the number of syndemic indicators increases, stronger associations with substance use were found in our analysis: the range of adjusted OR was from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.38-1.79) for 1 syndemic indicator to 9.45 (95% CI: 7.60-11.76) for 5 or 6 syndemic indicators. There was no effect modification of gender on these additive associations. The multivariate logistic regression indicated that the cluster membership of nonlow SES academic failures has the highest odds of using substance (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 2.12-2.41), compared to students reporting none syndemic indicators.Our findings support the syndemic hypothesis that adolescents bearing multiple psychosocial problems experience additive risks of using substance. Our findings support that a comprehensive approach to substance use prevention in adolescents would necessitate the involvement of a variety of providers.

  2. Current and emerging practice of end-of-life care in British prisons: findings from an online survey of prison nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Irena; Lay, Margaret

    2016-03-01

    There are concerns about prisoners and detainees not having equal access to end-of-life care while in prison. There is a lack of existing literature about the standards of end-of-life care in UK prisons. The aim of this study was to investigate the views of current and former prison nurses with regard to the end-of-life care being provided in UK prisons. Prison nurses were invited to participate in an online survey and asked about their role in the prison, prisoners' access to healthcare facilities, and any barriers and good practices to end-of-life care. The survey included open-ended and closed questions. The closed questions were analysed using descriptive statistics. The open-ended responses were coded and grouped into themes. 31 (N=31) prison nurses responded to the survey. The reported barriers to end-of-life care included some prison regimes, lack of appropriate care and visiting facilities, lack of privacy and inadequate visiting hours. Respondents also reported examples of good practice, including having access to specialist palliative care and specialist equipment, and being able to receive visits from family and friends. The findings suggest that there is considerable variability in the end-of-life care provided to prisoners in the UK. Further research is needed in order to reduce the health inequalities and improve the quality of end-of-life care experienced by prisoners in the UK. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Does marital status matter in an HIV hyperendemic country? Findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisana, Olive; Risher, Kathryn; Celentano, David D; Zungu, Nompumelelo; Rehle, Thomas; Ngcaweni, Busani; Evans, Meredith G B

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has experienced declining marriage rates and the increasing practice of cohabitation without marriage. This study aims to improve the understanding of the relationship between marital status and HIV in South Africa, an HIV hyperendemic country, through an analysis of findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey collected data on HIV and socio-demographic and behavioural determinants in South Africa. This analysis considered respondents aged 16 years and older who consented to participate in the survey and provided dried blood spot specimens for HIV testing (N = 17,356). After controlling for age, race, having multiple sexual partners, condom use at last sex, urban/rural dwelling and level of household income, those who were married living with their spouse had significantly reduced odds of being HIV-positive compared to all other marital spouses groups. HIV incidence was 0.27% among respondents who were married living with their spouses; the highest HIV incidence was found in the cohabiting group (2.91%). Later marriage (after age 24) was associated with increased odds of HIV prevalence. Our analysis suggests an association between marital status and HIV prevalence and incidence in contemporary South Africa, where odds of being HIV-positive were found to be lower among married individuals who lived with their spouses compared to all other marital status groups. HIV prevention messages therefore need to be targeted to unmarried populations, especially cohabitating populations. As low socio-economic status, low social cohesion and the resulting destabilization of sexual relationships may explain the increased risk of HIV among unmarried populations, it is necessary to address structural issues including poverty that create an environment unfavourable to stable sexual relationships.

  4. Asking about Sex in General Health Surveys: Comparing the Methods and Findings of the 2010 Health Survey for England with Those of the Third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Prah

    Full Text Available Including questions about sexual health in the annual Health Survey for England (HSE provides opportunities for regular measurement of key public health indicators, augmenting Britain's decennial National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal. However, contextual and methodological differences may limit comparability of the findings. We examine the extent of these differences between HSE 2010 and Natsal-3 and investigate their impact on parameter estimates.Complex survey analyses of data from men and women in the 2010 HSE (n = 2,782 men and 3,588 women and Natsal-3 undertaken 2010-2012 (n = 4,882 men and 6,869 women aged 16-69y and resident in England, both using probability sampling, compared their characteristics, the amount of non-response to, and estimates from, sexual health questions. Both surveys used self-completion for the sexual behaviour questions but this was via computer-assisted self-interview (CASI in Natsal-3 and a pen-and-paper questionnaire in HSE 2010.The surveys achieved similar response rates, both around 60%, and demographic profiles largely consistent with the census, although HSE participants tended to be less educated, and reported worse general health, than Natsal-3 participants. Item non-response to the sexual health questions was typically higher in HSE 2010 (range: 9-18% relative to Natsal-3 (all <5%. Prevalence estimates for sexual risk behaviours and STI-related indicators were generally slightly lower in HSE 2010 than Natsal-3.While a relatively high response to sexual health questions in HSE 2010 demonstrates the feasibility of asking such questions in a general health survey, differences with Natsal-3 do exist. These are likely due to the HSE's context as a general health survey and methodological limitations such as its current use of pen-and-paper questionnaires. Methodological developments to the HSE should be considered so that its data can be interpreted in combination with those from dedicated

  5. Age and Gender Differences in Psychological Distress among African Americans and Whites: Findings from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey

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    Daphne C. Watkins

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies report a race and mental health paradox: Whites score higher on measures of major depression compared to African Americans, but the opposite is true for psychological distress (i.e., African Americans score higher on distress measures compared to Whites. Independently, race, age, and gender outcomes for psychological distress are well documented in the literature. However, there is relatively little research on how psychological distress interferes with the lives of African Americans and Whites at the intersection of their various race, age, and gender identities. This study uses data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey to examine age and gender differences in psychological distress and how much psychological distress interferes with the lives of African Americans and Whites. Our study findings are contrary to the paradox such that young White women (M = 3.36, SD = 1.14 and middle-aged White men (M = 2.55, SD = 3.97 experienced higher psychological distress than all other race, age, and gender groups. Psychological distress interference was relatively high among the high distress groups, except for older African American men (M = 1.73, SD = 1.05 and young African American women (M = 1.93, SD = 0.95. Implications for studies that consider cultural experiences of psychological distress, and how it impacts different demographic groups are discussed.

  6. Divorce and sexual risk among U.S. women: findings from the national survey of family growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddon, Nicole; Leichliter, Jami S; Habel, Melissa A; Aral, Sevgi O

    2010-11-01

    Most research focusing on marital status and sexual risk has compared married and single midadult women without differentiating single women by their ever married status. We elucidate differences in sexual risk among divorced and never married women. Data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) (n = 5,081) were analyzed to compare divorced and never married women in terms of recent and lifetime sex partners, condom use at last vaginal sex, and other sexual risk behaviors. Overall, 13.1% of the women were currently divorced or separated, 62.1% were currently married, 8.3% were cohabitating, and 16.4% were never married. Divorced/separated women were more likely to report 5 or more lifetime sex partners and 2 or more sex partners in the past year than never married women. They were less likely to report condom use. Current findings expose sexual behavioral discrepancies within the single category of women and the need to redefine risk groups for surveillance and intervention efforts.

  7. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Tobacco Information Seeking and Information Sources: Findings From the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh B; Robinson, Joelle; O'Brien, Erin Keely; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2017-09-01

    This article describes sources of health information, types of tobacco information sought, and trust in sources of tobacco information among U.S. racial/ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asian and Pacific Islanders, and Other). Cross-sectional data (N = 3,788) from a nationally representative survey, HINTS-FDA 2015, were analyzed to examine unadjusted and adjusted associations between race/ethnicity and (a) first source of health information, (b) tobacco information seeking, and (c) trust in sources of tobacco information. Adjusted associations controlled for current tobacco product use and sociodemographic variables. Findings indicated that the Internet was the most common first source of health information while health care providers were the second most common source for all racial/ethnic groups. Tobacco-related health information seeking was more prevalent than other tobacco product information seeking. Unadjusted analyses indicated that a higher proportion of Whites sought other tobacco product information compared to Asians and Pacific Islanders. Trust was rated highest for doctors while trust for health organizations was rated second highest. Asians and Pacific Islanders had higher trust in the government compared to all other groups. Blacks had higher trust in religious organizations compared to all other groups besides Hispanics. Blacks had higher trust for tobacco companies compared to Whites and Other. Many of these differences were attenuated in adjusted analyses. This research has implications for tobacco control practice and policymaking by identifying potential dissemination strategies.

  8. Alcohol Marketing, Drunkenness, and Problem Drinking among Zambian Youth: Findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey

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    Monica H. Swahn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS conducted in Zambia (2004 of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (=2257. Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09–2.02 and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06–1.87 among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  9. Alcohol marketing, drunkenness, and problem drinking among Zambian youth: findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (N = 2257). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.02) and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06-1.87) among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  10. Service utilization by children with conduct disorders: findings from the 2004 Great Britain child mental health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivram, Raghuram; Bankart, John; Meltzer, Howard; Ford, Tamsin; Vostanis, Panos; Goodman, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Children with conduct disorders (CD) and their families are in contact with multiple agencies, but there is limited evidence on their patterns of service utilization. The aim of this study was to establish the patterns, barriers and correlates of service use by analysing the cohort of the 2004 Great Britain child mental health survey (N = 7,977). Use of social services was significantly higher by children with CD than emotional disorders (ED) in the absence of co-morbidity, while use of specialist child mental health and paediatric was significantly higher by children with hyperkinetic disorders (HD) than CD. Children who had comorbid physical disorders used more primary healthcare services compared to those without physical disorders. Utilization of specialist child mental heath and social services was significantly higher among children with unsocialized CD than socialized CD and oppositional defiant disorders. Services utilization and its correlates varied with the type of service. Overall, specialist services use was associated with co-morbidity with learning disabilities, physical and psychiatric disorders. Several correlates of services use in CD appeared non-specific, i.e. associated with use of different services indicating the possibility of indiscriminate use of different types of services. The findings led to the conclusion that there is the need for effective organization and co-ordination of services, and clear care pathways. Involvement of specialist child mental health services should be requested in the presence of mental health co-morbidity.

  11. Health Status and Health Care Experiences among Homeless Patients in Federally Supported Health Centers: Findings from the 2009 Patient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A; Baggett, Travis P; Jenkins, Darlene M; Sripipatana, Alek; Sharma, Ravi; Hayashi, A Seiji; Daly, Charles A; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine health status and health care experiences of homeless patients in health centers and to compare them with their nonhomeless counterparts. Data Sources/Study Setting Nationally representative data from the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey. Study Design Cross-sectional analyses were limited to adults (n = 2,683). We compared sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, access to health care, and utilization of services among homeless and nonhomeless patients. We also examined the independent effect of homelessness on health care access and utilization, as well as factors that influenced homeless patients' health care experiences. Data Collection Computer-assisted personal interviews were conducted with health center patients. Principal Findings Homeless patients had worse health status—lifetime burden of chronic conditions, mental health problems, and substance use problems—compared with housed respondents. In adjusted analyses, homeless patients had twice the odds as housed patients of having unmet medical care needs in the past year (OR = 1.98, 95 percent CI: 1.24–3.16) and twice the odds of having an ED visit in the past year (OR = 2.00, 95 percent CI: 1.37–2.92). Conclusions There is an ongoing need to focus on the health issues that disproportionately affect homeless populations. Among health center patients, homelessness is an independent risk factor for unmet medical needs and ED use. PMID:23134588

  12. Leisure-time physical activity and metabolic syndrome plus depressive symptoms in the FIN-D2D survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniloff, Katariina; Katariina, Korniloff; Häkkinen, Arja; Arja, Häkkinen; Kautiainen, Hannu; Hannu, Kautiainen; Koponen, Hannu; Hannu, Koponen; Peltonen, Markku; Markku, Peltonen; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Pekka, Mäntyselkä; Oksa, Heikki; Heikki, Oksa; Kampman, Olli; Olli, Kampman; Vanhala, Mauno; Mauno, Vanhala

    2010-12-01

    To examine the association between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and simultaneous presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and depressive symptoms (DS) based on a population-based FIN-D2D cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007. 4500 randomly selected Finnish men and women aged 45-74 years were initially enrolled; 2868 (64%) attended a health examination. Participants with complete information (n=2778) were grouped into three LTPA categories: low, moderate and high. MetS was based on the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria and DS on the Beck Depression Inventory (≥10 points). The prevalence of MetS and DS were 53% and 15%, respectively; the prevalence of simultaneous MetS and DS was 10%. The proportion of subjects with MetS, DS and simultaneous presence of MetS and DS increased with decreasing LTPA (pimportance of LTPA as part of the general health promotion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Childhood maltreatment as a risk factor for COPD: findings from a population-based survey of Canadian adults

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    Shields ME

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Margot E Shields, Wendy E Hovdestad, Charles P Gilbert, Lil E Tonmyr Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between childhood maltreatment (CM and COPD in adulthood.Methods: Data were from 15,902 respondents to the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey – Mental Health. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine associations between CM and COPD and the role of smoking and mental and substance use variables as mediators in associations.Results: COPD in adulthood was related to CM, with associations differing by sex. Among females, COPD was related to childhood physical abuse (CPA, childhood sexual abuse, and childhood exposure to intimate partner violence, but in the fully adjusted models, the association with CPA did not persist. Among males, COPD was related to childhood exposure to intimate partner violence and severe and frequent CPA, but these associations did not persist in the fully adjusted models.Conclusion: Results from this study establish CM as a risk factor for COPD in adulthood. A large part of the association is attributable to cigarette smoking, particularly for males. These findings underscore the importance of interventions to prevent CM as well as programs to assist victims of CM in dealing with tobacco addiction. Keywords: child abuse, cigarette, smoking, physical abuse, sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, domestic violence, family violence

  14. The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem: Findings from a large national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-01-01

    Social media has become an increasingly popular leisure activity over the last decade. Although most people's social media use is non-problematic, a small number of users appear to engage in social media excessively and/or compulsively. The main objective of this study was to examine the associations between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem. A cross-sectional convenient sample of 23,532 Norwegians (M age =35.8years; range=16-88years) completed an open web-based survey including the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results demonstrated that lower age, being a woman, not being in a relationship, being a student, lower education, lower income, lower self-esteem, and narcissism were associated with higher scores on the BSMAS, explaining a total of 17.5% of the variance. Although most effect sizes were relatively modest, the findings supported the notion of addictive social media use reflecting a need to feed the ego (i.e., narcissistic personality traits) and an attempt to inhibit a negative self-evaluation (i.e., self-esteem). The results were also consistent with demographic predictions and associations taken from central theories concerning "addiction", indicating that women may tend to develop more addictive use of activities involving social interaction than men. However, the cross-sectional study design makes inferences about directionality impossible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationships between problematic Internet use and problem-gambling severity: Findings from a high-school survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Yvonne H.C.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen J.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    With the popularity of Internet use among adolescents, there is concern that some youth may display problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. Although excessive patterns of Internet use was considered for inclusion in the DSM-5 with pathological gambling and substance-use disorders in a category of addictive disorders, it was determined that more research was needed on Internet-use behaviors before such actions be further considered and possibly undertaken. The present study is the first to investigate whether at-risk/problematic Internet use (ARPIU) may moderate the strength of association between problem-gambling severity and gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures in adolescents. Survey data from 1884 Connecticut high-school student stratified by Internet use (ARPIU vs. non-ARPIU) were examined in bivariate analyses and logistic regression models. Gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures were mostly positively associated with problem-gambling severity in both Internet use groups. Interaction odds ratio revealed that the strength of the associations between problem-gambling severity and marijuana, alcohol and caffeine use were stronger amongst the non-ARPIU compared to the ARPIU group, suggesting that the relationships between these substance use behaviors and problem gambling may be partially accounted for by ARPIU. Future studies should examine the extent to which preventative interventions targeting both problematic Internet use and problem gambling may synergistically benefit measures of health and reduce risk-taking behaviors in adolescence. PMID:24140304

  16. Food security among young adults with disabilities in the United States: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Debra L

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has suggested that young adults with disabilities face economic, health and social disadvantage. Food security, an area of disadvantage that can influence overall health, has not been fully explored for this population. To examine levels of food security between young adults with and without disabilities, controlling for individual characteristics. Logistic regression analysis of a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-25) (n = 32,795) with and without disabilities, using pooled data form the 2011-2013 National Health Interview Survey. Young adults with disabilities have significantly higher odds (OR: 2.58, p young adults without disabilities, even when controlling for individual characteristics. Odds of living in a household that is food insecure are particularly high (OR: 5.35, p young adults with high levels of psychological distress, controlling for other factors. Young adults with disabilities have increased odds of living in a household that is food insecure. This study has important policy and community program implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Enuresis and Hyperactivity-Inattention in Early Adolescence: Findings from a Population-Based Survey in Tokyo (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey.

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    Sho Kanata

    Full Text Available Enuresis (9% at age 9.5 negatively affects children's psychosocial status. Clinically-diagnosed enuresis (2% at the age is associated with hyperactivity-inattention, and common neural bases have been postulated to underlie this association. It is, however, unclear whether this association is applicable to enuresis overall among the general population of early adolescents when considered comorbid behavioral problems. We aimed to examine whether enuresis correlates with hyperactivity-inattention after controlling for the effects of other behavioral problems.Participants were 4,478 children (mean age 10.2 ± 0.3 years old and their parents from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey (T-EAS, a population-representative cross-sectional study conducted in Tokyo, Japan conducted from 2012 to 2015. Children's enuresis and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity-inattention (as measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, were examined using parent-reporting questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore whether enuresis predicts hyperactivity-inattention.The hyperactivity-inattention score was significantly higher in the enuretic group than the non-enuretic group (enuretic: M (SD = 3.8 (2.3, non-enuretic: M (SD = 3.0 (2.1, Hedge's g = 0.39, p < .001. This association remained significant even after controlling for other behavioral problems and including sex, age, intelligence quotient (IQ, low birth weight and parents' education (β = .054 [95% CI: .028-.080], p < .001.Enuresis was independently associated with hyperactivity-inattention in early adolescents among general population even when other behavioral problems were considered. These results suggest that, as with clinically-diagnosed cases, enuresis may predict need for screening and psychosocial support for hyperactivity-inattention.

  18. Educational Health Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Findings from Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007–2008

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    Trevor S. Ferguson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesSocioeconomic disparities in health have emerged as an important area in public health, but studies from Afro-Caribbean populations are uncommon. In this study, we report on educational health disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity, among Jamaican adults.MethodsWe analyzed data from the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007–2008. Trained research staff administered questionnaires and obtained measurements of blood pressure, anthropometrics, glucose and cholesterol. CVD risk factors were defined by internationally accepted cut-points. Educational level was classified as primary or lower, junior secondary, full secondary, and post-secondary. Educational disparities were assessed using age-adjusted or age-specific prevalence ratios and prevalence differences obtained from Poisson regression models. Post-secondary education was used as the reference category for all comparisons. Analyses were weighted for complex survey design to yield nationally representative estimates.ResultsThe sample included 678 men and 1,553 women with mean age of 39.4 years. The effect of education on CVD risk factors differed between men and women and by age group among women. Age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes mellitus was higher among men with less education, with prevalence differences ranging from 6.9 to 7.4 percentage points (p < 0.05 for each group. Prevalence ratios for diabetes among men ranged from 3.3 to 3.5 but were not statistically significant. Age-specific prevalence of hypertension was generally higher among the less educated women, with statistically significant prevalence differences ranging from 6.0 to 45.6 percentage points and prevalence ratios ranging from 2.5 to 4.3. Similarly, estimates for obesity and hypercholesterolemia suggested that prevalence was higher among the less educated younger women (25–39 years and among more educated older

  19. Women veterans' healthcare delivery preferences and use by military service era: findings from the National Survey of Women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Donna L; Bean-Mayberry, Bevanne; Hamilton, Alison B; Cordasco, Kristina M; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2013-07-01

    The number of women Veterans (WVs) utilizing the Veterans Health Administration (VA) has doubled over the past decade, heightening the importance of understanding their healthcare delivery preferences and utilization patterns. Other studies have identified healthcare issues and behaviors of WVs in specific military service eras (e.g., Vietnam), but delivery preferences and utilization have not been examined within and across eras on a population basis. To identify healthcare delivery preferences and healthcare use of WVs by military service era to inform program design and patient-centeredness. Cross-sectional 2008-2009 survey of a nationally representative sample of 3,611 WVs, weighted to the population. Healthcare delivery preferences measured as importance of selected healthcare features; types of healthcare services and number of visits used; use of VA or non-VA; all by military service era. Military service era differences were present in types of healthcare used, with World War II and Korea era WVs using more specialty care, and Vietnam era-to-present WVs using more women's health and mental health care. Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) WVs made more healthcare visits than WVs of earlier military eras. The greatest healthcare delivery concerns were location convenience for Vietnam and earlier WVs, and cost for Gulf War 1 and OEF/OIF/OND WVs. Co-located gynecology with general healthcare was also rated important by a sizable proportion of WVs from all military service eras. Our findings point to the importance of ensuring access to specialty services closer to home for WVs, which may require technology-supported care. Younger WVs' higher mental health care use reinforces the need for integration and coordination of primary care, reproductive health and mental health care.

  20. UAV SURVEYING FOR A COMPLETE MAPPING AND DOCUMENTATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDINGS. THE EARLY NEOLITHIC SITE OF PORTONOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Malinverni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The huge potential of 3D digital acquisition techniques for the documentation of archaeological sites, as well as the related findings, is almost well established. In spite of the variety of available techniques, a sole documentation pipeline cannot be defined a priori because of the diversity of archaeological settings. Stratigraphic archaeological excavations, for example, require a systematic, quick and low cost 3D single-surface documentation because the nature of stratigraphic archaeology compels providing documentary evidence of any excavation phase. Only within a destructive process each single excavation cannot be identified, documented and interpreted and this implies the necessity of a re- examination of the work on field. In this context, this paper describes the methodology, carried out during the last years, to 3D document the Early Neolithic site of Portonovo (Ancona, Italy and, in particular, its latest step consisting in a photogrammetric aerial survey by means of UAV platform. It completes the previous research delivered in the same site by means of terrestrial laser scanning and close range techniques and sets out different options for further reflection in terms of site coverage, resolution and campaign cost. With the support of a topographic network and a unique reference system, the full documentation of the site is managed in order to detail each excavation phase; besides, the final output proves how the 3D digital methodology can be completely integrated with reasonable costs during the excavation and used to interpret the archaeological context. Further contribution of this work is the comparison between several acquisition techniques (i.e. terrestrial and aerial, which could be useful as decision support system for different archaeological scenarios. The main objectives of the comparison are: i the evaluation of 3D mapping accuracy from different data sources, ii the definition of a standard pipeline for different

  1. Are Health Facility Management Committees in Kenya ready to implement financial management tasks: findings from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waweru, Evelyn; Opwora, Antony; Toda, Mitsuru; Fegan, Greg; Edwards, Tansy; Goodman, Catherine; Molyneux, Sassy

    2013-10-10

    Community participation in peripheral public health facilities has in many countries focused on including community representatives in Health Facility Management Committees (HFMCs). In Kenya, HFMC roles are being expanded with the phased implementation of the Health Sector Services Fund (HSSF). Under HSSF, HFMCs manage facility funds which are dispersed directly from central level into facility bank accounts. We assessed how prepared HFMCs were to undertake this new role in advance of HSSF roll out, and considered the implications for Kenya and other similar settings. Data were collected through a nationally representative sample of 248 public health centres and dispensaries in 24 districts in 2010. Data collection included surveys with in-charges (n = 248), HFMC members (n = 464) and facility users (n = 698), and record reviews. These data were supplemented by semi-structured interviews with district health managers in each district. Some findings supported preparedness of HFMCs to take on their new roles. Most facilities had bank accounts and HFMCs which met regularly. HFMC members and in-charges generally reported positive relationships, and HFMC members expressed high levels of motivation and job satisfaction. Challenges included users' low awareness of HFMCs, lack of training and clarity in roles among HFMCs, and some indications of strained relations with in-charges. Such challenges are likely to be common to many similar settings, and are therefore important considerations for any health facility based initiatives involving HFMCs. Most HFMCs have the basic requirements to operate. However to manage their own budgets effectively and meet their allocated roles in HSSF implementation, greater emphasis is needed on financial management training, targeted supportive supervision, and greater community awareness and participation. Once new budget management roles are fully established, qualitative and quantitative research on how HFMCs are adapting to

  2. Children at Risk for Suicide Attempt and Attempt-related Injuries: Findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

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    West, Bethany A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts, and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors that are associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. Methods: Data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9-12 were used to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Results: Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys. Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89. Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48, dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60, forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72, and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66, forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60, huffing glue (OR=1.63, hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18, and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in terms of the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide prevention strategies that are directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention

  3. Sex Education, First Sex and Sexual Health Outcomes in Adulthood: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sexual Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Ashling; Boduszek, Daniel; Kelleher, Caroline; McBride, Orla; Morgan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between school sex education and sexual health behaviours at first sex and later in adulthood, using nationally representative data. Respondents were adults from the 2010 Irish Contraception and Crisis Pregnancy Survey, a cross-sectional survey designed to assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating…

  4. Active Travel to School: Findings from the Survey of US Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Ivey, Stephanie S.; Levy, Marian C.; Royne, Marla B.; Klesges, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas children's active travel to school (ATS) has confirmed benefits, only a few large national surveys of ATS exist. Methods: Using data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2009-2010 US survey, we conducted a logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios of ATS and a linear regression model to estimate…

  5. What Puts Women at Risk of Violence from Their Husbands? Findings from a Large, Nationally Representative Survey in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel-Kaptanoglu, Ilknur; Turkyilmaz, Ahmet Sinan; Heise, Lori

    2012-01-01

    A large, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Turkey in 2008. In this survey, which used the WHO (World Health Organization) study module on violence, information about lifetime and current violence (past 12 months) was obtained using weighted, stratified, and multistage cluster sampling. This article describes…

  6. A Survey of Former Business Students (General Business, Management, Marketing, Real Estate). Summary Findings of Respondents District-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyer-Culver, Betty

    In fall 2002 staff of the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) Office of Institutional Research collaborated with occupational deans, academic deans, and faculty to develop and administer a survey of former business students. The survey was designed to determine how well courses had met the needs of former business students in the areas of…

  7. Socioeconomic differential in self-assessment of health and happiness in 5 African countries: Finding from World Value Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesanya A, Oluwafunmilade; Rojas, Bomar Mendez; Darboe, Amadou; Beogo, Idrissa

    2017-01-01

    Factors that contribute to wealth related inequalities in self-rated health (SRH) and happiness remains unclear most especially in sub-Saharan countries (SSA). This study aims to explore and compare socioeconomic differentials in SRH and happiness in five SSA countries. Using the 2010/2014 World Values Survey (WVS), we obtained a sample of 9,869 participants of age 16 and above from five SSA countries (Nigeria, Ghana, South Africa, Rwanda and Zimbabwe). Socioeconomic inequalities were quantified using the concentration index. The contribution of each predictor to concentration index's magnitude was obtained by means of regression based decomposition analysis. Poor SRH ranges from approximately 9% in Nigeria to 20% in Zimbabwe, whereas unhappiness was lower in Rwanda (9.5%) and higher in South Africa (23.3%). Concentration index was negative for both outcomes in all countries, which implies that poor SRH and unhappiness are excessively concentrated among the poorest socioeconomic strata. Although magnitudes differ across countries, however, the major contributor to wealth-related inequality in poor SRH is satisfaction with financial situation whereas for unhappiness the major contributors are level of income and satisfaction with financial situation. This study underscores an association between wealth related inequalities and poor SRH and unhappiness in the context of SSA. Improving equity in health, as suggested by the commission of social determinants of health may be useful in fighting against the unfair distribution of resources. Thus, knowledge about the self-rating of health and happiness can serve as proxy estimates for understanding the distribution of health care access and economic resources needed for well-being in resident countries.

  8. Preferences for Internet-Based Mental Health Interventions in an Adult Online Sample: Findings From an Online Community Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L

    2017-06-30

    Despite extensive evidence that Internet interventions are effective in treating mental health problems, uptake of Internet programs is suboptimal. It may be possible to make Internet interventions more accessible and acceptable through better understanding of community preferences for delivery of online programs. This study aimed to assess community preferences for components, duration, frequency, modality, and setting of Internet interventions for mental health problems. A community-based online sample of 438 Australian adults was recruited using social media advertising and administered an online survey on preferences for delivery of Internet interventions, along with scales assessing potential correlates of these preferences. Participants reported a preference for briefer sessions, although they recognized a trade-off between duration and frequency of delivery. No clear preference for the modality of delivery emerged, although a clear majority preferred tailored programs. Participants preferred to access programs through a computer rather than a mobile device. Although most participants reported that they would seek help for a mental health problem, more participants had a preference for face-to-face sources only than online programs only. Younger, female, and more educated participants were significantly more likely to prefer Internet delivery. Adults in the community have a preference for Internet interventions with short modules that are tailored to individual needs. Individuals who are reluctant to seek face-to-face help may also avoid Internet interventions, suggesting that better implementation of existing Internet programs requires increasing acceptance of Internet interventions and identifying specific subgroups who may be resistant to seeking help. ©Philip J Batterham, Alison L Calear. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 30.06.2017.

  9. Socioeconomic differential in self-assessment of health and happiness in 5 African countries: Finding from World Value Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafunmilade Adesanya A

    Full Text Available Factors that contribute to wealth related inequalities in self-rated health (SRH and happiness remains unclear most especially in sub-Saharan countries (SSA. This study aims to explore and compare socioeconomic differentials in SRH and happiness in five SSA countries.Using the 2010/2014 World Values Survey (WVS, we obtained a sample of 9,869 participants of age 16 and above from five SSA countries (Nigeria, Ghana, South Africa, Rwanda and Zimbabwe. Socioeconomic inequalities were quantified using the concentration index. The contribution of each predictor to concentration index's magnitude was obtained by means of regression based decomposition analysis.Poor SRH ranges from approximately 9% in Nigeria to 20% in Zimbabwe, whereas unhappiness was lower in Rwanda (9.5% and higher in South Africa (23.3%. Concentration index was negative for both outcomes in all countries, which implies that poor SRH and unhappiness are excessively concentrated among the poorest socioeconomic strata. Although magnitudes differ across countries, however, the major contributor to wealth-related inequality in poor SRH is satisfaction with financial situation whereas for unhappiness the major contributors are level of income and satisfaction with financial situation.This study underscores an association between wealth related inequalities and poor SRH and unhappiness in the context of SSA. Improving equity in health, as suggested by the commission of social determinants of health may be useful in fighting against the unfair distribution of resources. Thus, knowledge about the self-rating of health and happiness can serve as proxy estimates for understanding the distribution of health care access and economic resources needed for well-being in resident countries.

  10. The prevalence of brand switching among adult smokers in the USA, 2006-2011: findings from the ITC US surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Monica E; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hyland, Andrew; Driezen, Pete; Chaloupka, Frank J; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that about 1 in 5 smokers report switching brands per year. However, these studies only report switching between brands. The current study estimated the rates of switching both within and between brand families and examining factors associated with brand and brand style switching. Data for this analysis are from the International Tobacco Control 2006-2011 US adult smoker cohort survey waves 5-8 (N=3248). A switch between brands was defined as reporting two different cigarette brand names for two successive waves, while switching within brand was defined as reporting the same brand name, but a different brand style. Repeated measures regression was used to determine factors associated with both switch types. A total of 1475 participants reported at least two successive waves of data with complete information on brand name and style. Overall switching increased from 44.9% in 2007-2008 to 58.4% in 2010-2011. Switching between brand names increased from 16% to 29%, while switches within the same brand name to a different style ranged from 29% to 33%. Between-brand switching was associated with younger age, lower income, non-white racial group and use of a discount brand, whereas, within-brand switching was associated with younger age and the use of a premium brand cigarette. Nearly half of smokers in the USA switched their cigarette brand or brand style within a year. Switching between brands may be more price motivated, while switching within brands may be motivated by price and other brand characteristics such as product length. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and dietary quality among US adults: findings from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Binh T; Shuval, Kerem; Njike, Valentine Y; Katz, David L

    2014-09-01

    To examine the association of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and diet quality among low-income adults. We examined US nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. The data were analyzed from October 7, 2013, to March 1, 2014. The analytic sample consisted of 4211 low-income adults aged 20 to 64 years, of whom 1830 participate in SNAP. We adhered to the National Cancer Institute method in calculating the Healthy Eating Index 2010 and other dietary indicators, such as empty calorie intake. Bivariate and multivariable regression was used to compare SNAP participants and income-eligible nonparticipants among the full sample and subsamples of age, sex, race/ethnicity, and food insecurity. Compared with low-income nonparticipants, adjusted analyses reveal that SNAP participants had lower dietary quality scores overall (42.58 vs 44.36, P≤.0001) and lower scores for fruits and vegetables, seafood and plant proteins (1.55 vs 1.77, P≤.0022), and empty calories (9.03 vs 9.90, P≤.0001), but they exhibited comparable scores on whole grain, refined grain, total dairy, total protein, fatty acid, and sodium intakes. The association between SNAP participation and lower dietary quality was statistically significant among women, Hispanics, young adults, and individuals who were food secure. Our analyses suggest that SNAP participants have lower dietary quality than their income-eligible nonparticipant counterparts. Although SNAP has an important role in providing nutrition assistance to eligible low-income individuals, interventions are warranted to improve the dietary quality of participants. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sarcopenia exacerbates obesity-associated insulin resistance and dysglycemia: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Srikanthan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia often co-exists with obesity, and may have additive effects on insulin resistance. Sarcopenic obese individuals could be at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We performed a study to determine whether sarcopenia is associated with impairment in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in obese and non-obese individuals.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III data utilizing subjects of 20 years or older, non-pregnant (N = 14,528. Sarcopenia was identified from bioelectrical impedance measurement of muscle mass. Obesity was identified from body mass index. Outcomes were homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR, glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1C, and prevalence of pre-diabetes (6.0≤ HbA1C<6.5 and not on medication and type 2 diabetes. Covariates in multiple regression were age, educational level, ethnicity and sex.Sarcopenia was associated with insulin resistance in non-obese (HOMA IR ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.26 to 1.52 and obese individuals (HOMA-IR ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.18. Sarcopenia was associated with dysglycemia in obese individuals (HbA1C ratio 1.021, 95% CI 1.011 to 1.043 but not in non-obese individuals. Associations were stronger in those under 60 years of age. We acknowledge that the cross-sectional study design limits our ability to draw causal inferences.Sarcopenia, independent of obesity, is associated with adverse glucose metabolism, and the association is strongest in individuals under 60 years of age, which suggests that low muscle mass may be an early predictor of diabetes susceptibility. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, further research is urgently needed to develop interventions to prevent sarcopenic obesity and its metabolic consequences.

  13. Insight from Public Surveys Related to Siting of Nuclear Waste Facilities: An Overview of Findings from a 2015 Nationwide Survey of US Residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Gupta, Kuhika [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Silva, Carol L. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Bonano, Evaristo J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rechard, Robert P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The results described in this report are an analysis of nationwide surveys, administered between 2006 and 2015, which measure preferences of US residents concerning the environment and energy sources. The Energy & Environment (EE) survey series is conducted annually by the Center for Energy, Security & Society (CES&S), a joint research collaboration of the University of Oklahoma and Sandia National Laboratories. The annual EE survey series is designed to track evolving public views on nuclear materials management in the US. The 2015 wave of the Energy and Environment survey (EE15) was implemented using a web-based questionnaire, and was completed by 2,021 respondents using an Internet sample that matches the characteristics of the adult US population as estimated in the US Census. A special focus of the EE15 survey is how survey respondents understand and evaluate “consent” in the context of the storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This report presents an overview of key results from analyses of questions related to consent-based siting and other elements of the nuclear energy fuel cycle.

  14. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  15. National distracted driving telephone survey finds most drivers answer the call, hold the phone, and continue to drive : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration conducted : the first of several periodic national surveys of distracted : driving to monitor the publics attitudes, knowledge, : and self-reported behavior about cell phones, texting, and : drive...

  16. AN APPLICATION FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE IN ERASMUS PLACEMENT. SURVEYS AND 3D CATALOGING ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS IN MÉRIDA (SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barba

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Man has always had the need to live with his past, with its places and its artefacts. The reconstructions, the economical changes, the urbanization and its speculations have devastated whole cities, changed the faces of their historical centers, changed the relationship between the new and the old. Also the millenarian 'rest' of the archaeological findings, and therefore the respect towards those ancient civilizations, has been troubled. Our continent is rich in masterpieces that the modern man are not able to protect and pass on to the future, it is commonplace to observe that the modern ‘civilization’ has cemented and suffocated the ancient city of Pompeii, or even worse, failed to protected it. Walking in the archaeological area of Paestum it can be noticed how just sixty years ago, no one had the slightest concern of fencing the amphitheatre and the Roman forum, or entire houses and shops, to lay a carpet of tar or simple to build constructions completely inferior compared to those majestic Greek temples. The engineers and the architects should be held responsible for this as based on their scientific and humanistic sensibility; they should bring together the man with his surroundings in the complete respects of the historical heritage. The interest in ancient began to change nearly three decades ago since it was realized that the "Cultural Heritage" is a major tourist attraction and, if properly managed and used, it can be an economical cornerstone. Today, thanks to survey and the 3D graphics, which provide powerful new tools, we are witnessing a new and real need for the conservation, cataloguing and enhancement as a way to revive our archaeological sites. As part of a major laboratory project, artefacts from the Roman period (I and II century b.C., found in the Spanish city of Mérida, declared World Heritage by UNESCO in 1993, were acquired with a 3D laser scanner VIVID 910, and then catalogued. Based on these brief comments we

  17. An Application for Cultural Heritage in Erasmus Placement. Surveys and 3d Cataloging Archaeological Finds in MÉRIDA (spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, S.; Fiorillo, F.; Ortiz Coder, P.; D'Auria, S.; De Feo, E.

    2011-09-01

    Man has always had the need to live with his past, with its places and its artefacts. The reconstructions, the economical changes, the urbanization and its speculations have devastated whole cities, changed the faces of their historical centers, changed the relationship between the new and the old. Also the millenarian 'rest' of the archaeological findings, and therefore the respect towards those ancient civilizations, has been troubled. Our continent is rich in masterpieces that the modern man are not able to protect and pass on to the future, it is commonplace to observe that the modern `civilization' has cemented and suffocated the ancient city of Pompeii, or even worse, failed to protected it. Walking in the archaeological area of Paestum it can be noticed how just sixty years ago, no one had the slightest concern of fencing the amphitheatre and the Roman forum, or entire houses and shops, to lay a carpet of tar or simple to build constructions completely inferior compared to those majestic Greek temples. The engineers and the architects should be held responsible for this as based on their scientific and humanistic sensibility; they should bring together the man with his surroundings in the complete respects of the historical heritage. The interest in ancient began to change nearly three decades ago since it was realized that the "Cultural Heritage" is a major tourist attraction and, if properly managed and used, it can be an economical cornerstone. Today, thanks to survey and the 3D graphics, which provide powerful new tools, we are witnessing a new and real need for the conservation, cataloguing and enhancement as a way to revive our archaeological sites. As part of a major laboratory project, artefacts from the Roman period (I and II century b.C.), found in the Spanish city of Mérida, declared World Heritage by UNESCO in 1993, were acquired with a 3D laser scanner VIVID 910, and then catalogued. Based on these brief comments we wanted to direct the work

  18. Design-considerations For A Ground-based Transit Survey To Find Habitable Planets Around L And T Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Ramarao; Martin, E.

    2011-09-01

    Detection of planets in the habitable zone is one of the key drivers of the exoplanet science community. We present a detailed strategy for such detection around L and T dwarfs. We plan to implement the outcome of the analysis as a transit survey to search for planets around known L and T dwarfs. Understanding of the variability of these cool objects will be a worth-while byproduct of such a survey.

  19. Impact of point-of-sale tobacco display bans: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Cummings, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing restrictions in Australia and Canada, in relation to the United Kingdom and the United States where there were no such restrictions during the study period (2006–10). The data came from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a prospective multi-country cohort survey of adult smokers. In jurisdictions where POS display bans were implemented, smokers’ reported exposure to tobacco marketing declined markedly....

  20. Young People’s Use of E-Cigarettes across the United Kingdom: Findings from Five Surveys 2015–2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauld, Linda; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Eastwood, Brian; Ford, Allison; Moore, Graham; Dockrell, Martin; Arnott, Deborah; Cheeseman, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    Concern has been expressed about the use of e-cigarettes among young people. Our study reported e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette ever and regular use among 11–16 year olds across the UK. Data came from five large scale surveys with different designs and sampling strategies conducted between 2015 and 2017: The Youth Tobacco Policy Survey; the Schools Health Research Network Wales survey; two Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) Smokefree Great Britain-Youth Surveys; and the Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey. Cumulatively these surveys collected data from over 60,000 young people. For 2015/16 data for 11–16 year olds: ever smoking ranged from 11% to 20%; regular (at least weekly) smoking between 1% and 4%; ever use of e-cigarettes 7% to 18%; regular (at least weekly) use 1% to 3%; among never smokers, ever e-cigarette use ranged from 4% to 10% with regular use between 0.1% and 0.5%; among regular smokers, ever e-cigarette use ranged from 67% to 92% and regular use 7% to 38%. ASH surveys showed a rise in the prevalence of ever use of e-cigarettes from 7% (2016) to 11% (2017) but prevalence of regular use did not change remaining at 1%. In summary, surveys across the UK show a consistent pattern: most e-cigarette experimentation does not turn into regular use, and levels of regular use in young people who have never smoked remain very low. PMID:28850065

  1. An Overview of Food Patterns and Diet Quality in Qatar: Findings from the National Household Income Expenditure Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, Hammad

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Availability of accurate data pertaining to a population’s dietary patterns and associated health outcomes is critical for proper development and implementation of related policies. This article is a first attempt to share the food patterns, amounts and diet quality among households (HH) in Qatar. Methods Data from the 2012-2013 Qatar National Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) was used. This cross-sectional survey included 3723 HH (1826 Qatar...

  2. An Overview of Food Patterns and Diet Quality in Qatar: Findings from the National Household Income Expenditure Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Thani, Mohammed; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud; Al-Mahdi, Nasser; Al-Kareem, Hefzi; Barakat, Darine; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Tawfik, Afaf; Akram, Hammad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Availability of accurate data pertaining to a population?s dietary patterns and associated health outcomes is critical for proper development and implementation of related policies. This article is a first?attempt to share the food patterns, amounts and diet quality among households (HH) in Qatar. Methods Data from the 2012-2013 Qatar National Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) was used. This cross-sectional survey included 3723 HH (1826 Qatari HH and 1897 non-Qatari ...

  3. A frailty instrument for primary care: findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Romero-Ortuno, Roman

    2010-01-01

    A frailty paradigm would be useful in primary care to identify older people at risk, but appropriate metrics at that level are lacking. We created and validated a simple instrument for frailty screening in Europeans aged ≥50. Our study is based on the first wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, http:\\/\\/www.share-project.org), a large population-based survey conducted in 2004-2005 in twelve European countries.

  4. Reliability of a Retail Food Store Survey and Development of an Accompanying Retail Scoring System to Communicate Survey Findings and Identify Vendors for Healthful Food and Marketing Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Participants/Setting: Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Intervention: Observational. Main Outcome Measure(s): Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store…

  5. Measuring stock and change in the GB countryside for policy--key findings and developments from the Countryside Survey 2007 field survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, L R; Maskell, L C; Smart, S S; Dunbar, M J; Emmett, B A; Carey, P D; Williams, P; Crowe, A; Chandler, K; Scott, W A; Wood, C M

    2012-12-30

    Countryside Survey is a unique large scale long-term monitoring programme investigating stock and change of habitats, landscape features, vegetation, soil and freshwaters of Great Britain. Repeat field surveys combine policy and scientific objectives to provide evidence on how multiple aspects of the environment are changing over time, a key goal of international science in the face of profound human impacts on ecosystems. Countryside Survey 2007 (CS2007), the fifth survey since 1978, retained consistency with previous surveys, whilst evolving in line with technological and conceptual advances in the collection and integration of data to understand landscape change. This paper outlines approaches taken in the 2007 survey and its subsequent analysis and presents some of the headline results of the survey and their relevance for national and international policy objectives. Key changes between 1998 and 2007 included: a) significant shifts in agricultural land cover from arable to grassland, accompanied by increases in the area of broadleaved woodland, b) decreases in the length of managed hedges associated with agricultural land, as a proportion deteriorated to lines of trees and c) increases in the areas and numbers of wet habitats (standing open water, ponds) and species preferring wetter conditions (1998-2007 and 1978-2007). Despite international policy directed at maintaining and enhancing biodiversity, there were widespread decreases in species richness in all linear and area habitats, except on arable land, consistent with an increase in competitive and late successional species between 1998 and 2007 and 1978 and 2007. Late successional and competitive species: Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), Hawthorn (Cratageous monogyna) and Bramble (Rubus fruticosus), in the top ten recorded species recorded in 2007, all increased between 1998 and 2007. The most commonly recorded species in CS (1990, 1998 and 2007) was agricultural Ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Increases in

  6. Mental health and psychosocial problems in the aftermath of the Nepal earthquakes: findings from a representative cluster sample survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, J C; Luitel, N P; Jordans, M J D; Kohrt, B A; Weissbecker, I; Tol, W A

    2018-06-01

    functioning was less strongly associated with PTSD symptoms. Four months after the earthquakes in Nepal, one out of three adults experienced symptoms of depression and distressing levels of anger, one out of five engaged in hazardous drinking, and one out of ten had suicidal thoughts. However, posttraumatic stress symptoms and functional impairment were comparatively less frequent. Taken together, the findings suggest that there were significant levels of psychological distress but likely low levels of disorder. The findings highlight the importance of indicated prevention strategies to reduce the risk of distress progressing to disorder within post-disaster mental health systems of care.

  7. Young people's mental health first aid intentions and beliefs prospectively predict their actions: findings from an Australian National Survey of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2012-04-30

    Little is known about whether mental health first aid knowledge and beliefs of young people actually translate into actual behavior. This study examined whether young people's first aid intentions and beliefs predicted the actions they later took to help a close friend or family member with a mental health problem. Participants in a 2006 national survey of Australian youth (aged 12-25 years) reported on their first aid intentions and beliefs based on one of four vignettes: depression, depression with alcohol misuse, psychosis, and social phobia. At a two-year follow-up interview, they reported on actions they had taken to help any family member or close friend with a problem similar to the vignette character since the initial interview. Of the 2005 participants interviewed at follow-up, 608 reported knowing someone with a similar problem. Overall, young people's first aid intentions and beliefs about the helpfulness of particular first aid actions predicted the actions they actually took to assist a close other. However, the belief in and intention to encourage professional help did not predict subsequent action. Findings suggest that young people's mental health first aid intentions and beliefs may be valid indicators of their subsequent actions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of a multimedia-based prospective method to support public deliberations on health technology design: participant survey findings and qualitative insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, P; Jimenez-Pernett, J; Miller, F A; Williams-Jones, B

    2016-10-26

    strong engagement by all participants, face-to-face and online components need to be well integrated. Our findings suggest that online tools should be designed by considering, one the one hand, the participants' self-perceived ability to share written comments and, on the other hand, the ease with which other participants can respond to such contributions.

  9. Workplace bullying and sleep disturbances: findings from a large scale cross-sectional survey in the French working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; David, Simone; Degioanni, Stephanie; Drummond, Anne; Philip, Pierre; Acquarone, D; Aicardi, F; André-Mazeaud, P; Arsento, M; Astier, R; Baille, H; Bajon-Thery, F; Barre, E; Basire, C; Battu, J L; Baudry, S; Beatini, C; Beaud'huin, N; Becker, C; Bellezza, D; Beque, C; Bernstein, O; Beyssier, C; Blanc-Cascio, F; Blanchet, N; Blondel, C; Boisselot, R; Bordes-Dupuy, G; Borrelly, N; Bouhnik, D; Boulanger, M F; Boulard, J; Borreau, P; Bourret, D; Boustière, A M; Breton, C; Bugeon, G; Buono-Michel, M; Canonne, J F; Capella, D; Cavin-Rey, M; Cervoni, C; Charreton, D; Charrier, D; Chauvin, M A; Chazal, B; Cougnot, C; Cuvelier, G; Dalivoust, G; Daumas, R; Debaille, A; De Bretteville, L; Delaforge, G; Delchambre, A; Domeny, L; Donati, Y; Ducord-Chapelet, J; Duran, C; Durand-Bruguerolle, D; Fabre, D; Faivre, A; Falleri, R; Ferrando, G; Ferrari-Galano, J; Flutet, M; Fouché, J P; Fournier, F; Freyder, E; Galy, M; Garcia, A; Gazazian, G; Gérard, C; Girard, F; Giuge, M; Goyer, C; Gravier, C; Guyomard, A; Hacquin, M C; Halimi, E; Ibagnes, T; Icart, P; Jacquin, M C; Jaubert, B; Joret, J P; Julien, J P; Kacel, M; Kesmedjian, E; Lacroix, P; Lafon-Borelli, M; Lallai, S; Laudicina, J; Leclercq, X; Ledieu, S; Leroy, J; Leroyer, L; Loesche, F; Londi, D; Longueville, J M; Lotte, M C; Louvain, S; Lozé, M; Maculet-Simon, M; Magallon, G; Marcelot, V; Mareel, M C; Martin, P; Masse, A M; Méric, M; Milliet, C; Mokhtari, R; Monville, A M; Muller, B; Obadia, G; Pelser, M; Peres, L; Perez, E; Peyron, M; Peyronnin, F; Postel, S; Presseq, P; Pyronnet, E; Quinsat, C; Raulot-Lapointe, H; Rigaud, P; Robert, F; Robert, O; Roger, K; Roussel, A; Roux, J P; Rubini-Remigy, D; Sabate, N; Saccomano-Pertus, C; Salengro, B; Salengro-Trouillez, P; Samson, E; Sendra-Gille, L; Seyrig, C; Stoll, G; Tarpinian, N; Tavernier, M; Tempesta, S; Terracol, H; Torresani, F; Triglia, M F; Vandomme, V; Vieillard, F; Vilmot, K; Vital, N

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between workplace bullying, the characteristics of workplace bullying, and sleep disturbances in a large sample of employees of the French working population. Workplace bullying, evaluated using the validated instrument developed by Leymann, and sleep disturbances, as well as covariates, were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Covariates included age, marital status, presence of children, education, occupation, working hours, night work, physical and chemical exposures at work, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis and was carried out separately for men and women. General working population. The study population consisted of a random sample of 3132 men and 4562 women of the working population in the southeast of France. Workplace bullying was strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Past exposure to bullying also increased the risk for this outcome. The more frequent the exposure to bullying, the higher the risk of experiencing sleep disturbances. Observing someone else being bullied in the workplace was also associated with the outcome. Adjustment for covariates did not modify the results. Additional adjustment for self-reported health and depressive symptoms diminished the magnitude of the associations that remained significant. The prevalence of workplace bullying (around 10%) was found to be high in this study as well was the impact of this major job-related stressor on sleep disturbances. Although no conclusion about causality could be drawn from this cross-sectional study, the findings suggest that the contribution of workplace bullying to the burden of sleep disturbances may be substantial.

  10. Factors influencing readiness to deploy in disaster response: findings from a cross-sectional survey of the Department of Veterans Affairs Disaster Emergency Medical Personnel System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagelbaum, Nicole K; Heslin, Kevin C; Stein, Judith A; Ruzek, Josef; Smith, Robert E; Nyugen, Tam; Dobalian, Aram

    2014-07-19

    The Disaster Emergency Medical Personnel System (DEMPS) program provides a system of volunteers whereby active or retired Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) personnel can register to be deployed to support other VA facilities or the nation during national emergencies or disasters. Both early and ongoing volunteer training is required to participate. This study aims to identify factors that impact willingness to deploy in the event of an emergency. This analysis was based on responses from 2,385 survey respondents (response rate, 29%). Latent variable path models were developed and tested using the EQS structural equations modeling program. Background demographic variables of education, age, minority ethnicity, and female gender were used as predictors of intervening latent variables of DEMPS Volunteer Experience, Positive Attitude about Training, and Stress. The model had acceptable fit statistics, and all three intermediate latent variables significantly predicted the outcome latent variable Readiness to Deploy. DEMPS Volunteer Experience and a Positive Attitude about Training were associated with Readiness to Deploy. Stress was associated with decreased Readiness to Deploy. Female gender was negatively correlated with Readiness to Deploy; however, there was an indirect relationship between female gender and Readiness to Deploy through Positive Attitude about Training. These findings suggest that volunteer emergency management response programs such as DEMPS should consider how best to address the factors that may make women less ready to deploy than men in order to ensure adequate gender representation among emergency responders. The findings underscore the importance of training opportunities to ensure that gender-sensitive support is a strong component of emergency response, and may apply to other emergency response programs such as the Medical Reserve Corps and the American Red Cross.

  11. Stronger pack warnings predict quitting more than weaker ones: finding from the ITC Malaysia and Thailand surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the impact of cigarette pack warning labels on interest in quitting and subsequent quit attempts among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand. Methods Two overlapping cohorts of adults who reported smoking factory- made cigarettes from Malaysia and Thailand were interviewed face-to-face (3189 were surveyed at baseline and 1781 re-contacted at Wave 2; 2361 current smokers were surveyed at Wave 2 and 1586 re-contacted at Wave 3). In Thailand at baseline, large text only w...

  12. Screening protocols to monitor respiratory status in primary immunodeficiency disease : Findings from a European survey and subclinical infection working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolles, S.; Sánchez-Ramón, S.; Quinti, I.; Soler-Palacín, P.; Agostini, C.; Florkin, B.; Couderc, L.J.; Brodszki, N.; Jones, A.; Longhurst, H.; Warnatz, K.; Haerynck, F.; Matucci, A.; de Vries, E.

    2017-01-01

    Many patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) who have antibody deficiency develop progressive lung disease due to underlying subclinical infection and inflammation. To understand how these patients are monitored we conducted a retrospective survey based on patient records of 13 PID centres

  13. Post-Primary Students' Images of Mathematics: Findings from a Survey of Irish Ordinary Level Mathematics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Ciara; Stynes, Martin; O'Donoghue, John

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out as part of a PhD research study to investigate the image of mathematics held by post-primary students in Ireland. The study focused on students in fifth year of post-primary education studying ordinary level mathematics for the Irish Leaving Certificate examination--the final examination for students in…

  14. A Survey Study to Find out the Relationship between Leadership Styles and Demographic Characteristics of Elementary and Secondary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlah, Ijaz Ahmed; Quraishi, Uzma; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a study aiming to investigate the leadership styles of elementary and secondary school teachers' in Public Sector schools in Lahore, Pakistan. The study also explored if there was any correlation between demographic characteristics of teachers and their leadership styles. A survey was conducted using Task-oriented and…

  15. Trends and Correlates of Consenting to Provide Social Security Numbers: Longitudinal Findings from the General Social Survey (1993-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Shin, Hee-Choon; Rosen, Zohn; Kang, Jeong-han; Dykema, Jennifer; Muennig, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Privacy and confidentiality are often of great concern to respondents answering sensitive questions posed by interviewers. Using the 1993-2010 General Social Survey, we examined trends in the provision of social security numbers (SSNs) and correlates of those responses. Results indicate that the rate of SSN provision has declined over the past…

  16. Victimization by Bullying and Harassment in High School: Findings from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in a Southwestern State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed data on victimization by bullying and harassment on school property in a large, diverse, random sample of high school students in Arizona using data from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. No gender differences in frequency of victimization were detected, but differences by grade, Body Mass Index category, academic…

  17. Multi-Country, Cross-National Comparison of Youth Suicide Ideation: Findings from Global School-Based Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Saumweber, Jacqueline; Hall, P. Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T.; West, Joshua H.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of suicide ideation in 109 Global School-based Health Surveys (GSHS) conducted from 2003-2010 representing 49 different countries and 266,694 school-attending students aged 13-15 years primarily living in developing areas of the World. Prevalence of suicide ideation varied widely among and between countries,…

  18. Employment Impact and Financial Burden for Families of Children with Fragile X Syndrome: Findings from the National Fragile X Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, L.; Grosse, S.; Raspa, M.; Bailey, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The employment impact and financial burden experienced by families of children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) has not been quantified in the USA. Method: Using a national fragile X family survey, we analysed data on 1019 families with at least one child who had a full FXS mutation. Out-of-pocket expenditures related to fragile X were…

  19. Usage of Plant Food Supplements across Six European Countries: Findings from the PlantLIBRA Consumer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Egan, Bernadette; de Klein, Simone; Dima, Lorena; Maggi, Franco M.; Isoniemi, Merja; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Raats, Monique M.; Meissner, Eva Melanie; Badea, Mihaela; Bruno, Flavia; Salmenhaara, Maija; Milà-Villarroel, Raimon; Knaze, Viktoria; Hodgkins, Charo; Marculescu, Angela; Uusitalo, Liisa; Restani, Patrizia; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Background The popularity of botanical products is on the rise in Europe, with consumers using them to complement their diets or to maintain health, and products are taken in many different forms (e.g. teas, juices, herbal medicinal products, plant food supplements (PFS)). However there is a scarcity of data on the usage of such products at European level. Objective To provide an overview of the characteristics and usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. Design Data on PFS usage were collected in a cross-sectional, retrospective survey of PFS consumers using a bespoke frequency of PFS usage questionnaire. Subjects/setting A total sample of 2359 adult PFS consumers from Finland, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom. Data analyses Descriptive analyses were conducted, with all data stratified by gender, age, and country. Absolute frequencies, percentages and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Results Overall, an estimated 18.8% of screened survey respondents used at least one PFS. Characteristics of PFS consumers included being older, well-educated, never having smoked and self-reporting health status as “good or very good”. Across countries, 491 different botanicals were identified in the PFS products used, with Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo), Oenothera biennis (Evening primrose) and Cynara scolymus (Artichoke) being most frequently reported; the most popular dose forms were capsules and pills/tablets. Most consumers used one product and half of all users took single-botanical products. Some results varied across countries. Conclusions The PlantLIBRA consumer survey is unique in reporting on usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. The survey highlights the complexity of measuring the intake of such products, particularly at pan-European level. Incorporating measures of the intake of botanicals in national dietary surveys would provide much-needed data for comprehensive risk and benefit assessments at the European

  20. Usage of plant food supplements across six European countries: findings from the PlantLIBRA consumer survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Garcia-Alvarez

    Full Text Available The popularity of botanical products is on the rise in Europe, with consumers using them to complement their diets or to maintain health, and products are taken in many different forms (e.g. teas, juices, herbal medicinal products, plant food supplements (PFS. However there is a scarcity of data on the usage of such products at European level.To provide an overview of the characteristics and usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries.Data on PFS usage were collected in a cross-sectional, retrospective survey of PFS consumers using a bespoke frequency of PFS usage questionnaire.A total sample of 2359 adult PFS consumers from Finland, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom.Descriptive analyses were conducted, with all data stratified by gender, age, and country. Absolute frequencies, percentages and 95% confidence intervals are reported.Overall, an estimated 18.8% of screened survey respondents used at least one PFS. Characteristics of PFS consumers included being older, well-educated, never having smoked and self-reporting health status as "good or very good". Across countries, 491 different botanicals were identified in the PFS products used, with Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo, Oenothera biennis (Evening primrose and Cynara scolymus (Artichoke being most frequently reported; the most popular dose forms were capsules and pills/tablets. Most consumers used one product and half of all users took single-botanical products. Some results varied across countries.The PlantLIBRA consumer survey is unique in reporting on usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. The survey highlights the complexity of measuring the intake of such products, particularly at pan-European level. Incorporating measures of the intake of botanicals in national dietary surveys would provide much-needed data for comprehensive risk and benefit assessments at the European level.

  1. Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey--Budapest, Hungary, 1999. Findings on unintentional and intentional injuries, alcohol use, and sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, A; Kiss, E; Mowery, P

    2004-06-01

    In Hungary, a large proportion of adult morbidity and mortality can be attributed to health risk behaviors that begin in early adolescence. To date, studies examining health risk behaviors among youth have rarely been undertaken in Hungary. In order to expand current research in this area, the Hungarian Metropolitan Institute of State Public Health and Public Health Officer Service and the Office on Smoking and Health at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed and implemented the Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey. The objective of this study was to examine health behavior risk factors among secondary school students in Budapest in 1999. The 1999 Budapest Student Health Behavior Survey is cross-sectional school-based survey A 2-stage cluster sampling design was used to produce a representative sample of secondary students in grades 9-12 in Budapest. Information was collected on unintentional and intentional injuries, alcohol use, and sexual activity. During the 30 days preceding the survey, 28.7% of students had rarely or never worn a seatbelt and 68.1% drunk alcohol. During the 12 months preceding the survey, 14.5% had been threatened or injured with a weapon, 12.9% experienced dating violence, and 13.5% seriously considered suicide. Of the 44.7% of students who had had sexual intercourse, 29.5% had > or = 4 sex partners. Of sexually active students, 50.4% had not used a condom at last sexual intercourse. Many secondary school students in Budapest practice behaviors that place them at risk for serious health problems both in the short and long-term. Programs and policies that adequately address such behaviors among secondary school students are needed to reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality.

  2. Teen Dating Violence (Physical and Sexual) Among US High School Students: Findings From the 2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Kevin J; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Basile, Kathleen C; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M

    2015-05-01

    National estimates of teen dating violence (TDV) reveal high rates of victimization among high school populations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's national Youth Risk Behavior Survey has provided often-cited estimates of physical TDV since 1999. In 2013, revisions were made to the physical TDV question to capture more serious forms of physical TDV and to screen out students who did not date. An additional question was added to assess sexual TDV. To describe the content of new physical and sexual TDV victimization questions first administered in the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, to share data on the prevalence and frequency of TDV (including the first-ever published overall "both physical and sexual TDV" and "any TDV" national estimates using these new questions), and to assess associations of TDV experience with health-risk behaviors. Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional survey of 9900 students who dated, from a nationally representative sample of US high school students, using the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Two survey questions separately assessed physical and sexual TDV; this analysis combined them to create a 4-level TDV measure and a 2-level TDV measure. The 4-level TDV measure includes "physical TDV only," "sexual TDV only," "both physical and sexual TDV," and "none." The 2-level TDV measure includes "any TDV" (either or both physical and sexual TDV) and "none." Sex-stratified bivariate and multivariable analyses assessed associations between TDV and health-risk behaviors. In 2013, among students who dated, 20.9% of female students (95% CI, 19.0%-23.0%) and 10.4% of male students (95% CI, 9.0%-11.7%) experienced some form of TDV during the 12 months before the survey. Female students had a higher prevalence than male students of physical TDV only, sexual TDV only, both physical and sexual TDV, and any TDV. All health-risk behaviors were most prevalent among students who experienced both forms of TDV and were

  3. Vape Factor Fast Find-Adult (VF3-A): a prototype survey method for recording brand-specific vaping factors in adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S; Zhang, Tancy C; DeJong, William; Siegel, Michael

    2018-03-23

    In population studies, vaping is often treated as a dichotomous exposure (present/absent) without consideration of specific vaping devices and materials being used. A survey instrument is needed to record specific vaping devices and materials. We developed a database of 613 vaping device models and 3196 vaping liquid products, indexed by device brand, device type, liquid brand, liquid name and liquid flavour type. We developed a survey instrument to allow participants to report their vaping device and liquid from the indexed lists. The survey was pilot tested with a convenience sample of 208 adults (≥age 21). We validated the vaping device and liquid responses with a recontact survey. We report the proportion of respondents finding their products, characteristics of people finding their products and survey response times. Devices used most frequently in the past 30 days were electronic cigarettes (33% of respondents), vaping pens (28%) and vaping mods (16%). Fifty-seven per cent used liquids containing nicotine most frequently in the past 30 days, followed by liquids without nicotine (20%) and marijuana or hashish (10%). Most (85%) participants found their vaping device successfully (median 19.7 s) and 74% found their vaping liquid (median 19.8 s). Females and older adults were less likely to find their devices and liquids. Responses were validated for 91% and 76% of devices and e-liquids, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of an internet-based survey instrument to record specific vaping factors for use in studies of vaping and health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. The caregiver burden in lupus: findings from UNVEIL, a national online lupus survey in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sawah, S; Daly, R P; Foster, S A; Naegeli, A N; Benjamin, K; Doll, H; Bond, G; Moshkovich, O; Alarcón, G S

    2017-01-01

    Lupus imposes a substantial burden on patients; however, little is known about its impact on those caring for patients with the disease. In this study, we examined the impact 'caring for patients with lupus' has on caregivers from their own perspective. UNVEIL was a one-time online national cross-sectional survey developed in partnership with the Lupus Foundation of America and fielded targeting the US Lupus Foundation of America constituents in 2014. Eligible caregivers were adults who self-identified as unpaid caregivers of patients with lupus. Eligible caregivers had to complete a series of sociodemographic questions as well as a series of well established outcome measures, such as the Short Form 12v2 Health Survey, the Work Productivity and Activity Index, the Caregiver Burden Inventory, and the Perceived Benefits of Caregiving Scale. A total of 253 caregivers completed the survey. The majority of caregivers (90.1%) were aged 60 years or younger, more than half (54.2%) were men, and more than half (59.7%) identified themselves as either a spouse or a partner to the patient with lupus they were caring for. Overall health-related quality of life was close to the norm mean of the general US population. Caregivers who were employed missed an average of 12.8% of paid work time due to caregiving responsibilities and reported a 33.5% reduction in on-the-job effectiveness. Nearly half of the caregivers surveyed (49.4%) indicated that their caregiving responsibilities impacted their ability to socialize with friends, and almost all caregivers (97.6%) reported experiencing increased anxiety and stress in relation to their caregiving role. Caregiving for patients with lupus has a substantial impact on the work productivity and the social and emotional functioning of caregivers. Healthcare professionals and policymakers should continually assess the impact of healthcare decisions on the well-being of those caring for patients with lupus. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Family Planning Supply Environment in Kinshasa, DRC: Survey Findings and Their Value in Advancing Family Planning Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern contraceptive prevalence was 14.1% in 2007 in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Yet virtually nothing was known about the family planning supply environment. Methods: Three surveys of health facilities were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to determine the number, spatial distribution, and attributes of sites providing family planning services. The 2012 and 2013 surveys aimed to identify the universe of family planning facilities while obtaining a limited set of data on “readiness” to provide family planning services (defined as having at least 3 modern methods, at least 1 person training in family planning in the last 3 years, and an information system to track distribution of products to clients) and output (measured by couple-years of protection, or CYP). In contrast, the 2014 survey, conducted under the umbrella of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) project, was based on 2-stage cluster sampling. This article provides detailed analysis of the 2012 and 2013 surveys, including bivariate and multivariate analysis of correlates of readiness to provide services and of output. Results: We identified 184 health facilities that reported providing at least 1 contraceptive method in 2012 and 395 facilities in 2013. The percentage of sites defined as “ready” to provide services increased from 44.1% in 2012 to 63.3% in 2013. For the 3-month period between January and March 2013, facilities distributed between 0 and 879.2 CYP (mean, 39.7). Nearly half (49%) of the CYP was attributable to implants, followed by IUDs (24%), CycleBeads (11%), and injectables (8%). In 2013, facilities supported by PEPFAR (n = 121) were more likely than other facilities to be rated as ready to provide services (Pplanning implementing agencies (Pplanning in the DRC in many ways, including mobilizing partners to increase contraceptive access and increasing donor investment in family planning in the DRC

  6. Working Conditions and Lifestyle of Female Surgeons Affiliated to the Japan Neurosurgical Society: Findings of Individual and Institutional Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    FUJIMAKI, Takamitsu; SHIBUI, Soichiro; KATO, Yoko; MATSUMURA, Akira; YAMASAKI, Mami; DATE, Isao; HONGO, Kazuhiro; KURODA, Satoshi; MATSUMAE, Mitsunori; NAKAO, Naoyuki; SAKURADA, Kaori; SHIMOKAWA, Shoko; KAYAMA, Takamasa

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the working conditions of female neurosurgeons in Japan, two surveys were conducted by The Japan Neurosurgical Society: one involving female neurosurgeons themselves and the other involving the chiefs of neurosurgical departments. The responses were received from 224 (43.8%) female neurosurgeons and 496 (61.2%) departmental chiefs. About half (50.2%) of the female neurosurgeons were married and 39.2% had children (average number of children, 1.27). Their work was full-time in 8...

  7. Personality disorder and offending behaviour: findings from the national survey of male prisoners in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Amanda D.L.; Coid, Jeremy W.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have related mental disorder and antisocial personality disorder to criminal behaviour, but little is known about the associations with other personality disorders. The aim of this study was to examine independent associations between offending behaviour over the lifetime and personality disorder in a representative sample of male offenders. A two-stage survey was carried out among prisoners in all prisons in England and Wales. DSM-IV personality disorder was measured using S...

  8. Insights, attitudes, and perceptions about asthma and its treatment: findings from a multinational survey of patients from Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Maspero, Jorge F; Jardim, Jose R; Aranda, Alvaro; Tassinari C, Paolo; Gonzalez-Diaz, Sandra N; Sansores, Raul H; Moreno-Cantu, Jorge J; Fish, James E

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2011 the Latin America Asthma Insight and Management (LA AIM) survey explored the realities of living with asthma. We investigated perception, knowledge, and attitudes related to asthma among Latin American asthma patients. Methods Asthma patients aged ?12 years from four Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela) and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico responded to questions during face-to-face interviews. A sample size of 2,169 patients (approximately 400 pati...

  9. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  10. Electronic health record use in an affluent region in India: Findings from a survey of Chandigarh hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Adam C; Ludhar, Jasmine K; Ostrovsky, Yuri

    2017-07-01

    To characterize the electronic health record (EHR) systems in use in an affluent region of India in order to understand the state-of-the-art within the Indian market. A survey on EHR features was created by combining an instrument developed by the Organisation for International Cooperation and Development and an instrument developed by an American team of researchers. An interviewer directly administered the survey to leaders from hospitals in greater Chandigarh which possessed electronic health information systems. Summary statistics from the survey are reported. 24 hospitals offering multi-specialty inpatient care were identified in greater Chandigarh. 18 of these hospitals had electronic health information systems, 17 of which were interviewed. Of the hospitals with systems, 17 (100%) could access patient demographic information internally, but 12 (71%) could not access vital sign, allergy, or immunization data internally. 11 (65%) of the systems were capable of sharing patient summaries internally, but 13 (76%) could not send electronic referrals internally. Among organizations which have adopted systems, major barriers tend to have been around financial and staff matters. Concerns over interoperability, privacy, and security were infrequently cited as barriers to adoption. EHRs are ubiquitous in at least one region of India. Systems are more likely to have capabilities for intra-organizational information sharing than for inter-organizational information sharing. The availability of EHR data may foster clinical research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Salience and Impact of Health Warning Label on Cigarette Packs in Vietnam: Findings From the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc Bich, Nguyen; Thu Ngan, Tran; Bao Giang, Kim; Thi Hai, Phan; Thi Thu Huyen, Doan; Ngoc Khue, Luong; Tuan Lam, Nguyen; Van Minh, Hoang; Thi Quynh Nga, Pham; The Quan, Nguyen; Loan, Vu Hoang

    2018-04-13

    Viet Nam is among the countries having highest rate of male smokers in the world. The country has joined the Global Tobacco Surveillance System since 2010. Under this system, two rounds of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) were conducted in 2010 and 2015. Those two surveys provide excellent comparable data on tobacco usage and its related aspects in Vietnam. This study using the data from GATS 2015 to examine the salience and impact of cigarette pack health warnings on quitting intention in Vietnam. The Vietnam GATS 2015 was a nationally representative survey in which 9,513 households were selected using two-stage random systematic sampling method. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the strongest predictor for quit intention because of health warnings was "ever made a quit attempt in the past 12 months" followed by "believes that tobacco smoking causes serious illness". Compared to GATS 2010, GATS 2015 observed the increase in salience of cigarette health warnings. However, the current pictorial health warnings are losing their impact on motivating intention to quit. The results highlight that it is time to start the rotation cycle to refresh the current health warning set. Actions to select a new and more impressive set of pictorial health warnings should be developed as soon as possible.

  12. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The definition and diagnosis of cold hypersensitivity in the hands and feet: Finding from the experts survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kwang-Ho; Jeong, Young-Seok; Go, Ho-Yeon; Sun, Seung-Ho; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Jung, Ki-Yong; Song, Yun-Kyung; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Choi, You-Kyung; Park, Jong-Hyeong; Lee, Siwoo; Lee, Youngseop; Jeon, Chan-Yong

    2018-03-01

    Cold hypersensitivity in the hands and feet (CHHF) is a symptom patients usually feel cold in their hands and feet, but not dealt with a disease in western medicine. However, it is often appealed by patients at a clinic of Korean medicine (KM), considered to be a sort of key diagnostic indicator, and actively treated by physicians. Nevertheless, there is no standardized diagnostic definition for CHHF. Therefore, we surveyed KM experts' opinions to address the clinical definition, diagnostic criteria, and other relevant things on CHHF. We developed a survey to assess the definition, diagnosis, causes, and accompanying symptoms on CHHF. 31 experts who work at specialized university hospitals affiliated with KM hospitals consented to participation. Experts responded to survey questions by selecting multiple-choice answers or stating their opinions. Vast majority of experts (83.8%) agreed with our definition on CHHF ("a feeling of cold as a symptom; that one's hands or feet become colder than those of average people in temperatures that are not normally perceived as cold"). 77.4% of experts considered subjective symptoms on CHHF were more important than medical instrument results. Constitution or genetic factors (87.1%) and stress (64.5%) were the most common causes reported for CHHF. This study offers an expert consensus regarding the themes, opinions, and experiences of practitioners with CHHF. Our results underscore the need for standardized definitions and diagnostic criteria for CHHF.

  14. Insights, attitudes, and perceptions about asthma and its treatment: findings from a multinational survey of patients from Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspero, Jorge F; Jardim, Jose R; Aranda, Alvaro; Tassinari C, Paolo; Gonzalez-Diaz, Sandra N; Sansores, Raul H; Moreno-Cantu, Jorge J; Fish, James E

    2013-11-04

    In 2011 the Latin America Asthma Insight and Management (LA AIM) survey explored the realities of living with asthma. We investigated perception, knowledge, and attitudes related to asthma among Latin American asthma patients. Asthma patients aged ≥12 years from four Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela) and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico responded to questions during face-to-face interviews. A sample size of 2,169 patients (approximately 400 patients/location) provided an accurate representation of asthma patients' opinions. Questions probed respondents' views on topics such as levels of asthma control, frequency and duration of exacerbations, and current and recent use of asthma medications. A total of 2,169 adults or parents of children with asthma participated in the LA AIM survey. At least 20% of respondents experienced symptoms every day or night or most days or nights. Although 60% reported their disease as well or completely controlled, only 8% met guideline criteria for well-controlled asthma. 47% of respondents reported episodes when their asthma symptoms were more frequent or severe than normal, and 44% reported seeking acute care for asthma in the past year. Asthma patients in Latin America overestimated their degree of asthma control. The LA AIM survey demonstrated the discrepancy between patient perception of asthma control and guideline-mandated criteria. Additional education is required to teach patients that, by more closely following asthma management strategies outlined by current guidelines more patients can achieve adequate asthma control.

  15. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2011-06-01

    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple vulnerabilities and maternal healthcare in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000, 2006, and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge of the aggregate effects of multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities is important for shedding light on the determinants of growing health inequalities and inequities in maternal healthcare. Objective: This paper describes patterns of inequity in maternal healthcare utilization and analyzes associations between inequity and multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities among women in Vietnam. Design: This is a repeated cross-sectional study using data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 2000, 2006, and 2011. Two maternal healthcare indicators were selected: (1 skilled antenatal care and (2 skilled delivery care. Four types of socioeconomic vulnerabilities – low education, ethnic minority, poverty, and rural location – were assessed both as separate explanatory variables and as composite indicators (combinations of three and four vulnerabilities. Pairwise comparisons and adjusted odds ratios were used to assess socioeconomic inequities in maternal healthcare. Results: In all three surveys, there were increases across the survey years in both the proportions of women who received antenatal care by skilled staff (68.6% in 2000, 90.8% in 2006, and 93.7% in 2011 and the proportions of women who gave birth with assistance from skilled staff (69.9% in 2000, 87.7% in 2006, and 92.9% in 2011. The receipt of antenatal care by skilled staff and birth assistance from skilled health personnel were less common among vulnerable women, especially those with multiple vulnerabilities. Conclusions: Even though Vietnam has improved its coverage of maternal healthcare on average, policies should target maternal healthcare utilization among women with multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities. Both multisectoral social policies and health policies are needed to tackle multiple vulnerabilities more effectively by identifying those who are poor, less educated, live in rural areas, and belong to ethnic minority groups.

  17. Monitoring the inputs required to extend and sustain hygiene promotion: findings from the GLAAS 2013/2014 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Leslie D; Gore, Fiona M; Andre, Nathalie; Cairncross, Sandy; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2016-08-01

    There are significant gaps in information about the inputs required to effectively extend and sustain hygiene promotion activities to improve people's health outcomes through water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We sought to analyse current country and global trends in the use of key inputs required for effective and sustainable implementation of hygiene promotion to help guide hygiene promotion policy and decision-making after 2015. Data collected in response to the GLAAS 2013/2014 survey from 93 countries of 94 were included, and responses were analysed for 12 questions assessing the inputs and enabling environment for hygiene promotion under four thematic areas. Data were included and analysed from 20 External Support Agencies (ESA) of 23 collected through self-administered surveys. Firstly, the data showed a large variation in the way in which hygiene promotion is defined and what constitutes key activities in this area. Secondly, challenges to implement hygiene promotion are considerable: include poor implementation of policies and plans, weak coordination mechanisms, human resource limitations and a lack of available hygiene promotion budget data. Despite the proven benefits of hand washing with soap, a critical hygiene-related factor in minimising infection, GLAAS 2013/2014 survey data showed that hygiene promotion remains a neglected component of WASH. Additional research to identify the context-specific strategies and inputs required to enhance the effectiveness of hygiene promotion at scale are needed. Improved data collection methods are also necessary to advance the availability and reliability of hygiene-specific information. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Salaries and compensation practices in public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratories: findings from a 2010 national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoy, John M; Boulton, Matthew L; Carpenter, David F

    2013-01-01

    The public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratory (PHEAL) workforce is a key component of the public health infrastructure. The national laboratory workforce faces an ongoing challenge of recruitment and retention of workers often related to pay and other compensation issues. To collect information on laboratory salaries and laboratory compensation practices using a national compensation survey targeting the PHEAL workforce. Seventy-three of 109 (67%) PHEAL directors in the 50 states and District of Columbia collectively employ 3723/4830 (77%) PHEAL employees in the United States. A standardized survey was developed and administered in 2010. Compensation data were compiled by job classification, geographic region, laboratory gross operating budget size, laboratory staff size, and laboratory type. Laboratory staff size ranged from 3 to 327 individuals (mean = 74 and median = 51). Median base salaries were lowest in the Southwest and South and highest in the Mountain and Pacific regions. Mean and median laboratory gross operating budgets for all participating PHEALs were $8 609 238 and $5 671 500, respectively. Extra cash compensation, used by 8 of 60 (13.3%) PHEALs, was more likely to go to a scientist-manager or scientist-supervisor. In 2010, a standardized national compensation survey of technical and scientific public health employees working in 73 PHEALs was effective in collecting previously unavailable data about laboratory salaries, laboratory budgets, and payroll practices. Laboratory salaries varied by geographic region and there was an uneven distribution of extra cash compensation among job classifications. The compensation data collected may be useful in characterizing and improving laboratory salary structures and practices to better support workforce recruitment and retention.

  19. Cost of high prevalence mental disorders: Findings from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Chen; Chatterton, Mary Lou; Magnus, Anne; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Le, Long Khanh-Dao; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this project was to detail the costs associated with the high prevalence mental disorders (depression, anxiety-related and substance use) in Australia, using community-based, nationally representative survey data. Respondents diagnosed, within the preceding 12 months, with high prevalence mental disorders using the Confidentialised Unit Record Files of the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing were analysed. The use of healthcare resources (hospitalisations, consultations and medications), productivity loss, income tax loss and welfare benefits were estimated. Unit costs of healthcare services were obtained from the Independent Hospital Pricing Authority, Medicare and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Labour participation rates and unemployment rates were determined from the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Daily wage rates adjusted by age and sex were obtained from Australian Bureau of Statistics and used to estimate productivity losses. Income tax loss was estimated based on the Australian Taxation Office rates. The average cost of commonly received Government welfare benefits adjusted by age was used to estimate welfare payments. All estimates were expressed in 2013-2014 AUD and presented from multiple perspectives including public sector, individuals, private insurers, health sector and societal. The average annual treatment cost for people seeking treatment was AUD660 (public), AUD195 (individual), AUD1058 (private) and AUD845 from the health sector's perspective. The total annual healthcare cost was estimated at AUD974m, consisting of AUD700m to the public sector, AUD168m to individuals, and AUD107m to the private sector. The total annual productivity loss attributed to the population with high prevalence mental disorders was estimated at AUD11.8b, coupled with the yearly income tax loss at AUD1.23b and welfare payments at AUD12.9b. The population with high prevalence mental disorders not only incurs substantial cost to

  20. A Mandatory Uniform Policy in Urban Schools: Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2003-04

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghee Han

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study is to examine the relations between a mandatory school uniform policy and student problem behavior. The study is based on the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS 2003-04 data. Analyzing data from 421 urban schools, the study found that schools adopting a mandatory uniform policy are negatively associated with rates of student problem behaviors except at the high school level. As with other school safety initiatives, parental involvement at the elementary school level, and teacher training and community efforts at the high school level were revealed as negative predictors of student problem behavior.

  1. Social marketing strategies for reaching older people with disabilities: findings from a survey of centers for independent living participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moone, Rajean Paul; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Centers for independent living (CILs) provide critical supports, services, and advocacy for assisting people with disabilities in living independently. As there is a rapidly increasing population of older people with disabilities, many CILs are now considering how to actively engage older adults in their organizations. This study utilized a survey of older people with disabilities to help identify social marketing techniques that community organizations like CILs can use to effectively reach older people with disabilities. Utilizing the components of the social marketing mix in designing outreach efforts, including a critical examination of product, place, price, participants, and partnering, CILs and other community agencies can better reach older adults with disabilities.

  2. Functional low vision in adults from Latin America: findings from population-based surveys in 15 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Limburg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review data on functional low vision (FLV (low vision-visual acuity (VA perception of light (PL+ in the better eye-that is untreatable and uncorrectable in adults aged 50 years or older from published population-based surveys from 15 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: Data from 15 cross-sectional, population-based surveys on blindness and visual impairment (10 national and five subnational covering 55 643 people > 50 years old in 15 countries from 2003 to 2013 were reanalyzed to extract statistics on FLV. Eleven of the studies used the rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB method and four used the rapid assessment of cataract surgical services (RACSS method. For the 10 national surveys, age-and sex-specific prevalence of FLV was extrapolated against the corresponding population to estimate the total number of people > 50 years old with FLV. RESULTS: Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of FLV in people > 50 years old ranged from 0.9% (Guatemala, Mexico, and Uruguay to 2.2% (Brazil and Cuba and increased by age. The weighted average prevalence for the 10 national surveys was 1.6%: 1.4% in men and 1.8% in women. For all 10 national studies, a total of 509 164 people > 50 years old were estimated to have FLV. Based on the 910 individuals affected, the main causes of FLV were age-related macular degeneration (weighted average prevalence of 26%, glaucoma (23%, diabetic retinopathy (19%, other posterior segment disease (15%, non-trachomatous corneal opacities (7%, and complications after cataract surgery (4%. CONCLUSIONS: FLV is expected to rise because of 1 the exponential increase of this condition by age, 2 increased life expectancy, and 3 the increase in people > 50 years old. These data can be helpful in planning and developing low vision services for the region; large countries such as Brazil and Mexico would need more studies. Prevention is a major strategy to reduce FLV, as more than 50% of it is

  3. Functional low vision in adults from Latin America: findings from population-based surveys in 15 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limburg, Hans; Espinoza, Rosario; Lansingh, Van C; Silva, Juan Carlos

    2015-06-01

    To review data on functional low vision (FLV) (low vision-visual acuity (VA) perception of light (PL+) in the better eye-that is untreatable and uncorrectable) in adults aged 50 years or older from published population-based surveys from 15 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Data from 15 cross-sectional, population-based surveys on blindness and visual impairment (10 national and five subnational) covering 55 643 people > 50 years old in 15 countries from 2003 to 2013 were reanalyzed to extract statistics on FLV. Eleven of the studies used the rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) method and four used the rapid assessment of cataract surgical services (RACSS) method. For the 10 national surveys, age-and sex-specific prevalence of FLV was extrapolated against the corresponding population to estimate the total number of people > 50 years old with FLV. Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of FLV in people > 50 years old ranged from 0.9% (Guatemala, Mexico, and Uruguay) to 2.2% (Brazil and Cuba) and increased by age. The weighted average prevalence for the 10 national surveys was 1.6%: 1.4% in men and 1.8% in women. For all 10 national studies, a total of 509 164 people > 50 years old were estimated to have FLV. Based on the 910 individuals affected, the main causes of FLV were age-related macular degeneration (weighted average prevalence of 26%), glaucoma (23%), diabetic retinopathy (19%), other posterior segment disease (15%), non-trachomatous corneal opacities (7%), and complications after cataract surgery (4%). FLV is expected to rise because of 1) the exponential increase of this condition by age, 2) increased life expectancy, and 3) the increase in people > 50 years old. These data can be helpful in planning and developing low vision services for the region; large countries such as Brazil and Mexico would need more studies. Prevention is a major strategy to reduce FLV, as more than 50% of it is preventable.

  4. Correlates of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home among non-smoking adults in Bangladesh: findings from the ITC Bangladesh survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu S; Driezen, Pete; Sansone, Genevieve; Nargis, Nigar; Hussain, Ghulam Akm; Quah, Anne Ck; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-07-16

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a serious global public health problem. Understanding the correlates of SHS exposure could guide the development of evidence based SHS exposure reduction interventions. The purpose of this study is to describe the pattern of and factors associated with SHS exposure among non-smoking adults in Bangladesh. Data come from adult non-smokers who participated in the second wave (2010) of the International Tobacco Control Policy (ITC) Evaluation Bangladesh Survey conducted in all six administrative divisions of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire gathered information on participants' demographic characteristics, pattern of SHS exposure, SHS knowledge, and attitudes towards tobacco control. Exposure to SHS at home was defined as non-smokers who lived with at least one smoker in their household and who reported having no home smoking ban. The data were analyzed using chi-square tests and logistic regression procedures. The SHS exposure rate at home among the participants (N=2813) was 43%. Several sociodemographic and attitudinal factors were associated with SHS exposure. Logistic regression analyses identified eight predictors of SHS exposure: being female (OR=2.35), being aged 15-24 (OR=2.17), being recruited from Dhaka slums (OR=5.19) or non-tribal/non-border areas outside Dhaka (OR=2.19) or tribal/border area (OR=4.36), having lower education (1-8 years: OR=2.45; illiterate: OR=3.00, having higher monthly household income (5000 to non-smoking Bangladeshi adults are exposed to SHS at home. The findings suggest the need for comprehensive tobacco control measures that would improve public understanding about health hazards of SHS exposure at home and encourage educational initiatives to promote smoke-free homes. Interventions should deliver targeted messages to reach those in the low socioeconomic status group.

  5. The Relationship between Household Sanitation and Women’s Experience of Menstrual Hygiene: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Kaduna State, Nigeria

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    Julie Hennegan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Global efforts to improve sanitation have emphasized the needs of women and girls. Managing menstruation is one such need, yet there is scarce research capturing current practices. This study investigated the relationships between household sanitation and women’s experience of menstrual management. Secondary analyses were undertaken on data from 1994 women and girls collected through the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 survey in Kaduna, Nigeria. In multivariable models, women had higher odds of using the main household sanitation facility for menstrual management when they had access to a basic (OR = 1.76 95%CI 1.26–2.46 or limited (OR = 1.63 95%CI 1.08–2.48 sanitation facility, compared to an unimproved facility. Women with no household sanitation facility had higher odds of using their sleeping area (OR = 3.56 95%CI 2.50–5.06 or having no facility for menstrual management (OR = 9.86 95%CI 5.76–16.87 than women with an unimproved sanitation facility. Menstrual management locations were associated with ratings of their characteristics. Safely managed or basic sanitation facilities were not rated more favorably than unimproved facilities in privacy (OR = 1.02 95%CI 0.70–1.48, safety (OR = 1.45 95%CI 0.98–2.15, access to a lock (OR = 0.93 95%CI 0.62–1.37, or soap and water (OR = 1.04 95%CI 0.70–1.56. Women using their sleeping area had more favorable perceptions of their environment. Findings suggest household sanitation influences women’s choices for menstrual management, but that existing indicators for improvement are not sensitive to menstrual needs.

  6. Unregulated provider perceptions of audit and feedback reports in long-term care: cross-sectional survey findings from a quality improvement intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kimberly D; O'Rourke, Hannah M; Baylon, Melba Andrea B; Boström, Anne-Marie; Sales, Anne E

    2013-02-13

    Audit with feedback is a moderately effective approach for improving professional practice in other health care settings. Although unregulated caregivers give the majority of direct care in long-term care settings, little is known about how they understand and perceive feedback reports because unregulated providers have not been directly targeted to receive audit with feedback in quality improvement interventions in long-term care. The purpose of this paper is to describe unregulated care providers' perceptions of usefulness of a feedback report in four Canadian long-term care facilities. We delivered monthly feedback reports to unregulated care providers for 13 months in 2009-2010. The feedback reports described a unit's performance in relation to falls, depression, and pain as compared to eight other units in the study. Follow-up surveys captured participant perceptions of the feedback report. We conducted descriptive analyses of the variables related to participant perceptions and multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between perceived usefulness of the feedback report and a set of independent variables. The vast majority (80%) of unregulated care providers (n = 171) who responded said they understood the reports. Those who discussed the report with others and were interested in other forms of data were more likely to find the feedback report useful for making changes in resident care. This work suggests that unregulated care providers can understand and feel positively about using audit with feedback reports to make changes to resident care. Further research should explore ways to promote fuller engagement of unregulated care providers in decision-making to improve quality of care in long-term care settings.

  7. The Prevalence of Selected Potentially Hazardous Workplace Exposures in the US: Findings From the 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Geoffrey M.; Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Sussell, Aaron; Dahlhamer, James M.; Ward, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Assess the national prevalence of current workplace exposure to potential skin hazards, secondhand smoke (SHS), and outdoor work among various industry and occupation groups. Also, assess the national prevalence of chronic workplace exposure to vapors, gas, dust, and fumes (VGDF) among these groups. Methods Data were obtained from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). NHIS is a multistage probability sample survey of the civilian non-institutionalized population of the US. Prevalence rates and their variances were calculated using SUDAAN to account for the complex NHIS sample design. Results The data for 2010 were available for 17,524 adults who worked in the 12 months that preceded interview. The highest prevalence rates of hazardous workplace exposures were typically in agriculture, mining, and construction. The prevalence rate of frequent handling of or skin contact with chemicals, and of non-smokers frequently exposed to SHS at work was highest in mining and construction. Outdoor work was most common in agriculture (85%), construction (73%), and mining (65%). Finally, frequent occupational exposure to VGDF was most common among mining (67%), agriculture (53%), and construction workers (51%). Conclusion We identified industries and occupations with the highest prevalence of potentially hazardous workplace exposures, and provided targets for investigation and intervention activities. PMID:22821700

  8. Mentorship perceptions and experiences among academic family medicine faculty: Findings from a quantitative, comprehensive work-life and leadership survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Barbara; Krueger, Paul; White, David; Meaney, Christopher; Kwong, Jeffrey; Antao, Viola

    2016-09-01

    To collect information about the types, frequency, importance, and quality of mentorship received among academic family medicine faculty, and to identify variables associated with receiving high-quality mentorship. Web-based survey of all faculty members of an academic department of family medicine. The Department of Family and Community Medicine of the University of Toronto in Ontario. All 1029 faculty members were invited to complete the survey. Receiving mentorship rated as very good or excellent in 1 or more of 6 content areas relevant to respondents' professional lives, and information about demographic and practice characteristics, faculty ratings of their local departments and main practice settings, teaching activities, professional development, leadership, job satisfaction, and health. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified variables associated with receiving high-quality mentorship. The response rate was 66.8%. Almost all (95.0%) respondents had received mentorship in several areas, with informal mentorship being the most prevalent mode. Approximately 60% of respondents rated at least 1 area of mentoring as very good or excellent. Multivariate logistic regression identified 5 factors associated with an increased likelihood of rating mentorship quality as very good or excellent: positive perceptions of their local department (odds ratio [OR] = 4.02, 95% CI 2.47 to 6.54, P teachers, family medicine faculties will need to develop strategies to support effective mentorship across a range of settings and career stages. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  9. Consistently low prevalence of syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China: findings from two consecutive respondent driven sampling surveys.

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    Meizhen Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Routine surveillance using convenient sampling found low prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in China. Two consecutive surveys using respondent driven sampling were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to examine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China. METHODS: A face-to-face interview was conducted to collect demographic, behavioral and service utilization information using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serological tests of HIV-1 antibody and syphilis antibody. Respondent Driven Sampling Analysis Tool was used to generate population level estimates. RESULTS: In 2008 and in 2009, 363 and 432 subjects were recruited and surveyed respectively. Prevalence of syphilis was 2.8% in 2008 and 2.2% in 2009, while no HIV case was found in both years. Results are comparable to those from routine sentinel surveillance system in the city. Only 60.8% subjects in 2008 and 48.3% in 2009 reported a consistent condom use with clients during the past month. Over 50% subjects had not been covered by any HIV-related services in the past year, with only 15.6% subjects in 2008 and 13.1% in 2009 ever tested for HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the low prevalence of syphilis and HIV, risk behaviors are common. Targeted interventions to promote the safe sex and utilization of existing intervention services are still needed to keep the epidemic from growing.

  10. Association between psoriasis and leisure-time physical activity: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Young Kyung; Lakhani, Naheed; Malhotra, Rahul; Halstater, Brian; Theng, Colin; Østbye, Truls

    2015-02-01

    Despite evidence that physical activity can reduce the cardiometabolic risk of patients with psoriasis, these patients may engage in less physical activity than those without psoriasis. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the extent of psoriatic skin lesions with the likelihood of participating in leisure-time moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and metabolic equivalent task (MET)-minutes of MVPA amongst those who participated. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a population-based survey among U.S. adults. A total of 6549 persons aged 20-59 years responded to the 2003-2006 NHANES dermatology questionnaires, which asked about participation in leisure-time MVPA and MET-minutes of MVPA amongst those who participated. Compared with individuals without psoriasis, those with psoriasis were less likely to have engaged in leisure MVPA in the past 30 days, although this association was not statistically significant. Amongst those who participated in leisure-time MVPA, MET-minutes of leisure-time MVPA were lower on average for patients currently having few to extensive cutaneous lesions (but not for those currently having little or no psoriatic patches), relative to individuals never diagnosed with psoriasis by approximately 30%. Clinicians should encourage patients with psoriasis, especially those with more severe disease, to be more physically active; they should help identify and address possible psychological and physical barriers to their patients' physical activity. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  11. The present conditions of interpretation and findings report in UGI series examination (The Japanese society gastrointestinal imaging report group performed questionary survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shinsuke; Aoki, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Takashi; Nishikawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Ishimoto, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    The Japanese society gastrointestinal imaging report group performed questionary survey to relate to interpretation of radiogram of radiological technologist and findings report in upper GI series examination for 599 national institutions. Response rate was 27%, and many of answers were the institutions where surgical treatment was possible. Additional radiography examining by radiological technologist depending on the situation and, it was recognized a doctor furthermore, institutions more than 70% made findings report after examination, and, as for the mention methods of findings report, there was difference in mention contents, and character by examination classification. It seemed the mention methods that we unified were difficult nationwide, and, however, as for the making of the findings report which used diagnosis flow chart, it was thought with possibility in future by enlightenment active. (author)

  12. Caring for people with dementia in hospital: findings from a survey to identify barriers and facilitators to implementing best practice dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropea, Joanne; LoGiudice, Dina; Liew, Danny; Roberts, Carol; Brand, Caroline

    2017-03-01

    Best practice dementia care is not always provided in the hospital setting. Knowledge, attitudes and motivation, practitioner behavior, and external factors can influence uptake of best practice and quality care. The aim of this study was to determine hospital staff perceived barriers and enablers to implementing best practice dementia care. A 17-item survey was administered at two Australian hospitals between July and September 2014. Multidisciplinary staff working in the emergency departments and general medical wards were invited to participate in the survey. The survey collected data about the respondents' current role, work area, and years of experience, their perceived level of confidence and knowledge in dementia care and common symptoms of dementia, barriers and enablers to implementing best practice dementia care, job satisfaction in caring for people with dementia, and to rate the hospital's capacity and available resources to support best practice dementia care. A total of 112 survey responses were received. The environment, inadequate staffing levels and workload, time, and staff knowledge and skills were identified as barriers to implementing best practice dementia care. Most respondents rated their knowledge of dementia care and common symptoms of dementia, and confidence in recognizing whether a person has dementia, as moderate or high dementia. Approximately, half the respondents rated access to training and equipment as low or very low. The survey findings highlighted hospital staff perceived barriers to implementing best practice dementia care that can be used to inform locally tailored improvement interventions.

  13. [Changes on patterns of sleep duration: findings from China Health and Nutrition Survey in population in 9 provinces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, D H; Du, S F; Chen, B Y; Liu, J W; Fu, Z X; Wang, H J

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To understand the changes on patterns of sleep duration of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) cohort in 9 provinces from 2004 to 2011. Methods: Four rounds of CHNS data were used. Urban/rural, age and gender specific insufficient sleeping rates and excessive sleeping rates were analyzed. Results: In 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011, a total of 274, 281, 329 and 304 children aged 3-5 years; 874, 806, 768 and 742 children aged 6-12 years; 789, 529, 426 and 367 children aged 13-17 years; 9 568, 9 530, 9 942 and 9 609 adults aged ≥18 years were surveyed respectively. The lowest insufficient sleeping rate was 53.9 % (200/371) in 3-17 years old children in rural area in 2006, the highest insufficient sleeping rate was 77.2 % (44/57) in 3-5 years old children in urban area in 2004. The insufficient sleeping rate increased in rural 3-5 years old children from 2004 to 2011. For the adults aged ≥18 years, the insufficient sleeping rate ranged from 4.2 % (82/1 954) in females aged 18-44 years in 2004 and 2009 to 20.8 % (211/1 015) in urban residents aged > 60 years in 2011. The insufficient sleeping rate in age-groups 44-59 years and ≥60 years increased in both males and females and in both urban area and rural area from 2004 to 2011. The gender specific excessive sleeping rate in 3-17 years old children was very low in both urban area and rural area and no difference was found in different rounds of survey. The excessive sleeping rate in adults ranged from 18.4 % (569/3 093) in urban population in 2011 to 32.5 % (1 617/4 969) in females in 2004. The excessive sleeping rate of adult decreased from 2004 to 2011. Conclusion: We should pay attention to the fact that the insufficient sleeping rate in adolescents is high and in increase in rural 3-5 years old children and adults aged ≥45 years.

  14. Patient Preferences regarding Shared Decision-making in the Emergency Department: Findings from a multi-site survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth M; Kanzaria, Hemal K; Quigley, Denise D; Marie, Peter St; Nayyar, Nikita; Sabbagh, Sarah H; Gress, Kyle L; Probst, Marc A

    2018-06-13

    As Shared Decision-Making (SDM) has received increased attention as a method to improve the patient-centeredness of emergency department (ED) care, we sought to determine patients' desired level of involvement in medical decisions and their perceptions of potential barriers and facilitators to SDM in the ED. We surveyed a cross-sectional sample of adult ED patients at three academic medical centers across the United States. The survey included 32 items regarding patient involvement in medical decisions including a modified Control Preference Scale (CPS) and questions about barriers and facilitators to SDM in the ED. Items were developed and refined based on prior literature and qualitative interviews with ED patients. Research assistants administered the survey in person. Of 797 patients approached, 661 (83%) agreed to participate. Participants were 52% female, 45% white, and 30% Hispanic. The majority of respondents (85-92%, depending on decision type) expressed a desire for some degree of involvement in decision-making in the ED, while 8-15% preferred to leave decision-making to their physician alone. Ninety-eight percent wanted to be involved with decisions when "something serious is going on." The majority of patients (94%) indicated that self-efficacy was not a barrier to SDM in the ED. However, most patients (55%) reported a tendency to defer to the physician's decision-making during an ED visit, with about half reporting they would wait for a physician to ask them to be involved. We found the majority of ED patients in our large, diverse sample wanted to be involved in medical decisions, especially in the case of a "serious" medical problem, and felt that they had the ability to do so. Nevertheless, many patients were unlikely to actively seek involvement and defaulted to allowing the physician to make decisions during the ED visit. After fully explaining the consequences of a decision, clinicians should make an effort to explicitly ascertain patients

  15. Violence against people with disability in England and Wales: findings from a national cross-sectional survey.

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    Hind Khalifeh

    Full Text Available The recent World Report on Disability highlighted violence as a leading cause of morbidity among disabled people. However, we know little about the extent to which people with disability experience different violence types, and associated health/economic costs. The recent introduction of disability measures into the England&Wales victimization survey provided an opportunity to address this gap.Analysis of the 2009/10 British Crime Survey (BCS, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 44,398 adults living in residential households in England&Wales. Using multivariate logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of being a victim of past-year violence (physical/sexual domestic or non-domestic violence in people with disability compared to those without, after adjusting for socio-demographics, behavioural and area confounders. 1256/44398(2.4% participants had one or more disabilities including mental illness ('mental illness' and 7781(13.9% had one or more disabilities excluding mental illness ('non-mental disability'. Compared with the non-disabled, those with mental illness had adjusted relative odds (aOR of 3.0(95% confidence interval (CI 2.3-3.8 and those with non-mental disability had aOR of 1.8(95% CI: 1.5-2.2 of being a victim of past-year violence (with similar relative odds for domestic and non-domestic violence. Disabled victims were more likely to suffer mental ill health as a result of violence than non-disabled victims. The proportion of violence that could be attributed to the independent effect of disability in the general population was 7.5%(CI 5.7-9.3%, at an estimated cost of £1.51 billion. The main study limitation is the exclusion of institutionalised people with disability.People with disability are at increased risk of being victims of domestic and non-domestic violence, and of suffering mental ill health when victimized. The related public health and economic burden calls for an urgent assessment of the

  16. Patient responses to research recruitment and follow-up surveys: findings from a diverse multicultural health care setting in Qatar

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    Amal Khidir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care researchers working in the Arabian Gulf need information on how to optimize recruitment and retention of study participants in extremely culturally diverse settings. Implemented in Doha, Qatar in 2012 with 4 language groups, namely Arabic, English, Hindi, and Urdu, this research documents persons’ responses to recruitment, consent, follow-up, and reminder procedures during psychometric testing of the Multicultural Assessment Instrument (MAI, a novel self- or interviewer-administered survey. Methods Bilingual research assistants recruited adults in outpatient clinics by approaching persons in particular who appeared to be from a target language group. Participants completed the MAI, a second acculturation instrument used for content-validity assessment, and a demographics questionnaire. Participants were asked to take the MAI again in 2–3 weeks, in person or by post, to assess test-retest reliability. Recruitment data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. Results Of 1503 persons approached during recruitment, 400 enrolled (27 %—100 per language group. The enrollment rates in the language groups were: Arabic-32 %; English-33 %; Hindi-18 %; Urdu-30 %. The groups varied somewhat in their preferences regarding consent procedure, follow-up survey administration, contact mode for follow-up reminders, and disclosure of personal mailing address (for postal follow-up. Over all, telephone was the preferred medium for follow-up reminders. Of 64 persons who accepted a research assistant’s invitation for in-person follow-up, 40 participants completed the interview (follow-up rate, 63 %; among 126 persons in the postal group with a deliverable address, 29 participants mailed back a completed follow-up survey (response rate, 23 %. Conclusions Researchers in the Arabian Gulf face challenges to successfully identify, enroll, and retain eligible study participants. Although bilingual assistants

  17. Experiences of discrimination and positive treatment in people with mental health problems: Findings from an Australian national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, Nicola J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2015-10-01

    Stigma and discrimination are central concerns for people with mental health problems. The aim of the study was to carry out a national survey in order to assess experiences of avoidance, discrimination and positive treatment in people with mental health problems. In 2014, telephone interviews were carried out with 5220 Australians aged 18+, 1381 of whom reported a mental health problem or scored highly on a symptom screening questionnaire. Questions covered experiences of avoidance, discrimination and positive treatment by friends, spouse, other family, workplace, educational institution and others in the community. In most domains, respondents reported more positive treatment experiences than avoidance or discrimination. Friends and family were more likely to avoid the person than to discriminate. The results can provide input into the design of anti-discrimination interventions and further empower people with mental health problems as they advocate for change in the area of discrimination. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  18. Prevalence and Religious Predictors of Healing Prayer Use in the USA: Findings from the Baylor Religion Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Using data from the 2010 Baylor Religion Survey (N = 1714), this study investigates the prevalence and religious predictors of healing prayer use among US adults. Indicators include prayed for self (lifetime prevalence = 78.8 %), prayed for others (87.4 %), asked for prayer (54.1 %), laying-on-of-hands (26.1 %), and participated in a prayer group (53.0 %). Each was regressed onto eight religious measures, and then again controlling for sociodemographic variables and health. While all religious measures had net effects on at least one healing prayer indicator, the one consistent predictor was a four-item scale assessing a loving relationship with God. Higher scores were associated with more frequent healing prayer use according to every measure, after controlling for all other religious variables and covariates.

  19. Patterns of smoking among adolescents in Malaysia and Thailand: findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Kin, Foong; Prohmmo, Aree; Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Lian, Tan Y; Sharma, Sharad K; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2008-01-01

    At present, 70% of the world's 1.1 billion smokers are in developing countries, with over 50% in Asia alone. The current study examined patterns of youth smoking in Thailand and Malaysia. Respondents were 2002 youths between the ages of 13 and 17 from Thailand (n = 1000) and Malaysia (n = 1002). Respondents were selected using a multistage cluster sampling design and surveyed between January 2005 and March 2005. Approximately 3% of youth between the ages of 13 and 17 were current smokers, with an additional 10% to 12% reporting experimental smoking. Males were between 7 and 15 times more likely to report smoking behavior than females. Less than 1% of females respondents in either country met the criteria for current smoking, and less than 5% met the criteria for experimental smoking. In contrast, more than 50% Thai males and approximately one-third of Malaysian males aged 17 met the criteria for either experimental or current smoking.

  20. Older adults' use of complementary and alternative medicine for mental health: findings from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Suerken, Cynthia K; Quandt, Sara A; Bell, Ronny A; Lang, Wei; Arcury, Thomas A

    2006-06-01

    To compare complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among adults 65 and older with and without self-reported anxiety or depression, and to investigate the prevalence and predictors of CAM use for treatment by persons with anxiety or depression. Cross-sectional survey. Computer-assisted interviews conducted in participants' homes. Subjects included 5827 adults aged 65 and older who participated in the 2002 National Health Interview Survey including the Alternative Health Supplement. None. Overall use of CAM, use of four categories of CAM, and use of 20 CAM modalities. CAM use for treatment of any health condition, and CAM use to treat mental health. Eighty-one and seven tenths percent (81.7%) of older adults with self-reported anxiety or depression who used CAM in the past year, whereas 64.6% of older adults without these conditions used CAM. Differences in CAM use were driven by elevated use of spiritual practices, relaxation techniques, and use of nonvitamin, nonmineral natural products by patients with symptoms of mental conditions. Fewer than 20% of CAM users with self-reported anxiety or depression used CAM for their mental health. Few personal and health-related factors predicted CAM use for treatment among older adults with self-reported anxiety or depression. Older adults with self-reported anxiety or depression were more likely to use spiritual practices, relaxation techniques, and nonvitamin, nonmineral natural products than elders in good mental health. However, for the majority of older adults with self-reported anxiety or depression, CAM was used for purposes other than treating mental health.

  1. Evidence and practice in the self-management of low back pain: findings from an Australian internet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Victor; Palmer, Hazel Denise; Stosic, Rodney G; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is common, but sufferers pursue a range of management options and only some seek professional advice. This study examines how Australian consumers report that they manage LBP, with emphasis on the extent to which their practices match clinical recommendations and guidelines. A self-reported cross-sectional online survey comprising 29 questions in English (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/CJP/A13) was conducted in February 2009. The internet-based survey sample was matched with national population proportions; 1220 respondents were screened and 1001 met the inclusion criteria (age >18 y and having suffered from back pain in the previous 6 mo). A total of 570 (57%) participants had experienced LBP, of whom half (307; 54%) sought healthcare advice. Although 126 (41%) respondents reported receiving advice to exercise or stretch, only 107 (19%) reported that their initial response was to follow this advice. One-third maintained normal activity levels and 15% took bed rest, mostly for less than 1 day. A large proportion of respondents were overweight or obese (391, 68%); only 8% were active currently undertaking a weight loss regime. Taking analgesic medication was the most common initial action to LBP (449, 78% respondents); paracetamol was the predominant choice. Under-dosing was evident among users of over-the-counter analgesics. The self-care choices that some people with LBP are making are not in line with the current evidence-based guidelines. This may lead to delayed recovery and the risk of medication-related problems. The provision of education about the nonpharmacologic management options for LBP, optimal information about appropriate medicines choices, and about medication contraindications is essential.

  2. An Overview of Food Patterns and Diet Quality in Qatar: Findings from the National Household Income Expenditure Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thani, Mohammed; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud; Al-Mahdi, Nasser; Al-Kareem, Hefzi; Barakat, Darine; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Tawfik, Afaf; Akram, Hammad

    2017-05-15

    Availability of accurate data pertaining to a population's dietary patterns and associated health outcomes is critical for proper development and implementation of related policies. This article is a first attempt to share the food patterns, amounts and diet quality among households (HH) in Qatar. Data from the 2012-2013 Qatar National Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) was used. This cross-sectional survey included 3723 HH (1826 Qatari HH and 1897 non-Qatari HH). Dietary data on monthly amounts food items available at HH according to the nationality was used. The food items were expressed in terms of grams per capita per day and aggregated into groups to examine the food patterns, energy, and adequacy. The overall average amount of purchased food at HH in Qatar was 1885 g/capita/day. Qatari HH purchased more food (2118 g/capita/day) versus non-Qataris (1373 g/capita/day); however, the percentages of the amounts purchased by food types were similar among both nationalities. Average daily energy (kcal) per capita was almost double among Qatari HH (4275 kcal) vs. non-Qatari HH (2424 kcal). The food items under subsidy program for Qatari citizens provided 1753 kcal/capita/day and accounted for 41% of total daily energy. Proteins (29.2), fats (39.2), sodium (3.3), and vitamin C (32.5) had higher than recommended levels of nutrient density (grams per 1000 kcal). Calcium (227), vitamin A (302.3), fiber (2.0), and carbohydrates (132.6) had lower than recommended levels of nutrient energy density (g/1000 kcal). The study predicts unhealthy dietary habits among HH in Qatar and provides useful information for policy makers and healthcare community.

  3. Cigarette price and other factors associated with brand choice and brand loyalty in Zambia: findings from the ITC Zambia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Goma, Fastone; Chelwa, Grieve; Cheng, Xi; Zulu, Richard; Kaai, Susan C; Quah, Anne C K; Thrasher, James F; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about cigarette pricing and brand loyalty in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines these issues in Zambia, analysing data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Zambia Survey. Data from Wave 1 of the ITC Zambia Survey (2012) were analysed for current smokers of factory-made (FM) cigarettes compared with those who smoked both FM and roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes, using multivariate logistic regression models to identify the predictors of brand loyalty and reasons for brand choice. 75% of FM-only smokers and 64% of FM+RYO smokers reported having a regular brand. Compared with FM-only smokers, FM+RYO smokers were, on average, older (28% vs 20% ≥40 years), low income (64% vs 43%) and had lower education (76% vs 44% brands was ZMW0.50 (US$0.08) per stick. Smokers were significantly less likely to be brand loyal (>1 year) if they were aged 15-17 years (vs 40-54 years) and if they had moderate (vs low) income. Brand choice was predicted mostly by friends, taste and brand popularity. Price was more likely to be a reason for brand loyalty among FM+RYO smokers, among ≥55-year-old smokers and among those who reported being more addicted to cigarettes. These results in Zambia document the high levels of brand loyalty in a market where price variation is fairly small across cigarette brands. Future research is needed on longitudinal trends to evaluate the effect of tobacco control policies in Zambia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Secondhand smoke exposure at home among one billion children in 21 countries: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Andes, Linda; Morton, Jeremy; Bashir, Rizwan; Fouad, Heba; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Caixeta, Roberta; Dias, Rula Cavaco; Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; Kashiwabara, Mina; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2016-12-01

    Children are vulnerable to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure because of limited control over their indoor environment. Homes remain the major place where children may be exposed to SHS. Our study examines the magnitude, patterns and determinants of SHS exposure in the home among children in 21 countries (19 low-income and middle-income countries and 2 high-income countries). Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data, a household survey of people 15 years of age or older. Data collected during 2009-2013 were analysed to estimate the proportion of children exposed to SHS in the home. GATS estimates and 2012 United Nations population projections for 2015 were also used to estimate the number of children exposed to SHS in the home. The proportion of children younger than 15 years of age exposed to SHS in the home ranged from 4.5% (Panama) to 79.0% (Indonesia). Of the approximately one billion children younger than 15 years of age living in the 21 countries under study, an estimated 507.74 million were exposed to SHS in the home. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines accounted for almost 84.6% of the children exposed to SHS. The prevalence of SHS exposure was higher in countries with higher adult smoking rates and was also higher in rural areas than in urban areas, in most countries. A large number of children were exposed to SHS in the home. Encouraging of voluntary smoke-free rules in homes and cessation in adults has the potential to reduce SHS exposure among children and prevent SHS-related diseases and deaths. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Australian smokers' support for plain or standardised packs before and after implementation: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Elena; Borland, Ron; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T; McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F; Partos, Timea R; Yong, Hua-Hie

    2015-11-01

    Plain packaging (PP) for tobacco products was fully implemented in Australia on 1 December 2012 along with larger graphic health warnings. Using longitudinal data from the Australian arm of the ITC Four Country Survey, we examined attitudes to the new packs before and after implementation, predictors of attitudinal change, and the relationship between support and quitting activity. A population-based cohort study design, with some cross-sectional analyses. Surveys of Australian smokers assessed attitudes to PP at four time points prior to implementation (from 2007 to 2012) and one post-implementation wave collected (early/mid-2013). Trend analysis showed a slight rise in opposition to PP among smokers in the waves leading up to their implementation, but no change in support. Support for PP increased significantly after implementation (28.2% pre vs 49% post), such that post-PP more smokers were supportive than opposed (49% vs 34.7%). Multivariate analysis showed support either before or after implementation was predicted by belief in greater adverse health impacts of smoking, desire to quit and lower addiction. Among those not supportive before implementation, having no clear opinion about PP (versus being opposed) prior to the changes also predicted support post-implementation. Support for PP was prospectively associated with higher levels of quitting activity. Since implementation of PP along with larger warnings, support among Australian smokers has increased. Support is related to lower addiction, stronger beliefs in the negative health impacts of smoking, and higher levels of quitting activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Girl child marriage and its effect on fertility in Pakistan: findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Muazzam, Sana; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Raj, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Child marriage (before 18 years) is prevalent in Pakistan, which disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and low education households. Our study aims to determine the association between early marriage and high fertility and poor fertility health indicators among young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally representative data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, a cross-sectional observational survey, were limited to ever-married women aged 20-24 years (n = 1,560; 15% of 10,023) to identify differences in poor fertility outcomes [high fertility (three or more childbirths); rapid repeat childbirth (marriage. Associations between child marriage and fertility outcomes were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AORs) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence), contraception use, marriage duration and culture-specific factors (husband's desire for more children, son preference). Overall, 50% of ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. Girl child marriage was significantly (p marriage was significantly associated with high fertility (AOR 6.62; 95% CI 3.53-12.43), rapid repeat childbirth (AOR 2.88; 95% CI 1.83-4.54), unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.90; 95% CI 1.75-4.79), and pregnancy termination (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.10-2.78). Girl child marriage affects half of all ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan, and increases their risk for high fertility and poor fertility health indicators, highlighting the need of increasing the age of marriage among women in Pakistan. Efforts to eliminate girl child marriage by strict law enforcement, promoting civil, sexual and reproductive health rights for women can help eliminate girl child marriage in Pakistan.

  7. HIV prevalence, risky behaviors, and discrimination experiences among transgender women in Cambodia: descriptive findings from a national integrated biological and behavioral survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Ngin, Chanrith; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Chhim, Srean; Pal, Khuondyla; Mun, Phalkun; Mburu, Gitau

    2017-05-23

    Transgender people are disproportionately affected by HIV. Despite their high vulnerability to HIV, lack of adequate epidemiological and surveillance data related to this population in many countries prevents provision of appropriate services. This paper summarizes descriptive findings from a national integrated biological and behavioral survey and discusses policy implications of the findings on HIV prevention among transgender women in Cambodia. This cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2015 and February 2016. Participants were recruited from 20 sites in the capital city and 12 provinces of Cambodia using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) method. Behavioral data were collected through structured questionnaire interviews, and rapid finger-prick HIV testing was performed. Descriptive data analyses were conducted using STATA. This study included 1,375 transgender women with a mean age of 25.9 years (SD = 7.1). The overall prevalence of HIV was 5.9%. The prevalence of HIV was significantly higher among urban participants compared to their rural counterparts (6.5 vs. 2.6%, p = 0.02). Almost one in five (19.6%) had never been tested for HIV prior to the study. Overall, 45.0% reported ever using gender affirming hormones. More than one-third (39.1%) reported not using condoms in their last sex, 29.8% had engaged in sex in exchange for money/gifts, and 14.0% reported that they had experienced at least one symptom of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the past year. About one in ten (10.1%) reported having used some form of amphetamine-type stimulant drugs, while 6.5% reported having sex during or after using illicit drugs. A significant number of participants experienced sexual abuse (39.2%), losing a job (24.3%), or physical abuse (23.6%) because of their transgender identity. In addition, 82.9 and 88.9% would be willing to use the HIV self-test and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), respectively, if they become available. The high prevalence

  8. Stronger pack warnings predict quitting more than weaker ones: finding from the ITC Malaysia and Thailand surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David

    2013-09-18

    We examined the impact of cigarette pack warning labels on interest in quitting and subsequent quit attempts among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand. Two overlapping cohorts of adults who reported smoking factory- made cigarettes from Malaysia and Thailand were interviewed face-to-face (3189 were surveyed at baseline and 1781 re-contacted at Wave 2; 2361 current smokers were surveyed at Wave 2 and 1586 re-contacted at Wave 3). In Thailand at baseline, large text only warnings were assessed, while at Wave 2 new large graphic warnings were assessed. In Malaysia, during both waves small text only warnings were in effect. Reactions were used to predict interest in quitting, and to predict making quit attempts over the following inter-wave interval. Multivariate predictors of "interest in quitting" were comparable across countries, but predictors of quit attempts varied. In both countries, cognitive reactions to warnings (adjusted ORs; 1.57 & 1.69 for Malaysia at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively and 1.29 & 1.19 for Thailand at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), forgoing a cigarette (except Wave 2 in Malaysia) (adjusted ORs; 1.77 for Malaysia at wave 1 and 1.54 & 2.32 for Thailand at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), and baseline knowledge (except wave 2 in both countries) (adjusted ORs; 1.71 & 1.51 for Malaysia and Thailand respectively) were positively associated with interest in quitting at that wave. In Thailand only, "cognitive reactions to warnings" (adjusted ORs; 1.12 & 1.23 at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), "forgoing a cigarette" (adjusted OR = 1.55 at wave 2 only) and "an interest in quitting" (adjusted ORs; 1.61 & 2.85 at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively) were positively associated with quit attempts over the following inter-wave interval. Salience was negatively associated with subsequent quit attempts in both Malaysia and Thailand, but at Wave 2 only (adjusted ORs; 0.89 & 0.88 for Malaysia and Thailand respectively). Warnings appear to have common

  9. Occupational burnout among radiographers, sonographers and radiologists in Australia and New Zealand: Findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nabita; Knight, Kellie; Wright, Caroline; Baird, Marilyn; Akroyd, Duane; Adams, Robert D; Schneider, Michal E

    2017-06-01

    Evidence demonstrates that health care professionals are more prone to burnout than other professionals due to the emotionally taxing interactions they have with their patients on a daily basis. The aims of this study were to measure occupational burnout levels among sonographers, radiographers and radiologists and to examine predictors of burnout according to demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional online survey was administered in 2010 to radiographers, sonographers and radiologists who were members of the following professional bodies: Australian Institute of Radiography, Australian Sonographers Association and The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to measure burnout levels for each profession. Data were analysed using SPSS Ver 20 (IBM, Chicago, IL, USA) statistical software. A total of 613 radiographers, 121 sonographers and 35 radiologists participated in the survey. Radiographers, sonographers and radiologists had a high mean (±SD) burnout score for emotional exhaustion (39.9 ± 8.5, 42.2 ± 8.5 and 44.9 ± 7.1 respectively) and depersonalization (18.9 ± 5.5, 20.3 ± 5.8 and 20.6 ± 5.6) compared to MBI norms. Radiographers also had low personal achievement (30.8 ± 5.5) compared to MBI norms. Radiographers and sonographers who were male, worked >10 hours overtime and spent <10% of their time training students per week had significantly higher depersonalization scores (p < 0.05). Burnout levels among radiographers, sonographers and radiologists are high and likely to vary according to some demographic and work-related factors. Further research is needed to examine ways to alleviate burnout in these professions so that loss of experienced staff due to burnout can be minimized and quality of patient care can be maintained. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  10. Socio-economic variation in price minimizing behaviors: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew J; O'Connor, Richard J; Chaloupka, Frank J; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES) modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of adult smokers and includes respondents from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed among 8,243 respondents (7,038 current smokers) from the survey wave conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. Analyses examined predictors of purchasing from low/untaxed sources, using discount cigarettes or roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, purchasing cigarettes in cartons, and engaging in high levels of price and tax avoidance at last purchase. All analyses tested for interactions with SES and were weighted to account for changing and under-represented demographics. Relatively high levels of price and tax avoidance behaviors were present; 8% reported buying from low or untaxed source; 36% used discount or generic brands, 13.5% used RYO tobacco, 29% reported purchasing cartons, and 63% reported using at least one of these high price avoidance behaviors. Respondents categorized as having low SES were approximately 26% less likely to report using low or untaxed sources and 43% less likely to purchase tobacco by the carton. However, respondents with low SES were 85% more likely to report using discount brands/RYO compared to participants with higher SES. Overall, lower SES smokers were 25% more likely to engage in at least one or more tax avoidance behaviors compared to their higher SES counterparts. Price and tax avoidance behaviors are relatively common among smokers of all SES strata, but strategies differed with higher SES groups more likely to report traveling to a low-tax location to avoid paying higher prices, purchase duty free tobacco, and purchase by cartons instead of packs all of which were less

  11. Socio-Economic Variation in Price Minimizing Behaviors: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Four Country Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar Nargis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of adult smokers and includes respondents from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed among 8,243 respondents (7,038 current smokers from the survey wave conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. Analyses examined predictors of purchasing from low/untaxed sources, using discount cigarettes or roll-your-own (RYO tobacco, purchasing cigarettes in cartons, and engaging in high levels of price and tax avoidance at last purchase. All analyses tested for interactions with SES and were weighted to account for changing and under-represented demographics. Relatively high levels of price and tax avoidance behaviors were present; 8% reported buying from low or untaxed source; 36% used discount or generic brands, 13.5% used RYO tobacco, 29% reported purchasing cartons, and 63% reported using at least one of these high price avoidance behaviors. Respondents categorized as having low SES were approximately 26% less likely to report using low or untaxed sources and 43% less likely to purchase tobacco by the carton. However, respondents with low SES were 85% more likely to report using discount brands/RYO compared to participants with higher SES. Overall, lower SES smokers were 25% more likely to engage in at least one or more tax avoidance behaviors compared to their higher SES counterparts. Price and tax avoidance behaviors are relatively common among smokers of all SES strata, but strategies differed with higher SES groups more likely to report traveling to a low-tax location to avoid paying higher prices, purchase duty free tobacco, and purchase by cartons instead of packs all of

  12. Comorbidity of common mental disorders with cancer and their treatment gap: Findings from the World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Levav, Itzhak; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Florescu, Slivia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Stein, Dan J.; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the comorbidity of common mental disorders (CMDs) and cancer, and the mental health treatment gap among community residents with active cancer, cancer survivors and cancer-free respondents in 13 high- and 11 low-middle income countries. Methods Data were derived from the World Mental Health Surveys (N=66,387; n=357 active cancer, n=1,373 cancer survivors, n=64,657 cancer free respondents). The WHO/Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used in all surveys to estimate CMDs prevalence rates. Respondents were also asked about mental health service utilization in the preceding 12 months. Cancer status was ascertained by self-report of physician’s diagnosis. Results Twelve month prevalence rates of CMDs were higher among active cancer (18.4% SE=2.1) than cancer free respondents (13.3%, SE=0.2) adjusted for socio-demographic confounders and other lifetime chronic conditions (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.44 95% CI 1.05–1.97). CMD rates among cancer survivors (14.6% SE=0.9) compared with cancer-free respondents did not differ significantly (AOR=0.95 95% CI 0.82–1.11). Similar patterns characterized high and low-middle income countries. Of respondents with active cancer who had CMD in the preceding 12 months 59% sought services for mental health problems (SE=5.3). The pattern of service utilization among people with CMDs by cancer status (highest among persons with active cancer, lower among survivors and lowest among cancer-free respondents) was similar in high- (64.0% SE=6.0, 41.2% SE=3.0, 35.6% SE=0.6) and low-middle income countries (46.4% SE=11.0, 22.5% SE=9.1, 17.4% SE=0.7). Conclusions Community respondents with active cancer have relatively higher CMD rates and relatively high treatment gap. Comprehensive cancer care should consider both factors. PMID:23983079

  13. Physical activity and overweight/obesity among Malaysian adults: findings from the 2015 National Health and morbidity survey (NHMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ying Ying; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Lim, Kuang Hock; Teh, Chien Huey; Kee, Chee Cheong; Cheong, Siew Man; Khoo, Yi Yi; Baharudin, Azli; Ling, Miaw Yn; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani

    2017-09-21

    Overweight and obesity are growing health problems both worldwide and in Malaysia due to such lifestyle changes as decreased physical activity (PA), increased sedentary behavior and unhealthy eating habits. This study examined the levels and patterns of PA among normal-weight and overweight/obese adults and to investigate the association between PA level and overweight/obesity in Malaysian adults. This study used data from the 2015 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), a nationwide cross-sectional survey that implemented a two-stage stratified random sampling design. Respondents aged 18 years and above (n = 17,261) were included in the analysis. The short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was administered to assess the respondents' PA levels. The respondents' height and weight were objectively measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The respondents were categorized according to BMI as either normal-weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ) or overweight/obese (≥ 25 kg/m 2 ). Descriptive and complex sample logistic regression analyses were employed as appropriate. Overall, approximately 1 in 2 respondents (51.2%) were overweight/obese, even though the majority (69.0%) reporting at least a moderate level of PA (total PA ≥ 10 MET-hours/week). In both normal-weight and overweight/obese groups, a significantly higher prevalence of high PA (total PA ≥ 50 MET-hours/week) was observed among men than women (p obese men reported a significantly lower level of vigorous-intensity PA and total PA than normal-weight men (p obesity (Adjusted OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.30) compared to a high level of PA among men but not among women. The levels of PA were inversely related to the risk of overweight/obesity in men but not in women. Programs designed to reduce overweight/obesity rates should encourage the practice of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA. Future research should consider using longitudinal and prospective

  14. Oral health status in Sichuan Province: findings from the oral health survey of Sichuan, 2015–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wei; Yang, Ying-Ming; Chen, Hong; Li, Xue; Wang, Zhuo; Cheng, Li; Yin, Qiu-Dan; Fang, Hong-Zhi; Fei, Wei; Mi, Fang-Lin; Nie, Min-Hai; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2017-01-01

    To investigate oral health status in the residents of Sichuan Province, southwest China, a cross-sectional study was performed using the latest Oral Health Survey Basic Methods recommended by the World Health Organization. A multistage stratified random cluster-sampling method was used to enroll participants from the following three groups: children aged 3–5 years, adolescents aged 12 years, and people aged 65–74 years. In these three groups, the mean numbers of teeth that were affected by caries were 3.28, 0.86 and 5.13, respectively, resulting in a prevalence of 63.47%, 37.20% and 83.20%, respectively. Relative to the high rate of decayed teeth, the prevalence of fillings was very low in all age groups (0.97%, 7.24% and 5.43%, respectively). In the 12-year-old adolescent group, only 3.61% had good pit and fissure sealing. In addition, the rate of dental fluorosis was 24.80%, and the Community Fluorosis Index value was 0.39. In the elder group, the community periodontal index was 2.92. The prevalence in the elderly of having lost at least one tooth was 75.54%. Additionally, 4.44% of these participants were edentulous. The incidence of dental prosthesis was 51.75%, the proportion with a removable partial denture, a fixed denture, full dentures, dental implants and an informal fixed bridge was 21.59%, 11.45%, 4.64%, 0 and 16.67%, respectively. In this study, 8.2% of the elderly participants were affected by different types of oral mucosal lesions. Among such lesions, recurrent aphthous ulcers were most prevalent (2.69%) and oral lichen planuses were second (1.6%). The conclusion presented in this survey is that oral diseases, especially dental caries and periodontal disease, are frequent and common in Sichuan province, China. Moreover, the treatment rate is very low, and primary prevention and treatment options are therefore urgently needed in this population. PMID:28358035

  15. Socio-Economic Variation in Price Minimizing Behaviors: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S.; Hyland, Andrew J.; O’Connor, Richard J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES) modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of adult smokers and includes respondents from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed among 8,243 respondents (7,038 current smokers) from the survey wave conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. Analyses examined predictors of purchasing from low/untaxed sources, using discount cigarettes or roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, purchasing cigarettes in cartons, and engaging in high levels of price and tax avoidance at last purchase. All analyses tested for interactions with SES and were weighted to account for changing and under-represented demographics. Relatively high levels of price and tax avoidance behaviors were present; 8% reported buying from low or untaxed source; 36% used discount or generic brands, 13.5% used RYO tobacco, 29% reported purchasing cartons, and 63% reported using at least one of these high price avoidance behaviors. Respondents categorized as having low SES were approximately 26% less likely to report using low or untaxed sources and 43% less likely to purchase tobacco by the carton. However, respondents with low SES were 85% more likely to report using discount brands/RYO compared to participants with higher SES. Overall, lower SES smokers were 25% more likely to engage in at least one or more tax avoidance behaviors compared to their higher SES counterparts. Price and tax avoidance behaviors are relatively common among smokers of all SES strata, but strategies differed with higher SES groups more likely to report traveling to a low-tax location to avoid paying higher prices, purchase duty free tobacco, and purchase by cartons instead of packs all of which were less

  16. A Frailty Instrument for primary care: findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE

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    Romero-Ortuno Roman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A frailty paradigm would be useful in primary care to identify older people at risk, but appropriate metrics at that level are lacking. We created and validated a simple instrument for frailty screening in Europeans aged ≥50. Our study is based on the first wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, http://www.share-project.org, a large population-based survey conducted in 2004-2005 in twelve European countries. Methods Subjects: SHARE Wave 1 respondents (17,304 females and 13,811 males. Measures: five SHARE variables approximating Fried's frailty definition. Analyses (for each gender: 1 estimation of a discreet factor (DFactor model based on the frailty variables using LatentGOLD®. A single DFactor with three ordered levels or latent classes (i.e. non-frail, pre-frail and frail was modelled; 2 the latent classes were characterised against a biopsychosocial range of Wave 1 variables; 3 the prospective mortality risk (unadjusted and age-adjusted for each frailty class was established on those subjects with known mortality status at Wave 2 (2007-2008 (11,384 females and 9,163 males; 4 two web-based calculators were created for easy retrieval of a subject's frailty class given any five measurements. Results Females: the DFactor model included 15,578 cases (standard R2 = 0.61. All five frailty indicators discriminated well (p N = 10,420; 66.9%, pre-frail (N = 4,025; 25.8%, and frail (N = 1,133; 7.3%. Relative to the non-frail class, the age-adjusted Odds Ratio (with 95% Confidence Interval for mortality at Wave 2 was 2.1 (1.4 - 3.0 in the pre-frail and 4.8 (3.1 - 7.4 in the frail. Males: 12,783 cases (standard R2 = 0.61, all frailty indicators had p N = 10,517; 82.3%, pre-frail (N = 1,871; 14.6%, and frail (N = 395; 3.1%; age-adjusted OR (95% CI for mortality: 3.0 (2.3 - 4.0 in the pre-frail, 6.9 (4.7 - 10.2 in the frail. Conclusions The SHARE Frailty Instrument has sufficient construct and

  17. Trends in Roll-Your-Own Smoking: Findings from the ITC Four-Country Survey (2002–2008

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    David Young

    2012-01-01

    Methods. Participants were 19,456 cigarette smokers interviewed during the longitudinal International Tobacco Control (ITC Four-Country Survey in Canada, USA, UK, and Australia. Results. “Predominant” RYO use (i.e., >50% of cigarettes smoked increased significantly in the UK and USA as a proportion of all cigarette use (both P<.001 and in all countries as a proportion of any RYO use (all P<.010. Younger, financially stressed smokers are disproportionately contributing to “some” use (i.e., ≤50% of cigarettes smoked. Relative cost was the major reason given for using RYO, and predominant RYO use is consistently and significantly associated with low income. Conclusions. RYO market trends reflect the price advantages accruing to RYO (a product of favourable taxation regimes in some jurisdictions reinforced by the enhanced control over the amount of tobacco used, especially following the impact of the Global Financial Crisis; the availability of competing low-cost alternatives to RYO; accessibility of duty-free RYO tobacco; and tobacco industry niche marketing strategies. If policy makers want to ensure that the RYO option does not inhibit the fight to end the tobacco epidemic, especially amongst the disadvantaged, they need to reduce the price advantage, target additional health messages at (young RYO users, and challenge niche marketing of RYO by the industry.

  18. Migration and depressive symptoms in migrant-sending areas: findings from the survey of internal migration and health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Hu, Peifeng; Treiman, Donald J

    2012-08-01

    China has experienced large-scale internal migration and growing mental health disorders. Limited research has examined the relationship between the two processes. We examined the association between labor out-migration and depressive symptoms of family members left behind in migrant-sending areas. We conducted a multistage probability sample survey of Chinese adults in 2008 ("Internal Migration and Health in China"), including 787 people in rural migrant-sending areas. To study whether adults in out-migrant households were more likely to experience depressive symptoms (CES-D) than were adults in non-migrant households, we used multivariate regressions and adjusted for a wide range of confounding factors and for the complex sampling design. Adults in households with labor out-migrants were more likely to report depressive symptoms than those in households without out-migrants, presumably a result of the absence of family members. However, monetary remittances from labor migrants buffered the mental health costs of out-migration. Labor out-migration has important consequences for the mental health in migrant-sending communities. There is an urgent need to address the psychological costs of migration and to promote regular remittances.

  19. Iodine deficiency status and iodised salt consumption in Malaysia: findings from a national iodine deficiency disorders survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, Rusidah; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan; Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Rahim, Nor Syamlina Che Abdul; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul; Aris, Tahir

    2010-01-01

    A nationwide cross-sectional school-based survey was undertaken among children aged 8-10 years old to determine the current iodine deficiency status in the country. Determination of urinary iodine (UI) and palpation of the thyroid gland were carried out among 18,012 and 18,078 children respectively while iodine test of the salt samples was done using Rapid Test Kits and the iodometric method. The results showed that based on WHO/ ICCIDD/UNICEF criteria, the national median UI was 109 μg/L [25th, 75th percentile (67, 166)] showing borderline adequacy. The overall national prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) with UIMalaysia using adequately iodised salt as recommended by Malaysian Food Act 1983 of 20-30 ppm was only 6.8% (95% CI: 5.1, 9.0). In conclusion, although a goitre endemic was not present in Malaysia, almost half of the states in Peninsular Malaysia still have large proportion of UI level review on the current approach of the national IDD prevention and control programme.

  20. How do price minimizing behaviors impact smoking cessation? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew J; O'Connor, Richard J; Chaloupka, Frank J; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5) and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1) cessation, (2) quit attempts, and (3) successful quit attempts at one year follow up using multivariate logistic regression modeling. A subset analysis included 3,387 participants who were current smokers at waves 5 and 6 and were followed through wave 7 to explore effects of changing purchase patterns on cessation. Statistical tests for interaction were performed to examine the joint effect of SES and price/tax avoidance behaviors on cessation outcomes. Smokers who engaged in any price/tax avoidance behaviors were 28% less likely to report cessation. Persons using low/untaxed sources were less likely to quit at follow up, those purchasing cartons were less likely to make quit attempts and quit, and those using discount cigarettes were less likely to succeed, conditional on making attempts. Respondents who utilized multiple behaviors simultaneously were less likely to make quit attempts and to succeed. SES did not modify the effects of price minimizing behaviors on cessation outcomes. The data from this paper indicate that the availability of lower priced cigarette alternatives may attenuate public health efforts aimed at to reduce reducing smoking prevalence through price and tax increases among all SES groups.

  1. Maternal complications and perinatal mortality: findings of the World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J P; Souza, J P; Mori, R; Morisaki, N; Lumbiganon, P; Laopaiboon, M; Ortiz-Panozo, E; Hernandez, B; Pérez-Cuevas, R; Roy, M; Mittal, S; Cecatti, J G; Tunçalp, Ö; Gülmezoglu, A M

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence and risks of late fetal deaths (LFDs) and early neonatal deaths (ENDs) in women with medical and obstetric complications. Secondary analysis of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS). A total of 359 participating facilities in 29 countries. A total of 308 392 singleton deliveries. We reported on perinatal indicators and determined risks of perinatal death in the presence of severe maternal complications (haemorrhagic, infectious, and hypertensive disorders, and other medical conditions). Fresh and macerated LFDs (defined as stillbirths ≥ 1000 g and/or ≥28 weeks of gestation) and ENDs. The LFD rate was 17.7 per 1000 births; 64.8% were fresh stillbirths. The END rate was 8.4 per 1000 liveborns; 67.1% occurred by day 3 of life. Maternal complications were present in 22.9, 27.7, and 21.2% [corrected] of macerated LFDs, fresh LFDs, and ENDs, respectively. The risks of all three perinatal mortality outcomes were significantly increased with placental abruption, ruptured uterus, systemic infections/sepsis, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and severe anaemia. Preventing intrapartum-related perinatal deaths requires a comprehensive approach to quality intrapartum care, beyond the provision of caesarean section. Early identification and management of women with complications could improve maternal and perinatal outcomes. © 2014 RCOG The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  2. Post-traumatic stress disorder, drug abuse and migraine: new findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlin, B Lee; Rosso, Andrea L; Sheftell, Fred D; Libon, David J; Mossey, Jana M; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2011-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been shown to be associated with migraine and drug abuse. This was an analysis of data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) to evaluate the association of PTSD in those with episodic migraine (EM) and chronic daily headache (CDH). Our sample consisted of 5,692 participants. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of PTSD were increased in those with EM and CDH. After adjustments, the lifetime odds ratio (OR) of PTSD was greater in those with EM (OR 3.07 confidence interval [CI]: 2.12, 4.46) compared to those without headache; was greater in men than women with EM (men: OR 6.86; CI: 3.11, 15.11; women: OR 2.77; CI: 1.83, 4.21); and was comparable or greater than the association between migraine with depression or anxiety. The lifetime OR of PTSD was also increased in CDH sufferers. The OR of illicit drug abuse was not increased in those with EM or CDH unless co-occurring with PTSD or depression. The lifetime and 12-month OR of PTSD is increased in those with migraine or CDH, and is greater in men than women with migraine. The lifetime and 12-month OR of illicit drug abuse is not increased in those with migraine or CDH unless co-occurring with PTSD or depression.

  3. Same-sex legal marriage and psychological well-being: findings from the California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Richard G; Leblanc, Allen J; Lee Badgett, M V

    2013-02-01

    We examined whether same-sex marriage was associated with nonspecific psychological distress among self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults, and whether it had the potential to offset mental health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals. Population-based data (weighted) were from the 2009 adult (aged 18-70 years) California Health Interview Survey. Within-group analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons included 1166 individuals (weighted proportion = 3.15%); within-group heterosexual analysis included 35 608 individuals (weighted proportion = 96.58%); and pooled analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals included 36 774 individuals. Same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons were significantly less distressed than lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons not in a legally recognized relationship; married heterosexuals were significantly less distressed than nonmarried heterosexuals. In adjusted pairwise comparisons, married heterosexuals had the lowest psychological distress, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons who were not in legalized relationships had the highest psychological distress (P sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons, lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons in registered domestic partnerships, and heterosexuals. Being in a legally recognized same-sex relationship, marriage in particular, appeared to diminish mental health differentials between heterosexuals and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. Researchers must continue to examine potential health benefits of same-sex marriage, which is at least in part a public health issue.

  4. Use of less expensive cigarettes in six cities in China: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Hyland, Andrew; Fong, Geoffrey T; Jiang, Yuan; Elton-Marshall, Tara

    2010-10-01

    The existence of less expensive cigarettes in China may undermine public health. The aim of the current study is to examine the use of less expensive cigarettes in six cities in China. Data was from the baseline wave of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey of 4815 adult urban smokers in 6 cities, conducted between April and August 2006. The percentage of smokers who reported buying less expensive cigarettes (the lowest pricing tertile within each city) at last purchase was computed. Complex sample multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with use of less expensive cigarettes. The association between the use of less expensive cigarettes and intention to quit smoking was also examined. Smokers who reported buying less expensive cigarettes at last purchase tended to be older, heavier smokers, to have lower education and income, and to think more about the money spent on smoking in the last month. Smokers who bought less expensive cigarettes at the last purchase and who were less knowledgeable about the health harm of smoking were less likely to intend to quit smoking. Measures need to be taken to minimise the price differential among cigarette brands and to increase smokers' health knowledge, which may in turn increase their intentions to quit.

  5. How Do Price Minimizing Behaviors Impact Smoking Cessation? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S.; Hyland, Andrew J.; O’Connor, Richard J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5) and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1) cessation, (2) quit attempts, and (3) successful quit attempts at one year follow up using multivariate logistic regression modeling. A subset analysis included 3,387 participants who were current smokers at waves 5 and 6 and were followed through wave 7 to explore effects of changing purchase patterns on cessation. Statistical tests for interaction were performed to examine the joint effect of SES and price/tax avoidance behaviors on cessation outcomes. Smokers who engaged in any price/tax avoidance behaviors were 28% less likely to report cessation. Persons using low/untaxed sources were less likely to quit at follow up, those purchasing cartons were less likely to make quit attempts and quit, and those using discount cigarettes were less likely to succeed, conditional on making attempts. Respondents who utilized multiple behaviors simultaneously were less likely to make quit attempts and to succeed. SES did not modify the effects of price minimizing behaviors on cessation outcomes. The data from this paper indicate that the availability of lower priced cigarette alternatives may attenuate public health efforts aimed at to reduce reducing smoking prevalence through price and tax increases among all SES groups. PMID:21655144

  6. Commercial sex behaviours among involuntary male bachelors: findings from a survey of migrants in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueyan; Li, Shuzhuo; Attané, Isabelle; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-06-01

    The highly male-biased sex ratio at birth has produced a severe male 'marriage squeeze' in China. However, with an imbalanced sex ratio, the marriage-squeezed or involuntary bachelors can meet their sexual needs only through ways other than marriage. To investigate the commercial sex behaviours of involuntary bachelors, we conducted a survey on reproductive health and family living among male migrant bachelors in Xi'an City, the capital of Shaanxi Province, from December 2009 to January 2010. The prevalence of commercial sex use was 37.2% among unmarried men, 30.1% among married but separated men and 17.2% among married and cohabitating men (χ(2) = 31.33; P = 0.000; df = 2). Marital status, knowledge about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), age and income were associated with the prevalence and frequency of commercial sex behaviours. Condom use was less frequent among involuntary bachelors and was significantly associated with knowledge about AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, the frequency of commercial sex behaviours, marital status and age. The higher prevalence of commercial sex behaviours and the lower frequency of condom use indicate a higher risk of disease from commercial sex among involuntary bachelors, implicating both individual and public health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Correlates of cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Thailand: findings from the Thai global youth tobacco survey 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies examining the social correlates of tobacco use among adolescents fail to recognise theories of health behaviour and health promotion in their analysis. Using the Socio-Ecologiocal Model (SEM we assessed the demographic and social factors associated with current cigarette smoking among adolescents in Thailand. Method A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey (Thai GYTS 2005 was analysed to obtain prevalence of selected attributes and assess factors associated with current cigarette smoking. Current cigarette smoking was defined as having smoked a cigarette, even a single puff, in the last 30 days. Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the level of association between the explanatory variables and current smoking. Results Of the 18,368 respondents, 22.0% males and 5.2% females reported being current smokers (p Conclusion Current cigarette smoking was associated with male gender, smoking parents or closest peers. Perception that smoking was harmful to health was associated with less likelihood of being a current smoker.

  8. Operationalising caseload midwifery in the Australian public maternity system: Findings from a national cross-sectional survey of maternity managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Kate; Forster, Della A; McLachlan, Helen L; Newton, Michelle S

    2018-06-01

    Despite high-level evidence of the benefits of caseload midwifery for women and babies, little is known about specific practice arrangements, organisational barriers and facilitators, nor about workforce requirements of caseload. This paper explores how caseload models across Australia operate. A national cross-sectional, online survey of maternity managers in public maternity hospitals with birthing services was undertaken. Only services with a caseload model are included in the analysis. Of 253 eligible hospitals, 149 (63%) responded, of whom 44 (31%) had a caseload model. Operationalisation of caseload varied across the country. Most commonly, caseload midwives were required to work more than 0.5 EFT, have more than one year of experience and have the skills across the whole scope of practice. On average, midwives took a caseload of 35-40 women when full time, with reduced caseloads if caring for women at higher risk. Leave coverage was complex and often ad-hoc. Duration of home-based postnatal care varied and most commonly provided to six weeks. Women's access to caseload care was impacted by many factors with geographical location and obstetric risk being most common. Introducing, managing and operationalising caseload midwifery care is complex. Factors which may affect the expansion and availability of the model are multi-faceted and include staffing and model inclusion guidelines. Coverage of leave is a factor which appears particularly challenging and needs more focus. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. LGBT health and vaccinations: Findings from a community health survey of Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Poole, Asheley; Lasley-Bibbs, Vivian; Johnson, Mark

    2016-04-07

    Data on adult immunization coverage at the state level and for LGBT Americans in particular are sparse. This study reports the results of a 2012 Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, community health assessment's results asking about eight adult vaccinations among 218 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) respondents. Researchers collected data using an online survey distributed through LGBT social media, posters, and LGBT print media. The LGBT sample largely matches the demographics of the county as a whole except this group reports higher level of education and fewer uninsured individuals. Among LGBT respondents, immunization prevalence reaches 68.0% (annual Influenza), 65.7% (Hepatitis B), 58.8% (Chickenpox/Varicella), 55.9% (Hepatitis A), 41.2% (Smallpox), and 25.8% (Pneumonia). Among respondents who are currently within the recommended 19-26 years age range for the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the LGBT females are less likely to report receiving the vaccine (15.4%) compared to the national coverage percentage of 34.5%. Males, however, are more likely to have received the vaccine (10.3%) than the national percentage of 2.3%. The small number of LGBT seniors in the study report a much higher prevalence of the Shingles (Herpes Zoster) vaccines than for U.S. seniors 60 and older (71.4% compared to 20.1% nationally). LGBT respondents report higher percentages of adult vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Insomnia and hallucinations in the general population: Findings from the 2000 and 2007 British Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaves, Bryony; Bebbington, Paul E; Goodwin, Guy M; Harrison, Paul J; Espie, Colin A; Foster, Russell G; Freeman, Daniel

    2016-07-30

    Insomnia is common in people experiencing psychosis. It has been identified as a contributory cause of paranoia, but any causal relationship with hallucinations has yet to be established. We tested the hypotheses that insomnia i) has a cross-sectional association with hallucinations ii) predicts new inceptions of hallucinations and iii) that these associations remain after controlling for depression, anxiety, and paranoia. Data from the second (2000, N=8580) and third (2007, N=7403) British Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys were used to assess cross-sectional associations between insomnia and hallucinations. The 2000 dataset included an 18 month follow up of a subsample (N=2406) used to test whether insomnia predicted new inceptions of hallucinations. Insomnia was associated with hallucinations in both cross-sectional datasets. Mild sleep problems were associated with 2-3 times greater odds of reporting hallucinations, whilst chronic insomnia was associated with four times greater odds. Insomnia was also associated with increased odds of hallucinations occurring de novo over the next 18 months. These associations remained significant, although with smaller odds ratios, after controlling for depression, anxiety and paranoia. This is the first longitudinal evidence that insomnia is associated with the development of hallucinatory experiences. Effective treatment of insomnia may lessen the occurrence of hallucinations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Cigarette prices, cigarette expenditure and smoking-induced deprivation: findings from the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Thrasher, James F; Yong, Hua H; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Miera, Belén Saenz; Borland, Ron

    2013-07-01

    Mexico implemented annual tax increases between 2009 and 2011. We examined among current smokers the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with smoking-induced deprivation (SID) and whether the association of price or expenditure with SID varies by income. We used data (n=2410) from three waves of the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey (ie, 2008, 2010, 2011) and employed logistic regression to estimate the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with the probability of SID ('In the last 6 months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?'). Price paid per cigarette increased from Mex$1.24 in 2008, to Mex$1.36 in 2010, to Mex$1.64 in 2011. Daily cigarette expenditure increased from Mex$6.9, to Mex$7.6 and to Mex$8.4 in the 3 years. There was no evidence of an association between price and SID. However, higher expenditure was associated with a higher probability of SID. There was no evidence that the association of price or expenditure with SID varied by income. Tax increases in Mexico have resulted in smokers paying more and spending more for their cigarettes. Those with higher cigarette expenditure experience more SID, with no evidence that poorer smokers are more affected.

  12. Self-reported well-being and associated factors among industrial workers in Brazil: findings from a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Ginar da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this study was to estimate self-perception of well-being and associated factors among industrial workers in Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with a representative sample from 23 Brazilian states and the Federal District. Self-reported of well-being was investigated by questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression was used in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. For 93% of the 47,477 industrial workers, the perception of well-being was positive. Those who had the highest chances of being in the category of best perception of well-being were: male workers (OR = 1.35; 95%CI: 1.28; 1.43; those aged under thirty years old (OR = 1.24; 95%CI: 1.12; 1.39; those from Southern Brazil (OR = 1.99; 95%CI: 1.83; 2.16; and people with a high income. The prevalence of positive well-being was high. Sociodemographic, behavioral and social support characteristics, as well as the characteristics related to self-report on health were associated with well-being.

  13. Predictors of smoking cessation among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand: findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey T; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Quah, Anne C K; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah; Zanna, Mark P; Fotuhi, Omid

    2010-10-01

    Limited longitudinal studies on smoking cessation have been reported in Asia, and it remains unclear whether determinants of quitting are similar to those found in Western countries. This study examined prospective predictors of smoking cessation among adult smokers in Thailand and Malaysia. Four thousand and four smokers were surveyed in Malaysia and Thailand in 2005. Of these, 2,426 smokers were followed up in 2006 (61% retention). Baseline measures of sociodemographics, dependence, and interest in quitting were used to predict both making quit attempts and point prevalence maintenance of cessation. More Thai than Malaysian smokers reported having made quit attempts between waves, but among those who tried, the rates of staying quit were not considerably different between Malaysians and Thais. Multivariate analyses showed that smoking fewer cigarettes per day, higher levels of self-efficacy, and more immediate quitting intentions were predictive of both making a quit attempt and staying quit in both countries. Previous shorter quit attempts and higher health concerns about smoking were only predictive of making an attempt, whereas prior abstinence for 6 months or more and older age were associated with maintenance. In Malaysia and Thailand, predictors of quitting activity appear to be similar. However, as in the West, predictors of making quit attempts are not all the same as those who predict maintenance. The actual predictors differ in potentially important ways from those found in the West. We need to determine the relative contributions of cultural factors and the shorter history of efforts to encourage quitting in Asia.

  14. Understanding patients' oral health information needs: Findings of a survey on use of patient portals in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpi, Neel; Schwei, Kelsey; Cooper, Sara; Chyou, Po-Huang; Acharya, Amit

    2018-03-01

    Patient engagement through web-based patient health portals (PHP) can offer important benefits to patients and provider organizations by improving both quality and access to care. The authors studied the most relevant, patient-identified, oral health information available in the PHP to inform their assessment of patient-centered care. The authors distributed a 17-question, paper-based survey to patients aged 18 through 80 years in the waiting rooms of 8 dental centers in Wisconsin. Descriptive statistics, along with differences in percentages by sex, age group, and metropolitan status were reported using the χ 2 and Wilcoxon rank sum test. A 75% (813 of 1,090) response rate was achieved. More than one-third of patients selected access to previous dental procedures, dental history, routine dental appointment reminders, date of last dental visit, tooth chart, date of last full-mouth radiograph, and dental problem list via the PHP. Patients identified and recommended incorporation of different types of oral health data for access via the PHP as vital to strengthening the communication between patients and dental professionals. Incorporating patient-identified oral health information in the PHP will inform strategies for improving patient engagement, strengthen patient-provider communication, and offer a venue for increasing oral health literacy and awareness. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of truancy among adolescents in Swaziland: findings from the Global School-Based Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Educational attainment is an important determinant of diverse health outcomes. Truancy among adolescents jeopardizes chances of achieving their educational goals. Truant behaviors are also associated with various psychosocial problems. There is however limited data on the prevalence and factors associated with truancy among adolescents in Africa. Methods We used data from the Swaziland Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS conducted in 2003 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported truancy within the last 30 days among adolescents. We also assessed the association between self-reported truancy and a selected list of independent variables using logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 7341 students participated in the study. In analysis of available data, 2526 (36.2% and 4470 (63.8% were males and females respectively. The overall prevalence of truancy within the last 30 days preceding the study was 21.6%. Prevalence of truancy was 27.4% (605 and 17.9% (723 in males and females respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, being a male, having been bullied, lower school grades, and alcohol use were positively associated with truancy. Adolescents who perceived themselves as having parental support were less likely to have reported being truant. Conclusion Truancy among adolescents in Swaziland should be regarded as an important social problem as it is relatively prevalent. The design and implementation of intervention programs aimed to reduce truant behaviours should incorporate our knowledge of the factors identified as associated with bullying.

  16. Findings of the wetland survey of the David Witherspoon, Inc., 1630 Site, South Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR Environmental, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    In accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Regulations surveys for wetland presence or absence were conducted in September 1996 on the DWI-1630 site (Witherspoon Landfill) located in South Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee. The DWI-1630 site includes a closed, capped landfill area, areas of past disturbance adjacent to the capped area, and patches of hardwood forest. Wetlands were identified on the landfill cap and in a small bottomland that was formerly used for a retention pond in the southwest corner of the DWI-1630 site. The wetlands identified on the cap are man-induced, atypical situation wetlands. These areas have hydrophytic vegetation and wetland hydrology, but the soils do not have hydric characteristics. Wetland development appears to be due to a combination of the grading or subsidence of the clay landfill cap, the low permeability of the clay fill soil, and the absence of surface drainage outlets from the depressions. These atypical situation wetland areas may not be considered by the US Army Corps of Engineers or the State of Tennessee to be jurisdictional wetlands. The wetland in the former retention pond area has hydrophytic vegetation, wetland hydrology, and hydric soils and is a jurisdictional wetland.

  17. Study on mass survey for cardiovascular diseases. An analysis of the electrocardiographic findings of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Noriko; Harada, Hisako; Nakamura, Kenji; Fujita, Keiko; Ishida, Sakurako; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Tanaka, Gaku; Maeda, Ryo.

    1996-01-01

    Electrocardiographic findings obtained at authors' center in 1993 of 12,534 survivors (5,500 males and 7,034 females), aged 47-99 y, were analyzed in relation to irradiation conditions such as distance from the explosion site by Minnesota code to give the following results. The rate of survivors without abnormalities was higher in females than in males. In males and females, there was an increasing tendency with age of the appearance of QRS high potential, ischemic electrocardiographic abnormalities, bundle-branch block and arrhythmia. The frequency of appearance of ischemic abnormalities was correlated with sex and blood pressure but not with irradiation conditions. (H.O.)

  18. Servicemembers and veterans with major traumatic limb loss from Vietnam war and OIF/OEF conflicts: survey methods, participants, and summary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, Gayle E; McFarland, Lynne V; Hubbard, Sharon; Maynard, Charles; Blough, David K; Gambel, Jeffrey M; Smith, Douglas G

    2010-01-01

    Care of veterans and servicemembers with major traumatic limb loss from combat theaters is one of the highest priorities of the Department of Veteran Affairs. We achieved a 62% response rate in our Survey for Prosthetic Use from 298 Vietnam war veterans and 283 servicemembers/veterans from Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) who sustained major traumatic limb loss. Participants reported their combat injuries; health status; quality of life; and prosthetic device use, function, rejection, and satisfaction. Despite the serious injuries experienced, health status was rated excellent, very good, or good by 70.7% of Vietnam war and 85.5% of OIF/OEF survey participants. However, many health issues persist for Vietnam war and OIF/OEF survey participants (respectively): phantom limb pain (72.2%/76.0%), chronic back pain (36.2%/42.1%), residual-limb pain (48.3%/62.9%), prosthesis-related skin problems (51.0%/58.0%), hearing loss (47.0%/47.0%), traumatic brain injury (3.4%/33.9%), depression (24.5%/24.0%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (37.6%/58.7%). Prosthetic devices are currently used by 78.2% of Vietnam war and 90.5% of OIF/OEF survey participants to improve function and mobility. On average, the annual rate for prosthetic device receipt is 10.7-fold higher for OIF/OEF than for Vietnam war survey participants. Findings from this cross-conflict survey identify many strengths in prosthetic rehabilitation for those with limb loss and several areas for future attention.

  19. Physical activity and overweight/obesity among Malaysian adults: findings from the 2015 National Health and morbidity survey (NHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Ying Chan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are growing health problems both worldwide and in Malaysia due to such lifestyle changes as decreased physical activity (PA, increased sedentary behavior and unhealthy eating habits. This study examined the levels and patterns of PA among normal-weight and overweight/obese adults and to investigate the association between PA level and overweight/obesity in Malaysian adults. Methods This study used data from the 2015 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, a nationwide cross-sectional survey that implemented a two-stage stratified random sampling design. Respondents aged 18 years and above (n = 17,261 were included in the analysis. The short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was administered to assess the respondents’ PA levels. The respondents’ height and weight were objectively measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated. The respondents were categorized according to BMI as either normal-weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2 or overweight/obese (≥ 25 kg/m2. Descriptive and complex sample logistic regression analyses were employed as appropriate. Results Overall, approximately 1 in 2 respondents (51.2% were overweight/obese, even though the majority (69.0% reporting at least a moderate level of PA (total PA ≥ 10 MET-hours/week. In both normal-weight and overweight/obese groups, a significantly higher prevalence of high PA (total PA ≥ 50 MET-hours/week was observed among men than women (p < 0.001, but women reported a significantly higher prevalence of low and moderate PA than men (p < 0.001. Men reported significantly higher activity levels (in MET-hours/week than women with regard to walking, vigorous-intensity PA and total PA (p < 0.001. Overweight/obese men reported a significantly lower level of vigorous-intensity PA and total PA than normal-weight men (p < 0.001. A low level of PA was associated with the risk of overweight

  20. How Do Price Minimizing Behaviors Impact Smoking Cessation? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Four Country Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar Nargis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5 and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1 cessation, (2 quit attempts, and (3 successful quit attempts at one year follow up using multivariate logistic regression modeling. A subset analysis included 3,387 participants who were current smokers at waves 5 and 6 and were followed through wave 7 to explore effects of changing purchase patterns on cessation. Statistical tests for interaction were performed to examine the joint effect of SES and price/tax avoidance behaviors on cessation outcomes. Smokers who engaged in any price/tax avoidance behaviors were 28% less likely to report cessation. Persons using low/untaxed sources were less likely to quit at follow up, those purchasing cartons were less likely to make quit attempts and quit, and those using discount cigarettes were less likely to succeed, conditional on making attempts. Respondents who utilized multiple behaviors simultaneously were less likely to make quit attempts and to succeed. SES did not modify the effects of price minimizing behaviors on cessation outcomes. The data from this paper indicate that the availability of lower priced cigarette alternatives may attenuate public health efforts aimed at to reduce reducing smoking prevalence through price and tax increases among all SES groups. This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5 and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1 cessation, (2 quit attempts, and (3 successful

  1. Ethnic differences in women's use of mental health services: do social networks play a role? Findings from a national survey.

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    Kapadia, Dharmi; Nazroo, James; Tranmer, Mark

    2018-04-01

    The reasons for ethnic differences in women's mental health service use in England remain unclear. The aims of this study were to ascertain: ethnic differences in women's usage of mental health services, if social networks are independently associated with service use, and if the association between women's social networks and service use varies between ethnic groups. Logistic regression modelling of nationally representative data from the Ethnic Minority Psychiatric Illness Rates in the Community (EMPIRIC) survey conducted in England. The analytic sample (2260 women, aged 16-74 years) was drawn from the representative subsample of 2340 women in EMPIRIC for whom data on mental health services, and social networks were available. Pakistani and Bangladeshi women were less likely than White women to have used mental health services (Pakistani OR = 0.23, CI = 0.08-0.65, p = .005; Bangladeshi OR = 0.25, CI = 0.07-0.86, p = .027). Frequent contact with relatives reduced mental health service use (OR = 0.45, CI = 0.23-0.89, p = .023). An increase in perceived inadequate support in women's close networks was associated with increased odds of using mental health services (OR = 1.91, CI = 1.11-3.27, p = .019). The influence of social networks on mental health service use did not differ between ethnic groups. The differential treatment of women from Pakistani and Bangladeshi ethnic groups in primary care settings could be a possible reason for the observed differences in mental health service use.

  2. Sarcopenia and Hearing Loss in Older Koreans: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2010.

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    Jieun Lee

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI is becoming a more significant issue as geriatric population increases. Sarcopenia in older people is known to have a diverse health problem in various circumstances in recent studies. We assessed whether the decrease in muscle mass is related to ARHI. We used the 2010 data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES to examine the associations between sarcopenia and ARHI. A total number of participants was 1,622 including 746 males and 876 females aged 60 years or older. Muscle mass was assessed as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and hearing loss was defined as the pure-tone averages (PTA of test frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz at a threshold of 40 dB or higher in worse hearing side of the ear. Among 1,622 participants, 298 men and 256 women had hearing loss. Appendicular muscle mass (ASM, expressed as kg, was categorized in tertiles. In female population, after adjusting for age, smoking, drinking, amount of exercise, total body fat, education level, income level, and tinnitus, the odds ratio (OR for hearing loss was 1.57 (95% confidence interval (CI = 0.92-2.68 in the middle tertile and 1.79 (1.03-3.08 in the lowest tertile, compared with the highest tertile. P for trend in this model was 0.036. Controlling further for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and three types of noise exposure did not change the association. Larger muscle mass is associated with lower prevalence of hearing loss in elderly Korean females.

  3. Incidence of self-reported brain injury and the relationship with substance abuse: findings from a longitudinal community survey

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    Butterworth Peter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic or serious brain injury (BI has persistent and well documented adverse outcomes, yet 'mild' or 'moderate' BI, which often does not result in hospital treatment, accounts for half the total days of disability attributed to BI. There are currently few data available from community samples on the incidence and correlates of these injuries. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the 1 incidence of self-reported mild (not requiring hospital admission and moderate (admitted to hospital brain injury (BI, 2 causes of injury 3 physical health scores and 4 relationship between BI and problematic alcohol or marijuana use. Methods An Australian community sequential-cohort study (cohorts aged 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years at wave one used a survey methodology to assess BI and substance use at baseline and four years later. Results Of the 7485 wave one participants, 89.7% were re-interviewed at wave two. There were 56 mild (230.8/100000 person-years and 44 moderate BI (180.5/100000 person-years reported between waves one and two. Males and those in the 20-24 year cohort had increased risk of BI. Sports injury was the most frequent cause of BI (40/100 with traffic accidents being a greater proportion of moderate (27% than mild (7% BI. Neither alcohol nor marijuana problems at wave one were predictors of BI. BI was not a predictor of developing substance use problems by wave two. Conclusions BI were prevalent in this community sample, though the incidence declined with age. Factors associated with BI in community samples differ from those reported in clinical samples (e.g. typically traumatic brain injury with traffic accidents the predominate cause. Further, detailed evaluation of the health consequences of these injuries is warranted.

  4. Low parental awareness about energy (calorie) recommendations for children's restaurant meals: findings from a national survey in the USA.

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    Lynskey, Vanessa M; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Harelick, Linda; Korn, Ariella; Sharma, Shanti; Simms, Stephanie; Economos, Christina D

    2017-08-01

    To assess parental awareness of per-meal energy (calorie) recommendations for children's restaurant meals and to explore whether calorie awareness was associated with parental sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of eating restaurant food. Cross-sectional online survey administered in July 2014. Parents estimated calories (i.e. kilocalories; 1 kcal=4·184 kJ) recommended for a child's lunch/dinner restaurant meal (range: 0-2000 kcal). Responses were categorized as 'underestimate' (600 kcal). Confidence in response was measured on a 4-point scale from 'very unsure' to 'very sure'. Logistic regressions estimated the odds of an 'accurate' response and confident response ('somewhat' or 'very sure') by parental sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of eating from restaurants. Sampling weights based on demographics were incorporated in all analyses. USA. Parents (n 1207) of 5-12-year-old children. On average, parents estimated 631 (se 19·4) kcal as the appropriate amount for a 5-12-year-old child's meal. Thirty-five per cent answered in the accurate range, while 33·3 and 31·8 % underestimated and overestimated, respectively. Frequent dining at restaurants, lower income and urban geography were associated with lower odds of answering accurately. Parents' confidence in their estimates was low across the sample (26·0 % confident) and only 10·1 % were both accurate and confident. Parent education about calorie recommendations for children could improve understanding and use of menu labelling information in restaurants. Targeted strategies are recommended to ensure that such efforts address, rather than exacerbate, health disparities.

  5. Characteristics of personal health information management groups: findings from an online survey using Amazon's mTurk.

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    Kim, Sujin; Huber, Jeffrey T

    2017-10-01

    The study characterized three groups with different levels of familiarity with personal health information management (PHIM) in terms of their demographics, health knowledge, technological competency, and information sources and barriers. In addition, the authors examined differences among PHIM groups in subjective self-ratings and objective test scores for health literacy. A total of 202 survey participants were recruited using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (mTurk) service, a crowdsourcing Internet service. Using K-means clustering, three groups with differing levels of familiarity with PHIM were formed: Advanced, Intermediate, and Basic. The Advanced group was the youngest, and the Basic group contained the highest proportion of males, whereas the Intermediate group was the oldest and contained the fewest males. The Advanced group was significantly more likely to engage in provider- or hospital-initiated PHIM activities such as emailing with providers, viewing test results online, and receiving summaries of hospital visits via email or websites than the other groups. The Basic group had significantly lower information management skills and Internet use than the other groups. Advanced and Basic groups reported significant differences in several information barriers. While the Advanced group self-reported the highest general literacy, they scored lowest on an objective health literacy test. For effective personal health records management, it is critical to understand individual differences in PHIM using a comprehensive measure designed to assess personal health records-specific activities. Because they are trained to perform an array of information management activities, medical librarians or patient educators are well positioned to promote the effective use of personal health records by health consumers.

  6. Sexual autonomy and contraceptive use among women in Nigeria: findings from the Demographic and Health Survey data.

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    Viswan, Saritha P; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Petzold, Max G; Fonn, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    The persistent low contraceptive use and high fertility in Nigeria despite improvements in educational achievements calls for an examination of the role of factors, which may moderate the use of modern contraception. This article explores the influence of sexual autonomy on the use of modern contraceptive methods among women and its relative importance compared with other, more traditional, indicators of women's autonomy such as education and occupation. Data from two Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), 2008 and 2013, were used in this study. An index of sexual autonomy was constructed by combining related DHS variables, and its association with current use of modern contraception was examined at each time point as well as over time using multivariate regression analysis. The observed prevalence for use of modern contraception was 2.8 and 2.6 times higher among women who had high sexual autonomy in 2008 and 2013, respectively. The corresponding figures for women with secondary or higher education were 8.2 and 11.8 times higher, respectively, compared with women with no education. But after controlling for wealth index, religion, place of residence, autonomy and experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), the likelihood of use of modern contraception was lowered to about 2.5 (from 8.2) and 2.8 (from 11.8) times during 2008 and 2013, respectively, among women with secondary or higher education. The likelihood of use of modern contraception lowered only to 1.6 (from 2.8) and 1.8 (from 2.6) times among women with high sexual autonomy after controlling for other covariates, respectively, during the same period. Sexual autonomy seems to play an important role in women's use of modern contraceptive methods independent of education and a number of other factors related to women's status. Sexual autonomy needs to be simultaneously promoted alongside increasing educational opportunities to enhance women's ability to use modern contraception.

  7. Factors Associated with HIV Prevalence and HIV Testing in Sierra Leone: Findings from the 2008 Demographic Health Survey.

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    Nataliya Brima

    Full Text Available The Sierra Leone Demographic Health Survey 2008 found an HIV prevalence of 1.5%. This study investigates associations with HIV infection and HIV testing.Households were selected using stratified multi-stage sampling. In all selected households women aged 15-49 were eligible. In every second household men aged 15-59 were also eligible. Participants were asked to consent for anonymous HIV testing. All participants interviewed and tested were analysed. Multiple logistic regression identified associations with HIV infection, undiagnosed infection and with ever having a voluntary HIV test among sexually active participants.Of 7495 invited 86% (6,475 agreed to an interview and HIV test. Among 96 HIV positive participants, 78% had never taken a voluntary HIV test so were unaware of their serostatus, and 86% were sexually active in the last 12 months among whom 96% did not use a condom at last intercourse. 11% of all participants had previously voluntarily tested. Among women who had tested, 60% did so in antenatal care. We found that those living in an urban area, and those previously married, were more likely to be HIV infected. Voluntary HIV testing was more common in those aged 25-44, living in an urban area, females, having secondary or higher education, having first sexual intercourse at age 17 years or older, and using condoms at last sex. Although 82% of men and 69% of women had heard of HIV, only 35% and 29% respectively had heard of antiretroviral therapy.The HIV prevalence in Sierra Leone has been stable. HIV testing, however, is uncommon and most infected individuals are unaware of their serostatus. This could allow the epidemic to escalate as individuals with undiagnosed infection are unlikely to change their behaviour or access treatment. Improving knowledge and increasing testing need to remain central to HIV prevention interventions in Sierra Leone.

  8. Do clinicians prescribe exercise similarly in patients with different cardiovascular diseases? Findings from the EAPC EXPERT working group survey.

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    Hansen, Dominique; Rovelo Ruiz, Gustavo; Doherty, Patrick; Iliou, Marie-Christine; Vromen, Tom; Hinton, Sally; Frederix, Ines; Wilhelm, Matthias; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Abreu, Ana; Ambrosetti, Marco; Garcia-Porrero, Esteban; Coninx, Karin; Dendale, Paul

    2018-05-01

    Background Although disease-specific exercise guidelines for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are widely available, it remains uncertain whether these different exercise guidelines are integrated properly for patients with different CVDs. The aim of this study was to assess the inter-clinician variance in exercise prescription for patients with various CVDs and to compare these prescriptions with recommendations from the EXercise Prescription in Everyday practice and Rehabilitative Training (EXPERT) tool, a digital decision support system for integrated state-of-the-art exercise prescription in CVD. Design The study was a prospective observational survey. Methods Fifty-three CV rehabilitation clinicians from nine European countries were asked to prescribe exercise intensity (based on percentage of peak heart rate (HR peak )), frequency, session duration, programme duration and exercise type (endurance or strength training) for the same five patients. Exercise prescriptions were compared between clinicians, and relationships with clinician characteristics were studied. In addition, these exercise prescriptions were compared with recommendations from the EXPERT tool. Results A large inter-clinician variance was found for prescribed exercise intensity (median (interquartile range (IQR)): 83 (13) % of HR peak ), frequency (median (IQR): 4 (2) days/week), session duration (median (IQR): 45 (18) min/session), programme duration (median (IQR): 12 (18) weeks), total exercise volume (median (IQR): 1215 (1961) peak-effort training hours) and prescription of strength training exercises (prescribed in 78% of all cases). Moreover, clinicians' exercise prescriptions were significantly different from those of the EXPERT tool ( p < 0.001). Conclusions This study reveals significant inter-clinician variance in exercise prescription for patients with different CVDs and disagreement with an integrated state-of-the-art system for exercise prescription, justifying the need for

  9. Consulting patients in setting priorities in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (M.E.) research: findings from a national on-line survey.

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    Childs, Nicola; Robinson, Lisa; Chowdhury, Sonya; Ogden, Clare; Newton, Julia L

    2015-01-01

    Myalgic encephalitis (M.E.) is a common condition, the cause of which is not known and there are no treatments available. In this study the national patient support group Action for M.E. sought the opinions of their members via an online survey as to what they felt should be future priorities for M.E. Respondents were asked what they considered first, second and third research priorities to be from a list of 13 pre-defined options. Individuals were invited to provide additional free text comments about Action for M.E.'s research priorities in general. Of the 1144 respondents: 822 had M.E.; 94 were a supporting a member of Action for M.E. ; 66 were carers for someone with M.E.; 26 were professionals with an interest in M.E.; 136 had a family member or colleague with M.E. Individuals selected more than one category as applicable. The top five research priorities identified were: disease processes to achieve a better understanding of the causes of M.E.; more effective treatments; faster and more accurate diagnosis; clinical course of M.E.; outcomes and natural history; and severely affected patients. Least popular priorities were: sleep; economic research towards identifying the cost of ME; and psychological aspects. Much of the free text comments emphasised the importance of funding biomedical research into disease processes to achieve a better understanding of the causes of M.E. Three themes were identified in relation to this topic: accurate diagnosis and awareness; risk factors and causes; drug development and curative therapies. In conclusion; individuals affected by M.E. have clear views regarding priorities for research investment. These have informed Action for M.E.'s ongoing research strategy and ultimately will inform national and international research priorities.

  10. Regional Impact of Population Aging on Changes in Individual Self-perceptions of Aging: Findings From the German Ageing Survey.

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    Wolff, Julia K; Beyer, Ann-Kristin; Wurm, Susanne; Nowossadeck, Sonja; Wiest, Maja

    2018-01-18

    The importance of self-perceptions of aging (SPA) for health and longevity is well documented. Comparably little is known about factors that contribute to SPA. Besides individual factors, the context a person lives in may shape SPA. Research has so far focused on country-level differences in age stereotypes, indicating that rapid population aging accompanies more negative age stereotypes. The present study expands previous research by investigating the impact of district-specific population aging within one country on different facets of SPA. Based on a large representative survey in Germany, the study investigates changes in SPA as ongoing development as well as the SPA of physical loss over a 12-year period in adults aged 40+. The study uses several indicators of population aging (e.g., population development, average age, greying index), to identify four clusters differing in their pace of population aging. Based on three-level latent change models, these clusters were compared in their impact on changes in SPA. Compared to districts with an average rate of population aging, the study shows that persons living in regions with a fast population aging rate (C1) hold more negative SPA in both facets (ps = .01). Districts with slow population aging (C2) have significantly higher SPA ongoing development (p = .03). The study underlines the importance for regional differences in population aging on the development of SPA. In particular, societies should be aware that fast population aging may result in more negative SPA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Feminization of the medical workforce in low-income settings; findings from surveys in three African capital cities.

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    Russo, Giuliano; Gonçalves, Luzia; Craveiro, Isabel; Dussault, Gilles

    2015-07-31

    Women represent an increasingly growing share of the medical workforce in high-income countries, with abundant research focusing on reasons and implications of the phenomenon. Little evidence is available from low- and middle-income countries, which is odd given the possible repercussion this may have for the local supply of medical services and, ultimately, for attaining universal health coverage. Drawing from secondary analysis of primary survey data, this paper analyses the proportion and characteristics of female physicians in Bissau, Maputo and Praia, with the objective of gaining insights on the extent and features of the feminization of the medical workforce in low- and middle-income settings. We used descriptive statistics, parametric and non-parametric test to compare groups and explore associations between different variables. Zero-inflated and generalized linear models were employed to analyse the number of hours worked in the private and public sector by male and female physicians. We show that although female physicians do not represent yet the majority of the medical workforce, feminization of the profession is under way in the three locations analysed, as women are presently over-represented in younger age groups. Female doctors distribute unevenly across medical specialties in the three cities and are absent from traditionally male-dominated ones such as surgery, orthopaedics and stomatology. Our data also show that they engage as much as their male peers in private practice, although overall they dedicate fewer hours to the profession, particularly in the public sector. While more research is needed to understand how this phenomenon affects rural areas in a broader range of locations, our work shows the value of exploring the differences between female and male physicians' engagement with the profession in order to anticipate the impact of such feminization on national health systems and workforces in low- and middle-income countries.

  12. Role of working conditions in the explanation of occupational inequalities in work injury: findings from the national French SUMER survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; Lesuffleur, Thomas; Labarthe, Géraldine; Chastang, Jean-François

    2018-03-12

    Social inequalities in work injury have been observed but explanations are still missing. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the contribution of working conditions in the explanation of social inequalities in work injury in a national representative sample of employees. The study was based on the cross-sectional sample of the national French survey SUMER 2010 including 46,962 employees, 26,883 men and 20,079 women. The number of work injuries within the last 12 months was studied as the outcome. Occupation was used as a marker of social position. Psychosocial work factors included various variables related to the classical job strain model, psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, and other understudied variables related to reward, job insecurity, job promotion, esteem, working time and hours and workplace violence. Occupational exposures of chemical, biological, physical and biomechanical nature were also studied. Weighted age-adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Occupational gradients were observed in the exposure of most psychosocial work factors and occupational exposures. Strong occupational differences in work injury were found, blue-collar workers being more likely to have work injury. Chemical, biological, physical and biomechanical exposures contributed to explain the occupational differences in work injury substantially. Noise, thermic constraints, manual materials handling, postural/articular constraints and vibrations had significant contributions. Psychosocial work factors also contributed to explain the differences especially among women. Prevention policies oriented toward chemical, biological, physical, biomechanical and psychosocial work exposures may contribute to reduce the magnitude of occupational differences in work injury.

  13. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

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    Kien, Vu Duy; Lee, Hwa-Young; Nam, You-Seon; Oh, Juhwan; Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Background Child malnutrition is not only a major contributor to child mortality and morbidity, but it can also determine socioeconomic status in adult life. The rate of under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam has significantly decreased, but associated inequality issues still need attention. Objective This study aims to explore trends, contributing factors, and changes in inequalities for under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam between 2000 and 2011. Design Data were drawn from the Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey for the years 2000 and 2011. The dependent variables used for the study were stunting, underweight, and wasting of under-five children. The concentration index was calculated to see the magnitude of child malnutrition, and the inequality was decomposed to understand the contributions of determinants to child malnutrition. The total differential decomposition was used to identify and explore factors contributing to changes in child malnutrition inequalities. Results Inequality in child malnutrition increased between 2000 and 2011, even though the overall rate declined. Most of the inequality in malnutrition was due to ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The total differential decomposition showed that the biggest and second biggest contributors to the changes in underweight inequalities were age and socioeconomic status, respectively. Socioeconomic status was the largest contributor to inequalities in stunting. Conclusions Although the overall level of child malnutrition was improved in Vietnam, there were significant differences in under-five child malnutrition that favored those who were more advantaged in socioeconomic terms. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition has increased over time. Multifaceted approaches, connecting several relevant ministries and sectors, may be necessary to reduce inequalities in childhood malnutrition. PMID:26950558

  14. Barriers to Rural Induced Abortion Services in Canada: Findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Wendy V.; Soon, Judith A.; Maughn, Nanamma; Dressler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). Methods We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. Results Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85%) of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67) of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52) abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30) medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. Conclusions Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4%) for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians. PMID:23840578

  15. Relationship of sleep pattern and snoring with chronic disease: findings from a nationwide population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Khan, Safayet; Mitra, Dipak K; Mistry, Sabuj Kanti; Afsana, Kaosar; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the association of total sleep time and presence or absence of snoring with chronic disease among the Bangladeshi adult population. Cross-sectional survey. Urban and rural Bangladesh. A total of 12,338 men and women aged ≥35 years. Total sleep time was considered as the total hours of sleep in 24 hours. Furthermore, sleep time was categorized into 9 hours according to National Sleep Foundation (2015) guidelines. Self-reported snoring history was captured and corroborated with their respective sleep partner/spouse in more than 80% cases. Registered physician-diagnosed current and/or previous cases of hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and any other chronic conditions were counted. Overall prevalence of at least 1 chronic disease in our study population was around 18%: men (15.4%) and women (20.0%). Hypertension has the highest prevalence (overall: 12.7%, men: 12.2%, women: 15%) followed by diabetes (4.9%), coronary heart diseases (3.2%), stroke (1.8%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0.9%), and cancer (any type: 0.1%). Sleep pattern and snoring are significantly associated with all individual chronic disease except cancer. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and lifestyle variables were adjusted, and inadequate total sleep time (<7 hours) and snoring (yes/no) showed significant association with chronic disease status (risk ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.22 and risk ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.29, respectively). Inadequate sleep and snoring are independently associated with chronic disease in Bangladeshi adult population and perhaps elsewhere. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictors of smoking cessation among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Quah, Anne C. K.; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah; Zanna, Mark P.; Fotuhi, Omid

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Limited longitudinal studies on smoking cessation have been reported in Asia, and it remains unclear whether determinants of quitting are similar to those found in Western countries. This study examined prospective predictors of smoking cessation among adult smokers in Thailand and Malaysia. Methods: Four thousand and four smokers were surveyed in Malaysia and Thailand in 2005. Of these, 2,426 smokers were followed up in 2006 (61% retention). Baseline measures of sociodemographics, dependence, and interest in quitting were used to predict both making quit attempts and point prevalence maintenance of cessation. Results: More Thai than Malaysian smokers reported having made quit attempts between waves, but among those who tried, the rates of staying quit were not considerably different between Malaysians and Thais. Multivariate analyses showed that smoking fewer cigarettes per day, higher levels of self-efficacy, and more immediate quitting intentions were predictive of both making a quit attempt and staying quit in both countries. Previous shorter quit attempts and higher health concerns about smoking were only predictive of making an attempt, whereas prior abstinence for 6 months or more and older age were associated with maintenance. Discussion: In Malaysia and Thailand, predictors of quitting activity appear to be similar. However, as in the West, predictors of making quit attempts are not all the same as those who predict maintenance. The actual predictors differ in potentially important ways from those found in the West. We need to determine the relative contributions of cultural factors and the shorter history of efforts to encourage quitting in Asia. PMID:20889478

  17. Media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs: Findings from the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS-FDA 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Hoffman, Allison C; Zandberg, Izabella; Blake, Kelly D

    2017-09-01

    Addiction beliefs about tobacco use are associated with intentions to use and use of tobacco products. Exposure to information about tobacco products in media sources may affect addiction beliefs. To examine the relationship between media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs. A nationally representative sample of US adults (n=3738) from the 2015 National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey was used to examine addiction beliefs about cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, hookah/waterpipe tobacco, and roll-your-own cigarettes. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between media exposure and addiction beliefs. We defined media exposure by hours exposed, as well as exposure to tobacco use health effects information through media sources including social media. We categorized media sources by whether respondents actively or passively engaged with the source. A majority (60.6% to 87.3%) of respondents believed that cigarettes, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes and smokeless tobacco are addictive. Less than half of respondents believed that electronic cigarettes or hookah/waterpipes are addictive (45.2% and 49.8%, respectively). Respondents exposed to messages about tobacco use health effects on active media channels (e.g., social media) had greater odds of believing that smokeless tobacco (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.48), hookah/waterpipe (AOR=1.69), and roll-your-own cigarettes (AOR=1.61) are addictive. Respondents exposed to tobacco use health effects messages on passive media channels (e.g., television), had greater odds of believing that cigarettes (AOR=2.76) and electronic cigarettes (AOR=2.12) are addictive. US adult exposure to information about the health effects of tobacco use was associated with addiction beliefs about tobacco products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The Impact of Income and Taxation in a Price-Tiered Cigarette Market - findings from the ITC Bangladesh Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Iftekharul; Nargis, Nigar; Lkhagvasuren, Damba; Hussain, Akm Ghulam; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2018-04-25

    Taxing tobacco is among the most effective measures of tobacco control. However, in a tiered market structure where multiple tiers of taxes coexist, the anticipated impact of tobacco taxes on consumption is complex. This paper investigates changing smoking behaviour in lieu of changing prices and changing income. The objective of the paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of change in prices (through taxes) and change in income in a price-tiered cigarette market. A panel dataset from the International Tobacco Control Bangladesh surveys is used for analysis. For preliminary analysis transition matrices are developed. Next, probit and multinomial logit regression models are used to identify the effects of changes in prices and changes in income along with other control variables. Transition matrices show significant movement of smokers across price tiers from one wave to another. Regression results show that higher income raises the probability to up-trade and decreases the probability to down-trade. Results also show that higher prices raises the probability to up-trade and reduces the probability to down-trade. Although not significant, there exists a negative relationship between the probability to down-trade and the probability to intend to quit. It is evident from the results that a price-tiered market provides smokers more opportunities to accommodate their smoking behaviour when faced with price and income change. Therefore, tiered structure of the tax system should be replaced with uniform taxes. Moreover, overall cigarette taxes need to be raised to an extent so that it off-sets any positive effects of income growth. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Differential responsiveness to cigarette price by education and income among adult urban Chinese smokers: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of tobacco tax and price policies in China. In addition, very little is known about the differential responses to tax and price increases based on socioeconomic status in China. To estimate the conditional cigarette consumption price elasticity among adult urban smokers in China and to examine the differential responses to cigarette price increases among groups with different income and/or educational leve