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  1. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joscelyne, Amy; Knuckey, Sarah; Satterthwaite, Margaret L; Bryant, Richard A; Li, Meng; Qian, Meng; Brown, Adam D

    2015-01-01

    Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work.

  2. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Joscelyne

    Full Text Available Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work.

  3. Evidence-Based Speech-Language Pathology Practices in Schools: Findings from a National Survey

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    Hoffman, LaVae M.; Ireland, Marie; Hall-Mills, Shannon; Flynn, Perry

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study documented evidence-based practice (EBP) patterns as reported by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) employed in public schools during 2010-2011. Method: Using an online survey, practioners reported their EBP training experiences, resources available in their workplaces, and the frequency with which they engage in specific EBP…

  4. HIV/AIDS Misconceptions among Latinos: Findings from a Population-Based Survey of California Adults

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    Ritieni, Assunta; Moskowitz, Joel; Tholandi, Maya

    2008-01-01

    Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS among Latino adults (N=454) in California were examined using data from a population-based telephone survey conducted in 2000. Common misconceptions concerning modes of HIV transmission included transmission via mosquito or animal bite (64.1%), public facilities (48.3%), or kissing someone on the cheek (24.8%). A…

  5. Genital human papillomavirus infection among women in Bangladesh: findings from a population-based survey.

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    Quamrun Nahar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine. METHODS: We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler. HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using a consensus primer set. RESULTS: Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13-4.11 compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05-3.55 compared to women whose husbands lived with them. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening.

  6. Lagophthalmos surgery in leprosy: findings from a population-based survey in Korea.

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    Courtright, P; Kim, S H; Tungpakorn, N; Cho, B H; Lim, Y K; Lee, H J; Lewallen, S

    2001-09-01

    Lagophthalmos continues to be a serious problem in cured leprosy patients. We conducted a population-based survey of lagophthalmos surgical coverage (LSC), barriers to lagophthalmos surgery and outcome of lagophthalmos surgery in leprosy patients in South Korea. In our survey, there were 60 patients with lagophthalmos who had needed surgery (> 5 mm gap), 34 of whom had received surgery, resulting in a lagophthalmos surgery coverage of 57%. Among the 34 patients who had received lagophthalmos surgery, 18 needed further surgery. Among those who had never had surgery, none of the demographic indicators predicted surgical uptake; the primary reason given for failure to have surgery was lack of knowledge about it. Outcome of surgery (by eye) showed that 29% of eyes still had a gap of 5 mm or more. The frequency of symptoms (tearing, blurring of vision, pain, etc.) was high. Even in settings with a good eye care infrastructure, such as Korea, uptake of surgery can still be low and results may not be satisfactory to patients. There is a need for practical guidelines for leprosy control programmes in the areas of (a) patient recognition, (b) patient education, (c) monitoring the uptake of surgery, and (d) monitoring the outcome of surgery to ensure the best possible outcome.

  7. Sexual violence in women's lives. Findings from the Women's Safety Project, a community-based survey.

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    Randall, M; Haskell, L

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents a community-based study, which aims to determine the interconnections between women's experiences of sexual abuse in childhood, sexual assault in adulthood, and physical assault in intimate relationships in Toronto, Canada. An in-depth face-to-face interview was conducted with 420 women who comprised the random sample of the women living in Toronto, Canada. Findings on the prevalence and effects of various forms of sexual abuse and violence revealed that 97.6% of the woman interviewed reported that they personally experienced some form of sexual violation. Sexual abuse in childhood (including incest), sexual assault, sexual harassment, and physical assault in intimate relationships were documented. Among the findings were that one-fourth of the women in the sample were physically assaulted by a male intimate, one-half of the women reported being raped or almost raped, and nearly half of the respondents reported experiencing some kind of sexual abuse before reaching age 16.

  8. Environmental factors associated with childhood eczema: Findings from a national web-based survey

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    Mari Sasaki

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Duration of breastfeeding, season of birth, pet ownership, household income, and the number of siblings were associated with the prevalence of childhood eczema in a nationwide web survey.

  9. Sexual Activity and Urological Morbidities Among Nigerian Menopausal Women: Findings from a Community Based Survey

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    Adedokun, BO; Morhason-Bello, IO; Okonkwo, SN; Ojengbede, OA

    2014-01-01

    Background: Menopause represents the end of women reproductive career and it is at this time they begin to manifest morbidities such as urinary incontinence. Aim: To document proximate determinants of sexual activity and urological morbidities of menopausal women. Subjects and Methods: This was a community survey conducted among 254 menopausal women Mokola in Ibadan, Nigeria in 2008. Respondents were selected using cluster sampling technique. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to obtain information on their characteristics, pattern of urological and sexual activities. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariable tests were performed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 15.0 (Chicago, IL USA) and statistical significance was set at P value less than 0.05. Results: The mean age of subjects was 60.3 (standard deviation = 10.2 years). About 33.5% (85/254) was still sexually active. About 68% (173/254) reported a reduction in sexual frequency since menopause while 31.5% (80/254) reported no change. The mean self-rated sexual performance score was 4.3 based on a numerical scale where 10 is the maximum obtainable. Significant predictors of reduction in sexual activity were age at menopause and education. Those between 45 and 49 years were less likely than those at 55 years or more (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21; 95% confidence interval OR = 0.05-0.87) while women with at least secondary education were thrice less likely than those with none to report a reduction in sexual activity after menopause. Less than a tenth reported urinary incontinence as a complaint. Urge incontinence was the most commonly reported followed by dysuria and stress incontinence. Less than a quarter of them had requested for a form of treatment. Conclusion: Sexual performance of Nigerian menopausal women is associated with age at menopause and education. Non-fistulous urinary incontinence is now being mentioned as a complaint contrary to the widely held view that it is part of the

  10. Husband's control and sexual coercion within marriage: findings from a population-based survey in Egypt.

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    Kaplan, Rachel L; Khawaja, Marwan; Linos, Natalia

    2011-11-01

    This article examined sexual coercion within marriage in Egypt. Using cross-sectional survey data from a representative sample of married Egyptian women (N = 5,240), associations between forced intercourse and husband's control, as well as other relevant sociodemographic factors, were assessed through binary logistic regression models. The lifetime prevalence of forced intercourse was 6.2% and 4.6% during the past year, and husband's control was significantly associated with forced intercourse during a woman's lifetime (odds ratio = 3.5) and past year (odds ratio = 2.8). Interventions addressing gender patriarchy and men's control may decrease incidence of sexual coercion in Egypt and similar contexts.

  11. Community-based Physiotherapy in Western India: Some Findings from Surveys

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    Pavithra Rajan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this seven-year project was to understand the perceptions of different client populations (including physiotherapists towards community health and rehabilitation methods and identify the "gaps" in the existing system. Method: A series of surveys were conducted on several populations with functional disabilities in different parts of western India. Results: It was found that community physiotherapists with adequate motivation, knowledge and skills are insufficient in number. It appears that the community at large is in need of cost-effective preventive strategies to deal with the health problems. Future research should identify the interests of community physiotherapists, and provide adequate resources to increase their existing numbers.

  12. Understanding administrative evidence-based practices: Findings from a survey of local health department leaders

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    Brownson, Ross C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Allen, Peg; Duggan, Kathleen; Fields, Robert; Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Erwin, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are sparse data showing the extent to which evidence-based public health is occurring among local health departments. Purpose The purpose of the study was to describe the patterns and predictors of administrative evidence-based practices (structures and activities that are associated with performance measures) in a representative sample of local health departments in the United States. Methods A cross-sectional study of 517 local health department directors was conducted from October through December 2012 (analysis in January through March 2013). The questions on administrative evidence-based practices included 19 items based on a recent literature review (five broad domains: workforce development, leadership, organizational climate and culture, relationships and partnerships, financial processes). Results There was a wide range in performance among the 19 individual administrative evidence-based practices, ranging from 35% for access to current information on evidence-based practices to 96% for funding via a variety of sources Among the five domains, values were generally lowest for organizational climate and culture (mean for the domain = 49.9%) and highest for relationships and partnerships (mean for the domain = 77.1%). Variables associated with attaining the highest tertile of administrative evidence-based practices included having a population jurisdiction of 25,000 or larger (adjusted odds ratios (aORs) ranging from 4.4 to 7.5) and state governance structure (aOR=3.1). Conclusions This report on the patterns and predictors of administrative evidence-based practices in health departments begins to provide information on gaps and areas for improvement that can be linked with ongoing quality improvement processes. PMID:24355671

  13. Industry-Based Employment Programs: Implications for Welfare Reauthorization and Key Survey Findings. Policy Brief.

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    Conway, Maureen; Zandniapour, Lily

    The Sectoral Employment Development Learning Project (SEDLP) examined industry-based ("sectoral") approaches to employment training to determine whether they can help low-income individuals advance in the labor market. The SEDLP sample included 732 individuals at baseline, including 185 recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy…

  14. Health‐related job loss: findings from a community‐based survey

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    Solomon, Christine; Poole, Jason; Palmer, Keith T; Coggon, David

    2007-01-01

    Aims To explore the frequency, nature, determinants and outcome of health‐related job loss (HRJL) in men sampled from the general population of three rural areas. Methods Data on lifetime occupational history, including any HRJL, were obtained as part of a postal survey of men aged 24–70 years in three rural areas of England and Wales. Incidence rates were calculated for first health‐related loss of a job that had been held for ⩾1 year. Associations with risk factors were examined by Poisson regression, and by application of conditional logistic regression in a nested case–control study. Results HRJL was reported by 1408 (13%) of the 10 559 men who had held long‐term jobs. The incidence rose steeply with age for cardiorespiratory and neurological disorders, but for accidents and poisoning the trend was, if anything, in the reverse direction. An increase in incidence over time was most marked for musculoskeletal disorders and mental illness, and much less prominent for cardiorespiratory and neurological disease. In comparison with other occupations, the risk was lower in agricultural workers (odds ratio (OR) 0.6, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.8), and higher in policemen (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.7) and teachers (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.7), this differential being even greater for HRJL caused by mental illness. Risk was also increased in employees relative to the self‐employed (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.7 to 2.3). Shift work was associated with a higher incidence of job loss caused by mental illness (OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.1–2.2), and heavy lifting with HRJL caused by musculoskeletal disorders (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.0 to 3.5). After HRJL, 61% of subjects had subsequently obtained further long‐term employment, usually within 1 year. Conclusions In the population studied, HRJL has become increasingly common, especially in relation to musculoskeletal disorders and mental illness. In addition to being associated with ergonomic stresses in the workplace, it may be importantly

  15. Alcohol marketing, drunkenness, and problem drinking among Zambian youth: findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey.

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    Swahn, Monica H; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (N = 2257). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.02) and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06-1.87) among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  16. Alcohol Marketing, Drunkenness, and Problem Drinking among Zambian Youth: Findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica H. Swahn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS conducted in Zambia (2004 of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (=2257. Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09–2.02 and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06–1.87 among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  17. Europlat Employability Survey: Core findings and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek Stanislav; Mareš Jan; Neusar Aleš

    2012-01-01

    Paper presents the core findings of the Europlat employability survey focusing on employability issues related to the post-Bologna transformations of psychology study programmes across the European Union. The objectives of the survey were to find out: (1) how relevant the employability/employment issue is; (2) what the current problems are in the employability/employment area; and (3) to explore the best practices in dealing with employability/employment issues. Findings cover both the nation...

  18. Cardiology Still a Man's Field, Survey Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162700.html Cardiology Still a Man's Field, Survey Finds Women less ... Dr. Claire Duvernoy, chair of the Women in Cardiology Council at the American College of Cardiology (ACC). ...

  19. Developing a Culture of Enquiry-Based, Independent Learning in a Research-Led Institution: Findings from a Survey of Pedagogic Practice

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    McLinden, Mike; Edwards, Corony

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports select findings from an institutional survey designed to support long-term strategic developments at a research-led institution in the UK. These developments include a revised Learning and Teaching Strategy that has at its core the promotion of a "cross-institutional culture of enquiry-based, independent learning". The…

  20. Social Support and the Mental Health of Older Gay Men: Findings From a National Community-Based Survey.

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    Lyons, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    This study examines different types and sources of social support in relation to psychological distress levels among older Australian gay men. A national community-based survey was conducted involving 242 gay-identified men aged 50 years and older. In univariable regressions, psychological distress was less likely if men were receiving emotional support, practical support, or had a sense of belonging, and also if they had a greater number of close friends and received some or a lot of support from family and gay friends but not from straight friends. Of all these factors, a multivariable regression showed that receiving emotional support was the only significant independent factor. Emotional support appears to play a greater role in the mental health of older gay men than many other types and sources of support. Ensuring access to emotional support may need to be considered when promoting healthier aging among gay men.

  1. Childhood maltreatment as a risk factor for COPD: findings from a population-based survey of Canadian adults

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    Shields ME

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Margot E Shields, Wendy E Hovdestad, Charles P Gilbert, Lil E Tonmyr Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between childhood maltreatment (CM and COPD in adulthood.Methods: Data were from 15,902 respondents to the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey – Mental Health. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine associations between CM and COPD and the role of smoking and mental and substance use variables as mediators in associations.Results: COPD in adulthood was related to CM, with associations differing by sex. Among females, COPD was related to childhood physical abuse (CPA, childhood sexual abuse, and childhood exposure to intimate partner violence, but in the fully adjusted models, the association with CPA did not persist. Among males, COPD was related to childhood exposure to intimate partner violence and severe and frequent CPA, but these associations did not persist in the fully adjusted models.Conclusion: Results from this study establish CM as a risk factor for COPD in adulthood. A large part of the association is attributable to cigarette smoking, particularly for males. These findings underscore the importance of interventions to prevent CM as well as programs to assist victims of CM in dealing with tobacco addiction. Keywords: child abuse, cigarette, smoking, physical abuse, sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, domestic violence, family violence

  2. World Fertility Survey: Major Findings and Implications.

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    World Fertility Survey, London (England).

    A survey was conducted in 42 developing countries and in 20 developed countries to determine fertility practices and trends. Both individual and household questionnaires were used by interviewers to gather data. Findings concerning marriage patterns, contraception, reproductive motivation, childspacing, breastfeeding, maternal and child health,…

  3. World Fertility Survey: Major Findings and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Fertility Survey, London (England).

    A survey was conducted in 42 developing countries and in 20 developed countries to determine fertility practices and trends. Both individual and household questionnaires were used by interviewers to gather data. Findings concerning marriage patterns, contraception, reproductive motivation, childspacing, breastfeeding, maternal and child health,…

  4. HIV Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Young People in Iran: Findings of a National Population-Based Survey in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokoohi, Mostafa; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Rafierad, Ali-Ahmad; Sedaghat, Abbas; Sharifi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The evidence is mixed on the HIV knowledge, attitude, and practices of youth in Iran. The aim of the current study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Iranian youth towards HIV through a national survey. Materials and Methods Through a cross-sectional study with multistage cluster sampling, we administered a pilot-tested standard questionnaire to assess the levels of HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices of individuals aged 15–29 years old. Participants were recruited from 13 provinces in Iran and consisted of 2456 men and 2412 women. Results Only 37.3% of the participants had a high knowledge score. Most participants knew the main routes of HIV transmission; however, misconceptions existed about the transmission of HIV through mosquito bites across all age groups (31.7% correct response). Positive levels of attitude wereobserved among 20.7% of the participants. Most participants believed that people living with HIV (PLHIV) should be supported (88.3%) while only 46.3% were ready to share a table with them. Among those aged 19–29 years old, the main source of HIV information was mass media (69.1%), only 13.1% had ever tested for HIV, around 20.8% had ever had extramarital sex (31.7% male vs. 9.6% female),1.8% ever injected drugs (2.9% male vs. and 0.7% female). Among sexually active subjects in this age group, only 21.8% (26.1% male vs. 7.1% female) were consistent condom users. Conclusions The findings showed that Iranian youth and young adults have relatively insufficient overall knowledge and negative attitudes about HIV and PLHIV. Novel strategies involving schools and youth’s networks could be employed to deliver a culturally sensitive sexual health program. PMID:27626638

  5. Preferences for Internet-Based Mental Health Interventions in an Adult Online Sample: Findings From an Online Community Survey.

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    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L

    2017-06-30

    Despite extensive evidence that Internet interventions are effective in treating mental health problems, uptake of Internet programs is suboptimal. It may be possible to make Internet interventions more accessible and acceptable through better understanding of community preferences for delivery of online programs. This study aimed to assess community preferences for components, duration, frequency, modality, and setting of Internet interventions for mental health problems. A community-based online sample of 438 Australian adults was recruited using social media advertising and administered an online survey on preferences for delivery of Internet interventions, along with scales assessing potential correlates of these preferences. Participants reported a preference for briefer sessions, although they recognized a trade-off between duration and frequency of delivery. No clear preference for the modality of delivery emerged, although a clear majority preferred tailored programs. Participants preferred to access programs through a computer rather than a mobile device. Although most participants reported that they would seek help for a mental health problem, more participants had a preference for face-to-face sources only than online programs only. Younger, female, and more educated participants were significantly more likely to prefer Internet delivery. Adults in the community have a preference for Internet interventions with short modules that are tailored to individual needs. Individuals who are reluctant to seek face-to-face help may also avoid Internet interventions, suggesting that better implementation of existing Internet programs requires increasing acceptance of Internet interventions and identifying specific subgroups who may be resistant to seeking help.

  6. Childhood maltreatment as a risk factor for diabetes: findings from a population-based survey of Canadian adults.

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    Shields, Margot E; Hovdestad, Wendy E; Pelletier, Catherine; Dykxhoorn, Jennifer L; O'Donnell, Siobhan C; Tonmyr, Lil

    2016-08-25

    It is well established that childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for various mental and substance use disorders. To date, however, little research has focused on the possible long-term physical consequences of CM. Diabetes is a chronic disease, for which an association with CM has been postulated. Based on data from a sample of 21,878 men and women from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS - MH), this study examines associations between three types of CM (childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (CEIPV)) and diabetes in adulthood. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine associations between CM and diabetes controlling for the effects of socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for type 2 diabetes. When controlling socio-demographic characteristics, diabetes was significantly associated with reports of severe and frequent CPA (OR = 1.8) and severe and frequent CSA (OR = 2.2). A dose-response relationship was observed when co-occurrence of CSA and CPA was considered with the strongest association with diabetes being observed when both severe and frequent CSA and CPA were reported (OR = 2.6). Controlling for type 2 diabetes risk factors attenuated associations particularly for CPA. CEIPV was not significantly associated with having diabetes in adulthood. CPA and CSA are risk factors for diabetes. For the most part, associations between CPA and diabetes are mediated via risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Failure to consider severity and frequency of abuse may limit our understanding of the importance of CM as a risk factor for diabetes.

  7. Physical mobility, physical activity, and obesity among elderly: findings from a large population-based Swedish survey.

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    Asp, M; Simonsson, B; Larm, P; Molarius, A

    2017-06-01

    To examine how physical activity and physical mobility are related to obesity in the elderly. A cross-sectional study of 2558 men and women aged 65 years and older who participated in a population survey in 2012 was conducted in mid-Sweden with an overall response rate of 67%. Obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)) was based on self-reported weight and height, and physical activity and physical mobility on questionnaire data. Chi-squared test and multiple logistic regressions were used as statistical analyses. The overall prevalence of obesity was 19% in women and 15% in men and decreased after the age of 75 years. A strong association between both physical activity and obesity, and physical mobility and obesity was found. The odds for obesity were higher for impaired physical mobility (odds ratio [OR] 2.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.14-3.75) than for physical inactivity (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.28-2.08) when adjusted for gender, age, socio-economic status and fruit and vegetable intake. However, physical activity was associated with obesity only among elderly with physical mobility but not among those with impaired physical mobility. It is important to focus on making it easier for elderly with physical mobility to become or stay physically active, whereas elderly with impaired physical mobility have a higher prevalence of obesity irrespective of physical activity. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Why do people drop out of community-based health insurance? Findings from an exploratory household survey in Senegal.

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    Mladovsky, Philipa

    2014-04-01

    Although a high level of drop-out from community-based health insurance (CBHI) is frequently reported, it has rarely been analysed in depth. This study explores whether never having actively participated in CBHI is a determinant of drop-out. A conceptual framework of passive and active community participation in CBHI is developed to inform quantitative data analysis. Fieldwork comprising a household survey was conducted in Senegal in 2009. Levels of active participation among 382 members and ex-members of CBHI across three case study schemes are compared using logistic regression. Results suggest that, controlling for a range of socioeconomic variables, the more active the mode of participation in the CBHI scheme, the stronger the statistically significant positive correlation with remaining enrolled. Training is the most highly correlated, followed by voting, participating in a general assembly, awareness raising/information dissemination and informal discussions/spontaneously helping. Possible intermediary outcomes of active participation such as perceived trustworthiness of the scheme management/president; accountability and being informed of mechanisms of controlling abuse/fraud are also significantly positively correlated with remaining in the scheme. Perception of poor quality of health services is identified as the most important determinant of drop-out. Financial factors do not seem to determine drop-out. The results suggest that schemes may be able to reduce drop-out and increase quality of care by creating more opportunities for more active participation. Caution is needed though, since if CBHI schemes uncritically fund and promote participation activities, individuals who are already more empowered or who already have higher levels of social capital may be more likely to access these resources, thereby indirectly further increasing social inequalities in health coverage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. HIV Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Young People in Iran: Findings of a National Population-Based Survey in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Shokoohi, Mostafa; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Haghdoost, Aliakbar; Rafierad, Ali-Ahmad; Sedaghat, Abbas; Sharifi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The evidence is mixed on the HIV knowledge, attitude, and practices of youth in Iran. The aim of the current study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Iranian youth towards HIV through a national survey. Materials and Methods Through a cross-sectional study with multistage cluster sampling, we administered a pilot-tested standard questionnaire to assess the levels of HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices of individuals aged 15–29 years old. Participants were rec...

  10. Factors determining medical students' and residents' satisfaction during VA-based training: findings from the VA Learners' Perceptions Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Grant W; Keitz, Sheri A; Holland, Gloria J; Chang, Barbara K; Byrne, John M; Tomolo, Anne; Aron, David C; Wicker, Annie B; Kashner, T Michael

    2008-06-01

    To compare medical students' and physician residents' satisfaction with Veterans Affairs (VA) training to determine the factors that were most strongly associated with trainee satisfaction ratings. Each year from 2001 to 2006, all medical students and residents in VA teaching facilities were invited to complete the Learners' Perceptions Survey. Participants rated their overall training satisfaction on a 100-point scale and ranked specific satisfaction in four separate educational domains (learning environment, clinical faculty, working environment, and physical environment) on a five-point Likert scale. Each domain was composed of unique items. A total of 6,527 medical students and 16,583 physician residents responded to the survey. The overall training satisfaction scores for medical students and physician residents were 84 and 79, respectively (P training continuum. For both medical students and residents, the rating of each of the four educational domains was statistically significantly associated with the overall training satisfaction score (P training satisfaction score, followed by the clinical preceptor, working environment, and physical environment domains; no significant differences were found between medical students and physician residents in the rank order. Satisfaction with quality of care and faculty teaching contributed significantly to training satisfaction. Factors that influence training satisfaction were similar for residents and medical students. The domain with the highest association was the learning environment; quality of care was a key item within this domain.

  11. Developing an evidence base for violent and disablist hate crime in Britain: findings from the life opportunities survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Roulstone, Alan

    2014-11-01

    In the context of there being little robust U.K. data on disabled people's exposure to violent crime and hate crime, we examined self-reported rates of exposure over the preceding 12 months to violent crime, hate crime, and disablist hate crime in a newly established survey, the U.K.'s Life Opportunities Survey. Information was collected from a nationally representative sample of 37,513 British adults (age 16 or older). Results indicated that (a) disabled adults were significantly more likely to have been exposed over the previous 12 months to violent crime (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.08, 2.61]) and hate crime (adjusted OR = 2.58, 95% CI = [2.17, 3.07]) than their non-disabled peers, (b) the differential risk of exposure to violent crime was particularly elevated among disabled adults with mental health problems (adjusted OR = 6.26, 95% CI = [5.01, 7.82]), (c) the differential risk of exposure to hate crime was particularly elevated among disabled adults with mental health problems (adjusted OR = 10.70, 95% CI = [7.91, 14.47]) or cognitive impairments (adjusted OR = 6.66, 95% CI = [3.95, 11.22]), and (d) these effects were strongly moderated by poverty status with no increase in differential risk of exposure for disabled adults among more wealthy respondents.

  12. Enuresis and Hyperactivity-Inattention in Early Adolescence: Findings from a Population-Based Survey in Tokyo (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Kanata

    Full Text Available Enuresis (9% at age 9.5 negatively affects children's psychosocial status. Clinically-diagnosed enuresis (2% at the age is associated with hyperactivity-inattention, and common neural bases have been postulated to underlie this association. It is, however, unclear whether this association is applicable to enuresis overall among the general population of early adolescents when considered comorbid behavioral problems. We aimed to examine whether enuresis correlates with hyperactivity-inattention after controlling for the effects of other behavioral problems.Participants were 4,478 children (mean age 10.2 ± 0.3 years old and their parents from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey (T-EAS, a population-representative cross-sectional study conducted in Tokyo, Japan conducted from 2012 to 2015. Children's enuresis and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity-inattention (as measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, were examined using parent-reporting questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore whether enuresis predicts hyperactivity-inattention.The hyperactivity-inattention score was significantly higher in the enuretic group than the non-enuretic group (enuretic: M (SD = 3.8 (2.3, non-enuretic: M (SD = 3.0 (2.1, Hedge's g = 0.39, p < .001. This association remained significant even after controlling for other behavioral problems and including sex, age, intelligence quotient (IQ, low birth weight and parents' education (β = .054 [95% CI: .028-.080], p < .001.Enuresis was independently associated with hyperactivity-inattention in early adolescents among general population even when other behavioral problems were considered. These results suggest that, as with clinically-diagnosed cases, enuresis may predict need for screening and psychosocial support for hyperactivity-inattention.

  13. Care Seeking Patterns of STIs-Associated Symptoms in Iran: Findings of a Population-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nasirian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Understanding the prevalence of symptoms associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs and how care is sought for those symptoms are important components of STIs control and prevention. People’s preference between public and private service providers is another important part of developing a well-functioning STIs surveillance system. Methods This cross-sectional survey was carried out in spring 2011, using a nonrandom quota sample of 1190 participants (52% female in 4 densely-populated cities of Tehran, Kerman, Shiraz, and Babol. Two predictive logistic regression models were constructed to assess the association between the socio-demographic determinants (independent variables and the dependent variables of history of STIs-associated symptom and seeking care. Results Around 57% (677 out of 1190; men: 29.70% and women: 81.80% had experienced at least one STIsassociated symptom during the previous year. History of experiencing STIs-associated symptoms among men, was negatively significantly associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.34, CI 95%: 0.17-0.67. Women who were married, in older ages, and had higher educations were more likely to report a recent (past year STIs symptom, however all were statistically insignificant in both bivariate and multivariable models. Among those who have had STIs-associated symptoms in the last year, 31.15% did nothing to improve their symptoms, 8.03% attempted self-treatment by over-the-counter (OTC medications or traditional remedies, and 60.93% sought care in health facilities. In both bivariate and multivariable analyses, care seeking among men was insignificantly associated with any of the collected demographic variables. Care seeking among women was positively significantly associated with being married (AOR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.60-3.84. Conclusion The reported prevalence of STIs-associated symptoms among our participants is concerning. A considerable number of participants

  14. The National Map Customer Requirements: Findings from Interviews and Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Larry; Coray, Kevin E.; Poore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to receive customer feedback and to understand data and information requirements for The National Map. This report provides results and findings from interviews and surveys and will guide policy and operations decisions about data and information requirements leading to the development of a 5-year strategic plan for the National Geospatial Program. These findings are based on feedback from approximately 2,200 customers between February and August 2008. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted more than 160 interviews with 200 individuals. The American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) and the International Map Trade Association (IMTA) surveyed their memberships and received feedback from over 400 members. The Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) received feedback from over 1,600 of its U.S.-based software users through an online survey sent to customers attending the ESRI International User Conference in the summer of 2008. The results of these surveys were shared with the USGS and have been included in this report.

  15. Social survey findings on en route noise annoyance issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Most surveys of residents' reactions to aircraft noise were conducted in the vicinity of airports. The findings in those surveys have supported planning and regulatory actions for the airport noise environment. Now, however, aircraft noise planning and regulations are being considered for a new environment, the en route environment. As policy makers search for bases for public policy in these new noise environments, it is appropriate to ask whether the same scientific evidence which supports airport noise policy can also support en route noise policy. Several aspects of that question are considered. An introduction establishes the scope of the present study and examines alternative study methodologies. Next, the selected study methodology is described and important assumptions are listed. The body of the paper then consists of the findings on en route issues. The final section presents findings on relevant research methods and considers priorities for further research.

  16. Depressive symptoms are not associated with leukocyte telomere length: findings from the Nova Scotia Health Survey (NSHS95, a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Shaffer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature shortening of leukocyte telomere length has been proposed as a novel mechanism by which depression may confer increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Prior studies demonstrating associations of depression and depressive symptoms with shorter leukocyte telomere length were small, included selected psychiatric outpatients, were based on convenience samples, and/or adjusted for a limited number of possible confounding factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined the associations of depressive symptoms, probable depressive disorder, and specific depressive symptom clusters, as assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies--Depression (CES-D scale, with leukocyte telomere length, measured by using a real-time PCR method, in 2,225 apparently healthy participants from the 1995 Nova Scotia Health Survey population-based study. The mean age was 48.2 ± 18.9 years; 49.9% of participants were female; and the mean CES-D score was 7.4 ± 7.9. The mean telomere length was 5,301 ± 587 base pairs. In an unadjusted model, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with longer leukocyte telomere length (B = 27.6 base pairs per standard deviation increase in CES-D, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.1-52.1, p = 0.027. This association was no longer significant after adjustment for age and sex (B = 9.5, 95% CI = -14.6-33.6, p = 0.44 or after further adjustment for body mass index, Framingham risk score and previous history of ischemic heart disease (all p's ≥ 0.37. Neither probable depressive disorder nor specific depressive symptom clusters were independently associated with leukocyte telomere length. CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent depressive symptoms were not associated with leukocyte telomere length in a large, representative, population-based study.

  17. Alcohol marketing and drunkenness among students in the Philippines: findings from the nationally representative Global School-based Student Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H; Palmier, Jane B; Benegas-Segarra, Agnes; Sinson, Fe A

    2013-12-10

    A largely unaddressed issue in lower income countries and the Philippines, in particular, is the role of alcohol marketing and its potential link to early alcohol use among youth. This study examines the associations between exposures to alcohol marketing and Filipino youths' drinking prevalence and drunkenness. Cross-sectional analyses were used to examine the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Philippines (2011). The self-administered questionnaires were completed by students primarily 13 to 16 years of age (N = 5,290). Three statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR: 1.84; 95% CI=1.06-3.21) among youths after controlling for demographic and psychosocial characteristics, peer environment, and risky behaviors. In addition, seeing alcohol ads in newspapers and magazines (AOR: 1.65, 95% CI=1.05-2.58) and seeing ads at sports events, concerts or fairs (AOR: 1.50, 95% CI =1.06-2.12) were significantly associated with increased reports of drunkenness. There are significant associations between alcohol marketing exposure and increased alcohol use and drunkenness among youth in the Philippines. These findings highlight the need to put policies into effect that restrict alcohol marketing practices as an important prevention strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  18. Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

  19. Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

  20. UK energy policy: findings from two surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, P.J.G.; Fouquet, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Technology

    1996-08-01

    The paper summarises the results of two surveys, carried out in November 1992 and December 1994, of the opinions of UK energy professionals on the effectiveness of UK energy policy, what objectives energy policy should seek to achieve and how they should be achieved. Most respondents said that there should be a long term energy policy, at the level of both the UK and Europe. Such a policy should create a regulatory framework that complements market forces to improve the efficiency of energy use and environmental quality, to enhance security of supplies and to reduce the costs of energy supplies. Around two-thirds, however, said that existing UK energy policies were inappropriate and ineffective. There were serious doubts about the effectiveness of the regulation of gas and electricity, particularly the latter. Opinions tended to be somewhat more favourable in 1994 than in 1992. Just under half the respondents wanted nuclear power to occupy a special place in policy, while two-fifths wanted a special place for electricity from renewable sources. While the experts` desired energy policy objectives were broadly similar to those listed by the Government in 1994, the rankings were in many cases different. The energy professionals were not fully convinced that the objectives had been satisfactorily achieved. The paper also draws some wider lessons from the UK`s recent policy experience. 18 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs., 3 apps.

  1. Marketing midwifery education: findings from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, S C

    1996-03-01

    to collect information from a sample of identified customers (midwives and midwifery managers employed by health authorities and trusts) in order to develop a marketing strategy for a Department of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Care. two descriptive and analytical surveys using questionnaires. mid- and west Wales, UK. randomly selected sample of 75 midwives and census sample of eight midwifery managers working within the National Health Service. quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. organisations have to define, and listen carefully, to their customers and offer courses which are appropriate, related to clinical midwifery practice and have titles that accurately reflect the content. Midwives are enthusiastically committed to continuing education despite the current difficulties. Word of mouth and personal recommendation remains the most effective form of advertising. University departments of nursing and midwifery can easily become removed from clinical practice. Education assists practitioners in changing and adapting to a new order; it is also crucial in developing skills in critical thinking and analysis. New skills are needed if practice is to improve. academic departments can easily become remote and out of touch with the needs of clinicians and midwifery managers. Departments must take steps to define the customer, listen carefully to what they want and make every effort to provide continuing education for midwives that is relevant, responsive, accessible and attainable. The benefits of education also must be marketed.

  2. Does tax-based health financing offer protection from financial catastrophe? Findings from a household economic impact survey of ischaemic heart disease in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukeri, Surianti; Mirzaei, Masoud; Jan, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia is an upper-middle income country with a tax-based health financing system. Health care is relatively affordable, and safety nets are provided for the needy. The objectives of this study were to determine the out-of-pocket health spending, proportion of catastrophic health spending (out-of-pocket spending >40% of non-food expenditure), economic hardship and financial coping strategies among patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in Malaysia under the present health financing system. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the National Heart Institute of Malaysia involving 503 patients who were hospitalized during the year prior to the survey. The mean annual out-of-pocket health spending for IHD was MYR3045 (at the time US$761). Almost 16% (79/503) suffered from catastrophic health spending (out-of-pocket health spending ≥40% of household non-food expenditures), 29.2% (147/503) were unable to pay for medical bills, 25.0% (126/503) withdrew savings to help meet living expenses, 16.5% (83/503) reduced their monthly food consumption, 12.5% (63/503) were unable to pay utility bills and 9.0% (45/503) borrowed money to help meet living expenses. Overall, the economic impact of IHD on patients in Malaysia was considerable and the prospect of economic hardship likely to persist over the years due to the long-standing nature of IHD. The findings highlight the need to evaluate the present health financing system in Malaysia and to expand its safety net coverage for vulnerable patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Alcohol marketing and drunkenness among students in the Philippines: findings from the nationally representative Global School-based Student Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A largely unaddressed issue in lower income countries and the Philippines, in particular, is the role of alcohol marketing and its potential link to early alcohol use among youth. This study examines the associations between exposures to alcohol marketing and Filipino youths’ drinking prevalence and drunkenness. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were used to examine the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Philippines (2011). The self-administered questionnaires were completed by students primarily 13 to 16 years of age (N = 5290). Three statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Results Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR: 1.84; 95% CI = 1.06–3.21) among youths after controlling for demographic and psychosocial characteristics, peer environment, and risky behaviors. In addition, seeing alcohol ads in newspapers and magazines (AOR: 1.65, 95% CI = 1.05–2.58) and seeing ads at sports events, concerts or fairs (AOR: 1.50, 95% CI = 1.06–2.12) were significantly associated with increased reports of drunkenness. Conclusions There are significant associations between alcohol marketing exposure and increased alcohol use and drunkenness among youth in the Philippines. These findings highlight the need to put policies into effect that restrict alcohol marketing practices as an important prevention strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth. PMID:24325264

  4. Test Predicting Alzheimer's Would Be Welcome, Survey Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162525.html Test Predicting Alzheimer's Would Be Welcome, Survey Finds 3 out of ... could tell them they were going to develop Alzheimer's disease, most American seniors would take it, a ...

  5. Cross-cultural equivalence of HSCL-25 and WHO (ten) Wellbeing index: findings from a population-based survey of immigrants and non-immigrants in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinghög, Petter; Carstensen, John

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25) and the WHO (ten) Wellbeing Index are cross-culturally equivalent by comparing Scandinavians with Middle Eastern immigrants in Sweden. The study population consisted of a stratified random sample of native-born Swedes and immigrants from Finland, Iraq and Iran. Both instruments loaded on a single factor in the respective populations. A few of the items did however not discriminate or predict equally well in the groups, nonetheless it was found to have marginally influenced the instruments' total scores in both groups. The analyses also revealed that the groups had similar intercept and slope when the exogenous factor traumatic episodes was used to predict the measurement scores, supporting scalar equivalency. In conclusion, the results support the use of these instruments in population-based surveys within multicultural Western societies.

  6. Substance abuse in early adolescents and HIV preventive behaviors: findings from a school-based cross-sectional survey for the period from 2009 to 2013, Bangkok Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepthien, B; Altaf, L; Chuchareon, P; Srivanichakron, S

    2016-10-01

    This study is first of its kind in Bangkok, and is a five-year (2009-2013) cross-sectional web-based survey to examine HIV preventive behaviors related to substance abuse among adolescents (N = 16,913). The questionnaire was self-administered. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The relationship between different types of substance abuse with risky and preventive behaviors was assessed. Male participants reported more substance abuse as compared to females. The risk behaviors observed among the substance abusers include increased sexual experience, multiple sex partners, no use of condoms, and injection drug use. The preventive behaviors include having a high self-risk assessment, going for HIV testing (highest in methamphetamine users), and screening for sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression suggests that risky behaviors (e.g., sexual experience, injection drug use) are more common in substance abusers. Adolescents are clearly at a high risk. Behavioral preventive measures are needed to reduce or delay premature substance exposure to prevent a wide range of health problems and risks such as HIV and AIDS, injection drug use and unprotected sex.

  7. Non-fatal burn is a major cause of illness: findings from the largest community-based national survey in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashreky, S R; Rahman, A; Chowdhury, S M; Khan, T F; Svanström, L; Rahman, F

    2009-12-01

    To examine the incidence and characteristics of non-fatal burn injury in Bangladesh. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted between January and December 2003 in Bangladesh. Nationally representative data were collected from 171 366 rural and urban households, with a total sample size of 819,429. The incidence of non-fatal burns was 166.3 per 100,000 per year. The rate was higher in females than in males (RR 1.15; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.27). Children less than 5 years of age were at much higher risk of burn injury than those older than 5 years (RR 7.05; 95% CI 6.35 to 7.8). Rural people were at more than three times higher risk of burn. The average number of days absent from school due to burn injury was 21.64 (SD 19.64); the average number of workdays lost was 22.96 (SD 35.94). The average duration of assistance required in daily living activities was 17.26 (SD 20.34) days. The hospitalisation rate was 12.6 per 100,000 population per year. The mean duration of hospital stay was 15.88 (SD 20.47) days. The rate of permanent disability was 2.6 per 100,000 population-years. Burn is a major cause of morbidity, disability, school absence, and workday loss. Young children, females, and rural dwellers are at highest risk. Home is the most risky place for children and females in terms of burn injury risk. To halt this devastating health issue, a national strategy and programme for burn prevention must be developed.

  8. What Every Department Chair Should Know about the Dean: Findings from Four National Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Lee H.; Lynch, David M.

    Information about deans that may be helpful to department chairs is presented, based on the findings of four national surveys of deans. The surveys of social science, graduate, continuing education, and arts and sciences deans covered the deans' role in resource allocation to departments, teaching and research support for faculty, tenure and…

  9. 2016 Neonatal Nurse Practitioner Workforce Survey: Report of Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staebler, Suzanne; Bissinger, Robin

    2017-10-01

    The National Association of Neonatal Nurse Practitioners (NANNP) conducted its second workforce survey of certified neonatal nurse practitioners in the fall of 2016. National Association of Neonatal Nurse Practitioners partnered with the National Certification Corporation and the American Association of Nurse Practitioners to conduct this electronic survey, containing 69 questions and focusing on practice sites and total compensation packages (including benefits) and workforce deficits.Findings indicate a rising neonatal nurse practitioners (NNPs) position vacancy rate across the country. Regional salary data indicated that the southeast had lower compensation rates for NNPs, with regions 4 and 11 (South) having the lowest rates. A promising trend indicated that new graduate NNPs with a doctorate are earning more. The study findings indicate that tailoring benefit packages to the age and years of experience for the individual NNP may aid in recruiting and retaining NNPs in practice. For experienced NNPs, altered shift lengths (shorter), higher employer matching rates in retirement plans, and less employee cost sharing for health insurance benefits are more appealing strategies.It is critical for NNPs to continually evaluate the profession's workforce data. There are more than 205,000 nurse practitioners practicing in the United States, with neonatal NPs making up approximately 3% of the larger whole. Increased participation in future surveys will assist in creating sustainable solutions to the workforce crisis facing the profession.

  10. Is Knowledge Regarding Tuberculosis Associated with Stigmatising and Discriminating Attitudes of General Population towards Tuberculosis Patients? Findings from a Community Based Survey in 30 Districts of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, Karuna D.; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Chadha, Sarabjit S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Stigmatising and discriminating attitudes may discourage tuberculosis (TB) patients from actively seeking medical care, hide their disease status, and discontinue treatment. It is expected that appropriate knowledge regarding TB should remove stigmatising and discriminating attitudes. In this study we assessed the prevalence of stigmatising and discriminating attitudes towards TB patients among general population and their association with knowledge regarding TB. Method A cross-sectional knowledge, attitude and practice survey was conducted in 30 districts of India in January-March 2011. A total of 4562 respondents from general population were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires which contained items to measure stigma, discrimination and knowledge on TB. Result Of the 4562 interviewed, 3823 were eligible for the current analysis. Of these, 73% (95% CI 71.4–74.2) had stigmatising and 98% (95% CI 97.4–98.3) had discriminating attitude towards TB patients. Only 17% (95% CI 15.6–18.0) of the respondents had appropriate knowledge regarding TB with even lower levels observed amongst females, rural areas and respondents from low income groups. Surprisingly stigmatising (adjusted OR 1.31 (0.78–2.18) and discriminating (adjusted OR 0.79 (0.43–1.44) attitudes were independent of knowledge regarding TB. Conclusion Stigmatising and discriminating attitudes towards TB patients remain high among the general population in India. Since these attitudes were independent of the knowledge regarding TB, it is possible that the current disseminated knowledge regarding TB which is mainly from a medical perspective may not be adequately addressing the factors that lead to stigma and discrimination towards TB patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to review the messages and strategies currently used for disseminating knowledge regarding TB among general population and revise them appropriately. The disseminated knowledge should include medical

  11. Survey of referrals and medical reports in optometric practices in Norway: midterm findings from a 3-year prospective Internet-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundmark PO

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Per O Lundmark,1 Knut Luraas1,2 1Department of Optometry, Radiography and Lighting Design, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University College of Southeast Norway, Kongsberg, 2Rjukan Synssenter Optometri, Rjukan, Norway Purpose: The increasing demand for primary eye care due to an aging population implicates an enhanced role of optometrists in the communities. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the rate of referrals and returning medical reports between optometrists and health care professionals in Norway. The secondary objectives were to investigate the conformity of diagnoses in referrals and medical reports, the extent of optometric follow-up examinations and the use of ophthalmic diagnostic drugs in optometric practice.Materials and methods: This study is an ongoing prospective electronic survey administered on the Internet between November 2014 and December 2017. Optometrists in private optometric practice are eligible. Participants register data for up to 1 year, including examinations and the use of ophthalmic diagnostic drugs; referrals, including International Classification of Primary Care, second edition (ICPC-2 codes; medical reports, including the ICD-10 codes; and optometric follow-up enquiries. Analysis of agreement between referred and diagnosed conditions was made possible by encoding patients’ ID.Results: Seventeen months into the study, 67 optometrists were included (Female: 60%, mean age: 41 years.. There were 49,510 registered examinations (60% general, 28% contact lens, 12% auxiliary. Diagnostic drugs were used in 4% of these and in 14% of the examinations that resulted in a referral. There were 1,779 referrals (97% to ophthalmologists. Top three diagnoses were cataract (36%, glaucoma (11%, and age-related macular degeneration (7%. There were 1,036 returned medical reports, of which 76% could be linked with registered referrals. Diagnostic agreement was observed in 80% of the cases (74% for

  12. Management of patient information trends and challenges in member states based on the findings of the second global survey on e-health

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing the competencies of health professionals is only one of the ways health care services can be improved. The management of information in particular has been shown to impact the quality of health care service delivery. A powerful approach is to improve the tools with which health and health-related data and information are collected stored accessed disseminated and used. This publication covers areas related to the management of patient information at three levels (local health care facility regional/district and national). It analyses the trends in the progression from paper-based inf

  13. School violence in Israel: findings of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeira, Anat; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2003-10-01

    The authors report preliminary findings of a national survey on school violence in Israel. The national representative sample was stratified on school type--elementary, middle, and high schools--and ethnicity--Jewish and Arab students. A total of 15,916 students from 603 classes and 232 schools participated in the study, resulting in a 91 percent response rate. Findings revealed high rates of violence in all areas and among all age groups, but relatively higher rates of low-level violent behaviors and lower rates of more severe violent events. The authors report on age-related, gender, and cultural differences and discuss social workers' roles in shaping national policy and professional discourse on school violence.

  14. Industry Based Monkfish Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monkfish industry leaders expressed concerns that the NEFSC bottom trawl surveys did not sample in all monkfish habitats; particularly the deeper water outside the...

  15. The broad autism phenotype: findings from an epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, N; Chakrabarti, S; Fombonne, E

    2004-03-01

    This study aimed to determine if relatives of children with autism and less severe pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) have higher rates of various components of the broad autistic phenotype. Psychiatric and medical disorders were investigated. Parents of children with PDDs were selected from an epidemiological survey and compared with parents of control children with non-autistic developmental problems. Rates of abnormalities and disorders were compared in relatives of 79 cases and 61 controls. Medical and autoimmune disorders in both groups were endorsed by few relatives. Specific developmental disorders were commoner in parents of controls. Depression and anxiety were significantly more prevalent in mothers of children with PDDs. Significantly more PDD children had at least one first-degree relative with anxiety and one second-degree relative with OCD. PDDs were commoner in first-degree relatives. The implications of the findings for the definition of the broad phenotype of autism are discussed.

  16. Editorial summary: findings from a survey on the Danish study progress reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarauw, Laura Louise; Madsen, Simon Ryberg

    The summary presents the key findings from the first comprehensive survey of what students expect of the Danish Study Progress Reform. The summarised report is based on a survey conducted among 4.354 university students, who were asked to assess how they expect to manage their time and prioritise...... their activities in light of the Study Progress Reform’s requirements for faster completion. The survey was distributed in April 2015 as part of a politically independent research project funded by the Danish Council for Independent Research/Humanities (FKK)....

  17. Source finding, parametrization and classification for the extragalactic Effelsberg-Bonn HI Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Flöer, Lars; Kerp, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Context. Source extraction for large-scale HI surveys currently involves large amounts of manual labor. For data volumes expected from future HI surveys with upcoming facilities, this approach is not feasible any longer. Aims. We describe the implementation of a fully automated source finding, parametrization, and classification pipeline for the Effelsberg-Bonn HI Survey (EBHIS). With future radio astronomical facilities in mind, we want to explore the feasibility of a completely automated approach to source extraction for large-scale HI surveys. Methods. Source finding is implemented using wavelet denoising methods, which previous studies show to be a powerful tool, especially in the presence of data defects. For parametrization, we automate baseline fitting, mask optimization, and other tasks based on well-established algorithms, currently used interactively. For the classification of candidates, we implement an artificial neural network which is trained on a candidate set comprised of false positives from ...

  18. Survey Based Reviewof Elicitation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Arshad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Any software development process is the combination of multiple development activities and each activity has a vital role in the software development cycle. Requirement Engineering is the main and basic branch of Software Engineering, it has many phases but the most initial phase is Requirement Elicitation. In this phase requirements are gathered for system development. This paper provides a literature review of the requirements engineering processes performed in traditional and modern development processes and analyses the problems in the requirements elicitation phase. This problem analysis is based on a survey which was conducted in University. A questionnaire posing questions regarding the problems in requirement elicitation was given to final year computer science graduate students who are working on their final year project as a requirement for their degree. The theoretical analysis of the questionnaire further clarifies the problems. This problems analysis will help to find out the main problems which are faced by the perspective software developers.

  19. Web-Based Surveys: Not Your Basic Survey Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys are not new to the library environment. Although such surveys began as extensions of print surveys, the Web-based environment offers a number of approaches to conducting a survey that the print environment cannot duplicate easily. Since 1994, the author and others have conducted national surveys of public library Internet…

  20. Findings from Survey Administered to Weatherization Training Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes results of a survey administered to directors of weatherization training centers that receive funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The survey presents results related to questions on training offered and future plans.

  1. Preliminary findings of China's detailed fertility survey (the first phase).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This article summarizes findings of a fertility sampling survey conducted in April 1985 in the Hebei and Shaanxi provinces and Shanghai, China. Altogether, 13,307 married women of reproductive age were interviewed. The results of the nuptiality section, which surveyed 19,956 women aged 15-49 show that 1) a high marriage rate, a low divorce rate, and a stable marriage relationship exist; 2) during the past 30 years, the number of early marriages has declined remarkably and the median age at marriage has risen; 3) in the past 30 years, the peak age at 1st marriage has risen rapidly for women in Shanghai and Hebei while it has risen relatively slowly for women in Shaanxi; 4) in the past 10 years, the mean age at 1st marriage has increased more than 1 year for Shanghai women, has fluctuated for Shaanxi women, and has decreased for Hebei women; and 5) the total 1st marriage rates were high in the early 1980s, but declined slightly in 1984. Factors which influence nuptiality include 1) education on late marriage, and 2) elimination of arranged marriage. The results of the fertility and infant mortality section show that 1) the number of children ever born has been decreasing year by year, 2) a low proportion of primarily infertile women exists, 3) the parity progressive ratio declined rapidly in Shanghai, but more slowly in Hebei and Shaanxi; 4) infant mortality has declined considerably in the last 25 years, because of improvements in medical and health services; 5) age at 1st birth is increasing; and 6) the magnitude of the rise in median age at 1st birth is smaller than the median age at 1st marriage. During the last 10 years, 1) fertility has declined in both Shaanxi and Hebei; 2) the mean age at childbirth has decreased somewhat; 3) the 1-child policy has won wide response; and 4) among infants born 1980-1983, the mortality rate is 19.3 per 1000 in Shanghai and over 34 per 1000 in both Hebei and Shaanxi. The results of the contraception section show that 1

  2. Industry Based Survey (IBS) Cod

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Gulf of Maine Atlantic Cod Industry-Based Survey" was a collaboration of the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries and the fishing industry, with support...

  3. Industry Based Survey (IBS) Yellowtail

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Southern New England Yellowtail Flounder Industry-Based Survey" was a collaboration between the Rhode Island Division of Fish and Wildlife and the fishing...

  4. A Survey on Wallman Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Adalberto García-Máynez

    2007-01-01

    [EN] Wallman bases are frequently used in compactification processes of topological spaces. However, they are also related with quasi–uniform structures and they are useful to characterize some topological properties. We present a brief survey on the subject which supports these statements. García-Máynez, A. (2007). A Survey on Wallman Bases. Applied General Topology. 8(2):223-237. doi:10.4995/agt.2007.1886. 223 237 8 2

  5. Findings from the Teaching, Learning, and Computing Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Jay Becker

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Cuban (1986; 2000 has argued that computers are largely incompatible with the requirements of teaching, and that, for the most part, teachers will continue to reject their use as instruments of student work during class. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 4th through 12th grade teachers, this paper demonstrates that although Cuban correctly characterizes frequent use of computers in academic subject classes as a teaching practice of a small and distinct minority, certain conditions make a big difference in the likelihood of a teacher having her students use computers frequently during class time. In particular, academic subject-matter teachers who have at least five computers present in their classroom, who have at least average levels of technical expertise in their use, and who are in the top quartile on a reliable and extensive measure of constructivist teaching philosophy are very likely to have students make regular use of computers during class. More than 3/4 of such teachers have students use word processing programs regularly during class and a majority are regular users of at least one other type of software besides skill-based games. In addition, other factors-such as an orientation towards depth rather than breadth in their teaching(perhaps caused by limited pressures to cover large amounts of content and block scheduling structures that provide for long class periods-are also associated with greater use of computers by students during class. Finally, the paper provides evidence that certain approaches to using computers result in students taking greater initiative in using computers outside of class time-approaches consistent with a constructivist teaching philosophy, rather than a standards- based, accountability-oriented approach to teaching. Thus, despite their clear minority status as a primary resource in academic subject classroom teaching, computers are playing a major role in at least one major direction of

  6. Source finding, parametrization, and classification for the extragalactic Effelsberg-Bonn H i Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flöer, L.; Winkel, B.; Kerp, J.

    2014-09-01

    Context. Source extraction for large-scale H i surveys currently involves large amounts of manual labor. For data volumes expected from future H i surveys with upcoming facilities, this approach is not feasible any longer. Aims: We describe the implementation of a fully automated source finding, parametrization, and classification pipeline for the Effelsberg-Bonn H i Survey (EBHIS). With future radio astronomical facilities in mind, we want to explore the feasibility of a completely automated approach to source extraction for large-scale H i surveys. Methods: Source finding is implemented using wavelet denoising methods, which previous studies show to be a powerful tool, especially in the presence of data defects. For parametrization, we automate baseline fitting, mask optimization, and other tasks based on well-established algorithms, currently used interactively. For the classification of candidates, we implement an artificial neural network, which is trained on a candidate set comprised of false positives from real data and simulated sources. Using simulated data, we perform a thorough analysis of the algorithms implemented. Results: We compare the results from our simulations to the parametrization accuracy of the H i Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS) survey. Even though HIPASS is more sensitive than EBHIS in its current state, the parametrization accuracy and classification reliability match or surpass the manual approach used for HIPASS data.

  7. U of M Civil Service Wellness Survey: Finding Out Employees' Health and Wellness Needs. A Report of Key Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matross, Ron; Roesler, Jon

    Key findings from a wellness survey conducted with University of Minnesota civil service employees are discussed. The survey was designed to provide information to guide future campus health and wellness programming. Four topics were covered: physical fitness/exercise, nutrition, self-improvement/psychological health, and general health/preventive…

  8. Energy Efficiency in Small Server Rooms: Field Surveys and Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Iris [Hoi; Greenberg, Steve; Mahdavi, Roozbeh; Brown, Richard; Tschudi, William

    2014-08-11

    Fifty-seven percent of US servers are housed in server closets, server rooms, and localized data centers, in what are commonly referred to as small server rooms, which comprise 99percent of all server spaces in the US. While many mid-tier and enterprise-class data centers are owned by large corporations that consider energy efficiency a goal to minimize business operating costs, small server rooms typically are not similarly motivated. They are characterized by decentralized ownership and management and come in many configurations, which creates a unique set of efficiency challenges. To develop energy efficiency strategies for these spaces, we surveyed 30 small server rooms across eight institutions, and selected four of them for detailed assessments. The four rooms had Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) values ranging from 1.5 to 2.1. Energy saving opportunities ranged from no- to low-cost measures such as raising cooling set points and better airflow management, to more involved but cost-effective measures including server consolidation and virtualization, and dedicated cooling with economizers. We found that inefficiencies mainly resulted from organizational rather than technical issues. Because of the inherent space and resource limitations, the most effective measure is to operate servers through energy-efficient cloud-based services or well-managed larger data centers, rather than server rooms. Backup power requirement, and IT and cooling efficiency should be evaluated to minimize energy waste in the server space. Utility programs are instrumental in raising awareness and spreading technical knowledge on server operation, and the implementation of energy efficiency measures in small server rooms.

  9. Social media and suicide prevention: findings from a stakeholder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jo; Rodrigues, Maria; Fisher, Steve; Bailey, Eleanor; Herrman, Helen

    2015-02-25

    Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly among young adults. The rapid growth of social media and its heavy use by young adults presents new challenges and opportunities for suicide prevention. Social media sites are commonly used for communicating about suicide-related behavior with others, which raises the possibility of using social media to help prevent suicide. However, the use of social media varies widely between different suicide prevention advocates. The role this type of intervention should play in a community's overall suicide prevention strategy remains a matter of debate. Explore the ways in which stakeholders use social media for suicide prevention and assess their views about the potential utility of social media as a suicide prevention tool. A 12-week stakeholder consultation that involved the online administration and completion of surveys by 10 individuals who conduct research about suicide and social media, 13 organizations that use social media for suicide prevention purposes, and 64 users of social media. Social media was seen as a useful means of delivering a range of suicide prevention activities. Respondents reported that the key benefits of social media were the opportunity to obtain emotional support from others, to express one's feelings, to talk to others with similar problems, and to provide help to others. The social media site believed to hold most potential for delivering suicide prevention activities was Facebook. There were concerns about potential risks of social media, but respondents felt the potential benefits outweighed the risks. Social media was recognized by different types of stakeholders as holding potential for delivering suicide prevention activities. More research is required to establish the efficacy and safety of potential social media-based interventions and ethical standards and protocols to ensure that such interventions are delivered safely need to be developed and implemented.

  10. Aerial thermography surveys find insulator and other problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydges, D. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    Aerial thermal imaging surveying is now regularly used on Hydro One's transmission electrical system. The survey were initially conducted to identify insulator failures and wood arm deterioration after a cost benefits analysis indicated that identifying components for repair represented a fraction of the costs associated with reactive unplanned repair approaches.. Hydro One's circuits are now inspected on a priority basis. Minimum load requirements are obtained before the surveys are carried out, and system outages are monitored along with seasonal weather patterns. Surveys are conducted using a Polytec Kelvin 350 Gyro stabilized Gimbal that contains an infrared camera, a video recorder, and a camera. The system is placed on a helicopter that flies close to utility wires in order to detect anomalies. Data obtained by the helicopter surveys are then analyzed. Common analyzers include problems with bolted pads and conductor splices. Insulator anomalies include porcelain failures and problems with a lack of bonding between the rubber housing and fiberglass rods on non-ceramic insulators. It was concluded that aerial thermography plays an important role in ensuring system security. 23 figs.

  11. Survey Finds that Few Women Are Teaching in PR Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Elizabeth P.

    1986-01-01

    Presents results of a survey indicating that although nearly 70 percent of undergraduate public relations majors are women, these students have few female role models teaching them. Indicates that those women currently teaching public relations carry heavy teaching and student contact responsibilities, primarily because of their beginning faculty…

  12. GRAMEEN BANK BORROWER VIABILITY: FINDINGS FROM FIELD SURVEYS

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Bangladesh Bank and Mahabub Hossain survey of Grameen Bank borrowers is examined. It is observed that the borrowers have gained substantially in Income following the use of credit. Income gain, however, is not sufficient to repay credit under the stipulated terms.

  13. Survey Finds that Few Women Are Teaching in PR Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Elizabeth P.

    1986-01-01

    Presents results of a survey indicating that although nearly 70 percent of undergraduate public relations majors are women, these students have few female role models teaching them. Indicates that those women currently teaching public relations carry heavy teaching and student contact responsibilities, primarily because of their beginning faculty…

  14. Intoxicated workers: findings from a national Australian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidd, Ken; Roche, Ann M; Buisman-Pijlman, Femke

    2011-09-01

    To identify prevalence of alcohol and drug use and intoxication at work. A total of 9,828 Australian workers ≥14 years old. Australia 2007. Work-place alcohol use and drug use, intoxication at work, industry and occupation of employment. Secondary analysis of a large nationally representative survey involving descriptive and weighted multivariate logistic regressions. Differential patterns were identified by drug type, worker characteristics and occupational setting, controlling for demographic variables. Nearly 9% of workers surveyed (8.7%) usually drank alcohol at work and 0.9% usually used drugs at work. Attending work under the influence of alcohol was more prevalent (5.6%) than attending work under the influence of drugs (2.0%), and significantly more likely among young, male, never married workers with no dependent children. Hospitality industry workers were 3.5 times more likely than other workers to drink alcohol and two to three times more likely to use drugs at work or attend work under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Other high-risk industries and occupations included construction, financial services, tradespersons and unskilled workers. More than one in 20 Australian workers admit to having worked under the influence of alcohol and almost one in 50 report attending work under the influence of psychoactive drugs. The rates are higher for some industries, such as the hospitality industry, than others. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. [MISSCARE Survey - Italian Version: findings from an Italian validation study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sist, Luisa; Contini, Carla; Bandini, Anna; Bandini, Stefania; Massa, Licia; Zanin, Roberta; Maricchio, Rita; Gianesini, Gloria; Bassi, Erika; Tartaglini, Daniela; Palese, Alvisa; Ferraresi, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    The Missed Nursing Care (MNC) refers to nursing interventions that are not completed, partially completed, or postponed. Despite the relevance of MNC, no assessment tools are available in the Italian context, and no data regarding the occurrence of this phenomenon has been documented on a large scale to date. The study aims were: (1) to validate the Italian version of the MISSCARE Survey tool; (2) to measure the prevalence of missed interventions and reasons for missed care as perceived by clinical nurses working in Italian health care settings. After having conducted the forward and backward translation, pre-pilot and pilot phases were developed to ensure face and content validity as well as semantic and conceptual equivalence of the Italian version with the original version. The MISSCARE survey questionnaire was then distributed to 1,233 clinical nurses of whom 1,003 completed the questionnaire. Overall, 979 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires were completed from January to March 2012, by nurses working in medical and surgical hospital departments in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy. Construct validity and internal consistency of the instrument were assessed. The face and content validity were ascertained by a group of experts. The instrument acceptability was good given that 79.4% of respondents replied to all items. Construct validity was investigated by an Exploratory Factor Analysis. Four factors explaining 64.18% of variance emerged: communication, lack of facilities/supplies, lack of staff, and unexpected events. Internal consistency, evaluated with Cronbach a, was 0.94. The nursing interventions omitted with greater frequency were, in order: ambulation (74.8%), passive mobilization (69.6%) and oral care (51.3%). The three main reasons for missed interventions were: an unexpected increase in the number of patients (90.5%), increased instability of the clinical condition (86.1%) and insufficient human resources (85.5%). The Italian version of

  16. Pediatric otitis media in Fiji: Survey findings 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Te-Yung; Rafai, Eric; Wang, Pa-Chun; Bai, Chiy-Huey; Jiang, Peng-Long; Huang, Shu-Nuan; Chen, You-Ju; Chao, Yi-Ting; Wang, Chen-Hsu; Chang, Chia-Hsiu

    2016-06-01

    Otitis media (OM), as a common infectious disease, is a major cause of hearing impairment among the general population. OM remains a major public health threat in the Pacific islands, but the risks of OM have not been thoroughly explored in this region. The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence, clinical features, and quality-of-life impacts of OM in Fiji. In the medical service trip entitled "Healing and Hope - Taiwan Cathay Heart and Hearing Medical Mission to Fiji" (TCHHMMF), we conducted a cross-sectional OM survey study in Suva and Sigatoka areas (Korolevu, Cuvu, and Lomawai) in the summer of 2015. The otitis media - 6 (OM-6) was used to survey the OM-related quality of life. In the 467 pediatric patients (aged 0-18 years old) screened, 13 (2.78%) have acute otitis media (AOM), 37 (7.92%) have otitis media with effusion (OME), and 19 (4.1%) have chronic otitis media (COM). Age (OR 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36-0.77) is a significant predictor of AOM, whereas male gender (OR 2.46, 95% CI: 1.13-5.37), smoke exposure (OR 2.81, 95% CI: 1.01-7.82), and concomitant chronic sinusitis (OR 6.05, 95% CI: 2.31-15.88) are significant predictors of OME. The mean OM-6 item scores are highest in caregiver concerns (3.8), physical suffering (3.7), and hearing loss (3.4) domains. OM is an important primary care disease in Fiji that remains under-served. It is critical to educate professionals, parents, and patients to detect and to improve care for OM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Survey of post-mortem findings in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, P

    1982-11-01

    This paper gives an outline of the pathological findings in an one-year autopsy material from a major rabbit colony. The colony houses 1600-2000 animals (50% is Dansk Landrace and 50% is Rex-race). In the one year period 651 rabbits are presented for a post mortem examination and only rabbits with spontaneously lesions are included in the material. The frequency of lesions in the different organ systems of the two races is very variated. In the Dansk Landrace the most frequent findings are in the kidneys (28%) and in the respiratory system (25%). In the Rex-race findings in the locomotory system (32%) and the gastro-intestinal tract (22%) are the most frequent. Although the colony houses 50% Dansk Landrace and 50% Rex-race, nearly 2/3 of the autopsy-material is Rex-race and only 1/3 is Dansk Landrace. It is concluded that the Rex-race is less resistant to diseases (both infectious and non-infectious) than the Dansk Landrace and that long term studies on the Rex-race are very difficult to carry out.

  18. Impact of smokeless tobacco packaging on perceptions and beliefs among youth, young adults, and adults in the U.S: findings from an internet-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison, Sarah E; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Smith, Danielle M; O'Connor, Richard J; Hyland, Andrew J

    2014-01-17

    Research demonstrates that tobacco packaging elements (including health warning labels, descriptive characteristics, and corporate branding) are associated with knowledge of health risks and product appeal with cigarettes. Yet, little research has assessed this with smokeless tobacco (SLT) packaging. This study evaluates the association between three SLT packaging elements with knowledge of health risks and perceptions of novelty and appeal. Additionally, we assess how effects of these messages may differ across age groups, including youth (14-17 years), young adults (18-25 years), and older adults (26-65 years). 1000 participants were administered a web-based survey in 2010 and shown three sets of SLT packs in random order, varied by descriptor (flavor descriptor vs. none), warning label format (graphic vs. text), and corporate branding (branded vs. plain packaging). Participants rated the packs compared with "no difference" on appeal, novelty, and risk perceptions associated with product use. Chi-square tests were used to test for significant differences in pack selections. Multinomial regression was employed to evaluate the association between effects of packaging elements and participant age. More respondents selected the pack with the graphic warning label as the pack to make them consider the health risks associated with SLT use, attract their attention, and be least attractive to a smoker. The product with the text warning label was the product someone their age would want to be seen using and would appeal to peers. The SLT pack with the flavor descriptor was not associated with health risks associated with product use. The pack with corporate branding was selected as more appealing, to attract attention, and one they would want to be seen using; the plain pack was less attractive to smokers. Youth and young adults were more likely to indicate that pack elements affected their perceptions of appeal and risk associated with SLT products. These results suggest

  19. GIS-BASED SURFACE ANALYSIS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kovács

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The international research project HiMAT (History of Mining Activities in the Tyrol and adjacent areas is dedicated to the study of mining history in the Eastern Alps by various scientific disciplines. The aim of this program is the analysis of the mining activities’ impacts on environment and human societies. Unfortunately, there is only a limited number of specific regions (e.g. Mitterberg to offer possibilities to investigate the former mining expansions. Within this multidisciplinary project, the archaeological sites and finds are analyzed by the Surveying and Geoinformation Unit at the University of Innsbruck. This paper shows data fusion of different surveying and post-processing methods to achieve a photo-realistic digital 3D model of one of these most important finds, the Bronze Age sluice box from the Mitterberg. The applied workflow consists of four steps: 1. Point cloud processing, 2. Meshing of the point clouds and editing of the models, 3. Image orientation, bundle and image adjustment, 4. Model texturing. In addition, a short range laser scanning survey was organized before the conservation process of this wooden find. More accurate research opportunities were offered after this detailed documentation of the sluice box, for example the reconstruction of the broken parts and the surface analysis of this archaeological object were implemented using these high-resolution datasets. In conclusion, various unperceived patterns of the wooden boards were visualized by the GIS-based tool marks investigation.

  20. Empathy in Korean medical students: Findings from a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Hye; Roh, Hyerin; Suh, Dae Hun; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on empathy in Korean medical students were conducted on small populations or with different scales of measurement, resulting in low representativeness and generalisability of the findings. To evaluate empathy in Korean medical students throughout the country and to make suggestions to improve empathy. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) (Korean) was used, and the impact of sex, age, the medical school admission system, and grade of the respondents was investigated. We analyzed 5343 questionnaires and found a mean empathy score of 105.9 ± 12.8. Females and post-baccalaureate students had higher scores as compared with their counterparts. There was a significant difference between the admission systems after controlling for gender. Students from higher grade levels had lower scores than those from the lower grade levels. The JSE score of Korean medical students was lower than that of students in Western countries. The difference of gender and medical school admission system should be considered, and capability to apply empathy to clinical practice should be focused upon in medical training.

  1. Mortality patterns in Vietnam, 2006: Findings from a national verbal autopsy survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair Timothy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate nationally representative statistics on total and cause-specific mortality in Vietnam are lacking due to incomplete capture in government reporting systems. This paper presents total and cause-specific mortality results from a national verbal autopsy survey conducted first time in Vietnam in conjunction with the annual population change survey and discusses methodological and logistical challenges associated with the implementation of a nation-wide assessment of mortality based on surveys. Verbal autopsy interviews, using the WHO standard questionnaire, were conducted with close relatives of the 6798 deaths identified in the 2007 population change survey in Vietnam. Data collectors were health staff recruited from the commune health station who undertook 3-day intensive training on VA interview. The Preston-Coale method assessed the level of completeness of mortality reporting from the population change survey. The number of deaths in each age-sex grouping is inflated according to the estimate of completeness to produce an adjusted number of deaths. Underlying causes of death were aggregated to the International Classification of Diseases Mortality Tabulation List 1. Leading causes of death were tabulated by sex for three broad age groups: 0-14 years; 15-59 years; and 60 years and above. Findings Completeness of mortality reporting was 69% for males and 54% for females with substantial regional variation. The use of VA has resulted in 10% of deaths being classified to ill-defined among males, and 15% among females. More ill-defined deaths were reported among the 60 year or above age group. Incomplete death reporting, wide geographical dispersal of deaths, extensive travel between households, and substantial variation in local responses to VA interviews challenged the implementation of a national mortality and cause of death assessment based on surveys. Conclusions Verbal autopsy can be a viable tool to identify cause

  2. Implementing patient satisfaction survey findings into a customer service action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luallin, Meryl D

    2004-01-01

    Patient satisfaction surveys have become popular gauges of practice efficiency and are among the markers used by third-party payers to measure health-care quality. Although surveys may yield valuable information for providers to improve their services, these results most often are assigned a low priority and not applied in actual practice. This article briefly outlines the basic features of a patient satisfaction survey and details specific steps that managers may follow to implement their findings.

  3. Choral Singing and Wellbeing: Findings from a Survey of the Mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Findings from a Survey of the Mixed-Chorus Experience from Music Students of ... an integral part of the academic activities of the Department of Music Education, ... singing in terms of emotional, psychological, social and physical wellbeing.

  4. What clinicians want: findings from a psychotherapy practice research network survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Sylvestre, John; Balfour, Louise; Chyurlia, Livia; Evans, Jane; Fortin-Langelier, Benjamin; Francis, Kylie; Gandhi, Jasmine; Huehn, Linda; Hunsley, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Kinley, Jackie; Koszycki, Diana; Leszcz, Molyn; Lybanon-Daigle, Vanessa; Mercer, Deanna; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Presniak, Michelle; Ravitz, Paula; Ritchie, Kerri; Talbot, Jeanne; Wilson, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Practice research networks may be one way of advancing knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) in psychotherapy. In this study, we document this process by first asking clinicians what they want from psychotherapy research. Eighty-two psychotherapists in 10 focus groups identified and discussed psychotherapy research topics relevant to their practices. An analysis of these discussions led to the development of 41 survey items. In an online survey, 1,019 participants, mostly practicing clinicians, rated the importance to their clinical work of these 41 psychotherapy research topics. Ratings were reduced using a principal components analysis in which 9 psychotherapy research themes emerged, accounting for 60.66% of the variance. Two postsurvey focus groups of clinicians (N = 22) aided in interpreting the findings. The ranking of research themes from most to least important were-Therapeutic Relationship/Mechanisms of Change, Therapist Factors, Training and Professional Development, Client Factors, Barriers and Stigma, Technology and Adjunctive Interventions, Progress Monitoring, Matching Clients to Therapist or Therapy, and Treatment Manuals. Few differences were noted in rankings based on participant age or primary therapeutic orientation. Postsurvey focus group participants were not surprised by the top-rated items, as they were considered most proximal and relevant to therapists and their work with clients during therapy sessions. Lower ranked items may be perceived as externally imposed agendas on the therapist and therapy. We discuss practice research networks as a means of creating new collaborations consistent with KTE goals. Findings of this study can help to direct practitioner-researcher collaborations.

  5. Guam Shore-based Creel Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Similar in basic design to other shore-based creel surveys in the region, the Guam survey has been ongoing since the early 1980s and is continuing today. Creel...

  6. American Samoa Shore-based Creel Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DMWR staff has also conducted shore-based creel surveys which also have 2 major sub-surveys; one to estimate participation (fishing effort), and one to provide...

  7. The Aalborg Survey / Part 1 - Web Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm

    Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young......) and the research focus within the cluster of Mobility and Tracking Technologies (MoTT), AAU. Summary / Part 1 Web Base Survey The 1st part of the research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS) has been carried out during the period from December 1st 2007 to February 1st 2008 as a Web Based Survey of the 27.040 gross...... people do in urban spaces, where they are in the urban spaces and when the young people are in the urban spaces. The answers to these questions form the framework and enable further academic discussions and conclusions in relation to the overall research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS). The primary...

  8. The National Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys of Great Britain--initial findings from the household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, R; Lewis, G; Bebbington, P; Brugha, T; Farrell, M; Gill, B; Meltzer, H

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the Household Survey from the National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity. This covered a sample drawn at random from the population of Britain, with the exception of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. The Postcode Address File was used as the sampling frame. Nearly 13,000 adults aged 16-65 were selected for interview, of which 10,108 (79.4%) were successfully interviewed. Eight percent could not be contacted and 13% refused interview. Psychiatric assessment was carried out by lay interviewers using the CIS-R. Subjects were also screened for psychosis, and screen-positive individuals were examined by psychiatrists using SCAN. Sixteen per cent of subjects scored above the standard cut-off of 12 on the CIS-R. The overall one-week prevalence of neurotic disorder was 12.3% in males and 19.5% in females. Unmarried and post-marital groups had high rates of disorder, as did single parents and people living on their own. Respondents in Social Class I had notably lower rates of neurotic disorder than the remainder of the sample. Unemployment was strongly associated with disorder. Subjects living in urban areas had a higher overall prevalence, but there was no significant variation by region. Black respondents had higher rates of disorders that were entirely explained by their age, family type, and social class. Individual neurotic disorders were all significantly commoner in women, with the exception of panic disorder. The one-year prevalence of functional psychoses was four per 1000, with no sex difference. Alcohol and drug dependence was considerably more prevalent in men. For the first time, the survey provides data on the prevalence and correlates of psychiatric disorder on a nationwide sample that can be used to inform equitable and effective national psychiatric services.

  9. A Survey of Privacy-Preserving Algorithms for Finding meeting point in Mobile Adhoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochana Gaulkar,

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Location privacy in Location Based Services (LBS is the capability to protect the connection between user’s identity, uncertainty sources, servers and database, thereby restraining an impending attacker from conveniently linking users of LBS to convinced locations. Smart Phones have become most important gadget for maintaining the daily activities, highly interconnected urban population is also increasingly dependent on these gadgets to regulate and schedule their daily lives. These applications often depend on current location of user or a class of user. Use of Smart Mapping technology is also increasing in large area; this system provides an easy attainable online platform that can be used for accessing many services. This survey paper projects the privacy-preserving algorithm to find the most favorable meeting location for a class of users. GSM calculates the location of all users.

  10. Refinement of Research Surveying in Software Methodologies by Analogy: finding your patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Doroshenko

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available To enhance research surveying in software methodologies, a model is introduced that can indicate field maturity based on vocabulary and relevant literature. This model is developed by drawing analogies with software methodologies. Two analogies are used: software models and software life cycles or processes. How this model can reduce research surveying problems for researchers is described using extracts from application results as examples. Although the model does support research surveying activities, it cannot choose the subject for the researcher.

  11. A marine direction finding system based on global positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dǎnişor, Alin; Izet-Ünsalan, Kunsel-Özel; Ünsalan, Deniz; Tamaş, Razvan; Dǎnişor, Cosmin

    2015-02-01

    Direction finding and attitude determination is of utmost importance for marine, aerial, spatial and land-based navigation [1], as well as control of vehicles, in surveying and in target acquisition of tracking radars. These problems can be solved using dedicated sensors commonly named as compasses and rate gyros. Unfortunately, the classical means of attitude determination both by magnetic and gyrocompasses become unusable at extreme latitudes. Furthermore, gyrocompasses inherently yield erroneous results on high speed craft. Three-axis attitude of a vehicle can be determined using a GPS receiver with multiple antennas, by measuring carrier phases [2], signal strength [3], or integrated INS/GPS systems [4]. This paper proposes a new method of attitude determination using two low-cost GPS receivers.

  12. Diversion and abuse of buprenorphine: findings from national surveys of treatment patients and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Arfken, Cynthia L; di Menza, Salvatore; Schuster, Charles Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Since 2003, buprenorphine has been approved for the treatment of opioid dependence in office-based practice. Diversion and abuse can be a threat to its continued approval under these conditions. As part of a national postmarketing surveillance program, applicants to substance abuse treatment and physicians certified to prescribe buprenorphine were surveyed about their perceptions of buprenorphine/naloxone diversion and abuse. These surveys were supplemented by information from national databases. Availability of buprenorphine/naloxone was measured by number of tablets dispensed. Measures of diversion and abuse of buprenorphine/naloxone increased from 2005 to 2009. The results from the applicant survey showed that the perceptions of the extent of diversion and abuse were lower than positive controls, methadone, oxycodone and heroin, but higher than the negative control, amitriptyline. By 2009, 46% of the physicians believed that buprenorphine/naloxone was diverted but 44% believed illegal use was for self-management of withdrawal and 53% believed the source of the medication was substance abuse patients. Other measures from national databases showed similar results. When adjusted for millions of tablets sold per year, slopes for measures of diversion and abuse were reduced. The increases in diversion and abuse measures indicate the need to take active attempts to curb diversion and abuse as well as continuous monitoring and surveillance of all buprenorphine products. However, these increases parallel the increased number of tablets sold. Finding a balance of risk/benefit (i.e. diversion and abuse versus expanded treatment) remains a challenge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

  14. Understanding Teachers' Perspectives on Student Mental Health: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese-Germain, Bernie; Riel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This 2012 research report, based on a national online survey conducted by the Canadian Teachers’ Federation (CTF) in collaboration with the Mental Health Commission of Canada, gathers the responses of over 3,900 teachers who voluntarily took part in the survey. Teachers were asked to identify the potential barriers to the provision of mental…

  15. Finding the State Story in the National Lake Survey Data with an Excel Exploratory Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) surveyed over 1200 U.S. lakes in the summer of 2007, evaluating lake quality based on water quality, physical habitat, and indicators of biological and recreational condition. An upcoming national report will summarize survey results primarily ...

  16. A Survey of Grid Based Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR ILANGO

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cluster Analysis, an automatic process to find similar objects from a database, is a fundamental operation in data mining. A cluster is a collection of data objects that are similar to one another within the same cluster and are dissimilar to the objects in other clusters. Clustering techniques have been discussed extensively in SimilaritySearch, Segmentation, Statistics, Machine Learning, Trend Analysis, Pattern Recognition and Classification [1]. Clustering methods can be classified into i Partitioning methods ii Hierarchical methods iii Density-based methods iv Grid-based methods v Model-based methods. Grid based methods quantize the object space into a finite number of cells (hyper-rectangles and then perform the required operations on the quantized space. The main advantage of Grid based method is its fast processing time which depends on number of cells in each dimension in quantized space. In this research paper, we present some of the grid based methods such as CLIQUE (CLustering In QUEst [2], STING (STatistical INformation Grid [3], MAFIA (Merging of Adaptive Intervals Approach to Spatial Data Mining [4], Wave Cluster [5]and O-CLUSTER (Orthogonal partitioning CLUSTERing [6], as a survey andalso compare their effectiveness in clustering data objects. We also present some of the latest developments in Grid Based methods such as Axis Shifted Grid Clustering Algorithm [7] and Adaptive Mesh Refinement [Wei-Keng Liao etc] [8] to improve the processing time of objects.

  17. Ferritin Levels in Colombian Children: Findings from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey (ENSIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Low ferritin is associated with many adverse health outcomes and is highly prevalent worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe the key findings related to plasma ferritin levels to identify the prevalence and associated sociodemographic factors in a representative sample of children in Colombia, based on the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 6650 Colombian children between the ages of 5 and 12. Plasma ferritin levels were determined by chemiluminescence. Sociodemographic data was assessed by computer-assisted personal interview technology. All analyses were conducted considering the complex nature of the sample. Of the children assessed, 3.5% had low ferritin, defined as levels <12 µg/L. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed increased risks for low ferritin levels among black or Afro-Colombian ethnic group and for those living in the northern, western and southern regions of the country. In conclusion, a significant prevalence of anemia caused by low ferritin levels was found and various sociodemographic factors were associated with this finding in Colombia. Continued surveillance and implementation of interventions to improve dietary patterns among the identified high-risk groups should be considered. Implementing these recommendations can help reduce manifestations of iron deficiency (e.g., delays in infant and child development and thus improve public health.

  18. Ferritin Levels in Colombian Children: Findings from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey (ENSIN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Martínez-Torres, Javier; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Lobelo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Low ferritin is associated with many adverse health outcomes and is highly prevalent worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe the key findings related to plasma ferritin levels to identify the prevalence and associated sociodemographic factors in a representative sample of children in Colombia, based on the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 6650 Colombian children between the ages of 5 and 12. Plasma ferritin levels were determined by chemiluminescence. Sociodemographic data was assessed by computer-assisted personal interview technology. All analyses were conducted considering the complex nature of the sample. Of the children assessed, 3.5% had low ferritin, defined as levels <12 µg/L. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed increased risks for low ferritin levels among black or Afro-Colombian ethnic group and for those living in the northern, western and southern regions of the country. In conclusion, a significant prevalence of anemia caused by low ferritin levels was found and various sociodemographic factors were associated with this finding in Colombia. Continued surveillance and implementation of interventions to improve dietary patterns among the identified high-risk groups should be considered. Implementing these recommendations can help reduce manifestations of iron deficiency (e.g., delays in infant and child development) and thus improve public health. PMID:27058547

  19. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nm.gov.my; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muzakkir, Amir [Sinaran Utama Teknologi Sdn Bhd, 43650, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr{sup −1}). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr{sup −1} determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  20. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Muzakkir, Amir; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr-1). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr-1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  1. Are physicians willing to ration health care? Conflicting findings in a systematic review of survey research☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, Daniel; Persad, Govind; Marckmann, Georg; Danis, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Background Several quantitative surveys have been conducted internationally to gather empirical information about physicians’ general attitudes towards health care rationing. Are physicians ready to accept and implement rationing, or are they rather reluctant? Do they prefer implicit bedside rationing that allows the physician–patient relationship broad leeway in individual decisions? Or do physicians prefer strategies that apply explicit criteria and rules? Objectives To analyse the range of survey findings on rationing. To discuss differences in response patterns. To provide recommendations for the enhancement of transparency and systematic conduct in reviewing survey literature. Methods A systematic search was performed for all English and non-English language references using CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE. Three blinded experts independently evaluated title and abstract of each reference. Survey items were extracted that match with: (i) willingness to ration health care or (ii) preferences for different rationing strategies. Results 16 studies were eventually included in the systematic review. Percentages of respondents willing to accept rationing ranged from 94% to 9%. Conclusions The conflicting findings among studies illustrate important ambivalence in physicians that has several implications for health policy. Moreover, this review highlights the importance to interpret survey findings in context of the results of all previous relevant studies. PMID:19070396

  2. University Students and AIDS: Some Findings from Three Surveys--1989, 1990 and 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Ineke; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents three surveys conducted at the University of Puerto Rico concerning college students' AIDS knowledge and their sexual and preventive behaviors. Findings show students had knowledge of how HIV is transmitted, but they also harbored misconceptions about ways the disease can spread. These misconceptions coupled with the machismo attitude…

  3. The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) : Design, Current Status, and Selected Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Verhulst, Frank C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on conti

  4. The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) : Design, Current Status, and Selected Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Verhulst, Frank C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on

  5. The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) : Design, Current Status, and Selected Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Verhulst, Frank C

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on conti

  6. University Students and AIDS: Some Findings from Three Surveys--1989, 1990 and 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Ineke; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents three surveys conducted at the University of Puerto Rico concerning college students' AIDS knowledge and their sexual and preventive behaviors. Findings show students had knowledge of how HIV is transmitted, but they also harbored misconceptions about ways the disease can spread. These misconceptions coupled with the machismo attitude…

  7. Survey results of the training, nutrition, and mental preparation of triathletes: practical implications of findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Shawn H; Houston, Melinda; Martin, Scott B

    2011-07-01

    Although triathlon is growing in popularity at a remarkable rate, it has not been extensively studied. The aims of this research were to identify preparation strategies used by triathletes and to categorize these strategies according to gender and consultation with triathlon coaches. Survey data collected from 401 triathletes (207 males, 194 females) revealed training, nutritional, and mental preparation habits. Most participants engaged in strength training, consumed food and/or fluids during and after training, set training and competition goals, and applied mental preparation strategies during training and the hour before racing. Water was the most commonly consumed fluid; positive self-talk was the most used mental strategy. Participants were more likely to consult with a triathlon coach than a nutrition or sport psychology professional. Athletes with more years of experience in triathlon and those competing in longer distances were more likely to consult a triathlon coach. Female triathletes were more likely than male triathletes to train with others, use mental preparation strategies, and report feeling anxious before competitions. More male triathletes reported using nutritional supplements during training than their female counterparts. These findings add to the limited research base on triathletes' training habits, and hopefully will help guide practitioners who work with this group. The results provide guidance for collaborative efforts among training, nutrition, and mental health professionals to best support triathletes.

  8. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Data (BASE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) study was a five year study to characterize determinants of indoor air quality and occupant perceptions in...

  9. Guam Boat-based Creel Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Similar to other boat-based survey in basic design, this system is run by the Div. of Aquatic and Wildlife Resources (DAWR) and has been in operation since about...

  10. American Samoa Boat-based Creel Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Boat-based creel survey data have been collected and processed by the American Samoa Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources (DMWR) staff since about 1982 and...

  11. CNMI Shore-based Creel Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) staff conducted shore-based creel surveys which have 2 major...

  12. Obesity, hope, and health: findings from the HOPE Works community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, K S; DeVellis, B M; Gizlice, Z; Ries, A; Barnes, K; Campbell, M K

    2011-12-01

    According to hope theory, hope is defined as goal-directed thinking in which people perceive that they can find routes to desired goals and the motivation to use those routes. The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between hope and body mass index and hope and self-rated health among women completing a community survey conducted in four rural counties in eastern North Carolina. The survey was administered as part of Hope Works, a participatory, community-led intervention program to improve weight, health and hope among low-income women in rural North Carolina. Survey data from 434 women were analyzed. In multivariate models adjusting for age, race, education and income, higher hope was positively related to self-reported health (OR:0.92; 95% CI: 0.89-0.95) and negatively related to BMI (P goal setting and providing support, information and resources to help women work toward their goals.

  13. The Immediate Impact of the 2009 USPSTF Screening Guideline Change on Physician Recommendation of a Screening Mammogram: Findings from a National Ambulatory and Medical Care Survey-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Suja S; Suryavanshi, Manasi S; Karanth, Siddharth; Lairson, David R

    2016-08-26

    Regular screening is considered the most effective method to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with breast cancer. Nevertheless, contradictory evidence about screening mammograms has led to periodic changes and considerable variations among different screening guidelines. This study is the first to examine the immediate impact of the 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) guideline modification on physician recommendation of mammograms. The study included visits by women aged 40 years and older without prior breast cancer from the National Ambulatory and Medical Care Survey 2008-2010. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were used to determine the factors associated with mammography recommendation. Approximately 29,395 visits were included and mammography was recommended during 1350 visits; 50-64-year-old women had 72% higher odds, and 65-74-year-old women had twice the odds of getting a mammogram recommendation compared with 40-49-year-old women in 2009. However, there was no difference in recommendation by age groups in 2008 and 2010. Obstetricians and gynecologists did not modify their recommendation behavior in 2009, unlike all other specialists who reduced their recommendation for 40-49-year-old women in 2009. Other characteristics associated with mammogram recommendations were certain patient comorbidities, physician specialty and primary care physician status, health maintenance organization status of the clinic, and certain visit characteristics. This study demonstrated a temporary effect of the USPSTF screening guideline change on mammogram recommendation. However, in light of conflicting recommendations by different guidelines, the physicians erred toward the more rigorous guidelines and did not permanently reduce their mammogram recommendation for women aged 40-49 years.

  14. Triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and its association with periodontal disease in Korean adults: findings based on the 2012-2014 Korean national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yu-Jin; Park, Jeong-Won; Lim, Hyoung-Ji; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Sun; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2017-06-06

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio is associated with periodontal disease in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study included 12,249 individuals (4,941 men and 7,308 women) who took part in the 2012-2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We categorized the TG/HDL-C ratio into three groups. Periodontal disease was defined as a community pocket index score ≥3 with at least one affected site. Multiple logistic analyses were used to analyze the association between TG/HDL-C ratio and periodontal disease. In the study population, prevalence of periodontal disease was 31.6% in men and 21% in women. Compared to the lowest tertile group, OR (95% CI) of the highest tertile group for periodontal disease was 1.474 (1.220-1.780) in men and 1.259 (1.041-1.522) in women after adjusting for age, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, current smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, household income, oral health behavior, and use of anti-dyslipidemia medication. Our study suggests that the TG/HDL-C ratio is associated with periodontal disease in Korean adults. TG/HDL-C ratio is a simple and useful marker to reflect insulin resistance. And periodontal disease is also known to be related with insulin resistance. This study indicates that TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with periodontal disease in Korean adults.

  15. Value Relevance of Earnings Information in Japan -- A Survey: The Empirical Findings by Foreign Researchers --

    OpenAIRE

    大日方, 隆

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to confirm how international academicians evaluate the Japanese accounting system. This paper surveys prior studies on the international comparison (including Japan) of accounting information and reexamines the empirical findings on the usefulness of earnings information in Japan, focusing on the value relevance of earnings. Many researchers have pointed out that code law, investor protection in financial regulation environments and Japanese corporate governance, ...

  16. The Aalborg Survey / Part 2 - GPS Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Reiter, Ida Maria; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm

    Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young...... people do in urban spaces, where they are in the urban spaces and when the young people are in the urban spaces. The answers to these questions form the framework and enable further academic discussions and conclusions in relation to the overall research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS). The primary...... aim of the DUS research project is to investigate why young people do what they do in the urban spaces, and how this knowledge can contribute to an increase in young people’s use of urban spaces. It is the overall aim of the DUS research project to facilitate an increased and more diverse use of urban...

  17. The Aalborg Survey / Part 3 - Interview Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm; Jensen, Maria Vestergaard

    Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young...... people do in urban spaces, where they are in the urban spaces and when the young people are in the urban spaces. The answers to these questions form the framework and enable further academic discussions and conclusions in relation to the overall research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS). The primary...... aim of the DUS research project is to investigate why young people do what they do in the urban spaces, and how this knowledge can contribute to an increase in young people’s use of urban spaces. It is the overall aim of the DUS research project to facilitate an increased and more diverse use of urban...

  18. A survey on relationships between thyroid hormone levels and clinical findings in dairy calf diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hajimohammadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Calf diarrhea is an important disease that occurs in association with the interaction of various infectious agents and calf susceptibility. The economic losses is associated with death loss and treatment costs, reduction of live weight gain, and reduction of productive life span, which may be considerable. Thyroid hormones previously thought mainly in thermoregulation and energy metabolism. Recently, several studies have challenged on their roles in the metabolic response of animals to certain conditions such as nutritional, environmental, or disease state. The aim of the present study was to survey relationships between thyroid hormones in calves with diarrhea in the different clinical features. Holstein calves (50 within 1 day to 2 months old with signs of diarrhea and healthy calves (40 with similar age and sex were selected. Standard clinical examinations and also dehydration degree assessment were carried out on each calf and recorded accordingly. Calves with clinical signs of diarrhea were divided in different groups based on the severity of the clinical findings, fever and degree of dehydration. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein from all calves into vacutainer tubes for serum collection.T4, fT4, T3 and fT3 concentrations were measured by validated methods. A significant increase in T4, T3 and fT3 in diarrheic calves was observed (P<0.05. Thyroid hormones in calves with severe clinical signs decreased significantly (P<0.001 compared to calves with moderate or mild systemic clinical signs. Thyroid hormones between febrile diarrheic calves compared to afebrile diarrheic calves had no significant changes. Diarrheic calves with severe dehydration compared to diarrheic calves with mild and moderate dehydration had significant decreases in their thyroid hormones (P<0.001.

  19. Does Medicaid Make a Difference? Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, David; Rasmussen, Petra W; Collins, Sara R; Doty, Michelle M

    2015-06-01

    As millions of Americans gain Medicaid coverage under the Affordable Care Act, attention has focused on the access to care, quality of care, and financial protection that coverage provides. This analysis uses the Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, 2014, to explore these questions by comparing the experiences of working-age adults with private insurance who were insured all year, Medicaid beneficiaries with a full year of coverage, and those who were uninsured for some time during the year. The survey findings suggest that Medicaid coverage provides access to care that in most aspects is comparable to private insurance. Adults with Medicaid coverage reported better care experiences on most measures than those who had been uninsured during the year. Medicaid beneficiaries also seem better protected from the cost of illness than do uninsured adults, as well as those with private coverage.

  20. Large Area Lyman Alpha Survey: Finding Young Galaxies at z=4.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J.; Dey, A.; Stern, D.; Spinrad, H.

    Strong Lyα emission is a signpost of young stars and the absence of dust and thus indicates young galaxies. To find such a population of young galaxies at z=4.5 we started the Large Area Lyman Alpha survey (LALA). This survey achieves an unprecedented combination of volume and sensitivity by using narrow-band filters on a large format (36' × 36') camera on the 4 meter telescope at KPNO. The volume density and star-formation contribution of the Lyα emitters at z=4.5 is comparable to that of Lyman break galaxies. With many candidates and a few spectroscopic confirmations in hand we discuss what the properties of Lyα emitters imply for galaxy and star formation in the early universe.

  1. Methodology of the National School-based Health Survey in Malaysia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Fadhli; Saari, Riyanti; Naidu, Balkish M; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Omar, Azahadi; Aris, Tahir

    2014-09-01

    The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 was a nationwide school health survey of students in Standard 4 to Form 5 (10-17 years of age), who were schooling in government schools in Malaysia during the period of data collection. The survey comprised 3 subsurveys: the Global School Health Survey (GSHS), the Mental Health Survey, and the National School-Based Nutrition Survey. The aim of the survey was to provide data on the health status of adolescents in Malaysia toward strengthening the adolescent health program in the country. The design of the survey was created to fulfill the requirements of the 3 subsurveys. A 2-stage stratified sampling method was adopted in the sampling. The methods for data collection were via questionnaire and physical examination. The National School-Based Health Survey 2012 adopted an appropriate methodology for a school-based survey to ensure valid and reliable findings.

  2. Triplet based online track finding in the PANDA-STT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mertens, Marius; Caldeira Balkeståhl, Li; Calén, Hans; Fransson, Kjell; Johansson, Tord; Kupsc, Andrzej; Marciniewski, Pawel; Schönning, Karin; Pettersson, Joachim; Wolke, Magnus; Zmeskal, Johann

    2014-01-01

    .... A variety of tracking algorithms is foreseen to process the different track topologies. The so-called Triplet Finder, which is presented here, is a track finding algorithm based on the central straw tube tracker (STT) of PANDA...

  3. Content Based Image Retrieval Based on Color: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussarat Yasmin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Information sharing, interpretation and meaningful expression have used digital images in the past couple of decades very usefully and extensively. This extensive use not only evolved the digital communication world with ease and usability but also produced unwanted difficulties around the use of digital images. Because of their extensive usage it sometimes becomes harder to filter images based on their visual contents. To overcome these problems, Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR was introduced as one of the recent ways to find specific images in massive databases of digital images for efficiency or in other words for continuing the use of digital images in information sharing. In the past years, many systems of CBIR have been anticipated, developed and brought into usage as an outcome of huge research done in CBIR domain. Based on the contents of images, different approaches of CBIR have different implementations for searching images resulting in different measures of performance and accuracy. Some of them are in fact very effective approaches for fast and efficient content based image retrieval. This research highlights the hard work done by researchers to develop the image retrieval techniques based on the color of images. These techniques along with their pros and cons as well as their application in relevant fields are discussed in the survey paper. Moreover, the techniques are also categorized on the basis of common approach used.

  4. Trends in the Use of Premium and Discount Cigarette Brands: Findings from the ITC US Surveys (2002–2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Monica E.; Driezen, Pete; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Hyland, Andrew; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Cummings, K. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper was to examine trends in the use of premium and discount cigarette brands and determine correlates of type of brand used and brand switching. Methods Data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) US adult smoker cohort survey were analyzed. The total study sample included 6669 adult cigarette smokers recruited and followed from 2002 to 2011 over eight different survey waves. Each survey wave included an average of 1700 smokers per survey with replenishment of those lost to follow-up. Results Over the eight survey waves, a total of 260 different cigarette brands were reported by smokers, of which 17% were classified as premium and 83% as discount brands. Marlboro, Newport, and Camel were the most popular premium brands reported by smokers in our sample over all eight survey waves. The percentage of smokers using discount brands increased between 2002 and 2011, with a marked increase in brand switching from premium to discount cigarettes observed after 2009 corresponding to the $0.61 increase in the federal excise tax on cigarettes. Cigarette brand preferences varied by age group and income levels with younger, higher income smokers more likely to report smoking premium brand cigarettes, while older, middle and lower income, heavier smokers were more likely to report using discount brands. Conclusions Our data suggest that demographic and smoking trends favor the continued growth of low priced cigarette brands. From a tobacco control perspective, the findings from this study suggest that governments should consider enacting stronger minimum pricing laws in order to keep the base price of cigarettes high, since aggressive price marketing will likely continue to be used by manufacturers to compete for the shrinking pool of remaining smokers in the population. PMID:24092600

  5. Trends in the use of premium and discount cigarette brands: findings from the ITC US Surveys (2002-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Monica E; Driezen, Pete; Fong, Geoffrey T; Chaloupka, Frank J; Hyland, Andrew; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carpenter, Matthew J; Cummings, K Michael

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine trends in the use of premium and discount cigarette brands and determine correlates of type of brand used and brand switching. Data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) US adult smoker cohort survey were analysed. The total study sample included 6669 adult cigarette smokers recruited and followed from 2002 to 2011 over eight different survey waves. Each survey wave included an average of 1700 smokers per survey with replenishment of those lost to follow-up. Over the eight survey waves, a total of 260 different cigarette brands were reported by smokers, of which 17% were classified as premium and 83% as discount brands. Marlboro, Newport, and Camel were the most popular premium brands reported by smokers in our sample over all eight survey waves. The percentage of smokers using discount brands increased between 2002 and 2011, with a marked increase in brand switching from premium to discount cigarettes observed after 2009 corresponding to the $0.61 increase in the federal excise tax on cigarettes. Cigarette brand preferences varied by age group and income levels with younger, higher income smokers more likely to report smoking premium brand cigarettes, while older, middle and lower income, heavier smokers were more likely to report using discount brands. Our data suggest that demographic and smoking trends favour the continued growth of low priced cigarette brands. From a tobacco control perspective, the findings from this study suggest that governments should consider enacting stronger minimum pricing laws in order to keep the base price of cigarettes high, since aggressive price marketing will likely continue to be used by manufacturers to compete for the shrinking pool of remaining smokers in the population.

  6. Demand-Side Management and Integrated Resource Planning: Findings from a Survey of 24 Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated resource planning differs from traditional utility planning practices primarily in its increased attention to demand-side management (DSM) programs and its integration of supply- and demand-side resources into a combined resource portfolio. This report details the findings from an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) survey of 24 electric utilities that have well-developed integrated planning processes. These utilities account for roughly one-third of total capacity, electricity generation, and DSM-program expenditures nationwide. The ORNL survey was designed to obtain descriptive data on a national sample of utilities and to test a number of hypothesized relationships between selected utility characteristics and the mix of resources selected for the integrated plan, with an emphasis on the use of DSM resources and the processes by which they are chosen. The survey solicited information on each utility's current and projected resource mix, operating environment, procedures used to screen potential DSM resources, techniques used to obtain public input and to integrate supply- and demand-side options into a unified plan, and procedures used in the final selection of resources for the plan.

  7. Findings of the fertility survey in Beijing municipality and other five provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    The findings of the 2nd Chinese Fertility Survey, conducted in Beijing Municipality and the provinces of Liaoning, Shandong, Guangdong, Guizhou, and Gansu, indicate progress in the postponement of age at 1st marriage as well as increasing marital stability. The divorce rate ranged from 0.2-0.6% in the areas studied. Median age at 1st marriage is 3 years higher among women 25-29 years of age than among women 45-49 years of age. Among these younger women, median age at 1st marriage now stands at 23 years in Beijing Municipality and Liaoning, Shandong, and Guangdong Provinces and at 21-22 years in Guizhou and Gansu Provinces. The average. At present, the average number of children born is 1.63 in Beijing Municipality, 1.97 in Liaoning Province, 2.19 in Shandong, 2.67 in Guangdong, 2.79 in Gansu, and 3.47 in Guizhou Province. All the women surveyed were able to cite 4-7 birth control methods and have themselves used 1-2 methods (a low of 1 method in Guizhou and Gansu Provinces to a high of 1.7 in Beijing). Overall, 70% of the women of childbearing age surveyed were using contraceptive method at present. The highest contraceptive prevalence rate (84%) exists in Beijing Municipality.

  8. Consistency of students’ conceptions of wave propagation: Findings from a conceptual survey in mechanical waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernchok Soankwan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We recently developed a multiple-choice conceptual survey in mechanical waves. The development, evaluation, and demonstration of the use of the survey were reported elsewhere [ A. Tongchai et al. Int. J. Sci. Educ. 31 2437 (2009]. We administered the survey to 902 students from seven different groups ranging from high school to second year university. As an outcome of that analysis we were able to identify several conceptual models which the students seemed to be using when answering the questions in the survey. In this paper we attempt to investigate the strength with which the students were committed to these conceptual models, as evidenced by the consistency with which they answered the questions. For this purpose we focus on the patterns of student responses to questions in one particular subtopic, wave propagation. This study has three main purposes: (1 to investigate the consistency of student conceptions, (2 to explore the relative usefulness of different analysis techniques, and (3 to determine what extra information a study of consistency can give about student understanding of basic concepts. We used two techniques: first, categorizing and counting, which is widely used in the science education community, and second, model analysis, recently introduced into physics education research. The manner in which categorizing and counting is used is very diverse while model analysis has been employed only in prescriptive ways. Research studies have reported that students often use their conceptual models inconsistently when solving a series of questions that test the same idea. Our results support their conclusions. Moreover, our findings suggest that students who have had more experiences in physics learning seem to use the scientifically accepted models more consistently. Further, the two analysis techniques have different advantages and disadvantages. Our findings show that model analysis can be used in more diverse ways, provides

  9. Chinese Smokers’ Cigarette Purchase Behaviors, Cigarette Prices and Consumption: Findings from the ITC China Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background While cigarette purchasing behavior has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviors and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world’s largest cigarette consumer. Objective The goal of this study is to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviors, and estimate the impact of these behaviors on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socio-economic differences in compensatory purchase behaviors, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviors, cigarette prices, and cigarette consumption. Methods Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations (GEE) method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves - Wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), Wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and Wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010) - of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers’ self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviors were analyzed. Findings Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase

  10. Where to Publish and Find Ontologies? A Survey of Ontology Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Aquin, Mathieu; Noy, Natalya F.

    2011-01-01

    One of the key promises of the Semantic Web is its potential to enable and facilitate data interoperability. The ability of data providers and application developers to share and reuse ontologies is a critical component of this data interoperability: if different applications and data sources use the same set of well defined terms for describing their domain and data, it will be much easier for them to “talk” to one another. Ontology libraries are the systems that collect ontologies from different sources and facilitate the tasks of finding, exploring, and using these ontologies. Thus ontology libraries can serve as a link in enabling diverse users and applications to discover, evaluate, use, and publish ontologies. In this paper, we provide a survey of the growing—and surprisingly diverse—landscape of ontology libraries. We highlight how the varying scope and intended use of the libraries a ects their features, content, and potential exploitation in applications. From reviewing eleven ontology libraries, we identify a core set of questions that ontology practitioners and users should consider in choosing an ontology library for finding ontologies or publishing their own. We also discuss the research challenges that emerge from this survey, for the developers of ontology libraries to address. PMID:22408576

  11. Where to Publish and Find Ontologies? A Survey of Ontology Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Aquin, Mathieu; Noy, Natalya F

    2012-03-01

    One of the key promises of the Semantic Web is its potential to enable and facilitate data interoperability. The ability of data providers and application developers to share and reuse ontologies is a critical component of this data interoperability: if different applications and data sources use the same set of well defined terms for describing their domain and data, it will be much easier for them to "talk" to one another. Ontology libraries are the systems that collect ontologies from different sources and facilitate the tasks of finding, exploring, and using these ontologies. Thus ontology libraries can serve as a link in enabling diverse users and applications to discover, evaluate, use, and publish ontologies. In this paper, we provide a survey of the growing-and surprisingly diverse-landscape of ontology libraries. We highlight how the varying scope and intended use of the libraries a ects their features, content, and potential exploitation in applications. From reviewing eleven ontology libraries, we identify a core set of questions that ontology practitioners and users should consider in choosing an ontology library for finding ontologies or publishing their own. We also discuss the research challenges that emerge from this survey, for the developers of ontology libraries to address.

  12. Emergency physicians accurately interpret video capsule endoscopy findings in suspected upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a video survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Andrew C; Pinchbeck, Carrie; Burnett, Sarah; Buhumaid, Rasha; Shah, Payal; Ding, Ru; Fleischer, David E; Gralnek, Ian M

    2013-07-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage is a common emergency department (ED) presentation whose severity ranges from benign to life-threatening and the best tool to risk stratify the disease is an upper endoscopy, either by scope or by capsule, a procedure performed almost exclusively by gastroenterologists. Unfortunately, on-call gastroenterology specialists are often unavailable, and emergency physicians (EPs) currently lack an alternative method to endoscopically visualize a suspected acute upper GI hemorrhage. Recent reports have shown that video capsule endoscopy is well tolerated by ED patients and has similar sensitivity and specificity to endoscopy for upper GI hemorrhage. The study objective was to determine if EPs can detect upper GI bleeding on capsule endoscopy after a brief training session. A survey study was designed to demonstrate video examples of capsule endoscopy to EPs and determine if they could detect upper GI bleeding after a brief training session. All videos were generated from a prior ED-based study on patients with suspected acute upper GI hemorrhage. The training session consisted of less than 10 minutes of background information and capsule endoscopy video examples. EPs were recruited at the American College of Emergency Physicians Scientific Assembly in Denver, Colorado, from October 8, 2012, to October 10, 2012. Inclusion criteria included being an ED resident or attending physician and the exclusion criteria included any formal endoscopy training. The authors analyzed the agreement between the EPs and expert adjudicated capsule endoscopy readings for each capsule endoscopy video. For the outcome categories of blood (fresh or coffee grounds type) or no blood detected, the sensitivity and specificity were calculated. A total of 126 EPs were enrolled. Compared to expert gastroenterology-adjudicated interpretation, the sensitivity to detect blood was 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91 to 0.96) and specificity was 0.87 (95

  13. Perceptions of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy: findings from the REVIVE survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Murray A

    2014-07-01

    Symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA), including dyspareunia and vaginal dryness, have a distinct negative impact on a woman's quality of life. The REVIVE survey highlighted the lack of awareness of VVA symptoms among postmenopausal women with vaginal symptoms, with many women reluctant to initiate discussions with their healthcare professionals despite the presence of vaginal symptoms. The REVIVE survey also provided insights into women's views of VVA treatments. Women reported displeasure with the vaginal administration route, lack of symptom relief with over-the-counter products, and concerns about the safety of estrogen therapies. With the high prevalence of VVA, obstetricians/gynecologists should become vigilant in identifying women with VVA by implementing screening and discussion of symptoms during routine office visits - providing patients with information about appropriate therapies based on the severity and impact of symptoms, keeping in mind individual preferences and perceptions.

  14. Understanding the functions and operations of data monitoring committees: Survey and focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calis, Karim A; Archdeacon, Patrick; Bain, Raymond P; Forrest, Annemarie; Perlmutter, Jane; DeMets, David L

    2017-02-01

    to qualifications of data monitoring committee members. Furthermore, only 8% (6/72) of data monitoring committee member survey respondents received any formal training, and 94% (68/72) were not aware of any training programs. Findings from the survey and focus groups provide a better understanding of contemporary data monitoring committee operations and insights regarding challenges and best practices. Overall, it was clear that increased training will be needed to prepare the next generation of qualified data monitoring committee members to meet the growing demand. These findings can be used by Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative and others to develop recommendations and tools to improve data monitoring committee operations and the overall quality of trial oversight.

  15. A Comparison of Web-Based and Paper-Based Survey Methods: Testing Assumptions of Survey Mode and Response Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlaw, Corey; Brown-Welty, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys have become more prevalent in areas such as evaluation, research, and marketing research to name a few. The proliferation of these online surveys raises the question, how do response rates compare with traditional surveys and at what cost? This research explored response rates and costs for Web-based surveys, paper surveys, and…

  16. A Comparison of Web-Based and Paper-Based Survey Methods: Testing Assumptions of Survey Mode and Response Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlaw, Corey; Brown-Welty, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys have become more prevalent in areas such as evaluation, research, and marketing research to name a few. The proliferation of these online surveys raises the question, how do response rates compare with traditional surveys and at what cost? This research explored response rates and costs for Web-based surveys, paper surveys, and…

  17. Parental participation in religious services and parent and child well-being: findings from the National Survey of America's Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming

    2014-10-01

    Using data from the 1999 and 2002 National Survey of America's Families, a large-scale nationally representative sample, this study finds that parental religious attendance is positively associated with parent self-rated health, parent mental well-being, positive parenting attitudes, child health, and child school engagement. Although the strength of these associations varies to some extent according to socio-demographic factors, the interactive patterns are not consistently predictable. Moreover, parental health and well-being and positive attitudes toward parenting appear to be important pathways linking parental religious attendance to child well-being. These findings suggest that opportunities for participation in local religious services offered by faith-based organizations may be fruitful avenues through which the government and society can help American families enhance parent and child well-being.

  18. Finding Within Cluster Dense Regions Using Distance Based Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Ashour

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main categories in Data Clustering is density based clustering. Density based clustering techniques like DBSCAN are attractive because they can find arbitrary shaped clusters along with noisy outlier. The main weakness of the traditional density based algorithms like DBSCAN is clustering the different density level data sets. DBSCAN calculations done according to given parameters applied to all points in a data set, while densities of the data set clusters may be totally different. The proposed algorithm overcomes this weakness of the traditional density based algorithms. The algorithm starts with partitioning the data within a cluster to units based on a user parameter and compute the density for each unit separately. Consequently, the algorithm compares the results and merges neighboring units with closer approximate density values to become a new cluster. The experimental results of the simulation show that the proposed algorithm gives good results in finding clusters for different density cluster data set.

  19. Understanding newborn infant readmission: findings of the Ontario Mother and Infant Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sword, W A; Watt, S; Krueger, P D; Kyong, S L; Sheehan, D D; Roberts, J G; Gafni, A

    2001-01-01

    The Ontario Mother and Infant Survey examined health and social service utilization of postpartum women and newborn infants from five hospital sites. A cross-sectional multilanguage survey design with longitudinal follow-up was used: 1,250 eligible, consenting women completed a self-report questionnaire in hospital and 875 women participated in a structured telephone interview at four weeks post-discharge. Rates of newborn infant readmission ranged from 2.4% to 6.7%. The best predictors of readmission were: main source of household income was other than employment; maternal self-rating of health was poor; mother anticipated inadequate help and support at home following discharge; mother received help from friends/neighbours following discharge; and mother had concern about infant care and behaviour. Readmission was not associated with length of postpartum hospital stay. The study findings suggest that there is a complex relationship between infant health care needs, family resources and provider practices that produces clinically important, site-specific readmission patterns.

  20. Urban-rural mental health differences in Great Britain: findings from the National Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paykel, E; Abbott, R; Jenkins, R; Brugha, T; Meltzer, H

    2003-01-01

    Studies of urban-rural differences in prevalence of non-psychotic mental disorder have not given consistent findings. Such differences have received relatively little study in Great Britain. Data from 9777 subjects in the Household Survey of the National Morbidity Survey of Great Britain were analysed for differences between urban, semi-rural, and rural areas. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed by scores on the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), together with alcohol dependence, drug dependence, and receipt of treatment from general practitioners. Associations with other characteristics were examined by logistic regression. Urban subjects had higher rates than rural of CIS-R morbidity, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence, with semi-rural subjects intermediate. Urban subjects also tended to be members of more deprived social groups, with more adverse living circumstances and greater life stress--factors themselves associated with disorder. Urban-rural differences in alcohol and drug dependence were no longer significant after adjustment for these factors by logistic regression, and differences on CIS-R morbidity were considerably reduced. There were no differences in treatment. There are considerable British urban-rural differences in mental health, which may largely be attributable to more adverse urban social environments.

  1. Marketing health educators to employers: survey findings, interpretations, and considerations for the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambescia, Stephen F; Cottrell, Randall R; Capwell, Ellen; Auld, M Elaine; Mullen Conley, Kathleen; Lysoby, Linda; Goldsmith, Malcolm; Smith, Becky

    2009-10-01

    In July 2007, a market research report was produced by Hezel Associates on behalf of five sponsoring health education profession member organizations and the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing. The purpose of the survey was to learn about current or potential employers' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward health educators and the health education profession and their future hiring practices. This article presents the background leading up to the production of this report, the major findings of the survey of employers, recommendations from the market research group regarding core messages, and implications for the profession having discovered for the first time information about employers' understanding of professionally prepared health educators. The article discusses the umbrella and key messages that may be incorporated into a marketing plan and other recommendations by the firm that should assist health educators in marketing the profession. Furthermore, this article presents reactions by leaders in this field to these messages and recommendations and concludes with next steps in this project and a call for the overall need to market the profession of health education.

  2. Fertility Intention, Son Preference, and Second Childbirth: Survey Findings from Shaanxi Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Ying; Sanchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2016-02-01

    China is characterized by a low fertility intention, a strong preference for sons, as well as a stringent birth control policy. In this study, we used data from a Fertility Intention and Behavior Survey of 2101 questionnaires conducted in 2013 in Shaanxi Province of northwestern China, and event history analysis methods to examine the effect of fertility intention and preference for sons on the probability of having a second child. The results not only validate the correlation of fertility intention with having a second child empirically, even in the low fertility intention and stringent birth control context of China, but also show that women with a preference for sons were less likely to have a second child. Women with son preference turn to sex-selective abortion to ensure that their first child is a son, thus reducing the likelihood of a second child and decreasing the fertility rate. Our findings also shed light on China's potential fertility policy adjustment.

  3. Mapping Sources of Food Safety Information for U.S. Consumers: Findings From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Verrill, Linda; Kim, Jarim

    2017-03-01

    This research examines the sources from which U.S. consumers obtain their food safety information. It seeks to determine differences in the types of information sources used by U.S. consumers of different sociodemographic background, as well as the relationships between the types of information sources used and food safety risk perceptions. Analyzing the 2010 Food Safety Survey (N = 4,568) conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, we found that age, gender, education, and race predicted the use of different sources for food safety information. Additionally, use of several information sources predicted perceived susceptibility to foodborne illnesses and severity of food contamination. Implications of the findings for food safety risk communication are discussed.

  4. Managing incidental findings in population based biobank research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Solberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of whole genome sequencing in medical research, the debate on how to handle incidental findings is becoming omnipresent. Much of the literature on the topic so far, seems to defend the researcher’s duty to inform, the participant’s right to know combined with a thorough informed consent in order to protect and secure high ethical standards in research. In this paper, we argue that this ethical response to incidental findings and whole genome sequencing is appropriate in a clinical context, in what we call therapeutic research. However, we further argue, that it is rather inappropriate in basic research, like the research going on in public health oriented population based biobanks. Our argument is based on two premises: First, in population based biobank research the duties and rights involved are radically different from a clinical based setting. Second, to introduce the ethical framework from the clinical setting into population based basic research, is not only wrong, but it may lead to unethical consequences. A Norwegian population based biobank and the research-ethical debate in Norway on the regulation of whole genome sequencing is used as an illustrative case to demonstrate the pitfalls when approaching the debate on incidental findings in population based biobank research.

  5. Finding human promoter groups based on DNA physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Cao, Xiao-Qin; Zhao, Hongya; Yan, Hong

    2009-10-01

    DNA rigidity is an important physical property originating from the DNA three-dimensional structure. Although the general DNA rigidity patterns in human promoters have been investigated, their distinct roles in transcription are largely unknown. In this paper, we discover four highly distinct human promoter groups based on similarity of their rigidity profiles. First, we find that all promoter groups conserve relatively rigid DNAs at the canonical TATA box [a consensus TATA(A/T)A(A/T) sequence] position, which are important physical signals in binding transcription factors. Second, we find that the genes activated by each group of promoters share significant biological functions based on their gene ontology annotations. Finally, we find that these human promoter groups correlate with the tissue-specific gene expression.

  6. Finding human promoter groups based on DNA physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Cao, Xiao-Qin; Zhao, Hongya; Yan, Hong

    2009-10-01

    DNA rigidity is an important physical property originating from the DNA three-dimensional structure. Although the general DNA rigidity patterns in human promoters have been investigated, their distinct roles in transcription are largely unknown. In this paper, we discover four highly distinct human promoter groups based on similarity of their rigidity profiles. First, we find that all promoter groups conserve relatively rigid DNAs at the canonical TATA box [a consensus TATA(A/T)A(A/T) sequence] position, which are important physical signals in binding transcription factors. Second, we find that the genes activated by each group of promoters share significant biological functions based on their gene ontology annotations. Finally, we find that these human promoter groups correlate with the tissue-specific gene expression.

  7. Problem based Learning in surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    The challenge of the future will be that the only constant is change. Therefore, the educational base must be flexible. The graduates must possess skills to adapt to a rapidly changing labour market and they must possess skills to deal with even the unknown problems of the future. The point is...... that opportunity. The basis principles of this educational model are presented using the surveying programme at Aalborg University as an example....

  8. What Campuses Assess When They Assess Their Learning Community Programs: Selected Findings from a National Survey of Learning Community Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Emily

    2014-01-01

    In spring 2013, the Washington Center administered a national survey to find what campuses assessed when they assessed their learning community programs, how they assessed those outcomes, and what they did with the results. Sixty-six campuses responded to the survey. Most campuses assess at least one measure of student success (pass rates, course…

  9. Search filters can find some but not all knowledge translation articles in MEDLINE: an analytic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbon, K Ann; Lokker, Cynthia; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian; Ciliska, Donna; Dobbins, Maureen; Davis, David A; Straus, Sharon E

    2012-06-01

    Advances from health research are not well applied giving rise to over- and underuse of resources and inferior care. Knowledge translation (KT), actions and processes of getting research findings used in practice, can improve research application. The KT literature is difficult to find because of nonstandardized terminology, rapid evolution of the field, and it is spread across several domains. We created multiple search filters to retrieve KT articles from MEDLINE. Analytic survey using articles from 12 journals tagged as having KT content and also as describing a KT application or containing a KT theory. Of 2,594 articles, 579 were KT articles of which 201 were about KT applications and 152 about KT theory. Search filter sensitivity (retrieval efficiency) maximized at 83%-94% with specificity (no retrieval of irrelevant material) approximately 50%. Filter performances were enhanced with multiple terms, but these filters often had reduced specificity. Performance was higher for KT applications and KT theory articles. These filters can select KT material although many irrelevant articles also will be retrieved. KT search filters were developed and tested, with good sensitivity but suboptimal specificity. Further research must improve their performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Experiences in the provision, fitting and supply of external breast prostheses: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, P; Buckmaster, A; O'Carroll, S; Kiernan, G; Geraghty, J

    2009-11-01

    A good-quality external breast prosthesis and prosthesis-fitting service is integral to recovery post-mastectomy. However, this area of care has minimal information or research available. The aim of this study was to investigate women's experience of the provision, fitting, supply and use of breast prostheses in Ireland. Three national surveys were undertaken with women (n = 527), breast care nurses (BCNs) (n = 32) and retail prosthesis fitters (n = 12). The findings identified the importance of the prosthesis for shape, appearance to self, appearance to others, sense of well-being, self-confidence and femininity. Dissatisfaction with weight, comfort and movement of the prosthesis was identified. Cost and travel distance were found to influence the replacement of the prosthesis. Dissatisfaction emerged with the display and choice of products, and brochure availability at the prosthesis fitting. Women preferred to be fitted for the first silicone prosthesis by a BCN in a hospital setting whereas for the replacement prosthesis they preferred a trained fitter at a specialized prosthesis supplier. BCNs and retail fitters identified the need for service guidelines and increased availability of professional development opportunities in prosthesis-fitting. These findings contributed to the development of standards of care for breast prosthesis-fitting services to benefit women and to provide guidelines for those providing the service.

  11. Physically-based fluid animation: A survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Jie; YANG XuBo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we give an up-to-date survey on physically-based fluid animation research. As one of the most popular approaches to simulate realistic fluid effects, physically-based fluid animation has spurred a large number of new results in recent years. We classify and discuss the existing methods within three categories: Lagrangian method, Eulerian method and Lattice-Boltzmann method. We then introduce techniques for seven different kinds of special fluid effects. Finally we review the latest hot research areas and point out some future research trends, including surface tracking, fluid control, hybrid method, model reduction, etc.

  12. Vitamin D status of Irish adults: findings from the National Adult Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kevin D; Muldowney, Siobhan; McNulty, Breige; Nugent, Anne; FitzGerald, Anthony P; Kiely, Mairead; Walton, Janette; Gibney, Michael J; Flynn, Albert

    2013-04-14

    Previous national nutrition surveys in Irish adults did not include blood samples; thus, representative serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) data are lacking. In the present study, we characterised serum 25(OH)D concentrations in Irish adults from the recent National Adult Nutrition Survey, and determined the impact of vitamin D supplement use and season on serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Of the total representative sample (n 1500, aged 18+ years), blood samples were available for 1132 adults. Serum 25(OH)D was measured via immunoassay. Vitamin D-containing supplement use was assessed by questionnaire and food diary. Concentrations of serum 25(OH)D were compared by season and in supplement users and non-users. Year-round prevalence rates for serum 25(OH)D concentration 125 nmol/l. These first nationally representative serum 25(OH)D data for Irish adults show that while only 6.7 % had serum 25(OH)D Institute of Medicine as being inadequate for bone health. These prevalence estimates were much higher during winter time. While vitamin D supplement use has benefits in terms of vitamin D status, at present rates of usage (17.5 % of Irish adults), it will have only very limited impact at a population level. Food-based strategies, including fortified foods, need to be explored.

  13. Community health worker training and certification programs in the United States: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, Bita Arbab; May, Marlynn Lee; Tai-Seale, Ming

    2007-01-01

    To analyze trends and various approaches to professional development in selected community health worker (CHW) training and certification programs in the United States. We examined the expected outcomes and goals of different training and certification programs related to individual CHWs as well as the community they serve. A national survey of CHW training and certification programs. Data collection was performed through personal interviews, phone interviews and focus groups. Data sources included public health officials, healthcare associations, CHW networks, community colleges, and service providers. Initial screening interviews resulted in in-depth interviews with participants in 19 states. We applied human capital theory concepts to the analysis of the rich qualitative data collected in each state. CHW programs in the U.S. seem to have been initiated mainly due to lack of access to healthcare services in culturally, economically, and geographically isolated communities. Three trends in CHW workforce development were identified from the results of the national survey: (1) schooling at the community college level - provides career advancement opportunities; (2) on-the-job training - improves standards of care, CHW income, and retention; and (3) certification at the state level - recognizes the work of CHWs, and facilitates Medicaid reimbursement for CHW services. Study findings present opportunities for CHW knowledge and skill improvement approaches that can be targeted at specific individual career, service agency, or community level goals. Trained and/or certified community health workers are a potential new and skilled healthcare workforce that could help improve healthcare access and utilization among underserved populations in the United States.

  14. Methods for Evaluating Respondent Attrition in Web-Based Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochheimer, Camille J; Sabo, Roy T; Krist, Alex H; Day, Teresa; Cyrus, John; Woolf, Steven H

    2016-11-22

    Electronic surveys are convenient, cost effective, and increasingly popular tools for collecting information. While the online platform allows researchers to recruit and enroll more participants, there is an increased risk of participant dropout in Web-based research. Often, these dropout trends are simply reported, adjusted for, or ignored altogether. To propose a conceptual framework that analyzes respondent attrition and demonstrates the utility of these methods with existing survey data. First, we suggest visualization of attrition trends using bar charts and survival curves. Next, we propose a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to detect or confirm significant attrition points. Finally, we suggest applications of existing statistical methods to investigate the effect of internal survey characteristics and patient characteristics on dropout. In order to apply this framework, we conducted a case study; a seventeen-item Informed Decision-Making (IDM) module addressing how and why patients make decisions about cancer screening. Using the framework, we were able to find significant attrition points at Questions 4, 6, 7, and 9, and were also able to identify participant responses and characteristics associated with dropout at these points and overall. When these methods were applied to survey data, significant attrition trends were revealed, both visually and empirically, that can inspire researchers to investigate the factors associated with survey dropout, address whether survey completion is associated with health outcomes, and compare attrition patterns between groups. The framework can be used to extract information beyond simple responses, can be useful during survey development, and can help determine the external validity of survey results.

  15. The Hawaiian Rhodophyta Biodiversity Survey (2006-2010: a summary of principal findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conklin Kimberly Y

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hawaiian red algal flora is diverse, isolated, and well studied from a morphological and anatomical perspective, making it an excellent candidate for assessment using a combination of traditional taxonomic and molecular approaches. Acquiring and making these biodiversity data freely available in a timely manner ensures that other researchers can incorporate these baseline findings into phylogeographic studies of Hawaiian red algae or red algae found in other locations. Results A total of 1,946 accessions are represented in the collections from 305 different geographical locations in the Hawaiian archipelago. These accessions represent 24 orders, 49 families, 152 genera and 252 species/subspecific taxa of red algae. One order of red algae (the Rhodachlyales was recognized in Hawaii for the first time and 196 new island distributional records were determined from the survey collections. One family and four genera are reported for the first time from Hawaii, and multiple species descriptions are in progress for newly discovered taxa. A total of 2,418 sequences were generated for Hawaiian red algae in the course of this study - 915 for the nuclear LSU marker, 864 for the plastidial UPA marker, and 639 for the mitochondrial COI marker. These baseline molecular data are presented as neighbor-joining trees to illustrate degrees of divergence within and among taxa. The LSU marker was typically most conserved, followed by UPA and COI. Phylogenetic analysis of a set of concatenated LSU, UPA and COI sequences recovered a tree that broadly resembled the current understanding of florideophyte red algal relationships, but bootstrap support was largely absent above the ordinal level. Phylogeographic trends are reported here for some common taxa within the Hawaiian Islands and include examples of those with, as well as without, intraspecific variation. Conclusions The UPA and COI markers were determined to be the most useful of the three

  16. Can Lottery Incentives Boost Web Survey Response Rates? Findings from Four Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguilles, Jerold S.; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Saunders, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Institutions of higher education rely on student surveys for a number of purposes, including planning, assessment, and research. Web surveys are especially prevalent given their ease of use and low-cost; yet, obtaining a high response rate is a challenge. Although researchers have investigated the use of incentives in traditional mail surveys,…

  17. The FPGA based L1 track finding Tracklet approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Savvas; CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity upgraded LHC is expected to deliver proton-proton collisions per 25ns with an estimated 140-200 pile up interactions per bunch crossing. Ultrafast track finding is vital for handling trigger rates in such conditions. An FPGA based road search algorithm is developed, the Tracklet approach one of a few currently under consideration, for the CMS L1 trigger system. Based on low/high transverse momentum track discrimination and designed for the HL upgraded outer tracker, the algorithm achieves microsecond scale track reconstruction in the expected high track multiplicity environment. The Tracklet method overview, implementation, hardware demonstrator and performance results are presented and discussed.

  18. Finding Important Nodes in Social Networks Based on Modified Pagerank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-qing Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Important nodes are individuals who have huge influence on social network. Finding important nodes in social networks is of great significance for research on the structure of the social networks. Based on the core idea of Pagerank, a new ranking method is proposed by considering the link similarity between the nodes. The key concept of the method is the use of the link vector which records the contact times between nodes. Then the link similarity is computed based on the vectors through the similarity function. The proposed method incorporates the link similarity into original Pagerank. The experiment results show that the proposed method can get better performance.

  19. Correlates of consumer trust in online health information: findings from the health information national trends survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinjiao

    2011-01-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in consumers seeking health information online. However, the quality of such information remains questionable, and the trustworthiness of online health information has become a hot topic, whereas little attention has been paid to how consumers evaluate online health information credibility. This study builds on theoretical perspectives of trust such as personal-capital-based, social-capital-based, and transfer-based, and it examines various correlates of consumer trust in online health information. The author analyzed the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey data (N = 7,674). Results showed that consumer trust in online health information did not correlate with personal capital such as income, education, and health status. Social capital indicated by visiting social networking Web sites was not associated with trust in online health information either. Nevertheless, trust in online health information transferred from traditional mass media and government health agencies to the Internet, and it varied by such information features as easiness to locate and to understand. Age appeared to be a key factor in understanding the correlates of trust in online health information. Theoretical and empirical implications of the results are discussed.

  20. Predictors of job satisfaction among academic family medicine faculty: Findings from a faculty work-life and leadership survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Paul; White, David; Meaney, Christopher; Kwong, Jeffrey; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence

    2017-03-01

    To identify predictors of job satisfaction among academic family medicine faculty members. A comprehensive Web-based survey of all faculty members in an academic department of family medicine. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with job satisfaction. The Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario and its 15 affiliated community teaching hospitals and community-based teaching practices. All 1029 faculty members in the Department of Family and Community Medicine were invited to complete the survey. Faculty members' demographic and practice information; teaching, clinical, administration, and research activities; leadership roles; training needs and preferences; mentorship experiences; health status; stress levels; burnout levels; and job satisfaction. Faculty members' perceptions about supports provided, recognition, communication, retention, workload, teamwork, respect, resource distribution, remuneration, and infrastructure support. Faculty members' job satisfaction, which was the main outcome variable, was obtained from the question, "Overall, how satisfied are you with your job?" Of the 1029 faculty members, 687 (66.8%) responded to the survey. Bivariate analyses revealed 26 predictors as being statistically significantly associated with job satisfaction, including faculty members' ratings of their local department and main practice setting, their ratings of leadership and mentorship experiences, health status variables, and demographic variables. The multivariable analyses identified the following 5 predictors of job satisfaction: the Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales of emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment; being born in Canada; the overall quality of mentorship that was received being rated as very good or excellent; and teamwork being rated as very good or excellent. The findings from this study show that job satisfaction among academic

  1. Movies and TV Influence Tobacco Use in India: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, K.; Ackerson, Leland K.; Sorensen, Glorian; Gupta, Prakash C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure to mass media may impact the use of tobacco, a major source of illness and death in India. The objective is to test the association of self-reported tobacco smoking and chewing with frequency of use of four types of mass media: newspapers, radio, television, and movies. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed data from a sex-stratified nationally-representative cross-sectional survey of 123,768 women and 74,068 men in India. All models controlled for wealth, education, caste, occupation, urbanicity, religion, marital status, and age. In fully-adjusted models, monthly cinema attendance is associated with increased smoking among women (relative risk [RR]: 1·55; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1·04–2·31) and men (RR: 1·17; 95% CI: 1·12–1·23) and increased tobacco chewing among men (RR: 1·15; 95% CI: 1·11–1·20). Daily television and radio use is associated with higher likelihood of tobacco chewing among men and women, while daily newspaper use is related to lower likelihood of tobacco chewing among women. Conclusion/Significance In India, exposure to visual mass media may contribute to increased tobacco consumption in men and women, while newspaper use may suppress the use of tobacco chewing in women. Future studies should investigate the role that different types of media content and media play in influencing other health behaviors. PMID:20614005

  2. Eating disorder behaviors are increasing: findings from two sequential community surveys in South Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipa J Hay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an increase in the prevalence of eating disorders is inconsistent. Our aim was to determine change in the population point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors over a 10-year period. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eating disorder behaviors were assessed in consecutive general population surveys of men and women conducted in 1995 (n = 3001, 72% respondents and 2005 (n = 3047, 63.1% respondents. Participants were randomly sampled from households in rural and metropolitan South Australia. There was a significant (all p<0.01 and over two-fold increase in the prevalence of binge eating, purging (self-induced vomiting and/or laxative or diuretic misuse and strict dieting or fasting for weight or shape control among both genders. The most common diagnosis in 2005 was either binge eating disorder or other "eating disorders not otherwise specified" (EDNOS; n = 119, 4.2%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this population sample the point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors increased over the past decade. Cases of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, as currently defined, remain uncommon.

  3. Imaging findings in a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome: a survey using advanced modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronooh, Pegah [Dental School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibafar, Ali Reza [TABA Medical Imaging Center, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Houshyar, Maneli; Nafarzade, Shima [Oral Pathology Department, Babol Dental School, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an infrequent multi-systemic disease which is characterized by multiple keratocysts in the jaws, calcification of falx cerebri, and basal cell carcinomas. We report a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome in a 23-year-old man with emphasis on image findings of keratocyctic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) on panoramic radiograph, computed tomography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and Ultrasonography (US). In this case, pericoronal lesions were mostly orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) concerning the MR and US study, which tended to recur less. The aim of this report was to clarify the characteristic imaging features of the syndrome-related keratocysts that can be used to differentiate KCOT from OOC. Also, our findings suggested that the recurrence rate of KCOTs might be predicted based on their association to teeth.

  4. Imaging findings in a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome: a survey using advanced modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronoosh, Pegah; Shakibafar, Ali Reza; Houshyar, Maneli; Nafarzade, Shima

    2011-12-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an infrequent multi-systemic disease which is characterized by multiple keratocysts in the jaws, calcification of falx cerebri, and basal cell carcinomas. We report a case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome in a 23-year-old man with emphasis on image findings of keratocyctic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) on panoramic radiograph, computed tomography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and Ultrasonography (US). In this case, pericoronal lesions were mostly orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) concerning the MR and US study, which tended to recur less. The aim of this report was to clarify the characteristic imaging features of the syndrome-related keratocysts that can be used to differentiate KCOT from OOC. Also, our findings suggested that the recurrence rate of KCOTs might be predicted based on their association to teeth.

  5. Smokeless tobacco product prices and taxation in Bangladesh: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Nargis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smokeless tobacco use occupies a significant portion of overall tobacco consumption in Bangladesh. Yet very little is known about the effectiveness of tax and price policy in controlling the use of smokeless tobacco use in the country. Methods: The paper examines the price distribution of various smoked (cigarette, bidi and smokeless tobacco products (zarda, gul using the univariate Epanechnikov kernel density function. It estimates the own and cross price elasticity of demand for the most widely used smokeless tobacco product zarda using two-step regression analysis. The analysis is based on data from the ITC Bangladesh Wave 3 Survey which is a nationally representative cohort survey of tobacco users and nonusers conducted in in Bangladesh during 2011-12. Results: The price elasticity of lower price brands of zarda is estimated at −0.64 and of higher priced brands at −0.39, and the cross price elasticity of zarda with respect to cigarette price at 0.35. The tax increase on smokeless tobacco needs to be greater than the tax increase on smoked tobacco to bridge the wide price differential between the two types of products that currently encourages downward substitution from smoked to smokeless tobacco and discourages quitting behavior. Conclusions: This paper argues that increasing tax on smokeless tobacco simultaneously with the tax increase on smoked tobacco can have significant negative impact on the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in Bangladesh. Finally, a specific excise system replacing the existing ad valorem excise tax can substantially contribute to the revenue collection performance from smokeless tobacco products.

  6. First household survey on drug abuse in São Paulo, Brazil, 1999: principal findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: In order to establish prevention programs regarding psychotropic drug use that are adapted to specific populations it is, first of all, important to have data on the realities of such consumption. Single data points are not enough for drawing up a profile of society in relation to drugs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this household survey was to determine the incidence of illegal drug, alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic medication use, and thus the number of persons dependent on drugs, alcohol and nicotine, and to evaluate their perception regarding how easy it is to obtain psychotropic drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: Epidemiological survey. SETTING: All of the 24 cities in the State of Sao Paulo with more 200,000 inhabitants participated in the study. METHOD: The sampling was constructed from weighted probabilistic stratified conglomerates obtained via two-stage selection. In each municipality sampled, census sectors (generally 200-300 households were first selected. Then, households and a respondent were selected to provide information from his/her point of view. The SAMHSA questionnaire (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Public Health was used, after translation and adaptation to Brazilian conditions. RESULTS: A total of 2,411 persons aged 12-65 years old were interviewed, of whom 39.9% weremen. Lifetime use of any psychotropic drug other than alcohol and tobacco was 11.6%: much less than in the U.S. (34.8%. The alcohol dependence rate was 6%, similar to findings from other countries. Marijuana was the illegal drug most cited as used daily (6.6%: a prevalence much lower than in the U.S. (32.0%. Inhalant use was next in frequency of use (2.7%: about 10 times less than in the United Kingdom (20%. Cocaine use (2.1% was about 5 times less than in the U.S. (10.6%. There was no report of heroin use, although there was a surprisingly high perception regarding the ease of obtaining heroin: 38.3% said it was

  7. CT findings in acute peritonitis: a pattern-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonella; Cianci, Roberta; Pizzi, Andrea Delli; Esposito, Gianluigi; Pulsone, Pierluigi; Tavoletta, Alessandra; Timpani, Mauro; Cotroneo, Antonio Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Many inflammatory and infectious entities may acutely affect the peritoneum causing a thickening of its layers. Unfortunately, several acute peritoneal diseases can have overlapping features, both clinically and at imaging. Therefore, the awareness of the clinical context, although useful, may be sometimes insufficient to identify the underlying cause. This article provides a specific computed tomography-based approach including morphologic characteristics of peritoneal thickening (e.g., smooth, irregular, or nodular) and ancillary findings to narrow the differential diagnosis of acute peritonitis. PMID:26359872

  8. Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges: Findings from a 2015 CASE Survey. CASE White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Building on the inaugural survey conducted three years prior, the 2015 CASE Community College Alumni Relations survey collected additional insightful data on staffing, structure, communications, engagement, and fundraising. This white paper features key data on alumni relations programs at community colleges across the United States. The paper…

  9. Sexual orientation and mental and physical health status: findings from a Dutch population survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandfort, T.G.M.; Bakker, F.; Schellevis, F.G.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. METHODS: Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001

  10. Model-based clustering in networks with Stochastic Community Finding

    CERN Document Server

    McDaid, Aaron F; Friel, Nial; Hurley, Neil J

    2012-01-01

    In the model-based clustering of networks, blockmodelling may be used to identify roles in the network. We identify a special case of the Stochastic Block Model (SBM) where we constrain the cluster-cluster interactions such that the density inside the clusters of nodes is expected to be greater than the density between clusters. This corresponds to the intuition behind community-finding methods, where nodes tend to clustered together if they link to each other. We call this model Stochastic Community Finding (SCF) and present an efficient MCMC algorithm which can cluster the nodes, given the network. The algorithm is evaluated on synthetic data and is applied to a social network of interactions at a karate club and at a monastery, demonstrating how the SCF finds the 'ground truth' clustering where sometimes the SBM does not. The SCF is only one possible form of constraint or specialization that may be applied to the SBM. In a more supervised context, it may be appropriate to use other specializations to guide...

  11. Understanding Patient Experience Using Internet-based Email Surveys: A Feasibility Study at Mount Sinai Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Matthew; Lau, Davina; Jivraj, Tanaz; Principi, Tania; Dietrich, Sandra; Bell, Chaim M

    2015-01-01

    Email is becoming a widely accepted communication tool in healthcare settings. This study sought to test the feasibility of Internet-based email surveys of patient experience in the ambulatory setting. We conducted a study of email Internet-based surveys sent to patients in selected ambulatory clinics at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Canada. Our findings suggest that email links to Internet surveys are a feasible, timely and efficient method to solicit patient feedback about their experience. Further research is required to optimally leverage Internet-based email surveys as a tool to better understand the patient experience.

  12. The prevalence of depression and associated factors in Ethiopia: findings from the National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailemariam Solomon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating mental health into primarily health care and studying risk for mental health particularly depression needs assessment of different factors including those that impede diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. But so far the numbers of literature for local context to analyze risk factors for depression and its treatment are scare. The objective of this study was to assess risk factors and health service attendance for depression among adults, in Ethiopia. Methods For this analysis, data from the Ethiopian National health survey was used. The Ethiopian national health survey studied 4,925 adults aged 18 years and older to obtain among other things, data on depression episodes, socio-demographic, chronic diseases, life style factors and treatment receiving for depression episodes in the past twelve months using questionnaire from world health organization (WHO. Prevalence of Depression in respondents based on ICD-10 criteria was estimated and logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for depression and treatment receiving. Results The prevalence of depressive episode was 9.1% (95% CI: 8.39-9.90. In a Univariate analysis, residence, age, marital status, educational status, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases (heart diseases, diabetic mellitus and arthritis and alcohol drinking status were associated with depression. After full adjustment for possible confounding, odds ratios for depression were significantly higher only for older age, divorced and widowed, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases and alcohol drinking status. The proportion of attending health service among those with depression episodes was 22.9%. After full control for all socio-demographic variables the only predictor variable was educational status, being in grade 5–8 had a higher odds (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.23-5.43 and 9–12 grade (OR=1.8 95% CI: 1.45-6.12 of attending service for depressive

  13. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy by Brazilian geographic regions: findings from the National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Souza Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Marques, Aline Pinto; Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero

    2016-11-17

    The demographic shift and epidemiologic transition in Brazil have drawn attention to ways of measuring population health that complement studies of mortality. In this paper, we investigate regional differences in healthy life expectancy based on information from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013. In the survey, a three-stage cluster sampling (census tracts, households and individuals) with stratification of the primary sampling units and random selection in all stages was used to select 60,202 Brazilian adults (18 years and over). Healthy life expectancies (HLE) were estimated by Sullivan's method according to sex, age and geographic region, using poor self-rated health for defining unhealthy status. Logistic regression models were used to investigate socioeconomic and regional inequalities in poor self-rated health, after controlling by sex and age. Wide disparities by geographic region were found with the worst indicators in the North and Northeast regions, whether considering educational attainment, material deprivation, or health care utilization. Life expectancy at birth for women and men living in the richest regions was 5 years longer than for those living in the less wealthy regions. Modeling the variation across regions for poor self-rated health, statistically significant effects (p < 0.001) were found for the North and Northeast when compared to the Southeast, even after controlling for age, sex, diagnosis of at least one non-communicable chronic disease, and schooling or socioeconomic class. Marked regional inequalities in HLE were found, with the loss of healthy life much higher among residents of the poorest regions, especially among the elderly. By combining data on self-rated health status and mortality in a single indicator, Healthy Life Expectancy, this study demonstrated the excess burden of poor health experienced by populations in the less wealthy regions of Brazil. To mitigate the effects of social exclusion, the development of strategies

  14. A frailty instrument for primary care: findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Romero-Ortuno, Roman

    2010-01-01

    A frailty paradigm would be useful in primary care to identify older people at risk, but appropriate metrics at that level are lacking. We created and validated a simple instrument for frailty screening in Europeans aged ≥50. Our study is based on the first wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, http:\\/\\/www.share-project.org), a large population-based survey conducted in 2004-2005 in twelve European countries.

  15. Behavioral health in the gulf coast region following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: findings from two federal surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Deborah W; Teich, Judith L; Pemberton, Michael R; Pierannunzi, Carol; Larson, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes findings from two large-scale, population-based surveys conducted by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the Gulf Coast region following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, to measure the prevalence of mental and substance use disorders, chronic health conditions, and utilization of behavioral health services. Although many area residents undoubtedly experienced increased levels of anxiety and stress following the spill, findings suggest only modest or minimal changes in behavioral health at the aggregate level before and after the spill. The studies do not address potential long-term effects of the spill on physical and behavioral health nor did they target subpopulations that might have been most affected by the spill. Resources mobilized to reduce the economic and behavioral health impacts of the spill on coastal residents-including compensation for lost income from BP and increases in available mental health services-may have resulted in a reduction in potential mental health problems.

  16. Problem based Learning in surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    The challenge of the future will be that the only constant is change. Therefore, the educational base must be flexible. The graduates must possess skills to adapt to a rapidly changing labour market and they must possess skills to deal with even the unknown problems of the future. The point is......, that professional and technical skills can be acquired and updated at a later stage in ones career while skills for problem-solving and skills for learning to learn can only be achieved through the process of academic training at he universities. The concept of project-organised education provides just...... that opportunity. The basis principles of this educational model are presented using the surveying programme at Aalborg University as an example....

  17. Major Survey Findings of Listening to MothersSM III: New Mothers Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Eugene R.; Sakala, Carol; Corry, Maureen P.; Applebaum, Sandra; Herrlich, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    To understand the experiences and views of childbearing women in the United States and trends over time, Childbirth Connection carried out the third national Listening to Mothers survey among 2,400 women who gave birth in U.S. hospitals to a single baby from mid-2011 to mid-2012 and could participate in English. A follow-up survey directed to the same participants explored postpartum experiences, in depth and well into the second year after birth; views about maternity care; and some additional pregnancy and birth items. Harris Interactive conducted the surveys using a validated methodology that includes data weighting to ensure that results closely reflect the target population. The follow-up survey was reported in Listening to Mothers III: New Mothers Speak Out. PMID:24453464

  18. Income Inequality and Adolescent Gambling Severity: Findings from a Large-Scale Italian Representative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natale Canale

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that problems related to adult gambling have a geographical and social gradient. For instance, adults experiencing gambling-related harms live in areas of greater deprivation; are unemployed, and have lower income. However, little is known about the impact of socioeconomic inequalities on adolescent problem gambling. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the contextual influences of income inequality on at-risk or problem gambling (ARPG in a large-scale nationally representative sample of Italian adolescents. A secondary aim was to analyze the association between perceived social support (from family, peers, teachers, and classmates and ARPG.Methods: Data from the 2013–2014 Health Behavior in School-aged Children Survey (HBSC Study was used for cross-sectional analyses of ARPG. A total of 20,791 15-year-old students completed self-administered questionnaires. Region-level data on income inequality (GINI index and overall wealth (GDP per capita were retrieved from the National Institute of Statistics (Istat. The data were analyzed using the multi-level logistic regression analysis, with students at the first level and regions at the second level.Results: The study demonstrated a North–South gradient for the prevalence of ARPG, with higher prevalence of ARPG in the Southern/Islands/Central Regions (e.g., 11% in Sicily than in Northern Italy (e.g., 2% in Aosta Valley. Students in regions of high-income inequality were significantly more likely than those in regions of low-income inequality to be at-risk or problem gamblers (following adjustment for sex, family structure, family affluence, perceived social support, and regionale wealth. Additionally, perceived social support from parents and teachers were negatively related to ARPG.Conclusions: Income inequality may have a contextual influence on ARPG. More specifically, living in regions of highest income inequality appeared to be a potential

  19. Stages of smoking cessation among Malaysian adults--findings from national health morbidity survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Hock; Ibrahim, Normala; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Kee, Chee Cheong; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Chien Huey; Tee, Eng Ong; Lai, Wai Yee; Nik Mohamad, Mohd Haniki; Sidek, Sherina Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the rate of smoking cessation will reduce the burden of diseases related to smoking, including cancer. Understanding the process of smoking cessation is a pre-requisite to planning and developing effective programs to enhance the rate of smoking cessation.The aims of the study were to determine the demographic distribution of smokers across the initial stages of smoking cessation (the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages) and to identify the predictors of smoking cessation among Malaysian adult smokers. Data were extracted from a population-based, cross-sectional survey carried out from April 2006 to July 2006. The distribution of 2,716,743 current smokers across the pre-contemplation stage (no intention to quit smoking in the next six months) or contemplation stage (intended to quit smoking in the next six months) was described. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between socio-demographic variables and the stages of smoking cessation. Of the 2,716,743 current smokers, approximately 30% and 70% were in the pre-contemplative and contemplative stages of smoking cessation respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that male gender, low education level, older age group, married and those from higher income group and number of cigarettes smoked were associated with higher likelihood of pre-contemplation to cease smoking in the next six months. The majority of current smokers in Malaysia were in the contemplative stage of smoking cessation. Specific interventions should be implemented to ensure the pre-contemplative smokers proceed to the contemplative stage and eventually to the preparation stage.

  20. Finding Suitable Variability Abstractions for Family-Based Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    For program families (Software Product Lines), specially designed variability-aware static (dataflow) analyses allow analyzing all variants (products) of the family, simultaneously, in a single run without generating any of the variants explicitly. They are also known as lifted or family-based an......For program families (Software Product Lines), specially designed variability-aware static (dataflow) analyses allow analyzing all variants (products) of the family, simultaneously, in a single run without generating any of the variants explicitly. They are also known as lifted or family......) and reduce it to something more tractable. % by manipulating the configuration space of the family. However, the number of possible abstractions is still intractably large to search naively, with most abstractions being too imprecise or too costly. In this work, we propose a technique to efficiently find...... suitable variability abstractions from a large family of abstractions for a variability-aware static analysis. The idea is to use a pre-analysis to estimate the impact of variability-specific parts of the program family on the analysis's precision. Then we use the pre-analysis results to find out when...

  1. The PALFA Survey: Going to great depths to find radio pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarus, P; Bhat, N D R; Bogdanov, S; Bouchard, A; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Cardoso, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J S; Desvignes, G; Freire, P C C; Hessels, J W T; Jenet, F A; Kaspi, V M; Knispel, B; van Leeuwen, J; Lorimer, D R; Lynch, R; Lyne, A G; McLaughlin, M A; Nice, D J; Ransom, S M; Scholz, P; Siemens, X; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; Stovall, K; Swiggum, J

    2012-01-01

    The on-going PALFA survey is searching the Galactic plane (|b| < 5 deg., 32 < l < 77 deg. and 168 < l < 214 deg.) for radio pulsars at 1.4 GHz using ALFA, the 7-beam receiver installed at the Arecibo Observatory. By the end of August 2012, the PALFA survey has discovered 100 pulsars, including 17 millisecond pulsars (P < 30 ms). Many of these discoveries are among the pulsars with the largest DM/P ratios, proving that the PALFA survey is capable of probing the Galactic plane for millisecond pulsars to a much greater depth than any previous survey. This is due to the survey's high sensitivity, relatively high observing frequency, and its high time and frequency resolution. Recently the rate of discoveries has increased, due to a new more sensitive spectrometer, two updated complementary search pipelines, the development of online collaborative tools, and access to new computing resources. Looking forward, focus has shifted to the application of artificial intelligence systems to identify puls...

  2. Neighborhood deprivation and smoking and quit behavior among smokers in Mexico: Findings from the ITC Mexico Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L.; Thrasher, James F.; de Miera Juárez, Belén Sáenz; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Osman, Amira; Siahpush, Mohammad; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Background In high-income countries (HICs), higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher levels of smoking. Few studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have investigated the role of the neighborhood environment on smoking behavior. Objective To determine whether neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is related to smoking intensity, quit attempts, quit success, and smoking relapse among a cohort of smokers in Mexico from 2010–2012. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 4–6 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Mexico Survey. Data were linked to the Mexican government’s composite index of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, which is based on 2010 Mexican Census data. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood deprivation and individual smoking behaviors. Findings Contrary to past findings in HICs, higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower smoking intensity. Quit attempts showed a U-shaped pattern whereby smokers living in high/very high deprivation neighborhoods and smokers living in very low deprivation neighborhoods were more likely to make a quit attempt than smokers living in other neighborhoods. We did not find significant differences in neighborhood deprivation on relapse or successful quitting, with the possible exception of people living in medium-deprivation neighborhoods having a higher likelihood of successful quitting than people living in very low deprivation neighborhoods (p=0.06). Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic environments in Mexico appear to operate in an opposing manner to those in HICs. Further research should investigate whether rapid implementation of strong tobacco control policies in LMICs, as occurred in Mexico during the follow-up period, avoids the concentration of tobacco-related disparities among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. PMID:25170022

  3. Race, ethnicity, and language data collection by health plans: findings from 2010 AHIPF-RWJF survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerenz, David R; Carreón, Rita; Veselovskiy, German

    2013-11-01

    Previous national surveys have documented the increase in collection of race, ethnicity, and language (REL) data by health plans. The latest 2010 survey created an opportunity to examine recent trends and to determine whether the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) had an effect on plans' practices. A 51-item survey was sent to all health plans included in a national listing of plans (N = 250). The majority of responding plans collect data on members' REL. The frequency of race and ethnicity data collection was only slightly greater in 2010 than in 2008, 78.7% and 75% respectively. By 2010, 89.3% of health plans were collecting language data of their members, up from 74% in 2008 and 57.3% in 2003. Since 2008, collection and use of REL data continues gradually to increase among health plans, demonstrating the industry's commitment to address racial/ethnic gaps in care.

  4. Premarital education, marital quality, and marital stability: findings from a large, random household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Scott M; Amato, Paul R; Johnson, Christine A; Markman, Howard J

    2006-03-01

    One of the limitations of experimental studies on the effectiveness of premarital education is the reliance on samples of mostly White, middle-class couples. In contrast, although survey methods allow only weak inferences about causal relations, representative surveys can yield important information about use and estimated effects across a diverse population. Using a large random survey of 4 middle American states, the authors found that participation in premarital education was associated with higher levels of satisfaction and commitment in marriage and lower levels of conflict-and also reduced odds of divorce. These estimated effects were robust across race, income (including among the poor), and education levels, which suggests that participation in premarital education is generally beneficial for a wide range of couples.

  5. 1984 Survey of National Guard and Reserve Members: Description and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    22a NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 122 b TELEPHONE (lncludl Area Code) 1 22, OFFICE SYMBOL "nr+nag Ayn c~wo.r I I2~.4AI S41 1 iI~ .- DO FORM 1473, 84...items. The 1979 Reserve Force Studies Surveys (Doering, Grissmer, & Hawes, 1981)1 was completed by the Rand Corporation under the general sponsorship...Design, Sample Design and Administrative Procedures," The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA: 1981. 5 (Manpower Reserve Affairs and Logistics). This survey

  6. Inconsistent self-reported mammography history: Findings from the National Population Health Survey longitudinal cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snider Judy

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported information has commonly been used to monitor mammography utilization across populations and time periods. However, longitudinal investigations regarding the prevalence and determinants of inconsistent responses over time and the impact of such responses on population screening estimates are lacking. Methods Based on longitudinal panel data for a representative cohort of Canadian women aged 40+ years (n = 3,537 assessed in the 1994–95 (baseline and 1996–97 (follow-up National Population Health Survey (NPHS, we examined the prevalence of inconsistent self-reports of mammography utilization. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between women's baseline sociodemographic and health characteristics and 2 types of inconsistent responses: (i baseline reports of ever use which were subsequently contradicted by follow-up reports of never use; and (ii baseline reports of never use which were contradicted by follow-up reports of use prior to 1994–95. Results Among women who reported having a mammogram at baseline, 5.9% (95% confidence interval (CI: 4.6–7.3% reported at follow-up that they had never had one. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that women with such inconsistent responses were more often outside target age groups, from low income households and less likely to report hormone replacement therapy and Pap smear use. Among women reporting never use at baseline and ever use at follow-up, 17.4% (95%CI: 11.7–23.1% reported their most recent mammogram as occurring prior to 1994–95 (baseline and such responses were more common among women aged 70+ years and those in poorer health. Conclusions Women with inconsistent responses of type (i, i.e., ever users at baseline but never users at follow-up, appeared to exhibit characteristics typical of never users of mammography screening. Although limited by sample size, our preliminary analyses suggest that type (ii

  7. Hierarchy of Identities in the Macedonian Multicultural Society. Findings from a Survey of Student Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristova, Lidija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In multicultural societies as the Macedonian one, the attachment of citizens to particular identity traits is important for the democratic stability and peace. The aim of this paper is to find out how students from different ethnic origins in the R. Macedonia relate to their identity traits, especially to their national and ethnic identities, and relative to other identity traits. The basic assumptions are based on a phenomenon called "minority effect", according to which members of minority groups tend to attach greater importance to minority affiliations that are particularly important for their group identity (language, religion, ethnicity, tradition, etc.. Aside from importance of identity traits, the emotional and behavioural components of these attachments were also examined. The research results show that regardless of the ethnic origin, students attach greatest importance to their identities connected to their immediate social environment (family, friends, but also religion. In accordance with the “minority effect” hypothesis, religion and then ethnicity, are perceived by the ethnic Albanians as a strong cohesive and mobilising factor, whereas that is not the case with the ethnic Macedonians. When it comes to nationality, the responses suggest that for ethnic Albanians it has marginal importance (through the cognitive, emotional and the action component, while ethnic Macedonians show controversial relation to their national identity.

  8. AIDS Knowledge among Latinos: Findings from a Community and Agricultural Labor Camp Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urizar, Guido G., Jr.; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

    2003-01-01

    A study examining AIDS awareness among northern California Latinos surveyed 817 Latinos from a community and 188 Latino men from migrant labor camps. Misconceptions about AIDS transmission were highest among Latinos with low educational attainment, particularly men from labor camps, older Latinos, and Latinos with low educational attainment who…

  9. A Delphi Survey on Citizenship Education in Asean Countries: Findings for Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Hajah Sallimah Haji Mohammed; Laxman, Kumar; Jawawi, Rosmawijah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Delphi Survey was to elucidate Bruneian Education experts' responses to five questions regarding their knowledge and understanding of the charateristics of citizenship education viz. Environment, Coexistence, Culture, Social Justice and Equity, Democracy, Sustainable Development, Interdependence, Foreign Language, Social Welfare,…

  10. Piloting a European Employer Survey on Skill Needs: Illustrative Findings. Research Paper No 36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofroniou, Nicholas, Ed.; Zukersteinova, Alena, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Today, information and data on skills development come mainly from household and employees surveys: trends in the labour market, demand and supply of skills, data on skill mismatch and skills obsolescence. Recurrent analysis of individual cross-sectional data and their extrapolation into the future indicates significant structural changes over…

  11. Project Ancianos: Survey of Projects for the Hispanic Elderly. Initial Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Margarita M.

    As part of a project to understand the socioeconomic and health status of Hispanic elderly, assess their needs, and examine services available to and utilized by this group, 17 agencies in 9 states (Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Michigan, Missouri, New York, Ohio, and Texas) were evaluated through the survey project. Results indicated…

  12. Supervising the Campus Media: U.S. Survey Finds Varied Approaches, Little Administration Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lei; Simon, James

    2012-01-01

    Media Advisory Boards have been created by many colleges to mediate communication between administration and student media organizations. This national survey provided rich baseline data on how these boards are distributed across the United States, what kinds of schools are more likely to adopt media boards, and to whom these boards report. The…

  13. Adults' Participation in Informal Learning Activities: Key Findings from the Adult Education Participation Survey in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Horng-Ji; Wu, Ming-Lieh; Li, Ai-Tzu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the informal learning experiences expressed by Taiwanese adults (aged from 16 to 97) and examined their involvement related to selected socio-demographic characteristics. Data of the 2008 Adult Education Participation Survey in Taiwan and Fujian Area were used to look at different variables of adults' demographic…

  14. Ecstasy Use and Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jueun; Fan, Bin; Liu, Xinhua; Kerner, Nancy; Wu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between ecstasy use and suicidal behavior among adolescents in the United States was examined. Data from the adolescent subsample (ages 12-17, N = 19,301) of the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse were used in the analyses. Information on adolescent substance use, suicidal behaviors, and related sociodemographic, family,…

  15. Internet Gambling, Health, Smoking and Alcohol Use: Findings from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark; Wardle, Heather; Orford, Jim; Sproston, Kerry; Erens, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This study provides analysis of a representative national sample of Internet gamblers. Using participant data from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (n = 9003 adults aged 16 years and over), all participants who had gambled online, bet online, and/or who had used a betting exchange in the last 12 months (6% of the total sample) were…

  16. [[Trends in marriage and fertility in Japan: major findings from the Tenth Japanese National Fertility Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoh, M; Takahashi, S; Nakano, E; Watanabe, Y; Kojima, H; Kaneko, R

    1993-10-01

    The authors review trends in marriage and fertility in Japan, using data from the 1993 Japanese National Fertility Survey. Information is included on age at marriage, arranged and voluntary marriages, length of time from initial meeting to marriage, changes in age at marriage, fertility, socioeconomic differentials in fertility, and fertility preferences. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  17. Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges: Findings from a 2012 CASE Survey. CASE White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Andrew; Heaton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, CASE founded the Center for Community College Advancement to provide training and resources to help community colleges build and sustain effective fundraising, alumni relations and communications and marketing programs. This white paper summarizes the results of a groundbreaking survey on alumni relations programs at community colleges…

  18. Colleges Leery of Cuts in Moneymaking Sports, Surveys Find; NCAA Council Eyes Few Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Charles S.

    1987-01-01

    A survey shows that officials at universities with big-time sports programs intend to reduce their spending on athletics, but are reluctant to make cuts in football and basketball. The National Collegiate Athletic Association is proposing only a few rule changes for their special convention in June. (MLW)

  19. Internet Gambling, Health, Smoking and Alcohol Use: Findings from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark; Wardle, Heather; Orford, Jim; Sproston, Kerry; Erens, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This study provides analysis of a representative national sample of Internet gamblers. Using participant data from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (n = 9003 adults aged 16 years and over), all participants who had gambled online, bet online, and/or who had used a betting exchange in the last 12 months (6% of the total sample) were…

  20. Findings from the oral health study of the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Johanne; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aims of the oral part of the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES 2007-2008) were (1) to establish an oral health database for adult Danes and (2) to explore the influence of general diseases and lifestyle on oral health. This paper presents the study population, exami...

  1. School Resource Officer Facts: Findings from the Fall 1999 DCJS Survey of Virginia SRO Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia State Dept. of Criminal Justice Services, Richmond.

    This report provides results from the Fall 1999 Department of Criminal Justice Service Survey of Virginia School Resource Officer (SRO) Programs. Through this study, all Virginia police departments and sheriff's offices with primary responsibility for patrol, crime prevention, and community policing within their jurisdictions were contacted by…

  2. Insight from Public Surveys Related to Siting of Nuclear Waste Facilities: An Overview of Findings from a 2015 Nationwide Survey of US Residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Gupta, Kuhika [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Silva, Carol L. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Bonano, Evaristo J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rechard, Robert P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The results described in this report are an analysis of nationwide surveys, administered between 2006 and 2015, which measure preferences of US residents concerning the environment and energy sources. The Energy & Environment (EE) survey series is conducted annually by the Center for Energy, Security & Society (CES&S), a joint research collaboration of the University of Oklahoma and Sandia National Laboratories. The annual EE survey series is designed to track evolving public views on nuclear materials management in the US. The 2015 wave of the Energy and Environment survey (EE15) was implemented using a web-based questionnaire, and was completed by 2,021 respondents using an Internet sample that matches the characteristics of the adult US population as estimated in the US Census. A special focus of the EE15 survey is how survey respondents understand and evaluate “consent” in the context of the storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This report presents an overview of key results from analyses of questions related to consent-based siting and other elements of the nuclear energy fuel cycle.

  3. Increasing Response Rates to Web-Based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Martha C.; Adams, Damian C.

    2012-01-01

    We review a popular method for collecing data--Web-based surveys. Although Web surveys are popular, one major concern is their typically low response rates. Using the Dillman et al. (2009) approach, we designed, pre-tested, and implemented a survey on climate change with Extension professionals in the Southeast. The Dillman approach worked well,…

  4. Triplet based online track finding in the PANDA-STT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, M. C.; Panda Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    The PANDA-Experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt will study antiproton-proton collisions in a fixed-target setup with a phase-space cooled antiproton beam with a momentum from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c at a nominal interaction rate of 2 · 107 s-1. The data acquisition of the detectors has to run in a triggerless mode and the physics events of interest are identified by an online event filter. Tracking information is a key input for the event filter to distinguish signal events from background. A variety of tracking algorithms is foreseen to process the different track topologies. The so-called Triplet Finder, which is presented here, is a track finding algorithm based on the central straw tube tracker (STT) of PANDA. The algorithm focuses on mathematical simplicity and robustness to allow an online processing of the incoming detector hits. The algorithm and results of a proof-of-concept implementation are presented.

  5. Chinese smokers' cigarette purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and consumption: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    While cigarette purchasing behaviour has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviours and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world's largest cigarette consumer. The aim of the present study was to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviours, and estimate the impact of these behaviours on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socioeconomic differences in compensatory purchase behaviours, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and cigarette consumption. Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves--wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010)--of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers' self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviours were analysed. Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase behaviours. Those behaviours led to reductions

  6. DeepLensing: The Use of Deep Machine Learning to Find Strong Gravitational Lenses in Astronomical Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Strong gravitational lenses have potential as very powerful probes of dark energy and cosmic structure. However, efficiently finding lenses poses a significant challenge—especially in the era of large-scale cosmological surveys. I will present a new application of deep machine learning algorithms to find strong lenses, as well as the strong lens discovery program of the Dark Energy Survey (DES).Strong lenses provide unique information about the evolution of distant galaxies, the nature of dark energy, and the shapes of dark matter haloes. Current and future surveys, like DES and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, present an opportunity to find many thousands of strong lenses, far more than have ever been discovered. By and large, searches have heretofore relied on the time-consuming effort of human scanners. Deep machine learning frameworks, like convolutional neural nets, have revolutionized the task of image recognition, and have a natural place in the processing of astronomical images, including the search for strong lenses.Over five observing seasons, which started in August 2013, DES will carry out a wide-field survey of 5000 square degrees of the Southern Galactic Cap. DES has identified nearly 200 strong lensing candidates in the first two seasons of data. We have performed spectroscopic follow-up on a subsample of these candidates at Gemini South, confirming over a dozen new strong lenses. I will present this DES discovery program, including searches and spectroscopic follow-up of galaxy-scale, cluster-scale and time-delay lensing systems.I will focus, however, on a discussion of the successful search for strong lenses using deep learning methods. In particular, we show that convolutional neural nets present a new set of tools for efficiently finding lenses, and accelerating advancements in strong lensing science.

  7. Nanotechnology in Mexico: Key Findings Based on OECD Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, Guillermo; Arteaga Figueroa, Edgar; Záyago Lau, Edgar; Appelbaum, Richard; Robles-Belmont, Eduardo; Villa, Liliana; Parker, Rachel; Leos, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of Mexico's nanotechnology policies utilizes indicators developed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, which in 2008 conducted a pilot survey comparing the nanotechnology policies of 24 countries. In this paper, we apply the same questionnaire to the Mexican case, adding business information derived from the…

  8. Nanotechnology in Mexico: Key Findings Based on OECD Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, Guillermo; Arteaga Figueroa, Edgar; Záyago Lau, Edgar; Appelbaum, Richard; Robles-Belmont, Eduardo; Villa, Liliana; Parker, Rachel; Leos, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of Mexico's nanotechnology policies utilizes indicators developed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, which in 2008 conducted a pilot survey comparing the nanotechnology policies of 24 countries. In this paper, we apply the same questionnaire to the Mexican case, adding business information derived from the…

  9. Multidimensional Poverty in China: Findings Based on the CHNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiantuo

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates multidimensional poverty in China by applying the Alkire-Foster methodology to the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2000-2009 data. Five dimensions are included: income, living standard, education, health and social security. Results suggest that rapid economic growth has resulted not only in a reduction in income poverty but…

  10. Repeat Finding Techniques, Data Structures and Algorithms in DNA sequences: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeson Kaniwa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA sequencing technologies keep getting faster and cheaper leading to massive availability of entire human genomes. This massive availability calls for better analysis tools with a potential to realize a shift from reactive to predictive medicine. The challenge remains, since the entire human genomes need more space and processing power than that can be offered by a standard Desktop PC for their analysis. A background of key concepts surrounding the area of DNA analysis is given and a review of selected prominent algorithms used in this area. The significance of this paper would be to survey the concepts surrounding DNA analysis so as to provide a deep rooted understanding and knowledge transfer regarding existing approaches for DNA analysis using Burrows-Wheeler transform, Wavelet tree and their respective strengths and weaknesses. Consequent to this survey, the paper attempts to provide some directions for future research.

  11. Quitting activity and tobacco brand switching: findings from the ITC-4 Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Genevieve A; Swift, Elena; Partos, Timea; Borland, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Among Australian smokers, to examine associations between cigarette brand switching, quitting activity and possible causal directions by lagging the relationships in different directions. Current smokers from nine waves (2002 to early 2012) of the ITC-4 Country Survey Australian dataset were surveyed. Measures were brand switching, both brand family and product type (roll-your-own versus factory-made cigarettes) reported in adjacent waves, interest in quitting, recent quit attempts, and one month sustained abstinence. Switching at one interval was unrelated to concurrent quit interest. Quit interest predicted switching at the following interval, but the effect disappeared once subsequent quit attempts were controlled for. Recent quit attempts more strongly predicted switching at concurrent (OR 1.34, 95%CI=1.18-1.52, pbrand switching does not affect subsequent quitting. Brand switching does not appear to interfere with quitting. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  12. The Association between a History of Parental Addictions and Arthritis in Adulthood: Findings from a Representative Community Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esme Fuller-Thomson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the relationship between a history of parental addictions and the cumulative lifetime incidence of arthritis while controlling for age, sex, race, and four clusters of risk factors: (1 other adverse childhood experiences, (2 adult health behaviors (i.e., smoking, obesity, inactivity, and alcohol consumption, (3 adult socioeconomic status and (4 mental health. Materials and Methods. Secondary analysis of 13,036 Manitoba and Saskatchewan respondents of the population-based 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey. Sequential logistic regression analyses were conducted. Findings. After controlling for demographic characteristics, including age, gender, and race, respondents who reported a history of parental addictions had significantly higher odds of arthritis in comparison to individuals without (OR=1.58; 95% CI 1.38–1.80. Adjustment for socioeconomic status, adult health behaviors, and mental health conditions had little impact on the parental addictions and arthritis relationship. The association between parental addictions and arthritis was substantially reduced when adverse childhood experiences (OR=1.33; 95% CI 1.15–1.53 and all four groups of risk factors collectively (OR=1.30; 95% CI = 1.12–1.51 were included in the analyses; however, the relationship remained statistically significant. Conclusions. A robust association was found between parental addictions and cumulative lifetime incidence of arthritis. This link remained even when controlling for four groups of potential risk factors.

  13. The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem: Findings from a large national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-01-01

    Social media has become an increasingly popular leisure activity over the last decade. Although most people's social media use is non-problematic, a small number of users appear to engage in social media excessively and/or compulsively. The main objective of this study was to examine the associations between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem. A cross-sectional convenient sample of 23,532 Norwegians (Mage=35.8years; range=16-88years) completed an open web-based survey including the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results demonstrated that lower age, being a woman, not being in a relationship, being a student, lower education, lower income, lower self-esteem, and narcissism were associated with higher scores on the BSMAS, explaining a total of 17.5% of the variance. Although most effect sizes were relatively modest, the findings supported the notion of addictive social media use reflecting a need to feed the ego (i.e., narcissistic personality traits) and an attempt to inhibit a negative self-evaluation (i.e., self-esteem). The results were also consistent with demographic predictions and associations taken from central theories concerning "addiction", indicating that women may tend to develop more addictive use of activities involving social interaction than men. However, the cross-sectional study design makes inferences about directionality impossible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Screen time in Mexican children: findings from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To provide descriptive information on the screen time levels of Mexican children. Materials and methods. 5 660 children aged 10-18 years from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012) were studied. Screen time (watching television, movies, playing video games and using a computer) was self-reported. Results. On average, children engaged in 3 hours/day of screen time, irrespective of gender and age. Screen time was higher in obese children, children from th...

  15. Sexual Orientation and Mental and Physical Health Status: Findings From a Dutch Population Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo G.M.; Bakker, Floor; Schellevis, François G.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. Methods. Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001 among an all-age random sample of the population. Of the 19685 persons invited to participate, 65% took part in the survey. Sexual orientation was assessed in persons aged 18 years and older and reported by 98.2% of 9684 participants. The respondents’ characteristics are comparable with those of the Dutch general population. Results. Gay/lesbian participants reported more acute mental health symptoms than heterosexual people and their general mental health also was poorer. Gay/lesbian people more frequently reported acute physical symptoms and chronic conditions than heterosexual people. Differences in smoking, alcohol use, and drug use were less prominent. Conclusions. We found that sexual orientation was associated with mental as well as physical health. The causal processes responsible for these differences by sexual orientation need further exploration. PMID:16670235

  16. CNMI Boat-based Creel Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) Creel surveys are operated by the Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) and are only on the island of Saipan....

  17. Facilitators of high-quality teaching in medical school: findings from a nation-wide survey among clinical teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiekirka-Schwake, S; Anders, S; von Steinbüchel, N; Becker, J C; Raupach, T

    2017-09-29

    Clinical teachers in medical schools are faced with the challenging task of delivering high-quality patient care, producing high-impact research and contributing to undergraduate medical education all at the same time. Little is known on the gap between an 'ideal' environment supporting clinical teachers to provide high quality teaching for their students and the reality of clinical teaching during worktime in the clinical environment. Most quantitative research published so far was done in a wide range of medical educators and did not consider individual academic qualifications. In this study, we wanted to survey clinical teachers in particular and assess the potential impact of individual academic qualification on their perceptions. Based on qualitative data of focus group discussions, we developed a questionnaire which was piloted among 189 clinical teachers. The final web-based questionnaire was completed by clinical teachers at nine German medical schools. A total of 833 clinical teachers (569 junior physicians, 264 assistant professors) participated in the online survey. According to participants, the most important indicator of high quality teaching was "sustained student learning outcome" followed by "stimulation of interest in the subject matter". Lack of time was the main factor impeding effective teaching (78%). Among the factors facilitating high-quality teaching, protected preparation time during working hours (48%) and more recognition of high-quality teaching within medical schools (21%) were perceived as most helpful. Three out of four teachers (76%) were interested in faculty development programmes directed at teaching skills, but 60% stated they had no time to engage in such activities. With regard to evaluation, teachers preferred individual feedback (75%) over global ratings (21%). Differences between assistant professors and junior physicians were found in that the latter group perceived their teaching conditions as more difficult. Lack of time

  18. Men with Sexual Problems and Their Partners: Findings from the International Survey of Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Raymond C; Heiman, Julia R; Long, J Scott; Fisher, William A; Sand, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of sexual function problems in men have focused on the individual male and related sociodemographic characteristics, individual risk factors and lifestyle concomitants, or medical comorbidities. Insufficient attention has been given to the role of sexual and relationship satisfaction and, more particularly, to the perspective of the couple as causes or correlates of sexual problems in men or women. Previously, we reported results of the first large, multi-national study of sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness in 1,009 midlife and older couples in five countries (Brazil, Germany, Japan, Spain, U.S.). For the present study, we examined, within each problem, the association of four major sexual problems in men (loss of sexual desire, erectile problems, premature ejaculation, delayed/absent orgasm) and multiple problems, with male and female partners' assessments of physical intimacy, sexual satisfaction, and relationship happiness, as well as associations with well-known health and psychosocial correlates of sexual problems in men. Sexual problem rates of men in our survey were generally similar to rates observed in past surveys in the general population, and similar risk factors (age, relationship duration, overall health) were associated with lack of desire, anorgasmia, or erection difficulties in our sample. As in previous surveys, there were few correlates of premature ejaculation. As predicted, men with one or more sexual problems reported decreased relationship happiness as well as decreased sexual satisfaction compared to men without sexual problems. Moreover, female partners of men with sexual problems had reduced relationship happiness and sexual satisfaction, although these latter outcomes were less affected in the women than the men. The association of men's sexual problems with men's and women's satisfaction and relationship happiness were modest, as these couples in long-term, committed relationships were notable for their

  19. Waiting for care in Canada: findings from the health services access survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, Claudia; Pierre, Fritz; Tremblay, Stéphane

    2006-11-01

    Waiting for care has been and continues to be a major issue for the healthcare sector in Canada. While considerable gains have been made regarding valid and reliable information on waiting times, gaps remain. Statistics Canada continues to provide information regarding patients' experiences in accessing care at the national and provincial levels, including how long individuals waited for specialized services, through the Health Services Access Survey. The survey offers several advantages, including waiting time information that is comparable across time and space, enhanced patient information and information regarding patients' experiences in waiting for care. The results for 2005 indicate that median waiting time for all specialized services was between 3 and 4 weeks and remained relatively stable between 2003 and 2005. Waiting times for specialist visits did not vary by income. In addition to being asked how long they waited, individuals were asked about their experiences in waiting for care. While the majority of individuals waiting for care indicated that their waiting time was acceptable, there continues to be a proportion of Canadians who feel they are waiting an unacceptably long time for care. Between 11% and 18% of individuals waiting for care indicated that their life was affected by waiting.

  20. Smokers' reactions to FDA regulation of tobacco products: Findings from the 2009 ITC United States survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fix Brian V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On June 22, 2009, the US FDA was granted the authority to regulate tobacco products through the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA. The intent is to improve public health through regulations on tobacco product marketing and tobacco products themselves. This manuscript reports baseline data on smokers' attitudes and beliefs on specific issues relevant to the FSPTCA. Method Between November 2009 and January 2010, a telephone survey among a nationally representative sample of n = 678 smokers in the US was performed as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC United States Survey. Participants answered a battery of questions on their attitudes and beliefs about aspects of the FSPTCA. Results Most smokers were unaware of the new FDA tobacco regulations. Smokers indicated support for banning cigarette promotion and nearly a quarter supported requiring tobacco companies to sell cigarettes in plain packaging. Seventy two percent of smokers supported reducing nicotine levels to make cigarettes less addictive if nicotine was made easily available in non-cigarette form. Conclusion Most smokers were limited in their understanding of efforts to regulate tobacco products in general. Smokers were supportive of efforts to better inform the public about health risks, restrict advertising, and make tobacco products less addictive.

  1. Inadequate prenatal care use among Canadian mothers: findings from the Maternity Experiences Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debessai, Y; Costanian, C; Roy, M; El-Sayed, M; Tamim, H

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to investigate predictors of inadequate prenatal care (PNC) use among pregnant women in Canada. Data for this secondary analysis was drawn from the Maternity Experiences Survey, a cross sectional, nationally representative survey that assessed peri- and post-natal experiences of mothers aged 15 and above in the Canadian provinces and territories. PNC use was measured by the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine socio-economic, demographic, maternal, delivery related and health service characteristics associated with inadequate PNC use. Prevalence of inadequate PNC was at 18.9%. Regression analysis revealed that mothers who were immigrants (odds ratio (OR)=1.40; 95% (confidence interval) CI: 1.13-1.74), primiparous (OR=1.22; 95% CI: 1.04-1.44), smoked (OR=1.33; 95% CI: 1.04-1.69) or consumed alcohol (OR=1.32; 95% CI: 1.03-1.68) during their pregnancy were more likely to receive inadequate PNC. Mothers with a family doctor as PNC provider versus those with an obstetrician (OR=1.26; 95% CI: 1.08-1.48) were more likely to have inadequate PNC. This is the first nationwide study in Canada to examine the factors associated with inadequate PNC use. Results of this study may help design interventions that target women with profiles of socio-demographic and behavioral risk to optimize their PNC use.

  2. Changes in depression stigma after the Germanwings crash - Findings from German population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Mnich, Eva; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Kofahl, Christopher; Makowski, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Media coverage of the Germanwings plane crash intensely focused on the co-pilot's mental illness and was criticized for potentially increasing depression stigma. We explored whether stigma beliefs towards persons with depression changed in April 2015 (about one month after the crash) compared to 2014. Telephone surveys among the adult population were conducted in Munich, Germany (N=650 in 2014 and N=601 in 2015). In both surveys, four components of stigma were assessed: (1) characteristics ascribed to persons with a depression, (2) belief in a continuum of symptoms from mental health to mental illness, (3) emotional reactions to people afflicted by depression (fear, anger, and pro-social reactions), and (4) desire for social distance. Some stigmatizing attitudes have increased after the crash. More specifically, we found more pronounced changes in the attributes ascribed (stereotypes) and in the perceived separation from persons afflicted (continuum beliefs) than in the emotional reactions and the desire for social distance. However, overall increase in depression stigma was smaller than expected as changes were not statistically significant in the majority of the analyzed items. Due to the study design no causal interpretation of results is possible. Moreover, evidence presented is confined to a regional German sample. A single devastating event and related media coverage seem to have a limited impact on public stigmatizing attitudes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Healthy Migrant Effect: New Findings From the Mexican Family Life Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubalcava, Luis N.; Teruel, Graciela M.; Thomas, Duncan; Goldman, Noreen

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We used nationally representative longitudinal data from the Mexican Family Life Survey to determine whether recent migrants from Mexico to the United States are healthier than other Mexicans. Previous research has provided little scientific evidence that tests the “healthy migrant” hypothesis. Methods. Estimates were derived from logistic regressions of whether respondents moved to the United States between surveys in 2002 and 2005, by gender and urban versus rural residence. Covariates included physical health measurements, self-reported health, and education measured in 2002. Our primary sample comprised 6446 respondents aged 15 to 29 years. Results. Health significantly predicted subsequent migration among females and rural males. However, the associations were weak, few health indicators were statistically significant, and there was substantial variation in the estimates between males and females and between urban and rural dwellers. Conclusions. On the basis of recent data for Mexico, the largest source of migrants to the United States, we found generally weak support for the healthy migrant hypothesis. PMID:18048791

  4. Women's attitudes to safe-induced abortion in Iran: Findings from a pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhani, Nader; Cleary, Michelle; Zarei, Abbas; Lopez, Violeta

    2017-07-20

    To explore attitudes to safe-induced abortion among pregnant women in Iran. In Islamic teachings, abortion is generally forbidden. However in specific circumstances, abortion may be permitted and currently, in Iran, the law allows termination of pregnancy only if three specialist physicians confirm that the pregnancy outcome may be harmful for the mother during pregnancy or after birth. Pilot, descriptive survey. A 15-item structured questionnaire focusing on attitudes to safe-induced abortion was developed and pilot tested. Participants were pregnant women who were referred to the Legal Medical Centre (July-December 2015) to obtain permission for abortion. On obtaining their informed consent, the women were asked to respond to each item if they agreed (Yes) or disagreed (No). Only their age, education, employment, marital status and religion were obtained. Of the 80 survey participants referred for a safe-induced abortion, 90% were carrying foetuses with a diagnosed congenital malformation and 10% were experiencing complications of pregnancy that endangered their health. The majority of women (85%) perceived abortion to be dangerous to health; 86% indicated that partners should be involved in decision-making about abortion, while 83% believed that public health officials should have complete control of abortion law. There is a need to improve women's and couples' awareness and practice of effective contraceptive methods. Further research is needed to better understand the complex issues that lead to unintended pregnancies and abortions considering religious beliefs and cultural and legal contexts. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Active case finding of tuberculosis in Europe: a Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (TBNET) survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, G.H.; Ditiu, L.; Migliori, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis control depends on successful case finding and treatment of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Passive case finding is widely practised: the present study aims to ascertain the consensus and possible improvements in active case finding across Europe. Recommendations...... of isoniazid for treatment of LTBI, with an estimated median (range) uptake of 55% (5-92.5%). Symptoms and sputum examination could be used more widely when screening for active tuberculosis. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection might be better focused by targeted use of interferon-gamma release assays...... from national guidelines were collected from 50 countries of the World Health Organization European region using a standard questionnaire. Contacts are universally screened for active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Most countries (>70%) screen those with HIV infection, prisoners...

  6. Active case finding of tuberculosis in Europe: a Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (TBNET) survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, G H; Ditiu, L; Migliori, G B

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis control depends on successful case finding and treatment of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Passive case finding is widely practised: the present study aims to ascertain the consensus and possible improvements in active case finding across Europe. Recommendations...... from national guidelines were collected from 50 countries of the World Health Organization European region using a standard questionnaire. Contacts are universally screened for active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Most countries (>70%) screen those with HIV infection, prisoners...... and in-patient contacts. Screening of immigrants is related to their contribution to national rates of tuberculosis. Only 25 (50%) out of 50 advise a request for symptoms in their guidelines. A total of 36 (72%) out of 50 countries recommend sputum examination for those with a persistent cough; 13...

  7. Healthcare professional perspectives on quality and safety in New Zealand public hospitals: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Robin; Horsburgh, Simon

    2014-02-01

    Few studies have sought to measure health professional perceptions of quality and safety across an entire system of public hospitals. Therefore, three questions that gauge different aspects of quality and safety were included in a national New Zealand survey of clinical governance. Three previously used questions were adapted. A total of 41040 registered health professionals employed in District Health Boards were invited to participate in an online survey. Analyses were performed using the R statistical environment. Proportional odds mixed models were used to quantify associations between demographic variables and responses on five-point scales. Relationships between other questions in the survey and the three quality and safety questions were quantified with the Pearson correlation coefficient. A 25% response rate delivered 10303 surveys. Fifty-seven percent of respondents (95% CI: 56-58%) agreed that health professionals in their District Health Board worked together as a team; 70% respondents (95% CI: 69-70%) agreed that health professionals involved patients and families in efforts to improve patient care; and 69% (95% CI: 68-70%) agreed that it was easy to speak up in their clinical area if they perceived a problem with patient care. Correlations showed links between perceptions of stronger clinical leadership and performances on the three questions, as well as with other survey items. The proportional mixed model also revealed response differences by respondent characteristics. The findings suggest positive commitment to quality and safety among New Zealand health professionals and their employers, albeit with variations by district, profession, gender and age, but also scope for improvement. The study also contributes to the literature indicating that clinical leadership is an important contributor to quality improvement. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? Various studies have explored aspects of healthcare quality and safety, generally within a hospital or

  8. SNE's methodological basis - web-based software in entrepreneurial surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning

    This overhead based paper gives an introduction to the research methodology applied in the surveys carried out in the SNE-project.......This overhead based paper gives an introduction to the research methodology applied in the surveys carried out in the SNE-project....

  9. Survey says? A primer on web-based survey design and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Adam J; Pannucci, Christopher J; Kasten, Steven J; Haase, Steven C

    2011-07-01

    The Internet has changed the way in which we gather and interpret information. Although books were once the exclusive bearers of data, knowledge is now only a keystroke away. The Internet has also facilitated the synthesis of new knowledge. Specifically, it has become a tool through which medical research is conducted. A review of the literature reveals that in the past year, over 100 medical publications have been based on Web-based survey data alone. Because of emerging Internet technologies, Web-based surveys can now be launched with little computer knowledge. They may also be self-administered, eliminating personnel requirements. Ultimately, an investigator may build, implement, and analyze survey results with speed and efficiency, obviating the need for mass mailings and data processing. All of these qualities have rendered telephone and mail-based surveys virtually obsolete. Despite these capabilities, Web-based survey techniques are not without their limitations, namely, recall and response biases. When used properly, however, Web-based surveys can greatly simplify the research process. This article discusses the implications of Web-based surveys and provides guidelines for their effective design and distribution.

  10. Exploring Anomalies in Indigenous Student Engagement: Findings from a National Australian Survey of Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Christine; Page, Susan; Radloff, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Increases in participation by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in higher education across Australia continue to be promising. However, it is also known that Indigenous students' attrition, retention and completion rates remain areas of concern. In this paper, we report our findings from an analysis of Indigenous student responses to…

  11. InFoPeople Surveys and Quarterly Statistics: Preliminary Findings. Stage I Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.; Rubin, Jeffrey H.

    The purpose of the California State Library-sponsored project, InFoPeople, is to enhance access to information resources by providing points of public access to the Internet in public libraries throughout the state of California. This Stage 1 report represents an initial set of findings and issues related to the InFoPeople project and provides the…

  12. Barriers and Supports in the Job Search: Preliminary Findings from a Survey of Older Job Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Menachem; And Others

    The older job seeker faces both external and internal barriers in finding employment. External barriers include such economic and societal obstacles as age discrimination, rapid technological changes and the shifting demands of the job market. Internal barriers include diminishing job seeking motivation and limited job seeking skills. A conceptual…

  13. Eating Habits of Malaysian Children: Findings of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age.

  14. A Survey on Prevalence and Pathological Findings of Gallstones in Lori-Bakhtiari Sheep in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Raoofi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of 430 Lori-Bakhtiari sheep at a slaughterhouse in Iran, gallstones were found in the gallbladder of 7 sheep (1.6%. Biliary calculi were more frequent in adult and female sheep (<0.05. Chemical analysis of the gallstones revealed 6 sheep with pigment (bilirubin stones and 1 sheep with cholesterol stones. Chemical composition of bile in these sheep was evaluated. Bacteriologic analysis of the bile in the affected sheep revealed bacteria (Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in 5 sheep. Microscopic examination of gallbladders revealed focal calcification, cystic glands, necrosis and atrophy of mucosal layer, edema, diffuse and focal infiltration of lymphocytes in submucosal layer, and hypertrophy of smooth muscles in sheep with gallstones. It was concluded that the prevalence of both types of gallstones in Lori-Bakhtiari sheep is low. Cholelithiasis can cause chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, but it is not likely to become clinically significant.

  15. Cigarette demand is responsive to higher prices: findings from a survey of University students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, Nadia J; Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2016-11-01

    To estimate the price elasticity of cigarette demand for university students aged 18-24 years in Jordan. Questions from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey were adapted and administered to students from 10 public universities in Jordan in 2014. A two-part econometric model of cigarette demand was estimated. Nearly one-third of university students in Jordan smoke, purchasing 33.2 packs per month and paying 1.70 Jordanian dinars on average (US$2.40) for a pack of 20 cigarettes. The price elasticity of cigarette demand was estimated to be -1.15. Higher taxes may be particularly effective in reducing smoking among University students in Jordan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. The Impact of the Malaysian Minimum Cigarette Price Law: Findings from the ITC Malaysia Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C.; Ross, Hana; Omar, Maizurah; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Study the effects of the 2011 Malaysian minimum price law (MPL) on prices of licit and illicit cigarette brands. Identify barriers to the MPL achieving positive public health effects. Methods The International Tobacco Control Project's Southeast Asia survey collected information on Malaysian smokers' cigarette purchases (n=7,520) in five survey waves between 2005 and 2012. Consumption-weighted comparisons of proportions tests and adjusted Wald tests were used to evaluate changes over time in violation rates of the inflation-adjusted MPL, the proportion of illicit cigarette purchases, and mean prices. Results After the passage of the MPL, the proportion of licit brand cigarette purchases that were below the inflation-adjusted 2011 minimum price level fell substantially (before 3.9%, after 1.8%, p=0.002), while violation of the MPL for illicit brand cigarette purchases was unchanged (before 89.8%, after 91.9%, p=0.496). At the same time, the mean real price of licit cigarettes rose (p=0.006) while the mean real price of illicit cigarettes remained unchanged (p=0.134). The proportion of illicit cigarette purchases rose as well (before 13.4%, after 16.5%, p=0.041). Discussion The MPL appears not to have meaningfully changed cigarette prices in Malaysia, as licit brand prices remained well above and illicit brand prices remained well below the minimum price level before and after MPL's implementation. The increasing proportion of illicit cigarettes on the market may have undermined any positive health effects of the Malaysian MPL. The illicit cigarette trade must be addressed before a full evaluation of the Malaysian MPL's impact on public health can take place. The authors encourage the continued use of specific excise tax increases to reliably increase the price and decrease the consumption of cigarettes in Malaysia and elsewhere. PMID:25808666

  17. Population Health Considerations for Pediatric Asthma: Findings from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Ulfat; Byrd, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    Childhood asthma is a prevalent and costly chronic condition. Optimal management enables secondary and tertiary prevention. The goal was to identify population health considerations for pediatric asthma in California to inform the development of quality improvement interventions. California Health Interview Survey 2011-2012 is a random-digit dial telephone survey conducted in 5 languages. It includes 44,000 households from all 58 counties in California. This study assessed factors related to symptom control and health care use in children ages 2-11 years with asthma. An estimated 492,385 (9.6%) of children in California currently have asthma. Urban and rural residents face comparable asthma disease burdens. School-age male children as well as Asian and African American children are disproportionately affected. Asthma causes significant morbidity, with poorer health status, high utilization of emergency care, and the need for daily medication use. Only 38% of children with asthma have a recent asthma management plan. Half of all children with asthma did not receive influenza immunization in the past year, although this reflects the overall low rate of influenza vaccination. Parents of children with asthma frequently utilize the Internet for health information and communication with their child's health care provider. Children with asthma in California face several population-level challenges, including poor health status, low influenza vaccination rates, high use of emergency care, and suboptimal use of health literacy tools. Focusing on improved care coordination and preventive care for high-risk groups is especially urgent given the expansion of public health insurance and impending shortages in the primary care workforce. (Population Health Management 2016;19:145-151).

  18. First survey for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Connecticut (USA) finds widespread prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L; Richardson, Jonathan L; Mohabir, Leon

    2013-02-28

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is an emerging infectious fungal pathogen of amphibians and is linked to global population declines. Until now, there has only been 1 survey for the fungus in the northeastern USA, which focused primarily on northern New England. We tested for Bd in a large number of samples (916 individuals from 116 sites) collected throughout the state of Connecticut, representing 18 native amphibian species. In addition, 239 preserved wood frog Lithobates sylvaticus tadpoles from throughout the state were screened for the fungus. Bd presence was assessed in both the fresh field swabs and the preserved samples using a sensitive quantitative PCR assay. Our contemporary survey found widespread Bd prevalence throughout Connecticut, occurring in 14 species and in 28% of all sampled animals. No preserved L. sylvaticus specimens tested positive for the fungus. Two common species, bullfrogs R. catesbeiana and green frogs R. clamitans had particularly high infection rates (0.21-0.39 and 0.33-0.42, respectively), and given their wide distribution throughout the state, we suggest they may serve as sentinels for Bd occurrence in this region. Further analyses found that several other factors increase the likelihood of infection, including life stage, host sex, and host family. Within sites, ponds with ranids, especially green frogs, increased the likelihood of Bd prevalence. By studying Bd in populations not facing mass declines, the results from this study are an important contribution to our understanding of how some amphibian species and populations remain infected yet exhibit no signs of chytridiomycosis even when Bd is widely distributed.

  19. Who is food-insecure in California? Findings from the California Women's Health Survey, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Lucia; Baumrind, Nikki; Dumbauld, Sheila

    2007-06-01

    To identify factors associated with food insecurity in California women. The California Women's Health Survey is an ongoing annual telephone survey that collects data about health-related attitudes and behaviours from a randomly selected sample of women. Food insecurity of the women was measured by a 6-item subset of the Food Security Module. Statistical procedures included chi-square tests, t-tests, logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance. California, USA. Four thousand and thirty-seven women (18 years or older). Prevalence of food insecurity was 25.7%. After controlling for income, factors associated with greater food insecurity were Hispanic or Black race/ethnicity; less than a 12th grade education; being unmarried; less than 55 years old; being Spanish-speaking; having spent less than half of one's life in the USA; sadness/depression; feeling overwhelmed; poor physical/mental health interfering with activities; and fair to poor general health. Among Food Stamp Program (FSP) participants, 71% were food-insecure. Among FSP-eligible women who had not applied for the programme, the prevalence of food insecurity was lower among women responding that they did not need food stamps than in women giving other reasons for not applying (23.9% vs. 66.9%, P < 0.001). Factors associated with food insecurity in FSP recipients included being unable to make food stamps last for 30 days, feeling overwhelmed, and having a birthplace in Mexico or Central America. Along with several socio-economic variables, poor physical and mental health is associated with food insecurity. Whether food insecurity is a cause or effect of poor health remains in question.

  20. Outsourcing in the Italian National Health Service: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinati, Manuela S

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, outsourcing has become one of the major issues in health care. Two major concerns are related to public health care outsourcing practice. The first one involves the suitability of the outsourcing strategy in the public sector, principally with reference to the outsourcing of essential clinical services. The second one relates to the actual benefits of the outsourcing practice in health care, in terms of cost reduction and increasing efficiency. This paper aims to contribute to the debate and literature on outsourcing through a national survey carried out in the Italian National Health Service. In order to achieve the research objective, a questionnaire was developed and, after a pilot test, it was mailed to all Italian public providers. The total response rate was around 42%. Results showed that outsourcing is a widespread phenomenon within health care, especially in the ancillary services area. Moreover, results showed many criticalities of the outsourcing practice in the Italian health-care sector. On the one hand, criticalities concerned the reasons for outsourcing, the characteristics of the outsourced services and the management of the relationship with the vendor. With reference to essential clinical service, outsourcing, as currently managed by health-care providers, may potentially weaken their ability to reach its own objectives. On the other hand, criticalities related to respondent-perceived benefits. Despite the overall positive outsourcing experience expressed in the survey, the results on perceived benefits showed that the effects of outsourcing did not always align to managers' expectations, especially in the cost containment and efficiency area.

  1. A cluster finding algorithm based on the multi-band identification of red-sequence galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Oguri, Masamune

    2014-01-01

    We present a new algorithm, CAMIRA, to identify clusters of galaxies in wide-field imaging survey data. We base our algorithm on the stellar population synthesis model to predict colours of red-sequence galaxies at a given redshift for an arbitrary set of bandpass filters, with additional calibration using a sample of spectroscopic galaxies to improve the accuracy of the model prediction. We run the algorithm on ~11960 deg^2 of imaging data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 to construct a catalogue of 71743 clusters in the redshift range 0.1find that our photometric cluster redshift estimates are accurate with low bias and scatter, and that the corrected richness correlates well with X-ray luminosities and temperatures. We use the publicly available Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) she...

  2. Triplet based online track finding in the PANDA-STT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Marius C.; Brinkmann, Kai-Thomas; Ritman, James; Wintz, Peter

    2014-05-01

    We present a method for online track finding in the PANDA-STT which requires only knowledge of the time and straw position of the hits. Therefore, it does not depend on any additional information such as the drift-time or radius drift-time calibration which may not be present ab-initio.

  3. Is web interviewing a good alternative to telephone interviewing? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Netherlands Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Mary E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Web interviewing is becoming increasingly popular worldwide, because it has several advantages over telephone interviewing such as lower costs and shorter fieldwork periods. However, there are also concerns about data quality of web surveys. The aim of this study was to compare the International Tobacco Control (ITC Netherlands web and telephone samples on demographic and smoking related variables to assess differences in data quality. Methods Wave 1 of the ITC Netherlands Survey was completed by 1,668 web respondents and 404 telephone respondents of 18 years and older. The two surveys were conducted in parallel among adults who reported smoking at least monthly and had smoked at least 100 cigarettes over their lifetime. Results Both the web and telephone survey had a cooperation rate of 78%. Web respondents with a fixed line telephone were significantly more often married, had a lower educational level, and were older than web respondents without a fixed line telephone. Telephone respondents with internet access were significantly more often married, had a higher educational level, and were younger than telephone respondents without internet. Web respondents were significantly less often married and lower educated than the Dutch population of smokers. Telephone respondents were significantly less often married and higher educated than the Dutch population of smokers. Web respondents used the "don't know" options more often than telephone respondents. Telephone respondents were somewhat more negative about smoking, had less intention to quit smoking, and had more self efficacy for quitting. The known association between educational level and self efficacy was present only in the web survey. Conclusions Differences between the web and telephone sample were present, but the differences were small and not consistently favourable for either web or telephone interviewing. Our study findings suggested sometimes a better data

  4. The impact of the Malaysian minimum cigarette price law: findings from the ITC Malaysia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C; Ross, Hana; Omar, Maizurah; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-07-01

    Study the effects of the 2011 Malaysian minimum price law (MPL) on prices of licit and illicit cigarette brands. Identify barriers to the MPL achieving positive public health effects. The International Tobacco Control Project's Southeast Asia survey collected information on Malaysian smokers' cigarette purchases (n=7520) in five survey waves between 2005 and 2012. Consumption-weighted comparisons of proportions tests and adjusted Wald tests were used to evaluate changes over time in violation rates of the inflation-adjusted MPL, the proportion of illicit cigarette purchases and mean prices. After the passage of the MPL, the proportion of licit brand cigarette purchases that were below the inflation-adjusted 2011 minimum price level fell substantially (before 3.9%, after 1.8%, p=0.002), while violation of the MPL for illicit brand cigarette purchases was unchanged (before 89.8%, after 91.9%, p=0.496). At the same time, the mean real price of licit cigarettes rose (p=0.006), while the mean real price of illicit cigarettes remained unchanged (p=0.134). The proportion of illicit cigarette purchases rose as well (before 13.4%, after 16.5%, p=0.041). The MPL appears not to have meaningfully changed cigarette prices in Malaysia, as licit brand prices remained well above and illicit brand prices remained well below the minimum price level before and after MPL's implementation. The increasing proportion of illicit cigarettes on the market may have undermined any positive health effects of the Malaysian MPL. The illicit cigarette trade must be addressed before a full evaluation of the Malaysian MPL's impact on public health can take place. The authors encourage the continued use of specific excise tax increases to reliably increase the price and decrease the consumption of cigarettes in Malaysia and elsewhere. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Equity in health care financing in Portugal: findings from the Household Budget Survey 2010/2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintal, Carlota; Lopes, José

    2016-07-01

    Equity in health care financing is recognised as a main goal in health policy. It implies that payments should be linked to capacity to pay and that households should be protected against catastrophic health expenditure (CHE). The risk of CHE is inversely related to the share of out-of-pocket payments (OOP) in total health expenditure. In Portugal, OOP represented 26% of total health expenditure in 2010 [one of the highest among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries]. This study aims to identify the proportion of households with CHE in Portugal and the household factors associated with this outcome. Additionally, progressivity indices are calculated for OOP and private health insurance. Data were taken from the Portuguese Household Budget Survey 2010/2011. The prevalence of CHE is 2.1%, which is high for a developed country with a universal National Health Service. The main factor associated with CHE is the presence of at least one elderly person in households (when the risk quadruples). Payments are particularly regressive for medicines. Regarding the results by regions, the Kakwani index for total OOP is larger (negative) for the Centre and lower, not significant, for the Azores. Payments for voluntary health insurance are progressive.

  6. Movies and TV influence tobacco use in India: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, K; Ackerson, Leland K; Sorensen, Glorian; Gupta, Prakash C

    2010-06-29

    Exposure to mass media may impact the use of tobacco, a major source of illness and death in India. The objective is to test the association of self-reported tobacco smoking and chewing with frequency of use of four types of mass media: newspapers, radio, television, and movies. We analyzed data from a sex-stratified nationally-representative cross-sectional survey of 123,768 women and 74,068 men in India. All models controlled for wealth, education, caste, occupation, urbanicity, religion, marital status, and age. In fully-adjusted models, monthly cinema attendance is associated with increased smoking among women (relative risk [RR]: 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.31) and men (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.12-1.23) and increased tobacco chewing among men (RR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.11-1.20). Daily television and radio use is associated with higher likelihood of tobacco chewing among men and women, while daily newspaper use is related to lower likelihood of tobacco chewing among women. In India, exposure to visual mass media may contribute to increased tobacco consumption in men and women, while newspaper use may suppress the use of tobacco chewing in women. Future studies should investigate the role that different types of media content and media play in influencing other health behaviors.

  7. A new method for finding and characterizing galaxy groups via low-frequency radio surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croston, J. H.; Ineson, J.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Mingo, B.

    2017-09-01

    We describe a new method for identifying and characterizing the thermodynamic state of large samples of evolved galaxy groups at high redshifts using high-resolution, low-frequency radio surveys, such as those that will be carried out with LOFAR and the Square Kilometre Array. We identify a sub-population of morphologically regular powerful [Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II)] radio galaxies and demonstrate that, for this sub-population, the internal pressure of the radio lobes is a reliable tracer of the external intragroup/intracluster medium (ICM) pressure, and that the assumption of a universal pressure profile for relaxed groups enables the total mass and X-ray luminosity to be estimated. Using a sample of well-studied FR II radio galaxies, we demonstrate that our method enables the estimation of group/cluster X-ray luminosities over three orders of magnitude in luminosity to within a factor of ∼2 from low-frequency radio properties alone. Our method could provide a powerful new tool for building samples of thousands of evolved galaxy groups at z > 1 and characterizing their ICM.

  8. Help-seeking for emotional problems in major depression : findings of the 2006 Estonian health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, Anne; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko

    2013-08-01

    To study help-seeking among the general population and people with major depression. 12-month help-seeking for emotional problems was assessed in a cross-sectional 2006 Estonian Health Survey. Non-institutionalized individuals aged 18-84 years (n = 6,105) were interviewed. A major depressive episode was assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The factors associated with help-seeking, received help, and health service use were analyzed. The prevalence of 12-month help-seeking for emotional symptoms was 4.8%. The rate of 12-month help-seeking in the depressed sample was 34.1%. Depressed people used non-mental health services 1.5-3 times more than non-depressed persons even when adjusted for the chronic somatic disorder. Only one third of depressed persons sought help, which was most of all associated with severity of depression. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of depression leads to an increased use of expensive but non-specific health services by depressed persons.

  9. Dental caries in Uruguayan adults and elders: findings from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Licet; Liberman, Judith; Abreu, Soledad; Mangarelli, Carolina; Correa, Marcos B; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Lorenzo, Susana; Nascimento, Gustavo G

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess dental caries status and associated factors in Uruguayan adults and elders using data from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey. Data were representative of the country as a whole. Socio-demographic information was collected with a closed questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed by clinical examination using the DMFT index. The final sample consisted of 769 participants. Mean DMFT was 15.20 and 24.12 for the 35-44 and 65-74-year age groups, respectively. Mean number of decayed teeth was 1.70 in adults and 0.66 in elders. Multivariate analyses showed higher prevalence of dental caries associated with age 65-74 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, presence of gingivitis; for decayed teeth, age 35-44 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, infrequent tooth brushing, need for oral health care, and presence of root caries showed higher severity. Uruguayan adults and elders from disadvantaged backgrounds concentrated a heavier burden of dental caries.

  10. Loneliness and Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Findings From the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bao-Liang; Chen, Shu-Lin; Tu, Xin; Conwell, Yeates

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between loneliness and cognitive function and to explore the mediating role of physical health on the loneliness-cognition relationship in Chinese older adults (OAs). Data came from a nationally representative sample of 14,199 Chinese OAs (aged 65+) from 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2011 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. A latent variable cross-lagged panel model combined with mediation analysis was used to determine the relationship between loneliness and cognitive function and the mediating effect of increase in the number of chronic conditions (ΔNCCs) on the ascertained loneliness-cognition relationship. Severe loneliness at prior assessment points was significantly associated with poorer cognitive function at subsequent assessments, and vice versa. The ΔNCCs partially mediated this prospective reciprocal relationships, accounting for 2.58% of the total effect of loneliness on cognition and 4.44% of the total effect of cognition on loneliness, respectively. Loneliness may predict subsequent cognitive decline, and vice versa. This loneliness-cognition relationship is partially explained by their impact on physical health. Multidisciplinary interventions aimed at reducing loneliness and cognitive decline per se and their associated risk factors as well as improving chronic illness management would be beneficial for emotional well-being and cognitive health in OAs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Security Personnel Practices and Policies in U.S. Hospitals: Findings From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Pompeii, Lisa A

    2016-06-27

    Concerns of violence in hospitals warrant examination of current hospital security practices. Cross-sectional survey data were collected from members of a health care security and safety association to examine the type of personnel serving as security in hospitals, their policies and practices related to training and weapon/restraint tool carrying/use, and the broader context in which security personnel work to maintain staff and patient safety, with an emphasis on workplace violence prevention and mitigation. Data pertaining to 340 hospitals suggest security personnel were typically non-sworn officers directly employed (72%) by hospitals. Available tools included handcuffs (96%), batons (56%), oleoresin capsicum products (e.g., pepper spray; 52%), hand guns (52%), conducted electrical weapons (e.g., TASERs®; 47%), and K9 units (12%). Current workplace violence prevention policy components, as well as recommendations to improve hospital security practices, aligned with Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines. Comprehensive efforts to address the safety and effectiveness of hospital security personnel should consider security personnel's relationships with other hospital work groups and hospitals' focus on patients' safety and satisfaction. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. A VIRUS-P Survey of Galaxy Clusters to Find Faint Lyα-emitting Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Emily; Finkelstein, S. L.; Siana, B. D.; Alavi, A.

    2014-01-01

    The VIRUS-P instrument on the 2.7m telescope at the McDonald Observatory was originally built as a prototype of the larger VIRUS instrument that will be used for HETDEX. We demonstrate that this multi-fiber, optical integral field unit spectrograph can be efficiently used to detect faint Lyα-emitting galaxies (LAEs) at intermediate redshift (z = 2-3) with the aid of gravitational lensing from galaxy clusters. The bulk z=2-3 LAEs to date have been discovered with narrowband imaging campaigns, which are highly efficient only at selecting L > L_star galaxies and only over a narrow redshift slice. By making use of gravitational lensing, however, we are able to observe intrinsically very faint galaxies that only appear to have brightnesses ≥ L_star. Gravitationally lensed faint LAEs, such as our sample from VIRUS-P, allow us to go fainter than existing narrowband surveys and therefore allow for better constraints at the faint end of the Lyα luminosity function at these intermediate redshifts.

  13. Cigarette brand loyalty in Australia: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Genevieve A; Swift, Elena; Borland, Ron; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    There is little academic research on tobacco brand loyalty and switching, and even less in restrictive marketing environments such as Australia. This paper examines tobacco brand family loyalty, reasons for choice of brand and the relation between these and sociodemographic variables over a period of 10 years in Australia. Data from current Australian smokers from 9 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation 4-Country Survey covering the period from 2002 to early 2012. Key measures reported were having a regular brand, use for at least 1 year, brand stability (derived from same reported brand at successive waves), and reasons for choosing brands. Measures of brand loyalty showed little change across the period, with around 80% brand stability and 95% reporting a regular brand. Older adults were more brand-loyal than those under 25. Young people's brand choice was influenced more by friends, whereas older adults were more concerned about health. Price was the most reported reason for brand switching. Those in the higher income tertiles showed more loyalty than those in the lowest. The least addicted smokers also showed less brand loyalty. We found no clear relationship between brand loyalty and policies that were implemented to affect tobacco use. Levels of brand loyalty in Australia are quite high and consistent, and do not appear to have been influenced greatly by changes in tobacco control policies.

  14. Modelling the relationship between obesity and mental health in children and adolescents: findings from the Health Survey for England 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summerbell Carolyn D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A number of studies have reported significant associations between obesity and poor psychological wellbeing in children but findings have been inconsistent. Methods: This study utilised data from 3,898 children aged 5-16 years obtained from the Health Survey for England 2007. Information was available on Body Mass Index (BMI, parental ratings of child emotional and behavioural health (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, self-reported physical activity levels and sociodemographic variables. A multilevel modelling approach was used to allow for the clustering of children within households. Results: Curvilinear relationships between both internalising (emotional and externalising (behavioural symptoms and adjusted BMI were observed. After adjusting for potential confounders the relationships between obesity and psychological adjustment (reported externalising and internalising symptoms remained statistically significant. Being overweight, rather than obese, had no impact on overall reported mental health. 17% of children with obesity were above the suggested screening threshold for emotional problems, compared to 9% of non-obese children. Allowing for clustering and potential confounding variables children classified as obese had an odds ratio (OR of 2.13 (95% CI 1.39 to 3.26 for being above the screening threshold for an emotional disorder compared to non-obese young people. No cross-level interactions between household income and the relationships between obesity and internalising or externalising symptoms were observed. Conclusions: In this large, representative, UK-based community sample a curvilinear association with emotional wellbeing was observed for adjusted BMI suggesting the possibility of a threshold effect. Further research could focus on exploring causal relationships and developing targeted interventions.

  15. The association of depression and angina pectoris across 47 countries: findings from the 2002 World Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerbroks, Adrian; Bosch, Jos Antonio; Mommersteeg, Paula Maria Christina; Herr, Raphael Manfred; Angerer, Peter; Li, Jian

    2014-07-01

    Comorbid depression predicts poor health outcomes in patients with angina pectoris (AP). However, epidemiological data on the depression-AP comorbidity is limited and largely restricted to studies from Western countries, making generalizability to other regions uncertain. We aimed to provide additional epidemiological data for non-Western as well as Western countries. The present study used population-based data gathered in 47 countries from four continents (Africa, Asia, South America, and Europe) included in the cross-sectional 2002 WHO World Health Survey. Self-reported indicators of depression included: (a) its diagnosis, (b) its treatment, and (c) seven symptom items to determine presence of a major depressive episode. Similarly, information on AP comprised (a) a self-reported diagnosis, (b) self-reported AP treatment, (c) and a definition according to the WHO Rose questionnaire. In primary analyses, we operationalized depression or AP as positive if any of the respective indicators was present. Associations were estimated by multivariate logistic regression. In the entire sample (n = 213,264), the odds of AP were more than doubled among those with depression [odds ratio (OR) = 2.60, 95% confidence interval = 2.36, 2.87] versus those without depression. These positive associations were replicated across all continents and were observed in both men and women. Likewise, meaningful associations (ORs ≥ 1.5) were observed in virtually all individual countries (46/47). Application of different operationalizations of depression and AP confirmed the above findings, both in the entire sample and in continent-specific analyses. Our study extends the current evidence accrued in Western populations to non-Western populations. The co-occurrence of AP and depression appears to represent a universal phenomenon.

  16. Correlates of Salvia divinorum use in a national sample: findings from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason A; Watkins, William C; Blumenstein, Lindsey

    2011-11-01

    Salvia, a hallucinogenic plant legally available in most of the United States, has become a widely discussed drug in the media. The extant research on Salvia use relies on non-probability samples and studies of college students. There is a clear need for research that identifies the correlates of Salvia use using data from a large sample that is nationally representative. The current study fills this important gap in the literature by using data from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. This survey includes data from nearly 70,000 respondents ages 12 and older living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. Due to survey design, separate analyses are conducted among adolescents and adults. Findings indicate that 1.66% of adolescents (respondents ages 12 to 17) and 5.08% of adults (respondents ages 18-34) report the use of Salvia at some point in their lifetime. Correlates of use among adolescents include age, gender, income, peer and parent attitudes toward substance use, and other forms of drug use. Correlates of use among adults include age, gender, race, religiosity, marital status, criminal involvement, and other forms of substance use. Implications of the findings and limitations of the current study are discussed.

  17. Indications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy based on preoperative imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakizaka, Yoshitaka; Sano, Syuichi; Nakanishi, Yoshimi; Koike, Yoshinobu; Ozaki, Susumu; Iwanaga, Rikizo (Sapporo City General Hospital (Japan)); Uchino, Junichi

    1994-03-01

    We studied the indications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and values of preoperative imaging findings in 82 patients who underwent preoperative imaging diagnostic tests (abdominal echogram, abdominal CAT scan, ERCP). We analyzed mainly patients who were considered to be indicated for LC but whose gallbladders could be removed by open laparotomy, or whose gallbladders were removed by open laparotomy but were considered indicated for LC from retrospective study. We found the following results. LC could be easily performed in patients with a history of severe acute cholecystitis if they had no findings of a thickened wall or negative gallbladder signs. Abdominal echogram and CAT scan were the best preoperative imaging tests for determining the gallbladder's state, especially for obstruction of the cystic duct. These results are important today when the operative indications of LC are extremely indefinite because of the accumulation of operative experience and technological improvements. (author).

  18. Finding Global Optimum for Truth Discovery: Entropy Based Geometric Variance

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Hu; Gao, Jing; Xu, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    Truth Discovery is an important problem arising in data analytics related fields such as data mining, database, and big data. It concerns about finding the most trustworthy information from a dataset acquired from a number of unreliable sources. Due to its importance, the problem has been extensively studied in recent years and a number techniques have already been proposed. However, all of them are of heuristic nature and do not have any quality guarantee. In this paper, we formulate the pro...

  19. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P types I/II, respectively. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  20. Thyroid Hormones and Electrocardiographic Parameters: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Cheng, Alan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Altered thyroid status exerts a major effect on the heart. Individuals with hypo- or hyperthyroidism showed various changes in electrocardiograms. However, little is known about how variations in thyroid hormone levels within the normal range affect electrical activities of the heart in the general population. Methods and Results We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 5,990 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Serum total T4 was measured by immunoassay and TSH was measured by chemiluminescent assay. We categorized T4 and TSH into 7 groups with cut-offs at the 5th, 20th, 40th, 60th, 80th, and 95th percentiles of the weighted population distribution. Electrocardiographic parameters were measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. We found a positive linear association between serum total T4 level and heart rate in men, and a U-shape association between T4 and PR interval in men and women. TSH level was positively associated with QRS interval in men, while a U-shape association between TSH and QRS was observed in women. No clear graded association between thyroid hormones and corrected QT or JT was found, except that men in the highest category of T4 levels appeared to have longer corrected QT and JT, and men in the lowest category of T4 appeared to have shorter corrected QT and JT. Conclusions Variation in thyroid hormone levels in the general population, even within the normal range, was associated with various ECG changes. PMID:23593140

  1. Thyroid hormones and electrocardiographic parameters: findings from the third national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyi Zhang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Altered thyroid status exerts a major effect on the heart. Individuals with hypo- or hyperthyroidism showed various changes in electrocardiograms. However, little is known about how variations in thyroid hormone levels within the normal range affect electrical activities of the heart in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 5,990 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Serum total T4 was measured by immunoassay and TSH was measured by chemiluminescent assay. We categorized T4 and TSH into 7 groups with cut-offs at the 5(th, 20(th, 40(th, 60(th, 80(th, and 95(th percentiles of the weighted population distribution. Electrocardiographic parameters were measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. We found a positive linear association between serum total T4 level and heart rate in men, and a U-shape association between T4 and PR interval in men and women. TSH level was positively associated with QRS interval in men, while a U-shape association between TSH and QRS was observed in women. No clear graded association between thyroid hormones and corrected QT or JT was found, except that men in the highest category of T4 levels appeared to have longer corrected QT and JT, and men in the lowest category of T4 appeared to have shorter corrected QT and JT. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in thyroid hormone levels in the general population, even within the normal range, was associated with various ECG changes.

  2. Asthma outcomes in children and adolescents with multiple morbidities: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R; Leo, Harvey L; Baptist, Alan P; Cao, Yanyun; Brown, Randall W

    2015-06-01

    More Americans are managing multiple chronic conditions (MCCs), and trends are particularly alarming in youth. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and distribution of 9 chronic conditions in children and adolescents with and without asthma, and adverse asthma outcomes associated with having MCCs. Cross-sectional interview data from the National Health Interview Survey were analyzed (N = 66,790) between 2007 and 2012 in youth 0 to 17 years of age. Bivariate analysis methods and multivariate generalized linear regression were used to examine associations. Five percent of children with asthma had 1 or more coexisting health conditions. The prevalence of 1 or more comorbidities was greater among those with asthma than those without (5.07% [95% CI: 4.5-5.6] vs. 2.73% [95% CI: 2.6-2.9]). Those with asthma were twice as likely to have co-occurring hypertension (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.2 [95% CI: 1.5-3.2]) and arthritis (PR = 2.7 [95% CI: 1.8-4.0]) compared with those without asthma. Every additional chronic condition with asthma was associated with a greater likelihood of an asthma attack (PR = 1.1 [95% CI: 1.0-1.2]), all-cause emergency department visits (PR = 1.3 [95% CI: 1.1-1.5]), and missed school days (PR = 2.3 [95% CI: 1.7-3.2]). Children and adolescents with asthma in the US who suffer from MCCs have increased asthma symptoms, missed school days, and all-cause emergency department visits. Further research on optimal management strategies for this group is needed. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Positive attitudes to pediatric HIV testing: findings from a nationally representative survey from Zimbabwe.

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    Raluca Buzdugan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early HIV testing and diagnosis are paramount for increasing treatment initiation among children, necessary for their survival and improved health. However, uptake of pediatric HIV testing is low in high-prevalence areas. We present data on attitudes towards pediatric testing from a nationally representative survey in Zimbabwe. METHODS: All 18-24 year olds and a proportion of 25-49 year olds living in randomly selected enumeration areas from all ten Zimbabwe provinces were invited to self-complete an anonymous questionnaire on a personal digital assistant, and 16,719 people agreed to participate (75% of eligibles. RESULTS: Most people think children can benefit from HIV testing (91%, 81% of people who looked after children know how to access testing for their children and 92% would feel happier if their children were tested. Notably, 42% fear that, if tested, children may be discriminated against by some community members and 28% fear their children are HIV positive. People who fear discrimination against children who have tested for HIV are more likely than their counterparts to perceive their community as stigmatizing against HIV positive people (43% vs. 29%. They are also less likely to report positive attitudes to HIV themselves (49% vs. 74%. Only 28% think it is possible for children HIV-infected at birth to live into adolescence without treatment. Approximately 70% of people (irrespective of whether they are themselves parents think HIV-infected children in their communities can access testing and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric HIV testing is the essential gateway to prevention and care services. Our data indicate positive attitudes to testing children, suggesting a conducive environment for increasing uptake of pediatric testing in Zimbabwe. However, there is a need to better understand the barriers to pediatric testing, such as stigma and discrimination, and address the gaps in knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS in children.

  4. Factors Associated with Successful Smoking Cessation in Korean Adult Males: Findings from a National Survey.

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    Youngmee Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation rates have remained stagnant globally. This study was conducted to explore the factors associated with successful smoking cessation among South Korean adult males using nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2007 to 2012. A comparison was made between successful quitters and those who failed to quit after attempts to stop smoking.A total of 7,839 males, aged 19-65 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. The outcome measures were the success and failure rates in smoking cessation, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health behaviors, perceived health status, quality of life, and mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the various factors associated with smoking cessation success.The cessation success and failure rates were 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Smoking cessation was related to older age, marriage, higher income, smoking larger amounts of cigarettes, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, cancer history, better mental health, and higher levels of quality of life, after controlling for multiple variables. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and using nicotine replacement therapy were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation.A smoke-free environment, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, and better stress management are important for smoking cessation. Unlike previous studies, not using nicotine replacement therapy and higher levels of daily cigarette consumption were associated with successful smoking cessation, suggesting that motivation appears to be important to smoking cessation in Korean adult male population.

  5. Substance Abuse Treatment in Adult and Juvenile Correctional Facilities: Findings from the Uniform Facility Data Set 1997 Survey of Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Mary Ellen, Ed.; Straw, Richard S., Ed.

    This report presents methodology and findings from the Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS) 1997 Survey of Correctional Facilities, which surveyed about 7,600 adult and juvenile correctional facilities to identify those that provide on-site substance abuse treatment to their inmates or residents. The survey assesses substance abuse treatment provided…

  6. Civil Society Action and Governance in Vietnam: Selected Findings from an Empirical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Wischermann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, findings from 300 standardized interviews with representatives of Civic Organizations in Ho Chi Minh-City and Ha Noi are presented. Following a view of civil society as a specific mode of social action and interaction, data analysis unveils the existence of core dimensions of such action (respect, empathy/ sympathy, and the willingness to compromise and stick to agreed-upon rules, though the respective values of those dimensions vary strongly. Inseparably linked with such civil society action of whatever kind is consensus-seeking, an aversion to conflicts, and an affinity to synthesis. These attitudes and practices, dominating various Civic Organizations’ internal decision-making processes, represent elements of authoritarian political thinking in Civic Organizations’ leaders’ mindsets and courses of action. Combined, those characteristics make up civil society action “in Vietnamese colours”.

  7. Subjective well-being and national satisfaction: findings from a worldwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mike; Tay, Louis; Diener, Ed

    2011-02-01

    We examined the relationship between satisfaction with one's country (national satisfaction) and subjective well-being utilizing data from a representative worldwide poll. National satisfaction was a strong positive predictor of individual-level life satisfaction, and this relationship was moderated by household income, household conveniences, residential mobility, country gross domestic product per capita, and region (Western vs. non-Western country). When individuals are impoverished or more bound to their culture and surroundings, national satisfaction more strongly predicts life satisfaction. In contrast, reverse trends were found in analyses predicting life satisfaction from satisfaction in other domains (health, standard of living, and job). These patterns suggest that people are more likely to use proximate factors to judge life satisfaction where conditions are salutary, or individualism is salient, but are more likely to use perceived societal success to judge life satisfaction where life conditions are difficult, or collectivism predominates. Our findings invite new research directions and can inform quality-of-life therapies.

  8. Impact of Spina Bifida on Parental Caregivers: Findings from a Survey of Arkansas Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D.; Flores, Alina L.; Ouyang, Lijing; Robbins, James M.; Tilford, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The well-being of caregivers of children with spina bifida and other conditions is an important topic. We interviewed the primary caregivers of 98 children aged 0-17 years with spina bifida sampled from a population-based birth defects registry in Arkansas and the caregivers of 49 unaffected children. Measures of caregiver well-being were compared…

  9. Impact of Spina Bifida on Parental Caregivers: Findings from a Survey of Arkansas Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D.; Flores, Alina L.; Ouyang, Lijing; Robbins, James M.; Tilford, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The well-being of caregivers of children with spina bifida and other conditions is an important topic. We interviewed the primary caregivers of 98 children aged 0-17 years with spina bifida sampled from a population-based birth defects registry in Arkansas and the caregivers of 49 unaffected children. Measures of caregiver well-being were compared…

  10. Universal criteria for species conservation priorities? Findings from a survey of public views across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.; Bednar-Friedl, B.; Langers, F.; Dobrovodska, M.; Geamana, N.; Skogen, K.; Dumortier, M.

    2011-01-01

    Decisions on biodiversity management and conservation are increasingly based on indicators. These imply, explicitly or implicitly, a number of criteria such as nativeness, rarity, endangeredness and (economic) value. We investigated to which degree such criteria matter to members of the general publ

  11. Mental disorders in megacities: findings from the Sao Paulo megacity mental health survey, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Helena Andrade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: World population growth is projected to be concentrated in megacities, with increases in social inequality and urbanization-associated stress. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA provides a forewarning of the burden of mental disorders in urban settings in developing world. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of recently active DSM-IV mental disorders. We examined socio-demographic correlates, aspects of urban living such as internal migration, exposure to violence, and neighborhood-level social deprivation with 12-month mental disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: A representative cross-sectional household sample of 5,037 adults was interviewed face-to-face using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, to generate diagnoses of DSM-IV mental disorders within 12 months of interview, disorder severity, and treatment. Administrative data on neighborhood social deprivation were gathered. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate individual and contextual correlates of disorders, severity, and treatment. Around thirty percent of respondents reported a 12-month disorder, with an even distribution across severity levels. Anxiety disorders were the most common disorders (affecting 19.9%, followed by mood (11%, impulse-control (4.3%, and substance use (3.6% disorders. Exposure to crime was associated with all four types of disorder. Migrants had low prevalence of all four types compared to stable residents. High urbanicity was associated with impulse-control disorders and high social deprivation with substance use disorders. Vulnerable subgroups were observed: women and migrant men living in most deprived areas. Only one-third of serious cases had received treatment in the previous year. DISCUSSION: Adults living in São Paulo megacity had prevalence of mental disorders at greater levels than similar surveys conducted in other areas of the world. Integration of mental health promotion

  12. Smoking during pregnancy: findings from the 2009-2010 Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yang; Shooshtari, Shahin; Forget, Evelyn L; Clara, Ian; Cheung, Kwong F

    2014-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy may cause many health problems for pregnant women and their newborns. However, there is a paucity of research that has examined the predictors of smoking during pregnancy in Canada. This study used data from the 2009-2010 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) to estimate the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy and examine the demographic, socioeconomic, health-related and behavioral determinants of this behavior. The data were obtained from the 2009-2010 CCHS master data file. Weighted estimates of the prevalence were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine demographic, socioeconomic, health related and behavioral characteristics associated with smoking behavior during pregnancy. Women living in the Northern Territories had a high rate of smoking during pregnancy (59.3%). The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy was also high among women under 25 years old, of low socioeconomic status, who reported not having a regular medical doctor, being fair to poor in self-perceived health, having at least one chronic disease, having at least one mental illness, being heavy smokers, and being regular alcohol drinkers. Results from multivariable logistic regression revealed that the odds of smoking during pregnancy were decreased with increasing age (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91-0.99), having a regular family doctor [OR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.11-0.52], having highest level of family income [OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.03-0.29]. Mothers who reported poor or fair self-perceived health [OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 0.96-4.71] and those who had at least one mental illness [OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.00-3.28] had greater odds of smoking during pregnancy. There are a number of demographic, socio-economic, health-related and behavioral characteristics that should be considered in developing and implementing effective population health promotional strategies to prevent smoking during pregnancy, promoting health and well-being of

  13. A survey of machine readable data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, P.

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two of the machine readable data bases available to the technologist and researcher in the natural sciences and engineering are described and compared with the data bases and date base services offered by NASA.

  14. Conducting Surveys and Data Collection: From Traditional to Mobile and SMS-based Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fresh, bias-free and valid data collected using different survey modes is considered an essential requirement for smooth functioning and evolution of an organization. Surveys play a major role in making in-time correct decisions and generating reports. The aim of this study is to compare and investigate state-of-the-art in different survey modes including print, email, online, mobile and SMS-based surveys. Results indicated that existing methods are neither complete nor sufficient to fulfil the overall requirements of an organization which primarily rely on surveys. Also, it shows that SMS is a dominant method for data collection due to its pervasiveness. However, existing SMS-based data collection has limitations like limited number of characters per SMS, single question per SMS and lake of multimedia support. Recent trends in data collection emphasis on data collection applications for smart phones. However, in developing countries low-end mobile devices are still extensively used which makes the data collection difficult from man in the street. The paper conclude that existing survey modes and methods should be improved to get maximum responses quickly in low cost manner. The study has contributed to the area of surveying and data collection by analysing different factors such as cost, time and response rate. The results of this study can help practitioners in creating a more successful surveying method for data collection that can be effectively used for low budget projects in developed as well as developing countries.

  15. A Survey of Technologies Supporting Virtual Project Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a survey of technologies and to what extent they support virtual project based learning. The paper argues that a survey of learning technologies should be related to concrete learning tasks and processes. Problem oriented project pedagogy (POPP) is discussed, and a framework...... for evaluation is proposed where negotiation of meaning, coordination and resource management are identified as the key concepts in virtual project based learning. Three e-learning systems are selected for the survey, Virtual-U, Lotus Learningspace and Lotus Quickplace, as each system offers different strategies...... for e-learning. The paper concludes that virtual project based learning may benefit from facilities of all these systems....

  16. Bullying, sleep/wake patterns and subjective sleep disorders: findings from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiszewski, Violaine; Fontaine, Roger; Potard, Catherine; Gimenes, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore: (a) sleep patterns and disorders possibly associated with adolescent bullying profiles (pure bully, pure victim, bully/victim and neutral) and (b) the effect of sleep on psychosocial problems (externalized and internalized) related to bullying. The sample consisted of 1422 students aged 10-18 (mean = 14.3, SD = 2.7; 57% male) from five socioeconomically diverse schools in France. Bullying profiles were obtained using the revised Bully-Victim Questionnaire. Subjective sleep disorders were assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale. School-week and weekend sleep/wake patterns were recorded. Internalizing problems were investigated using a Perceived Social Disintegration Scale and a Psychological Distress Scale. Externalizing behaviors were assessed using a General Aggressiveness Scale and an Antisocial Behavior Scale. These questionnaires were administered during individual interviews at school. After controlling for effects of gender and age, victims of bullying showed significantly more subjective sleep disturbances than the pure-bully or neutral groups (p Bullies' sleep schedules were more irregular (p effect of sleep on psychosocial problems related to bullying, and our results indicate that sleep has a moderating effect on aggression in bullies (p bullies to sleep deprivation. These results show differences in sleep problems and patterns in school-bullying profiles. Findings of this study open up new perspectives for understanding and preventing bullying in schools, with implications for research and clinical applications.

  17. Coordination difficulties and self-esteem: a review and findings from a New Zealand survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Matthew; Hanger, Nicola; Frampton, Christopher; Watkins, William

    2012-12-01

    Children and adolescents with significant coordination difficulties have consistently been found to have lower self-esteem in relation to athletic competence and physical ability. However, findings in relation to global self-esteem have been mixed. This study aimed to investigate the self-esteem of children and adolescents with a diagnosis of dyspraxia in a large New Zealand sample. A confidential postal questionnaire was sent to all members of the Dyspraxia Support Group of New Zealand. Children and adolescents aged seven to 18 years with a diagnosis of dyspraxia were asked to complete the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale 2nd edition (PHCSCS-2), while parents were asked about a range of factors which might affect self-esteem including possible coexisting conditions. There was a response rate of 20% with 75 valid responses. Coexisting conditions were common including 50.7% with a diagnosis of dyslexia or another learning disorder. Children and adolescents with dyspraxia scored significantly lower than PHCSCS-2 norms on the physical appearance and attributes, intellectual and school status and popularity subscales and also the PHCSCS-2 total score, indicating lower global self-esteem. This study strengthens the evidence that an association exists in children and adolescents between having significant coordination difficulties and lower global self-esteem. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  18. [[Attitudes toward marriage and family among the unmarried Japanese youth: major findings of the Ninth Japanese National Fertility Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoh, M; Nakano, E; Otani, K; Kaneko, R

    1988-10-01

    The Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, conducted the Survey on the Attitudes toward Marriage and Family among Youth on June 4, 1987 as a part of the Ninth Japanese National Fertility Survey. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 7246 unmarried Japanese men and women aged 18-34 which were chosen by a cluster sampling method. Some major findings of the survey follow. 1) Less than 5% of singles intend to remain unmarried permanently. This % has increased somewhat for males and younger singles since the previous survey. 2) 70% of the unmarried report financial problems as the main obstacle to marriage. 3) Respondents report that the main benefit of marriage is peace of mind and the main cost of marriage is lack of freedom. 4) More than 50% of the unmarried prefer a love match. Less than 20% want an arranged marriage; 41% of the males and 34% of the females report no preference. The % preferring a love match has increased since the previous survey. 5) Among the unmarried women under age 23, the average desired age at marriage for females is 24.6. The average desired age at marriage for males under age 26 is 27.3. The average desired age gap between spouses is about 3 years. 6) About 60% of male respondents and 40% of female respondents intend to live with their own parents sometime after marriage; about 40% of males and about 60% of females intend to live with their spouse's parents. 7) About 50% of the men and 40% of the women do not have friends of the opposite sex because such an association is perceived to affect marriage intentions. 8) Less than 3% of the unmarried have cohabited. 53% of male respondents and 30% of female respondents have had sexual intercourse. 9) 58% of the women desired 2 children and 29% desired 3. The average number of children desired is 2.2; this number decreases with respondent's age. Though boy preference in male respondents is apparent, the girl preference in both male and female

  19. AN APPLICATION FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE IN ERASMUS PLACEMENT. SURVEYS AND 3D CATALOGING ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS IN MÉRIDA (SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barba

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Man has always had the need to live with his past, with its places and its artefacts. The reconstructions, the economical changes, the urbanization and its speculations have devastated whole cities, changed the faces of their historical centers, changed the relationship between the new and the old. Also the millenarian 'rest' of the archaeological findings, and therefore the respect towards those ancient civilizations, has been troubled. Our continent is rich in masterpieces that the modern man are not able to protect and pass on to the future, it is commonplace to observe that the modern ‘civilization’ has cemented and suffocated the ancient city of Pompeii, or even worse, failed to protected it. Walking in the archaeological area of Paestum it can be noticed how just sixty years ago, no one had the slightest concern of fencing the amphitheatre and the Roman forum, or entire houses and shops, to lay a carpet of tar or simple to build constructions completely inferior compared to those majestic Greek temples. The engineers and the architects should be held responsible for this as based on their scientific and humanistic sensibility; they should bring together the man with his surroundings in the complete respects of the historical heritage. The interest in ancient began to change nearly three decades ago since it was realized that the "Cultural Heritage" is a major tourist attraction and, if properly managed and used, it can be an economical cornerstone. Today, thanks to survey and the 3D graphics, which provide powerful new tools, we are witnessing a new and real need for the conservation, cataloguing and enhancement as a way to revive our archaeological sites. As part of a major laboratory project, artefacts from the Roman period (I and II century b.C., found in the Spanish city of Mérida, declared World Heritage by UNESCO in 1993, were acquired with a 3D laser scanner VIVID 910, and then catalogued. Based on these brief comments we

  20. An Application for Cultural Heritage in Erasmus Placement. Surveys and 3d Cataloging Archaeological Finds in MÉRIDA (spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, S.; Fiorillo, F.; Ortiz Coder, P.; D'Auria, S.; De Feo, E.

    2011-09-01

    Man has always had the need to live with his past, with its places and its artefacts. The reconstructions, the economical changes, the urbanization and its speculations have devastated whole cities, changed the faces of their historical centers, changed the relationship between the new and the old. Also the millenarian 'rest' of the archaeological findings, and therefore the respect towards those ancient civilizations, has been troubled. Our continent is rich in masterpieces that the modern man are not able to protect and pass on to the future, it is commonplace to observe that the modern `civilization' has cemented and suffocated the ancient city of Pompeii, or even worse, failed to protected it. Walking in the archaeological area of Paestum it can be noticed how just sixty years ago, no one had the slightest concern of fencing the amphitheatre and the Roman forum, or entire houses and shops, to lay a carpet of tar or simple to build constructions completely inferior compared to those majestic Greek temples. The engineers and the architects should be held responsible for this as based on their scientific and humanistic sensibility; they should bring together the man with his surroundings in the complete respects of the historical heritage. The interest in ancient began to change nearly three decades ago since it was realized that the "Cultural Heritage" is a major tourist attraction and, if properly managed and used, it can be an economical cornerstone. Today, thanks to survey and the 3D graphics, which provide powerful new tools, we are witnessing a new and real need for the conservation, cataloguing and enhancement as a way to revive our archaeological sites. As part of a major laboratory project, artefacts from the Roman period (I and II century b.C.), found in the Spanish city of Mérida, declared World Heritage by UNESCO in 1993, were acquired with a 3D laser scanner VIVID 910, and then catalogued. Based on these brief comments we wanted to direct the work

  1. Removing guns from batterers: findings from a pilot survey of domestic violence restraining order recipients in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittes, Katherine A; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Claire, Barbara E; Wintemute, Garen J

    2013-05-01

    Persons under certain domestic violence restraining orders in California are required to surrender any firearms in their possession within 24 hours of service. The California Department of Justice funded a pilot program in which Sheriff's Offices in two counties developed a system for better enforcing the firearm surrender requirement. As part of a larger process evaluation, 17 restraining order recipients were interviewed about their experiences with and feelings about the removal of firearms from their abusers. Most women surveyed wanted firearms removed and felt safer as a result of their removal. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. Finding significantly connected voxels based on histograms of connection strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Pedersen, Morten Vester; Darkner, Sune

    2016-01-01

    -distribution and significance is determined using the false discovery rate (FDR). Segmentations are based on significantly connected voxels and their FDR. In this work we focus on the thalamus and the target regions were chosen by dividing the cortex into a prefrontal/temporal zone, motor zone, somatosensory zone and a parieto...

  3. “Violence. Enough already”: findings from a global participatory survey among women living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Orza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women living with HIV are vulnerable to gender-based violence (GBV before and after diagnosis, in multiple settings. This study's aim was to explore how GBV is experienced by women living with HIV, how this affects women's sexual and reproductive health (SRH and human rights (HR, and the implications for policymakers. Methods: A community-based, participatory, user-led, mixed-methods study was conducted, with women living with HIV from key affected populations. Simple descriptive frequencies were used for quantitative data. Thematic coding of open qualitative responses was performed and validated with key respondents. Results: In total, 945 women living with HIV from 94 countries participated in the study. Eighty-nine percent of 480 respondents to an optional section on GBV reported having experienced or feared violence, either before, since and/or because of their HIV diagnosis. GBV reporting was higher after HIV diagnosis (intimate partner, family/neighbours, community and health settings. Women described a complex and iterative relationship between GBV and HIV occurring throughout their lives, including breaches of confidentiality and lack of SRH choice in healthcare settings, forced/coerced treatments, HR abuses, moralistic and judgemental attitudes (including towards women from key populations, and fear of losing child custody. Respondents recommended healthcare practitioners and policymakers address stigma and discrimination, training, awareness-raising, and HR abuses in healthcare settings. Conclusions: Respondents reported increased GBV with partners and in families, communities and healthcare settings after their HIV diagnosis and across the life-cycle. Measures of GBV must be sought and monitored, particularly within healthcare settings that should be safe. Respondents offered policymakers a comprehensive range of recommendations to achieve their SRH and HR goals. Global guidance documents and policies are more likely to

  4. Finding, characterizing and classifying variable sources in multi-epoch sky surveys: QSOs and RR Lyrae in PS1 3$\\pi$ data

    CERN Document Server

    Hernitschek, Nina; Sesar, Branimir; Rix, Hans-Walter; Hogg, David W; Ivezic, Zeljko; Grebel, Eva K; Bell, Eric F; Martin, Nicolas F; Burgett, W S; Flewelling, H; Hodapp, K W; Kaiser, N; Magnier, E A; Metcalfe, N; Wainscoat, R J; Waters, C

    2015-01-01

    In area and depth, the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3$\\pi$ survey is unique among many-epoch, multi-band surveys and has enormous potential for all-sky identification of variable sources. PS1 has observed the sky typically seven times in each of its five bands ($grizy$) over 3.5 years, but unlike SDSS not simultaneously across the bands. Here we develop a new approach for quantifying statistical properties of non-simultaneous, sparse, multi-color lightcurves through light-curve structure functions, effectively turning PS1 into a $\\sim 35$-epoch survey. We use this approach to estimate variability amplitudes and timescales $(\\omega_r, \\tau)$ for all point-sources brighter than $r_{\\mathrm{P1}}=21.5$ mag in the survey. With PS1 data on SDSS Stripe 82 as ``ground truth", we use a Random Forest Classifier to identify QSOs and RR Lyrae based on their variability and their mean PS1 and WISE colors. We find that, aside from the Galactic plane, QSO and RR Lyrae samples of purity $\\sim$75\\% and completeness $\\sim$92\\% can be sel...

  5. Are Americans finding affordable coverage in the health insurance marketplaces? Results from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Petra W; Collins, Sara R; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2014-09-01

    By the end of the first open enrollment period for coverage offered through the Affordable Care Act's marketplaces, increasing numbers of people said they found it easy to find a plan they could afford, according to The Commonwealth Fund's Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, April-June 2014. Adults with low or moderate incomes were more likely to say it was easy to find an affordable plan than were adults with higher incomes. Adults with low or moderate incomes who purchased a plan through the marketplaces this year have similar premium costs and deductibles as adults in the same income ranges with employer-provided coverage. A majority of adults with marketplace coverage gave high ratings to their insurance and were confident in their ability to afford the care they need when sick.

  6. Working Conditions and Lifestyle of Female Surgeons Affiliated to the Japan Neurosurgical Society: Findings of Individual and Institutional Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUJIMAKI, Takamitsu; SHIBUI, Soichiro; KATO, Yoko; MATSUMURA, Akira; YAMASAKI, Mami; DATE, Isao; HONGO, Kazuhiro; KURODA, Satoshi; MATSUMAE, Mitsunori; NAKAO, Naoyuki; SAKURADA, Kaori; SHIMOKAWA, Shoko; KAYAMA, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the working conditions of female neurosurgeons in Japan, two surveys were conducted by The Japan Neurosurgical Society: one involving female neurosurgeons themselves and the other involving the chiefs of neurosurgical departments. The responses were received from 224 (43.8%) female neurosurgeons and 496 (61.2%) departmental chiefs. About half (50.2%) of the female neurosurgeons were married and 39.2% had children (average number of children, 1.27). Their work was full-time in 80.6% of cases; on average, they worked 51.9 h per week, had night duty 2.8 times per month, and had 5.7 days off per month. Many of them stated that they were satisfied with their job status, but about half of them reported difficulty in maintaining a correct work–life balance. Among the institutions surveyed, 29% had female neurosurgeons. The survey of departmental chiefs revealed that the proxies for maternity leave were not available at most institutions, and that there was only limited availability of night child care (41%) or sick child care (39%); female neurosurgeons did not appear to be well-informed of these support systems. These findings suggest that apart from systematic approaches already in place, female neurosurgeons would prefer to have more understanding from their peers and chiefs. PMID:27302300

  7. The use of continuous improvement techniques: A survey-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... The use of continuous improvement techniques: A survey-based study of current practices ... Prior research has focused mainly on the effect of continuous improvement practices ...

  8. Formatting a Paper-based Survey Questionnaire: Best Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fanning

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes best practices with regard to paper-based survey questionnaire design. Initial design considerations, the cover and cover page, directions, ordering of questions, navigational path (branching, and page design are discussed.

  9. Anthropological and demographic dimensions of the Kurdish question: Findings from census and survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Zeyneloğlu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Within this study, demographic and anthropological differences between the Kurdish group and the rest of the Turkish population are presented while existing approaches on the Kurdish question based on economic and political factors are critically evaluated. Using results of the 1945 Census an inventory of all language groups in Turkey is given together with their respective ‘literacy rates’ and ‘prevalence of knowledge of Turkish’, which reveal temporal differences in terms of entrance into the demographic transition and give hints as to why some ethnic groups have adopted the Turkish identity while some other groups have remained outside the ‘Turkish core’. Recent data from the TDHS, on the other hand, is used to analyze ‘fertility’ and ‘prevalence of consanguineous marriages’ among the Kurdish population. While Kurds who use Turkish as either main or second language converge to the rest of the population in terms of both fertility decline and the matrilateral swing among consanguineous marriages, among Kurds who do not speak Turkish at all the mentioned rates increase in the opposite direction. The Turkish and Kurdish family structures are evaluated within the framework of Emmanuel Todd’s family types with special consideration on the effects of consanguineous marriages and the patrilateral inclination among these on the status of women.

  10. Who still eats three meals a day? Findings from a quantitative survey in the Paris area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhuissier, Anne; Tichit, Christine; Caillavet, France; Cardon, Philippe; Masullo, Ana; Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Parizot, Isabelle; Chauvin, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    In France, mealtimes constitute a strong cultural trait, especially the three-meal pattern. The aim of our study was to test whether this pattern is still prevailing and to what extent familial structure, gender, poverty and migration have an effect on meal frequency. This study is based on a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2010 in the SIRS cohort study among a representative sample of 3006 adults in the Paris metropolitan area. We developed simple logistic models and multinomial logistic models. Results confirmed that the three-meal pattern remains strongly rooted in food habits in the Paris area. For three meals a day, the presence of a partner was more significant than the presence of children in the household. However, the study highlighted that one out of four inhabitants declared eating two meals a day only. The results emphasized gender differences in eating two meals a day, as being less frequent but more distinctive for women than for men. For women indeed, it was mainly linked to economic and social vulnerability (women below the poverty line, foreigners, in single parent families). In this respect, the paper provides new insights into the social differentiation of meal patterns, and calls for further analysis.

  11. Nail psoriasis: a questionnaire-based survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, K.M.G.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Pasch, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin manifestations are the most characteristic finding of psoriasis. However, nail involvement is also a clinical feature of disease although it is often overlooked. The documented prevalence of nail psoriasis varies between 10.0% and 81.1%. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this investigation is

  12. Nail psoriasis: a questionnaire-based survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, K.M.G.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Pasch, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin manifestations are the most characteristic finding of psoriasis. However, nail involvement is also a clinical feature of disease although it is often overlooked. The documented prevalence of nail psoriasis varies between 10.0% and 81.1%. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this investigation is

  13. Thyroid ultrasound findings in a follow-up survey of children from three Japanese prefectures: Aomori, Yamanashi, and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Naomi; Imaizumi, Misa; Shimura, Hiroki; Furuya, Fumihiko; Okubo, Noriyuki; Asari, Yasushi; Nigawara, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Sanae; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Akamizu, Takashi; Kitaoka, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-03-12

    We conducted ultrasound thyroid screening in cohort of 4,365 children aged between 3 to 18 years in three Japanese prefectures (Aomori, Yamanashi, and Nagasaki) using the same procedures as used in the Fukushima Health Survey. Forty-four children had nodules ≥ 5.1 mm in diameter or cysts ≥ 20.1 mm in diameter detected at the first screening, and 31 of these children underwent the second follow-up survey. We collected information from thyroid ultrasound examinations and final clinical diagnoses and re-categorized the thyroid findings after the second examination. Twenty children had nodules ≥ 5.1 mm in diameter or cysts ≥ 20.1 mm in diameter at the second examination; of these, one child was diagnosed with a thyroid papillary carcinoma and the remaining 19 children were diagnosed with possibly benign nodules such as adenomas, adenomatous nodules, and adenomatous goiters. A further 11 children were re-categorized as "no further examinations were required." Our results suggest that ultrasound thyroid findings in children may change with a relatively short-term passing period, and that thyroid cancer may exist at a very low but certain frequency in the general childhood population.

  14. Fact-finding survey of actual garbage discharged from dormitory and its biological anaerobic-aerobic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, T; Ukita, M; Sekine, M; Fukagawa, M; Nakanishi, H

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to find a possibility of complete treatment of garbage and resource recovery (production of methane from available utility of carbon resource in garbage) by biological treatment process. As the first step, a fact-finding survey of actual garbage discharged from the dormitory of the Ube National College of Technology (equivalent to 300 population) was carried out. Second, the combined biological anaerobic-aerobic treatment, i.e. combination of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process and aerobic membrane bioreactor (AMB) process, was applied to the garbage treatment. The applicability and efficiency of this system were investigated in this study. The survey results showed that the composition and quantity of garbage from a student dormitory changed slightly during a week due to the change of the menu, however, they remained almost unchanged during the entire experimental period. The experimental results showed high biodegradability of the garbage, and demonstrated its suitability for methane production. The soluble nitrogen removal was high: over 97%. No excess sludge was wasted from the system. A high treatment efficiency of simultaneous organic carbon and nitrogen was obtained. The possibility of complete treatment of garbage with this process has been positively demonstrated by this study.

  15. Sexual and dating violence among adolescents and young adults in Chile: a review of findings from a survey of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Koss, Mary P

    2013-01-01

    This paper synthesises and discusses results from the 2005 Survey of Student Well-Being, a closed-ended questionnaire administered to students attending general education courses at a major public university in Santiago (n = 484 women, 466 men). The survey included questions on sexual violence (SV) and dating violence (DV), public health problems that have received little attention in Chile and other Latin-American countries. This paper highlights key findings from a series of papers based on these data, noting lessons learned in the Chilean context that may be useful for other Latin-American countries. Important gaps in the international literature on SV and DV are also discussed. A central finding is the high prevalence of SV and DV in this sample of university students, warranting further public health attention to these problems. Potentially, the findings will contribute to changes in awareness, policy and practice along similar lines to efforts that transformed the US landscape regarding SV and DV on college campuses in the 1980s.

  16. Discrepancies between survey and administrative data on the use of mental health services in the general population: findings from a study conducted in Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drapeau Aline

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population surveys and health services registers are the main source of data for the management of public health. Yet, the validity of survey data on the use of mental health services has been questioned repeatedly due to the sensitive nature of mental illness and to the risk of recall bias. The main objectives of this study were to compare data on the use of mental health services from a large scale population survey and a national health services register and to identify the factors associated with the discrepancies observed between these two sources of data. Methods This study was based on the individual linkage of data from the cycle 1.2 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS-1.2 and from the health services register of the Régie de l'assurance maladie du Québec (RAMQ. The RAMQ is the governmental agency managing the Quebec national health insurance program. The analyses mostly focused on the 637 Quebecer respondents who were recorded as users of mental health services in the RAMQ and who were self-reported users or non users of these services in the CCHS-1.2. Results Roughly 75%, of those recorded as users of mental health services users in the RAMQ's register did not report using mental health services in the CCHS-1.2. The odds of disagreement between survey and administrative data were higher in seniors, individuals with a lower level of education, legal or de facto spouses and mothers of young children. They were lower in individuals with a psychiatric disorder and in frequent and more recent users of mental health services according to the RAMQ's register. Conclusions These findings support the hypotheses that social desirability and recall bias are likely to affect the self-reported use of mental health services in a population survey. They stress the need to refine the investigation of mental health services in population surveys and to combine survey and administrative data, whenever possible, to obtain

  17. Vision-based Vehicle Detection Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex David S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays thousands of drivers and passengers were losing their lives every year on road accident, due to deadly crashes between more than one vehicle. There are number of many research focuses were dedicated to the development of intellectual driver assistance systems and autonomous vehicles over the past decade, which reduces the danger by monitoring the on-road environment. In particular, researchers attracted towards the on-road detection of vehicles in recent years. Different parameters have been analyzed in this paper which includes camera placement and the various applications of monocular vehicle detection, common features and common classification methods, motion- based approaches and nighttime vehicle detection and monocular pose estimation. Previous works on the vehicle detection listed based on camera poisons, feature based detection and motion based detection works and night time detection.

  18. Teachers' Opinion Survey on the Use of ICT Tools to Support Attendance-Based Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Sanchez, Jose Juan; Aleman, Elena Chirino

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports on the results obtained from a teachers' opinion survey on the use of ICT tools to support of attendance-based teaching. In order to carry out this study, it was necessary to design a questionnaire to collect data among all in-service teachers with access to the university virtual campus. The findings show that…

  19. Teachers' Opinion Survey on the Use of ICT Tools to Support Attendance-Based Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Sanchez, Jose Juan; Aleman, Elena Chirino

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports on the results obtained from a teachers' opinion survey on the use of ICT tools to support of attendance-based teaching. In order to carry out this study, it was necessary to design a questionnaire to collect data among all in-service teachers with access to the university virtual campus. The findings show that…

  20. Insights, attitudes and perceptions about asthma and its treatment: findings from a multinational survey of patients from 8 Asia-Pacific countries and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Philip J; Salvi, Sundeep; Lin, Jiangtao; Cho, Young Joo; Eng, Philip; Abdul Manap, Roslina; Boonsawat, Watchara; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Faruqi, Rab A; Moreno-Cantu, Jorge J; Fish, James E; Ho, James Chung-Man

    2013-08-01

    The Asthma Insight and Management (AIM) survey was conducted in North America, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region and Latin America to characterize patients' insights, attitudes and perceptions about their asthma and its treatment. We report findings from the Asia-Pacific survey. Asthma patients (≥12 years) from Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand were surveyed. Patients answered 53 questions exploring general health, diagnosis/history, symptoms, exacerbations, patient burden, disease management, medications/treatments and patient's attitudes. The Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines were used to assess asthma control. The survey was conducted by random digit telephone dialling (Australia, China and Hong Kong) or by random face-to-face interviews (India, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand). There were 80 761 households screened. Data from 3630 patients were collected. Wide disparity existed between objective measures of control and patient perception. Reported exacerbations during the previous year ranged from 19% (Hong Kong) to 67% (India). Reported unscheduled urgent/emergency visits to a doctor's office/hospital/clinic in the previous year ranged from 15% (Hong Kong) to 46% (Taiwan). Patients who reported having controlled asthma in the previous month ranged from 27% (South Korea) to 84% (Taiwan). Substantial functional and emotional limitations due to asthma were identified by 13% (South Korea) to 78% (India) of patients. Asthma has a profound impact on patients' well-being despite the availability of effective treatments and evidence-based management guidelines. Substantial differences across the surveyed countries exist, suggesting unmet, country-specific cultural and educational needs. A large proportion of asthma patients overestimate their level of control. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  1. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Family Planning Supply Environment in Kinshasa, DRC: Survey Findings and Their Value in Advancing Family Planning Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern contraceptive prevalence was 14.1% in 2007 in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Yet virtually nothing was known about the family planning supply environment. Methods: Three surveys of health facilities were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to determine the number, spatial distribution, and attributes of sites providing family planning services. The 2012 and 2013 surveys aimed to identify the universe of family planning facilities while obtaining a limited set of data on “readiness” to provide family planning services (defined as having at least 3 modern methods, at least 1 person training in family planning in the last 3 years, and an information system to track distribution of products to clients) and output (measured by couple-years of protection, or CYP). In contrast, the 2014 survey, conducted under the umbrella of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) project, was based on 2-stage cluster sampling. This article provides detailed analysis of the 2012 and 2013 surveys, including bivariate and multivariate analysis of correlates of readiness to provide services and of output. Results: We identified 184 health facilities that reported providing at least 1 contraceptive method in 2012 and 395 facilities in 2013. The percentage of sites defined as “ready” to provide services increased from 44.1% in 2012 to 63.3% in 2013. For the 3-month period between January and March 2013, facilities distributed between 0 and 879.2 CYP (mean, 39.7). Nearly half (49%) of the CYP was attributable to implants, followed by IUDs (24%), CycleBeads (11%), and injectables (8%). In 2013, facilities supported by PEPFAR (n = 121) were more likely than other facilities to be rated as ready to provide services (Pplanning implementing agencies (Pplanning in the DRC in many ways, including mobilizing partners to increase contraceptive access and increasing donor investment in family planning in the DRC

  3. Doctor's enquiry: an opportunity for promoting smoking cessation-findings from Global Adult Tobacco Surveys in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Banu; Tas, Ayse; Sanver, Tugçe Mehlika; Aslan, Dilek

    2017-10-01

    Evidence suggests that advice from motivated physicians to their smoking patients is effective in promoting smoking cessation. Yet, detection rate of smokers is often low and, the proportion of smokers receiving special advice to quit varies. This study aimed to detect how frequently European physicians enquire about their patients' smoking status, and to compare and contrast how (if any) smokers benefit from physicians' enquiry and/or advice about smoking cessation. The study was based on secondary analysis of data from six European countries that conducted Global Adult Tobacco Survey, namely, Greece, Poland, Romania, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine. Out of Global Adult Tobacco Survey participants who were smoking 12 months preceding the survey and had 'at least one visit to a physician' before the survey, half were asked by their physicians about their smoking status and only 37.7% got a brief advice from their physicians to quit smoking. Remarkably, 25% of current smokers did not get any advice from their physicians to quit even when the smoking status was enquired. The adjusted odds ratio was found as 1.55 (95% confidence interval=1.29-1.87) for the association between physician's enquiry about smoking status of a patient and his/her attempt to quit smoking. Even a simple enquiry of the physician about smoking status of a patient could be effective in smoking cessation, yet, enquiry and advice rates are still far below expected. Regardless of the reason for admission, each contact with a patient should be used as an opportunity to combat smoking-related health risks.

  4. A Mandatory Uniform Policy in Urban Schools: Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2003-04

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghee Han

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study is to examine the relations between a mandatory school uniform policy and student problem behavior. The study is based on the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS 2003-04 data. Analyzing data from 421 urban schools, the study found that schools adopting a mandatory uniform policy are negatively associated with rates of student problem behaviors except at the high school level. As with other school safety initiatives, parental involvement at the elementary school level, and teacher training and community efforts at the high school level were revealed as negative predictors of student problem behavior.

  5. Post-primary students' images of mathematics: findings from a survey of Irish ordinary level mathematics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Ciara; Stynes, Martin; O'Donoghue, John

    2016-10-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out as part of a PhD research study to investigate the image of mathematics held by post-primary students in Ireland. The study focused on students in fifth year of post-primary education studying ordinary level mathematics for the Irish Leaving Certificate examination - the final examination for students in second-level or post-primary education. At the time this study was conducted, ordinary level mathematics students constituted approximately 72% of Leaving Certificate students. Students were aged between 15 and 18 years. A definition for 'image of mathematics' was adapted from Lim and Wilson, with image of mathematics hypothesized as comprising attitudes, beliefs, self-concept, motivation, emotions and past experiences of mathematics. A questionnaire was composed incorporating 84 fixed-response items chosen from eight pre-established scales by Aiken, Fennema and Sherman, Gourgey and Schoenfeld. This paper focuses on the findings from the questionnaire survey. Students' images of mathematics are compared with regard to gender, type of post-primary school attended and prior mathematical achievement.

  6. Medical leadership arrangements in English healthcare organisations: findings from a national survey and case studies of NHS trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Helen; Ham, Chris; Snelling, Iain; Spurgeon, Peter

    2013-11-01

    This project sought to describe the involvement of doctors in leadership roles in the NHS and the organisational structures and management processes in use in NHS trusts. A mixed methods approach was adopted combining a questionnaire survey of English NHS trusts and in-depth case studies of nine organisations who responded to the survey. Respondents identified a number of challenges in the development of medical leadership, and there was often perceived to be an engagement gap between medical leaders and doctors in clinical roles. While some progress has been made in the development of medical leadership in the NHS in England, much remains to be done to complete the journey that started with the Griffiths Report in 1983. We conclude that a greater degree of professionalism needs to be brought to bear in the development of medical leadership. This includes developing career structures to make it easier for doctors to take on leadership roles; providing training, development and support in management and leadership at different stages of doctors' careers; and ensuring that pay and other rewards are commensurate with the responsibilities of medical leaders. The time commitment of medical leaders and the proportion of doctors in leadership roles both need to increase. The paper concludes considering the implications of these findings for other health systems.

  7. Beyond google: finding and evaluating web-based information for community-based nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Louise C; Graves, Rebecca S; Jones, Barbara B; Sievert, Maryellen C

    2010-01-01

    Nurses are challenged to find and use reliable, credible information to support clinical decision-making and to meet expectations for evidence-based nursing practice. This project targeted practicing public health and school nurses, teaching them how to access and critically evaluate web-based information resources for frontline practice. Health sciences librarians partnered with nursing faculty to develop two participatory workshops to teach skills in searching for and evaluating web-based consumer and professional practice resources. The first workshop reviewed reliable, credible consumer web-resources appropriate to use with clients, using published criteria to evaluate website credibility. In the second workshop, nurses were taught how to retrieve and evaluate health-related research from professional databases to support evidence-based nursing practice. Evaluation data indicated nurses most valued knowing about the array of reliable, credible web-based health information resources, learning how to evaluate website credibility, and understanding how to find and apply professional research literature to their own practice.

  8. Energy survey of the coal based sponge iron industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant R. Dey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey is made on a typical coal based Indian sponge iron plant of capacity 500 t/d in order to identify the largest energy losses and find ways to increase the efficiency. The required data are obtained by measurements or taken from production industries. The process efficiency is about 51.31%. The energy balances of the process show that the gap between theoretical and actual energy consumption is 45.2% and the exhausts make up the largest loss of 43.5%. A huge amount of waste gas is generated during operation and substantial part of it associated with the waste gas, remains unutilized. The energy content in the exhaust gases which is found at useful temperature can be used in three different ways: by internal use; by external energy supply; or by power generation. The four possible potential areas are identified where energy is being lost and untapped. The largest improvements would be made by design modifications adopting a novel energy conservation scenario by process integration and thereby decreasing the coal and water consumption and by decreasing the cold fresh air.

  9. The importance of wellness among users of complementary and alternative medicine: findings from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Dawn M; Rainisch, Bethany Wexler

    2015-10-15

    This study developed and tested a sociobehavioral wellness model of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to differentiate predisposing factors, enabling resources, need, and personal health practices according to use for wellness, for combined wellness and treatment, or for treatment alone. Data were from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of 23,393 adult Americans. This analysis included people who used at least one CAM modality in the past 12 months (n = 7003 adult users). Prevalence estimates and multinomial logistic regression results were weighted and adjusted for complex sample design. Overall, 86 % of CAM users reported reason for use as wellness (51 %) or wellness combined with treatment (35 %). White women had the lowest (48 %) and Asian men (66 %) had the highest wellness use. Compared to treatment only users, wellness users were significantly more likely to be older, more educated, in better health, and engaged in multiple healthy behaviors. There was support that those with health conditions were using methods for both treatment and to maintain health. The findings underscore the central role of CAM in health self-management and wellness lifestyle. At a time of national health care reform highlighting the importance of health and wellness and employers turning to wellness programs to improve worker performance and well-being, these findings suggest a central role of CAM in those public health endeavors.

  10. Perceived vs actual knowledge and risk of heart disease in women: findings from a Canadian survey on heart health awareness, attitudes, and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Lisa A; Pipe, Andrew L; Westcott, Courtney; Perron, Sue; Younger-Lewis, Deborah; Elias, Nadine; Nooyen, Jessica; Reid, Robert D

    2014-07-01

    Heart disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in men and women. Our understanding of heart disease stems chiefly from clinical trials on men, but key features of the disease differ in women. This article reports findings from the first Canadian national survey of women that focuses on knowledge, perceptions, and lifestyle related to heart health. A cross-country survey using an adaptation of an instrument used in the United States was undertaken in spring of 2013. Based on online (208) and telephone (1446) responses from a randomly selected sample of women aged 25 or older, a total sample of 1654 weighted percentage estimates were produced. The overall response rate was 12.5%. Just under half of women were able to name smoking as a risk factor of heart disease, and less than one quarter named hypertension or high cholesterol. Fewer than half of women knew the major symptoms of heart disease. Most women prefer to receive information on heart health from their doctor, but only slightly more than half report that their doctor includes discussion of prevention and lifestyle during clinical consultations. Most women lack knowledge of heart disease symptoms and risk factors, and significant proportions are unaware of their own risk status. The findings underscore the opportunity for patient education and intervention regarding risk and prevention of heart disease. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Health of adults in Los Angeles County: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kathryn S; Curtin, Lester R; Carroll, Margaret D; Li, Xianfen; Mohadjer, Leyla; Shih, Margaret; Simon, Paul A; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2011-09-01

    Los Angeles County has the largest population of any county in the nation. Population-based estimates of health conditions for Los Angeles County are based primarily on telephone surveys, which are known to underestimate conditions of public health importance. This report presents the prevalence of selected health conditions for civilian noninstitutionalized adults aged 20 and over living in Los Angeles County households and group quarters, based on survey data using direct physical measurements. Combined data from the 1999-2000, 2001-2002, and 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics, were used for this report. Sample weights were recalculated for participants examined in Los Angeles County using population totals provided by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, excluding the institutionalized population. Compared with the nation as a whole, adults in Los Angeles County had similar rates of health conditions even after age and age-race adjustment, with a few exceptions. A significantly smaller proportion of Los Angeles County adults were obese (age-adjusted rate, 23.8%) compared with the United States (31.0%); this difference held after age-race adjustment. The age-adjusted rate of diagnosed diabetes for men was higher in Los Angeles County (9.1%) than in the nation (7.3%); however, this difference did not hold after age-race adjustment. The rates of total diabetes adjusted for age and age-race were similar for men in Los Angeles County and the United States. The rates of selected health conditions in this report were similar for adults in Los Angeles County compared with adults in the United States, with the exception of obesity. The rates of obesity adjusted for age and age-race were lower among Los Angeles County adults compared with national rates. Health estimates based on direct physical measurements can be useful

  12. The association between lifetime cigarette smoking and dysphonia in the Korean general population: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Haewon

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between current smoking and lifetime amount smoked and the incidence of dysphonia using data from a national cross-sectional survey that represents the Korean population. Subjects were 3,600 non-institutionalised civilian adults over the age of 19 (1,501 males and 2,099 females) who completed the laryngeal examination of the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). For lifetime amount smoked, subjects were classified as light smokers (≤26.7 pack years), medium smokers (26.7-40.5 pack years), heavy smokers (40.5-55.5 pack years), and very heavy smokers (55.5-156 pack years) based on pack years (packs smoked per day × years as a smoker). The odds ratio (OR) for the statistical test was presented using hierarchical logistic regression. When adjusted for covariates (age, gender, level of education, income, occupation, alcohol consumption and pain/discomfort during the last two weeks), current smokers had a 1.8 times (OR = 1.77, 95% CI [1.17-2.68]) higher risk for self-reported voice problems than non-smokers. Moreover, current smokers had a 1.6 times (OR = 1.56, 95% CI [1.02-2.38]) higher risk of laryngeal disorder (p lifetime smoking amount and dysphonia.

  13. Women's exposure to intimate partner violence and child malnutrition: findings from demographic and health surveys in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Shirin; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2014-07-01

    Domestic violence, in particular intimate partner violence (IPV), has been recognized as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women of reproductive age. The effects of IPV against women on their children's health, especially their nutritional status has received less attention but needs to be evaluated to understand the comprehensive public health implications of IPV. The aim of current study was to investigate the association between women's exposure to IPV and their children's nutritional status, using data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). Logistic regression models were used to estimate association between ever-married women's lifetime exposure to physical and sexual violence by their spouses and nutritional status of their children under 5 years. Of 2042 women in the BDHS survey with at least one child under 5 years of age, 49.4% reported lifetime experience of physical partner violence while 18.4% reported experience of sexual partner violence. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in their children under 5 years was 44.3%, 18.4% and 42.0%, respectively. Women were more likely to have a stunted child if they had lifetime experience of physical IPV [odds ratio n = 2027 (OR)adj, 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-1.79] or had been exposed to sexual IPV (n = 2027 OR(adj), 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02-1.61). The present findings contribute to growing body of evidence showing that IPV can also compromise children's growth, supporting the need to incorporate efforts to address IPV in child health and nutrition programmes and policies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Violence against People with Disability in England and Wales: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifeh, Hind; Howard, Louise M.; Osborn, David; Moran, Paul; Johnson, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background The recent World Report on Disability highlighted violence as a leading cause of morbidity among disabled people. However, we know little about the extent to which people with disability experience different violence types, and associated health/economic costs. The recent introduction of disability measures into the England&Wales victimization survey provided an opportunity to address this gap. Methods and Findings Analysis of the 2009/10 British Crime Survey (BCS), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 44,398 adults living in residential households in England&Wales. Using multivariate logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of being a victim of past-year violence (physical/sexual domestic or non-domestic violence) in people with disability compared to those without, after adjusting for socio-demographics, behavioural and area confounders. 1256/44398(2.4%) participants had one or more disabilities including mental illness (‘mental illness’) and 7781(13.9%) had one or more disabilities excluding mental illness (‘non-mental disability’). Compared with the non-disabled, those with mental illness had adjusted relative odds (aOR) of 3.0(95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3–3.8) and those with non-mental disability had aOR of 1.8(95% CI: 1.5–2.2) of being a victim of past-year violence (with similar relative odds for domestic and non-domestic violence). Disabled victims were more likely to suffer mental ill health as a result of violence than non-disabled victims. The proportion of violence that could be attributed to the independent effect of disability in the general population was 7.5%(CI 5.7–9.3%), at an estimated cost of £1.51 billion. The main study limitation is the exclusion of institutionalised people with disability. Conclusions People with disability are at increased risk of being victims of domestic and non-domestic violence, and of suffering mental ill health when victimized. The related public health and

  15. Violence against people with disability in England and Wales: findings from a national cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Khalifeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The recent World Report on Disability highlighted violence as a leading cause of morbidity among disabled people. However, we know little about the extent to which people with disability experience different violence types, and associated health/economic costs. The recent introduction of disability measures into the England&Wales victimization survey provided an opportunity to address this gap. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of the 2009/10 British Crime Survey (BCS, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 44,398 adults living in residential households in England&Wales. Using multivariate logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of being a victim of past-year violence (physical/sexual domestic or non-domestic violence in people with disability compared to those without, after adjusting for socio-demographics, behavioural and area confounders. 1256/44398(2.4% participants had one or more disabilities including mental illness ('mental illness' and 7781(13.9% had one or more disabilities excluding mental illness ('non-mental disability'. Compared with the non-disabled, those with mental illness had adjusted relative odds (aOR of 3.0(95% confidence interval (CI 2.3-3.8 and those with non-mental disability had aOR of 1.8(95% CI: 1.5-2.2 of being a victim of past-year violence (with similar relative odds for domestic and non-domestic violence. Disabled victims were more likely to suffer mental ill health as a result of violence than non-disabled victims. The proportion of violence that could be attributed to the independent effect of disability in the general population was 7.5%(CI 5.7-9.3%, at an estimated cost of £1.51 billion. The main study limitation is the exclusion of institutionalised people with disability. CONCLUSIONS: People with disability are at increased risk of being victims of domestic and non-domestic violence, and of suffering mental ill health when victimized. The related public health and

  16. Problem Based Internship in Surveying and Planning Curricula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Esben Munk; Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    another consulting agency ore company with a surveying ore land management profile. The internship is not focusing on practice training alone. The student has to prepare the internship by formulating a problem reflecting what they want to learn and how the can contribute to develop products, procedures...... by the society to serve the community with still more new knowledge and technology transfer from the international research community. The internship and still more real world influenced problem based learning by writing thesis will be and important bridge builder in the following years.......The University Programme for the education of Masters in Surveying and Planning has been reorganized. First of all the basic concept of Problem Based Learning at Aalborg University is still dominating the full curricula of the Danish Master Programme in Surveying and Planning. The five year...

  17. Setting the Baseline--Young People's Writing in 2010: Findings from the National Literacy Trust's First Annual Survey 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina

    2011-01-01

    There were 18,141 young people aged eight to 17 who participated in this online survey in November and December 2010. While the survey focuses on young people's attitudes towards reading, writing and communication skills as well as technology use, this report centers exclusively on the writing aspect of the survey. More specifically, it explores…

  18. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). PCA-based automatic cleaning and reconstruction of survey spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, A.; Garilli, B.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Iovino, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bolzonella, M.; de la Torre, S.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Coupon, J.; De Lucia, G.; Ilbert, O.; Moutard, T.; Moscardini, L.; Zamorani, G.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Identifying spurious reduction artefacts in galaxy spectra is a challenge for large surveys. Aims: We present an algorithm for identifying and repairing spurious residual features in sky-subtracted galaxy spectra by using data from the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) as a test case. Methods: The algorithm uses principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the galaxy spectra in the observed frame to identify sky line residuals imprinted at characteristic wavelengths. We further model the galaxy spectra in the rest-frame using PCA to estimate the most probable continuum in the corrupted spectral regions, which are then repaired. Results: We apply the method to 90 000 spectra from the VIPERS survey and compare the results with a subset for which careful editing was performed by hand. We find that the automatic technique reproduces the time-consuming manual cleaning in a uniform and objective manner across a large data sample. The mask data products produced in this work are released together with the VIPERS second public data release (PDR-2). based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), that is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, which is a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/.

  19. Psychosocial Problems Syndemically Increase Adolescent Substance Use: Findings From a Cross-sectional Survey of 82,812 Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Deng, Jianxiong; Gao, Xue; Xu, Yan; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of studies have indicated the associations between substance use and psychosocial problems in adolescents. However, few of them have examined whether these psychosocial problems form a syndemic, which means the co-occurrence of psychosocial problems accompanied by additional effects on substance use.We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 82,812 Chinese adolescents who were selected using a multistage random procedure. Bivariate associations were estimated between selected syndemic indicators and adolescent substance use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the syndemic indicator count score (the count of syndemic indicators) and adolescent substance use. In addition, cluster analysis was used to partition participants reporting at least one of syndemic indicators to assess associations between resolved cluster memberships and adolescent substance use.All selected syndemic indicators were associated with each other and with adolescent substance use. As the number of syndemic indicators increases, stronger associations with substance use were found in our analysis: the range of adjusted OR was from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.38-1.79) for 1 syndemic indicator to 9.45 (95% CI: 7.60-11.76) for 5 or 6 syndemic indicators. There was no effect modification of gender on these additive associations. The multivariate logistic regression indicated that the cluster membership of nonlow SES academic failures has the highest odds of using substance (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 2.12-2.41), compared to students reporting none syndemic indicators.Our findings support the syndemic hypothesis that adolescents bearing multiple psychosocial problems experience additive risks of using substance. Our findings support that a comprehensive approach to substance use prevention in adolescents would necessitate the involvement of a variety of providers.

  20. A Survey of Technologies Supporting Virtual Project Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2002-01-01

    for evaluation is proposed where negotiation of meaning, coordination and resource management are identified as the key concepts in virtual project based learning. Three e-learning systems are selected for the survey, Virtual-U, Lotus Learningspace and Lotus Quickplace, as each system offers different strategies...

  1. Evaluating the performance of survey-based operational management procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomarede, M.; Hillary, R.; Ibaibarriaga, L.; Bogaards, J.A.; Apostolaki, P.

    2010-01-01

    The design and evaluation of survey-based management strategies is addressed in this article, using three case-study fisheries: North Sea herring, Bay of Biscay anchovy and North Sea cod, with a brief history and the main management issues with each fishery outlined. A range of operational managemen

  2. Asking about Sex in General Health Surveys: Comparing the Methods and Findings of the 2010 Health Survey for England with Those of the Third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Prah

    Full Text Available Including questions about sexual health in the annual Health Survey for England (HSE provides opportunities for regular measurement of key public health indicators, augmenting Britain's decennial National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal. However, contextual and methodological differences may limit comparability of the findings. We examine the extent of these differences between HSE 2010 and Natsal-3 and investigate their impact on parameter estimates.Complex survey analyses of data from men and women in the 2010 HSE (n = 2,782 men and 3,588 women and Natsal-3 undertaken 2010-2012 (n = 4,882 men and 6,869 women aged 16-69y and resident in England, both using probability sampling, compared their characteristics, the amount of non-response to, and estimates from, sexual health questions. Both surveys used self-completion for the sexual behaviour questions but this was via computer-assisted self-interview (CASI in Natsal-3 and a pen-and-paper questionnaire in HSE 2010.The surveys achieved similar response rates, both around 60%, and demographic profiles largely consistent with the census, although HSE participants tended to be less educated, and reported worse general health, than Natsal-3 participants. Item non-response to the sexual health questions was typically higher in HSE 2010 (range: 9-18% relative to Natsal-3 (all <5%. Prevalence estimates for sexual risk behaviours and STI-related indicators were generally slightly lower in HSE 2010 than Natsal-3.While a relatively high response to sexual health questions in HSE 2010 demonstrates the feasibility of asking such questions in a general health survey, differences with Natsal-3 do exist. These are likely due to the HSE's context as a general health survey and methodological limitations such as its current use of pen-and-paper questionnaires. Methodological developments to the HSE should be considered so that its data can be interpreted in combination with those from dedicated

  3. A Frailty Instrument for primary care: findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Ortuno Roman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A frailty paradigm would be useful in primary care to identify older people at risk, but appropriate metrics at that level are lacking. We created and validated a simple instrument for frailty screening in Europeans aged ≥50. Our study is based on the first wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, http://www.share-project.org, a large population-based survey conducted in 2004-2005 in twelve European countries. Methods Subjects: SHARE Wave 1 respondents (17,304 females and 13,811 males. Measures: five SHARE variables approximating Fried's frailty definition. Analyses (for each gender: 1 estimation of a discreet factor (DFactor model based on the frailty variables using LatentGOLD®. A single DFactor with three ordered levels or latent classes (i.e. non-frail, pre-frail and frail was modelled; 2 the latent classes were characterised against a biopsychosocial range of Wave 1 variables; 3 the prospective mortality risk (unadjusted and age-adjusted for each frailty class was established on those subjects with known mortality status at Wave 2 (2007-2008 (11,384 females and 9,163 males; 4 two web-based calculators were created for easy retrieval of a subject's frailty class given any five measurements. Results Females: the DFactor model included 15,578 cases (standard R2 = 0.61. All five frailty indicators discriminated well (p N = 10,420; 66.9%, pre-frail (N = 4,025; 25.8%, and frail (N = 1,133; 7.3%. Relative to the non-frail class, the age-adjusted Odds Ratio (with 95% Confidence Interval for mortality at Wave 2 was 2.1 (1.4 - 3.0 in the pre-frail and 4.8 (3.1 - 7.4 in the frail. Males: 12,783 cases (standard R2 = 0.61, all frailty indicators had p N = 10,517; 82.3%, pre-frail (N = 1,871; 14.6%, and frail (N = 395; 3.1%; age-adjusted OR (95% CI for mortality: 3.0 (2.3 - 4.0 in the pre-frail, 6.9 (4.7 - 10.2 in the frail. Conclusions The SHARE Frailty Instrument has sufficient construct and

  4. Americans' Experiences with ACA Marketplace Coverage: Affordability and Provider Network Satisfaction: Findings from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, February--April 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunja, Munira Z; Collins, Sara R; Doty, Michelle M; Beutel, Sophie

    2016-07-01

    For people with low and moderate incomes, the Affordable Care Act's tax credits have made premium costs roughly comparable to those paid by people with job-based health insurance. For those with higher incomes, the tax credits phase out, meaning that adults in marketplace plans on average have higher premium costs than those in employer plans. The law's cost-sharing reductions are reducing deductibles. Lower-income adults in marketplace plans were less likely than higher-income adults to report having deductibles of $1,000 or more. Majorities of new marketplace enrollees and those who have changed plans since they initially obtained marketplace coverage are satisfied with the doctors participating in their plans. Overall, the majority of marketplace enrollees expressed confidence in their ability to afford care if they were to become seriously ill. This issue brief explores these and other findings from the Commonwealth Fund Affordable Care Act Tracking Survey, February--April 2016.

  5. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Tobacco Information Seeking and Information Sources: Findings From the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh B; Robinson, Joelle; O'Brien, Erin Keely; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2017-09-01

    This article describes sources of health information, types of tobacco information sought, and trust in sources of tobacco information among U.S. racial/ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asian and Pacific Islanders, and Other). Cross-sectional data (N = 3,788) from a nationally representative survey, HINTS-FDA 2015, were analyzed to examine unadjusted and adjusted associations between race/ethnicity and (a) first source of health information, (b) tobacco information seeking, and (c) trust in sources of tobacco information. Adjusted associations controlled for current tobacco product use and sociodemographic variables. Findings indicated that the Internet was the most common first source of health information while health care providers were the second most common source for all racial/ethnic groups. Tobacco-related health information seeking was more prevalent than other tobacco product information seeking. Unadjusted analyses indicated that a higher proportion of Whites sought other tobacco product information compared to Asians and Pacific Islanders. Trust was rated highest for doctors while trust for health organizations was rated second highest. Asians and Pacific Islanders had higher trust in the government compared to all other groups. Blacks had higher trust in religious organizations compared to all other groups besides Hispanics. Blacks had higher trust for tobacco companies compared to Whites and Other. Many of these differences were attenuated in adjusted analyses. This research has implications for tobacco control practice and policymaking by identifying potential dissemination strategies.

  6. Use of ministers for a serious personal problem among African Americans: findings from the national survey of American life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatters, Linda M; Mattis, Jacqueline S; Woodward, Amanda Toler; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Neighbors, Harold W; Grayman, Nyasha A

    2011-01-01

    This study examined use of ministers for assistance with a serious personal problem within a nationally representative sample of African Americans (National Survey of American Life-2001-2003). Different perspectives on the use of ministers-social stratification, religious socialization, and problem-oriented approach-were proposed and tested using logistic regression analyses with demographic, religious involvement, and problem type factors as predictors. Study findings supported religious socialization and problem-oriented explanations indicating that persons who are heavily invested in religious pursuits and organizations (i.e., women, frequent attenders) are more likely than their counterparts to use ministerial assistance. Contrary to expectations from the social stratification perspective, positive income and education effects indicated that higher status individuals were more likely to report use of ministers. Finally, problems involving bereavement are especially suited for assistance from ministers owing to their inherent nature (e.g., questions of ultimate meaning) and the extensive array of ministerial support and church resources that are available to address the issue.

  7. Associations between adult attachment style and mental health care utilization: Findings from a large-scale national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangfei; D'Arcy, Carl; Adams, G Camelia

    2015-09-30

    This study investigated the association between attachment style and the use of a range of mental health services controlling socio-demographic, physical and psychological risk factors. Using a large nationally representative sample from the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a total of 5645 participants (18+) were included. The majority of participants reported their attachment as secure (63.5%), followed by avoidant (22.2%), unclassified (8.8%), and anxious (5.5%). The percentages using different health services studied varied widely (1.1-31.1%). People with insecure (anxious and avoidant) attachment were more likely to report accessing a hotline, having had a session of psychological counselling or therapy, getting a prescription or medicine for mental and behavioural problems. Individuals with anxious attachment only were also more likely to report the use of internet support groups or chat rooms. This is a first analysis to explore relationships between self-reported adult attachment style and a wide range of health care services. Insecurely attached individuals were more likely to use a wide range of health care services even after controlling for socio-demographic factors, psychiatric disorders and chronic health conditions. These findings suggest that adult attachment plays an important role in the use of mental health care services.

  8. Zoonoses and other findings in hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus): a survey of mortality and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keymer, I F; Gibson, E A; Reynolds, D J

    1991-03-16

    A survey of mortality in hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) was carried out between July 1976 and November 1986. Most were from Norfolk. Of the 74 examined, 35 (47.3 per cent) were road casualties, one of which yielded Salmonella typhimurium phage type (PT) 104. Of the remaining 39, 13 (33.3 per cent) had salmonellosis due to S enteritidis PT 11. This organism, which appears to be common and widespread in hedgehogs in England was found in 10 separate incidents. The only other zoonosis was ringworm (Trichophyton erinacei infection). Other findings included ectoparasitic infestations with mange mites (Caparinia tripilis), fleas (Archaeopsylla erinacei) and ticks (Ixodes hexagonus). Helminths comprised Crenosoma striatum lungworms (associated with Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in one animal), intestinal nematodes (Capillaria species), cestodes (Rodentolepis erinacei), trematodes (Brachylaemus erinacei) and acanthocephalans (Prosthoryhnchus species). Metaldehyde poisoning was diagnosed in three animals. Over a 10 year period 370 carcases were counted on a stretch of 18 miles of road in Norfolk. The major causes of mortality are probably road casualties and hypothermia during the winter months. In December 1988 S enteritidis PT 11 was isolated from three of four carcases examined in Berkshire and the zoonosis pseudotuberculosis (Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection) was diagnosed in two of them.

  9. Service utilization by children with conduct disorders: findings from the 2004 Great Britain child mental health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivram, Raghuram; Bankart, John; Meltzer, Howard; Ford, Tamsin; Vostanis, Panos; Goodman, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Children with conduct disorders (CD) and their families are in contact with multiple agencies, but there is limited evidence on their patterns of service utilization. The aim of this study was to establish the patterns, barriers and correlates of service use by analysing the cohort of the 2004 Great Britain child mental health survey (N = 7,977). Use of social services was significantly higher by children with CD than emotional disorders (ED) in the absence of co-morbidity, while use of specialist child mental health and paediatric was significantly higher by children with hyperkinetic disorders (HD) than CD. Children who had comorbid physical disorders used more primary healthcare services compared to those without physical disorders. Utilization of specialist child mental heath and social services was significantly higher among children with unsocialized CD than socialized CD and oppositional defiant disorders. Services utilization and its correlates varied with the type of service. Overall, specialist services use was associated with co-morbidity with learning disabilities, physical and psychiatric disorders. Several correlates of services use in CD appeared non-specific, i.e. associated with use of different services indicating the possibility of indiscriminate use of different types of services. The findings led to the conclusion that there is the need for effective organization and co-ordination of services, and clear care pathways. Involvement of specialist child mental health services should be requested in the presence of mental health co-morbidity.

  10. Discrimination against people with severe mental illness and their access to social capital: findings from the Viewpoint survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, M; Corker, E; Hamilton, S; Weeks, C; Pinfold, V; Rose, D; Thornicroft, G; Henderson, C

    2014-06-01

    Aims. Discrimination against people with severe mental illness is an international problem. It is associated with reduced social contact and hinders recovery. This paper aims to evaluate if experienced or anticipated discrimination is associated with social capital, a known correlate of mental health. Methods. Data from the annual viewpoint cross-sectional survey of people with severe mental illness (n = 1016) were analysed. Exploratory univariate analysis was used to identify correlates of social capital in the sample, which were then evaluated in linear regression models. Additional hypotheses were tested using t tests. Results. Experienced discrimination made a modest contribution to the explained variance of social capital. Experienced discrimination from friends and immediate family was associated with reduced access to social capital from these groups, but this was not found for wider family, neighbours or mental health staff. Experience of discrimination in finding or keeping a job was also associated with reduced access to social capital. Conclusions. Further longitudinal research is needed to determine how resources within people's networks can help to build resilience, which reduces the harmful effect of discrimination on mental health.

  11. Narrative-Based Intervention for Word-Finding Difficulties: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ian; Stokes, Stephanie F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with word-finding difficulties manifest a high frequency of word-finding characteristics in narrative, yet word-finding interventions have concentrated on single-word treatments and outcome measures. Aims: This study measured the effectiveness of a narrative-based intervention in improving single-word picture-naming and…

  12. Vision-based Human Gender Recognition: A Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Choon Boon; Goi, Bok Min

    2012-01-01

    Gender is an important demographic attribute of people. This paper provides a survey of human gender recognition in computer vision. A review of approaches exploiting information from face and whole body (either from a still image or gait sequence) is presented. We highlight the challenges faced and survey the representative methods of these approaches. Based on the results, good performance have been achieved for datasets captured under controlled environments, but there is still much work that can be done to improve the robustness of gender recognition under real-life environments.

  13. How Informative Are Interest Rate Survey-based Forecasts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus A. Feitosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the information content of survey-based predictions for the Brazilian short-term interest rate. We perform vector autoregression analysis to test for the dynamic relationship between market expectations of interest rates and spot interest rates, and a single regression forecasting approach. Empirical results suggest that surveys may be useful in assessing market expectations (contain relevant information and in building Central Bank credibility. Within an inflation targeting framework they are crucial in order to receive timely feedback on market sentiment regarding the conduct of monetary policy.

  14. Australian smokers' support for plain or standardised packs before and after implementation: findings from the ITC Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Elena; Borland, Ron; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T; McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F; Partos, Timea R; Yong, Hua-Hie

    2015-11-01

    Plain packaging (PP) for tobacco products was fully implemented in Australia on 1 December 2012 along with larger graphic health warnings. Using longitudinal data from the Australian arm of the ITC Four Country Survey, we examined attitudes to the new packs before and after implementation, predictors of attitudinal change, and the relationship between support and quitting activity. A population-based cohort study design, with some cross-sectional analyses. Surveys of Australian smokers assessed attitudes to PP at four time points prior to implementation (from 2007 to 2012) and one post-implementation wave collected (early/mid-2013). Trend analysis showed a slight rise in opposition to PP among smokers in the waves leading up to their implementation, but no change in support. Support for PP increased significantly after implementation (28.2% pre vs 49% post), such that post-PP more smokers were supportive than opposed (49% vs 34.7%). Multivariate analysis showed support either before or after implementation was predicted by belief in greater adverse health impacts of smoking, desire to quit and lower addiction. Among those not supportive before implementation, having no clear opinion about PP (versus being opposed) prior to the changes also predicted support post-implementation. Support for PP was prospectively associated with higher levels of quitting activity. Since implementation of PP along with larger warnings, support among Australian smokers has increased. Support is related to lower addiction, stronger beliefs in the negative health impacts of smoking, and higher levels of quitting activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. The association between lifetime cigarette smoking and dysphonia in the Korean general population: findings from a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haewon Byeon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relationship between current smoking and lifetime amount smoked and the incidence of dysphonia using data from a national cross-sectional survey that represents the Korean population. Subjects were 3,600 non-institutionalised civilian adults over the age of 19 (1,501 males and 2,099 females who completed the laryngeal examination of the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. For lifetime amount smoked, subjects were classified as light smokers (≤26.7 pack years, medium smokers (26.7–40.5 pack years, heavy smokers (40.5–55.5 pack years, and very heavy smokers (55.5–156 pack years based on pack years (packs smoked per day × years as a smoker. The odds ratio (OR for the statistical test was presented using hierarchical logistic regression. When adjusted for covariates (age, gender, level of education, income, occupation, alcohol consumption and pain/discomfort during the last two weeks, current smokers had a 1.8 times (OR = 1.77, 95% CI [1.17–2.68] higher risk for self-reported voice problems than non-smokers. Moreover, current smokers had a 1.6 times (OR = 1.56, 95% CI [1.02–2.38] higher risk of laryngeal disorder (p < 0.05. In terms of pack years, very heavy smokers were significantly more likely to have laryngeal disorder, while self-reported voice problems were significantly more likely for heavy smokers but not very heavy smokers. The results of this study imply that chronic smoking has a significant relationship with dysphonia. Longitudinal studies are required in future work to verify the causality between lifetime smoking amount and dysphonia.

  16. Noise-based deterministic logic and computing: a brief survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kish, Laszlo B; Bezrukov, Sergey M; Peper, Ferdinand; Gingl, Zoltan; Horvath, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    A short survey is provided about our recent explorations of the young topic of noise-based logic. After outlining the motivation behind noise-based computation schemes, we present a short summary of our ongoing efforts in the introduction, development and design of several noise-based deterministic multivalued logic schemes and elements. In particular, we describe classical, instantaneous, continuum, spike and random-telegraph-signal based schemes with applications such as circuits that emulate the brain's functioning and string verification via a slow communication channel.

  17. Toward a global view of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine use: findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Degenhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use cause considerable morbidity and mortality, but good cross-national epidemiological data are limited. This paper describes such data from the first 17 countries participating in the World Health Organization's (WHO's World Mental Health (WMH Survey Initiative. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Household surveys with a combined sample size of 85,052 were carried out in the Americas (Colombia, Mexico, United States, Europe (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Ukraine, Middle East and Africa (Israel, Lebanon, Nigeria, South Africa, Asia (Japan, People's Republic of China, and Oceania (New Zealand. The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI was used to assess the prevalence and correlates of a wide variety of mental and substance disorders. This paper focuses on lifetime use and age of initiation of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine. Alcohol had been used by most in the Americas, Europe, Japan, and New Zealand, with smaller proportions in the Middle East, Africa, and China. Cannabis use in the US and New Zealand (both 42% was far higher than in any other country. The US was also an outlier in cocaine use (16%. Males were more likely than females to have used drugs; and a sex-cohort interaction was observed, whereby not only were younger cohorts more likely to use all drugs, but the male-female gap was closing in more recent cohorts. The period of risk for drug initiation also appears to be lengthening longer into adulthood among more recent cohorts. Associations with sociodemographic variables were consistent across countries, as were the curves of incidence of lifetime use. CONCLUSIONS: Globally, drug use is not distributed evenly and is not simply related to drug policy, since countries with stringent user-level illegal drug policies did not have lower levels of use than countries with liberal ones. Sex differences were consistently documented, but are decreasing in more

  18. Is there a demand for physical activity interventions provided by the health care sector? Findings from a population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lars

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care providers in many countries have delivered interventions to improve physical activity levels among their patients. Thus far, less is known about the population's interest to increase their physical activity levels and their opinion about the health care provider's role in physical activity promotion. The aims of this paper were to investigate the self-reported physical activity levels of the population and intention to increase physical activity levels, self-perceived need for support, and opinions about the responsibilities of both individuals and health care providers to promote physical activity. Methods A regional public health survey was mailed to 13 440 adults (aged 18-84 years living in Östergötland County (Sweden in 2006. The survey was part of the regular effort by the regional Health Authorities. Results About 25% of the population was categorised as physically active, 38% as moderately active, 27% as somewhat active, and 11% as low active. More than one-third (37% had no intentions to increase their physical activity levels, 36% had thought about change, while 27% were determined to change. Lower intention to change was mainly associated with increased age and lower education levels. 28% answered that physical activity was the most important health-related behaviour to change "right now" and 15% of those answered that they wanted or needed support to make this change. Of respondents who might be assumed to be in greatest need of increased activity (i.e. respondents reporting poor general health, BMI>30, and inactivity more than one-quarter wanted support to make improvements to their health. About half of the respondents who wanted support to increase their physical activity levels listed health care providers as a primary source for support. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is considerable need for physical activity interventions in this population. Adults feel great responsibility for

  19. Child fluorosis in Chhattisgarh, India: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilasrao, Gitte Sunil; Kamble, K M; Sabat, Ramanath N

    2014-11-01

    To assess the prevalence and type of fluorosis among children from randomly selected villages of Chhattisgarh, and its relationship with fluoride levels in drinking water. A community based door-to-door survey was conducted in the sampled villages of seven districts of Chhattisgarh state during the year 2013-14. The field case definitions were used for labelling types of fluorosis. The fluoride concentration in drinking water was estimated by ion selective electrode method. The prevalence of fluorosis ranged between 12 to 44% in children of surveyed districts. The fluoride levels in drinking water of selected villages were in the range of 0.1-9.0 ppm. Dental and skeletal fluorosis is endemic among children in the surveyed districts of Chhattisgarh State, and is related to drinking water with fluoride content of =1.5 ppm.

  20. Wellbore Surveying While Drilling Based on Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud ElGizawy

    2010-01-01

    by designing a reliable real-time low cost MWD surveying system based on MEMS inertial sensors miniaturized inside the RSS housing installed directly behind the drill bit. A continuous borehole surveying module based on MEMS inertial sensors integrated with other drilling measurements was developed using Kalman filtering.

  1. Sex and Socioeconomic Differentials in Child Health in Rural Bangladesh: Findings from a Baseline Survey for Evaluating Integrated Management of Childhood Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifeen, Shams El; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Victora, Cesar G.; Black, Robert E.; Bryce, Jennifer; Hoque, D.M.E.; Chowdhury, E.K.; Begum, N.; Akter, T.; Siddik, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a population-based sample survey of 2,289 children aged less than five years (under-five children) conducted in 2000 as a baseline for the Bangladesh component of the Multi-country Evaluation (MCE) of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy. Of interest were rates and differentials by sex and socioeconomic status for three aspects of child health in rural Bangladesh: morbidity and hospitalizations, including severity of illness; care-seeking for childhood illness; and home-care for illness. The survey was carried out among a population of about 380,000 in Matlab upazila (subdistrict). Generic MCE Household Survey tools were adapted, translated, and pretested. Trained interviewers conducted the survey in the study areas. In total, 2,289 under-five children were included in the survey. Results showed a very high prevalence of illness among Bangladeshi children, with over two-thirds reported to have had at least one illness during the two weeks preceding the survey. Most sick children in this population had multiple symptoms, suggesting that the use of the IMCI clinical guidelines will lead to improved quality of care. Contrary to expectations, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of illness either by sex or by socioeconomic status. About one-third of the children with a reported illness did not receive any care outside the home. Of those for whom outside care was sought, 42% were taken to a village doctor. Only 8% were taken to an appropriate provider, i.e. a health facility, a hospital, a doctor, a paramedic, or a community-based health worker. Poorer children than less-poor children were less likely to be taken to an appropriate healthcare provider. The findings indicated that children with severe illness in the least poor households were three times more likely to seek care from a trained provider than children in the poorest households. Any evidence of gender inequities in child healthcare, either in terms

  2. Uav Surveying for a Complete Mapping and Documentation of Archaeological Findings. The Early Neolithic Site of Portonovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinverni, E. S.; Conati Barbaro, C.; Pierdicca, R.; Bozzi, C. A.; Tassetti, A. N.

    2016-06-01

    The huge potential of 3D digital acquisition techniques for the documentation of archaeological sites, as well as the related findings, is almost well established. In spite of the variety of available techniques, a sole documentation pipeline cannot be defined a priori because of the diversity of archaeological settings. Stratigraphic archaeological excavations, for example, require a systematic, quick and low cost 3D single-surface documentation because the nature of stratigraphic archaeology compels providing documentary evidence of any excavation phase. Only within a destructive process each single excavation cannot be identified, documented and interpreted and this implies the necessity of a re- examination of the work on field. In this context, this paper describes the methodology, carried out during the last years, to 3D document the Early Neolithic site of Portonovo (Ancona, Italy) and, in particular, its latest step consisting in a photogrammetric aerial survey by means of UAV platform. It completes the previous research delivered in the same site by means of terrestrial laser scanning and close range techniques and sets out different options for further reflection in terms of site coverage, resolution and campaign cost. With the support of a topographic network and a unique reference system, the full documentation of the site is managed in order to detail each excavation phase; besides, the final output proves how the 3D digital methodology can be completely integrated with reasonable costs during the excavation and used to interpret the archaeological context. Further contribution of this work is the comparison between several acquisition techniques (i.e. terrestrial and aerial), which could be useful as decision support system for different archaeological scenarios. The main objectives of the comparison are: i) the evaluation of 3D mapping accuracy from different data sources, ii) the definition of a standard pipeline for different archaeological needs

  3. Sarcopenia exacerbates obesity-associated insulin resistance and dysglycemia: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Srikanthan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia often co-exists with obesity, and may have additive effects on insulin resistance. Sarcopenic obese individuals could be at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We performed a study to determine whether sarcopenia is associated with impairment in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in obese and non-obese individuals. METHODOLOGY: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III data utilizing subjects of 20 years or older, non-pregnant (N = 14,528. Sarcopenia was identified from bioelectrical impedance measurement of muscle mass. Obesity was identified from body mass index. Outcomes were homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR, glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1C, and prevalence of pre-diabetes (6.0≤ HbA1C<6.5 and not on medication and type 2 diabetes. Covariates in multiple regression were age, educational level, ethnicity and sex. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sarcopenia was associated with insulin resistance in non-obese (HOMA IR ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.26 to 1.52 and obese individuals (HOMA-IR ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.18. Sarcopenia was associated with dysglycemia in obese individuals (HbA1C ratio 1.021, 95% CI 1.011 to 1.043 but not in non-obese individuals. Associations were stronger in those under 60 years of age. We acknowledge that the cross-sectional study design limits our ability to draw causal inferences. CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia, independent of obesity, is associated with adverse glucose metabolism, and the association is strongest in individuals under 60 years of age, which suggests that low muscle mass may be an early predictor of diabetes susceptibility. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, further research is urgently needed to develop interventions to prevent sarcopenic obesity and its metabolic consequences.

  4. Children at Risk for Suicide Attempt and Attempt-related Injuries: Findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

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    West, Bethany A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts, and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors that are associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. Methods: Data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9-12 were used to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Results: Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys. Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89. Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48, dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60, forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72, and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66, forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60, huffing glue (OR=1.63, hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18, and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in terms of the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide prevention strategies that are directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention

  5. Methodology and early findings of the fifth survey of childhood and adolescence surveillance and prevention of adult noncommunicable disease: The caspian-v study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the methodology and early findings of the fifth survey of a school-based surveillance program in Iran. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2015 as the fifth survey of a surveillance program entitled "Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and PreventIon of Adult Non- communicable disease" (CASPIAN-V study. The protocol was mainly based on the World Health Organization-Global School student Health Survey. We studied 14400 students, aged 7-18 years, and their parents living in 30 provinces in Iran. Fasting blood was obtained from a sub-sample of 4200 randomly selected students. Results: The participation rate for the whole study and for blood sampling were 99% and 91.5%, respectively. The mean (SD age of participants was 12.3 (3.2 years, consisting of 49.4% girls and 71.4% urban residents. Overall, 16.1% were underweight (17.4% of boys and 14.8% of girls, and 20.8% had excess weight consisting of 9.4% (8.7% of boys and 10.2% of girls of overweight and 11.4% (12.5% of boys and 10.3% of girls of obesity. Abdominal obesity was documented in 21.1% of students (21.6% of boys and 20.5% of girls. Low HDL-C was the most prevalent abnormality of the lipid profile (29.5% followed by high serum triglycerides (27.7%. Of students, 59.9% consumed whole wheat bread; and 57% reported that they never or rarely added salt to table. The reported daily consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, and milk was about 60%, 32% and 40%, respectively. 13.7% of participants had at least 30-min daily leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions: The current findings provide an overview of the current health status and lifestyle habits of children and adolescents. This surveillance program would help planning preventive programs at individual and community levels.

  6. Methodology and Early Findings of the Fifth Survey of Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Noncommunicable Disease: The CASPIAN-V Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ziaodini, Hasan; Qorbani, Mostafa; Taheri, Majzoubeh; Aminaei, Tahereh; Goodarzi, Azam; Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Ahadi, Zeinab; Shafiee, Gita; Shahsavari, Ali; Heshmat, Ramin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Background: This paper presents the methodology and early findings of the fifth survey of a school-based surveillance program in Iran. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2015 as the fifth survey of a surveillance program entitled “Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and PreventIon of Adult Non- communicable disease” (CASPIAN-V) study. The protocol was mainly based on the World Health Organization-Global School student Health Survey. We studied 14400 students, aged 7-18 years, and their parents living in 30 provinces in Iran. Fasting blood was obtained from a sub-sample of 4200 randomly selected students. Results: The participation rate for the whole study and for blood sampling were 99% and 91.5%, respectively. The mean (SD) age of participants was 12.3 (3.2) years, consisting of 49.4% girls and 71.4% urban residents. Overall, 16.1% were underweight (17.4% of boys and 14.8% of girls), and 20.8% had excess weight consisting of 9.4% (8.7% of boys and 10.2% of girls) of overweight and 11.4% (12.5% of boys and 10.3% of girls) of obesity. Abdominal obesity was documented in 21.1% of students (21.6% of boys and 20.5% of girls). Low HDL-C was the most prevalent abnormality of the lipid profile (29.5%) followed by high serum triglycerides (27.7%). Of students, 59.9% consumed whole wheat bread; and 57% reported that they never or rarely added salt to table. The reported daily consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, and milk was about 60%, 32% and 40%, respectively. 13.7% of participants had at least 30-min daily leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions: The current findings provide an overview of the current health status and lifestyle habits of children and adolescents. This surveillance program would help planning preventive programs at individual and community levels. PMID:28217266

  7. Sex Education, First Sex and Sexual Health Outcomes in Adulthood: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sexual Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Ashling; Boduszek, Daniel; Kelleher, Caroline; McBride, Orla; Morgan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between school sex education and sexual health behaviours at first sex and later in adulthood, using nationally representative data. Respondents were adults from the 2010 Irish Contraception and Crisis Pregnancy Survey, a cross-sectional survey designed to assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating…

  8. Sex Education, First Sex and Sexual Health Outcomes in Adulthood: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sexual Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Ashling; Boduszek, Daniel; Kelleher, Caroline; McBride, Orla; Morgan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between school sex education and sexual health behaviours at first sex and later in adulthood, using nationally representative data. Respondents were adults from the 2010 Irish Contraception and Crisis Pregnancy Survey, a cross-sectional survey designed to assess knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating…

  9. What Puts Women at Risk of Violence from Their Husbands? Findings from a Large, Nationally Representative Survey in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel-Kaptanoglu, Ilknur; Turkyilmaz, Ahmet Sinan; Heise, Lori

    2012-01-01

    A large, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Turkey in 2008. In this survey, which used the WHO (World Health Organization) study module on violence, information about lifetime and current violence (past 12 months) was obtained using weighted, stratified, and multistage cluster sampling. This article describes…

  10. U. S. Intel[R] Teach to the Future Essentials Course: 2006 End of School Year Survey. Key Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This document presents highlights from the U.S. Intel Teach to the Future Essentials 2006 End of School Year Survey, which was administered via the web in April of 2006 to Master and Participant Teachers identified in the database as having completed the training between October 2004 and September 2005. This survey included the International…

  11. Can We Trust Our Finds Distribution Maps? : Anchoring Field Survey Data by Field Experiments in the Raganello Basin (Calabria, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leusen, Martijn; Witmer, Evelien

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological field surveys, especially of the ‚non-site’ or ‚off-site’ kind, aim to produce a detailed, fair and complete record of the archaeological remains detectable on the land surface. However, all practicing survey archaeologists agree that many factors conspire to reduce the representativi

  12. Operationalising caseload midwifery in the Australian public maternity system: Findings from a national cross-sectional survey of maternity managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Kate; Forster, Della A; McLachlan, Helen L; Newton, Michelle S

    2017-09-27

    Despite high-level evidence of the benefits of caseload midwifery for women and babies, little is known about specific practice arrangements, organisational barriers and facilitators, nor about workforce requirements of caseload. This paper explores how caseload models across Australia operate. A national cross-sectional, online survey of maternity managers in public maternity hospitals with birthing services was undertaken. Only services with a caseload model are included in the analysis. Of 253 eligible hospitals, 149 (63%) responded, of whom 44 (31%) had a caseload model. Operationalisation of caseload varied across the country. Most commonly, caseload midwives were required to work more than 0.5 EFT, have more than one year of experience and have the skills across the whole scope of practice. On average, midwives took a caseload of 35-40 women when full time, with reduced caseloads if caring for women at higher risk. Leave coverage was complex and often ad-hoc. Duration of home-based postnatal care varied and most commonly provided to six weeks. Women's access to caseload care was impacted by many factors with geographical location and obstetric risk being most common. Introducing, managing and operationalising caseload midwifery care is complex. Factors which may affect the expansion and availability of the model are multi-faceted and include staffing and model inclusion guidelines. Coverage of leave is a factor which appears particularly challenging and needs more focus. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Toothbrushing, Blood Glucose and HbA1c: Findings from a Random Survey in Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lingyu; Liu, Wenzhao; Xie, Bingwu; Dou, Lei; Sun, Jun; Wan, Wenjuan; Fu, Xiaoming; Li, Guangyue; Huang, Jiao; Xu, Ling

    2016-07-07

    Both diabetes and periodontal disease are prevalent in China. Poor oral hygiene practice is the major cause of periodontal disease. An association between oral hygiene practice and blood glucose level was reported in individuals with diabetes, but not in the general population. We examined the association in a population-based random survey recruiting 2,105 adults without previously diagnosed diabetes in Chongqing city, China. Plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured, and a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was conducted for each respondent. Self-reported toothbrushing frequency was used as a proxy for oral hygiene practice. In a linear model controlling for potential confounders (demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, lifestyle risk factors, BMI, dental visit frequency, etc.), urban residents who barely brushed their teeth had an increase of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.10-0.90) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose, and an increase of 0.26% (0.04-0.47%) in HbA1c, relative to those brushing ≥twice daily; for rural residents, the effects were 0.26 (0.05-0.48) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose and 0.20% (0.09-0.31%) in HbA1c. Individuals with better oral practice tended to have lower level of blood glucose and HbA1c. Establishing good oral health behavioral habits may be conducive to diabetes prevention and control in the general population.

  14. Fact-finding Survey of Nosocomial Infection Control in Hospitals in Kathmandu, Nepal-A Basis for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Hiroshi; Pokhrel, Bharat M; Dahal, Rajan K; Mishra, Shyam K; Kattel, Hari P; Shrestha, Dharma L; Haneishi, Yumiko; Sherchand, Jeevan B

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the actual conditions of nosocomial infection control in Kathmandu City, Nepal as a basis for the possible contribution to its improvement. The survey was conducted at 17 hospitals and the methods included a questionnaire, site visits and interviews. Nine hospitals had manuals on nosocomial infection control, and seven had an infection control committee (ICC). The number of hospitals that met the required amount of personal protective equipment preparation was as follows: gowns (13), gloves (13), surgical masks (12). Six hospitals had carried out in-service training over the past one year, but seven hospitals responded that no staff had been trained. Eight hospitals were conducting surveillance based on the results of bacteriological testing. The major problems included inadequate management of ICC, insufficient training opportunities for hospital staff, and lack of essential equipment. Moreover, increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics was recognized as a growing issue. In comparison with the results conducted in 2003 targeting five governmental hospitals, a steady improvement was observed, but further improvements are needed in terms of the provision of high quality medical care. Particularly, dissemination of appropriate manuals, enhancement of basic techniques, and strengthening of the infection control system should be given priority.

  15. Women's autonomy in negotiating safer sex to prevent HIV: findings from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteraya, Madhu Sudhan; Kimm, Heejin; Song, In Han

    2014-02-01

    Women with greater autonomy have higher HIV-related knowledge and condom use. Inability to negotiate safer sex in high-risk situations might increase HIV infection. This study examined the relationship between women's autonomy and ability to negotiate safer sex practices among married women. The 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey data were used. The data were collected by two-stage stratified cluster sampling and face-to-face interviews. Autonomy was measured in Decision-Making Participation and Assets Ownership, while ability to negotiate safer sex consists of Refusal of Sex and Ask for Condom Use. Among 12,674 women of 15-49 years, married women were analyzed (n = 8,896). Women with greater autonomy in decision-making participation were more likely to negotiate safer sex. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, odds ratios (OR) for refusal of sex was 2.70 (95% CI [2.14, 3.40]) in women with the highest decision-making participation. These women showed higher OR for 'ask for condom use' in high risk situations (2.10, 95% CI [1.81, 2.44]). Assets ownership also demonstrated a positive statistical relationship with asking for a condom use (OR 1.31, 95% CI [1.10, 1.56]). The results point to the importance of women's autonomy on sexual health. It emphasizes women's empowerment-based approach to curbing HIV/AIDS in developing countries.

  16. Follow-up of breast cancer patients: Preliminary findings from nurse-patient consultations and patient surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyez Jiwa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND:Although clinicians in both primary and tertiary care settings are involved in the care of breast cancer patientsfollowing the active treatment phase, few studies report how patients interact with health care providers.METHODS:Participants in this breast cancer follow-up study were recruited from a hospital based nurse-led follow-upclinic in Western Australia. Methods included audio taped, transcribed consultations with Specialist BreastNurses (SBNs and patient self-completed surveys.RESULTS:Preliminary data suggest that SBNs play an important role in supporting women to deal with the impact ofbreast cancer in the years following active treatment. The data suggest that the process of adjustment to adiagnosis of cancer continues for many years after the treatment has ceased. In many cases the women requireon-going support to recalibrate their response to normal physical changes that may or may not be aconsequence of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.CONCLUSIONS:These preliminary data map the plethora of issues that influence cancer patients in the years followingtreatment. Women who were attending follow-up appointments for breast cancer experienced similar levels ofenablement following SBN consultations as would be expected from consultations with general practitioners.

  17. Same-sex legal marriage and psychological well-being: findings from the California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Richard G; Leblanc, Allen J; Lee Badgett, M V

    2013-02-01

    We examined whether same-sex marriage was associated with nonspecific psychological distress among self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults, and whether it had the potential to offset mental health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals. Population-based data (weighted) were from the 2009 adult (aged 18-70 years) California Health Interview Survey. Within-group analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons included 1166 individuals (weighted proportion = 3.15%); within-group heterosexual analysis included 35 608 individuals (weighted proportion = 96.58%); and pooled analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals included 36 774 individuals. Same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons were significantly less distressed than lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons not in a legally recognized relationship; married heterosexuals were significantly less distressed than nonmarried heterosexuals. In adjusted pairwise comparisons, married heterosexuals had the lowest psychological distress, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons who were not in legalized relationships had the highest psychological distress (P gay, and bisexual persons, lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons in registered domestic partnerships, and heterosexuals. Being in a legally recognized same-sex relationship, marriage in particular, appeared to diminish mental health differentials between heterosexuals and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. Researchers must continue to examine potential health benefits of same-sex marriage, which is at least in part a public health issue.

  18. Differential responsiveness to cigarette price by education and income among adult urban Chinese smokers: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of tobacco tax and price policies in China. In addition, very little is known about the differential responses to tax and price increases based on socioeconomic status in China. To estimate the conditional cigarette consumption price elasticity among adult urban smokers in China and to examine the differential responses to cigarette price increases among groups with different income and/or educational levels. Multivariate analyses employing the general estimating equations method were conducted using the first three waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey. Analyses based on subsample by education and income were conducted. Conditional cigarette demand price elasticity ranges from -0.12 to -0.14. No differential responses to cigarette price increase were found across education levels. The price elasticity estimates do not differ between high-income smokers and medium-income smokers. Cigarette consumption among low-income smokers did not decrease after a price increase, at least among those who continued to smoke. Relative to other low-income and middle-income countries, cigarette consumption among Chinese adult smokers is not very sensitive to changes in cigarette prices. The total impact of cigarette price increase would be larger if its impact on smoking initiation and cessation, as well as the price-reducing behaviours such as brand switching and trading down, were taken into account. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Biomimetics for NASA Langley Research Center: Year 2000 Report of Findings From a Six-Month Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siochi, Emilie J.; Anders, John B., Jr.; Cox, David E.; Jegley, Dawn C.; Fox, Robert L.; Katzberg, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    This report represents an attempt to see if some of the techniques biological systems use to maximize their efficiency can be applied to the problems NASA faces in aeronautics and space exploration. It includes an internal survey of resources available at NASA Langley Research Center for biomimetics research efforts, an external survey of state of the art in biomimetics covering the Materials, Structures, Aerodynamics, Guidance and Controls areas. The Biomimetics Planning team also included ideas for potential research areas, as well as recommendations on how to implement this new program. This six-month survey was conducted in the second half of 1999.

  20. Examining characteristics and associated distress related to Internet harassment: findings from the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David

    2006-10-01

    We sought to identify the characteristics of youth who are targets of Internet harassment and characteristics related to reporting distress as a result of the incident. The Second Youth Internet Safety Survey is a national telephone survey of a random sample of 1500 Internet users between the ages of 10 and 17 years conducted between March and June 2005. Participants had used the Internet at least once a month for the previous 6 months. Nine percent of the youth who used the Internet were targets of online harassment in the previous year. Thirty-two percent of the targets reported chronic harassment (ie, harassment > or = 3 times in the previous year). In specific incidents, almost half (45%) knew the harasser in person before the incident. Half of the harassers (50%) were reportedly male, and half (51%) were adolescents. One in 4 targets reported an aggressive offline contact (eg, the harasser telephoned, came to the youth's home, or sent gifts); 2 in 3 disclosed the incident to another person. Among otherwise similar youth, the odds of being a target of Internet harassment were higher for those youth who harassed others online, reported borderline/clinically significant social problems, and were victimized in other contexts. Likewise, using the Internet for instant messaging, blogging, and chat room use each elevated the odds of being a target of Internet harassment versus those who did not engage in these online activities. All other demographic, Internet-use, and psychosocial characteristics were not related to reports of online harassment. Thirty-eight percent of the harassed youth reported distress as a result of the incident. Those who were targeted by adults, asked to send a picture of themselves, received an aggressive offline contact (eg, the harasser telephoned or came to the youth's home), and were preadolescents were each significantly more likely to report distress because of the experience. Conversely, the youth who visited chat rooms were

  1. Childhood institutional care and personality disorder traits in adulthood: findings from the British national surveys of psychiatric morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Ullrich, Simone; Roberts, Amanda; Coid, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Long-term institutional care in childhood is linked with behavioral and emotional problems and can negatively affect personality development. This study tested the hypotheses that institutional care constitutes a risk factor for adult personality psychopathology and that conduct disorder acts as a mediator to the institutional care effects, based on 544 community individuals and 470 prisoners aged 18-64 years. Childhood institutional care was associated with elevated dependent, histrionic, and narcissistic traits in the community sample and with schizoid traits in prisoners. Initial findings of associations of institutional care with cluster B personality traits in the two populations disappeared after adjusting for conduct disorder symptoms. Identification and treatment of conduct/behavior problems in children before or during care may help to reduce the risk of developing certain personality disorder traits.

  2. 1946 Dominican Republic Tsunami: Field Survey based on Eyewitness Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Martinez, Claudio; Salado, Juan; Rivera, Wagner; Duarte, Leoncio

    2017-04-01

    On 4 August 1946 an Mw 8.1 earthquake struck off the north-eastern shore of Hispaniola Island resulting in a destructive tsunami with order one hundred fatalities in the Dominican Republic and observed runup in Puerto Rico. In the far field, tsunami waves were recorded on some tide gauges on the Atlantic coast of the United States of America. The earthquake devastated the Dominican Republic, extended into Haiti, and shook many other islands. This was one of the strongest earthquakes reported in the Caribbean since colonial times. The immediate earthquake reconnaissance surveys focused on earthquake damage and were conducted in September 1946 (Lynch and Bodle, 1948; Small, 1948). The 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami eyewitness based field survey took place in three phases from 18 to 21 March 2014, 1 to 3 September 2014 and 9 to 11 May 2016. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) covered more than 400 km of coastline along the northern Dominican Republic from the eastern most tip at Punta Cana to La Isabela some 70 km from the border with Haiti. The survey team documented tsunami runup, flow depth, inundation distances, sea-level drawdown, coastal erosion and co-seismic land level changes based on eyewitnesses interviewed on site using established protocols. The early afternoon earthquake resulted in detailed survival stories with excellent eyewitness observations recounted almost 70 years later with lucidity. The Dominican Republic survey data includes 29 runup and tsunami height measurements at 21 locations. The tsunami impacts peaked with maximum tsunami heights exceeding 5 m at a cluster of locations between Cabrera and El Limon. A maximum tsunami height of 8 m likely associated with splash up was measured in Playa Boca Nueva. Tsunami inundation distances of 600 m or more were measured at Las Terrenas and Playa Rincon on the Samana Peninsula. Some locations were surveyed twice in 2014 and 2016, which allowed to identify current coastal erosion rates. Field

  3. Do self-assessed oral health and treatment need associate with clinical findings? Results from the Finnish Nationwide Health 2000 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseveenjav, Battsetseg; Suominen, Anna L; Varsio, Sinikka; Knuuttila, Matti; Vehkalahti, Miira M

    2014-11-01

    To associate self-assessed oral health and treatment need with clinically determined findings. As part of the Finnish nationwide comprehensive Health 2000 Survey, the present cross-sectional study included dentate participants aged 30-64 years who self-assessed their oral health and treatment need in an interview and who underwent a clinical oral health examination (n = 4385). Self-assessed oral health and treatment need were used as subjective indicators. Clinically determined dental and periodontal status described objective dental and periodontal health and treatment need. The evaluation of relationships between subjective and objective findings was based on two-by-two tables and multivariate analyses. The better the self-assessed oral health, the better the objective dental and periodontal health. Those reporting need for treatment more often had the objective need in terms of dental or periodontal treatment, also when controlling for background factors. Of the subjective indicators, good self-assessed oral health best reflected the absence of clinically determined dental or periodontal treatment need. Those who reported a need for treatment were mainly adults with an objective dental and periodontal treatment need. Self-assessed good oral health is a fairly good estimate for the absence of clinically determined dental and periodontal treatment need. As implication for practice, self-assessed data could be used for screening purposes for oral health service planning and for priority allocation in large adult populations.

  4. A Review of the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies--Based on the Findings of OECD's First Survey of Adult Skills%国际成人能力评估项目的述评*--基于OECD首次成人技能调查结果的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盛聪; 余婧; 饶雨

    2014-01-01

    PIAAC is firstly carried out as a form of large-scale survey of adult skills in 24 countries and sub-national regions in 2013. The purpose of PIAAC is to know the status of adult skills in many countries, the influence between those skills, the utilization of these skills in the daily life and the relationships of the adult skills with the economy, the labor market and the society. It aims to provide reference for countries to formulate policy about education and economy. The survey setting the global economy as the background, with information and communication technology as the main line, comes up with the key information processing skills including literacy skills, numeracy skills, problem solving skills, and in various"generic"skills, such as co-operation skills, planning work and use of time for oneself and etc. It investigates the present situation and the distribution of these capabilities, and the application of adult skills in work. From the demographic perspective, it studies the relationship between the education level, gender, immigration and the adult skills, and inquires into the relationship between adult skills and social problems. PIAAC provides not only a large, detailed survey and analysis for us, but also the scientific research scale of adult skills for international adult education, which is the milepost of international adult skills study.%国际成人能力评估项目(PIAAC)是世界经济合作与发展组织(OECD)2013年第一次在24个国家和地区开展的针对成人能力问题而进行的较大规模调查。其目的是了解当今各国成人能力(技能)的现状,成人能力之间的相互影响;工作、生活中成人能力的运用情况以及成人能力与经济、劳动力市场和社会的关系,从而为各国制定教育及经济政策提供依据。这项调查以经济全球化为背景,以信息通信技术为主线,提出了成人关键信息处理能力,即读写能力、计算能力、

  5. [Marriage and fertility in present-day Japan: major findings of the Ninth Japanese National Fertility Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoh, M; Nakano, E; Otani, K; Kaneko, R

    1988-07-01

    Results of a major fertility survey conducted in Japan in June 1987 are presented, including data on age at first marriage, mate selection, arranged marriages, family types, wife's employment, fertility, birth timing, contraception, and abortion. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  6. Assessing the National School Social Work Practice Model: Findings from the Second National School Social Work Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael S; Frey, Andy; Thompson, Aaron; Klemp, Heather; Alvarez, Michelle; Berzin, Stephanie Cosner

    2016-01-01

    The Second National School Social Work Survey in 2014 aimed to update knowledge of school social work practice by examining how practitioner characteristics, practice context, and practice choices have evolved since the last national survey in 2008. This second survey was also developed to assess how the new national school social work practice model created by the School Social Work Association of America aligns with early 21st century school social work practice realities. The second survey was conducted from February through April 2014 (3,769 total responses were collected) and represents the largest sample of American school social workers surveyed in two decades. Data from the Second National School Social Work Survey showed a field that still has not fully responded to calls to implement evidence-informed and data-driven practices. This article notes the need to better integrate pre- and postservice training in data-driven practices and provides recommendations for ways to overcome barriers that school social workers report facing.

  7. Do parents talk to their adolescent children about sex?--findings from a community survey in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun; Wong, Mee Lian; Prema, V; Wong, Mun Loke; Fong, Ngan Phoon; Tsai, Fen Fang; Vijaya, K

    2012-06-01

    Sexually transmitted infections have increased sharply among adolescents both locally and internationally in recent years. Parents play an important role in their children's sexual health development. An integral part of this includes effective parent-child sexuality communication. A nationwide cross-sectional community-based household survey was conducted in Singapore between August 2008 and March 2009 to assess parents'/caregivers' attitudes and practices regarding caregiver-child sexuality communication. With an overall response rate of 81.4%, 1169 questionnaires from parents/caregivers of children aged 10 to 17 years were analysed. Almost all (94.2%) the caregivers were parents. A majority (>80%) of caregivers considered talking to their children about sexuality issues such as abstinence, consequences of premarital sex and condom use as important. However, a significantly lower percentage (about 60%) felt comfortable and confident doing so. Only 8.3% among them discussed sexual health issues with their children very often, 37.2% sometimes, 22.0% seldom/hardly ever (once or twice) and 32.5% never, in the past year. In the multivariate analysis, caregiver-child sexuality communication was significantly associated with caregivers' relationship to children, ethnicity, educational level, and their perceived levels of comfort and confidence in sexuality communication. Caregivers generally felt it was important but were significantly much less comfortable and confident talking about sexuality issues with their children, which leads to a lower frequency of caregiver-child sexuality communication. Educational programmes on adolescent sexual health targeting parents/caregivers are needed. They must be equipped with skills and provided with resources to enable them to talk to their adolescent children about sexuality.

  8. Lifetime Abortion of Female Sex Workers in Iran: Findings of a National Bio-Behavioural Survey In 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Khajehkazemi, Razieh; Sedaghat, Abbas; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Sharifi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Unintended pregnancies and abortion may be considered as occupational hazards for female sex workers (FSWs). As our understanding of contraceptive and abortion practices of Iranian FSWs is very limited, this study tries to assess the dynamics of contraception and abortion among this sub-population. This survey was conducted in 2010, by recruiting 872 FSWs through facility-based sampling from 21 sites in 14 cities in Iran. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a pilot-tested standardized risk assessment questionnaire. We applied the logistic regression model to investigate the correlates of induced abortion among FSWs. Of the 863 participants with valid responses to the abortion variable, 35.3% (95% CI: 32.1-38.6) acknowledged ever induced abortion and the annual rate of abortion was estimated at 20.7 per 1000 women. Around 31.2% of FSWs reported no usual contraceptive use, 32.6% barrier method, 23.6% non-barrier modern contraception methods, and 12.5% dual protection. In our multivariable model, older age (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.74, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.02, 2.96), group sex (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.35), history of travel for sex work (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.20), sexual violence (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.25, 2.50), STIs in last year (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.14), and accessing family planning services (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.49) were significant predictors of lifetime abortion. The reproductive health needs of Iranian FSWs are unmet and around one-third of FSWs reported induced abortion. Scaling-up comprehensive family planning services and empowering FSWs to have safer sex practices may help them to prevent unintended pregnancies and further risk of HIV transmission.

  9. A Transdisciplinary Approach to Training: Preliminary Research Findings Based on a Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimpitsos, Christos; Petridou, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the benefits, barriers and challenges of the transdisciplinary approach to training, and to present findings of a case analysis. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on the research findings of an experimental training program for Greek local government managers co-funded by the European…

  10. Avian survey and field guide for Osan Air Base, Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levenson, J.

    2006-12-05

    This report summarizes the results of the avian surveys conducted at Osan Air Base (AB). This ongoing survey is conducted to comply with requirements of the Environmental Governing Standards (EGS) for the Republic of Korea, the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) for Osan AB, and the 51st Fighter Wing's Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Plan. One hundred ten bird species representing 35 families were identified and recorded. Seven species are designated as Natural Monuments, and their protection is accorded by the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Three species appear on the Korean Association for Conservation of Nature's (KACN's) list of Reserved Wild Species and are protected by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Combined, ten different species are Republic of Korea (ROK)-protected. The primary objective of the avian survey at Osan AB was to determine what species of birds are present on the airfield and their respective habitat requirements during the critical seasons of the year. This requirement is specified in Annex J.14.c of the 51st Fighter BASH Plan 91-212 (51 FW OPLAN 91-212). The second objective was to initiate surveys to determine what bird species are present on Osan AB throughout the year and from the survey results, determine if threatened, endangered, or other Korean-listed bird species are present on Osan AB. This overall census satisfies Criterion 13-3.e of the EGS for Korea. The final objective was to formulate management strategies within Osan AB's operational requirements to protect and enhance habitats of known threatened, endangered, and ROK-protected species in accordance with EGS Criterion 13-3.a that are also favorable for the reproduction of indigenous species in accordance with the EGS Criterion 13-3.h.

  11. A survey tool for measuring evidence-based decision making capacity in public health agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Julie A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While increasing attention is placed on using evidence-based decision making (EBDM to improve public health, there is little research assessing the current EBDM capacity of the public health workforce. Public health agencies serve a wide range of populations with varying levels of resources. Our survey tool allows an individual agency to collect data that reflects its unique workforce. Methods Health department leaders and academic researchers collaboratively developed and conducted cross-sectional surveys in Kansas and Mississippi (USA to assess EBDM capacity. Surveys were delivered to state- and local-level practitioners and community partners working in chronic disease control and prevention. The core component of the surveys was adopted from a previously tested instrument and measured gaps (importance versus availability in competencies for EBDM in chronic disease. Other survey questions addressed expectations and incentives for using EBDM, self-efficacy in three EBDM skills, and estimates of EBDM within the agency. Results In both states, participants identified communication with policymakers, use of economic evaluation, and translation of research to practice as top competency gaps. Self-efficacy in developing evidence-based chronic disease control programs was lower than in finding or using data. Public health practitioners estimated that approximately two-thirds of programs in their agency were evidence-based. Mississippi participants indicated that health department leaders' expectations for the use of EBDM was approximately twice that of co-workers' expectations and that the use of EBDM could be increased with training and leadership prioritization. Conclusions The assessment of EBDM capacity in Kansas and Mississippi built upon previous nationwide findings to identify top gaps in core competencies for EBDM in chronic disease and to estimate a percentage of programs in U.S. health departments that are evidence-based

  12. Does Pre-Survey Training Impact Knowledge of Survey Administrators and Survey Outcomes in Developing Countries? Evaluation Findings of a Training of Trainers Workshop for National AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey-Plus in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Kolawole Oyedeji PhD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although, Nigeria had conducted various national surveys followed by central and state level trainings for survey administrators, prior pre-survey trainings have not been systematically evaluated to assess their impact on knowledge gain and final outcome of the survey. A central training of trainers’ session was organized for master trainers on the conduct of the 2012 National AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of training on the quality of conduct of a national research survey in the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory in Nigeria. Method: A total of 185 participants consisting of State AIDS Program Coordinators, Reproductive Health Coordinators, State Laboratory Scientists, Lead Supervisors and Counselor Testers were invited from the 36 states in Nigeria and the FCT for the central training of trainers in Abuja. The training lasted 5 days and the trainees were grouped into two on the basis of behavioral epidemiology and laboratory components. Training tools such as the developed protocol, training power point slides, practical sessions such as role plays, and usage of HIV rapid test kits were utilized during the training. The facilitators were drawn from Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH, universities and research Institutions as well as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs. The facilitators prepared and administered 25 structured questions for the behavioral group and 28 questions for the laboratory group at the beginning of the training to assess the participants’ knowledge of HIV and the survey. The same questions answered by Trainees responded to the same questions prior to the commencement and at the end of the trainings. Scores were aggregated to 100 for each test. We conducted paired t-test to determine statistically significant differences between pre-test and post-test results at 0.05 significance level and ANOVA to determine if there were differences in knowledge level among

  13. A survey of GPU-based medical image computing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Heye; Xie, Yongming; Wang, Defeng

    2012-09-01

    Medical imaging currently plays a crucial role throughout the entire clinical applications from medical scientific research to diagnostics and treatment planning. However, medical imaging procedures are often computationally demanding due to the large three-dimensional (3D) medical datasets to process in practical clinical applications. With the rapidly enhancing performances of graphics processors, improved programming support, and excellent price-to-performance ratio, the graphics processing unit (GPU) has emerged as a competitive parallel computing platform for computationally expensive and demanding tasks in a wide range of medical image applications. The major purpose of this survey is to provide a comprehensive reference source for the starters or researchers involved in GPU-based medical image processing. Within this survey, the continuous advancement of GPU computing is reviewed and the existing traditional applications in three areas of medical image processing, namely, segmentation, registration and visualization, are surveyed. The potential advantages and associated challenges of current GPU-based medical imaging are also discussed to inspire future applications in medicine.

  14. Road Rage: Prevalence Pattern and Web Based Survey Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaily Mina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Incidents of road rage are on a rise in India, but the literature is lacking in the aspect. There is an increasing realization of possibility of effective web based interventions to deliver public health related messages. Objective. The aim was to quantitatively evaluate risk factors among motor vehicle drivers using an internet based survey. Methods. Facebook users were evaluated using Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R and Driving Anger Scale (DAS. Results. An adequate response rate of 65.9% and satisfactory reliability with sizable correlation were obtained for both scales. Age was found to be positively correlated to LOT-R scores (r=0.21; P=0.02 and negatively correlated to DAS scores (r=-0.19; P=0.03. Years of education were correlated to LOT-R scores (r=0.26; P=0.005 but not DAS scores (r=-0.14; P=0.11. LOT-R scores did not correlate to DAS scores. Conclusion. There is high prevalence of anger amongst drivers in India particularly among younger males. A short web survey formatted in easy to use question language can result in a feasible conduction of an online survey.

  15. Individual and district-level predictors of alcohol use: cross sectional findings from a rural mental health survey in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inder Kerry J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive alcohol use is a significant problem in rural and remote Australia. The factors contributing to patterns of alcohol use have not been adequately explained, yet the geographic variation in rates suggests a potential contribution of district-level factors, such as socio-economic disadvantage, rates of population change, environmental adversity, and remoteness from services/population centres. This paper aims to investigate individual-level and district-level predictors of alcohol use in a sample of rural adults. Methods Using baseline survey data (N = 1,981 from the population-based Australian Rural Mental Health Study of community dwelling residents randomly selected from the Australia electoral roll, hierarchal logistic regression models were fitted for three outcomes: 1 at-risk alcohol use, indicated by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores ≥8; 2 high alcohol consumption (> 40 drinks per month; and 3 lifetime consequences of alcohol use. Predictor variables included demographic factors, pre-dispositional factors, recent difficulties and support, mental health, rural exposure and district-level contextual factors. Results Gender, age, marital status, and personality made the largest contribution to at-risk alcohol use. Five or more adverse life events in the past 12 months were also independently associated with at-risk alcohol use (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 3.3, 99%CI 1.2, 8.9. When these individual-level factors were controlled for, at-risk alcohol use was associated with having spent a lower proportion of time living in a rural district (AOR 1.7, 99%CI 1.3, 2.9. Higher alcohol consumption per month was associated with higher district-level socio-economic ranking, indicating less disadvantage (AOR 1.2, 99%CI 1.02, 1.4. Rural exposure and district-level contextual factors were not significantly associated with lifetime consequences of alcohol use. Conclusions Although recent attention has been

  16. Fault Based Techniques for Testing Boolean Expressions: A Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Badhera, Usha; Taruna, S

    2012-01-01

    Boolean expressions are major focus of specifications and they are very much prone to introduction of faults, this survey presents various fault based testing techniques. It identifies that the techniques differ in their fault detection capabilities and generation of test suite. The various techniques like Cause effect graph, meaningful impact strategy, Branch Operator Strategy (BOR), BOR+MI, MUMCUT, Modified Condition/ Decision Coverage (MCDC) has been considered. This survey describes the basic algorithms and fault categories used by these strategies for evaluating their performance. Finally, it contains short summaries of the papers that use Boolean expressions used to specify the requirements for detecting faults. These techniques have been empirically evaluated by various researchers on a simplified safety related real time control system.

  17. What Americans think of the new insurance marketplaces and Medicaid expansion: findings from the Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Marketplace Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara R; Rasmussen, Petra W; Doty, Michelle M; Garber, Tracy

    2013-09-01

    The Affordable Care Act's health insurance marketplaces are opening for enrollment on October 1, 2013. The Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Marketplace Survey, 2013, finds that only two of five adults are aware of the marketplaces or of potential financial help that may be available to them to pay for plans purchased though the marketplaces. However, three of five adults who might be eligible for these new options said they were likely to take advantage of them. The survey also finds broad support for state expansion of the Medicaid program, even in states that have not yet decided to expand their programs. While outreach and education are critical to ensuring that those eligible for the new coverage options will enroll, the survey results suggest that eligible Americans will likely take advantage of the law's insurance reforms in the months and years to come.

  18. Reliability of a Retail Food Store Survey and Development of an Accompanying Retail Scoring System to Communicate Survey Findings and Identify Vendors for Healthful Food and Marketing Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Participants/Setting: Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Intervention: Observational. Main Outcome Measure(s): Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store…

  19. Rapid Mapping Method Based on Free Blocks of Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianwen; Wang, Huiqing; Wang, Jinling

    2016-06-01

    While producing large-scale larger than 1:2000 maps in cities or towns, the obstruction from buildings leads to difficult and heavy tasks of measuring mapping control points. In order to avoid measuring the mapping control points and shorten the time of fieldwork, in this paper, a quick mapping method is proposed. This method adjusts many free blocks of surveys together, and transforms the points from all free blocks of surveys into the same coordinate system. The entire surveying area is divided into many free blocks, and connection points are set on the boundaries between free blocks. An independent coordinate system of every free block is established via completely free station technology, and the coordinates of the connection points, detail points and control points in every free block in the corresponding independent coordinate systems are obtained based on poly-directional open traverses. Error equations are established based on connection points, which are determined together to obtain the transformation parameters. All points are transformed from the independent coordinate systems to a transitional coordinate system via the transformation parameters. Several control points are then measured by GPS in a geodetic coordinate system. All the points can then be transformed from the transitional coordinate system to the geodetic coordinate system. In this paper, the implementation process and mathematical formulas of the new method are presented in detail, and the formula to estimate the precision of surveys is given. An example has demonstrated that the precision of using the new method could meet large-scale mapping needs.

  20. A Survey of Artificial Immune System Based Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the area of computer security, Intrusion Detection (ID is a mechanism that attempts to discover abnormal access to computers by analyzing various interactions. There is a lot of literature about ID, but this study only surveys the approaches based on Artificial Immune System (AIS. The use of AIS in ID is an appealing concept in current techniques. This paper summarizes AIS based ID methods from a new view point; moreover, a framework is proposed for the design of AIS based ID Systems (IDSs. This framework is analyzed and discussed based on three core aspects: antibody/antigen encoding, generation algorithm, and evolution mode. Then we collate the commonly used algorithms, their implementation characteristics, and the development of IDSs into this framework. Finally, some of the future challenges in this area are also highlighted.

  1. Restorative treatment thresholds for interproximal primary caries based on radiographic images: findings from the Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordan, Valeria V; Garvan, Cynthia W; Heft, Marc W

    2009-01-01

    with restorative intervention in lesions that have penetrated only the enamel surface. This study surveyed dentists from the Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) who had reported doing at least some restorative dentistry (n = 901). Dentists were asked to indicate the depth at which they would restore...

  2. Vision-based traffic surveys in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zezhi; Ellis, Tim; Velastin, Sergio A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art, vision-based vehicle detection and type classification to perform traffic surveys from a roadside closed-circuit television camera. Vehicles are detected using background subtraction based on a Gaussian mixture model that can cope with vehicles that become stationary over a significant period of time. Vehicle silhouettes are described using a combination of shape and appearance features using an intensity-based pyramid histogram of orientation gradients (HOG). Classification is performed using a support vector machine, which is trained on a small set of hand-labeled silhouette exemplars. These exemplars are identified using a model-based preclassifier that utilizes calibrated images mapped by Google Earth to provide accurately surveyed scene geometry matched to visible image landmarks. Kalman filters track the vehicles to enable classification by majority voting over several consecutive frames. The system counts vehicles and separates them into four categories: car, van, bus, and motorcycle (including bicycles). Experiments with real-world data have been undertaken to evaluate system performance and vehicle detection rates of 96.45% and classification accuracy of 95.70% have been achieved on this data.

  3. Lifetime Abortion of Female Sex Workers in Iran: Findings of a National Bio-Behavioural Survey In 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Khajehkazemi, Razieh; Sedaghat, Abbas; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Sharifi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Unintended pregnancies and abortion may be considered as occupational hazards for female sex workers (FSWs). As our understanding of contraceptive and abortion practices of Iranian FSWs is very limited, this study tries to assess the dynamics of contraception and abortion among this sub-population. Methods This survey was conducted in 2010, by recruiting 872 FSWs through facility-based sampling from 21 sites in 14 cities in Iran. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a pilot-tested standardized risk assessment questionnaire. We applied the logistic regression model to investigate the correlates of induced abortion among FSWs. Results Of the 863 participants with valid responses to the abortion variable, 35.3% (95% CI: 32.1–38.6) acknowledged ever induced abortion and the annual rate of abortion was estimated at 20.7 per 1000 women. Around 31.2% of FSWs reported no usual contraceptive use, 32.6% barrier method, 23.6% non-barrier modern contraception methods, and 12.5% dual protection. In our multivariable model, older age (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.74, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.02, 2.96), group sex (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.35), history of travel for sex work (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.20), sexual violence (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.25, 2.50), STIs in last year (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.14), and accessing family planning services (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.49) were significant predictors of lifetime abortion. Conclusions The reproductive health needs of Iranian FSWs are unmet and around one-third of FSWs reported induced abortion. Scaling-up comprehensive family planning services and empowering FSWs to have safer sex practices may help them to prevent unintended pregnancies and further risk of HIV transmission. PMID:27861487

  4. Resident fatigue in otolaryngology residents: a Web based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Andrew M; Googe, Benjamin J; Lewis, Andrea F; May, Warren L

    2016-01-01

    Resident fatigue has become a point of emphasis in medical education and its effects on otolaryngology residents and their patients require further study. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and nature of fatigue in otolaryngology residents, evaluate various quality of life measures, and investigate associations of increased fatigue with resident safety. Anonymous survey. Internet based. United States allopathic otolaryngology residents. None. The survey topics included demographics, residency structure, sleep habits and perceived stress. Responses were correlated with a concurrent Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire to evaluate effects of fatigue on resident training and quality of life. 190 residents responded to the survey with 178 completing the Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire. Results revealed a mean Epworth Sleep Scale score of 9.9±5.1 with a median of 10.0 indicating a significant number of otolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Statistically significant correlations between Epworth Sleep Scale and sex, region, hours of sleep, and work hours were found. Residents taking in-house call had significantly fewer hours of sleep compared to home call (p=0.01). Residents on "head and neck" (typically consisting of a large proportion of head and neck oncologic surgery) rotations tended to have higher Epworth Sleep Scale and had significantly fewer hours of sleep (p=.003) and greater work hours (potolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Our data suggest that the effects of fatigue play a role in resident well-being and resident safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Participating on Equal Terms? The Gender Dimensions of Direct Participation in Organisational Change: Findings from the EPOC Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Annette; Webster, Juliet

    The gender dimensions of direct participation in organizational change were examined in a survey of general managers at 32,582 workplaces in the following European countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Responses were received from 5,786 managers (response rate,…

  6. What Medical Informaticians Do With and Think About an International Medical Informatics Listserv: Member Survey Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuziemsky, Craig; Adams, Martha B; Kaplan, Bonnie; Ravvaz, Kourosh; Koppel, Ross

    2015-01-01

    A survey of members of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) listserv Forum on implementation and optimization asked how members perceived the Forum, and suggestions for improvement. Respondents appear to be remarkably engaged with the Forum's debates, information sharing, educational and practical teachings, comments, and immediacy.

  7. A Survey Study to Find out the Relationship between Leadership Styles and Demographic Characteristics of Elementary and Secondary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlah, Ijaz Ahmed; Quraishi, Uzma; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a study aiming to investigate the leadership styles of elementary and secondary school teachers' in Public Sector schools in Lahore, Pakistan. The study also explored if there was any correlation between demographic characteristics of teachers and their leadership styles. A survey was conducted using Task-oriented and…

  8. The Differential Effects of Intimate Terrorism and Situational Couple Violence: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael P.; Leone, Janel M.

    2005-01-01

    Data from the National Violence Against Women Survey show that the two major forms of husband violence toward their wives (intimate terrorism and situational couple violence) have different effects on their victims. Victims of intimate terrorism are attacked more frequently and experience violence that is less likely to stop. They are more likely…

  9. Are Older Adults Prepared to Ensure Food Safety during Extended Power Outages and Other Emergencies?: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Katherine M.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Karns, Shawn; Godwin, Sandria L.; Coppings, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters and other emergencies can cause an increased risk of foodborne illness. We conducted a nationally representative survey to understand consumers' knowledge and use of recommended practices during/after extended power outages and other emergencies. Because older adults are at an increased risk for foodborne illness, this paper…

  10. Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence among Women in Pakistan: Findings from a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic…

  11. Victimization by Bullying and Harassment in High School: Findings from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in a Southwestern State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed data on victimization by bullying and harassment on school property in a large, diverse, random sample of high school students in Arizona using data from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. No gender differences in frequency of victimization were detected, but differences by grade, Body Mass Index category, academic…

  12. Victimization by Bullying and Harassment in High School: Findings from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in a Southwestern State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed data on victimization by bullying and harassment on school property in a large, diverse, random sample of high school students in Arizona using data from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. No gender differences in frequency of victimization were detected, but differences by grade, Body Mass Index category, academic…

  13. Are Older Adults Prepared to Ensure Food Safety during Extended Power Outages and Other Emergencies?: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Katherine M.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Karns, Shawn; Godwin, Sandria L.; Coppings, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters and other emergencies can cause an increased risk of foodborne illness. We conducted a nationally representative survey to understand consumers' knowledge and use of recommended practices during/after extended power outages and other emergencies. Because older adults are at an increased risk for foodborne illness, this paper…

  14. Survey of BGFA Criteria for the Cu-Based Bulk Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Janovszky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To verify the effect of composition on the bulk glass forming ability (BGFA of Cu-based alloys, properties have been collected from the literature (~100 papers, more than 200 alloys. Surveying the BGFA criteria published so far, it has been found that the atomic mismatch condition of Egami-Waseda is fulfilled for all the Cu-based BGFAs, the value being above 0,3. The Zhang Bangwei criterion could be applied for the binary Cu-based alloys. The Miracle and Senkov criteria do not necessarily apply for Cu based bulk amorphous alloys. The critical thickness versus =/(+ plot of Lu and Liu extrapolates to =0.36, somewhat higher than the 0.33 value found in other BGFA alloys. The Park and Kim parameter correlates rather poorly with the critical thickness for Cu based alloys. The Cheney and Vecchino parameter is a good indicator to find the best glass former if it is possible to calculate the exact liquids projection. In 2009 Xiu-lin and Pan defined a new parameter which correlates a bit better with the critical thickness. Based on this survey it is still very difficult to find one parameter in order to characterize the real GFA without an unrealized mechanism of crystallization.

  15. Usage of Plant Food Supplements across Six European Countries: Findings from the PlantLIBRA Consumer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Egan, Bernadette; de Klein, Simone; Dima, Lorena; Maggi, Franco M.; Isoniemi, Merja; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Raats, Monique M.; Meissner, Eva Melanie; Badea, Mihaela; Bruno, Flavia; Salmenhaara, Maija; Milà-Villarroel, Raimon; Knaze, Viktoria; Hodgkins, Charo; Marculescu, Angela; Uusitalo, Liisa; Restani, Patrizia; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Background The popularity of botanical products is on the rise in Europe, with consumers using them to complement their diets or to maintain health, and products are taken in many different forms (e.g. teas, juices, herbal medicinal products, plant food supplements (PFS)). However there is a scarcity of data on the usage of such products at European level. Objective To provide an overview of the characteristics and usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. Design Data on PFS usage were collected in a cross-sectional, retrospective survey of PFS consumers using a bespoke frequency of PFS usage questionnaire. Subjects/setting A total sample of 2359 adult PFS consumers from Finland, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom. Data analyses Descriptive analyses were conducted, with all data stratified by gender, age, and country. Absolute frequencies, percentages and 95% confidence intervals are reported. Results Overall, an estimated 18.8% of screened survey respondents used at least one PFS. Characteristics of PFS consumers included being older, well-educated, never having smoked and self-reporting health status as “good or very good”. Across countries, 491 different botanicals were identified in the PFS products used, with Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo), Oenothera biennis (Evening primrose) and Cynara scolymus (Artichoke) being most frequently reported; the most popular dose forms were capsules and pills/tablets. Most consumers used one product and half of all users took single-botanical products. Some results varied across countries. Conclusions The PlantLIBRA consumer survey is unique in reporting on usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. The survey highlights the complexity of measuring the intake of such products, particularly at pan-European level. Incorporating measures of the intake of botanicals in national dietary surveys would provide much-needed data for comprehensive risk and benefit assessments at the European

  16. Usage of plant food supplements across six European countries: findings from the PlantLIBRA consumer survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Garcia-Alvarez

    Full Text Available The popularity of botanical products is on the rise in Europe, with consumers using them to complement their diets or to maintain health, and products are taken in many different forms (e.g. teas, juices, herbal medicinal products, plant food supplements (PFS. However there is a scarcity of data on the usage of such products at European level.To provide an overview of the characteristics and usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries.Data on PFS usage were collected in a cross-sectional, retrospective survey of PFS consumers using a bespoke frequency of PFS usage questionnaire.A total sample of 2359 adult PFS consumers from Finland, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom.Descriptive analyses were conducted, with all data stratified by gender, age, and country. Absolute frequencies, percentages and 95% confidence intervals are reported.Overall, an estimated 18.8% of screened survey respondents used at least one PFS. Characteristics of PFS consumers included being older, well-educated, never having smoked and self-reporting health status as "good or very good". Across countries, 491 different botanicals were identified in the PFS products used, with Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo, Oenothera biennis (Evening primrose and Cynara scolymus (Artichoke being most frequently reported; the most popular dose forms were capsules and pills/tablets. Most consumers used one product and half of all users took single-botanical products. Some results varied across countries.The PlantLIBRA consumer survey is unique in reporting on usage patterns of PFS consumers in six European countries. The survey highlights the complexity of measuring the intake of such products, particularly at pan-European level. Incorporating measures of the intake of botanicals in national dietary surveys would provide much-needed data for comprehensive risk and benefit assessments at the European level.

  17. A Survey on Statistical Based Single Channel Speech Enhancement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunnydayal. V

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech enhancement is a long standing problem with various applications like hearing aids, automatic recognition and coding of speech signals. Single channel speech enhancement technique is used for enhancement of the speech degraded by additive background noises. The background noise can have an adverse impact on our ability to converse without hindrance or smoothly in very noisy environments, such as busy streets, in a car or cockpit of an airplane. Such type of noises can affect quality and intelligibility of speech. This is a survey paper and its object is to provide an overview of speech enhancement algorithms so that enhance the noisy speech signal which is corrupted by additive noise. The algorithms are mainly based on statistical based approaches. Different estimators are compared. Challenges and Opportunities of speech enhancement are also discussed. This paper helps in choosing the best statistical based technique for speech enhancement

  18. A Survey on Smartphone-Based Crowdsensing Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Zamora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the widespread adoption of mobile phones, combined with the ever-increasing number of sensors that smartphones are equipped with, greatly simplified the generalized adoption of crowdsensing solutions by reducing hardware requirements and costs to a minimum. These factors have led to an outstanding growth of crowdsensing proposals from both academia and industry. In this paper, we provide a survey of smartphone-based crowdsensing solutions that have emerged in the past few years, focusing on 64 works published in top-ranked journals and conferences. To properly analyze these previous works, we first define a reference framework based on how we classify the different proposals under study. The results of our survey evidence that there is still much heterogeneity in terms of technologies adopted and deployment approaches, although modular designs at both client and server elements seem to be dominant. Also, the preferred client platform is Android, while server platforms are typically web-based, and client-server communications mostly rely on XML or JSON over HTTP. The main detected pitfall concerns the performance evaluation of the different proposals, which typically fail to make a scalability analysis despite being critical issue when targeting very large communities of users.

  19. Mental health and psychosocial problems in the aftermath of the Nepal earthquakes: findings from a representative cluster sample survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, J C; Luitel, N P; Jordans, M J D; Kohrt, B A; Weissbecker, I; Tol, W A

    2017-01-09

    Two large earthquakes in 2015 caused widespread destruction in Nepal. This study aimed to examine frequency of common mental health and psychosocial problems and their correlates following the earthquakes. A stratified multi-stage cluster sampling design was employed to randomly select 513 participants (aged 16 and above) from three earthquake-affected districts in Nepal: Kathmandu, Gorkha and Sindhupalchowk, 4 months after the second earthquake. Outcomes were selected based on qualitative preparatory research and included symptoms of depression and anxiety (Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25); post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist-Civilian); hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT-C); symptoms indicating severe psychological distress (WHO-UNHCR Assessment Schedule of Serious Symptoms in Humanitarian Settings (WASSS)); suicidal ideation (Composite International Diagnostic Interview); perceived needs (Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs Scale (HESPER)); and functional impairment (locally developed scale). A substantial percentage of participants scored above validated cut-off scores for depression (34.3%, 95% CI 28.4-40.4) and anxiety (33.8%, 95% CI 27.6-40.6). Hazardous alcohol use was reported by 20.4% (95% CI 17.1-24.3) and 10.9% (95% CI 8.8-13.5) reported suicidal ideation. Forty-two percent reported that 'distress' was a serious problem in their community. Anger that was out of control (symptom from the WASSS) was reported by 33.7% (95% CI 29.5-38.2). Fewer people had elevated rates of PTSD symptoms above a validated cut-off score (5.2%, 95% CI 3.9-6.8), and levels of functional impairment were also relatively low. Correlates of elevated symptom scores were female gender, lower caste and greater number of perceived needs. Residing in Gorkha and Sindhupalchowk districts and lower caste were also associated with greater perceived needs. Higher levels of impaired functioning were associated with greater odds of depression and anxiety symptoms; impaired

  20. A Survey on Web-based AR Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Parhizkar, Behrang; Lashkari, Arash Habibi; Bartaripou, Mohammad Mehdi; Babae, Hossein Reza

    2011-01-01

    Due to the increase of interest in Augmented Reality (AR), the potential uses of AR are increasing also. It can benefit the user in various fields such as education, business, medicine, and other. Augmented Reality supports the real environment with synthetic environment to give more details and meaning to the objects in the real word. AR refers to a situation in which the goal is to supplement a user's perception of the real-world through the addition of virtual objects. This paper is an attempt to make a survey of web-based Augmented Reality applications and make a comparison among them.

  1. A Survey on Web-based AR Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang Parhizkar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increase of interest in Augmented Reality (AR, the potential uses of AR are increasing also. It can benefit the user in various fields such as education, business, medicine, and other. Augmented Reality supports the real environment with synthetic environment to give more details and meaning to the objects in the real word. AR refers to a situation in which the goal is to supplement a user's perception of the real-world through the addition of virtual objects. This paper is an attempt to make a survey of web-based Augmented Reality applications and make a comparison among them.

  2. Use of preventive measures of childhood injuries at household level: Community-based findings from Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, P. R.; Towner, E.; Ellis, M; Pilkington, P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Child injuries are a major public health problem in low- and middle- income countries but they are\\ud not recognised at policy or community level. Prevention of injuries is neglected due to lack of awareness. Only a\\ud few community-based studies have been conducted to explore this problem.\\ud Objectives: To explore the practice of safety measures applied by the household after childhood injury among the\\ud survey households of Makwanpur.\\ud Methods: A community-based household ...

  3. Stroke in rural coastal Ecuador: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Santamaría, Milton; Zambrano, Mauricio; Peñaherrera, Ernesto; Pow-Chon-Long, Freddy; Del Brutto, Victor J; Ochoa, Elio; Valdiviezo, Elsy; Santibáñez, Rocío

    2014-04-01

    Stroke will be South America's next epidemic. Therefore, information on stroke particularities in the region will help to overcome its impact burden. We evaluated prevalence, pattern of sub-types, and pathogenic mechanisms underlying stroke in Atahualpa, a village representative of rural coastal Ecuador. In a three-phase epidemiologic study, suspected cases were detected by a door-to-door survey (Phase I). Then, neurologists evaluated suspected cases and randomly selected negative persons (Phase II), and confirmed patients underwent complementary exams (Phase III). We found 20 stroke patients (mean age 70 years, 60% men) among 642 persons aged ≥40 years. Stroke prevalence was 31.15‰ that increased with age. Most patients had sub-cortical infarctions associated with leukoaraiosis or microbleeds. Hypertensive arteriolopathy was the most likely mechanism underlying strokes (55% patients). Intracranial arterial lesions were found in 47% cases. Extracranial atherosclerotic lesions or cardiac sources of emboli were not found in any case. Comparison of our findings with a previous survey performed in the same village showed an alarming increase in stroke prevalence (from 14.08‰ in 2003 to 31.15‰ in 2012, P = 0.03).

  4. Insulin-taking behavior and memory problems among people with diabetes in five countries: findings from a web survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brod M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Meryl Brod,1 Kathryn M Pfeiffer,1 Kasper Mandel Clausen,2 Rasmus Skovgaard,3 Jens Harald Kongsø21The Brod Group, Mill Valley, CA, USA; 2Novo Nordisk A/S, Global Development, Søborg, Denmark; 3Novo Nordisk Canada Inc., Market Access and External Affairs, Mississauga, ON, CanadaBackground: The purpose of this study was to explore memory problems that result in nonadherence with insulin treatment in people with diabetes from five countries (USA, UK, Canada, Germany, People's Republic of China, as well as the impact of memory problems on physical and emotional functioning, work, and diabetes management.Methods: A web survey was conducted in five countries with diabetic patients taking insulin. In three countries, focus groups and interviews with 64 patients treated with insulin were used to develop survey items. Three types of memory problems associated with insulin-taking were examined: unintentionally forgetting (UF, questioning whether or not one took a dose (QT, and questioning how much was taken (QD over the past month. The survey focused on respondents who had experienced at least one of these memory problems.Results: The incidence of memory problems was high; 93.3% of those eligible for the survey reported having had a memory issue in the previous month. A total of 1,754 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes completed the web survey. Sixty-eight percent of respondents reported a UF, 79.6% a QT, and 54.7% a QD. A total of 35.9% of respondents reported experiencing all three memory problems. Respondents reported that memory problems had negative impacts on physical and emotional functioning, as well as time and functioning at work. Many respondents indicated that memory problems led them to taking additional blood glucose measurements and contacting physicians/health care professionals. The results demonstrated some significant differences across countries, some significant variation across patient demographics and disease characteristics

  5. Finding the Most Metal-poor Stars of the Galactic Halo with the Hamburg/ESO Objective-Prism Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Christlieb, N

    2003-01-01

    I review the status of the search for extremely metal-poor halo stars with the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey (HES). 2194 candidate metal-poor turn-off stars and 6133 giants in the magnitude range 14 < B < 17.5 have been selected from 329 (out of 380) HES fields, covering an effective area of 6400 square degrees in the southern extragalactic sky. Moderate-resolution follow-up observations for 3200 candidates have been obtained so far, and ~200 new stars with [Fe/H] <- 3.0 have been found, which trebles the total number of such extremely low-metallicity stars identified by all previous surveys. We use VLT-UT2/UVES, Keck/HIRES, Subaru/HDS, TNG/SARG, and Magellan/MIKE for high-resolution spectroscopy of HES metal-poor stars. I provide an overview of the scientific aims of these programs, and highlight several recent results.

  6. Measurement model equivalence in web- and paper-based surveys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    participated in the survey; of these, 899 used paper questionnaires ... 9Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in a Structural Equation Modelling ... settings and, of course, the general survey and survey research industry. ...... Survey design features .... used to evaluate the tenability of a series of increasingly restrictive models.

  7. Trends in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal achievement in high risk United States adults: longitudinal findings from the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Tattersall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated gaps in achievement of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C goals among U.S. individuals at high cardiovascular disease risk; however, recent studies in selected populations indicate improvements. OBJECTIVE: We sought to define the longitudinal trends in achieving LDL-C goals among high-risk United States adults from 1999-2008. METHODS: We analyzed five sequential population-based cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2008, which included 18,656 participants aged 20-79 years. We calculated rates of LDL-C goal achievement and treatment in the high-risk population. RESULTS: The prevalence of high-risk individuals increased from 13% to 15.5% (p = 0.046. Achievement of LDL-C <100 mg/dL increased from 24% to 50.4% (p<0.0001 in the high-risk population with similar findings in subgroups with (27% to 64.8% p<0.0001 and without (21.8% to 43.7%, p<0.0001 coronary heart disease (CHD. Achievement of LDL-C <70 mg/dL improved from 2.4% to 17% (p<0.0001 in high-risk individuals and subgroups with (3.4% to 21.4%, p<0.0001 and without (1.7% to 14.9%, p<0.0001 CHD. The proportion with LDL-C ≥130 mg/dL and not on lipid medications decreased from 29.4% to 18% (p = 0.0002, with similar findings among CHD (25% to 11.9% p = 0.0013 and non-CHD (35.8% to 20.8% p<0.0001 subgroups. CONCLUSION: The proportions of the U.S. high-risk population achieving LDL-C <100 mg/dL and <70 mg/dL increased over the last decade. With 65% of the CHD subpopulation achieving an LDL-C <100 mg/dL in the most recent survey, U.S. LDL-C goal achievement exceeds previous reports and approximates rates achieved in highly selected patient cohorts.

  8. Personality disorder and offending behaviour: findings from the national survey of male prisoners in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Amanda D.L.; Coid, Jeremy W

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have related mental disorder and antisocial personality disorder to criminal behaviour, but little is known about the associations with other personality disorders. The aim of this study was to examine independent associations between offending behaviour over the lifetime and personality disorder in a representative sample of male offenders. A two-stage survey was carried out among prisoners in all prisons in England and Wales. DSM-IV personality disorder was measured using S...

  9. A Cultural Resources Intensive Survey of the Ensley Berm Construction Site, Shelby County, Tennessee. A Negative Finding Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-16

    gathering bands are postulated. Early Paleo-Indian sites, identified by fluted Clovis projectile points, are rare in the Mississippi drainage of west...Russel, C. Vance Haynes, Donald Johnson and Marven Kay I 1981 Kimmswick: A Clovis -Mastodon Association in Eastern Missouri. Science 213:1115-1117. U...on-the-ground survey of an area, of sufficient intensity to determine the number, types, extent and distribution of cultura ] rescurces ;resent and

  10. Training satisfaction for subspecialty fellows in internal medicine: Findings from the Veterans Affairs (VA Learners' Perceptions Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrne John M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Learner satisfaction assessment is critical in the design and improvement of training programs. However, little is known about what influences satisfaction and whether trainee specialty is correlated. A national comparison of satisfaction among internal medicine subspecialty fellows in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA provides a unique opportunity to examine educational factors associated with learner satisfaction. We compared satisfaction across internal medicine fellows by subspecialty and compared factors associated with satisfaction between procedural versus non-procedural subspecialty fellows, using data from the Learners' Perceptions Survey (LPS, a validated survey tool. Methods We surveyed 2,221 internal medicine subspecialty fellows rotating through VA between 2001 and 2008. Learners rated their overall training satisfaction on a 100-point scale, and on a five-point Likert scale ranked satisfaction with items within six educational domains: learning, clinical, working and physical environments; personal experience; and clinical faculty/preceptor. Results Procedural and non-procedural fellows reported similar overall satisfaction scores (81.2 and 81.6. Non-procedural fellows reported higher satisfaction with 79 of 81 items within the 6 domains and with the domain of physical environment (4.06 vs. 3.85, p Conclusions Internal medicine fellows are highly satisfied with their VA training. Nonprocedural fellows reported higher satisfaction with most items. For both procedural and non-procedural fellows, clinical faculty/preceptor and personal experience have the strongest impact on overall satisfaction.

  11. Making sense of sexual orientation measures: findings from a cognitive processing study with adolescents on health survey questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Conron, Kerith; Patel, Aarti; Freedner, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    To carry out a study using cognitive processing interview methods to explore ways in which adolescents understand sexual orientation questions currently used on epidemiologic surveys. In-depth, individual interviews were conducted to probe cognitive processes involved in answering four self-report survey questions assessing sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sex of sexual partners.A semi-structured interview guide was used to explore variation in question interpretation, information retrieval patterns and problems, item clarity, valence of reactions to items (positive, negative, neutral), respondent burden, and perceived threat associated with the measures. Thirty adolescents aged 15 to 21 of diverse sexual orientations and race/ethnicities participated in the study, including female, male, and transgender youth. A question on sexual attraction was the most consistently understood and thus was easy for nearly all youth to answer. In contrast, a measure of sexual identity with options heterosexual, bisexual, gay/lesbian, and unsure was the most difficult to answer. Most preferred a sexual identity item that also provided the intermediate options mostly heterosexual and mostly homosexual, which many said reflected their experience of feeling between categories. Participants had varying and inconsistent interpretations of sexual behavior terms, such as sex and sexual intercourse, used in assessing the sex of sexual partners. Differences in understanding could affect interpretation of survey data in important ways. Development of valid measures of sexual orientation will be essential to better monitor health disparities.

  12. Implementing medical revalidation in the United Kingdom: Findings about organisational changes and impacts from a survey of Responsible Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Alan; Bryce, Marie; Luscombe, Kayleigh; Tazzyman, Abigail; Tredinnick-Rowe, John; Archer, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the implementation of medical revalidation in healthcare organisations in the United Kingdom and to examine reported changes and impacts on the quality of care. Design A cross-sectional online survey gathering both quantitative and qualitative data about structures and processes for medical revalidation and wider quality management in the organisations which employ or contract with doctors (termed ‘designated bodies’) from the senior doctor in each organisation with statutory responsibility for medical revalidation (termed the ‘Responsible Officer’). Setting United Kingdom Participants Responsible Officers in designated bodies in the United Kingdom. Five hundred and ninety-five survey invitations were sent and 374 completed surveys were returned (63%). Main outcome measures The role of Responsible Officers, the development of organisational mechanisms for quality assurance or improvement, decision-making on revalidation recommendations, impact of revalidation and mechanisms for quality assurance or improvement on clinical practice and suggested improvements to revalidation arrangements. Results Responsible Officers report that revalidation has had some impacts on the way medical performance is assured and improved, particularly strengthening appraisal and oversight of quality within organisations and having some impact on clinical practice. They suggest changes to make revalidation less ‘one size fits all’ and more responsive to individual, organisational and professional contexts. Conclusions Revalidation appears primarily to have improved systems for quality improvement and the management of poor performance to date. There is more to be done to ensure it produces wider benefits, particularly in relation to doctors who already perform well. PMID:28084166

  13. Neural Representation. A Survey-Based Analysis of the Notion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarroya, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    The word representation (as in "neural representation"), and many of its related terms, such as to represent, representational and the like, play a central explanatory role in neuroscience literature. For instance, in "place cell" literature, place cells are extensively associated with their role in "the representation of space." In spite of its extended use, we still lack a clear, universal and widely accepted view on what it means for a nervous system to represent something, on what makes a neural activity a representation, and on what is re-presented. The lack of a theoretical foundation and definition of the notion has not hindered actual research. My aim here is to identify how active scientists use the notion of neural representation, and eventually to list a set of criteria, based on actual use, that can help in distinguishing between genuine or non-genuine neural-representation candidates. In order to attain this objective, I present first the results of a survey of authors within two domains, place-cell and multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) research. Based on the authors' replies, and on a review of neuroscientific research, I outline a set of common properties that an account of neural representation seems to require. I then apply these properties to assess the use of the notion in two domains of the survey, place-cell and MVPA studies. I conclude by exploring a shift in the notion of representation suggested by recent literature.

  14. Relationship Between Physical Activity and Overweight and Obesity in Children: Findings From the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ickpyo; Coker-Bolt, Patty; Anderson, Kelly R; Lee, Danbi; Velozo, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between childhood obesity and overweight and functional activity and its enjoyment. A cross-sectional design was used to analyze data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were used. Data for 1,640 children ages 3-15 yr were retrieved. Physical activity was negatively associated with risk of obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.87, 0.98]). Although children who were obese and overweight were more likely to have functional limitations (ORs = 1.58-1.61), their enjoyment of physical activity participation was not significantly different from that of the healthy-weight group. Physical activity lowered the risk of obesity. Children who were obese had functional limitations compared with healthy-weight children, but both groups enjoyed physical activity equally. Future studies are needed to determine barriers to participation among these children in recreation and sporting activities. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  15. Fault Location Based on Synchronized Measurements: A Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Al-Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive survey on transmission and distribution fault location algorithms that utilize synchronized measurements. Algorithms based on two-end synchronized measurements and fault location algorithms on three-terminal and multiterminal lines are reviewed. Series capacitors equipped with metal oxide varistors (MOVs, when set on a transmission line, create certain problems for line fault locators and, therefore, fault location on series-compensated lines is discussed. The paper reports the work carried out on adaptive fault location algorithms aiming at achieving better fault location accuracy. Work associated with fault location on power system networks, although limited, is also summarized. Additionally, the nonstandard high-frequency-related fault location techniques based on wavelet transform are discussed. Finally, the paper highlights the area for future research.

  16. Finding roots of arbitrary high order polynomials based on neural network recursive partitioning method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Deshuang; CHI Zheru

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel recursive partitioning method based on constrained learning neural networks to find an arbitrary number (less than the order of the polynomial) of (real or complex) roots of arbitrary polynomials. Moreover, this paper also gives a BP network constrained learning algorithm (CLA) used in root-finders based on the constrained relations between the roots and the coefficients of polynomials. At the same time, an adaptive selection method for the parameter δPwith the CLA is also given.The experimental results demonstrate that this method can more rapidly and effectively obtain the roots of arbitrary high order polynomials with higher precision than traditional root-finding approaches.

  17. Finding shared decisions in stakeholder networks: An agent-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pira, Michela; Inturri, Giuseppe; Ignaccolo, Matteo; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    We address the problem of a participatory decision-making process where a shared priority list of alternatives has to be obtained while avoiding inconsistent decisions. An agent-based model (ABM) is proposed to mimic this process in different social networks of stakeholders who interact according to an opinion dynamics model. Simulations' results show the efficacy of interaction in finding a transitive and, above all, shared decision. These findings are in agreement with real participation experiences regarding transport planning decisions and can give useful suggestions on how to plan an effective participation process for sustainable policy-making based on opinion consensus.

  18. Clinical, magnetic-resonance imaging and surgical findings in patients with temporomandibular joint disorders - a survey of 47 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raustia, A.M. (Dept. of Prosthodontics and Stomatognathic Physiology, Inst. of Dentistry, Oulu Univ., Aapistie (Finland)); Pyhtinen, J. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Central Hospital, Oulu (Finland)); Pernu, H. (Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Inst. of Dentistry, Oulu Univ. (Finland))

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and correlate the clinical, magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI), and surgical findings in 47 patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. 51 TMJs (24 right, 27 left) were operated on, because 4 patients underwent treatment of both TMJs. The best correlation between MRI and surgical findings was noted in connection with position of the disk. This was surgically confirmed altogether in 88% of cases (45/51). The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by surgical findings in 75% of cases of anterior dislocation of the disk with reduction and 89% of cases of anterior dislocation of the disk without reduction. Bone changes noted by MRI were confirmed by surgery in 71% of cases. MRI was excellent especially relating to disk position and changes in disk morphology. The results show also that there are findings using MRI, e.g. of joint effusion, which cannot be confirmed during surgery. (orig.)

  19. [Utilization of CAP Survey, Based on Questionnaire Results from Survey Participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Akiko; Ohno, Hiroie

    2015-08-01

    The survey provided by the College of American Pathologists (CAP) is chosen as one of the proficiency testing programs in Japan, and, recently, the numbers of participating facilities have increased. CAP provides 754 programs, and more than 1,000 tests were provided in 2014. Materials are translated as the "CAP global inter-laboratory comparison program" under the instruction of the Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine (JSLM) selected from CAP surveys in Japan, and 68 programs and 261 items are provided. The total number of participating facilities was 174. CAP itself and the other services CAP provides are not well-known, while recognition of "the CAP survey as the proficiency test" has increased. The question "What is CAP and the CAP survey" was analyzed as a result of the questionnaire surveys conducted in 2014, and the advantage of the CAP survey and how to utilize it were considered. A questionnaire survey was conducted about the CAP survey for Japanese participants in 2014. Fifty-three questions were asked about their satisfaction level, intended use, and improvement. Eighty replies were analyzed. As a result, most CAP survey participants are satisfied. They intend to mainly use the CAP survey for their quality control. Furthermore, they can continuously monitor their systems throughout all testing phases as the survey has numbers of shipments a year and several specimens per each mailing. This helps in laboratory performance improvement. The Evaluation and Participant Summary (PSR) also effectively improves the laboratories' performance. CAP-accredited laboratories are required to participate in all survey programs concerning the test menu which they provide. Therefore, they have become accustomed to reviewing the evaluation and performing self-evaluation with a high usage rate of the Evaluation and PSR of the CAP survey. The questionnaire proved that performing the CAP survey properly enhanced the laboratories' quality control, and this meets the

  20. Examination of the Equivalence of Self-Report Survey-Based Paper-and-Pencil and Internet Data Collection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigold, Arne; Weigold, Ingrid K.; Russell, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-report survey-based data collection is increasingly carried out using the Internet, as opposed to the traditional paper-and-pencil method. However, previous research on the equivalence of these methods has yielded inconsistent findings. This may be due to methodological and statistical issues present in much of the literature, such as…

  1. Multiple vulnerabilities and maternal healthcare in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000, 2006, and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge of the aggregate effects of multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities is important for shedding light on the determinants of growing health inequalities and inequities in maternal healthcare. Objective: This paper describes patterns of inequity in maternal healthcare utilization and analyzes associations between inequity and multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities among women in Vietnam. Design: This is a repeated cross-sectional study using data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 2000, 2006, and 2011. Two maternal healthcare indicators were selected: (1 skilled antenatal care and (2 skilled delivery care. Four types of socioeconomic vulnerabilities – low education, ethnic minority, poverty, and rural location – were assessed both as separate explanatory variables and as composite indicators (combinations of three and four vulnerabilities. Pairwise comparisons and adjusted odds ratios were used to assess socioeconomic inequities in maternal healthcare. Results: In all three surveys, there were increases across the survey years in both the proportions of women who received antenatal care by skilled staff (68.6% in 2000, 90.8% in 2006, and 93.7% in 2011 and the proportions of women who gave birth with assistance from skilled staff (69.9% in 2000, 87.7% in 2006, and 92.9% in 2011. The receipt of antenatal care by skilled staff and birth assistance from skilled health personnel were less common among vulnerable women, especially those with multiple vulnerabilities. Conclusions: Even though Vietnam has improved its coverage of maternal healthcare on average, policies should target maternal healthcare utilization among women with multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities. Both multisectoral social policies and health policies are needed to tackle multiple vulnerabilities more effectively by identifying those who are poor, less educated, live in rural areas, and belong to ethnic minority groups.

  2. Monitoring the inputs required to extend and sustain hygiene promotion: findings from the GLAAS 2013/2014 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Leslie D; Gore, Fiona M; Andre, Nathalie; Cairncross, Sandy; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2016-08-01

    There are significant gaps in information about the inputs required to effectively extend and sustain hygiene promotion activities to improve people's health outcomes through water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We sought to analyse current country and global trends in the use of key inputs required for effective and sustainable implementation of hygiene promotion to help guide hygiene promotion policy and decision-making after 2015. Data collected in response to the GLAAS 2013/2014 survey from 93 countries of 94 were included, and responses were analysed for 12 questions assessing the inputs and enabling environment for hygiene promotion under four thematic areas. Data were included and analysed from 20 External Support Agencies (ESA) of 23 collected through self-administered surveys. Firstly, the data showed a large variation in the way in which hygiene promotion is defined and what constitutes key activities in this area. Secondly, challenges to implement hygiene promotion are considerable: include poor implementation of policies and plans, weak coordination mechanisms, human resource limitations and a lack of available hygiene promotion budget data. Despite the proven benefits of hand washing with soap, a critical hygiene-related factor in minimising infection, GLAAS 2013/2014 survey data showed that hygiene promotion remains a neglected component of WASH. Additional research to identify the context-specific strategies and inputs required to enhance the effectiveness of hygiene promotion at scale are needed. Improved data collection methods are also necessary to advance the availability and reliability of hygiene-specific information. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Social marketing strategies for reaching older people with disabilities: findings from a survey of centers for independent living participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moone, Rajean Paul; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Centers for independent living (CILs) provide critical supports, services, and advocacy for assisting people with disabilities in living independently. As there is a rapidly increasing population of older people with disabilities, many CILs are now considering how to actively engage older adults in their organizations. This study utilized a survey of older people with disabilities to help identify social marketing techniques that community organizations like CILs can use to effectively reach older people with disabilities. Utilizing the components of the social marketing mix in designing outreach efforts, including a critical examination of product, place, price, participants, and partnering, CILs and other community agencies can better reach older adults with disabilities.

  4. Finding, retrieving and evaluating journal and web-based information for evidence-based optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ann-Maree

    2007-07-01

    How can optometrists ensure they are basing their advice to patients on the most reliable information available? This paper discusses search tools, databases, websites and journals, which provide free, full-text, web-based access to evidence-based literature. Brief tips on searching these resources are provided for the time-poor practitioner or researcher. Criteria, such as credibility, currency and bias are used to evaluate written material and will be discussed with particular reference to the problems inherent in evaluating web pages.

  5. Mental Health Functioning in the Human Rights Field: Findings from an International Internet-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Joscelyne; Sarah Knuckey; Satterthwaite, Margaret L.; Bryant, Richard A.; Meng Li; Meng Qian; Brown, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioni...

  6. Caring for people with dementia in hospital: findings from a survey to identify barriers and facilitators to implementing best practice dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropea, Joanne; LoGiudice, Dina; Liew, Danny; Roberts, Carol; Brand, Caroline

    2017-03-01

    Best practice dementia care is not always provided in the hospital setting. Knowledge, attitudes and motivation, practitioner behavior, and external factors can influence uptake of best practice and quality care. The aim of this study was to determine hospital staff perceived barriers and enablers to implementing best practice dementia care. A 17-item survey was administered at two Australian hospitals between July and September 2014. Multidisciplinary staff working in the emergency departments and general medical wards were invited to participate in the survey. The survey collected data about the respondents' current role, work area, and years of experience, their perceived level of confidence and knowledge in dementia care and common symptoms of dementia, barriers and enablers to implementing best practice dementia care, job satisfaction in caring for people with dementia, and to rate the hospital's capacity and available resources to support best practice dementia care. A total of 112 survey responses were received. The environment, inadequate staffing levels and workload, time, and staff knowledge and skills were identified as barriers to implementing best practice dementia care. Most respondents rated their knowledge of dementia care and common symptoms of dementia, and confidence in recognizing whether a person has dementia, as moderate or high dementia. Approximately, half the respondents rated access to training and equipment as low or very low. The survey findings highlighted hospital staff perceived barriers to implementing best practice dementia care that can be used to inform locally tailored improvement interventions.

  7. Assessing, treating and preventing community acquired pneumonia in older adults: findings from a community-wide survey of emergency room and family physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb Mark

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory infections, like pneumonia, represent an important threat to the health of older Canadians. Our objective was to determine, at a community level, family and emergency room physicians' knowledge and beliefs about community acquired pneumonia (CAP in older adults and to describe their self-reported assessment, management and prevention strategies. Methods All active ER and family physicians in Brant County received a mailed questionnaire. An advance notification letter and three follow-up mailings were used to maximize physician participation rate. The questionnaire collected information about physicians' assessment, management, and prevention strategies for CAP in older adults (≥60 years of age plus demographic, training, and practice characteristics. The analysis highlights differences in approaches between office-based and emergency department physicians. Results Seventy-seven percent of physicians completed and returned the survey. Although only 16% of physicians were very confident in assessing CAP in older adults, more than half reported CAP to be a very important health concern in their practices. In-service training for family physicians was associated with increased confidence in CAP assessment and more frequent use of diagnostic tests. Family physicians who reported always requesting chest x-rays were also more likely to request pulse oximetry (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.40 to 22.5 and recommend both follow-up x-rays (OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.7 to 16.6 and pneumococcal vaccination (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0. Conclusion The findings of this study provide a snapshot of how non-specialists from a non-urban Ontario community assess, manage and prevent CAP in older adults and highlight differences between office-based and emergency department physicians. This information can guide researchers and clinicians in their efforts to improve the management and prevention of CAP in older adults.

  8. Non-alcoholic and alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease - two Diseases of Affluence associated with the Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes: the FIN-D2D Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltevo Juha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is known to be associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS and abnormal glucose tolerance. Whether alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD is associated with similar metabolic abnormalities has not been examined in a population-based study. We aimed at assessing the prevalences of NAFLD and AFLD, and to examine to what extent these conditions are associated with MetS and abnormal glucose tolerance. Methods The cohort included 2766 Finnish subjects (45-74 years from the population-based FIN-D2D survey. Features of insulin resistance, components of the MetS, glucose tolerance status by oral glucose tolerance test, serum liver enzyme concentrations, and daily alcohol consumption were assessed. Results Subjects with NAFLD and AFLD were equally obese and had similar fasting and insulin concentrations. The prevalences of NAFLD and AFLD were 21% (95% CI: 19%-22% and 7% (95% CI: 6%-8%. The MetS was slightly more prevalent in AFLD (73% than in NAFLD (70%, p = 0.028, and type 2 diabetes was similarly prevalent in NAFLD and AFLD (24-25%. The MetS and type 2 diabetes were more prevalent in subjects with NAFLD or AFLD compared to subjects with normal LFTs (53% and 14%, p Discussion and conclusion In Finnish middle-aged population, the prevalence of NAFLD is 3-fold higher than that of AFLD. The prevalences of MetS and type 2 diabetes are, however, significantly increased in both NAFLD and AFLD compared to subjects with normal LFTs. Subjects with AFLD are thus similarly metabolically unhealthy as subjects with NAFLD.

  9. Periodontal conditions and associated factors among adults and the elderly: findings from the first National Oral Health Survey in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. Lorenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal conditions in the Uruguayan adult and elderly population and its association with socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. Data from adults (35-44, n = 358 and elderly (65-74, n = 411 who participated in the first National Oral Health Survey, Uruguay, 2011, were used. The survey included a household questionnaire addressing socioeconomic characteristics, and tobacco use. Bleeding on probing (BOP, periodontal pockets (CPI and clinical attachment loss (CAL were measured by clinical examination. A multivariable analysis was carried out. Considering both age groups, the prevalence of mild/severe periodontal disease was 21.8% and 9.12% for severe periodontal disease. Adjusted analyses revealed an association between high education and all outcomes. Attendance at dental services was negatively associated with BOP and mild to severe periodontitis. Periodontal outcomes were higher in disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. Tobacco consumption has a strong association with periodontal disease in the elderly.

  10. Horse Injury during Non-Commercial Transport: Findings from Researcher-Assisted Intercept Surveys at Southeastern Australian Equestrian Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Riley

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Equine transportation research has largely focused on the commercial land movement of horses. Data on the incidence and factors associated with horse injuries during non-commercial transportation (privately owned horse trucks and trailers is scant. This study surveyed 223 drivers transporting horses to 12 equestrian events in southeastern Australia. Data collected encompassed driver demographics, travel practice, vehicle characteristics, and incidents involving horse injury. Approximately 25% (55/223 of participants reported that their horses were injured during transportation. Of these 72% were owner classified as horse associated (scrambling, slipping and horse-horse interaction, 11% due to mechanical failure, and 6% due to driver error. Horse injury was not significantly associated with driver age, gender, or experience. Participants that answer the telephone whilst driving were more likely to have previously had a horse injured ( p = 0.04. There was a trend for participants with <8 hours sleep prior to the survey to have experienced a previous transportation-related injury ( p = 0.056. Increased trailer age was associated with a greater number of injury reports (r² = 0.20; p < 0.04. The diversity in trailer models prevented identification of the importance of individual design features. This study highlights the potential for horses to sustain transportation injuries in privately owned vehicles and warrants further study to address this risk to their welfare.

  11. The Prevalence of Selected Potentially Hazardous Workplace Exposures in the US: Findings From the 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Geoffrey M.; Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Sussell, Aaron; Dahlhamer, James M.; Ward, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Assess the national prevalence of current workplace exposure to potential skin hazards, secondhand smoke (SHS), and outdoor work among various industry and occupation groups. Also, assess the national prevalence of chronic workplace exposure to vapors, gas, dust, and fumes (VGDF) among these groups. Methods Data were obtained from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). NHIS is a multistage probability sample survey of the civilian non-institutionalized population of the US. Prevalence rates and their variances were calculated using SUDAAN to account for the complex NHIS sample design. Results The data for 2010 were available for 17,524 adults who worked in the 12 months that preceded interview. The highest prevalence rates of hazardous workplace exposures were typically in agriculture, mining, and construction. The prevalence rate of frequent handling of or skin contact with chemicals, and of non-smokers frequently exposed to SHS at work was highest in mining and construction. Outdoor work was most common in agriculture (85%), construction (73%), and mining (65%). Finally, frequent occupational exposure to VGDF was most common among mining (67%), agriculture (53%), and construction workers (51%). Conclusion We identified industries and occupations with the highest prevalence of potentially hazardous workplace exposures, and provided targets for investigation and intervention activities. PMID:22821700

  12. Consistently low prevalence of syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China: findings from two consecutive respondent driven sampling surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Routine surveillance using convenient sampling found low prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in China. Two consecutive surveys using respondent driven sampling were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to examine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China. METHODS: A face-to-face interview was conducted to collect demographic, behavioral and service utilization information using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serological tests of HIV-1 antibody and syphilis antibody. Respondent Driven Sampling Analysis Tool was used to generate population level estimates. RESULTS: In 2008 and in 2009, 363 and 432 subjects were recruited and surveyed respectively. Prevalence of syphilis was 2.8% in 2008 and 2.2% in 2009, while no HIV case was found in both years. Results are comparable to those from routine sentinel surveillance system in the city. Only 60.8% subjects in 2008 and 48.3% in 2009 reported a consistent condom use with clients during the past month. Over 50% subjects had not been covered by any HIV-related services in the past year, with only 15.6% subjects in 2008 and 13.1% in 2009 ever tested for HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the low prevalence of syphilis and HIV, risk behaviors are common. Targeted interventions to promote the safe sex and utilization of existing intervention services are still needed to keep the epidemic from growing.

  13. Factors associated with dental health care coverage in Mexico: Findings from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo; Maupomé, Gerardo; Vargas-Palacios, Armando

    2006-10-01

    To determine the level of dental health care coverage in people aged > or =18 years across the country, and to identify the factors associated with coverage. Using the instruments and sampling strategies developed by the World Health Organization for the World Health Survey, a cross-sectional national survey was carried out at the household and individual (adult) levels. Dental data were collected in 20 of Mexico's 32 states. The relationship between coverage and environmental and individual characteristics was examined through logistic regression models. Only 6098 of 24 159 individual respondents reported having oral problems during the preceding 12 months (accounting for 14 284 621 inhabitants of the country if weighted). Only 48% of respondents reporting problems were covered, although details of the appropriateness, timeliness and effectiveness of the intervention(s) were not assessed. The multivariate regression model showed that higher level of education, better socioeconomic status, having at least one chronic disease and having medical insurance were positively associated with better dental care coverage. Age and sex were also associated. Overall dental health care coverage could be improved, assuming that ideal coverage is 100%. Some equality of access issues are apparent because there are differences in coverage across populations in terms of wealth and social status. Identifying the factors associated with sparse coverage is a step in the right direction allowing policymakers to establish strategies aimed at increasing this coverage, focusing on more vulnerable groups and on individuals in greater need of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

  14. Control of the Public Health IT Physical Infrastructure: Findings From the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, Barbara L.; Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite improvements in information technology (IT) infrastructure in public health, there is still much that can be done to improve the adoption of IT in state and local health departments, by better understanding the impact of governance and control structures of physical infrastructure. Objective: To report out the current status of the physical infrastructure control of local health departments (LHDs) and to determine whether there is a significant association between an LHD's governance status and control of the physical infrastructure components. Design: Data came from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey, conducted by Georgia Southern University in collaboration with the National Association of County and City Health Officials. Participants: A total of 324 LHDs from all 50 states completed the survey (response rate: 50%). Main Outcome Measure(s): Outcome measures included control of LHD physical infrastructure components. Predictors of interest included LHD governance category. Results: The majority of the control of the physical infrastructure components in LHDs resides in external entities. The type of governance structure of the LHD is significantly associated with the control of infrastructure. Conclusions: Additional research is needed to determine best practices in IT governance and control of physical infrastructure for public health. PMID:27684612

  15. Education in Nephrology Fellowship: A Survey-Based Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rope, Robert W; Pivert, Kurtis A; Parker, Mark G; Sozio, Stephen M; Merell, Sylvia Bereknyei

    2017-07-01

    Educational needs assessments for nephrology fellowship training are limited. This study assessed fellows' perceptions of current educational needs and interest in novel modalities that may improve their educational experience and quantified educational resources used by programs and fellows. We distributed a seven-question electronic survey to all United States-based fellows receiving complimentary American Society of Nephrology (ASN) membership at the end of the 2015-2016 academic year in conjunction with the ASN Nephrology Fellows Survey. One third (320 of 863; 37%) of fellows in Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited positions responded. Most respondents rated overall quality of teaching in fellowship as either "good" (37%) or "excellent" (44%), and most (55%) second-year fellows felt "fully prepared" for independent practice. Common educational resources used by fellows included UpToDate, Journal of the American Society of Nephrology/Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, and Nephrology Self-Assessment Program; others-including ASN's online curricula-were used less often. Fellows indicated interest in additional instruction in several core topics, including home dialysis modalities, ultrasonography, and pathology. Respondents strongly supported interventions to improve pathology instruction and increase time for physiology and clinical review. In conclusion, current nephrology fellows perceive several gaps in training. Innovation in education and training is needed to better prepare future nephrologists for the growing challenges of kidney care. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  17. Survey of Performance based Transmission Control Protocol in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Bagde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is a connection-oriented transport service that ensures the reliability of message delivery. It verifies that messages and data were received. TCP provides reliable, ordered delivery of a stream of bytes from a program on one computer to another program on another computer. TCP provides a communication service at an intermediate level between an application programs. TCP is the protocol used by major Internet applications such as the World Wide Web, email, remote administration and file transfer. TCP is a reliable transport protocol that is well tuned to perform well in traditional networks. However, several experiments and analysis have shown that this protocol is not suitable for bulk data transfer in high bandwidth, large round trip time networks because of its slow start and conservative congestion control mechanism. In this paper we discussed a survey of Performance Based Transmission Control Protocol in Mobile Ad-hoc Network environment. The performance based techniques are categorized based upon different approaches like throughput, end-to-end delay, congestion control etc. We also analysis the major improvement in recent methods for performance based TCP in MANET.

  18. National surveys of radiofrequency field strengths from radio base stations in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Ken H; Van Wyk, Marthinus J; Rowley, Jack T

    2014-01-01

    The authors analysed almost 260 000 measurement points from surveys of radiofrequency (RF) field strengths near radio base stations in seven African countries over two time frames from 2001 to 2003 and 2006 to 2012. The results of the national surveys were compared, chronological trends investigated and potential exposures compared by technology and with frequency modulation (FM) radio. The key findings from thes data are that irrespective of country, the year and mobile technology, RF fields at a ground level were only a small fraction of the international human RF exposure recommendations. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in typical measured levels since the introduction of 3G services. The mean levels in these African countries are similar to the reported levels for countries of Asia, Europe and North America using similar mobile technologies. The median level for the FM services in South Africa was comparable to the individual but generally lower than the combined mobile services.

  19. Surveying Migrant Households: A Comparison of Census-Based, Snowball and Intercept Point Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Mckenzie, David J.; Mistiaen, Johan

    2009-01-01

    New representative surveys of households of migrants exist, limiting our ability to study the effects of international migration on sending families. We report the results of an experiment that was designed to compare the performance of three alternative survey methods in collecting data from Japanese-Brazilian families, many of whom send migrants to Japan. The three surveys that were conducted were households selected randomly from a door-to-door listing using the Brazilian census to select ...

  20. Patient responses to research recruitment and follow-up surveys: findings from a diverse multicultural health care setting in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khidir, Amal; Asad, Humna; Abdelrahim, Huda; Elnashar, Maha; Killawi, Amal; Hammoud, Maya; Al-Khal, Abdul Latif; Haddad, Pascale; Fetters, Michael D

    2016-01-26

    Health care researchers working in the Arabian Gulf need information on how to optimize recruitment and retention of study participants in extremely culturally diverse settings. Implemented in Doha, Qatar in 2012 with 4 language groups, namely Arabic, English, Hindi, and Urdu, this research documents persons' responses to recruitment, consent, follow-up, and reminder procedures during psychometric testing of the Multicultural Assessment Instrument (MAI), a novel self- or interviewer-administered survey. Bilingual research assistants recruited adults in outpatient clinics by approaching persons in particular who appeared to be from a target language group. Participants completed the MAI, a second acculturation instrument used for content-validity assessment, and a demographics questionnaire. Participants were asked to take the MAI again in 2-3 weeks, in person or by post, to assess test-retest reliability. Recruitment data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. Of 1503 persons approached during recruitment, 400 enrolled (27%)-100 per language group. The enrollment rates in the language groups were: Arabic-32%; English-33%; Hindi-18%; Urdu-30%. The groups varied somewhat in their preferences regarding consent procedure, follow-up survey administration, contact mode for follow-up reminders, and disclosure of personal mailing address (for postal follow-up). Over all, telephone was the preferred medium for follow-up reminders. Of 64 persons who accepted a research assistant's invitation for in-person follow-up, 40 participants completed the interview (follow-up rate, 63%); among 126 persons in the postal group with a deliverable address, 29 participants mailed back a completed follow-up survey (response rate, 23%). Researchers in the Arabian Gulf face challenges to successfully identify, enroll, and retain eligible study participants. Although bilingual assistants-often from the persons' own culture-recruited face-to-face, and our questionnaire contained no

  1. Patient responses to research recruitment and follow-up surveys: findings from a diverse multicultural health care setting in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Khidir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care researchers working in the Arabian Gulf need information on how to optimize recruitment and retention of study participants in extremely culturally diverse settings. Implemented in Doha, Qatar in 2012 with 4 language groups, namely Arabic, English, Hindi, and Urdu, this research documents persons’ responses to recruitment, consent, follow-up, and reminder procedures during psychometric testing of the Multicultural Assessment Instrument (MAI, a novel self- or interviewer-administered survey. Methods Bilingual research assistants recruited adults in outpatient clinics by approaching persons in particular who appeared to be from a target language group. Participants completed the MAI, a second acculturation instrument used for content-validity assessment, and a demographics questionnaire. Participants were asked to take the MAI again in 2–3 weeks, in person or by post, to assess test-retest reliability. Recruitment data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. Results Of 1503 persons approached during recruitment, 400 enrolled (27 %—100 per language group. The enrollment rates in the language groups were: Arabic-32 %; English-33 %; Hindi-18 %; Urdu-30 %. The groups varied somewhat in their preferences regarding consent procedure, follow-up survey administration, contact mode for follow-up reminders, and disclosure of personal mailing address (for postal follow-up. Over all, telephone was the preferred medium for follow-up reminders. Of 64 persons who accepted a research assistant’s invitation for in-person follow-up, 40 participants completed the interview (follow-up rate, 63 %; among 126 persons in the postal group with a deliverable address, 29 participants mailed back a completed follow-up survey (response rate, 23 %. Conclusions Researchers in the Arabian Gulf face challenges to successfully identify, enroll, and retain eligible study participants. Although bilingual assistants

  2. Supporting evidence-based medicine: a survey of U.S. medical librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Wu, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to identify medical librarians' roles in supporting evidence-based medicine (EBM) practice; determine whether medical librarians' work settings, work experiences, or job titles made a difference in their EBM responsibilities; and find out medical librarians' perceptions of their roles in EBM practice. An online survey was distributed to U.S. medical librarians. The results showed that medical librarians had positive perceptions of their EBM-related responsibilities, which were diverse and specific. Their work experience, work settings, and job title categories related to some of their EBM responsibilities, as well as the nature of some of the responsibilities.

  3. Survey of laboratory findings in suspected cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Denmark from 1990 to 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Tegtmeier, C.L.; Nielsen, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    . A total of 176 submissions were made, mostly from bovines with neurological disorders and mainly during the last 3 years of this period. Lesions or other laboratory findings consistent with severe neurological disorders were found in 115 cases. The most frequent diagnosis was encephalic 41 p listeriosis...

  4. Patterns of smoking among adolescents in Malaysia and Thailand: findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Kin, Foong; Prohmmo, Aree; Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Lian, Tan Y; Sharma, Sharad K; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2008-01-01

    At present, 70% of the world's 1.1 billion smokers are in developing countries, with over 50% in Asia alone. The current study examined patterns of youth smoking in Thailand and Malaysia. Respondents were 2002 youths between the ages of 13 and 17 from Thailand (n = 1000) and Malaysia (n = 1002). Respondents were selected using a multistage cluster sampling design and surveyed between January 2005 and March 2005. Approximately 3% of youth between the ages of 13 and 17 were current smokers, with an additional 10% to 12% reporting experimental smoking. Males were between 7 and 15 times more likely to report smoking behavior than females. Less than 1% of females respondents in either country met the criteria for current smoking, and less than 5% met the criteria for experimental smoking. In contrast, more than 50% Thai males and approximately one-third of Malaysian males aged 17 met the criteria for either experimental or current smoking.

  5. Prevalence and Religious Predictors of Healing Prayer Use in the USA: Findings from the Baylor Religion Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Using data from the 2010 Baylor Religion Survey (N = 1714), this study investigates the prevalence and religious predictors of healing prayer use among US adults. Indicators include prayed for self (lifetime prevalence = 78.8 %), prayed for others (87.4 %), asked for prayer (54.1 %), laying-on-of-hands (26.1 %), and participated in a prayer group (53.0 %). Each was regressed onto eight religious measures, and then again controlling for sociodemographic variables and health. While all religious measures had net effects on at least one healing prayer indicator, the one consistent predictor was a four-item scale assessing a loving relationship with God. Higher scores were associated with more frequent healing prayer use according to every measure, after controlling for all other religious variables and covariates.

  6. Social Inequalities in Self-Reported Health in Eastern European Countries: Findings from the European Social Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    According to the WHO in all countries – whether low-, middle- or high-income – there are wide differences in the health status of different social groups. The purpose of this paper is to identify the possible socio-economic inequalities in self-reported health among the population of seven Eastern...... European countries (Bulgaria, Czech republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine, and Russian Federation) by exploring the associations of the socio-economic determinants of health with poor self-reported health. Data for this study is derived from the European Social Survey. Respondents from six collected...... of this research show the existence of some socio-demographic and socio-economic inequalities in self-reported health among the population of seven Eastern European countries...

  7. Girl child marriage and its effect on fertility in Pakistan: findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Muazzam, Sana; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Raj, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Child marriage (before 18 years) is prevalent in Pakistan, which disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and low education households. Our study aims to determine the association between early marriage and high fertility and poor fertility health indicators among young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally representative data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, a cross-sectional observational survey, were limited to ever-married women aged 20-24 years (n = 1,560; 15% of 10,023) to identify differences in poor fertility outcomes [high fertility (three or more childbirths); rapid repeat childbirth (marriage. Associations between child marriage and fertility outcomes were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AORs) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence), contraception use, marriage duration and culture-specific factors (husband's desire for more children, son preference). Overall, 50% of ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. Girl child marriage was significantly (p marriage was significantly associated with high fertility (AOR 6.62; 95% CI 3.53-12.43), rapid repeat childbirth (AOR 2.88; 95% CI 1.83-4.54), unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.90; 95% CI 1.75-4.79), and pregnancy termination (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.10-2.78). Girl child marriage affects half of all ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan, and increases their risk for high fertility and poor fertility health indicators, highlighting the need of increasing the age of marriage among women in Pakistan. Efforts to eliminate girl child marriage by strict law enforcement, promoting civil, sexual and reproductive health rights for women can help eliminate girl child marriage in Pakistan.

  8. Intention to quit among Indian tobacco users: Findings from International Tobacco Control Policy evaluation India pilot survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Surani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco users face barriers not just in quitting, but also in thinking about quitting. The aim of this study was to understand factors encouraging intention to quit from the 2006 International Tobacco Control Policy (TCP Evaluation India Pilot Study Survey. Materials and Methods: A total of 764 adult respondents from urban and rural areas of Maharashtra and Bihar were surveyed through face-to-face individual interviews, with a house-to-house approach. Dependent variable was "intention to quit tobacco." Independent variables were demographic variables, peer influence, damage perception, receiving advice to quit, and referral to cessation services by healthcare professionals and exposure to anti-tobacco messages. Logistic regression model was used with odds ratio adjusted for location, age, gender, and marital status for statistical analysis. Results: Of 493 tobacco users, 32.5% intended to quit. More numbers of users who were unaware about their friends′ tobacco use intended to quit compared to those who were aware (adjusted OR = 8.06, 95% CI = 4.58-14.19. Higher numbers of users who felt tobacco has damaged their health intended to quit compared to those who did not feel that way (adjusted OR = 5.62, 95% CI = 3.53-8.96. More numbers of users exposed to anti-tobacco messages in newspapers/magazines (adjusted OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.02-3.03, restaurants (adjusted OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.37-4.46, radio (adjusted OR=4.84, 95% CI = 3.01-7.78, cinema halls (adjusted OR = 9.22, 95% CI = 5.31-15.75, and public transportation (adjusted OR = 10.58, 95% = 5.90-18.98 intended to quit compared to unexposed users. Conclusion: Anti-tobacco messages have positive influence on user′s intentions to quit.

  9. Prevalence and predictors of smoking in "smoke-free" bars. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Mons, Ute; Allwright, Shane; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C

    2011-05-01

    National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second aim was to assess individual smokers' predictors of smoking in bars post-ban. The third aim was to examine country differences in predictors and the fourth aim was to examine differences between educational levels (as an indicator of socioeconomic status). This study used nationally representative samples of 3147 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys who were surveyed pre- and post-ban. The results reveal that while the partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands and Germany was effective in reducing smoking in bars (from 88% to 34% and from 87% to 44%, respectively), the effectiveness was much lower than the comprehensive legislation in Ireland and France which almost completely eliminated smoking in bars (from 97% to 3% and from 84% to 3% respectively). Smokers who were more supportive of the ban, were more aware of the harm of SHS, and who had negative opinions of smoking were less likely to smoke in bars post-ban. Support for the ban was a stronger predictor in Germany. SHS harm awareness was a stronger predictor among less educated smokers in the Netherlands and Germany. The results indicate the need for strong comprehensive smoke-free legislation without exceptions. This should be accompanied by educational campaigns in which the public health rationale for the legislation is clearly explained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and predictors of smoking in “smoke-free” bars. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Mons, Ute; Allwright, Shane; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C.

    2015-01-01

    National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second aim was to assess individual smokers’ predictors of smoking in bars post-ban. The third aim was to examine country differences in predictors and the fourth aim to examine differences between educational levels (as an indicator of socioeconomic status). This study used nationally representative samples of 3,147 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys who were surveyed pre- and post-ban. The results reveal that while the partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands and Germany was effective in reducing smoking in bars (from 88% to 34% and from 87% to 44% respectively), the effectiveness was much lower than the comprehensive legislation in Ireland and France which almost completely eliminated smoking in bars (from 97% to 3% and from 84% to 3% respectively). Smokers who were more supportive of the ban, were more aware of the harm of SHS, and who had negative opinions of smoking were less likely to smoke in bars post-ban. Support for the ban was a stronger predictor in Germany. SHS harm awareness was a stronger predictor among less educated smokers in the Netherlands and Germany. The results indicate the need for strong comprehensive smoke-free legislation without exceptions. This should be accompanied by educational campaigns in which the public health rationale for the legislation is clearly explained. PMID:21497973

  11. Acculturation, physical activity and television viewing in Hispanic women: findings from the 2005 California Women's Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banna, Jinan C; Kaiser, Lucia L; Drake, Christiana; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship of acculturation with physical activity and sedentary behaviours among Hispanic women in California. Design Data from the 2005 California Women's Health Survey (CWHS) – a cross-sectional telephonic survey of health indicators and health-related behaviours and attitudes – were used. Setting Using a random-digit dialling process, data were collected monthly from January to December 2005. Subjects A total of 1298 women aged ≥18 years in California who self-identified as Hispanic. Results Of the participants included in the analysis, 49% were adherent to physical activity recommendations (with 150 min of weekly activity signifying adherence). There was no significant association between language acculturation and moderate or vigorous physical activity after controlling for potential confounders such as smoking, age and employment status. There was also no association between duration of residence in the USA and moderate or vigorous physical activity. Language acculturation was positively associated with television (TV) viewing, with highly acculturated women reporting more hours of TV viewing compared with women with an intermediate acculturation score (P=0.0001), and those with an intermediate score reporting more hours of TV viewing compared with those with a low score (P=0.003). This relationship persisted after inclusion of smoking, employment status, age and education in the model. Conclusions Higher levels of language acculturation may be associated with increased sedentary behaviours because of the influence of US culture on those women who have assimilated to the culture. Acculturation is an important factor to be taken into account when designing health education interventions for the Hispanic female population. PMID:21794203

  12. A cross-country comparison of secondhand smoke exposure among adults: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A; Mirza, Sara A; Babb, Stephen D

    2013-07-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among non-smoking adults and children. The objective of this study was to determine the nature, extent and demographic correlates of SHS exposure among adults in low- and middle-income countries with a high burden of tobacco use. Data were obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a nationally representative household survey of individuals 15 years of age or older. Interviews were conducted during 2008-2010 in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, the Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Vietnam. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the prevalence and correlates of SHS exposure in homes, workplaces, government buildings, restaurants, public transportation and healthcare facilities. Exposure to SHS in the home ranged from 17.3% (Mexico) to 73.1% (Vietnam). Among those who work in an indoor area outside the home, SHS exposure in the workplace ranged from 16.5% (Uruguay) to 63.3% (China). Exposure to SHS ranged from 6.9% (Uruguay) to 72.7% (Egypt) in government buildings, 4.4% (Uruguay) to 88.5% (China) in restaurants, 5.4% (Uruguay) to 79.6% (Egypt) on public transportation, and 3.8% (Uruguay) to 49.2% (Egypt) in healthcare facilities. A large proportion of adults living in low- and middle-income countries are exposed to SHS in their homes, workplaces, and other public places. Countries can enact and enforce legislation requiring 100% smoke-free public places and workplaces, and can also conduct educational initiatives to reduce SHS exposure in homes.

  13. Consumer education needed on norovirus prevention and control: findings from a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Sheryl C; Kosa, Katherine M; Brophy, Jenna E; Hall, Aron J; Fraser, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of foodborne disease in the United States; however, little is known about consumers' knowledge of NoV infection and their understanding of how to prevent and control associated illness. A nationally representative Web-enabled panel survey of U.S. adults (n = 1,051) was conducted to collect information on consumers' awareness and knowledge of NoVs. Respondents who had heard of NoVs were asked 22 true-and-false questions on the transmission, prevention, and control of NoVs. Forty-seven percent of respondents reported awareness of NoVs, and 85% of respondents had heard of the terms "cruise ship virus," "the stomach bug," or "the stomach flu," which are commonly used to describe NoVs. Of those respondents who had previously heard of NoV or other terms used by consumers to describe NoV (n = 948), 36% correctly answered 11 or more of the 22 true-and-false questions, suggesting that consumers have limited knowledge on how to prevent and control NoV infection. Most consumers do not understand that the primary mode of transmission for NoV infection is fecal to oral, and many have the misperception that meat and poultry are sources of NoV infection. There is the need to educate consumers about how to prevent and control NoV infection. Although there is a proliferation of food safety education materials available, most focus on foodborne bacteria rather than viruses. The survey results will be used to revise existing consumer food safety educational materials to include information on NoV prevention and control.

  14. Residential exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and its associates: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Expanding the information on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS at home and its associates is of great public health importance. The aim of the current analysis was to evaluate associates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among economically active male and female adults in Poland in their place of residence. Material and Methods: Data on the representative sample of 7840 adults from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS carried out in Poland in the years 2009 and 2010 were applied. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey is a nationally representative household study. The logistic regression model was used for relevant calculations. Results: The exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the place of living affected 59% of studied subjects. Out of non-smokers 42% of males and 46% females were exposed to the ETS in the at home. Increased risk of residential ETS exposure was associated with low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of second hand smoke (SHS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, living with a smoker. One of the factors associated with the ETS exposure was also the approval for smoking at home of both genders. The residential ETS exposure risk was the highest among males (odds ratio (OR = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI: 6.1–13.8, p < 0.001 and females (OR = 8.1, 95% CI 6.5–11.8, p < 0.001 who declared that smoking was allowed in their place of residence compared to respondents who implemented smoking bans at their place of residence. Conclusions: Campaigns to decrease social acceptance of smoking and encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules at home might decrease the ETS exposure and reduce related risks to the health of the Polish population. Educational interventions to warn about adverse health effects of the ETS should be broadly implemented particularly in high risk subpopulations.

  15. Cigarette price and other factors associated with brand choice and brand loyalty in Zambia: findings from the ITC Zambia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Goma, Fastone; Chelwa, Grieve; Cheng, Xi; Zulu, Richard; Kaai, Susan C; Quah, Anne C K; Thrasher, James F; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about cigarette pricing and brand loyalty in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines these issues in Zambia, analysing data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Zambia Survey. Data from Wave 1 of the ITC Zambia Survey (2012) were analysed for current smokers of factory-made (FM) cigarettes compared with those who smoked both FM and roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes, using multivariate logistic regression models to identify the predictors of brand loyalty and reasons for brand choice. 75% of FM-only smokers and 64% of FM+RYO smokers reported having a regular brand. Compared with FM-only smokers, FM+RYO smokers were, on average, older (28% vs 20% ≥40 years), low income (64% vs 43%) and had lower education (76% vs 44% 1 year) if they were aged 15-17 years (vs 40-54 years) and if they had moderate (vs low) income. Brand choice was predicted mostly by friends, taste and brand popularity. Price was more likely to be a reason for brand loyalty among FM+RYO smokers, among ≥55-year-old smokers and among those who reported being more addicted to cigarettes. These results in Zambia document the high levels of brand loyalty in a market where price variation is fairly small across cigarette brands. Future research is needed on longitudinal trends to evaluate the effect of tobacco control policies in Zambia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Increasing syringe access and HIV prevention in California: findings from a survey of local health jurisdiction key personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopka, Thomas J; Garfein, Richard S; Ross, Alessandra; Truax, Steven R

    2007-01-01

    This article presents results from the first survey of California local health jurisdictions (LHJs) subsequent to passage of legislation that allows for over-the-counter pharmacy sales of syringes. In 2004 Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed Senate Bill 1159 (SB1159) into law to "prevent the spread of HIV, hepatitis and other blood-borne disease among drug users, their sexual partners and their children." This legislation permits counties and cities to authorize a local disease prevention demonstration project (DPDP). Once authorized, a DPDP permits individuals to legally purchase and possess up to ten syringes from registered pharmacies without a doctor's prescription. From June to August 2005, we surveyed health departments in all 61 LHJs to assess implementation status of SB1159. Fifty-seven (93%) LHJs responded. Nine (16%) had approved a DPDP by August 2005, 17 (30%) were in the process of obtaining authorization, and 18 (32%) anticipated that SB1159 would never be authorized in their LHJ. Among LHJs that do not plan to approve a DPDP (n = 18), the reasons included: strong community opposition (41%), competing priorities (35%), law enforcement opposition (29%), and little or no interest among pharmacies (29%). In LHJs that have authorized a DPDP, 31.4% of pharmacies registered to legally sell nonprescription syringes. Preliminary results indicate that local coalitions, comprised of public health, waste management and pharmacy officials, have been instrumental in facilitating DPDP authorization. Further research is needed to identify facilitators and barriers to adopting SB1159, to identify areas for improving technical assistance to implementers, and to assess the public health impact of the legislation.

  17. Occupational burnout among radiographers, sonographers and radiologists in Australia and New Zealand: Findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nabita; Knight, Kellie; Wright, Caroline; Baird, Marilyn; Akroyd, Duane; Adams, Robert D; Schneider, Michal E

    2017-06-01

    Evidence demonstrates that health care professionals are more prone to burnout than other professionals due to the emotionally taxing interactions they have with their patients on a daily basis. The aims of this study were to measure occupational burnout levels among sonographers, radiographers and radiologists and to examine predictors of burnout according to demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional online survey was administered in 2010 to radiographers, sonographers and radiologists who were members of the following professional bodies: Australian Institute of Radiography, Australian Sonographers Association and The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to measure burnout levels for each profession. Data were analysed using SPSS Ver 20 (IBM, Chicago, IL, USA) statistical software. A total of 613 radiographers, 121 sonographers and 35 radiologists participated in the survey. Radiographers, sonographers and radiologists had a high mean (±SD) burnout score for emotional exhaustion (39.9 ± 8.5, 42.2 ± 8.5 and 44.9 ± 7.1 respectively) and depersonalization (18.9 ± 5.5, 20.3 ± 5.8 and 20.6 ± 5.6) compared to MBI norms. Radiographers also had low personal achievement (30.8 ± 5.5) compared to MBI norms. Radiographers and sonographers who were male, worked >10 hours overtime and spent Burnout levels among radiographers, sonographers and radiologists are high and likely to vary according to some demographic and work-related factors. Further research is needed to examine ways to alleviate burnout in these professions so that loss of experienced staff due to burnout can be minimized and quality of patient care can be maintained. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  18. ROUGH SET BASED CLUSTERING OF GENE EXPRESSION DATA: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.JEBA EMILYN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Microarray technology has now made it possible to simultaneously monitor the expression levels of thousands of genes during important biological processes and across collections of related samples. But the high dimensionality property of gene expression data makes it difficult to be analyzed. Lot of clustering algorithms are available for clustering. In this paper we first briefly introduce the concepts of microarray technology and discuss the basic elements of clustering on gene expression data. Then we introduce rough clustering and itsadvantage over strict and fuzzy clustering is explored. We also explain why rough clustering is preferred over other conventional methods by presenting a survey on few clustering algorithms based on rough set theory for gene expression data. We conclude by stating that this area proves to be potential research field for the researchcommunity.

  19. What Sort of Girl Wants to Study Physics after the Age of 16? Findings from a Large-Scale UK Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of 15-year-old girls who express an intention to study physics post-16. This paper unpacks issues around within-girl group differences and similarities between boys and girls in survey responses about physics. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 UK…

  20. A SAT-based algorithm for finding attractors in synchronous Boolean networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrova, Elena; Teslenko, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of finding attractors in synchronous Boolean networks. The existing Boolean decision diagram-based algorithms have limited capacity due to the excessive memory requirements of decision diagrams. The simulation-based algorithms can be applied to larger networks, however, they are incomplete. We present an algorithm, which uses a SAT-based bounded model checking to find all attractors in a Boolean network. The efficiency of the presented algorithm is evaluated by analyzing seven networks models of real biological processes, as well as 150,000 randomly generated Boolean networks of sizes between 100 and 7,000. The results show that our approach has a potential to handle an order of magnitude larger models than currently possible.

  1. GIS-BASED ROUTE FINDING USING ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION AND URBAN TRAFFIC DATA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davoodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays traffic data is obtained from multiple sources including GPS, Video Vehicle Detectors (VVD, Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR, Floating Car Data (FCD, VANETs, etc. All such data can be used for route finding. This paper proposes a model for finding the optimum route based on the integration of traffic data from different sources. Ant Colony Optimization is applied in this paper because the concept of this method (movement of ants in a network is similar to urban road network and movements of cars. The results indicate that this model is capable of incorporating data from different sources, which may even be inconsistent.

  2. Rough set based decision rule generation to find behavioural patterns of customers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L SUMALATHA; P UMA SANKAR; B SUJATHA

    2016-09-01

    Rough sets help in finding significant attributes of large data sets and generating decision rules for classifying new instances. Though multiple regression analysis, discriminant analysis, log-it analysis and several other techniques can be used for predicting results, they consider insignificant information also for processing which may lead to false positives and false negatives. In this study, we proposed rough set based decision rule generation framework to find reduct and to generate decision rules for predicting the Decision class. We conducted experiments over data of Portuguese Banking institution. From the proposed method, the dimensionality of data is reduced and decision rules are generated which predicts deposit nature of customers by 90%accuracy.

  3. FPGA-Based Approach to Level-1 Track Finding at CMS for the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bartz, Edward Hugo; Gershtein, Yury; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hildreth, Michael; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lannon, Kevin Patrick; Lefeld, Anthony James; Ryd, Anders Per Erik; Skinnari, Louise; Stone, Robert; Strohman, Charles Ralph; Tao, Zhengcheng; Winer, Brian; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret Eldridge

    2017-01-01

    During the High Luminosity LHC, to maintain a manageable trigger rate and achieve its physics goals, the CMS detector will need charged particle tracking at the hardware trigger level. The tracklet approach is a track-finding algorithm based on a road-search algorithm that has been implemented on commercially available FPGA technology. This algorithm has achieved high performance in track-finding and completes tracking within 3.4 $\\mu$s on a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA. An overview of the algorithm and its implementation on an FPGA is given, results are shown from a demonstrator test stand and system performance studies are presented.

  4. The balanced scorecard as a potential instrument for supporting planning and improvement in accounting education: Comparative survey findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJ Cronje

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is firstly a comparison of the components of a potential balanced scorecard for accounting departments of universities in South Africa and Australia. Secondly, the various suggested measurement criteria of the balanced scorecard components are also compared. The findings of the research paper indicate no significant differences. The conclusion is that the balanced scorecard constitutes a potential instrument for supporting the planning and improvement of the accounting education environment.

  5. Avatar Web-Based Self-Report Survey System Technology for Public Health Research: Technical Outcome Results and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savel, Craig; Mierzwa, Stan; Gorbach, Pamina M; Souidi, Samir; Lally, Michelle; Zimet, Gregory; Interventions, Aids

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a specific Web-based self-report data collection system that was developed for a public health research study in the United States. Our focus is on technical outcome results and lessons learned that may be useful to other projects requiring such a solution. The system was accessible from any device that had a browser that supported HTML5. Report findings include: which hardware devices, Web browsers, and operating systems were used; the rate of survey completion; and key considerations for employing Web-based surveys in a clinical trial setting.

  6. Avatar Web-Based Self-Report Survey System Technology for Public Health Research: Technical Outcome Results and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savel, Craig; Mierzwa, Stan; Gorbach, Pamina M.; Souidi, Samir; Lally, Michelle; Zimet, Gregory; Interventions, AIDS

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a specific Web-based self-report data collection system that was developed for a public health research study in the United States. Our focus is on technical outcome results and lessons learned that may be useful to other projects requiring such a solution. The system was accessible from any device that had a browser that supported HTML5. Report findings include: which hardware devices, Web browsers, and operating systems were used; the rate of survey completion; and key considerations for employing Web-based surveys in a clinical trial setting. PMID:28149445

  7. The MS Choices Survey: findings of a study assessing physician and patient perspectives on living with and managing multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riñon A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Riñon1, Mandy Buch2, Derek Holley2, Elisabetta Verdun11Merck Serono S.A. – Geneva, Switzerland, a branch of Merck Serono S.A., Coinsins, Switzerland, an affiliate of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany; 2GfK Healthcare, London, UKBackground: Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS with disease-modifying drugs (DMDs can reduce relapse frequency and delay disability progression. Although adherence to DMDs is difficult to measure accurately, evidence suggests that poor adherence is common and can compromise treatment success. There are likely to be multiple factors underlying poor adherence. To better understand these factors, the global MS Choices Survey investigated patient and physician perspectives regarding key aspects of MS diagnosis, treatment adherence and persistence, and disease management.Methods: The survey was conducted in seven countries and involved patients with MS (age 18–60 years; MS diagnosis for ≥1 year; current treatment with a DMD and physicians (neurologist for 3–30 years; treating ≥15 patients with MS per average month; >60% of time spent in clinical practice. Separate questionnaires were used for physicians and patients, each containing approximately 30 questions.Results: Questionnaires were completed by 331 patients and 280 physicians. Several differences were observed between the responses of patients and physicians, particularly for questions relating to treatment adherence. Overall, the proportion of patients reporting taking a treatment break (31% was almost twice that estimated by physicians (on average 17%. The reasons cited for poor adherence also differed between patients and physicians. For example, more physicians cited side effects as the main reason for poor patient adherence (82%, than responding patients (42%.Conclusions: Physicians may underestimate the scale of poor adherence to DMDs, which could impact on their assessment of treatment efficacy and result in inappropriate treatment escalation. In

  8. Socio-Economic Variation in Price Minimizing Behaviors: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Four Country Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar Nargis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of adult smokers and includes respondents from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed among 8,243 respondents (7,038 current smokers from the survey wave conducted between October 2006 and February 2007. Analyses examined predictors of purchasing from low/untaxed sources, using discount cigarettes or roll-your-own (RYO tobacco, purchasing cigarettes in cartons, and engaging in high levels of price and tax avoidance at last purchase. All analyses tested for interactions with SES and were weighted to account for changing and under-represented demographics. Relatively high levels of price and tax avoidance behaviors were present; 8% reported buying from low or untaxed source; 36% used discount or generic brands, 13.5% used RYO tobacco, 29% reported purchasing cartons, and 63% reported using at least one of these high price avoidance behaviors. Respondents categorized as having low SES were approximately 26% less likely to report using low or untaxed sources and 43% less likely to purchase tobacco by the carton. However, respondents with low SES were 85% more likely to report using discount brands/RYO compared to participants with higher SES. Overall, lower SES smokers were 25% more likely to engage in at least one or more tax avoidance behaviors compared to their higher SES counterparts. Price and tax avoidance behaviors are relatively common among smokers of all SES strata, but strategies differed with higher SES groups more likely to report traveling to a low-tax location to avoid paying higher prices, purchase duty free tobacco, and purchase by cartons instead of packs all of

  9. Comorbidity of common mental disorders with cancer and their treatment gap: Findings from the World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Levav, Itzhak; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Florescu, Slivia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Hu, Chiyi; de Jonge, Peter; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Stein, Dan J.; Taib, Nezar Ismet; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the comorbidity of common mental disorders (CMDs) and cancer, and the mental health treatment gap among community residents with active cancer, cancer survivors and cancer-free respondents in 13 high- and 11 low-middle income countries. Methods Data were derived from the World Mental Health Surveys (N=66,387; n=357 active cancer, n=1,373 cancer survivors, n=64,657 cancer free respondents). The WHO/Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used in all surveys to estimate CMDs prevalence rates. Respondents were also asked about mental health service utilization in the preceding 12 months. Cancer status was ascertained by self-report of physician’s diagnosis. Results Twelve month prevalence rates of CMDs were higher among active cancer (18.4% SE=2.1) than cancer free respondents (13.3%, SE=0.2) adjusted for socio-demographic confounders and other lifetime chronic conditions (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.44 95% CI 1.05–1.97). CMD rates among cancer survivors (14.6% SE=0.9) compared with cancer-free respondents did not differ significantly (AOR=0.95 95% CI 0.82–1.11). Similar patterns characterized high and low-middle income countries. Of respondents with active cancer who had CMD in the preceding 12 months 59% sought services for mental health problems (SE=5.3). The pattern of service utilization among people with CMDs by cancer status (highest among persons with active cancer, lower among survivors and lowest among cancer-free respondents) was similar in high- (64.0% SE=6.0, 41.2% SE=3.0, 35.6% SE=0.6) and low-middle income countries (46.4% SE=11.0, 22.5% SE=9.1, 17.4% SE=0.7). Conclusions Community respondents with active cancer have relatively higher CMD rates and relatively high treatment gap. Comprehensive cancer care should consider both factors. PMID:23983079

  10. Dentists' use of caries risk assessment in children: findings from the Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riley, Joseph L; Qvist, Vebeke; Fellows, Jeffrey L

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) member dentists (from four regions in the U.S. and Scandinavia) who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey asked a range of questions about caries risk assessment in patients aged 6 to 18. Among respondents, 73...

  11. The Elementary School Performance and Adjustment of Children Who Enter Kindergarten Late or Repeat Kindergarten: Findings from National Surveys. National Household Education Survey. Statistical Analysis Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Nicholas; Loomis, Laura Spencer; West, Jerry

    Some parents have chosen to delay their children's enrollment in kindergarten by a year because of individual differences in the pace and pattern of children's development. In other situations, some schools recommend delaying a child's school entry based on "readiness" testing or require that some kindergartners attend kindergarten for a…

  12. Finding the multipath propagation of multivariable crude oil prices using a wavelet-based network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoliang; An, Haizhong; Sun, Xiaoqi; Huang, Xuan; Gao, Xiangyun

    2016-04-01

    The globalization and regionalization of crude oil trade inevitably give rise to the difference of crude oil prices. The understanding of the pattern of the crude oil prices' mutual propagation is essential for analyzing the development of global oil trade. Previous research has focused mainly on the fuzzy long- or short-term one-to-one propagation of bivariate oil prices, generally ignoring various patterns of periodical multivariate propagation. This study presents a wavelet-based network approach to help uncover the multipath propagation of multivariable crude oil prices in a joint time-frequency period. The weekly oil spot prices of the OPEC member states from June 1999 to March 2011 are adopted as the sample data. First, we used wavelet analysis to find different subseries based on an optimal decomposing scale to describe the periodical feature of the original oil price time series. Second, a complex network model was constructed based on an optimal threshold selection to describe the structural feature of multivariable oil prices. Third, Bayesian network analysis (BNA) was conducted to find the probability causal relationship based on periodical structural features to describe the various patterns of periodical multivariable propagation. Finally, the significance of the leading and intermediary oil prices is discussed. These findings are beneficial for the implementation of periodical target-oriented pricing policies and investment strategies.

  13. Trends in Roll-Your-Own Smoking: Findings from the ITC Four-Country Survey (2002–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Young

    2012-01-01

    Methods. Participants were 19,456 cigarette smokers interviewed during the longitudinal International Tobacco Control (ITC Four-Country Survey in Canada, USA, UK, and Australia. Results. “Predominant” RYO use (i.e., >50% of cigarettes smoked increased significantly in the UK and USA as a proportion of all cigarette use (both P<.001 and in all countries as a proportion of any RYO use (all P<.010. Younger, financially stressed smokers are disproportionately contributing to “some” use (i.e., ≤50% of cigarettes smoked. Relative cost was the major reason given for using RYO, and predominant RYO use is consistently and significantly associated with low income. Conclusions. RYO market trends reflect the price advantages accruing to RYO (a product of favourable taxation regimes in some jurisdictions reinforced by the enhanced control over the amount of tobacco used, especially following the impact of the Global Financial Crisis; the availability of competing low-cost alternatives to RYO; accessibility of duty-free RYO tobacco; and tobacco industry niche marketing strategies. If policy makers want to ensure that the RYO option does not inhibit the fight to end the tobacco epidemic, especially amongst the disadvantaged, they need to reduce the price advantage, target additional health messages at (young RYO users, and challenge niche marketing of RYO by the industry.

  14. Association between domestic violence and unintended pregnancies in India: findings from the National Family Health Survey-2 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahina; Dwivedi, S N; Pandey, Arvind; Mittal, Suneeta

    2010-01-01

    Violence against women, especially by their husbands, is a serious public health issue that is associated with physical, reproductive and mental health consequences. The association between physical violence and unintended pregnancies has not been explored in India. Data were drawn from the second round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2), India conducted in 1998-99. Unintended pregnancy, defined as a pregnancy that was not wanted at the time of conception, was the dependent variable. A set of independent covariates such as age, place of residence, education, working status, religion, standard of living index, type of family, number of surviving sons, use of contraceptive methods, pregnancies terminated and physical mistreatment by the husband were evaluated using a step-wise multiple logistic regression model. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that women who had been physically mistreated by their husbands were 47% (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.25-1.72) more likely to experience unintended pregnancies. Preventing physical violence against women by their husbands could reduce unintended pregnancies.

  15. Cigarette prices, cigarette expenditure and smoking-induced deprivation: findings from the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Thrasher, James F; Yong, Hua H; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Miera, Belén Saenz; Borland, Ron

    2013-07-01

    Mexico implemented annual tax increases between 2009 and 2011. We examined among current smokers the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with smoking-induced deprivation (SID) and whether the association of price or expenditure with SID varies by income. We used data (n=2410) from three waves of the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey (ie, 2008, 2010, 2011) and employed logistic regression to estimate the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with the probability of SID ('In the last 6 months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?'). Price paid per cigarette increased from Mex$1.24 in 2008, to Mex$1.36 in 2010, to Mex$1.64 in 2011. Daily cigarette expenditure increased from Mex$6.9, to Mex$7.6 and to Mex$8.4 in the 3 years. There was no evidence of an association between price and SID. However, higher expenditure was associated with a higher probability of SID. There was no evidence that the association of price or expenditure with SID varied by income. Tax increases in Mexico have resulted in smokers paying more and spending more for their cigarettes. Those with higher cigarette expenditure experience more SID, with no evidence that poorer smokers are more affected.

  16. Findings of the wetland survey of the David Witherspoon, Inc., 1630 Site, South Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR Environmental, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    In accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Regulations surveys for wetland presence or absence were conducted in September 1996 on the DWI-1630 site (Witherspoon Landfill) located in South Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee. The DWI-1630 site includes a closed, capped landfill area, areas of past disturbance adjacent to the capped area, and patches of hardwood forest. Wetlands were identified on the landfill cap and in a small bottomland that was formerly used for a retention pond in the southwest corner of the DWI-1630 site. The wetlands identified on the cap are man-induced, atypical situation wetlands. These areas have hydrophytic vegetation and wetland hydrology, but the soils do not have hydric characteristics. Wetland development appears to be due to a combination of the grading or subsidence of the clay landfill cap, the low permeability of the clay fill soil, and the absence of surface drainage outlets from the depressions. These atypical situation wetland areas may not be considered by the US Army Corps of Engineers or the State of Tennessee to be jurisdictional wetlands. The wetland in the former retention pond area has hydrophytic vegetation, wetland hydrology, and hydric soils and is a jurisdictional wetland.

  17. LGBT health and vaccinations: Findings from a community health survey of Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Poole, Asheley; Lasley-Bibbs, Vivian; Johnson, Mark

    2016-04-07

    Data on adult immunization coverage at the state level and for LGBT Americans in particular are sparse. This study reports the results of a 2012 Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, community health assessment's results asking about eight adult vaccinations among 218 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) respondents. Researchers collected data using an online survey distributed through LGBT social media, posters, and LGBT print media. The LGBT sample largely matches the demographics of the county as a whole except this group reports higher level of education and fewer uninsured individuals. Among LGBT respondents, immunization prevalence reaches 68.0% (annual Influenza), 65.7% (Hepatitis B), 58.8% (Chickenpox/Varicella), 55.9% (Hepatitis A), 41.2% (Smallpox), and 25.8% (Pneumonia). Among respondents who are currently within the recommended 19-26 years age range for the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the LGBT females are less likely to report receiving the vaccine (15.4%) compared to the national coverage percentage of 34.5%. Males, however, are more likely to have received the vaccine (10.3%) than the national percentage of 2.3%. The small number of LGBT seniors in the study report a much higher prevalence of the Shingles (Herpes Zoster) vaccines than for U.S. seniors 60 and older (71.4% compared to 20.1% nationally). LGBT respondents report higher percentages of adult vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Migration and depressive symptoms in migrant-sending areas: findings from the survey of internal migration and health in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Hu, Peifeng; Treiman, Donald J

    2012-08-01

    China has experienced large-scale internal migration and growing mental health disorders. Limited research has examined the relationship between the two processes. We examined the association between labor out-migration and depressive symptoms of family members left behind in migrant-sending areas. We conducted a multistage probability sample survey of Chinese adults in 2008 ("Internal Migration and Health in China"), including 787 people in rural migrant-sending areas. To study whether adults in out-migrant households were more likely to experience depressive symptoms (CES-D) than were adults in non-migrant households, we used multivariate regressions and adjusted for a wide range of confounding factors and for the complex sampling design. Adults in households with labor out-migrants were more likely to report depressive symptoms than those in households without out-migrants, presumably a result of the absence of family members. However, monetary remittances from labor migrants buffered the mental health costs of out-migration. Labor out-migration has important consequences for the mental health in migrant-sending communities. There is an urgent need to address the psychological costs of migration and to promote regular remittances.

  19. Relationships between problematic internet use and problem-gambling severity: findings from a high-school survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Yvonne H C; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen J; Hoff, Rani A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-01-01

    With the popularity of Internet use among adolescents, there is concern that some youth may display problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. Although excessive patterns of Internet use was considered for inclusion in the DSM-5 with pathological gambling and substance-use disorders in a category of addictive disorders, it was determined that more research was needed on Internet-use behaviors before such actions be further considered and possibly undertaken. The present study is the first to investigate whether at-risk/problematic Internet use (ARPIU) may moderate the strength of association between problem-gambling severity and gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures in adolescents. Survey data from 1884 Connecticut high-school student stratified by Internet use (ARPIU vs. non-ARPIU) were examined in bivariate analyses and logistic regression models. Gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures were mostly positively associated with problem-gambling severity in both Internet use groups. Interaction odds ratio revealed that the strength of the associations between problem-gambling severity and marijuana, alcohol and caffeine use were stronger amongst the non-ARPIU compared to the ARPIU group, suggesting that the relationships between these substance use behaviors and problem gambling may be partially accounted for by ARPIU. Future studies should examine the extent to which preventative interventions targeting both problematic Internet use and problem gambling may synergistically benefit measures of health and reduce risk-taking behaviors in adolescence.

  20. Sociodemographic factors associated with obstacles to abortion care: findings from a survey of abortion patients in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Davida; Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Juarez, Clara; Garcia, Sandra G; Sanhueza Smith, Patricio; Harper, Cynthia C

    2011-01-01

    First-trimester abortion was legalized in Mexico City in 2007, and services are now provided at public and private sites throughout the city. However, little is known about the obstacles women face when seeking abortion care. We surveyed women who obtained abortion services (n = 398) at three public sector facilities in Mexico City to identify the obstacles women faced when obtaining abortions. We used logistic regression to test whether obstacles varied by sociodemographic characteristics. Women with low education were more likely than high school-educated women to report difficulty getting appointments. Unmarried women and women with low education were more likely than married women or high school educated women to report difficulty getting time off work for appointments and arranging for transportation to the facility. Separated or divorced women were more likely than married women to report partner or other family member opposition to the abortion. Women who lived outside of Mexico City were more likely than Mexico City residents to report difficulty with transportation. Education, marital status, and place of residence were associated with the obstacles women reported. Strategies to improve access to care should be targeted to the groups at highest risk of experiencing obstacles: Women with primary education or lower, single women, separated/divorced women, and those residing outside of Mexico City. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. How do price minimizing behaviors impact smoking cessation? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew J; O'Connor, Richard J; Chaloupka, Frank J; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5) and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1) cessation, (2) quit attempts, and (3) successful quit attempts at one year follow up using multivariate logistic regression modeling. A subset analysis included 3,387 participants who were current smokers at waves 5 and 6 and were followed through wave 7 to explore effects of changing purchase patterns on cessation. Statistical tests for interaction were performed to examine the joint effect of SES and price/tax avoidance behaviors on cessation outcomes. Smokers who engaged in any price/tax avoidance behaviors were 28% less likely to report cessation. Persons using low/untaxed sources were less likely to quit at follow up, those purchasing cartons were less likely to make quit attempts and quit, and those using discount cigarettes were less likely to succeed, conditional on making attempts. Respondents who utilized multiple behaviors simultaneously were less likely to make quit attempts and to succeed. SES did not modify the effects of price minimizing behaviors on cessation outcomes. The data from this paper indicate that the availability of lower priced cigarette alternatives may attenuate public health efforts aimed at to reduce reducing smoking prevalence through price and tax increases among all SES groups.

  2. Religiosity as a protective factor for hazardous drinking and drug use among sexual minority and heterosexual women: Findings from the National Alcohol Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabble, Laurie; Trocki, Karen F; Klinger, Jamie L

    2016-04-01

    Despite research documenting disparities in risk for alcohol-related problems among sexual minority women, few studies explore potential protective factors within this population. This study examines how religiosity may function as a protective or risk factor for alcohol-problems or other substance use among sexual minorities compared to heterosexuals. Data from 11,169 women who responded to sexual identity and sexual behavior questions from three population-based National Alcohol Survey waves (2000, 2005, 2010) were utilized for analyses of religiosity in relation to lifetime drinking, past year hazardous drinking, and past year drug use. Religiosity was significantly greater among exclusively heterosexual women compared to all sexual minority groups (lesbian, bisexual and heterosexual women who report same sex partners). Lesbians reported the lowest rates of affiliation with religions/denominations discouraging alcohol use. Past year hazardous drinking and use of any illicit drugs were significantly lower among exclusively heterosexual women compared to all sexual minority groups. High religiosity was associated with lifetime alcohol abstention and was found to be protective against hazardous drinking and drug use among both sexual minority and heterosexual women. Reporting religious norms unfavorable to drinking was protective against hazardous drinking among exclusively heterosexual women but not sexual minority women. Findings reveal the importance of considering sexual minority status in evaluation of religion or spirituality as protective among women. Future studies should explore religiosity in the context of other individual and environmental factors, such as positive identity development and community-level acceptance, which may be salient to resiliency among sexual minorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical Examination Findings Among Children and Adolescents With Obesity: An Evidence-Based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Sarah; Lazorick, Suzanne; Hampl, Sarah; Skelton, Joseph A; Wood, Charles; Collier, David; Perrin, Eliana M

    2016-02-01

    Overweight and obesity affects 1 in 3 US children and adolescents. Clinical recommendations have largely focused on screening guidelines and counseling strategies. However, the physical examination of the child or adolescent with obesity can provide the clinician with additional information to guide management decisions. This expert-based review focuses on physical examination findings specific to children and adolescents with obesity. For each physical examination element, the authors define the finding and its prevalence among pediatric patients with obesity, discuss the importance and relevance of the finding, describe known techniques to assess severity, and review evidence regarding the need for additional evaluation. The recommendations presented represent a comprehensive review of current evidence as well as expert opinion. The goal of this review is to highlight the importance of conducting a targeted physical examination during pediatric weight management visits.

  4. A Systematic Approach to Find a Professional Audiology Clinic: Patient-Based Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gungu; Kim, Gibbeum; Na, Wondo; Han, Woojae

    2016-09-01

    This brief communication introduced a systematic way to find a professional audiology clinic developed for patients and professionals by the American Academy of Audiology, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, and Healthy Hearing. Patients can access each organization's website to find professionals and/or clinics based on criteria such as location, hours, special areas, types of service, reviews and rating by previous patients, and kinds of insurance accepted. Such a system may protect the patients from information overload, guarantee accurate information, and help them find themselves professional audiologists who can assist them. We expect professional organizations to adopt this system as soon as possible and link hearing-impaired patients with professional audiologists in Korea.

  5. Computer-assisted measurement of perceived stress: an application for a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tomoaki; Uchida, Seiya; Tsuda, Yasutami; Eboshida, Akira

    2005-09-01

    The assessment of stress is a key issue in health promotion policies as well as in treatment strategies for patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the accessibility and reliability of computer-assisted data collection for perceived stress measurement, using the Japanese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (JPSS), within the setting of a community-based survey. There were two groups of participants in this survey. One group responded to a Web-based application, and the other to the VBA of a spreadsheet software. The total scores of JPSS were almost normally distributed. The means of total scores of JPSS were 23.6 and 23.1. These results were lower than the previous study of JPSS. Since Cronbach's alpha coefficients in both surveys were more than 0.8, high reliability was demonstrated despite a number of computer-illiterate and/or aged participants. They felt that the spreadsheet form was easier to respond to. Two components were extracted with the Varimax rotation of principal component analysis, and these were named "perception of stress and stressors" and "behavior to stress". This finding suggests that it is possible to determine sub-scales. From the viewpoint of preventive medicine, it is expected that the JPSS applications will be utilized to investigate the relationship between stress and other factors such as lifestyle, environment and quality of life.

  6. The State of Marketing in Leading MNC’s and their Local Competitors in Pakistan : Findings of a Baseline Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Amir; Farrah Arif

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the state of marketing practices in leading multi-national companies operating in the country and their local competitors. This paper presents the findings of the first phase of the study. These findings are based on personal interviews with forty-three MNCs. The findings reveal that companies varied significantly with regard to marketing practices and processes --- both in terms of engaging in different practices and processes but also in terms of ...

  7. How Do Price Minimizing Behaviors Impact Smoking Cessation? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Four Country Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar Nargis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5 and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1 cessation, (2 quit attempts, and (3 successful quit attempts at one year follow up using multivariate logistic regression modeling. A subset analysis included 3,387 participants who were current smokers at waves 5 and 6 and were followed through wave 7 to explore effects of changing purchase patterns on cessation. Statistical tests for interaction were performed to examine the joint effect of SES and price/tax avoidance behaviors on cessation outcomes. Smokers who engaged in any price/tax avoidance behaviors were 28% less likely to report cessation. Persons using low/untaxed sources were less likely to quit at follow up, those purchasing cartons were less likely to make quit attempts and quit, and those using discount cigarettes were less likely to succeed, conditional on making attempts. Respondents who utilized multiple behaviors simultaneously were less likely to make quit attempts and to succeed. SES did not modify the effects of price minimizing behaviors on cessation outcomes. The data from this paper indicate that the availability of lower priced cigarette alternatives may attenuate public health efforts aimed at to reduce reducing smoking prevalence through price and tax increases among all SES groups. This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5 and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1 cessation, (2 quit attempts, and (3 successful

  8. Optimal path-finding through mental exploration based on neural energy field gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihong; Wang, Rubin; Zhu, Yating

    2017-02-01

    Rodent animal can accomplish self-locating and path-finding task by forming a cognitive map in the hippocampus representing the environment. In the classical model of the cognitive map, the system (artificial animal) needs large amounts of physical exploration to study spatial environment to solve path-finding problems, which costs too much time and energy. Although Hopfield's mental exploration model makes up for the deficiency mentioned above, the path is still not efficient enough. Moreover, his model mainly focused on the artificial neural network, and clear physiological meanings has not been addressed. In this work, based on the concept of mental exploration, neural energy coding theory has been applied to the novel calculation model to solve the path-finding problem. Energy field is constructed on the basis of the firing power of place cell clusters, and the energy field gradient can be used in mental exploration to solve path-finding problems. The study shows that the new mental exploration model can efficiently find the optimal path, and present the learning process with biophysical meaning as well. We also analyzed the parameters of the model which affect the path efficiency. This new idea verifies the importance of place cell and synapse in spatial memory and proves that energy coding is effective to study cognitive activities. This may provide the theoretical basis for the neural dynamics mechanism of spatial memory.

  9. Sexual autonomy and contraceptive use among women in Nigeria: findings from the Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswan, Saritha P; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Petzold, Max G; Fonn, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    The persistent low contraceptive use and high fertility in Nigeria despite improvements in educational achievements calls for an examination of the role of factors, which may moderate the use of modern contraception. This article explores the influence of sexual autonomy on the use of modern contraceptive methods among women and its relative importance compared with other, more traditional, indicators of women's autonomy such as education and occupation. Data from two Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), 2008 and 2013, were used in this study. An index of sexual autonomy was constructed by combining related DHS variables, and its association with current use of modern contraception was examined at each time point as well as over time using multivariate regression analysis. The observed prevalence for use of modern contraception was 2.8 and 2.6 times higher among women who had high sexual autonomy in 2008 and 2013, respectively. The corresponding figures for women with secondary or higher education were 8.2 and 11.8 times higher, respectively, compared with women with no education. But after controlling for wealth index, religion, place of residence, autonomy and experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), the likelihood of use of modern contraception was lowered to about 2.5 (from 8.2) and 2.8 (from 11.8) times during 2008 and 2013, respectively, among women with secondary or higher education. The likelihood of use of modern contraception lowered only to 1.6 (from 2.8) and 1.8 (from 2.6) times among women with high sexual autonomy after controlling for other covariates, respectively, during the same period. Sexual autonomy seems to play an important role in women's use of modern contraceptive methods independent of education and a number of other factors related to women's status. Sexual autonomy needs to be simultaneously promoted alongside increasing educational opportunities to enhance women's ability to use modern contraception.

  10. Age at introduction of solid foods and feeding difficulties in childhood: findings from the Southampton Women's Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, J L; Crozier, S R; Inskip, H M; Cooper, C; Godfrey, K M; Robinson, S M

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to determine whether age at introduction of solid foods was associated with feeding difficulties at 3 years of age. The present study was carried out using data from the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS). Women enrolled in the SWS who subsequently became pregnant were followed-up during pregnancy and postpartum, and the offspring have been studied through childhood. Maternal socio-demographic and anthropometric data and child anthropometric and feeding data were collected through interviews and self-administered questionnaires. When the children were 3 years of age, mothers/carers rated six potential child feeding difficulty questions on a four-point Likert scale, including one general question and five specific feeding difficulty questions. Age at introduction of solids as a predictor of feeding difficulties was examined in 2389 mother-child pairs, adjusting for child (age last breast fed, sex, gestation) and maternal characteristics (parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, age, education, employment, parenting difficulties, diet quality). The majority of mothers/carers (61 %) reported some feeding difficulties (general feeding difficulty question) at 3 years of age, specifically with their child eating enough food (61 %), eating the right food (66 %) and being choosy with food (74 %). Children who were introduced to solids ≥6 months had a lower risk of feeding difficulties (RR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·91, P=0·004) than children who were introduced to solids between 4 and 6 months. No other significant associations were found. There were few associations between feeding difficulties in relation to age at introduction of solid foods. However, general feeding difficulties were less common among infants introduced to solid foods ≥6 months of age.

  11. Barriers to rural induced abortion services in Canada: findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy V Norman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC. METHODS: We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85% of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67 of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52 abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30 medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. CONCLUSIONS: Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4% for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians.

  12. The perspective of rural physicians providing abortion in Canada: qualitative findings of the BC Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Dressler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing proportion of Canadian induced abortions are performed in large urban areas. For unknown reasons the number of rural abortion providers in Canadian provinces, such as British Columbia (BC, has declined substantially. This study explored the experiences of BC rural and urban physicians providing abortion services. METHODS: The mixed methods BC Abortion Providers Survey employed self-administered questionnaires, distributed to all known current and some past BC abortion providers in 2011. The optional semi-structured interviews are the focus of this analysis. Interview questions probed the experiences, facilitators and challenges faced by abortion providers, and their future intentions. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using cross-case and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Twenty interviews were completed and transcribed, representing 13/27 (48.1% rural abortion providers, and 7/19 (36.8% of urban providers in BC. Emerging themes differed between urban and rural providers. Most urban providers worked within clinics and reported a supportive environment. Rural physicians, all providing surgical abortions within hospitals, reported challenging barriers to provision including operating room scheduling, anesthetist and nursing logistical issues, high demand for services, professional isolation, and scarcity of replacement abortion providers. Many rural providers identified a need to "fly under the radar" in their small community. DISCUSSION: This first study of experiences among rural and urban abortion providers in Canada identifies addressable challenges faced by rural physicians. Rural providers expressed a need for increased support from hospital administration and policy. Further challenges identified include a desire for continuing professional education opportunities, and for available replacement providers.

  13. Ethnic differences in women's use of mental health services: do social networks play a role? Findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Dharmi; Nazroo, James; Tranmer, Mark

    2016-11-28

    The reasons for ethnic differences in women's mental health service use in England remain unclear. The aims of this study were to ascertain: ethnic differences in women's usage of mental health services, if social networks are independently associated with service use, and if the association between women's social networks and service use varies between ethnic groups. Logistic regression modelling of nationally representative data from the Ethnic Minority Psychiatric Illness Rates in the Community (EMPIRIC) survey conducted in England. The analytic sample (2260 women, aged 16-74 years) was drawn from the representative subsample of 2340 women in EMPIRIC for whom data on mental health services, and social networks were available. Pakistani and Bangladeshi women were less likely than White women to have used mental health services (Pakistani OR = 0.23, CI = 0.08-0.65, p = .005; Bangladeshi OR = 0.25, CI = 0.07-0.86, p = .027). Frequent contact with relatives reduced mental health service use (OR = 0.45, CI = 0.23-0.89, p = .023). An increase in perceived inadequate support in women's close networks was associated with increased odds of using mental health services (OR = 1.91, CI = 1.11-3.27, p = .019). The influence of social networks on mental health service use did not differ between ethnic groups. The differential treatment of women from Pakistani and Bangladeshi ethnic groups in primary care settings could be a possible reason for the observed differences in mental health service use.

  14. The Association Between Shift Work and Health Behavior: Findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Bae, Myung-Ji; Shin, Jin-Young; Choi, Bo-Young; Keum, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Ae

    2017-01-01

    Background Shift workers are increasing worldwide, and various negative health effects of shift work have been reported. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between shift work and health behavior. Methods This cross-sectional study included a total of 11,680 Korean adults (6,061 men and 5,619 women) aged ≥20 years old who participated in the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2012. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between shift work and health behavior after adjusting for covariates. Results In men, shift work was associated with an increased risk of inadequate sleep (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.40) compared to day work. In women, shift work was associated with an increased risk of smoking (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.22) and inadequate sleep (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.47) compared to day work. In an age-stratified subgroup analysis, female shift workers aged ≥50 years old demonstrated an increased risk of smoking (OR, 5.55; 95% CI, 3.60 to 8.55), alcohol consumption (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.53 to 3.23), and inadequate sleep (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.05) compared to female day workers. Conclusion Shift work is associated with worse health behavior, and this is most evident in women aged ≥50 years. Targeted strategies to reduce the negative health effects of shift work should be implemented, with consideration of shift workers' demographic characteristics. PMID:28360984

  15. Barriers to rural induced abortion services in Canada: findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS).

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    Norman, Wendy V; Soon, Judith A; Maughn, Nanamma; Dressler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85%) of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67) of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52) abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30) medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4%) for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians.

  16. Incidence of self-reported brain injury and the relationship with substance abuse: findings from a longitudinal community survey

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    Butterworth Peter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic or serious brain injury (BI has persistent and well documented adverse outcomes, yet 'mild' or 'moderate' BI, which often does not result in hospital treatment, accounts for half the total days of disability attributed to BI. There are currently few data available from community samples on the incidence and correlates of these injuries. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the 1 incidence of self-reported mild (not requiring hospital admission and moderate (admitted to hospital brain injury (BI, 2 causes of injury 3 physical health scores and 4 relationship between BI and problematic alcohol or marijuana use. Methods An Australian community sequential-cohort study (cohorts aged 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years at wave one used a survey methodology to assess BI and substance use at baseline and four years later. Results Of the 7485 wave one participants, 89.7% were re-interviewed at wave two. There were 56 mild (230.8/100000 person-years and 44 moderate BI (180.5/100000 person-years reported between waves one and two. Males and those in the 20-24 year cohort had increased risk of BI. Sports injury was the most frequent cause of BI (40/100 with traffic accidents being a greater proportion of moderate (27% than mild (7% BI. Neither alcohol nor marijuana problems at wave one were predictors of BI. BI was not a predictor of developing substance use problems by wave two. Conclusions BI were prevalent in this community sample, though the incidence declined with age. Factors associated with BI in community samples differ from those reported in clinical samples (e.g. typically traumatic brain injury with traffic accidents the predominate cause. Further, detailed evaluation of the health consequences of these injuries is warranted.

  17. Sarcopenia and Hearing Loss in Older Koreans: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2010.

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    Jieun Lee

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI is becoming a more significant issue as geriatric population increases. Sarcopenia in older people is known to have a diverse health problem in various circumstances in recent studies. We assessed whether the decrease in muscle mass is related to ARHI. We used the 2010 data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES to examine the associations between sarcopenia and ARHI. A total number of participants was 1,622 including 746 males and 876 females aged 60 years or older. Muscle mass was assessed as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and hearing loss was defined as the pure-tone averages (PTA of test frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz at a threshold of 40 dB or higher in worse hearing side of the ear. Among 1,622 participants, 298 men and 256 women had hearing loss. Appendicular muscle mass (ASM, expressed as kg, was categorized in tertiles. In female population, after adjusting for age, smoking, drinking, amount of exercise, total body fat, education level, income level, and tinnitus, the odds ratio (OR for hearing loss was 1.57 (95% confidence interval (CI = 0.92-2.68 in the middle tertile and 1.79 (1.03-3.08 in the lowest tertile, compared with the highest tertile. P for trend in this model was 0.036. Controlling further for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and three types of noise exposure did not change the association. Larger muscle mass is associated with lower prevalence of hearing loss in elderly Korean females.

  18. Media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs: Findings from the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS-FDA 2015).

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    Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Hoffman, Allison C; Zandberg, Izabella; Blake, Kelly D

    2017-09-01

    Addiction beliefs about tobacco use are associated with intentions to use and use of tobacco products. Exposure to information about tobacco products in media sources may affect addiction beliefs. To examine the relationship between media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs. A nationally representative sample of US adults (n=3738) from the 2015 National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey was used to examine addiction beliefs about cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, hookah/waterpipe tobacco, and roll-your-own cigarettes. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between media exposure and addiction beliefs. We defined media exposure by hours exposed, as well as exposure to tobacco use health effects information through media sources including social media. We categorized media sources by whether respondents actively or passively engaged with the source. A majority (60.6% to 87.3%) of respondents believed that cigarettes, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes and smokeless tobacco are addictive. Less than half of respondents believed that electronic cigarettes or hookah/waterpipes are addictive (45.2% and 49.8%, respectively). Respondents exposed to messages about tobacco use health effects on active media channels (e.g., social media) had greater odds of believing that smokeless tobacco (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.48), hookah/waterpipe (AOR=1.69), and roll-your-own cigarettes (AOR=1.61) are addictive. Respondents exposed to tobacco use health effects messages on passive media channels (e.g., television), had greater odds of believing that cigarettes (AOR=2.76) and electronic cigarettes (AOR=2.12) are addictive. US adult exposure to information about the health effects of tobacco use was associated with addiction beliefs about tobacco products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Barriers to Rural Induced Abortion Services in Canada: Findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Wendy V.; Soon, Judith A.; Maughn, Nanamma; Dressler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). Methods We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. Results Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85%) of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67) of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52) abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30) medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. Conclusions Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4%) for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians. PMID:23840578

  20. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

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    Vu Duy Kien

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child malnutrition is not only a major contributor to child mortality and morbidity, but it can also determine socioeconomic status in adult life. The rate of under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam has significantly decreased, but associated inequality issues still need attention. Objective: This study aims to explore trends, contributing factors, and changes in inequalities for under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam between 2000 and 2011. Design: Data were drawn from the Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey for the years 2000 and 2011. The dependent variables used for the study were stunting, underweight, and wasting of under-five children. The concentration index was calculated to see the magnitude of child malnutrition, and the inequality was decomposed to understand the contributions of determinants to child malnutrition. The total differential decomposition was used to identify and explore factors contributing to changes in child malnutrition inequalities. Results: Inequality in child malnutrition increased between 2000 and 2011, even though the overall rate declined. Most of the inequality in malnutrition was due to ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The total differential decomposition showed that the biggest and second biggest contributors to the changes in underweight inequalities were age and socioeconomic status, respectively. Socioeconomic status was the largest contributor to inequalities in stunting. Conclusions: Although the overall level of child malnutrition was improved in Vietnam, there were significant differences in under-five child malnutrition that favored those who were more advantaged in socioeconomic terms. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition has increased over time. Multifaceted approaches, connecting several relevant ministries and sectors, may be necessary to reduce inequalities in childhood malnutrition.