WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey estimates anomaly

  1. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  2. FLEAD: online frequency likelihood estimation anomaly detection for mobile sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Viet-Duc; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of smartphone platforms, adaptive sensing becomes an predominant key to overcome intricate constraints such as smartphone's capabilities and dynamic data. One way to do this is estimating the event probability based on anomaly detection to invoke heavy processes, such as switching on m

  3. An approach for estimating the magnetization direction of magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinpeng; Zhang, Yingtang; Yin, Gang; Fan, Hongbo; Li, Zhining

    2017-02-01

    An approach for estimating the magnetization direction of magnetic anomalies in the presence of remanent magnetization through correlation between normalized source strength (NSS) and reduced-to-the-pole (RTP) is proposed. The observation region was divided into several calculation areas and the RTP field was transformed using different assumed values of the magnetization directions. Following this, the cross-correlation between NSS and RTP field was calculated, and it was found that the correct magnetization direction was that corresponding to the maximum cross-correlation value. The approach was tested on both simulated and real magnetic data. The results showed that the approach was effective in a variety of situations and considerably reduced the effect of remanent magnetization. Thus, the method using NSS and RTP is more effective compared to other methods such as using the total magnitude anomaly and RTP.

  4. Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

  5. Revised estimation of 550-km times 550-km mean gravity anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    The calculation of 550-km x 550-km mean gravity anomalies from 1 degree x 1 degree mean free-air gravimetry data is discussed. The block estimate procedure developed by Kaula is used to obtain 1,504 of the 1,654 possible mean block anomalies. The estimated block anomalies calculated from 1 deg x 1 deg mean anomalies referred to the reference ellipsoid and from 1 degree x 1 degree mean anomalies referred to a 24th-degree-and-order field are compared.

  6. Multiscale spatial density smoothing: an application to large-scale radiological survey and anomaly detection

    CERN Document Server

    Tansey, Wesley; Reinhart, Alex; Scott, James G

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating a spatially varying density function, motivated by problems that arise in large-scale radiological survey and anomaly detection. In this context, the density functions to be estimated are the background gamma-ray energy spectra at sites spread across a large geographical area, such as nuclear production and waste-storage sites, military bases, medical facilities, university campuses, or the downtown of a city. Several challenges combine to make this a difficult problem. First, the spectral density at any given spatial location may have both smooth and non-smooth features. Second, the spatial correlation in these density functions is neither stationary nor locally isotropic. Third, the spatial correlation decays at different length scales at different locations in the support of the underlying density. Finally, at some spatial locations, there is very little data. We present a method called multiscale spatial density smoothing that successfully addresses these challenges. ...

  7. A robust background regression based score estimation algorithm for hyperspectral anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Du, Bo; Zhang, Liangpei; Zhang, Lefei

    2016-12-01

    Anomaly detection has become a hot topic in the hyperspectral image analysis and processing fields in recent years. The most important issue for hyperspectral anomaly detection is the background estimation and suppression. Unreasonable or non-robust background estimation usually leads to unsatisfactory anomaly detection results. Furthermore, the inherent nonlinearity of hyperspectral images may cover up the intrinsic data structure in the anomaly detection. In order to implement robust background estimation, as well as to explore the intrinsic data structure of the hyperspectral image, we propose a robust background regression based score estimation algorithm (RBRSE) for hyperspectral anomaly detection. The Robust Background Regression (RBR) is actually a label assignment procedure which segments the hyperspectral data into a robust background dataset and a potential anomaly dataset with an intersection boundary. In the RBR, a kernel expansion technique, which explores the nonlinear structure of the hyperspectral data in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space, is utilized to formulate the data as a density feature representation. A minimum squared loss relationship is constructed between the data density feature and the corresponding assigned labels of the hyperspectral data, to formulate the foundation of the regression. Furthermore, a manifold regularization term which explores the manifold smoothness of the hyperspectral data, and a maximization term of the robust background average density, which suppresses the bias caused by the potential anomalies, are jointly appended in the RBR procedure. After this, a paired-dataset based k-nn score estimation method is undertaken on the robust background and potential anomaly datasets, to implement the detection output. The experimental results show that RBRSE achieves superior ROC curves, AUC values, and background-anomaly separation than some of the other state-of-the-art anomaly detection methods, and is easy to implement

  8. Gravity Anomalies and Estimated Topography Derived from Satellite Altimetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In many areas of the global ocean, the depth of the seafloor is not well known because survey lines by ships are hundreds of kilometers apart. Satellites carrying...

  9. The estimation of 550 km x 550 km mean gravity anomalies. [from free atmosphere gravimetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, M. R.; Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    The calculation of 550 km X 550 km mean gravity anomalies from 1 degree X 1 degree mean free-air gravimetry data is discussed. The block estimate procedure developed by Kaula was used, and estimates for 1452 of the 1654 blocks were obtained.

  10. Estimates from two survey designs: national hospital discharge survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, B J; Kozak, L J

    1992-05-01

    The methodology for the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) has been revised in several ways. These revisions, which were implemented for the 1988 NHDS, included adoption of a different hospital sampling frame, changes in the sampling design (in particular the implementation of a three-stage design), increased use of data purchased from abstracting service organizations, and adjustments to the estimation procedures used to derive the national estimates. To investigate the effects of these revisions on the estimates of hospital use from the NHDS, data were collected from January through March of 1988 using both the old and the new survey methods. This study compared estimates based on the old and the new survey methods for a variety of hospital and patient characteristics. Although few estimates were identical across survey methodologies, most of the variations could be attributed to sampling error. Estimates from two different samples of the same population would be expected to vary by chance even if precisely the same methods were used to collect and process the data. Because probability samples were used for the old and new survey methodologies, sampling error could be measured. Approximate relative standard errors were calculated for the estimates using the old and new survey methods. Taking these errors into account, less than 10 percent of the estimates were found to differ across survey methodologies at the 0.05 level of significance. Because a large number of comparisons were made, 5 percent of the estimates could have been found to be significantly different by chance alone. When there were statistically significant differences in nonmedical data, the new methods appeared to produce more accurate estimates than the old methods did. Race was more likely to be reported using the new methods. "New" estimates for hospitals in the West Region and government-owned hospitals were more similar than the corresponding "old" estimates to data from the census of

  11. Interpretation of Magnetic Anomalies and Estimation of Depth of Magnetic Crust in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozimant, Kamil; Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Bektaş, Özcan

    2009-03-01

    The magnetic map of Slovakia used in the paper was compiled as part of a project titled Atlas of Geophysical maps and profiles in 2001. The residual magnetic data were analyzed to produce Curie point estimates. To remove distortion of magnetic anomalies caused by the Earth’s magnetic field, reduction to pole transformation was applied to the magnetic anomalies using the magnetization angle of the induced magnetization. Anomalies reduced to the pole tend to be better correlated with tectonic structures. We applied a 3-km upward continuation to the residually compiled magnetic anomalies in order to remove effects of topography. The depth of magnetic dipoles was calculated by an azimuthally averaged power spectrum method for the entire area. Such estimates can be indicative of temperatures in the crust, since magnetic minerals lose their spontaneous magnetization according to Curie temperature of the dominant magnetic minerals in the rocks. The computed Curie point depths in the Slovakia region vary between 15.2 km and 20.9 km. Heat flow higher than 100 mWm-2 occurs at the central volcanics and eastern part of Slovakia, where the Curie point depths values are shallow. The correlation between Curie point depths, heat flow and crust depth was investigated for two E-W cross sections. Heat flow and Curie point depth values are correlated with each other however, these values could not be correlated with crust depth. The Curie point isotherm, which separates magnetic and non-magnetic parts of the crust, is represented in two cross sections.

  12. Gravity Anomaly Assessment Using Ggms and Airborne Gravity Data Towards Bathymetry Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugi, A.; Din, A. H. M.; Omar, K. M.; Mardi, A. S.; Som, Z. A. M.; Omar, A. H.; Yahaya, N. A. Z.; Yazid, N.

    2016-09-01

    The Earth's potential information is important for exploration of the Earth's gravity field. The techniques of measuring the Earth's gravity using the terrestrial and ship borne technique are time consuming and have limitation on the vast area. With the space-based measuring technique, these limitations can be overcome. The satellite gravity missions such as Challenging Mini-satellite Payload (CHAMP), Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), and Gravity-Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer Mission (GOCE) has introduced a better way in providing the information on the Earth's gravity field. From these satellite gravity missions, the Global Geopotential Models (GGMs) has been produced from the spherical harmonics coefficient data type. The information of the gravity anomaly can be used to predict the bathymetry because the gravity anomaly and bathymetry have relationships between each other. There are many GGMs that have been published and each of the models gives a different value of the Earth's gravity field information. Therefore, this study is conducted to assess the most reliable GGM for the Malaysian Seas. This study covered the area of the marine area on the South China Sea at Sabah extent. Seven GGMs have been selected from the three satellite gravity missions. The gravity anomalies derived from the GGMs are compared with the airborne gravity anomaly, in order to figure out the correlation (R2) and the root mean square error (RMSE) of the data. From these assessments, the most suitable GGMs for the study area is GOCE model, GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIMR4 with the R2 and RMSE value of 0.7899 and 9.886 mGal, respectively. This selected model will be used in the estimating the bathymetry for Malaysian Seas in future.

  13. GRAVITY ANOMALY ASSESSMENT USING GGMS AND AIRBORNE GRAVITY DATA TOWARDS BATHYMETRY ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tugi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s potential information is important for exploration of the Earth’s gravity field. The techniques of measuring the Earth’s gravity using the terrestrial and ship borne technique are time consuming and have limitation on the vast area. With the space-based measuring technique, these limitations can be overcome. The satellite gravity missions such as Challenging Mini-satellite Payload (CHAMP, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE, and Gravity-Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer Mission (GOCE has introduced a better way in providing the information on the Earth’s gravity field. From these satellite gravity missions, the Global Geopotential Models (GGMs has been produced from the spherical harmonics coefficient data type. The information of the gravity anomaly can be used to predict the bathymetry because the gravity anomaly and bathymetry have relationships between each other. There are many GGMs that have been published and each of the models gives a different value of the Earth’s gravity field information. Therefore, this study is conducted to assess the most reliable GGM for the Malaysian Seas. This study covered the area of the marine area on the South China Sea at Sabah extent. Seven GGMs have been selected from the three satellite gravity missions. The gravity anomalies derived from the GGMs are compared with the airborne gravity anomaly, in order to figure out the correlation (R2 and the root mean square error (RMSE of the data. From these assessments, the most suitable GGMs for the study area is GOCE model, GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIMR4 with the R2 and RMSE value of 0.7899 and 9.886 mGal, respectively. This selected model will be used in the estimating the bathymetry for Malaysian Seas in future.

  14. Preparation of magnetic anomaly profile and contour maps from DOE-NURE aerial survey data. Volume 1: Processing procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennel, E. P.; Hinze, W. J.

    1981-09-01

    Total intensity magnetic anomaly data acquired as a supplement to radiometric data in preparing regional profile and contour maps are discussed. Survey contractor supplied magnetic anomaly data are subjected to a multiprocess, computer based procedure. This procedure is used to produce the following machine plotted maps: (1) profile map of contractor supplied magnetic anomaly data; (2) profile map of high cut filtered data with contour levels of each profile marked and annotated on the associated flight track; (3) profile map of critical point data with contour levels indicated; and (4) contour map of filtered and selected data.

  15. Temperature anomaly detection and estimation using microwave radiometry and anatomical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick; Sobers, Tamara; St. Peter, Benjamin; Siqueira, Paul; Capraro, Geoffrey

    2011-03-01

    Many medically significant conditions (e.g., ischemia, carcinoma and inflammation) involve localized anomalies in physiological parameters such as the metabolic and blood perfusion rates. These in turn lead to deviations from normal tissue temperature patterns. Microwave radiometry is a passive system for sensing the radiation that objects emit naturally in the microwave frequency band. Since the emitted power depends on temperature, and since radiation at low microwave frequencies can propagate through several centimeters of tissue, microwave radiometry has the potential to provide valuable information about subcutaneous anomalies. The radiometric temperature measurement for a tissue region can be modeled as the inner product of the temperature pattern and a weighting function that depends on tissue properties and the radiometer's antenna. In the absence of knowledge of the weighting functions, it can be difficult to extract specific information about tissue temperature patterns (or the underlying physiological parameters) from the measurements. In this paper, we consider a scenario in which microwave radiometry works in conjunction with another imaging modality (e.g., 3D-CT or MRI) that provides detailed anatomical information. This information is used along with sensor properties in electromagnetic simulation software to generate weighting functions. It also is used in bio-heat equations to generate nominal tissue temperature patterns. We then develop a hypothesis testing framework that makes use of the weighting functions, nominal temperature patterns, and maximum likelihood estimates to detect anomalies. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the proposed detection procedures. The design and performance of an S-band (2-4 GHz) radiometer, and some of the challenges in using such a radiometer for temperature measurements deep in tissue, are also discussed.

  16. Geophysical Surveying of Shallow Magnetic Anomalies Using the iPhone Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdyke, P.; Dudley, C.; Louie, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    This investigation examined whether the 3-axis Hall-effect magnetometer in the Apple iPhone 3GS can function as an effective shallow magnetic survey instrument. The xSensor Pro app from Crossbow Systems allows recoding of all three sensor components along with the GPS location, at a frequency of 1.0, 4.0, 16.0, and 32.0 Hz. If the iPhone proves successful in collecting useful magnetic data, then geophysicists and especially educators would have a new tool for high-density geophysical mapping. No-contract iPhones that can connect with WiFi can be obtained for about $400, allowing deployment of large numbers of instruments. iPhones with the xSensor Pro app surveyed in parallel with an Overhauser GEM system magnetometer (1 nT sensitivity) to test this idea. Anderson Bay, located on the Pyramid Lake Paiute Reservation, provided a rural survey location free from cultural interference. xSensor Pro, logged each component's intensity and the GPS location at a frequency of four measurements per second. Two Overhauser units functioned as a base unit and a roving unit. The roving unit collected total field at set points located with a handheld GPS. Comparing the total field computed from the iPhone components against that collected by the Overhauser establishes the level of anomalies that the iPhone can detect. iPhone total-field measurements commonly vary by 200 nT from point to point, so a spatial-temporal average over 25 seconds produces a smoothed signal for comparison. Preliminary analysis of the iPhone results show that the data do not accurately correlate to the total field collected by the Overhauser for any anomaly of less than 200 nT.

  17. Airborne-temperature-survey maps of heat-flow anomalies for exploration geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgrande, N. K.

    1982-11-01

    Precise airborne temperature surveys depicted small predawn surface temperature differences related to heat flow anomalies at the Long Valley, California, KGRA. Zones with conductive heat flow differences of 45 + or - 16 nu cal/sq cm(s) has predawn surface temperature differences of 1.4 + or - 0.3 C. The warmer zones had hot water circulating in a shallow (less than 60-m-deep) aquifer. Hot wate is a useful geochemical indicator of geothermal and mineral resource potential. The precise airborne temperature survey method recorded redundant infrared scanner signals at two wavelengths (10 to 12 micrometers and 4.5 to 5.5 micrometers) and two elevations (0.3 km and 1.2 km). Ground thermistor probes recorded air and soil temperatures during the survey overflights. Radiometric temperatures were corrected for air path and reflected sky radiation effects. Corrected temperatures were displayed in image form with color coded maps which depicted 0.24 C temperature differences.

  18. Basement depth estimation from gravity anomalies: two 2.5D approaches coupled with the exponential density contrast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, V.; Mallesh, K.; Ramamma, B.

    2017-03-01

    We develop two automatic techniques in the spatial domain using the exponential density contrast model (EDCM) to trace the bottom surface of a 2.5D sedimentary basin from the observed gravity anomalies. The interface between the sediments and basement is described with a finite strike polygonal source, whose depth ordinates become the unknown parameters to be estimated. The proposed automatic modeling technique makes use of the forward difference approximation and the inversion solves a system of normal equations using the ridge regression to estimate the unknown parameters. Furthermore, the proposed inversion technique simultaneously estimates the regional gravity background that is associated with the residual gravity anomaly. In either case, forward modeling is realized in the spatial domain through a method that combines both analytical and numerical approaches. The utility of each algorithm was successfully tested on a theoretically produced noisy residual gravity dataset. The validity of the inversion technique is also exemplified with the noisy gravity anomalies attributable to a synthetic structure in the presence of regional gravity background. We demonstrate that the magnitude of gravity anomaly is offset dependent and that it would influence the modeling result. Additionally, some applications with real gravity datasets from the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens in western Turkey using the derived EDCMs have produced geologically reasonable results which are in close agreement with those reported previously.

  19. A least-squares minimization approach for model parameters estimate by using a new magnetic anomaly formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Ezz, E. R.; Essa, K. S.

    2016-04-01

    A new linear least-squares approach is proposed to interpret magnetic anomalies of the buried structures by using a new magnetic anomaly formula. This approach depends on solving different sets of algebraic linear equations in order to invert the depth ( z), amplitude coefficient ( K), and magnetization angle ( θ) of buried structures using magnetic data. The utility and validity of the new proposed approach has been demonstrated through various reliable synthetic data sets with and without noise. In addition, the method has been applied to field data sets from USA and India. The best-fitted anomaly has been delineated by estimating the root-mean squared (rms). Judging satisfaction of this approach is done by comparing the obtained results with other available geological or geophysical information.

  20. Analysis of EM dataset with several sensor configurations obtained by the loop-loop EM survey on magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, J.; Yi, M. J.; Sasaki, Y.; Son, J.; Nam, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most of mineral mines in Korea are located in rugged mountain area embedding small-scale anomalies. Loop-loop EM survey system can be a better choice for exploring those mines because no ground contact is required and portable loops are freely positioned. Survey design is very important for detecting small amount of mineral deposits efficiently and spatial limits of survey lines should be considered. Along a same survey line, surveys with different separations between a transmitter and a receiver are applicable. EM responses are calculated in a layered-earth model embedding magnetic anomalies and analyses considering electric conductivity and magnetic permeability are made for the loop-loop EM survey data. Combining EM dataset with multi-frequency and multi-separation slightly enhanced a reconstructed image. Loop-loop EM survey using PROMOIS system was conducted on a small magnetite mine. Inversion with and without considering magnetic permeability was conducted for EM data with multi-frequency and multi-separation between a transmitter and a receiver.

  1. Model parameter estimations from residual gravity anomalies due to simple-shaped sources using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent; Balkaya, Çağlayan; Göktürkler, Gökhan; Turan, Seçil

    2016-06-01

    An efficient approach to estimate model parameters from residual gravity data based on differential evolution (DE), a stochastic vector-based metaheuristic algorithm, has been presented. We have showed the applicability and effectiveness of this algorithm on both synthetic and field anomalies. According to our knowledge, this is a first attempt of applying DE for the parameter estimations of residual gravity anomalies due to isolated causative sources embedded in the subsurface. The model parameters dealt with here are the amplitude coefficient (A), the depth and exact origin of causative source (zo and xo, respectively) and the shape factors (q and ƞ). The error energy maps generated for some parameter pairs have successfully revealed the nature of the parameter estimation problem under consideration. Noise-free and noisy synthetic single gravity anomalies have been evaluated with success via DE/best/1/bin, which is a widely used strategy in DE. Additionally some complicated gravity anomalies caused by multiple source bodies have been considered, and the results obtained have showed the efficiency of the algorithm. Then using the strategy applied in synthetic examples some field anomalies observed for various mineral explorations such as a chromite deposit (Camaguey district, Cuba), a manganese deposit (Nagpur, India) and a base metal sulphide deposit (Quebec, Canada) have been considered to estimate the model parameters of the ore bodies. Applications have exhibited that the obtained results such as the depths and shapes of the ore bodies are quite consistent with those published in the literature. Uncertainty in the solutions obtained from DE algorithm has been also investigated by Metropolis-Hastings (M-H) sampling algorithm based on simulated annealing without cooling schedule. Based on the resulting histogram reconstructions of both synthetic and field data examples the algorithm has provided reliable parameter estimations being within the sampling limits of

  2. Variable selection and estimation for longitudinal survey data

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Li

    2014-09-01

    There is wide interest in studying longitudinal surveys where sample subjects are observed successively over time. Longitudinal surveys have been used in many areas today, for example, in the health and social sciences, to explore relationships or to identify significant variables in regression settings. This paper develops a general strategy for the model selection problem in longitudinal sample surveys. A survey weighted penalized estimating equation approach is proposed to select significant variables and estimate the coefficients simultaneously. The proposed estimators are design consistent and perform as well as the oracle procedure when the correct submodel was known. The estimating function bootstrap is applied to obtain the standard errors of the estimated parameters with good accuracy. A fast and efficient variable selection algorithm is developed to identify significant variables for complex longitudinal survey data. Simulated examples are illustrated to show the usefulness of the proposed methodology under various model settings and sampling designs. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  3. Estimation of regional mass anomalies from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) over Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R.; Singh, S. K.; Rajawat, A. S.; Ajai

    2014-11-01

    Time-variable gravity changes are caused by a combination of postglacial rebound, redistribution of water and snow/ice on land and as well as in the ocean. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, launched in 2002, provides monthly average of the spherical harmonic co-efficient. These spherical harmonic co-efficient describe earth's gravity field with a resolution of few hundred kilometers. Time-variability of gravity field represents the change in mass over regional level with accuracies in cm in terms of Water Equivalent Height (WEH). The WEH reflects the changes in the integrated vertically store water including snow cover, surface water, ground water and soil moisture at regional scale. GRACE data are also sensitive towards interior strain variation, surface uplift and surface subsidence cover over a large area. GRACE data was extracted over the three major Indian River basins, Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra, in the Himalayas which are perennial source of fresh water throughout the year in Northern Indian Plain. Time series analysis of the GRACE data was carried out from 2003-2012 over the study area. Trends and amplitudes of the regional mass anomalies in the region were estimated using level 3 GRACE data product with a spatial resolution at 10 by 10 grid provided by Center for Space Research (CSR), University of Texas at Austin. Indus basin has shown a subtle decreasing trend from 2003-2012 however it was observed to be statistically insignificant at 95 % confidence level. Ganga and Brahmaputra basins have shown a clear decreasing trend in WEH which was also observed to be statistically significant. The trend analysis over Ganga and Brahamputra basins have shown an average annual change of -1.28 cm and -1.06 cm in terms of WEH whereas Indus basin has shown a slight annual change of -0.07 cm. This analysis will be helpful to understand the loss of mass in terms of WEH over Indian Himalayas and will be crucial for hydrological and

  4. Advancements of Data Anomaly Detection Research in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Aizaini Maarof

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are important and necessary platforms for the future as the concept “Internet of Things” has emerged lately. They are used for monitoring, tracking, or controlling of many applications in industry, health care, habitat, and military. However, the quality of data collected by sensor nodes is affected by anomalies that occur due to various reasons, such as node failures, reading errors, unusual events, and malicious attacks. Therefore, anomaly detection is a necessary process to ensure the quality of sensor data before it is utilized for making decisions. In this review, we present the challenges of anomaly detection in WSNs and state the requirements to design efficient and effective anomaly detection models. We then review the latest advancements of data anomaly detection research in WSNs and classify current detection approaches in five main classes based on the detection methods used to design these approaches. Varieties of the state-of-the-art models for each class are covered and their limitations are highlighted to provide ideas for potential future works. Furthermore, the reviewed approaches are compared and evaluated based on how well they meet the stated requirements. Finally, the general limitations of current approaches are mentioned and further research opportunities are suggested and discussed.

  5. Variance estimation for systematic designs in spatial surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewster, R M

    2011-12-01

    In spatial surveys for estimating the density of objects in a survey region, systematic designs will generally yield lower variance than random designs. However, estimating the systematic variance is well known to be a difficult problem. Existing methods tend to overestimate the variance, so although the variance is genuinely reduced, it is over-reported, and the gain from the more efficient design is lost. The current approaches to estimating a systematic variance for spatial surveys are to approximate the systematic design by a random design, or approximate it by a stratified design. Previous work has shown that approximation by a random design can perform very poorly, while approximation by a stratified design is an improvement but can still be severely biased in some situations. We develop a new estimator based on modeling the encounter process over space. The new "striplet" estimator has negligible bias and excellent precision in a wide range of simulation scenarios, including strip-sampling, distance-sampling, and quadrat-sampling surveys, and including populations that are highly trended or have strong aggregation of objects. We apply the new estimator to survey data for the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, and find that the reported coefficient of variation for estimated density is 20% using approximation by a random design, 17% using approximation by a stratified design, and 11% using the new striplet estimator. This large reduction in reported variance is verified by simulation. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  6. Being surveyed can change later behavior and related parameter estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwane, Alix Peterson; Zinman, Jonathan; Van Dusen, Eric; Pariente, William; Null, Clair; Miguel, Edward; Kremer, Michael; Hornbeck, Richard; Giné, Xavier; Duflo, Esther; Devoto, Florencia; Crepon, Bruno; Banerjee, Abhijit

    2011-01-01

    Does completing a household survey change the later behavior of those surveyed? In three field studies of health and two of microlending, we randomly assigned subjects to be surveyed about health and/or household finances and then measured subsequent use of a related product with data that does not rely on subjects' self-reports. In the three health experiments, we find that being surveyed increases use of water treatment products and take-up of medical insurance. Frequent surveys on reported diarrhea also led to biased estimates of the impact of improved source water quality. In two microlending studies, we do not find an effect of being surveyed on borrowing behavior. The results suggest that limited attention could play an important but context-dependent role in consumer choice, with the implication that researchers should reconsider whether, how, and how much to survey their subjects. PMID:21245314

  7. Human Pose Estimation from Monocular Images: A Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Gong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human pose estimation refers to the estimation of the location of body parts and how they are connected in an image. Human pose estimation from monocular images has wide applications (e.g., image indexing. Several surveys on human pose estimation can be found in the literature, but they focus on a certain category; for example, model-based approaches or human motion analysis, etc. As far as we know, an overall review of this problem domain has yet to be provided. Furthermore, recent advancements based on deep learning have brought novel algorithms for this problem. In this paper, a comprehensive survey of human pose estimation from monocular images is carried out including milestone works and recent advancements. Based on one standard pipeline for the solution of computer vision problems, this survey splits the problem into several modules: feature extraction and description, human body models, and modeling methods. Problem modeling methods are approached based on two means of categorization in this survey. One way to categorize includes top-down and bottom-up methods, and another way includes generative and discriminative methods. Considering the fact that one direct application of human pose estimation is to provide initialization for automatic video surveillance, there are additional sections for motion-related methods in all modules: motion features, motion models, and motion-based methods. Finally, the paper also collects 26 publicly available data sets for validation and provides error measurement methods that are frequently used.

  8. A Survey of Visualization Tools Assessed for Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Intrusion Detection Systems: A Taxonomy and Survey; Technical Report No 99- 15, Department of Computer Engineering: Chalmers University of Technology...Göteborg, Sweden, 1999 11. Axelsson, S. Research in Intrusion-Detection Systems: A Survey and Taxonomy, Department of Computer Engineering: Chalmers ...51. 14. Department of Computer Science and Engineering; Chalmers -University of Gothenburg, SE- 412 96 Goteborg, Sweden, December 1998. http

  9. Distance estimation experiment for aerial minke whale surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Witting

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study between aerial cue–counting and digital photography surveys for minke whales conducted in Faxaflói Bay in September 2003 is used to check the perpendicular distances estimated by the cue-counting observers. The study involved 2 aircraft with the photo plane at 1,700 feet flying above the cue–counting plane at 750 feet. The observer–based distance estimates were calculated from head angles estimated by angle-boards and declination angles estimated by declinometers. These distances were checked against image–based estimates of the perpendicular distance to the same whale. The 2 independent distance estimates were obtained for 21 sightings of minke whale, and there was a good agreement between the 2 types of estimates. The relative absolute deviations between the 2 estimates were on average 23% (se: 6%, with the errors in the observer–based distance estimates resembling that of a log-normal distribution. The linear regression of the observer–based estimates (obs on the image–based estimates (img was Obs=1.1Img (R2=0.85 with an intercept fixed at zero. There was no evidence of a distance estimation bias that could generate a positive bias in the absolute abundance estimated by cue–counting.

  10. Reconsidered estimates of the 10th order QED contributions to the muon anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Kataev, A L

    2006-01-01

    The problem of estimating the 10th order QED corrections to the muon anomalous magnetic moment is reconsidered. The incorporation of the recently improved contributions to the $\\alpha^4$ and $\\alpha^5$- corrections to $a_{\\mu}$ within the renormalization-group inspired scheme-invariant approach leads to the estimate $a_{\\mu}^{(10)}\\approx 643$. It is in good agreement with the estimate $a_{\\mu}^{(10)}= 663(20) (\\alpha/\\pi)^5$, obtained by Kinoshita and Nio from the numerical calculations of 2958 10-th order diagrams, which are considered to be more important than the still uncalculated 6122 10th-order $m_{\\mu}/m_e$-dependent vertex graphs, and 12672 5-loop diagrams, responsible for the mass-independent constant contribution both to $a_{\\mu}$ and $a_e$. This confirms Kinoshita and Nio guess about dominance of the 10-th order diagrams calculated by them. Comparisons with other estimates of the $\\alpha^5$- contributions to $a_{\\mu}$, which exist in the literature, are presented.

  11. Comparative Study of Complex Survey Estimation Software in ONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Fallows

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many official statistics across the UK Government Statistical Service (GSS are produced using data collected from sample surveys. These survey data are used to estimate population statistics through weighting and calibration techniques. For surveys with complex or unusual sample designs, the weighting can be fairly complicated. Even in more simple cases, appropriate software is required to implement survey weighting and estimation. As with other stages of the survey process, it is preferable to use a standard, generic calibration tool wherever possible. Standard tools allow for efficient use of resources and assist with the harmonisation of methods. In the case of calibration, the Office for National Statistics (ONS has experience of using the Statistics Canada Generalized Estimation System (GES across a range of business and social surveys. GES is a SAS-based system and so is only available in conjunction with an appropriate SAS licence. Given recent initiatives and encouragement to investigate open source solutions across government, it is appropriate to determine whether there are any open source calibration tools available that can provide the same service as GES. This study compares the use of GES with the calibration tool ‘R evolved Generalized software for sampling estimates and errors in surveys’ (ReGenesees available in R, an open source statistical programming language which is beginning to be used in many statistical offices. ReGenesees is a free R package which has been developed by the Italian statistics office (Istat and includes functionality to calibrate survey estimates using similar techniques to GES. This report describes analysis of the performance of ReGenesees in comparison to GES to calibrate a representative selection of ONS surveys. Section 1.1 provides a brief introduction to the current use of SAS and R in ONS. Section 2 describes GES and ReGenesees in more detail. Sections 3.1 and 3.2 consider methods for

  12. Gender anomalies in stated preference surveys – are biases really gender dependent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2010-01-01

    The potential for a number of common but severe biases in stated preference method surveys being gender dependent has been largely overlooked in the literature. In this paper we summarize results from three Choice Experiment studies that find evidence in favor of gender differences in vulnerability...

  13. [Performance of different methods of estimating risk screening for chromosomal anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avătăjitei, Maria-Cristina; Moscalu, Mihaela; Martiniuc, Violeta; Onofriescu, M

    2012-01-01

    In the last 10 years, several studies have been carried out on additional ultrasound markers in the first trimester of pregnancy in order to improve detection rate of fetal numerical chromosome abnormalities (aneuploidy) and to reduce the rate of false-positive diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of various recommendations for which amniocentesis was performed followed by FISH testing in the diagnosis of aneuploidy. These evaluations were conducted in order to determine whether ultrasound aspects are associated with fetal aneuploidy and to estimate the risk level of individual markers using probability estimation analysis. The study has been carried out at the Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology "CuzaVodă" Iaşi, at the Laboratory of cytogenetic--prenatal diagnosis, during January 2004-December 2011, on a target group of 1406 pregnant women. As part of this study, 1411 amniocentesis were performed. increased efficiency of screening for fetal aneuploidy in the first trimester of pregnancy is obtained through combined method (maternal age over 35 years, increased nuchal translucency and the presence of double test risk) which has 100% detection rate and a rate false-positive result of 0%. The efficiency of this method is provided also by the relatively high risk (RR = 17.2) and its specificity (Sp = 100%). Making the assessment following the study false positive rate, it appears that a good method of risk assessment for aneuploidy is the combined evaluation of increased nuchal translucency (NT) with maternal age over 35 years (specificity 99.5%, a detection rate of 40% false positive rate of 0.45% and a relative risk of 7.09 for the presence of aneuploidy). The achievement of a correct prenatal diagnosis and the increase of the method efficiency, requires a correct selection of cases with aneuploidy risk assessment, based on the results of ultrasound and biochemical (double test risk) investigations correlated with

  14. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRamus, Thomas P; Kana, Rajesh K

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behaviors. While behavioral symptoms are well-documented, investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD have not resulted in firm biomarkers. Variability in findings across structural neuroimaging studies has contributed to difficulty in reliably characterizing the brain morphology of individuals with ASD. These inconsistencies may also arise from the heterogeneity of ASD, and wider age-range of participants included in MRI studies and in previous meta-analyses. To address this, the current study used coordinate-based anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 21 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies examining high-functioning individuals with ASD, resulting in a meta-analysis of 1055 participants (506 ASD, and 549 typically developing individuals). Results consisted of grey, white, and global differences in cortical matter between the groups. Modeled anatomical maps consisting of concentration, thickness, and volume metrics of grey and white matter revealed clusters suggesting age-related decreases in grey and white matter in parietal and inferior temporal regions of the brain in ASD, and age-related increases in grey matter in frontal and anterior-temporal regions. White matter alterations included fiber tracts thought to play key roles in information processing and sensory integration. Many current theories of pathobiology ASD suggest that the brains of individuals with ASD may have less-functional long-range (anterior-to-posterior) connections. Our findings of decreased cortical matter in parietal-temporal and occipital regions, and thickening in frontal cortices in older adults with ASD may entail altered cortical anatomy, and neurodevelopmental adaptations.

  15. Phenologically-tuned MODIS NDVI-based production anomaly estimates for Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Chris; Budde, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    For thirty years, simple crop water balance models have been used by the early warning community to monitor agricultural drought. These models estimate and accumulate actual crop evapotranspiration, evaluating environmental conditions based on crop water requirements. Unlike seasonal rainfall totals, these models take into account the phenology of the crop, emphasizing conditions during the peak grain filling phase of crop growth. In this paper we describe an analogous metric of crop performance based on time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) imagery. A special temporal filter is used to screen for cloud contamination. Regional NDVI time series are then composited for cultivated areas, and adjusted temporally according to the timing of the rainy season. This adjustment standardizes the NDVI response vis-??-vis the expected phenological response of maize. A national time series index is then created by taking the cropped-area weighted average of the regional series. This national time series provides an effective summary of vegetation response in agricultural areas, and allows for the identification of NDVI green-up during grain filling. Onset-adjusted NDVI values following the grain filling period are well correlated with U.S. Department of Agriculture production figures, possess desirable linear characteristics, and perform better than more common indices such as maximum seasonal NDVI or seasonally averaged NDVI. Thus, just as appropriately calibrated crop water balance models can provide more information than seasonal rainfall totals, the appropriate agro-phenological filtering of NDVI can improve the utility and accuracy of space-based agricultural monitoring.

  16. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. DeRamus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are characterized by impairments in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behaviors. While behavioral symptoms are well-documented, investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD have not resulted in firm biomarkers. Variability in findings across structural neuroimaging studies has contributed to difficulty in reliably characterizing the brain morphology of individuals with ASD. These inconsistencies may also arise from the heterogeneity of ASD, and wider age-range of participants included in MRI studies and in previous meta-analyses. To address this, the current study used coordinate-based anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE analysis of 21 voxel-based morphometry (VBM studies examining high-functioning individuals with ASD, resulting in a meta-analysis of 1055 participants (506 ASD, and 549 typically developing individuals. Results consisted of grey, white, and global differences in cortical matter between the groups. Modeled anatomical maps consisting of concentration, thickness, and volume metrics of grey and white matter revealed clusters suggesting age-related decreases in grey and white matter in parietal and inferior temporal regions of the brain in ASD, and age-related increases in grey matter in frontal and anterior-temporal regions. White matter alterations included fiber tracts thought to play key roles in information processing and sensory integration. Many current theories of pathobiology ASD suggest that the brains of individuals with ASD may have less-functional long-range (anterior-to-posterior connections. Our findings of decreased cortical matter in parietal–temporal and occipital regions, and thickening in frontal cortices in older adults with ASD may entail altered cortical anatomy, and neurodevelopmental adaptations.

  17. New aerial survey and hierarchical model to estimate manatee abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langimm, Cahterine A.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Stith, Bradley M.; Doyle, Terry J.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the response of endangered and protected species to hydrological restoration is a major component of the adaptive management framework of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) lives at the marine-freshwater interface in southwest Florida and is likely to be affected by hydrologic restoration. To provide managers with prerestoration information on distribution and abundance for postrestoration comparison, we developed and implemented a new aerial survey design and hierarchical statistical model to estimate and map abundance of manatees as a function of patch-specific habitat characteristics, indicative of manatee requirements for offshore forage (seagrass), inland fresh drinking water, and warm-water winter refuge. We estimated the number of groups of manatees from dual-observer counts and estimated the number of individuals within groups by removal sampling. Our model is unique in that we jointly analyzed group and individual counts using assumptions that allow probabilities of group detection to depend on group size. Ours is the first analysis of manatee aerial surveys to model spatial and temporal abundance of manatees in association with habitat type while accounting for imperfect detection. We conducted the study in the Ten Thousand Islands area of southwestern Florida, USA, which was expected to be affected by the Picayune Strand Restoration Project to restore hydrology altered for a failed real-estate development. We conducted 11 surveys in 2006, spanning the cold, dry season and warm, wet season. To examine short-term and seasonal changes in distribution we flew paired surveys 1–2 days apart within a given month during the year. Manatees were sparsely distributed across the landscape in small groups. Probability of detection of a group increased with group size; the magnitude of the relationship between group size and detection probability varied among surveys. Probability

  18. Extraction of the anomaly magnetic field of the earth from stratospheric balloon magnetic surveys at altitudes of 20-40 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, Yu. P.; Kuznetsov, V. D.; Golovkov, V. P.; Brekhov, O. M.; Pelle, V. A.; Krapivnyi, A. V.; Nikolaev, N. S.

    2011-01-01

    The solution to the problem of extraction of the anomaly Earth's magnetic field (EMF) from stratospheric balloon magnetic surveys with the help of global analytical models of the normal EMF is proposed. In the problem solution, errors for the analytical models of the normal EMF and its secular variation at a set moment of time are assessed; the found error is introduced as a correction to the extracted anomaly EMF. The error of the model is determined in the places where significant magnetic anomalies are absent. In this case, the error of the model corresponds to deviations of the normal EMF components, synthesized by coefficients of analytical models, and to deviations of the EMF secular variations from the measured values at quite a low value of the variable EMF or one being taken into account. These places are determined when carrying out additional measurements in vertical gradients of the EMF with the use of scalar magnetometers at the gauge length of 6 km. It has been shown that the found places can be considered as nonanomaly, if the difference of values of the anomaly EMF at the gauge length of 6 km does not exceed 1.5 nT within the profile's portion of about 100 km in length. An experiment in nature has revealed that errors for the IGRF-2005 and IGRF-2010 models, corrected for secular variation of the EMF, can reach 200 and 140 nT, respectively, within the limits of the territory where the Kama-Emba magnetic anomaly is located; these errors are determined by the considered causes. Comparison of aerostatic profiles of magnetic anomalies with data on the anomaly EMF, derived from the maps, has shown that the realizations derived from the maps contain overestimated negative values of the anomaly EMF, because they reflect processes in the near-surface layer of the Earth's crust. This fact causes the situation when attempts to recalculate the anomaly EMF into the upper half-space by the near-surface data still have not been successful. Only realizations

  19. Observing Volcanic Thermal Anomalies from Space: How Accurate is the Estimation of the Hotspot's Size and Temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaksek, K.; Pick, L.; Lombardo, V.; Hort, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring the heat emission from active volcanic features on the basis of infrared satellite images contributes to the volcano's hazard assessment. Because these thermal anomalies only occupy a small fraction (Infratec) record images of the artificial heat source in wavebands comparable to those available from satellite data. These range from the short-wave infrared (1.4-3 µm) over the mid-wave infrared (3-8 µm) to the thermal infrared (8-15 µm). In the conducted experiment the pixel fraction of the hotspot was successively reduced by increasing the camera-to-target distance from 3 m to 35 m. On the basis of an individual target pixel the expected decrease of the hotspot pixel area with distance at a relatively constant wire temperature of around 600 °C was confirmed. The deviation of the hotspot's pixel fraction yielded by the Dual-Band method from the theoretically calculated one was found to be within 20 % up until a target distance of 25 m. This means that a reliable estimation of the hotspot size is only possible if the hotspot is larger than about 3 % of the pixel area, a resolution boundary most remotely sensed volcanic hotspots fall below. Future efforts will focus on the investigation of a resolution limit for the hotspot's temperature by varying the alloy's amperage. Moreover, the un-mixing results for more realistic multi-component target pixel consisting of more than two thermally distinct features should be analyzed.

  20. Design and Implementation of an Anomaly Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagherjeiran, A; Cantu-Paz, E; Kamath, C

    2005-07-11

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a general-purpose anomaly detector for streaming data. Based on a survey of similar work from the literature, a basic anomaly detector builds a model on normal data, compares this model to incoming data, and uses a threshold to determine when the incoming data represent an anomaly. Models compactly represent the data but still allow for effective comparison. Comparison methods determine the distance between two models of data or the distance between a model and a point. Threshold selection is a largely neglected problem in the literature, but the current implementation includes two methods to estimate thresholds from normal data. With these components, a user can construct a variety of anomaly detection schemes. The implementation contains several methods from the literature. Three separate experiments tested the performance of the components on two well-known and one completely artificial dataset. The results indicate that the implementation works and can reproduce results from previous experiments.

  1. Estimating trends in alligator populations from nightlight survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Cherkiss, Michael; Jeffery, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Nightlight surveys are commonly used to evaluate status and trends of crocodilian populations, but imperfect detection caused by survey- and location-specific factors makes it difficult to draw population inferences accurately from uncorrected data. We used a two-stage hierarchical model comprising population abundance and detection probability to examine recent abundance trends of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in subareas of Everglades wetlands in Florida using nightlight survey data. During 2001–2008, there were declining trends in abundance of small and/or medium sized animals in a majority of subareas, whereas abundance of large sized animals had either demonstrated an increased or unclear trend. For small and large sized class animals, estimated detection probability declined as water depth increased. Detection probability of small animals was much lower than for larger size classes. The declining trend of smaller alligators may reflect a natural population response to the fluctuating environment of Everglades wetlands under modified hydrology. It may have negative implications for the future of alligator populations in this region, particularly if habitat conditions do not favor recruitment of offspring in the near term. Our study provides a foundation to improve inferences made from nightlight surveys of other crocodilian populations.

  2. Computer realization of estimations of the atmospheric anomalies caused by gas-aerosol pollution of the near-ground atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakova, Liliya K.; Isakova, Anna I.; Smal, Oksana V.; Penin, Sergei T.; Kataev, Mikhail Y.; Kopytin, Yurii D.

    2004-02-01

    In the paper, algorithms of the techniques incorporated in subsystems of the program complex are presented for calculation and estimation of atmospheric anomalies, caused by industrial emissions in the atmosphere. The complex is included in the gas analyzer DAN-2, developed for registration of emission and absorption of optical and the microwave radiation initiated by gas-aerosol pollution in the atmosphere. The complex DAN-2 has been developed in the Institute of Atmospheric Optics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science. Techniques include: calculation of gas concentration in a plume of industrial emission taking into account gas-aerosol attenuation, an azimuth of the device sighting at a direction of the source and the allocated illumination of the day-time sky; numerical modeling of formation and distribution of gas-aerosol emission fields in the atmosphere with use of various models (Gaussian, Berlyand, etc); the forecast of optical noise in the atmosphere at operating hardware DAN-2 taking into account different types of underground surfaces under various hydro meteorological conditions; algorithm of restoration of the plume structure under its image. In the paper, results of testing of the specified algorithms are presented with use of the data of natural measurements of NO2 and SO2 concentration in the emission plume of the thermal power station GRES-2 in Tomsk, which were received by the complex DAN-2. Calculation of atmospheric background noise and distributions of the gas-aerosol plume has been carried out by various methods with use of these data.

  3. Visibility Estimation for the CHARA/JouFLU Exozodi Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Paul D.; ten Brummelaar, Theo; Mennesson, Bertrand; Scott, Nicholas J.

    2017-02-01

    We discuss the estimation of the interferometric visibility (fringe contrast) for the Exozodi survey conducted at the CHARA array with the JouFLU beam combiner. We investigate the use of the statistical median to estimate the uncalibrated visibility from an ensemble of fringe exposures. Under a broad range of operating conditions, numerical simulations indicate that this estimator has a smaller bias compared with other estimators. We also propose an improved method for calibrating visibilities, which not only takes into account the time interval between observations of calibrators and science targets, but also the uncertainties of the calibrators’ raw visibilities. We test our methods with data corresponding to stars that do not display the exozodi phenomenon. The results of our tests show that the proposed method yields smaller biases and errors. The relative reduction in bias and error is generally modest, but can be as high as ∼ 20 % {--}40 % for the brightest stars of the CHARA data and statistically significant at the 95% confidence level (CL).

  4. Age synthesis and estimation via faces: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yun; Guo, Guodong; Huang, Thomas S

    2010-11-01

    Human age, as an important personal trait, can be directly inferred by distinct patterns emerging from the facial appearance. Derived from rapid advances in computer graphics and machine vision, computer-based age synthesis and estimation via faces have become particularly prevalent topics recently because of their explosively emerging real-world applications, such as forensic art, electronic customer relationship management, security control and surveillance monitoring, biometrics, entertainment, and cosmetology. Age synthesis is defined to rerender a face image aesthetically with natural aging and rejuvenating effects on the individual face. Age estimation is defined to label a face image automatically with the exact age (year) or the age group (year range) of the individual face. Because of their particularity and complexity, both problems are attractive yet challenging to computer-based application system designers. Large efforts from both academia and industry have been devoted in the last a few decades. In this paper, we survey the complete state-of-the-art techniques in the face image-based age synthesis and estimation topics. Existing models, popular algorithms, system performances, technical difficulties, popular face aging databases, evaluation protocols, and promising future directions are also provided with systematic discussions.

  5. Detecting Biosphere anomalies hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanche-Garcia, Yanira; Mahecha, Miguel; Flach, Milan; Denzler, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    The current amount of satellite remote sensing measurements available allow for applying data-driven methods to investigate environmental processes. The detection of anomalies or abnormal events is crucial to monitor the Earth system and to analyze their impacts on ecosystems and society. By means of a combination of statistical methods, this study proposes an intuitive and efficient methodology to detect those areas that present hotspots of anomalies, i.e. higher levels of abnormal or extreme events or more severe phases during our historical records. Biosphere variables from a preliminary version of the Earth System Data Cube developed within the CAB-LAB project (http://earthsystemdatacube.net/) have been used in this study. This database comprises several atmosphere and biosphere variables expanding 11 years (2001-2011) with 8-day of temporal resolution and 0.25° of global spatial resolution. In this study, we have used 10 variables that measure the biosphere. The methodology applied to detect abnormal events follows the intuitive idea that anomalies are assumed to be time steps that are not well represented by a previously estimated statistical model [1].We combine the use of Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models with a distance metric like Mahalanobis distance to detect abnormal events in multiple biosphere variables. In a first step we pre-treat the variables by removing the seasonality and normalizing them locally (μ=0,σ=1). Additionally we have regionalized the area of study into subregions of similar climate conditions, by using the Köppen climate classification. For each climate region and variable we have selected the best ARMA parameters by means of a Bayesian Criteria. Then we have obtained the residuals by comparing the fitted models with the original data. To detect the extreme residuals from the 10 variables, we have computed the Mahalanobis distance to the data's mean (Hotelling's T^2), which considers the covariance matrix of the joint

  6. Pose Estimation for Augmented Reality: A Hands-On Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Eric; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Spindler, Fabien

    2016-12-01

    Augmented reality (AR) allows to seamlessly insert virtual objects in an image sequence. In order to accomplish this goal, it is important that synthetic elements are rendered and aligned in the scene in an accurate and visually acceptable way. The solution of this problem can be related to a pose estimation or, equivalently, a camera localization process. This paper aims at presenting a brief but almost self-contented introduction to the most important approaches dedicated to vision-based camera localization along with a survey of several extension proposed in the recent years. For most of the presented approaches, we also provide links to code of short examples. This should allow readers to easily bridge the gap between theoretical aspects and practical implementations.

  7. Echolocation detections and digital video surveys provide reliable estimates of the relative density of harbour porpoises

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williamson, Laura D; Brookes, Kate L; Scott, Beth E; Graham, Isla M; Bradbury, Gareth; Hammond, Philip S; Thompson, Paul M; McPherson, Jana

    2016-01-01

    ...‐based visual surveys. Surveys of cetaceans using acoustic loggers or digital cameras provide alternative methods to estimate relative density that have the potential to reduce cost and provide a verifiable record of all detections...

  8. The importance of social media for patients and families affected by congenital anomalies: A Facebook cross-sectional analysis and user survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Robyn; Boyd, Leanne; Brennan, Kirsty; Sinha, C K; Giuliani, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to define characteristics and needs of Facebook users in relation to congenital anomalies. Cross-sectional analysis of Facebook related to four congenital anomalies: anorectal malformation (ARM), congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), congenital heart disease (CHD) and hypospadias/epispadias (HS/ES). A keyword search was performed to identify relevant Groups/Pages. An anonymous survey was posted to obtain quantitative/qualitative data on users and their healthcare needs. 54 Groups and 24 Pages were identified (ARM: 10 Groups; CDH: 9 Groups, 7 Pages; CHD: 32 Groups, 17 Pages; HS/ES: 3 Groups), with 16,191 Group members and 48,766 Page likes. 868/1103 (79%) of respondents were parents. Male:female ratio was 1:10.9. 65% of the users were 26-40years old. Common reasons for joining these Groups/Pages included: seeking support, education, making friends, and providing support to others. 932/1103 (84%) would like healthcare professionals (HCPs) to actively participate in their Group. 31% of the respondents felt that they did not receive enough support from their healthcare system. 97% of the respondents would like to join a Group linked to their primary hospital. Facebook Groups/Pages related to congenital anomalies are highly populated and active. There is a need for HCPs and policy makers to better understand and participate in social media to support families and improve patient care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. American Community Survey (ACS) 5-Year Estimates for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population every year. These data have been apportioned...

  10. Measuring coverage in MNCH: total survey error and the interpretation of intervention coverage estimates from household surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Eisele

    Full Text Available Nationally representative household surveys are increasingly relied upon to measure maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH intervention coverage at the population level in low- and middle-income countries. Surveys are the best tool we have for this purpose and are central to national and global decision making. However, all survey point estimates have a certain level of error (total survey error comprising sampling and non-sampling error, both of which must be considered when interpreting survey results for decision making. In this review, we discuss the importance of considering these errors when interpreting MNCH intervention coverage estimates derived from household surveys, using relevant examples from national surveys to provide context. Sampling error is usually thought of as the precision of a point estimate and is represented by 95% confidence intervals, which are measurable. Confidence intervals can inform judgments about whether estimated parameters are likely to be different from the real value of a parameter. We recommend, therefore, that confidence intervals for key coverage indicators should always be provided in survey reports. By contrast, the direction and magnitude of non-sampling error is almost always unmeasurable, and therefore unknown. Information error and bias are the most common sources of non-sampling error in household survey estimates and we recommend that they should always be carefully considered when interpreting MNCH intervention coverage based on survey data. Overall, we recommend that future research on measuring MNCH intervention coverage should focus on refining and improving survey-based coverage estimates to develop a better understanding of how results should be interpreted and used.

  11. Application of penalized least squares estimation in height anomaly%遥感影像理解综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春晓; 王天宝; 鲁学军; 姜娉

    2011-01-01

    The model errors exist inevitably in conventional least square fitting model of height anomaly, this article proposed that model error could be dealt with as nonparametric information using penalized least squares and discussed the effect of Regularizer R and Smoothing Parameter α on the results of fitting. Through the research on the solution of the Smoothing Parameter, a method of function Xu (α)was presented, and experimented on a GPS leveling measurement data. The Results showed that penalized least squares is better than least-square method in determining height anomaly.%本文通过对近年来遥感影像理解(IU:Image Understanding)研究的分析,本文给出了遥感影像理解的框架流程,讨论了高级语义特征和低级影像特征,针对流程中的各个任务介绍了有代表性的方法应用,并对发展趋势进行预测,特别是基于知识系统和影像认知的应用.

  12. Estimates of the abundance of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata from Faroese and Icelandic NASS shipboard surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Pike

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available North Atlantic Sightings Surveys for cetaceans were carried out Northeast and Central Atlantic in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001. Here we provide estimates of density and abundance for minke whales from the Faroese and Icelandic ship surveys. The estimates are not corrected for availability or perception biases. Double platform data collected in 2001 indicates that perception bias is likely considerable for this species. However comparison of corrected estimates of densityfrom aerial surveys with a ship survey estimate from the same area suggests that ship surveys can be nearly unbiased under optimal survey conditions with high searching effort. There were some regional changes in density over the period but no overall changes in density and abundance. Given the recent catch history for minke whales in this area, we would not expect to see changes in abundance due to exploitation that would be detectable with these surveys.

  13. MATLAB-based algorithm to estimate depths of isolated thin dike-like sources using higher-order horizontal derivatives of magnetic anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an easy-to-use open source computer algorithm (code) for estimating the depths of isolated single thin dike-like source bodies by using numerical second-, third-, and fourth-order horizontal derivatives computed from observed magnetic anomalies. The approach does not require a priori information and uses some filters of successive graticule spacings. The computed higher-order horizontal derivative datasets are used to solve nonlinear equations for depth determination. The solutions are independent from the magnetization and ambient field directions. The practical usability of the developed code, designed in MATLAB R2012b (MathWorks Inc.), was successfully examined using some synthetic simulations with and without noise. The algorithm was then used to estimate the depths of some ore bodies buried in different regions (USA, Sweden, and Canada). Real data tests clearly indicated that the obtained depths are in good agreement with those of previous studies and drilling information. Additionally, a state-of-the-art inversion scheme based on particle swarm optimization produced comparable results to those of the higher-order horizontal derivative analyses in both synthetic and real anomaly cases. Accordingly, the proposed code is verified to be useful in interpreting isolated single thin dike-like magnetized bodies and may be an alternative processing technique. The open source code can be easily modified and adapted to suit the benefits of other researchers.

  14. Outcome of fetuses with short femur length detected at second-trimester anomaly scan: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, J M; Aksglaede, L; Skibsted, L; Petersen, O B; Tabor, A

    2014-08-01

    To assess the relationship between the finding of fetal femur diaphysis length (FL) below the 5(th) percentile at the second-trimester scan and pregnancy outcome, in a population in which more than 90% of women attend first-trimester screening. This was a retrospective study of all Danish singleton pregnancies with a 17-22-week anomaly scan between 1 January 2008 and 30 June 2011. Information on FL and gestational age (GA) at anomaly scan, on birth weight and GA at delivery and on chromosomal abnormalities was obtained from the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. Short FL was identified in 2718 (1.8%) of 147,766 fetuses and was present in 11 (16.2%) of the 68 fetuses affected by trisomy 21 (positive likelihood ratio (LR+) 8.8 (95% CI, 5.1-15.2)). Trisomy 13/18 and unbalanced autosomal structural abnormalities were also associated with a short FL in three (12.0%, LR+ 6.5 (95% CI, 2.3-18.9)) and eight (32.0%, LR+ 17.4 (95% CI, 9.8-30.9)) of the cases, respectively. The risk of a fetus having trisomy 21, trisomy 18, trisomy 13 or an unbalanced autosomal structural abnormality was 1 : 123 (95% CI, 79-192), given a short FL. Pregnancies with a fetus with short FL were more often affected by early preterm delivery (before 34 weeks) (5.6%; odds ratio (OR) = 4.2 (95% CI, 3.5-4.9)) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants (13.9%; OR = 4.3 (95% CI, 3.8-4.8)). Short FL at the second-trimester anomaly scan is associated with a significantly higher relative risk of chromosomal abnormalities, and a substantially higher absolute risk for SGA and early preterm delivery. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Neural Network based Software Effort Estimation: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Waseem Khan; Imran Qureshi

    2014-01-01

    Software effort estimation is used to estimate how many resources and how many hours are required to develop a software project. The accurate and reliable prediction is the key to success of a project. There are numerous mechanisms in software effort estimation but accurate prediction is still a challenge for the researchers and software project managers. In this paper, the use of Neural Network techniques for Software Effort Estimation is discussed and evaluate on the basis of MMRE and Predi...

  16. Using survey data on inflation expectations in the estimation of learning and rational expectations models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormeño, A.

    2012-01-01

    Do survey data on inflation expectations contain useful information for estimating macroeconomic models? I address this question by using survey data in the New Keynesian model by Smets and Wouters (2007) to estimate and compare its performance when solved under the assumptions of Rational

  17. Anomaly holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gripaios, Ben [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Rd., Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Merton College, Oxford OX1 4JD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: b.gripaios1@physics.ox.ac.uk; West, Stephen M. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Rd., Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.west1@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2008-01-21

    We consider, in the effective field theory context, anomalies of gauge field theories on a slice of a five-dimensional, anti-de Sitter geometry and their four-dimensional, holographic duals. A consistent effective field theory description can always be found, notwithstanding the presence of the anomalies and without modifying the degrees of freedom of the theory. If anomalies do not vanish, the d=4 theory contains additional pseudoscalar states, which are either present in the low-energy theory as physical, light states, or are eaten by (would-be massless) gauge bosons. We show that the pseudoscalars ensure that global anomalies of the four-dimensional dual satisfy the 't Hooft matching condition and comment on the relevance for warped models of electroweak symmetry breaking.

  18. A Survey of Cost Estimating Methodologies for Distributed Spacecraft Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Veronica L.; Le Moigne, Jacqueline; de Weck, Oliver L.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite constellations and Distributed Spacecraft Mission (DSM) architectures offer unique benefits to Earth observation scientists and unique challenges to cost estimators. The Cost and Risk (CR) module of the Tradespace Analysis Tool for Constellations (TAT-C) being developed by NASA Goddard seeks to address some of these challenges by providing a new approach to cost modeling, which aggregates existing Cost Estimating Relationships (CER) from respected sources, cost estimating best practices, and data from existing and proposed satellite designs. Cost estimation through this tool is approached from two perspectives: parametric cost estimating relationships and analogous cost estimation techniques. The dual approach utilized within the TAT-C CR module is intended to address prevailing concerns regarding early design stage cost estimates, and offer increased transparency and fidelity by offering two preliminary perspectives on mission cost. This work outlines the existing cost model, details assumptions built into the model, and explains what measures have been taken to address the particular challenges of constellation cost estimating. The risk estimation portion of the TAT-C CR module is still in development and will be presented in future work. The cost estimate produced by the CR module is not intended to be an exact mission valuation, but rather a comparative tool to assist in the exploration of the constellation design tradespace. Previous work has noted that estimating the cost of satellite constellations is difficult given that no comprehensive model for constellation cost estimation has yet been developed, and as such, quantitative assessment of multiple spacecraft missions has many remaining areas of uncertainty. By incorporating well-established CERs with preliminary approaches to approaching these uncertainties, the CR module offers more complete approach to constellation costing than has previously been available to mission architects or Earth

  19. STELLAR KINEMATICS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF VIRGO CLUSTER DWARF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM THE SMAKCED PROJECT. II. THE SURVEY AND A SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF KINEMATIC ANOMALIES AND ASYMMETRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Peletier, R. F. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Boselli, A. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Université d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR 7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Lisker, T. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ryś, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Simon, J. D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Van de Ven, G. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Paudel, S. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Emsellem, E. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Janz, J. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Den Brok, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Gorgas, J. [Departamento de Astrofísica y Física de la Atmósfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Hensler, G. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstraße 17, 1180 Vienna (Austria); Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H. [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physics, PO Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Niemi, S.-M., E-mail: toloba@ucolick.org [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    We present spatially resolved kinematics and global stellar populations and mass-to-light ratios for a sample of 39 dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. This sample is representative of the early-type population in the Virgo cluster in the absolute magnitude range –19.0 < M{sub r} < –16.0 and of all morphological subclasses found in this galaxy population. For each dE, we measure the rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile and fit an analytic function to the rotation curve. We study the significance of the departure of the rotation curve from the best-fit analytic function (poorly fit) and of the difference between the approaching and receding sides of the rotation curve (asymmetry). Our sample includes two dEs with kinematically decoupled cores that have been previously reported. We find that 62 ± 8% (23 out of the 39) of the dEs have a significant anomaly in their rotation curve. Analysis of the images reveals photometric anomalies for most galaxies. However, there is no clear correlation between the significance of the photometric and kinematic anomalies. We measure age-sensitive (H{sub β} and H{sub γA}) and metallicity sensitive (Fe4668 and Mgb) Lick spectral indices in the LIS-5 Å system. This population of galaxies exhibits a wide range of ages and metallicities; we also find that 4 dEs show clear evidence of emission partially filling in the Balmer absorption lines. Finally, we estimate the total masses and dark matter fractions of the dEs and plot them in the mass-size, the mass-velocity dispersion, and the fundamental plane scaling relations. The dEs seem to be the bridge between massive early-type galaxies and dSphs, and have a median total mass within the R{sub e} of log M{sub e} = 9.1 ± 0.2 and a median dark matter fraction within the R{sub e} of f {sub DM} = 46 ± 18%. Any formation model for the dE galaxy class must account for this

  20. Estimation of Nationwide Vaccination Coverage and Comparison of Interview and Telephone Survey Methodology for Estimating Vaccination Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Lee, Yeon-Kyeng; Cho, Lisa Y.; Go, Un Yeong; Yang, Jae Jeong; Ma, Seung Hyun; Choi, Bo-Youl; Lee, Moo-Sik; Lee, Jin-Seok; Choi, Eun Hwa; Lee, Hoan Jong

    2011-01-01

    This study compared interview and telephone surveys to select the better method for regularly estimating nationwide vaccination coverage rates in Korea. Interview surveys using multi-stage cluster sampling and telephone surveys using stratified random sampling were conducted. Nationwide coverage rates were estimated in subjects with vaccination cards in the interview survey. The interview survey relative to the telephone survey showed a higher response rate, lower missing rate, higher validity and a less difference in vaccination coverage rates between card owners and non-owners. Primary vaccination coverage rate was greater than 90% except for the fourth dose of DTaP (diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis), the third dose of polio, and the third dose of Japanese B encephalitis (JBE). The DTaP4: Polio3: MMR1 fully vaccination rate was 62.0% and BCG1:HepB3:DTaP4:Polio3:MMR1 was 59.5%. For age-appropriate vaccination, the coverage rate was 50%-80%. We concluded that the interview survey was better than the telephone survey. These results can be applied to countries with incomplete registry and decreasing rates of landline telephone coverage due to increased cell phone usage and countries. Among mandatory vaccines, efforts to increase vaccination rate for the fourth dose of DTaP, the third dose of polio, JBE and regular vaccinations at recommended periods should be conducted in Korea. PMID:21655054

  1. Horvitz-Thompson survey sample methods for estimating large-scale animal abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Garton, E.O.

    1994-01-01

    Large-scale surveys to estimate animal abundance can be useful for monitoring population status and trends, for measuring responses to management or environmental alterations, and for testing ecological hypotheses about abundance. However, large-scale surveys may be expensive and logistically complex. To ensure resources are not wasted on unattainable targets, the goals and uses of each survey should be specified carefully and alternative methods for addressing these objectives always should be considered. During survey design, the impoflance of each survey error component (spatial design, propofiion of detected animals, precision in detection) should be considered carefully to produce a complete statistically based survey. Failure to address these three survey components may produce population estimates that are inaccurate (biased low), have unrealistic precision (too precise) and do not satisfactorily meet the survey objectives. Optimum survey design requires trade-offs in these sources of error relative to the costs of sampling plots and detecting animals on plots, considerations that are specific to the spatial logistics and survey methods. The Horvitz-Thompson estimators provide a comprehensive framework for considering all three survey components during the design and analysis of large-scale wildlife surveys. Problems of spatial and temporal (especially survey to survey) heterogeneity in detection probabilities have received little consideration, but failure to account for heterogeneity produces biased population estimates. The goal of producing unbiased population estimates is in conflict with the increased variation from heterogeneous detection in the population estimate. One solution to this conflict is to use an MSE-based approach to achieve a balance between bias reduction and increased variation. Further research is needed to develop methods that address spatial heterogeneity in detection, evaluate the effects of temporal heterogeneity on survey

  2. Improvement Schemes for Indoor Mobile Location Estimation: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianga Shang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Location estimation is significant in mobile and ubiquitous computing systems. The complexity and smaller scale of the indoor environment impose a great impact on location estimation. The key of location estimation lies in the representation and fusion of uncertain information from multiple sources. The improvement of location estimation is a complicated and comprehensive issue. A lot of research has been done to address this issue. However, existing research typically focuses on certain aspects of the problem and specific methods. This paper reviews mainstream schemes on improving indoor location estimation from multiple levels and perspectives by combining existing works and our own working experiences. Initially, we analyze the error sources of common indoor localization techniques and provide a multilayered conceptual framework of improvement schemes for location estimation. This is followed by a discussion of probabilistic methods for location estimation, including Bayes filters, Kalman filters, extended Kalman filters, sigma-point Kalman filters, particle filters, and hidden Markov models. Then, we investigate the hybrid localization methods, including multimodal fingerprinting, triangulation fusing multiple measurements, combination of wireless positioning with pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR, and cooperative localization. Next, we focus on the location determination approaches that fuse spatial contexts, namely, map matching, landmark fusion, and spatial model-aided methods. Finally, we present the directions for future research.

  3. Estimation of Fractional Vegetation Cover Based on Digital Camera Survey Data and a Remote Sensing Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhen-qi; HE Fen-qin; YIN Jian-zhong; LU Xia; TANG Shi-lu; WANG Lin-lin; LI Xiao-jing

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to improve the monitoring speed and precision of fractional vegetation cover (fc). It mainly focuses onfc estimation when fcmax andfcmin are not approximately equal to 100% and 0%, respectively due to using remote sensing image with medium or low spatial resolution. Meanwhile, we present a new method offc estimation based on a random set offc maximum and minimum values from digital camera (DC) survey data and a dimidiate pixel model. The results show that this is a convenient, efficient and accurate method forfc monitoring, with the maximum error -0.172 and correlation coefficient of 0.974 between DC survey data and the estimated value of the remote sensing model. The remaining DC survey data can be used as verification data for the precision of thefc estimation. In general, the estimation offc based on DC survey data and a remote sensing model is a brand-new development trend and deserves further extensive utilization.

  4. Comparing Oral Health Care Utilization Estimates in the United States Across Three Nationally Representative Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek, Mark D; Manski, Richard J; Vargas, Clemencia M; Moeller, John

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare estimates of dental visits among adults using three national surveys. Data Sources/Study Design Cross-sectional data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and National Health Expenditure surveys (NMCES, NMES, MEPS). Study Design This secondary data analysis assessed whether overall estimates and stratum-specific trends are different across surveys. Data Collection Dental visit data are age standardized via the direct method to the 1990 population of the United States. Point estimates, standard errors, and test statistics are generated using SUDAAN. Principal Findings Sociodemographic, stratum-specific trends are generally consistent across surveys; however, overall estimates differ (NHANES III [364-day estimate] versus 1993 NHIS: –17.5 percent difference, Z=7.27, p value < 0.001; NHANES III [365-day estimate] vs. 1993 NHIS: 5.4 percent difference, Z=–2.50, p value=0.006; MEPS vs. 1993 NHIS: –29.8 percent difference, Z=16.71, p value < 0.001). MEPS is the least susceptible to intrusion, telescoping, and social desirability. Conclusions Possible explanations for discrepancies include different reference periods, lead-in statements, question format, and social desirability of responses. Choice of survey should depend on the hypothesis. If trends are necessary, choice of survey should not matter; however, if health status or expenditure associations are necessary, then surveys that contain these variables should be used, and if accurate overall estimates are necessary, then MEPS should be used. A validation study should be conducted to establish “true” utilization estimates. PMID:12036005

  5. Mixed Estimation for a Forest Survey Sample Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis A. Roesch

    1999-01-01

    Three methods of estimating the current state of forest attributes over small areas for the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station's annual forest sampling design are compared. The three methods were (I) simple moving average, (II) single imputation of plot data that had been updated by externally developed models, and (III) local application of a global...

  6. The effect of methodological differences in two survey's estimates of the percentage of employers sponsoring health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, E; Poe, G; Euller, R

    1999-01-01

    Two large surveys on employer-sponsored health insurance produced different estimates of the percentage of employers offering insurance to their employees in 1993. These differences occurred despite major similarities in the surveys' purpose and design. In this paper, five survey design factors are assessed. Estimates from the second survey were recomputed to eliminate cases not included in the first survey. Survey estimates were no longer significantly different when cases were removed because establishments had moved, were single-employee establishments on the sample frame, were classified as completed only in the second survey, or when poststratification adjustments in the weighting used only in the second survey were eliminated. Based on a comparison of 449 cases that responded in both surveys, changes in the wording of questions also probably contributed to the difference in survey estimates. These results indicate that estimates from these types of surveys are very sensitive to differing designs.

  7. Anomaly detection in online social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, David; Yu, Xinghuo; Chou, Pauline; Wang, Qingmai

    2016-01-01

    Anomalies in online social networks can signify irregular, and often illegal behaviour. Anomalies in online social networks can signify irregular, and often illegal behaviour. Detection of such anomalies has been used to identify malicious individuals, including spammers, sexual predators, and online fraudsters. In this paper we survey existing computational techniques for detecting anomalies in online social networks. We characterise anomalies as being either static or dynamic, and as being labelled or unlabelled, and survey methods for detecting these different types of anomalies. We suggest that the detection of anomalies in online social networks is composed of two sub-processes; the selection and calculation of network features, and the classification of observations from this feature space. In addition, this paper provides an overview of the types of problems that anomaly detection can address and identifies key areas of future research.

  8. Pose Estimation for Augmented Reality: A Hands-On Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, Éric; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Spindler, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Augmented reality (AR) allows to seamlessly insert virtual objects in an image sequence. In order to accomplish this goal, it is important that synthetic elements are rendered and aligned in the scene in an accurate and visually acceptable way. The solution of this problem can be related to a pose estimation or, equivalently, a camera localization process. This paper aims at presenting a brief but almost self-contented introduction to the most important approaches dedi...

  9. Estimating international interindustry linkages : Non-survey simulations of the Asian-Pacific economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhaven, J.; Stelder, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates a recently published semi-survey international input-output table for nine East-Asian countries and the USA with four non-survey estimation alternatives. A new generalized RAS procedure is used with stepwise increasing information from both import and export statistics as

  10. Aerial surveys adjusted by ground surveys to estimate area occupied by black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, John G.; Augustine, David J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Cully, Jack F.; Reading, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Aerial surveys using line-intercept methods are one approach to estimate the extent of prairie dog colonies in a large geographic area. Although black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) construct conspicuous mounds at burrow openings, aerial observers have difficulty discriminating between areas with burrows occupied by prairie dogs (colonies) versus areas of uninhabited burrows (uninhabited colony sites). Consequently, aerial line-intercept surveys may overestimate prairie dog colony extent unless adjusted by an on-the-ground inspection of a sample of intercepts. We compared aerial line-intercept surveys conducted over 2 National Grasslands in Colorado, USA, with independent ground-mapping of known black-tailed prairie dog colonies. Aerial line-intercepts adjusted by ground surveys using a single activity category adjustment overestimated colonies by ≥94% on the Comanche National Grassland and ≥58% on the Pawnee National Grassland. We present a ground-survey technique that involves 1) visiting on the ground a subset of aerial intercepts classified as occupied colonies plus a subset of intercepts classified as uninhabited colony sites, and 2) based on these ground observations, recording the proportion of each aerial intercept that intersects a colony and the proportion that intersects an uninhabited colony site. Where line-intercept techniques are applied to aerial surveys or remotely sensed imagery, this method can provide more accurate estimates of black-tailed prairie dog abundance and trends

  11. Negative Magnetic Anomalies Observed in the Central West Antarctica (CWA) Aerogeophysical Survey Over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), Whose Sources are Volcanic Centers (e.g. Mt Resnik) at the Base of the ice >780 Ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, J. C.; Finn, C. A.; Morse, D. L.; Blankenship, D. D.

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of a block of coincident aeromagnetic and radar ice-sounding data (from the CWA aerogeophysical survey) over the WAIS reveals ~1000 50->1000-nT, shallow -source, ``volcanic" magnetic anomalies, interpreted as caused by late Cenozoic alkaline magmatism associated with the West Antarctic rift system (WR). About 400 of these anomalies (conservatively selected) have topographic expression at the bed of the WAIS; >80% of these topographic features have Resnik, marked by a complex negative anomaly, is a conical peak 300 m below the surface of the WAIS, and has ~2 km topographic relief. We interpret a magnetic model fit to this anomaly as comprising reversely magnetized (in the present field direction), 0.5-2.5-km thick volcanic flows at the summit overlying normally magnetized flows. Published models (1996) reported for the Hut Point anomaly, at Ross Island, Antarctica, a similar anomaly to Mt. Resnik, also required both normal and reversed magnetizations correlated with drill holes into dated volcanic flows (also part of the late Cenozoic WR) crossing the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary (780 Ka). Because of their form similar to exposed volcanoes in the WAIS area with edifices primarily comprising subaerially-erupted, very magnetic volcanic flows, which have resisted glacial erosion, Behrendt et al. (2004) interpreted that these 18 high-topograpy, high-relief sources are subglacial volcanoes (including the five >780 Ka) erupted subaerially during a period when the WAIS was absent.

  12. Repeated count surveys help standardize multi-agency estimates of American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetter, Nathan J.; Gardner, Beth; Schweitzer, Sara H.; Boettcher, Ruth; Wilke, Alexandra L.; Addison, Lindsay; Swilling, William R.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2015-01-01

    The extensive breeding range of many shorebird species can make integration of survey data problematic at regional spatial scales. We evaluated the effectiveness of standardized repeated count surveys coordinated across 8 agencies to estimate the abundance of American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) breeding pairs in the southeastern United States. Breeding season surveys were conducted across coastal North Carolina (90 plots) and the Eastern Shore of Virginia (3 plots). Plots were visited on 1–5 occasions during April–June 2013. N-mixture models were used to estimate abundance and detection probability in relation to survey date, tide stage, plot size, and plot location (coastal bay vs. barrier island). The estimated abundance of oystercatchers in the surveyed area was 1,048 individuals (95% credible interval: 851–1,408) and 470 pairs (384–637), substantially higher than estimates that did not account for detection probability (maximum counts of 674 individuals and 316 pairs). Detection probability was influenced by a quadratic function of survey date, and increased from mid-April (~0.60) to mid-May (~0.80), then remained relatively constant through June. Detection probability was also higher during high tide than during low, rising, or falling tides. Abundance estimates from N-mixture models were validated at 13 plots by exhaustive productivity studies (2–5 surveys wk−1). Intensive productivity studies identified 78 breeding pairs across 13 productivity plots while the N-mixture model abundance estimate was 74 pairs (62–119) using only 1–5 replicated surveys season−1. Our results indicate that standardized replicated count surveys coordinated across multiple agencies and conducted during a relatively short time window (closure assumption) provide tremendous potential to meet both agency-level (e.g., state) and regional-level (e.g., flyway) objectives in large-scale shorebird monitoring programs.

  13. Smoking in the workplace 1986: Labour Force Survey estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W J; Bisch, L M

    1989-01-01

    A smoking supplement on the December 1986 Canadian Labour Force Survey (LFS) obtained data on smoking rates within occupational groups, the percentage of workers in occupations which permit smoking at the worksite, the proportion of workers with designated smoking areas at their place of employment, and worker attitudes towards restriction of smoking. Smoking prevalence ranges from 18% among professional workers to 42% among transportation workers. Smoking rates are also high in mining (40%), construction (39%), and other craft occupations (37%). About 53% of the working population state that smoking is permitted in their immediate work area. Proportions of workers who indicate that smoking is permitted range from 39% among professional workers to 67% among transportation workers. Managerial (66%) and construction employees (65%) are also likely to state that smoking is permitted in their work area. Only 40% of the working population report that there are designated smoking areas at their place of work. Professionals (55%) and mining workers (52%) are most likely to have designated smoking areas. Workers in outdoor (17%), construction (23%), and transportation occupations (26%) are least likely. A large percentage (81%) of the working population favour smoking restrictions. Support for restricting smoking is closely linked to smoking prevalence within an occupational group. About 65% of smokers favour restrictions. The degree of support among smokers for restrictions on smoking in the workplace suggests that many smokers desire environmental constraints on their smoking behaviour.

  14. Generalized estimators of avian abundance from count survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royle, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available I consider modeling avian abundance from spatially referenced bird count data collected according to common protocols such as capture-recapture, multiple observer, removal sampling and simple point counts. Small sample sizes and large numbers of parameters have motivated many analyses that disregard the spatial indexing of the data, and thus do not provide an adequate treatment of spatial structure. I describe a general framework for modeling spatially replicated data that regards local abundance as a random process, motivated by the view that the set of spatially referenced local populations (at the sample locations constitute a metapopulation. Under this view, attention can be focused on developing a model for the variation in local abundance independent of the sampling protocol being considered. The metapopulation model structure, when combined with the data generating model, define a simple hierarchical model that can be analyzed using conventional methods. The proposed modeling framework is completely general in the sense that broad classes of metapopulation models may be considered, site level covariates on detection and abundance may be considered, and estimates of abundance and related quantities may be obtained for sample locations, groups of locations, unsampled locations. Two brief examples are given, the first involving simple point counts, and the second based on temporary removal counts. Extension of these models to open systems is briefly discussed.

  15. Using Intelligent Techniques in Construction Project Cost Estimation: 10-Year Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Osman Elfaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimation is the most important preliminary process in any construction project. Therefore, construction cost estimation has the lion’s share of the research effort in construction management. In this paper, we have analysed and studied proposals for construction cost estimation for the last 10 years. To implement this survey, we have proposed and applied a methodology that consists of two parts. The first part concerns data collection, for which we have chosen special journals as sources for the surveyed proposals. The second part concerns the analysis of the proposals. To analyse each proposal, the following four questions have been set. Which intelligent technique is used? How have data been collected? How are the results validated? And which construction cost estimation factors have been used? From the results of this survey, two main contributions have been produced. The first contribution is the defining of the research gap in this area, which has not been fully covered by previous proposals of construction cost estimation. The second contribution of this survey is the proposal and highlighting of future directions for forthcoming proposals, aimed ultimately at finding the optimal construction cost estimation. Moreover, we consider the second part of our methodology as one of our contributions in this paper. This methodology has been proposed as a standard benchmark for construction cost estimation proposals.

  16. The Behavioral Risk Factor Survey and the Stanford Five-City Project Survey: a comparison of cardiovascular risk behavior estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C; Jatulis, D E; Fortmann, S P

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Nearly all state health departments collect Behavioral Risk Factor Survey (BRFS) data, and many report using these data in public health planning. Although the BRFS is widely used, little is known about its measurement properties. This study compares the cardiovascular risk behavior estimates of the BRFS with estimates derived from the physiological and interview data of the Stanford Five-City Project Survey (FCPS). METHOD. The BRFS is a random telephone sample of 1588 adults aged 25 to 64; the FCPS is a random household sample of 1512 adults aged 25 to 64. Both samples were drawn from the same four California communities. RESULTS. The surveys produced comparable estimates for measures of current smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, rate of ever being told one has high blood pressure, rate of prescription of blood pressure medications, compliance in taking medications, and mean total cholesterol. Significant differences were found for mean body mass index, rates of obesity, and, in particular, rate of controlled hypertension. CONCLUSIONS. These differences indicate that, for some risk variables, the BRFS has limited utility in assessing public health needs and setting public health objectives. A formal validation study is needed to test all the risk behavior estimates measured by this widely used instrument. PMID:1536358

  17. Moose population estimate, trend, and distribution survey on Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, Game Management Unit 23, 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our moose population estimate for the surveyed area was calculated to be 1,864 ±1911. This included a low stratum estimate of 241, a medium stratum estimate of...

  18. The Fukushima Health Management Survey: estimation of external doses to residents in Fukushima Prefecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kobashi, Gen; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Makoto; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Sakata, Ritsu; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Health Management Survey (including the Basic Survey for external dose estimation and four detailed surveys) was launched after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The Basic Survey consists of a questionnaire that asks Fukushima Prefecture residents about their behavior in the first four months after the accident; and responses to the questionnaire have been returned from many residents. The individual external doses are estimated by using digitized behavior data and a computer program that included daily gamma ray dose rate maps drawn after the accident. The individual external doses of 421,394 residents for the first four months (excluding radiation workers) had a distribution as follows: 62.0%, <1 mSv; 94.0%, <2 mSv; 99.4%, <3 mSv. The arithmetic mean and maximum for the individual external doses were 0.8 and 25 mSv, respectively. While most dose estimation studies were based on typical scenarios of evacuation and time spent inside/outside, the Basic Survey estimated doses considering individually different personal behaviors. Thus, doses for some individuals who did not follow typical scenarios could be revealed. Even considering such extreme cases, the estimated external doses were generally low and no discernible increased incidence of radiation-related health effects is expected. PMID:26239643

  19. Grizzly Bear Noninvasive Genetic Tagging Surveys: Estimating the Magnitude of Missed Detections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jason T; Heim, Nicole; Code, Sandra; Paczkowski, John

    2016-01-01

    Sound wildlife conservation decisions require sound information, and scientists increasingly rely on remotely collected data over large spatial scales, such as noninvasive genetic tagging (NGT). Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), for example, are difficult to study at population scales except with noninvasive data, and NGT via hair trapping informs management over much of grizzly bears' range. Considerable statistical effort has gone into estimating sources of heterogeneity, but detection error-arising when a visiting bear fails to leave a hair sample-has not been independently estimated. We used camera traps to survey grizzly bear occurrence at fixed hair traps and multi-method hierarchical occupancy models to estimate the probability that a visiting bear actually leaves a hair sample with viable DNA. We surveyed grizzly bears via hair trapping and camera trapping for 8 monthly surveys at 50 (2012) and 76 (2013) sites in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada. We used multi-method occupancy models to estimate site occupancy, probability of detection, and conditional occupancy at a hair trap. We tested the prediction that detection error in NGT studies could be induced by temporal variability within season, leading to underestimation of occupancy. NGT via hair trapping consistently underestimated grizzly bear occupancy at a site when compared to camera trapping. At best occupancy was underestimated by 50%; at worst, by 95%. Probability of false absence was reduced through successive surveys, but this mainly accounts for error imparted by movement among repeated surveys, not necessarily missed detections by extant bears. The implications of missed detections and biased occupancy estimates for density estimation-which form the crux of management plans-require consideration. We suggest hair-trap NGT studies should estimate and correct detection error using independent survey methods such as cameras, to ensure the reliability of the data upon which species management and

  20. Uav Aerial Survey: Accuracy Estimation for Automatically Generated Dense Digital Surface Model and Orthothoto Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altyntsev, M. A.; Arbuzov, S. A.; Popov, R. A.; Tsoi, G. V.; Gromov, M. O.

    2016-06-01

    A dense digital surface model is one of the products generated by using UAV aerial survey data. Today more and more specialized software are supplied with modules for generating such kind of models. The procedure for dense digital model generation can be completely or partly automated. Due to the lack of reliable criterion of accuracy estimation it is rather complicated to judge the generation validity of such models. One of such criterion can be mobile laser scanning data as a source for the detailed accuracy estimation of the dense digital surface model generation. These data may be also used to estimate the accuracy of digital orthophoto plans created by using UAV aerial survey data. The results of accuracy estimation for both kinds of products are presented in the paper.

  1. Chronic joint symptoms and prior arthritis diagnosis in community surveys: implications for arthritis prevalence estimates.

    OpenAIRE

    Feinglass, Joe; Nelson, Cynthia; Lawther, Timothy; Chang, Rowland W.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Alternative definitions of arthritis in community surveys provide very different estimates of arthritis prevalence among older Americans. This telephone interview study examines prevalence estimates based on the current Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) arthritis case definition. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 851 Chicago residents age 45 and older. Logistic regression was used to compare the age and sex controlled prevalence of poor health, restricted ac...

  2. Relationships between water mass characteristics and estimates of fish population abundance from trawl surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S J; Perry, R I; Fanning, L P

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans conducts annual bottom trawl surveys to monitor changes in the abundance of the major commercially important groundfish populations. Some of these surveys have been in operation for almost 20 yr. The estimates from these surveys often indicate rapid changes in abundance over time beyond that expected from the population dynamics of the fish. Much of this interannual change has been interpreted as variation, the magnitude of which has often made it difficult to measure anything but the most severe effects of fishing, pollution or any other intervention on the population. Recent studies have shown that some of this variation may be attributed to changes in catchability of fish due to the effects of environmental variables on fish distribution. Annual changes in abundance as estimated from such field surveys may be confounded by changes in catchability due to annual changes in environmental conditions. In this study, trawl catches of age 4 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from surveys conducted during March 1979-1988 were compared with concurrent measurements of bottom salinity, temperature and depth. Large catches of age 4 cod are more likely to occur in water characterized as the intermediate cold layer defined by salinities of 32-33.5 and temperatures<5°C. This relationship also appears to be modified by depth. We further show that internnual changes in the estimated abundance from the surveys were, in a number of cases, coincident with changes in the proportion of the bottom water composed of the intermediate cold water layer. The implications that these patterns may have on interpreting trends in the estimates of abundance from trawl surveys are discussed.

  3. Impact of maternal body mass index on the antenatal detection of congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, K E; Tennant, P W G; Bell, R; Rankin, J

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and antenatal ultrasound detection of congenital anomalies. Population-based register study. North of England (UK). All pregnancies (n = 3096) associated with a congenital anomaly notified to the Northern Congenital Abnormality Survey (NorCAS) during 2006-2009. Cases with chromosomal and teratogenic anomalies (n = 611) or without information on antenatal scanning (n = 4) were excluded. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for antenatal detection according to maternal BMI categories were estimated using logistic regression. For all anomalies combined, cases were defined as 'detected' if any congenital anomaly was suspected antenatally. Organ system-specific anomalies were defined as detected if an anomaly of the correct system was suspected. Antenatal detection of any anomaly occurred in 1146 of 2483 (46.2%) cases with normal karyotype. The odds of detection were significantly decreased in obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) women compared with women of recommended BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2); aOR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60-0.99; P = 0.046). Cardiovascular system anomalies were suspected antenatally in 109 of 945 (11.5%) cases. The odds of detecting a cardiovascular anomaly were significantly greater in underweight women (BMI BMI (aOR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.13-7.70; P = 0.027). There was no association between BMI and detection in any other organ system or between BMI and termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. Antenatal ultrasound detection of a congenital anomaly is decreased in obese pregnant women. This has implications for the scanning and counselling of obese women. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  4. Bias in little owl population estimates using playback techniques during surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuberogoitia, I.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To test the efficiency of playback methods to survey little owl (Athene noctua populations we carried out two studies: (1 we recorded the replies of radio–tagged little owls to calls in a small area; (2 we recorded call broadcasts to estimate the effectiveness of the method to detect the presence of little owl. In the first study, we detected an average of 8.12 owls in the 30′ survey period, a number that is close to the real population; we also detected significant little owl movements from the initial location (before the playback to the next locations during the survey period. However, we only detected an average of 2.25 and 5.37 little owls in the first 5′ and 10′, respectively, of the survey time. In the second study, we detected 137 little owl territories in 105 positive sample units. The occupation rate was 0.35, the estimated occupancy was 0.393, and the probability of detection was 0.439. The estimated cumulative probability of detection suggests that a minimum of four sampling times would be needed in an extensive survey to detect 95% of the areas occupied by little owls.

  5. Fetal extracardiac anomalies associated with congenital cardiac diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Bum Ha; Cho, Jung Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Song, Mi Jin [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To evaluate the incidence of associated extracardiac anomalies in fetuses with congenital heart defects on fetal echocardiography, and to estimate the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities according to the extracardiac anomalies. From Jan. 1999 to Dec. 2001, 101 fetuses with prenatally diagnosed extracardiac anomalies and congenital cardiac diseases were selected for study. The mean gestational age at the time of the ultrasound exam was about 25 weeks. Associated extracardiac anomalies were classified into CNS, face and neck, thorax, abdomen, genitourinary system, musculoskeletal, other and multi-systemic anomalies groups. Chromosomal studies including chorionic villi sampling, amniocentesis, cordocentesis, and postnatal exam were correlated. Musculoskeletal anomalies were the most commonly associated extracardiac anomalies (n=28, 27.7%). Abdominal anomaly (n=26, 25.7%), central nervous system anomaly (n=25, 24.8%), genitourinary anomaly(n=12, 11.9%), thoracic anomaly (n=4, 4%), face and neck anomaly (n=3, 3%) were found. Twenty eight fetuses showed other anomalies (n=28, 27.7%). Multi-systemic anomalies were also common (n=20, 19.8%). Fetal anomalies involving two systems were noted in 15 fetuses, and anomalies of more than three systems were not uncommon (5 fetuses). Chromosomal study of 38 fetuses revealed 19 fetuses with abnormal karyotypes (50%). For 19 fetuses with abnormal karyotypes, central nervous system anomalies and musculoskeletal anomalies were the most frequently associated with extracardiac abnormalities (n=9). Multi-systemic anomalies were associated in 9 of the 19 fetuses. In fetuses with cardiac defects, the musculoskeletal, abdomen and CNS anomalies were commonly associated with extracardiac anomalies. Various extracardiac anomalies such as, head and neck anomalies, CNS anomalies, musculoskeletal anomalies, and multi-organ anomalies were highly correlated with chromosomal abnormalities, and so this relationship requires chromosomal study.

  6. Combining Propensity Score Methods and Complex Survey Data to Estimate Population Treatment Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Dong, Nianbo; Lenis, David

    2016-01-01

    Complex surveys are often used to estimate causal effects regarding the effects of interventions or exposures of interest. Propensity scores (Rosenbaum & Rubin, 1983) have emerged as one popular and effective tool for causal inference in non-experimental studies, as they can help ensure that groups being compared are similar with respect to a…

  7. Reliability of nationwide prevalence estimates of dementia : A critical appraisal based on Brazilian surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaimowicz, F. (Flávio); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The nationwide dementia prevalence is usually calculated by applying the results of local surveys to countries' populations. To evaluate the reliability of such estimations in developing countries, we chose Brazil as an example. We carried out a systematic review of dementia

  8. Improving estimates of numbers of children with severe acute malnutrition using cohort and survey data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isanaka, Sheila; Boundy, Ellen O neal; Grais, Rebecca F

    2016-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is reported to affect 19 million children worldwide. However, this estimate is based on prevalence data from cross-sectional surveys and can be expected to miss some children affected by an acute condition such as SAM. The burden of acute conditions is more...

  9. Survey non-response in the Netherlands : Effects on prevalence estimates and associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loon, AJM; Tijhuis, M; Picavet, HSJ; Surtees, PG; Ormel, J

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: Differences in respondent characteristics may lead to bias in prevalence estimates and bias in associations. Both forms of non-response bias are investigated in a study on psychosocial factors and cancer risk, which is a sub-study of a large-scale monitoring survey in the Netherlands. METHO

  10. Improved sampling for airborne surveys to estimate wildlife population parameters in the African Savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaemba, W.; Stein, A.

    2002-01-01

    Parameter estimates, obtained from airborne surveys of wildlife populations, often have large bias and large standard errors. Sampling error is one of the major causes of this imprecision and the occurrence of many animals in herds violates the common assumptions in traditional sampling designs like

  11. Improved sampling for airborne surveys to estimate wildlife population parameters in the African Savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaemba, W.; Stein, A.

    2002-01-01

    Parameter estimates, obtained from airborne surveys of wildlife populations, often have large bias and large standard errors. Sampling error is one of the major causes of this imprecision and the occurrence of many animals in herds violates the common assumptions in traditional sampling designs like

  12. Can i just check...? Effects of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, Peter; Jäckle, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Household income is difficult to measure, since it requires the collection of information about all potential income sources for each member of a household.Weassess the effects of two types of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates: within-wave edit checks use responses to

  13. 浅析石油物探测量高程异常获取方法与高程异常趋势%Height Anomaly Access Method and Trend Discussion in Petroleum Geophysical Exploration Surveying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏厚傲

    2011-01-01

    石油物探测量物理点平面坐标和高程采用1954年北京坐标系和1956年黄海高程系统,GPS测量以作业速度快、精度高、全天候的优点成为物探测量的主要方法,采用GPS观测所得到的高程为大地高,要得到正常高,需要有高程异常数据。利用CQG2000高程异常模型软件或高程异常等值线图求取的高程异常值准确可靠。我国范围在WGS-84基准下高程异常值呈西大东小趋势。%The Beijing Coordinate System(1954) and the Huanghai Height System(1956) are to be used when calculating the final coordinate and height for petroleum geophysical exploration surveying geophysical points,GPS to work for measuring speed,precision and an all-weather advantage of the primary method for geophysical exploration surveying,The use of GPS observation of height is ellipsoid height,to establish a geoid height needs height anomaly value.CQG2000 height anomaly model software or height anomaly map get height anomaly value is accurate and reliable.from the western china to eastern,height anomaly value is gradually reduce trend for WGS-84 basic parameters of the ellipsoid.

  14. Combining Breeding Bird Survey and distance sampling to estimate density of migrant and breeding birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somershoe, S.G.; Twedt, D.J.; Reid, B.

    2006-01-01

    We combined Breeding Bird Survey point count protocol and distance sampling to survey spring migrant and breeding birds in Vicksburg National Military Park on 33 days between March and June of 2003 and 2004. For 26 of 106 detected species, we used program DISTANCE to estimate detection probabilities and densities from 660 3-min point counts in which detections were recorded within four distance annuli. For most species, estimates of detection probability, and thereby density estimates, were improved through incorporation of the proportion of forest cover at point count locations as a covariate. Our results suggest Breeding Bird Surveys would benefit from the use of distance sampling and a quantitative characterization of habitat at point count locations. During spring migration, we estimated that the most common migrant species accounted for a population of 5000-9000 birds in Vicksburg National Military Park (636 ha). Species with average populations of 300 individuals during migration were: Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea), Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum), White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula). Of 56 species that bred in Vicksburg National Military Park, we estimated that the most common 18 species accounted for 8150 individuals. The six most abundant breeding species, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, White-eyed Vireo, Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), accounted for 5800 individuals.

  15. Algorithms for Anomaly Detection - Lecture 2

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The concept of statistical anomalies, or outliers, has fascinated experimentalists since the earliest attempts to interpret data. We want to know why some data points don’t seem to belong with the others: perhaps we want to eliminate spurious or unrepresentative data from our model. Or, the anomalies themselves may be what we are interested in: an outlier could represent the symptom of a disease, an attack on a computer network, a scientific discovery, or even an unfaithful partner. We start with some general considerations, such as the relationship between clustering and anomaly detection, the choice between supervised and unsupervised methods, and the difference between global and local anomalies. Then we will survey the most representative anomaly detection algorithms, highlighting what kind of data each approach is best suited to, and discussing their limitations. We will finish with a discussion of the difficulties of anomaly detection in high-dimensional data and some new directions for anomaly detec...

  16. Algorithms for Anomaly Detection - Lecture 1

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The concept of statistical anomalies, or outliers, has fascinated experimentalists since the earliest attempts to interpret data. We want to know why some data points don’t seem to belong with the others: perhaps we want to eliminate spurious or unrepresentative data from our model. Or, the anomalies themselves may be what we are interested in: an outlier could represent the symptom of a disease, an attack on a computer network, a scientific discovery, or even an unfaithful partner. We start with some general considerations, such as the relationship between clustering and anomaly detection, the choice between supervised and unsupervised methods, and the difference between global and local anomalies. Then we will survey the most representative anomaly detection algorithms, highlighting what kind of data each approach is best suited to, and discussing their limitations. We will finish with a discussion of the difficulties of anomaly detection in high-dimensional data and some new directions for anomaly detec...

  17. [Tuberculosis surveys in Guerrero and new estimates of the magnitude of tuberculosis infection in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Ayala, V M; Bernal-Pérez, J; Cabrera-Coello, L; Stetler, H C; Pineda-Salgado, J; Guerrero-Reyes, P

    1989-01-01

    Tuberculosis infection surveys are carried out by tuberculin skin test (Mantoux) which is a simple, cheap, valid and reliable procedure for the estimation of prevalence and incidence rates. In 1987 a survey was undertaken in children of 6-7 years old who attended the elementary school and who were not vaccinated (BCG) in the region of Iguala, México. Out of 6,095 children of such age group, just 531 were not vaccinated, thus the prevalence figure was 2.5% (CL05 = 0.1%, 5.3%). On the basis of the findings by Izaguirre et al, 26 years ago, who reported that about 10% of the children of this age group were infected, it can be estimated that the annual risk of infection is about three newly infected each year per 1,000 population. It is necessary to provide better estimates of the whole tuberculosis incidence rate.

  18. Estimated long-term fish and shellfish intake--national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nga L; Barraj, Leila M; Bi, Xiaoyu; Schuda, Laurie C; Moya, Jacqueline

    2013-03-01

    Usual intake estimates describe long-term average intake of food and nutrients and food contaminants. The frequencies of fish and shellfish intake over a 30-day period from National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2006) were combined with 24-h dietary recall data from NHANES 2003-2004 using a Monte Carlo procedure to estimate the usual intake of fish and shellfish in this study. Usual intakes were estimated for the US population including children 1 to fish intake (consumers only) was highest among children 1 to fish, salmon, and mackerel. Among children and teenage consumers, tuna, salmon, and breaded fish were the most frequently consumed fish; shrimp, scallops, and crabs were the most frequently consumed shellfish. The intake estimates from this study better reflect long-term average intake rates and are preferred to assess long-term intake of nutrients and possible exposure to environmental contaminants from fish and shellfish sources than 2-day average estimates.

  19. Isostatic residual gravity anomaly data grid for the conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grid of isostatic residual gravity anomaly data was produced from the grid of Bouguer gravity anomaly data (see Bouguer gravity metadata) by using an...

  20. The Fruit & Vegetable Screener in the 2000 California Health Interview Survey: Uses of Screener Estimates in CHIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary intake estimates from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) Fruit and Vegetable Screener are rough estimates of usual intake of fruits and vegetables. They are not as accurate as more detailed methods.

  1. Anomaly Structure of Supergravity and Anomaly Cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1)_K transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.

  2. Statistical Estimators Using Jointly Administrative and Survey Data to Produce French Structural Business Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brion Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using as much administrative data as possible is a general trend among most national statistical institutes. Different kinds of administrative sources, from tax authorities or other administrative bodies, are very helpful material in the production of business statistics. However, these sources often have to be completed by information collected through statistical surveys. This article describes the way Insee has implemented such a strategy in order to produce French structural business statistics. The originality of the French procedure is that administrative and survey variables are used jointly for the same enterprises, unlike the majority of multisource systems, in which the two kinds of sources generally complement each other for different categories of units. The idea is to use, as much as possible, the richness of the administrative sources combined with the timeliness of a survey, even if the latter is conducted only on a sample of enterprises. One main issue is the classification of enterprises within the NACE nomenclature, which is a cornerstone variable in producing the breakdown of the results by industry. At a given date, two values of the corresponding code may coexist: the value of the register, not necessarily up to date, and the value resulting from the data collected via the survey, but only from a sample of enterprises. Using all this information together requires the implementation of specific statistical estimators combining some properties of the difference estimators with calibration techniques. This article presents these estimators, as well as their statistical properties, and compares them with those of other methods.

  3. Estimation and Comparison of Immunization Coverage under Different Sampling Methods for Health Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Nath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization currently averts an estimated 2-3 million deaths every year in all age groups. Hepatitis B is a major public health problem worldwide. In this study, the estimates of hepatitis B vaccine coverage are compared among three sampling plans namely, 30×30 sampling and 30×7 sampling method under cluster sampling and systematic random sampling schemes. The data has been taken from the survey “Comparison of Two Survey Methodologies to Estimate Total Vaccination Coverage” sponsored by Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi. It is observed that the estimations of proportions of this vaccination coverage are significantly not different at 5% level of probability. Both 30×30 sampling and 30×7 sampling will be preferred to systematic sampling in estimation of hepatitis B vaccine coverage for this study population because of quick estimation and lesser cost. The 30×7 cluster sampling is the most recommended method for such immunization coverage especially in a developing country.

  4. Delineation of structural lineaments from marine magnetic anomalies off Lawson's Bay (Visakhapatnam), East Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.; Rao, M.M.M.

    Marine magnetic surveys have recorded total field anomalies that correspond to structural lineaments extending from the coast into the sea. The significant anomalies recorded in this area are along wavelength high amplitude negative anomaly...

  5. Distance software: design and analysis of distance sampling surveys for estimating population size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Len; Buckland, Stephen T; Rexstad, Eric A; Laake, Jeff L; Strindberg, Samantha; Hedley, Sharon L; Bishop, Jon Rb; Marques, Tiago A; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2010-02-01

    1.Distance sampling is a widely used technique for estimating the size or density of biological populations. Many distance sampling designs and most analyses use the software Distance.2.We briefly review distance sampling and its assumptions, outline the history, structure and capabilities of Distance, and provide hints on its use.3.Good survey design is a crucial prerequisite for obtaining reliable results. Distance has a survey design engine, with a built-in geographic information system, that allows properties of different proposed designs to be examined via simulation, and survey plans to be generated.4.A first step in analysis of distance sampling data is modelling the probability of detection. Distance contains three increasingly sophisticated analysis engines for this: conventional distance sampling, which models detection probability as a function of distance from the transect and assumes all objects at zero distance are detected; multiple-covariate distance sampling, which allows covariates in addition to distance; and mark-recapture distance sampling, which relaxes the assumption of certain detection at zero distance.5.All three engines allow estimation of density or abundance, stratified if required, with associated measures of precision calculated either analytically or via the bootstrap.6.Advanced analysis topics covered include the use of multipliers to allow analysis of indirect surveys (such as dung or nest surveys), the density surface modelling analysis engine for spatial and habitat modelling, and information about accessing the analysis engines directly from other software.7.Synthesis and applications. Distance sampling is a key method for producing abundance and density estimates in challenging field conditions. The theory underlying the methods continues to expand to cope with realistic estimation situations. In step with theoretical developments, state-of-the-art software that implements these methods is described that makes the methods

  6. The ALHAMBRA survey: Estimation of the clustering signal encoded in the cosmic variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sanjuan, C.; Cenarro, A. J.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Arnalte-Mur, P.; Varela, J.; Viironen, K.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Martínez, V. J.; Alfaro, E.; Ascaso, B.; del Olmo, A.; Díaz-García, L. A.; Hurtado-Gil, Ll.; Moles, M.; Molino, A.; Perea, J.; Pović, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Benítez, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cepa, J.; Cerviño, M.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husillos, C.; Infante, L.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2015-10-01

    Aims: The relative cosmic variance (σv) is a fundamental source of uncertainty in pencil-beam surveys and, as a particular case of count-in-cell statistics, can be used to estimate the bias between galaxies and their underlying dark-matter distribution. Our goal is to test the significance of the clustering information encoded in the σv measured in the ALHAMBRA survey. Methods: We measure the cosmic variance of several galaxy populations selected with B-band luminosity at 0.35 ≤ zCSIC).

  7. Creel survey sampling designs for estimating effort in short-duration Chinook salmon fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sport fisheries in the Columbia River basin are commonly monitored using roving creel survey designs and require precise, unbiased catch estimates. The objective of this study was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates using various sampling designs to estimate angling effort under the assumption that mean catch rate was known. We obtained information on angling populations based on direct visual observations of portions of Chinook Salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over a 23-d period. Based on the angling population, Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the properties of effort and catch estimates for each sampling design. All sampling designs evaluated were relatively unbiased. Systematic random sampling (SYS) resulted in the most precise estimates. The SYS and simple random sampling designs had mean square error (MSE) estimates that were generally half of those observed with cluster sampling designs. The SYS design was more efficient (i.e., higher accuracy per unit cost) than a two-cluster design. Increasing the number of clusters available for sampling within a day decreased the MSE of estimates of daily angling effort, but the MSE of total catch estimates was variable depending on the fishery. The results of our simulations provide guidelines on the relative influence of sample sizes and sampling designs on parameters of interest in short-duration Chinook Salmon fisheries.

  8. Statistical Analysis of Galaxy Surveys - I. Robust error estimation for 2-point clustering statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Norberg, Peder; Gaztanaga, Enrique; Croton, Darren J

    2008-01-01

    We present a test of different error estimators for 2-point clustering statistics, appropriate for present and future large galaxy redshift surveys. Using an ensemble of very large dark matter LambdaCDM N-body simulations, we compare internal error estimators (jackknife and bootstrap) to external ones (Monte-Carlo realizations). For 3-dimensional clustering statistics, we find that none of the internal error methods investigated are able to reproduce neither accurately nor robustly the errors of external estimators on 1 to 25 Mpc/h scales. The standard bootstrap overestimates the variance of xi(s) by ~40% on all scales probed, but recovers, in a robust fashion, the principal eigenvectors of the underlying covariance matrix. The jackknife returns the correct variance on large scales, but significantly overestimates it on smaller scales. This scale dependence in the jackknife affects the recovered eigenvectors, which tend to disagree on small scales with the external estimates. Our results have important implic...

  9. Estimating mortality differences in developed countries from survey information on maternal and paternal orphanhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luy, Marc

    2012-05-01

    In general, the use of indirect methods is limited to developing countries. Developed countries are usually assumed to have no need to apply such methods because detailed demographic data exist. However, the potentialities of demographic analysis with direct methods are limited to the characteristics of available macro data on births, deaths, and migration. For instance, in many Western countries, official population statistics do not permit the estimation of mortality by socioeconomic status (SES) or migration background, or for estimating the relationship between parity and mortality. In order to overcome these shortcomings, I modify and extend the so-called orphanhood method for indirect estimation of adult mortality from survey information on maternal and paternal survival to allow its application to populations of developed countries. The method is demonstrated and tested with data from two independent Italian cross-sectional surveys by estimating overall and SES-specific life expectancy. The empirical applications reveal that the proposed method can be used successfully for estimating levels and trends of mortality differences in developed countries and thus offers new prospects for the analysis of mortality.

  10. On the choice of statistical models for estimating occurrence and extinction from animal surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorazio, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    In surveys of natural animal populations the number of animals that are present and available to be detected at a sample location is often low, resulting in few or no detections. Low detection frequencies are especially common in surveys of imperiled species; however, the choice of sampling method and protocol also may influence the size of the population that is vulnerable to detection. In these circumstances, probabilities of animal occurrence and extinction will generally be estimated more accurately if the models used in data analysis account for differences in abundance among sample locations and for the dependence between site-specific abundance and detection. Simulation experiments are used to illustrate conditions wherein these types of models can be expected to outperform alternative estimators of population site occupancy and extinction. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Defining Arthritis for Public Health Surveillance: Methods and Estimates in Four US Population Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Louise B; Cisternas, Miriam G; Greenlund, Kurt J; Giles, Wayne; Hannan, Casey; Helmick, Charles G

    2017-03-01

    To determine the variability of arthritis prevalence in 4 US population health surveys. We estimated annualized arthritis prevalence in 2011-2012, among adults age ≥20 years, using 2 definition methods, both based on self-report: 1) doctor-/health care provider-diagnosed arthritis in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS); and 2) three arthritis definitions based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) criteria in MEPS (National Arthritis Data Workgroup on Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Conditions [NADW-AORC], Clinical Classifications Software [CCS], and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]). Diagnosed arthritis prevalence percentages using the surveys were within 3 points of one another (BRFSS 26.2% [99% confidence interval (99% CI) 26.0-26.4], MEPS 26.1% [99% CI 25.0-27.2], NHIS 23.5% [99% CI 22.9-24.1], NHANES 23.0% [99% CI 19.2-26.8]), and those using ICD-9-CM were within 5 percentage points of one another (CCS 25.8% [99% CI 24.6-27.1]; CDC 28.3% [99% CI 27.0-29.6]; and NADW-AORC 30.7% [99% CI 29.4-32.1]). The variation in the estimated number (in millions) affected with diagnosed arthritis was 7.8 (BRFSS 58.5 [99% CI 58.1-59.1], MEPS 59.3 [99% CI 55.6-63.1], NHANES 51.5 [99% CI 37.2-65.5], and NHIS 52.6 [99% CI 50.9-54.4]), and using ICD-9-CM definitions it was 11.1 (CCS 58.7 [99% CI 54.5-62.9], CDC 64.3 [99% CI 59.9-68.6], and NADW 69.9 [99% CI 65.2-74.5]). Most (57-70%) reporting diagnosed arthritis also reported ICD-9-CM arthritis; respondents reporting diagnosed arthritis were older than those meeting ICD-9-CM definitions. Proxy response status affected arthritis prevalence differently across surveys. Public health practitioners and decision makers are frequently charged with choosing a single number to represent arthritis

  12. Using spatiotemporal statistical models to estimate animal abundance and infer ecological dynamics from survey counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Paul B.; Johnson, Devin S.; Ver Hoef, Jay M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; London, Joshua M.; Boveng, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecologists often fit models to survey data to estimate and explain variation in animal abundance. Such models typically require that animal density remains constant across the landscape where sampling is being conducted, a potentially problematic assumption for animals inhabiting dynamic landscapes or otherwise exhibiting considerable spatiotemporal variation in density. We review several concepts from the burgeoning literature on spatiotemporal statistical models, including the nature of the temporal structure (i.e., descriptive or dynamical) and strategies for dimension reduction to promote computational tractability. We also review several features as they specifically relate to abundance estimation, including boundary conditions, population closure, choice of link function, and extrapolation of predicted relationships to unsampled areas. We then compare a suite of novel and existing spatiotemporal hierarchical models for animal count data that permit animal density to vary over space and time, including formulations motivated by resource selection and allowing for closed populations. We gauge the relative performance (bias, precision, computational demands) of alternative spatiotemporal models when confronted with simulated and real data sets from dynamic animal populations. For the latter, we analyze spotted seal (Phoca largha) counts from an aerial survey of the Bering Sea where the quantity and quality of suitable habitat (sea ice) changed dramatically while surveys were being conducted. Simulation analyses suggested that multiple types of spatiotemporal models provide reasonable inference (low positive bias, high precision) about animal abundance, but have potential for overestimating precision. Analysis of spotted seal data indicated that several model formulations, including those based on a log-Gaussian Cox process, had a tendency to overestimate abundance. By contrast, a model that included a population closure assumption and a scale prior on total

  13. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Robin B.; Burgess, Jefferey L; Maria Mercedes Meza-Montenegro; Luis Enrique Gutiérrez-Millán; Mary Kay O’Rourke; Jason Roberge

    2012-01-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and...

  14. Estimation of change in populations and communities from monitoring survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Busch, David E.; Trexler, Joel C.

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring surveys provide fundamental information for use in environmental decision making by permitting assessment of both current population (or community) status and change in status, by providing a historical context of the present status, and by documenting response to ongoing management. Conservation of species and communities has historically been based upon monitoring information, and prioritization of species and habitats for conservation action often requires reliable, quantitative results. Although many monitoring programs exist for populations, species, and communities, as well as for biotic and abiotic features of the environment, estimation of population and community change from surveys can sometimes be controversial, and demands on monitoring information have increased greatly in recent years. Information is often required at multiple spatial scales for use in geographic information systems, and information needs exist for description of regional patterns of change in populations, communities, and ecosystems. Often, attempts are made to meet these needs using information collected for other purposes or at inappropriate geographic scales, leading to information that is difficult to analyze and interpret. In this chapter, we address some of the constraints and issues associated with estimating change in wildlife species and species groups from monitoring surveys, and use bird surveys as our primary examples.

  15. Estimating Photometric Redshifts of Quasars via K-nearest Neighbor Approach Based on Large Survey Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Yanxia, Zhang; Nanbo, Peng; Yongheng, Zhao; Xue-bing, Wu

    2013-01-01

    We apply one of lazy learning methods named k-nearest neighbor algorithm (kNN) to estimate the photometric redshifts of quasars, based on various datasets from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) (the SDSS sample, the SDSS-UKIDSS sample, the SDSS-WISE sample and the SDSS-UKIDSS-WISE sample). The influence of the k value and different input patterns on the performance of kNN is discussed. kNN arrives at the best performance when k is different with a special input pattern for a special dataset. The best result belongs to the SDSS-UKIDSS-WISE sample. The experimental results show that generally the more information from more bands, the better performance of photometric redshift estimation with kNN. The results also demonstrate that kNN using multiband data can effectively solve the catastrophic failure of photometric redshift estimation, which is met by many machine learning methods. By comparing the performance of various m...

  16. Can I Just Check...? Effects of Edit Check Questions on Measurement Error and Survey Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugtig Peter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Household income is difficult to measure, since it requires the collection of information about all potential income sources for each member of a household.Weassess the effects of two types of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates: within-wave edit checks use responses to questions earlier in the same interview to query apparent inconsistencies in responses; dependent interviewing uses responses from prior interviews to query apparent inconsistencies over time.Weuse data from three waves of the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS to assess the effects of edit checks on estimates, and data from an experimental study carried out in the context of the BHPS, where survey responses were linked to individual administrative records, to assess the effects on measurement error. The findings suggest that interviewing methods without edit checks underestimate non-labour household income in the lower tail of the income distribution. The effects on estimates derived from total household income, such as poverty rates or transition rates into and out of poverty, are small.

  17. Linking occupancy surveys with habitat characteristics to estimate abundance and distribution in an endangered cryptic bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Lisa H.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Pias, Kyle E.; Heindl, Barbara A. P.; Savre, Thomas; Diegmann, Julia S.; Paxton, Eben

    2017-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the distribution and abundance of endangered species are crucial to determine their status and plan recovery options, but such estimates are often difficult to obtain for species with low detection probabilities or that occur in inaccessible habitats. The Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) is a cryptic species endemic to Kauaʻi, Hawai‘i, and restricted to high elevation ravines that are largely inaccessible. To improve current population estimates, we developed an approach to model distribution and abundance of Puaiohi across their range by linking occupancy surveys to habitat characteristics, territory density, and landscape attributes. Occupancy per station ranged from 0.17 to 0.82, and was best predicted by the number and vertical extent of cliffs, cliff slope, stream width, and elevation. To link occupancy estimates with abundance, we used territory mapping data to estimate the average number of territories per survey station (0.44 and 0.66 territories per station in low and high occupancy streams, respectively), and the average number of individuals per territory (1.9). We then modeled Puaiohi occupancy as a function of two remote-sensed measures of habitat (stream sinuosity and elevation) to predict occupancy across its entire range. We combined predicted occupancy with estimates of birds per station to produce a global population estimate of 494 (95% CI 414–580) individuals. Our approach is a model for using multiple independent sources of information to accurately track population trends, and we discuss future directions for modeling abundance of this, and other, rare species.

  18. A double-observer method to estimate detection rate during aerial waterfowl surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneff, M.D.; Royle, J. Andrew; Otto, M.C.; Wortham, J.S.; Bidwell, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated double-observer methods for aerial surveys as a means to adjust counts of waterfowl for incomplete detection. We conducted our study in eastern Canada and the northeast United States utilizing 3 aerial-survey crews flying 3 different types of fixed-wing aircraft. We reconciled counts of front- and rear-seat observers immediately following an observation by the rear-seat observer (i.e., on-the-fly reconciliation). We evaluated 6 a priori models containing a combination of several factors thought to influence detection probability including observer, seat position, aircraft type, and group size. We analyzed data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos), which are among the most abundant duck species in this region. The best-supported model for both black ducks and mallards included observer effects. Sample sizes of black ducks were sufficient to estimate observer-specific detection rates for each crew. Estimated detection rates for black ducks were 0.62 (SE = 0.10), 0.63 (SE = 0.06), and 0.74 (SE = 0.07) for pilot-observers, 0.61 (SE = 0.08), 0.62 (SE = 0.06), and 0.81 (SE = 0.07) for other front-seat observers, and 0.43 (SE = 0.05), 0.58 (SE = 0.06), and 0.73 (SE = 0.04) for rear-seat observers. For mallards, sample sizes were adequate to generate stable maximum-likelihood estimates of observer-specific detection rates for only one aerial crew. Estimated observer-specific detection rates for that crew were 0.84 (SE = 0.04) for the pilot-observer, 0.74 (SE = 0.05) for the other front-seat observer, and 0.47 (SE = 0.03) for the rear-seat observer. Estimated observer detection rates were confounded by the position of the seat occupied by an observer, because observers did not switch seats, and by land-cover because vegetation and landform varied among crew areas. Double-observer methods with on-the-fly reconciliation, although not without challenges, offer one viable option to account for detection bias in aerial waterfowl

  19. New Survey Questions and Estimators for Network Clustering with Respondent-Driven Sampling Data

    CERN Document Server

    Verdery, Ashton M; Siripong, Nalyn; Abdesselam, Kahina; Bauldry, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a popular method for sampling hard-to-survey populations that leverages social network connections through peer recruitment. While RDS is most frequently applied to estimate the prevalence of infections and risk behaviors of interest to public health, like HIV/AIDS or condom use, it is rarely used to draw inferences about the structural properties of social networks among such populations because it does not typically collect the necessary data. Drawing on recent advances in computer science, we introduce a set of data collection instruments and RDS estimators for network clustering, an important topological property that has been linked to a network's potential for diffusion of information, disease, and health behaviors. We use simulations to explore how these estimators, originally developed for random walk samples of computer networks, perform when applied to RDS samples with characteristics encountered in realistic field settings that depart from random walks. In partic...

  20. Chiral anomalies and differential geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.

    1983-10-01

    Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)

  1. Satellite-derived geoid for the estimation of lithospheric cooling and basal heat flux anomalies over the northern Indian Ocean lithosphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Rajesh; T J Majumdar

    2015-12-01

    The northern Indian Ocean consists of older Bay of Bengal (BOB) oceanic lithosphere with numerous intra-plate loads; whereas, contrasting elements like active Mid-Ocean ridge divergence and slow spreading ridges are present in the relatively younger (<60 Ma) Arabian Sea oceanic lithosphere. The mechanism of lithospheric cooling of young age oceanic lithosphere from the moderately active and slow spreading Carlsberg Ridge is analysed by considering the hypothesis of near lithospheric convective action or whole upper mantle convection. We addressed these issues by studying the marine geoid at different spatial wavelengths and retrieved and compared their lithospheric cooling signatures, plate spreading and distribution of mass and heat anomalies along with seismicity, bathymetry, gravity and isochron age data. Results show that progressive cooling of young-aged oceanic lithosphere from the Mid-Ocean Carlsberg Ridge is because of conductive cooling and those signals are retrieved in the shorter wavelength band (111 < < 1900 km) of constrained residual geoid with mass anomaly sources near to sublithospheric. This shows steadiness in the geoid anomaly decay rate (∼–0.1 m/Ma), consistency in the growth of thermal boundary layer and progressive fall of basal temperature and heat flux (900–300 K and 100–18 mW m−2) with increase of lithospheric age. The above observations are attributed to the fact that the advective–convective action beneath the Mid-Ocean Carlsberg Ridge is driven by the basal temperature gradient between the lithosphere and the near lithospheric low viscose thin layer. But, for the case of old-aged oceanic lithosphere in the BOB, the residual geoid anomaly cooling signals are not prominently seen in the same band as that of the Arabian Sea because of the Ninetyeast Ridge magmatism. However, its cooling anomaly signatures are retrieved at relatively higher band (1335 ≤ ≤ 3081 km) having erratic geoid decay rates (–0.3 to 0.2 m/Ma) owing

  2. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XV. The Photometric Redshift Estimation for Background Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Ilbert, O.; Licitra, R.; Ball, N. M.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Chen, Y.-T.; Côté, P.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Duc, P. A.; Durrell, P. R.; Ferrarese, L.; Guhathakurta, P.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Lançon, A.; Liu, C.; MacArthur, L. A.; Muller, M.; Muñoz, R. P.; Peng, E. W.; Puzia, T. H.; Sawicki, M.; Toloba, E.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Woods, D.; Zhang, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is an optical imaging survey covering 104 deg2 centered on the Virgo cluster. Currently, the complete survey area has been observed in the u*giz bands and one third in the r band. We present the photometric redshift estimation for the NGVS background sources. After a dedicated data reduction, we perform accurate photometry, with special attention to precise color measurements through point-spread function homogenization. We then estimate the photometric redshifts with the Le Phare and BPZ codes. We add a new prior that extends to i AB = 12.5 mag. When using the u* griz bands, our photometric redshifts for 15.5 mag outliers, a scatter σoutl.rej., and an individual error on z phot that increases with magnitude (from 0.02 to 0.05 and from 0.03 to 0.10, respectively). When using the u*giz bands over the same magnitude and redshift range, the lack of the r band increases the uncertainties in the 0.3 outliers, and z phot.err. ~ 0.15). We also present a joint analysis of the photometric redshift accuracy as a function of redshift and magnitude. We assess the quality of our photometric redshifts by comparison to spectroscopic samples and by verifying that the angular auto- and cross-correlation function w(θ) of the entire NGVS photometric redshift sample across redshift bins is in agreement with the expectations.

  3. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XV. The photometric redshift estimation for background sources

    CERN Document Server

    Raichoor, A; Erben, T; Hildebrandt, H; Huertas-Company, M; Ilbert, O; Licitra, R; Ball, N M; Boissier, S; Boselli, A; Chen, Y -T; Côté, P; Cuillandre, J -C; Duc, P A; Durrell, P R; Ferrarese, L; Guhathakurta, P; Gwyn, S D J; Kavelaars, J J; Lançon, A; Liu, C; MacArthur, L A; Muller, M; Muñoz, R P; Peng, E W; Puzia, T H; Sawicki, M; Toloba, E; Van Waerbeke, L; Woods, D; Zhang, H

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey is an optical imaging survey covering 104 deg^2 centered on the Virgo cluster. Currently, the complete survey area has been observed in the u*giz-bands and one third in the r-band. We present the photometric redshift estimation for the NGVS background sources. After a dedicated data reduction, we perform accurate photometry, with special attention to precise color measurements through point spread function-homogenization. We then estimate the photometric redshifts with the Le Phare and BPZ codes. We add a new prior which extends to iAB = 12.5 mag. When using the u*griz-bands, our photometric redshifts for 15.5 \\le i \\lesssim 23 mag or zphot \\lesssim 1 galaxies have a bias |\\Delta z| < 0.02, less than 5% outliers, and a scatter \\sigma_{outl.rej.} and an individual error on zphot that increase with magnitude (from 0.02 to 0.05 and from 0.03 to 0.10, respectively). When using the u*giz-bands over the same magnitude and redshift range, the lack of the r-band increases t...

  4. Estimating occupancy and predicting numbers of gray wolf packs in Montana using hunter surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Lindsey N.; Russell, Robin E.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Gude, Justin A.; Podruzny, Kevin M.; Sime, Carolyn A.; Laudon, Kent; Ausband, David E.; Nichols, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Reliable knowledge of the status and trend of carnivore populations is critical to their conservation and management. Methods for monitoring carnivores, however, are challenging to conduct across large spatial scales. In the Northern Rocky Mountains, wildlife managers need a time- and cost-efficient method for monitoring gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) conducts annual telephone surveys of >50,000 deer and elk hunters. We explored how survey data on hunters' sightings of wolves could be used to estimate the occupancy and distribution of wolf packs and predict their abundance in Montana for 2007–2009. We assessed model utility by comparing our predictions to MFWP minimum known number of wolf packs. We minimized false positive detections by identifying a patch as occupied if 2–25 wolves were detected by ≥3 hunters. Overall, estimates of the occupancy and distribution of wolf packs were generally consistent with known distributions. Our predictions of the total area occupied increased from 2007 to 2009 and predicted numbers of wolf packs were approximately 1.34–1.46 times the MFWP minimum counts for each year of the survey. Our results indicate that multi-season occupancy models based on public sightings can be used to monitor populations and changes in the spatial distribution of territorial carnivores across large areas where alternative methods may be limited by personnel, time, accessibility, and budget constraints.

  5. Comparison of Precision of Biomass Estimates in Regional Field Sample Surveys and Airborne LiDAR-Assisted Surveys in Hedmark County, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naesset, Erik; Gobakken, Terje; Bollandsas, Ole Martin; Gregoire, Timothy G.; Nelson, Ross; Stahl, Goeran

    2013-01-01

    Airborne scanning LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has emerged as a promising tool to provide auxiliary data for sample surveys aiming at estimation of above-ground tree biomass (AGB), with potential applications in REDD forest monitoring. For larger geographical regions such as counties, states or nations, it is not feasible to collect airborne LiDAR data continuously ("wall-to-wall") over the entire area of interest. Two-stage cluster survey designs have therefore been demonstrated by which LiDAR data are collected along selected individual flight-lines treated as clusters and with ground plots sampled along these LiDAR swaths. Recently, analytical AGB estimators and associated variance estimators that quantify the sampling variability have been proposed. Empirical studies employing these estimators have shown a seemingly equal or even larger uncertainty of the AGB estimates obtained with extensive use of LiDAR data to support the estimation as compared to pure field-based estimates employing estimators appropriate under simple random sampling (SRS). However, comparison of uncertainty estimates under SRS and sophisticated two-stage designs is complicated by large differences in the designs and assumptions. In this study, probability-based principles to estimation and inference were followed. We assumed designs of a field sample and a LiDAR-assisted survey of Hedmark County (HC) (27,390 km2), Norway, considered to be more comparable than those assumed in previous studies. The field sample consisted of 659 systematically distributed National Forest Inventory (NFI) plots and the airborne scanning LiDAR data were collected along 53 parallel flight-lines flown over the NFI plots. We compared AGB estimates based on the field survey only assuming SRS against corresponding estimates assuming two-phase (double) sampling with LiDAR and employing model-assisted estimators. We also compared AGB estimates based on the field survey only assuming two-stage sampling (the NFI

  6. The ALHAMBRA survey : Estimation of the clustering signal encoded in the cosmic variance

    CERN Document Server

    López-Sanjuan, C; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Arnalte-Mur, P; Varela, J; Viironen, K; Fernández-Soto, A; Martínez, V J; Alfaro, E; Ascaso, B; del Olmo, A; Díaz-García, L A; Hurtado-Gil, Ll; Moles, M; Molino, A; Perea, J; Pović, M; Aguerri, J A L; Aparicio-Villegas, T; Benítez, N; Broadhurst, T; Cabrera-Caño, J; Castander, F J; Cepa, J; Cerviño, M; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D; Delgado, R M González; Husillos, C; Infante, L; Márquez, I; Masegosa, J; Prada, F; Quintana, J M

    2015-01-01

    The relative cosmic variance ($\\sigma_v$) is a fundamental source of uncertainty in pencil-beam surveys and, as a particular case of count-in-cell statistics, can be used to estimate the bias between galaxies and their underlying dark-matter distribution. Our goal is to test the significance of the clustering information encoded in the $\\sigma_v$ measured in the ALHAMBRA survey. We measure the cosmic variance of several galaxy populations selected with $B-$band luminosity at $0.35 \\leq z < 1.05$ as the intrinsic dispersion in the number density distribution derived from the 48 ALHAMBRA subfields. We compare the observational $\\sigma_v$ with the cosmic variance of the dark matter expected from the theory, $\\sigma_{v,{\\rm dm}}$. This provides an estimation of the galaxy bias $b$. The galaxy bias from the cosmic variance is in excellent agreement with the bias estimated by two-point correlation function analysis in ALHAMBRA. This holds for different redshift bins, for red and blue subsamples, and for several ...

  7. Sample Size Calculations for Population Size Estimation Studies Using Multiplier Methods With Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Elizabeth; Chabata, Sungai T; Thompson, Jennifer A; Cowan, Frances M; Hargreaves, James R

    2017-09-14

    While guidance exists for obtaining population size estimates using multiplier methods with respondent-driven sampling surveys, we lack specific guidance for making sample size decisions. To guide the design of multiplier method population size estimation studies using respondent-driven sampling surveys to reduce the random error around the estimate obtained. The population size estimate is obtained by dividing the number of individuals receiving a service or the number of unique objects distributed (M) by the proportion of individuals in a representative survey who report receipt of the service or object (P). We have developed an approach to sample size calculation, interpreting methods to estimate the variance around estimates obtained using multiplier methods in conjunction with research into design effects and respondent-driven sampling. We describe an application to estimate the number of female sex workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. There is high variance in estimates. Random error around the size estimate reflects uncertainty from M and P, particularly when the estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey is low. As expected, sample size requirements are higher when the design effect of the survey is assumed to be greater. We suggest a method for investigating the effects of sample size on the precision of a population size estimate obtained using multipler methods and respondent-driven sampling. Uncertainty in the size estimate is high, particularly when P is small, so balancing against other potential sources of bias, we advise researchers to consider longer service attendance reference periods and to distribute more unique objects, which is likely to result in a higher estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey.

  8. Anomaly Detection from Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiandong Guo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral remote sensing imagery contains much more information in the spectral domain than does multispectral imagery. The consecutive and abundant spectral signals provide a great potential for classification and anomaly detection. In this study, two real hyperspectral data sets were used for anomaly detection. One data set was an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS data covering the post-attack World Trade Center (WTC and anomalies are fire spots. The other data set called SpecTIR contained fabric panels as anomalies compared to their background. Existing anomaly detection algorithms including the Reed–Xiaoli detector (RXD, the blocked adaptive computation efficient outlier nominator (BACON, the random selection based anomaly detector (RSAD, the weighted-RXD (W-RXD, and the probabilistic anomaly detector (PAD are reviewed here. The RXD generally sets strict assumptions to the background, which cannot be met in many scenarios, while BACON, RSAD, and W-RXD employ strategies to optimize the estimation of background information. The PAD firstly estimates both background information and anomaly information and then uses the information to conduct anomaly detection. Here, the BACON, RSAD, W-RXD, and PAD outperformed the RXD in terms of detection accuracy, and W-RXD and PAD required less time than BACON and RSAD.

  9. The transition to early fatherhood: National estimates based on multiple surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Elizabeth Peters

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study provides systematic information about the prevalence of early male fertility and the relationship between family background characteristics and early parenthood across three widely used data sources: the 1979 and 1997 National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth and the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. We provide descriptive statistics on early fertility by age, sex, race, cohort, and data set. Because each data set includes birth cohorts with varying early fertility rates, prevalence estimates for early male fertility are relatively similar across data sets. Associations between background characteristics and early fertility in regression models are less consistent across data sets. We discuss the implications of these findings for scholars doing research on early male fertility.

  10. Machine learning techniques for astrophysical modelling and photometric redshift estimation of quasars in optical sky surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, N Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Machine learning techniques are utilised in several areas of astrophysical research today. This dissertation addresses the application of ML techniques to two classes of problems in astrophysics, namely, the analysis of individual astronomical phenomena over time and the automated, simultaneous analysis of thousands of objects in large optical sky surveys. Specifically investigated are (1) techniques to approximate the precise orbits of the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn given Earth-based observations as well as (2) techniques to quickly estimate the distances of quasars observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Learning methods considered include genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimisation, artificial neural networks, and radial basis function networks. The first part of this dissertation demonstrates that GAs and PSOs can both be efficiently used to model functions that are highly non-linear in several dimensions. It is subsequently demonstrated in the second part that ANNs and RBFNs can be used as ef...

  11. Data Processing Procedures and Methodology for Estimating Trip Distances for the 1995 American Travel Survey (ATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, H.-L.; Rollow, J.

    2000-05-01

    The 1995 American Travel Survey (ATS) collected information from approximately 80,000 U.S. households about their long distance travel (one-way trips of 100 miles or more) during the year of 1995. It is the most comprehensive survey of where, why, and how U.S. residents travel since 1977. ATS is a joint effort by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) and the U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of Census (Census); BTS provided the funding and supervision of the project, and Census selected the samples, conducted interviews, and processed the data. This report documents the technical support for the ATS provided by the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which included the estimation of trip distances as well as data quality editing and checking of variables required for the distance calculations.

  12. Validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey for Estimating Burnout in Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Company, José María; Subirats-Roig, Cristian; Flores-Martí, Pau; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) as a tool for assessing the prevalence and level of burnout in dental students in Spanish universities. The survey was adapted from English to Spanish. A sample of 533 dental students from 15 Spanish universities and a control group of 188 medical students self-administered the survey online, using the Google Drive service. The test-retest reliability or reproducibility showed an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of 0.95. The internal consistency of the survey was 0.922. Testing the construct validity showed two components with an eigenvalue greater than 1.5, which explained 51.2% of the total variance. Factor I (36.6% of the variance) comprised the items that estimated emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Factor II (14.6% of the variance) contained the items that estimated personal accomplishment. The cut-off point for the existence of burnout achieved a sensitivity of 92.2%, a specificity of 92.1%, and an area under the curve of 0.96. Comparison of the total dental students sample and the control group of medical students showed significantly higher burnout levels for the dental students (50.3% vs. 40.4%). In this study, the MBI-HSS was found to be viable, valid, and reliable for measuring burnout in dental students. Since the study also found that the dental students suffered from high levels of this syndrome, these results suggest the need for preventive burnout control programs.

  13. Reliability of Nationwide Prevalence Estimates of Dementia: A Critical Appraisal Based on Brazilian Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Chaimowicz

    Full Text Available The nationwide dementia prevalence is usually calculated by applying the results of local surveys to countries' populations. To evaluate the reliability of such estimations in developing countries, we chose Brazil as an example. We carried out a systematic review of dementia surveys, ascertained their risk of bias, and present the best estimate of occurrence of dementia in Brazil.We carried out an electronic search of PubMed, Latin-American databases, and a Brazilian thesis database for surveys focusing on dementia prevalence in Brazil. The systematic review was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42014008815. Among the 35 studies found, 15 analyzed population-based random samples. However, most of them utilized inadequate criteria for diagnostics. Six studies without these limitations were further analyzed to assess the risk of selection, attrition, outcome and population bias as well as several statistical issues. All the studies presented moderate or high risk of bias in at least two domains due to the following features: high non-response, inaccurate cut-offs, and doubtful accuracy of the examiners. Two studies had limited external validity due to high rates of illiteracy or low income. The three studies with adequate generalizability and the lowest risk of bias presented a prevalence of dementia between 7.1% and 8.3% among subjects aged 65 years and older. However, after adjustment for accuracy of screening, the best available evidence points towards a figure between 15.2% and 16.3%.The risk of bias may strongly limit the generalizability of dementia prevalence estimates in developing countries. Extrapolations that have already been made for Brazil and Latin America were based on a prevalence that should have been adjusted for screening accuracy or not used at all due to severe bias. Similar evaluations regarding other developing countries are needed in order to verify the scope of these limitations.

  14. Estimating the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders through a national health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padoin Cintia V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Children whose parents have psychiatric disorders experience an increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders, and have higher rates of developmental problems and mortality. Assessing the size of this population is important for planning of preventive strategies which target these children. Methods National survey data (CCHS 1.2 was used to estimate the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders. Disorders were diagnosed using the World Psychiatric Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI (12 month prevalence. Data on the number of children below 12 years of age in the home, and the relationship of the respondents with the children, was used to estimate exposure. Parent-child relations were identified, as was single parenthood. Using a design-based analysis, the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders was calculated. Results Almost 570,000 children under 12 live in households where the survey respondent met criteria for one or more mood, anxiety or substance use disorders in the previous 12 months, corresponding to 12.1% of Canadian children under the age of 12. Almost 3/4 of these children have parents that report receiving no mental health care in the 12 months preceding the survey. For 17% of all Canadian children under age 12, the individual experiencing a psychiatric disorder is the only parent in the household. Conclusion The high number of children exposed causes major concern and has important implications. Although these children will not necessarily experience adversities, they possess an elevated risk of accidents, mortality, and of developing psychiatric disorders. We expect these estimates will promote further research and stimulate discussion at both health policy and planning tables.

  15. Uncertainties estimation in surveying measurands: application to lengths, perimeters and areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covián, E.; Puente, V.; Casero, M.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper develops a series of methods for the estimation of uncertainty when measuring certain measurands of interest in surveying practice, such as points elevation given a planimetric position within a triangle mesh, 2D and 3D lengths (including perimeters enclosures), 2D areas (horizontal surfaces) and 3D areas (natural surfaces). The basis for the proposed methodology is the law of propagation of variance–covariance, which, applied to the corresponding model for each measurand, allows calculating the resulting uncertainty from known measurement errors. The methods are tested first in a small example, with a limited number of measurement points, and then in two real-life measurements. In addition, the proposed methods have been incorporated to commercial software used in the field of surveying engineering and focused on the creation of digital terrain models. The aim of this evolution is, firstly, to comply with the guidelines of the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures), as the international reference agency in the field of metrology, in relation to the determination and expression of uncertainty; and secondly, to improve the quality of the measurement by indicating the uncertainty associated with a given level of confidence. The conceptual and mathematical developments for the uncertainty estimation in the aforementioned cases were conducted by researchers from the AssIST group at the University of Oviedo, eventually resulting in several different mathematical algorithms implemented in the form of MATLAB code. Based on these prototypes, technicians incorporated the referred functionality to commercial software, developed in C++. As a result of this collaboration, in early 2016 a new version of this commercial software was made available, which will be the first, as far as the authors are aware, that incorporates the possibility of estimating the uncertainty for a given level of confidence when computing the aforementioned surveying

  16. Use of models in large-area forest surveys: comparing model-assisted, model-based and hybrid estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Ståhl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the use of models for increasing the precision of estimators in large-area forest surveys. It is motivated by the increasing availability of remotely sensed data, which facilitates the development of models predicting the variables of interest in forest surveys. We present, review and compare three different estimation frameworks where models play a core role: model-assisted, model-based, and hybrid estimation. The first two are well known, whereas the third has only recently been introduced in forest surveys. Hybrid inference mixes designbased and model-based inference, since it relies on a probability sample of auxiliary data and a model predicting the target variable from the auxiliary data..We review studies on large-area forest surveys based on model-assisted, modelbased, and hybrid estimation, and discuss advantages and disadvantages of the approaches. We conclude that no general recommendations can be made about whether model-assisted, model-based, or hybrid estimation should be preferred. The choice depends on the objective of the survey and the possibilities to acquire appropriate field and remotely sensed data. We also conclude that modelling approaches can only be successfully applied for estimating target variables such as growing stock volume or biomass, which are adequately related to commonly available remotely sensed data, and thus purely field based surveys remain important for several important forest parameters. Keywords: Design-based inference, Model-assisted estimation, Model-based inference, Hybrid inference, National forest inventory, Remote sensing, Sampling

  17. Estimating population food and nutrient exposure: a comparison of store survey data with household panel food purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2016-05-28

    Population exposure to food and nutrients can be estimated from household food purchases, but store surveys of foods and their composition are more available, less costly and might provide similar information. Our aim was to compare estimates of nutrient exposure from a store survey of packaged food with those from household panel food purchases. A cross-sectional store survey of all packaged foods for sale in two major supermarkets was undertaken in Auckland, New Zealand, between February and May 2012. Longitudinal household food purchase data (November 2011 to October 2012) were obtained from the nationally representative, population-weighted New Zealand Nielsen HomeScan® panel. Data on 8440 packaged food and non-alcoholic beverage products were collected in the store survey. Food purchase data were available for 1229 households and 16 812 products. Store survey data alone produced higher estimates of exposure to Na and sugar compared with estimates from household panel food purchases. The estimated mean difference in exposure to Na was 94 (95 % CI 72, 115) mg/100 g (20 % relative difference; Pfood purchases, store survey data provided a reasonable estimate of average population exposure to key nutrients from packaged foods. However, caution should be exercised in using such data to estimate population exposure to Na and sugar and in generalising these findings to other countries, as well as over time.

  18. Estimating Power Outage Cost based on a Survey for Industrial Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yoshikuni; Matsuhashi, Ryuji

    A survey was conducted on power outage cost for industrial customers. 5139 factories, which are designated energy management factories in Japan, answered their power consumption and the loss of production value due to the power outage in an hour in summer weekday. The median of unit cost of power outage of whole sectors is estimated as 672 yen/kWh. The sector of services for amusement and hobbies and the sector of manufacture of information and communication electronics equipment relatively have higher unit cost of power outage. Direct damage cost from power outage in whole sectors reaches 77 billion yen. Then utilizing input-output analysis, we estimated indirect damage cost that is caused by the repercussion of production halt. Indirect damage cost in whole sectors reaches 91 billion yen. The sector of wholesale and retail trade has the largest direct damage cost. The sector of manufacture of transportation equipment has the largest indirect damage cost.

  19. Color-Redshift Relations and Photometric Redshift Estimations of Quasars in Large Sky Surveys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Bing Wu; Wei Zhang; Xu Zhou

    2004-01-01

    With a recently constructed composite quasar spectrum and the χ2 minimization technique, we describe a general method for estimating the photometric redshifts of a large sample of quasars by deriving theoretical color-redshift relations and comparing the theoretical colors with the observed ones. We estimated the photometric redshifts from the 5-band SDSS photometric data of 18678 quasars in the first major data release of SDSS and compared them with their spectroscopic redshifts. The difference is less than 0.1 for 47% of the quasars and less than 0.2for 68%. Based on the calculation of the theoretical color-color diagrams of stars,galaxies and quasars both on the SDSS system and on the BATC system, we expect that we would be able to select candidates of high redshift quasars more efficaciously with the latter than with the former, provided the BATC survey can detect objects with magnitudes fainter than 21.

  20. Color-redshift Relations and Photometric Redshift Estimations of Quasars in Large Sky Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, X B; Zhou, X; Wu, Xue-Bing; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xu

    2004-01-01

    With a recently constructed composite quasar spectrum and the \\chi^2 minimization technique, we demonstrated a general method to estimate the photometric redshifts of a large sample of quasars by deriving the theoretical color-redshift relations and comparing the theoretical colors with the observed ones. We estimated the photometric redshifts from the 5-band SDSS photometric data of 18678 quasars in the first major data release of SDSS and compare them with the spectroscopic redshifts. The redshift difference is smaller than 0.1 for 47% of quasars and 0.2 for 68 % of them. Based on the calculation of the theoretical color-color diagrams of stars, galaxies and quasars in both the SDSS and BATC photometric systems, we expected that with the BATC system of 15 intermediate filters we would be able to select candidates of high redshift quasars more efficiently than in the SDSS, provided the BATC survey could detect objects with magnitude fainter than 21.

  1. How social processes distort measurement: the impact of survey nonresponse on estimates of volunteer work in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Katharine G; Presser, Stanley; Helms, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue that both the large variability in survey estimates of volunteering and the fact that survey estimates do not show the secular decline common to other social capital measures are caused by the greater propensity of those who do volunteer work to respond to surveys. Analyses of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS)--the sample for which is drawn from the Current Population Survey (CPS)--together with the CPS volunteering supplement show that CPS respondents who become ATUS respondents report much more volunteering in the CPS than those who become ATUS nonrespondents. This difference is replicated within subgroups. Consequently, conventional adjustments for nonresponse cannot correct the bias. Although nonresponse leads to estimates of volunteer activity that are too high, it generally does not affect inferences about the characteristics of volunteers.

  2. Statistical estimates of absenteeism attributable to seasonal and pandemic influenza from the Canadian Labour Force Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As many respiratory viruses are responsible for influenza like symptoms, accurate measures of the disease burden are not available and estimates are generally based on statistical methods. The objective of this study was to estimate absenteeism rates and hours lost due to seasonal influenza and compare these estimates with estimates of absenteeism attributable to the two H1N1 pandemic waves that occurred in 2009. Methods Key absenteeism variables were extracted from Statistics Canada's monthly labour force survey (LFS. Absenteeism and the proportion of hours lost due to own illness or disability were modelled as a function of trend, seasonality and proxy variables for influenza activity from 1998 to 2009. Results Hours lost due to the H1N1/09 pandemic strain were elevated compared to seasonal influenza, accounting for a loss of 0.2% of potential hours worked annually. In comparison, an estimated 0.08% of hours worked annually were lost due to seasonal influenza illnesses. Absenteeism rates due to influenza were estimated at 12% per year for seasonal influenza over the 1997/98 to 2008/09 seasons, and 13% for the two H1N1/09 pandemic waves. Employees who took time off due to a seasonal influenza infection took an average of 14 hours off. For the pandemic strain, the average absence was 25 hours. Conclusions This study confirms that absenteeism due to seasonal influenza has typically ranged from 5% to 20%, with higher rates associated with multiple circulating strains. Absenteeism rates for the 2009 pandemic were similar to those occurring for seasonal influenza. Employees took more time off due to the pandemic strain than was typical for seasonal influenza.

  3. Effect of nutrition survey 'cleaning criteria' on estimates of malnutrition prevalence and disease burden: secondary data analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, S; Seal, A; Grijalva-Eternod, C.; Kerac, M

    2014-01-01

    Tackling childhood malnutrition is a global health priority. A key indicator is the estimated prevalence of malnutrition, measured by nutrition surveys. Most aspects of survey design are standardised, but data ‘cleaning criteria’ are not. These aim to exclude extreme values which may represent measurement or data-entry errors. The effect of different cleaning criteria on malnutrition prevalence estimates was unknown. We applied five commonly used data cleaning criteria (WHO 2006; EPI-Info; WH...

  4. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  5. Survey of prenatal screening policies in Europe for structural malformations and chromosome anomalies, and their impact on detection and termination rates for neural tube defects and Down's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, P A; Devigan, C; Khoshnood, B

    2008-01-01

    screening policies in 18 countries and 1.13 million births in 12 countries in 2002-04. METHODS: (i) Questionnaire on national screening policies and termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (TOPFA) laws in 2004. (ii) Analysis of data on prenatal detection and termination for Down's syndrome and neural...... tube defects (NTDs) using the EUROCAT database. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Existence of national prenatal screening policies, legal gestation limit for TOPFA, prenatal detection and termination rates for Down's syndrome and NTD. RESULTS: Ten of the 18 countries had a national country-wide policy for Down...

  6. 高精度磁测与激电测深在航磁异常查证中的应用%The application of high precision magnetic survey and IP sounding to the aeromagnetic anomaly verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少帅; 邓国武; 汪冰; 牛海威; 马密堂

    2016-01-01

    The strata and rock masses in Baoyintu area show obvious magnetic and electrical differences.In order to understand geolog⁃ical and geophysical characteristics of the aeromagnetic anomaly,the authors delineated the areas of ground magnetic anomaly and com⁃posite aeromagnetic anomaly by 1∶10 000 precision ground magnetic survey.The aeromagnetic data processed with methods of reduction to the pole and upward continuation could obtain the magnetic anomaly features such as shape,size and buried depth. The IP sounding could be used to invert the size and extension of the deep orebody or mineralization in the area where there were obvious mineralization characteristics.Then drilling engineering could validate the result of the IP sounding.Finally,combined with the information of geology, IP sounding and drill verification,the authors used Oasis Montaj software to perform human⁃machine joint constrained inversion for 2. 75D magnetic profile data, fitted out the morphological characteristics, and drew relative depth, width and thickness of the anomaly body, thus providing reliable geophysical basis for ore prospecting.%宝音图地区的地层与岩体具有明显的磁性和电性差异,为了解该区航磁异常的地质与地球物理特征,通过1∶1万地面高精度磁法测量,圈定地面磁异常及复核航磁异常的位置,对磁测数据进行化极、延拓等处理,获得磁异常的形态、规模、埋深等特征;选取矿化好的磁异常区段进行激电测深工作,反演矿(化)体在深部的规模及延伸状况;而后通过钻探工程揭露,验证激电反演结果。最后结合地质、激电测深、钻探验证等资料,用Oasis Montaj软件对磁测剖面数据进行2.75D人机联合约束反演,拟合出矿体的形态特征,得出异常体的相对深度、宽度和厚度,为地质找矿提供有利的地球物理依据。

  7. Fitting statistical distributions to sea duck count data: implications for survey design and abundance estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Leirness, Jeffery B.; Kinlan, Brian P.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Silverman, Emily D.

    2014-01-01

    Determining appropriate statistical distributions for modeling animal count data is important for accurate estimation of abundance, distribution, and trends. In the case of sea ducks along the U.S. Atlantic coast, managers want to estimate local and regional abundance to detect and track population declines, to define areas of high and low use, and to predict the impact of future habitat change on populations. In this paper, we used a modified marked point process to model survey data that recorded flock sizes of Common eiders, Long-tailed ducks, and Black, Surf, and White-winged scoters. The data come from an experimental aerial survey, conducted by the United States Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) Division of Migratory Bird Management, during which east-west transects were flown along the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Florida during the winters of 2009–2011. To model the number of flocks per transect (the points), we compared the fit of four statistical distributions (zero-inflated Poisson, zero-inflated geometric, zero-inflated negative binomial and negative binomial) to data on the number of species-specific sea duck flocks that were recorded for each transect flown. To model the flock sizes (the marks), we compared the fit of flock size data for each species to seven statistical distributions: positive Poisson, positive negative binomial, positive geometric, logarithmic, discretized lognormal, zeta and Yule–Simon. Akaike’s Information Criterion and Vuong’s closeness tests indicated that the negative binomial and discretized lognormal were the best distributions for all species for the points and marks, respectively. These findings have important implications for estimating sea duck abundances as the discretized lognormal is a more skewed distribution than the Poisson and negative binomial, which are frequently used to model avian counts; the lognormal is also less heavy-tailed than the power law distributions (e.g., zeta and Yule–Simon), which are

  8. Integrating Breeding Bird Survey and demographic data to estimate Wood Duck population size in the Atlantic Flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Sauer, John; Boomer, G. Scott; Devers, Patrick K.; Garrettson, Pamela R.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) uses data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) to assist in monitoring and management of some migratory birds. However, BBS analyses provide indices of population change rather than estimates of population size, precluding their use in developing abundance-based objectives and limiting applicability to harvest management. Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) are important harvested birds in the Atlantic Flyway (AF) that are difficult to detect during aerial surveys because they prefer forested habitat. We integrated Wood Duck count data from a ground-plot survey in the northeastern U.S. with AF-wide BBS, banding, parts collection, and harvest data to derive estimates of population size for the AF. Overlapping results between the smaller-scale intensive ground-plot survey and the BBS in the northeastern U.S. provided a means for scaling BBS indices to the breeding population size estimates. We applied these scaling factors to BBS results for portions of the AF lacking intensive surveys. Banding data provided estimates of annual survival and harvest rates; the latter, when combined with parts-collection data, provided estimates of recruitment. We used the harvest data to estimate fall population size. Our estimates of breeding population size and variability from the integrated population model (N̄ = 0.99 million, SD = 0.04) were similar to estimates of breeding population size based solely on data from the AF ground-plot surveys and the BBS (N̄ = 1.01 million, SD = 0.04) from 1998 to 2015. Integrating BBS data with other data provided reliable population size estimates for Wood Ducks at a scale useful for harvest and habitat management in the AF, and allowed us to derive estimates of important demographic parameters (e.g., seasonal survival rates, sex ratio) that were not directly informed by data.

  9. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B. Harris

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001, and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001. Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  10. Binational arsenic exposure survey: methodology and estimated arsenic intake from drinking water and urinary arsenic concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Jason; O'Rourke, Mary Kay; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Burgess, Jefferey L; Harris, Robin B

    2012-04-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L) whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001). Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated.

  11. Statistical properties of mean stand biomass estimators in a LIDAR-based double sampling forest survey design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E. Anderson; J. Breidenbach

    2007-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning (LIDAR) can be a valuable tool in double-sampling forest survey designs. LIDAR-derived forest structure metrics are often highly correlated with important forest inventory variables, such as mean stand biomass, and LIDAR-based synthetic regression estimators have the potential to be highly efficient compared to single-stage estimators, which...

  12. Dose estimation based on a behavior survey of residents around the JCO facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, K; Yonehara, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Endo, A

    2001-09-01

    The NIRS staff interviewed the residents in the evacuated zone around the JCO facility in Tokai-mura on 19 and 20 November, 1999, to obtain the following parameters every 30 minutes starting from 10:35 A.M. on 30 September to 6:15 A.M. on 1 October: the distance from the precipitation tank, the type of the house, positions in the house, wall materials and their thickness in order to estimate individual doses due to the accident. The ambient dose equivalents were obtained based on monitoring data during the accident. In addition, computer calculations were conducted to evaluate the conversion factor from ambient dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent as well as the shielding effect of the house or factory to estimate the effective dose equivalent to the residents. The estimated individual doses based on the behavior survey were in the range from zero to 21 mSv. The individual doses were reported to the residents during the second visit to each house and factory at the end of January, 2000.

  13. Estimation of Transitional Probabilities of Discrete Event Systems from Cross-Sectional Survey and its Application in Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Chen, Xinguang

    2010-02-01

    In order to find better strategies for tobacco control, it is often critical to know the transitional probabilities among various stages of tobacco use. Traditionally, such probabilities are estimated by analyzing data from longitudinal surveys that are often time-consuming and expensive to conduct. Since cross-sectional surveys are much easier to conduct, it will be much more practical and useful to estimate transitional probabilities from cross-sectional survey data if possible. However, no previous research has attempted to do this. In this paper, we propose a method to estimate transitional probabilities from cross-sectional survey data. The method is novel and is based on a discrete event system framework. In particular, we introduce state probabilities and transitional probabilities to conventional discrete event system models. We derive various equations that can be used to estimate the transitional probabilities. We test the method using cross-sectional data of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The estimated transitional probabilities can be used in predicting the future smoking behavior for decision-making, planning and evaluation of various tobacco control programs. The method also allows a sensitivity analysis that can be used to find the most effective way of tobacco control. Since there are much more cross-sectional survey data in existence than longitudinal ones, the impact of this new method is expected to be significant.

  14. Line Transect and Triangulation Surveys Provide Reliable Estimates of the Density of Kloss' Gibbons (Hylobates klossii) on Siberut Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höing, Andrea; Quinten, Marcel C; Indrawati, Yohana Maria; Cheyne, Susan M; Waltert, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Estimating population densities of key species is crucial for many conservation programs. Density estimates provide baseline data and enable monitoring of population size. Several different survey methods are available, and the choice of method depends on the species and study aims. Few studies have compared the accuracy and efficiency of different survey methods for large mammals, particularly for primates. Here we compare estimates of density and abundance of Kloss' gibbons (Hylobates klossii) using two of the most common survey methods: line transect distance sampling and triangulation. Line transect surveys (survey effort: 155.5 km) produced a total of 101 auditory and visual encounters and a density estimate of 5.5 gibbon clusters (groups or subgroups of primate social units)/km(2). Triangulation conducted from 12 listening posts during the same period revealed a similar density estimate of 5.0 clusters/km(2). Coefficients of variation of cluster density estimates were slightly higher from triangulation (0.24) than from line transects (0.17), resulting in a lack of precision in detecting changes in cluster densities of triangulation and triangulation method also may be appropriate.

  15. The impact of the mode of survey administration on estimates of daily smoking for mobile phone only users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Joseph; Cordery, Damien V; Steel, David G; Davis, Walter; Harrold, Timothy C

    2017-04-20

    Over the past decade, there have been substantial changes in landline and mobile phone ownership, with a substantial increase in the proportion of mobile-only households. Estimates of daily smoking rates for the mobile phone only (MPO) population have been found to be substantially higher than the rest of the population and telephone surveys that use a dual sampling frame (landline and mobile phones) are now considered best practice. Smoking is seen as an undesirable behaviour; measuring such behaviours using an interviewer may lead to lower estimates when using telephone based surveys compared to self-administered approaches. This study aims to assess whether higher daily smoking estimates observed for the mobile phone only population can be explained by administrative features of surveys, after accounting for differences in the phone ownership population groups. Data on New South Wales (NSW) residents aged 18 years or older from the NSW Population Health Survey (PHS), a telephone survey, and the National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS), a self-administered survey, were combined, with weights adjusted to match the 2013 population. Design-adjusted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were calculated using survey analysis procedures available in SAS 9.4. Both the PHS and NDSHS gave the same estimates for daily smoking (12%) and similar estimates for MPO users (20% and 18% respectively). Pooled data showed that daily smoking was 19% for MPO users, compared to 10% for dual phone owners, and 12% for landline phone only users. Prevalence estimates for MPO users across both surveys were consistently higher than other phone ownership groups. Differences in estimates for the MPO population compared to other phone ownership groups persisted even after adjustment for the mode of collection and demographic factors. Daily smoking rates were consistently higher for the mobile phone only population and this was not driven by the mode of survey collection. This supports

  16. An emperor penguin population estimate: the first global, synoptic survey of a species from space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available Our aim was to estimate the population of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes fosteri using a single synoptic survey. We examined the whole continental coastline of Antarctica using a combination of medium resolution and Very High Resolution (VHR satellite imagery to identify emperor penguin colony locations. Where colonies were identified, VHR imagery was obtained in the 2009 breeding season. The remotely-sensed images were then analysed using a supervised classification method to separate penguins from snow, shadow and guano. Actual counts of penguins from eleven ground truthing sites were used to convert these classified areas into numbers of penguins using a robust regression algorithm.We found four new colonies and confirmed the location of three previously suspected sites giving a total number of emperor penguin breeding colonies of 46. We estimated the breeding population of emperor penguins at each colony during 2009 and provide a population estimate of ~238,000 breeding pairs (compared with the last previously published count of 135,000-175,000 pairs. Based on published values of the relationship between breeders and non-breeders, this translates to a total population of ~595,000 adult birds.There is a growing consensus in the literature that global and regional emperor penguin populations will be affected by changing climate, a driver thought to be critical to their future survival. However, a complete understanding is severely limited by the lack of detailed knowledge about much of their ecology, and importantly a poor understanding of their total breeding population. To address the second of these issues, our work now provides a comprehensive estimate of the total breeding population that can be used in future population models and will provide a baseline for long-term research.

  17. An emperor penguin population estimate: the first global, synoptic survey of a species from space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T; Larue, Michelle A; Morin, Paul; Kooyman, Gerald L; Wienecke, Barbara; Ratcliffe, Norman; Fox, Adrian J; Fleming, Andrew H; Porter, Claire; Trathan, Phil N

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to estimate the population of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes fosteri) using a single synoptic survey. We examined the whole continental coastline of Antarctica using a combination of medium resolution and Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite imagery to identify emperor penguin colony locations. Where colonies were identified, VHR imagery was obtained in the 2009 breeding season. The remotely-sensed images were then analysed using a supervised classification method to separate penguins from snow, shadow and guano. Actual counts of penguins from eleven ground truthing sites were used to convert these classified areas into numbers of penguins using a robust regression algorithm.We found four new colonies and confirmed the location of three previously suspected sites giving a total number of emperor penguin breeding colonies of 46. We estimated the breeding population of emperor penguins at each colony during 2009 and provide a population estimate of ~238,000 breeding pairs (compared with the last previously published count of 135,000-175,000 pairs). Based on published values of the relationship between breeders and non-breeders, this translates to a total population of ~595,000 adult birds.There is a growing consensus in the literature that global and regional emperor penguin populations will be affected by changing climate, a driver thought to be critical to their future survival. However, a complete understanding is severely limited by the lack of detailed knowledge about much of their ecology, and importantly a poor understanding of their total breeding population. To address the second of these issues, our work now provides a comprehensive estimate of the total breeding population that can be used in future population models and will provide a baseline for long-term research.

  18. MAGSAT correlations with geoid anomalies. [magnetic anomalies in the western Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowin, C. O. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    A digital data library of MAGSAT data is described and its applications and capabilities are reviewed. Polynomial trends were removed from each half-orbit in order to estimate and remove ring current effects from the data. The MAGSAT data in the Gulf of Mexico region was analyzed to define better the possible relation of the negative MAGSAT anomaly there to the negative residual geoid anomaly in the western Gulf of Mexico. Since the shape and location of the negative magnetic anomaly are variable depending upon the particular polynomial surface and curve orders used, no definitive conclusion as to the degree of correspondance between the residual geoid and MAGSAT lithosphere anomalies is offered.

  19. Can high resolution 3D topographic surveys provide reliable grain size estimates in gravel bed rivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, E.; Smith, M. W.; Klaar, M. J.; Brown, L. E.

    2017-09-01

    High resolution topographic surveys such as those provided by Structure-from-Motion (SfM) contain a wealth of information that is not always exploited in the generation of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). In particular, several authors have related sub-metre scale topographic variability (or 'surface roughness') to sediment grain size by deriving empirical relationships between the two. In fluvial applications, such relationships permit rapid analysis of the spatial distribution of grain size over entire river reaches, providing improved data to drive three-dimensional hydraulic models, allowing rapid geomorphic monitoring of sub-reach river restoration projects, and enabling more robust characterisation of riverbed habitats. However, comparison of previously published roughness-grain-size relationships shows substantial variability between field sites. Using a combination of over 300 laboratory and field-based SfM surveys, we demonstrate the influence of inherent survey error, irregularity of natural gravels, particle shape, grain packing structure, sorting, and form roughness on roughness-grain-size relationships. Roughness analysis from SfM datasets can accurately predict the diameter of smooth hemispheres, though natural, irregular gravels result in a higher roughness value for a given diameter and different grain shapes yield different relationships. A suite of empirical relationships is presented as a decision tree which improves predictions of grain size. By accounting for differences in patch facies, large improvements in D50 prediction are possible. SfM is capable of providing accurate grain size estimates, although further refinement is needed for poorly sorted gravel patches, for which c-axis percentiles are better predicted than b-axis percentiles.

  20. Mobile Phone Surveys for Collecting Population-Level Estimates in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Dustin G; Pereira, Amanda; Farrenkopf, Brooke A; Labrique, Alain B; Pariyo, George W; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-05-05

    National and subnational level surveys are important for monitoring disease burden, prioritizing resource allocation, and evaluating public health policies. As mobile phone access and ownership become more common globally, mobile phone surveys (MPSs) offer an opportunity to supplement traditional public health household surveys. The objective of this study was to systematically review the current landscape of MPSs to collect population-level estimates in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Primary and gray literature from 7 online databases were systematically searched for studies that deployed MPSs to collect population-level estimates. Titles and abstracts were screened on primary inclusion and exclusion criteria by two research assistants. Articles that met primary screening requirements were read in full and screened for secondary eligibility criteria. Articles included in review were grouped into the following three categories by their survey modality: (1) interactive voice response (IVR), (2) short message service (SMS), and (3) human operator or computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). Data were abstracted by two research assistants. The conduct and reporting of the review conformed to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A total of 6625 articles were identified through the literature review. Overall, 11 articles were identified that contained 19 MPS (CATI, IVR, or SMS) surveys to collect population-level estimates across a range of topics. MPSs were used in Latin America (n=8), the Middle East (n=1), South Asia (n=2), and sub-Saharan Africa (n=8). Nine articles presented results for 10 CATI surveys (10/19, 53%). Two articles discussed the findings of 6 IVR surveys (6/19, 32%). Three SMS surveys were identified from 2 articles (3/19, 16%). Approximately 63% (12/19) of MPS were delivered to mobile phone numbers collected from previously administered household surveys. The majority of MPS (11

  1. A catalog of bulge, disk, and total stellar mass estimates for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Mendel, J Trevor; Palmer, Michael; Ellison, Sara L; Patton, David R

    2013-01-01

    We present a catalog of bulge, disk, and total stellar mass estimates for ~660,000 galaxies in the Legacy area of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. These masses are based on a homogeneous catalog of g- and r-band photometry described by Simard et al. (2011), which we extend here with bulge+disk and Sersic profile photometric decompositions in the SDSS u, i, and z bands. We discuss the methodology used to derive stellar masses from these data via fitting to broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and show that the typical statistical uncertainty on total, bulge, and disk stellar mass is ~0.15 dex. Despite relatively small formal uncertainties, we argue that SED modeling assumptions, including the choice of synthesis model, extinction law, initial mass function, and details of stellar evolution likely contribute an additional 60% systematic uncertainty in any mass estimate based on broadband SED fitting. We discuss several approaches for identifying genuine bulge+disk systems based on both th...

  2. Over-estimation of sea level measurements arising from water density anomalies within tide-wells - A case study at Zuari Estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, E.S.; Desa, E.; Peshwe, V.B.

    -estimation of sea levels, from measurements of density differences inside and outside of tide-wells over a period of one year. This would be a practical way to go back to what is in the archives and recover the absolute sea level. In this paper a feasible solution...

  3. Considerations in the Interpretation of Cosmological Anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Peiris, Hiranya V

    2014-01-01

    Anomalies drive scientific discovery -- they are associated with the cutting edge of the research frontier, and thus typically exploit data in the low signal-to-noise regime. In astronomy, the prevalence of systematics --- both "known unknowns" and "unknown unknowns" --- combined with increasingly large datasets, the widespread use of ad hoc estimators for anomaly detection, and the "look-elsewhere" effect, can lead to spurious false detections. In this informal note, I argue that anomaly detection leading to discoveries of new physics requires a combination of physical understanding, careful experimental design to avoid confirmation bias, and self-consistent statistical methods. These points are illustrated with several concrete examples from cosmology.

  4. Cytogenetic survey of Holstein bulls at a commercial artificial insemination company to determine prevalence of bulls with centric fusion and chimeric anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, B E; Zhang, T Q; Buoen, L C; Weber, A F; Ruth, G R

    2000-01-01

    To determine prevalence of Holstein bulls with chromosomal anomalies, particularly the 1/21 centric fusion (CF), at a commercial artificial insemination (AI) company in the United States. Cross-sectional cytogenetic prevalence study. All 606 Holstein bulls at a commercial AI company were cytogenetically screened to detect CF, chimerism, and other chromosomal abnormalities. Lymphocytes from heparinized blood samples were cultured by standard cytogenetic techniques, and chromosome spreads were prepared for microscopic examination. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected by examining 10 chromosome spreads per bull. Pedigree analysis was performed. None of the bulls had any type of CF. However, 6 bulls were identified as chimeras (i.e., contained lymphocytes with male [XY] and female [XX] chromosomes). One bull was sire or maternal grandsire to 85 of the bulls tested, and 739 of 1,212 (61%) sire and maternal-grandsire possibilities were accounted for by just 18 bulls. Analysis of these results supports previous indications that CF is extremely rare in Holstein bloodlines available commercially via AI in the United States. However, chimeric bulls are more common, and they reportedly have decreased reproductive performance. Therefore, identification of chimeric sires in the AI facility reported here and the possibility of de novo onset of CF at any time indicates that early cytogenetic screening should be encouraged for prospective bulls intended for use in AI programs.

  5. EMAG2 Version 3 - Update of a two arc-minute global magnetic anomaly grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Brian; Saltus, Richard; Chulliat, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic minerals in rocks of the shallow portions of the lithosphere (the crust and upper mantle above the depth of the Curie isotherm) induce complex distortions, or anomalies, of the otherwise smooth magnetic field from the Earth's core. The NOAA/CIRES geomagnetism team published a global compilation of magnetic anomaly data, at 2-arc minute resolution (EMAG2_V2) in 2009. Since 2009 NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI, formerly NGDC) has added over 51 million points of magnetic data (over 2.5 million miles of marine and airborne surveys) to its data holdings. Using these new data, updated satellite-based geomagnetic models, pre-compiled regional anomaly grids, and magnetic observatory data, we produced the third version of EMAG2. Among other improvements, EMAG2_V3 uses no a priori information about ocean age/structure in order to more accurately reflect the complexity of the oceanic anomalies, including 'magnetic stripes', and provides more accurate mapping of anomalies in regions of new data. This also eliminates false confidence in the accuracy or geographic data availability of marine magnetic anomalies. The primary grid models magnetic anomalies at 4km (approximately 2 arc-minute) above ellipsoid; a secondary product is also available that reports anomalies at sea level above oceanic regions, and 4km above the continents. Also, each grid value comes with an error estimate and each data point is fully traceable to the source data that were used to derive it. The compilation will be updated regularly as new data are available. This presentation will detail the latest version available.

  6. Aerial line transect survey to estimate abundance of marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus (Illiger, 1815

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Andriolo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to estimate abundance of marsh deer in the Paraná River basin of this work. The results provided information to support further analysis of the impact of the Porto Primavera flooding lake over population. Sixty-nine animals were recorded by aerial survey using distance sampling methodology. Animals were widely distributed throughout the study area. The uncorrected data resulted in a estimate density of 0.0035 ind/ha and a population size of 636 individuals. Correcting the g for the animals that could be missed the calculated abundance was 896 (CV=0.27 individuals. This methodology was applied with success to survey marsh deer. The result was important to evaluate the marsh deer status in the area, and for future analysis of the impact of the flooding dam.A população de cervo-do-pantanal (Blastocerus dichotomus está drasticamente reduzida no Brasil. O nosso objetivo foi o de estimar a abundância do cervo-do-pantanal na bacia do Rio Paraná e discutir a metodologia aplicada. Os resultados darão suporte para uma análise do impacto do enchimento da represa de Porto Primavera sobre essa população. Sessenta e nove animais foram registrados através de sobrevôo utilizando-se a metodologia de transecção linear com amostragem das distâncias. Os dados não corrigidos resultaram em uma densidade estimada de 0,0035ind/ha e uma população de 636 indivíduos. A correção de g para os animais que não foram vistos apresentou uma densidade de 0,0049 ind/ha e uma abundância de 896 (CV=0,27 indivíduos. A metodologia foi aplicada com sucesso na estimativa de cervo-do-pantanal. Esse resultado é importante para avaliarmos a população do cervo-do-pantanal na área e para futuramente analisarmos o impacto do enchimento da represa.

  7. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  8. Anomaly-induced baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kobakhidze, A

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism for dynamical generation of the observed baryon asymmetry within the minimal Standard model extended by massive Majorana neutrinos and non-vanishing electroweak Chern-Simons term. We show that electroweak Chern-Simons number is produced in the expanding universe due to the conformal anomaly and subsequently converted into baryon number through the triangle anomaly.

  9. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-08

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  10. Estimating the Topography Before Volcanic Sector Collapses Using Tsunami Survey Data and Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yusuke; Tanioka, Yuichiro

    2017-08-01

    Large sector collapses and landslides have the potential to cause significant disasters. Estimating the topography and conditions, such as volume, before the collapse is thus important for analyzing the behavior of moving collapsed material and hazard risks. This study considers three historical volcanic sector collapses in Japan that caused tsunamis: the collapses of the Komagatake Volcano in 1640, Oshima-Oshima Island in 1741, and Unzen-Mayuyama Volcano in 1792. Numerical simulations of the tsunamis generated by each event were first carried out based on assumed collapse scenarios. The primary objective of this study is to present conditions related to the topography before the events based on inverse models of the topography from those results and tsunami survey data. The Oshima-Oshima Tsunami, which is the subject of many previous studies, was first simulated to validate the model accuracy and evaluate how run-up heights changed during the simulation as the topographic conditions changed. The run-up height was especially sensitive to the collapsed volume and frictional acceleration affecting the collapsed material; however, the observed run-up heights could be reproduced with high accuracy using proper conditions of frictional acceleration for the scenarios, even if they were not exact. A minimum requirement for the collapsed volume to generate the observed run-up height was introduced and quantitatively evaluated using the results of numerical tsunami simulations. The minimum volumes of the collapses of the Komagatake and Unzen-Mayuyama volcanoes were estimated to be approximately 1.2 and 0.3 km3, respectively.

  11. Anomaly Mediation and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Basboll, A; Jones, D R T

    2011-01-01

    We consider an extension of the MSSM wherein anomaly mediation is the source of supersymmetry-breaking, and the tachyonic slepton problem is solved by a Fayet-Iliopoulos (FI) $D$-term associated with an additional $U(1)$ symmetry, which also facilitates the see-saw mechanism for neutrino masses and a natural source for the Higgs $\\mu$-term. We explore the cosmological consequences of the model, showing that the model naturally produces a period of hybrid inflation, terminating in the production of cosmic strings. In spite of the presence of a $U(1)$ with an FI term, inflation is effected by the $F$-term, with a $D$-flat tree potential (the FI term being cancelled by non-zero squark and slepton fields). Calculating the 1-loop corrections to the inflaton potential, we estimate the constraints on the parameters of the model from Cosmic Microwave Background data. We briefly discuss the mechanisms for baryogenesis via conventional leptogenesis, the out-of-equilibrium production of neutrinos from the cosmic strings...

  12. Estimating flood discharge using witness movies in post-flood hydrological surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Coz, Jérôme; Hauet, Alexandre; Le Boursicaud, Raphaël; Pénard, Lionel; Bonnifait, Laurent; Dramais, Guillaume; Thollet, Fabien; Braud, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    The estimation of streamflow rates based on post-flood surveys is of paramount importance for the investigation of extreme hydrological events. Major uncertainties usually arise from the absence of information on the flow velocities and from the limited spatio-temporal resolution of such surveys. Nowadays, after each flood occuring in populated areas home movies taken from bridges, river banks or even drones are shared by witnesses through Internet platforms like YouTube. Provided that some topography data and additional information are collected, image-based velocimetry techniques can be applied to some of these movie materials, in order to estimate flood discharges. As a contribution to recent post-flood surveys conducted in France, we developed and applied a method for estimating velocities and discharges based on the Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) technique. Since the seminal work of Fujita et al. (1998), LSPIV applications to river flows were reported by a number of authors and LSPIV can now be considered a mature technique. However, its application to non-professional movies taken by flood witnesses remains challenging and required some practical developments. The different steps to apply LSPIV analysis to a flood home movie are as follows: (i) select a video of interest; (ii) contact the author for agreement and extra information; (iii) conduct a field topography campaign to georeference Ground Control Points (GCPs), water level and cross-sectional profiles; (iv) preprocess the video before LSPIV analysis: correct lens distortion, align the images, etc.; (v) orthorectify the images to correct perspective effects and know the physical size of pixels; (vi) proceed with the LSPIV analysis to compute the surface velocity field; and (vii) compute discharge according to a user-defined velocity coefficient. Two case studies in French mountainous rivers during extreme floods are presented. The movies were collected on YouTube and field topography

  13. Estimation of packaged water consumption and associated plastic waste production from household budget surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Hill, Allan G.; Bain, Robert E. S.; Wright, Jim

    2017-08-01

    Packaged water consumption is growing in low- and middle-income countries, but the magnitude of this phenomenon and its environmental consequences remain unclear. This study aims to quantify both the volumes of packaged water consumed relative to household water requirements and associated plastic waste generated for three West African case study countries. Data from household expenditure surveys for Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia were used to estimate the volumes of packaged water consumed and thereby quantify plastic waste generated in households with and without solid waste disposal facilities. In Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia respectively, 11.3 (95% confidence interval: 10.3-12.4), 10.1 (7.5-12.5), and 0.38 (0.31-0.45) Ml day-1 of sachet water were consumed. This generated over 28 000 tonnes yr-1 of plastic waste, of which 20%, 63% and 57% was among households lacking formal waste disposal facilities in Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia respectively. Reported packaged water consumption provided sufficient water to meet daily household drinking-water requirements for 8.4%, less than 1% and 1.6% of households in Ghana, Nigeria and Liberia respectively. These findings quantify packaged water’s contribution to household water needs in our study countries, particularly Ghana, but indicate significant subsequent environmental repercussions.

  14. Glioblastoma brain tumours: estimating the time from brain tumour initiation and resolution of a patient survival anomaly after similar treatment protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J D

    2012-01-01

    A practical mathematical model for glioblastomas (brain tumours), which incorporates the two key parameters of tumour growth, namely the cancer cell diffusion and the cell proliferation rate, has been shown to be clinically useful and predictive. Previous studies explain why multifocal recurrence is inevitable and show how various treatment scenarios have been incorporated in the model. In most tumours, it is not known when the cancer started. Based on patient in vivo parameters, obtained from two brain scans, it is shown how to estimate the time, after initial detection, when the tumour started. This is an input of potential importance in any future controlled clinical study of any connection between cell phone radiation and brain tumour incidence. It is also used to estimate more accurately survival times from detection. Finally, based on patient parameters, the solution of the model equation of the tumour growth helps to explain why certain patients live longer than others after similar treatment protocols specifically surgical resection (removal) and irradiation.

  15. Estimativas obtidas de um levantamento complexo Estimates from a complex survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena de Sousa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto do plano de amostragem e o efeito da ponderação, em dados provenientes da "Pesquisa Nacional sobre Demografia e Saúde" (PNDS-96. MÉTODOS: Análise de dados secundários, realizada para a amostra do Estado de São Paulo, com 1.355 mulheres entrevistadas. Tomou-se como referência o plano de amostragem da "Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios" (PNAD, com o município como unidade primária de amostragem. O estimador razão e a aproximação de Taylor para a variância foram calculados sobre as unidades primárias de amostragem e sobre diversas modalidades de ponderação. Intervalos de confiança, efeitos do desenho (Deff e vícios foram os indicadores utilizados para avaliar precisão e validade. RESULTADOS: Para os quatro procedimentos, as diferenças da maior estimativa pontual de prevalência, em relação à menor, não ultrapassaram 10%. Quanto às amplitudes dos intervalos de confiança, as diferenças foram inferiores a 20%. Uso de camisinha e de injetável foram as variáveis que tiveram efeitos do delineamento superiores a 1,5 e vícios superiores a 0,20. CONCLUSÕES: A amostragem por conglomerados teve impacto sobre a precisão das estimativas, em duas das seis variáveis. Quanto à ponderação, não houve grande impacto sobre as estimativas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of sampling design and the effect of weighting on data from the 1996 Brazilian National Survey on Demography and Health. METHODS: Secondary data analysis was performed using a sample of 1,355 interviewed women of the state of São Paulo. The sampling design of the National Survey of Household Sampling (PNAD was used as a reference, and the municipality as primary sampling unit. The ratio estimator and Taylor's aproximation for variance were calculated using the primary sampling units and several modalities of weighting. The indicators used to evaluate precision and validity were confidence intervals, design effects (Deff and

  16. Aerial Survey as a Tool to Estimate Abundance and Describe Distribution of a Carcharhinid Species, the Lemon Shark, Negaprion brevirostris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Kessel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerial survey provides an important tool to assess the abundance of both terrestrial and marine vertebrates. To date, limited work has tested the effectiveness of this technique to estimate the abundance of smaller shark species. In Bimini, Bahamas, the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris shows high site fidelity to a shallow sandy lagoon, providing an ideal test species to determine the effectiveness of localised aerial survey techniques for a Carcharhinid species in shallow subtropical waters. Between September 2007 and September 2008, visual surveys were conducted from light aircraft following defined transects ranging in length between 8.8 and 4.4 km. Count results were corrected for “availability”, “perception”, and “survey intensity” to provide unbiased abundance estimates. The abundance of lemon sharks was greatest in the central area of the lagoon during high tide, with a change in abundance distribution to the east and western regions of the lagoon with low tide. Mean abundance of sharks was estimated at 49 (±8.6 individuals, and monthly abundance was significantly positively correlated with mean water temperature. The successful implementation of the aerial survey technique highlighted the potential of further employment for shark abundance assessments in shallow coastal marine environments.

  17. Economic Impact of Childhood Psychiatric Disorder on Public Sector Services in Britain: Estimates from National Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Tom; Knapp, Martin; Healey, Andrew; Guglani, Sacha; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Fernandez, Jose-Luis; Meltzer, Howard; Ford, Tamsin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Approximately one in ten children aged 5-15 in Britain has a conduct, hyperactivity or emotional disorder. Methods: The British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Surveys (BCAMHS) identified children aged 5-15 with a psychiatric disorder, and their use of health, education and social care services. Service costs were estimated for each…

  18. Estimation of by catch in the commercial fishery for Greenland halibut at West Greenland based on survey data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A.

    while the minimum mesh size in the cod end in the commercial trawls is 140 mm and the survey catches are converted to potential commercial by catches. The conversion is based on a number of assumptions and the results should be considered as indicative. The total by-catch in weight is estimated to be 13...

  19. Violence and Drug Use in Rural Teens: National Prevalence Estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…

  20. Longitudinal Weight Calibration with Estimated Control Totals for Cross Sectional Survey Data: Theory and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Siyu

    2014-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) collects information on a sample of individuals in the United States with PhD degrees. A significant portion of the sampled individuals appear in multiple survey years and can be linked across time. Survey weights in each year are created and adjusted for oversampling and…

  1. Using aerial surveys to estimate density and distribution of harbour porpoises in Dutch waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheidat, M.; Verdaat, J.P.; Aarts, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate harbour porpoise density and distribution in Dutch waters, dedicated line transect distance sampling aerial surveys were conducted from May 2008 to March 2010. In total 10,557 km were covered on survey effort during 16 survey days in February to May, August, November and December. Usi

  2. Estimating the prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adults from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, K H; Rae, D S; Locke, B Z; Narrow, W E; Regier, D A

    1992-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area Survey is a comprehensive, community-based survey of mental disorders and use of services by adults, ages 18 and older. Diagnoses are based on the criteria in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," third edition, and were obtained in five communities in the United States through lay-interviewer administration of the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Results from the survey provide the public health field with data on the prevalence and incidence of specific mental disorders in the community, unbiased by the treatment status of the sample. The population with disorders is estimated, and the survey findings that respond to some of the most common requests for information about the epidemiology of mental disorders in the United States are highlighted briefly. Based on the survey, it is estimated that one of every five persons in the United States suffers from a mental disorder in any 6-month period, and that one of every three persons suffers a disorder in his or her lifetime. Fewer than 20 percent of those with a recent mental disorder seek help for their problem, according to the survey. High rates of comorbid substance abuse and mental disorders were found, particularly among those who had sought treatment for their disorders.

  3. Estimating spatial variations in soil water content from electrical conductivity surveys across semiarid Mediterranean agrosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekki, Insaf; Jaiez, Zeineb; Jacob, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    Soil water content (SWC) is an important driver for number of soil, water and energy fluxes at different temporal and spatial scales. The non-invasive electromagnetic induction sensor, such as EM38, that measures the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa), has been widely used to infer spatial and temporal patterns of soil properties. The objective of this study has been to explore the opportunity for estimating and mapping the soil water content (SWC) based on in-situ data collected in different fields and during dry and wet soil conditions in a hilly landscape. The experiment was carried out during two campaigns under dry and wet conditions to represent the major soil association, land use and topographic attributes at the cultivated semiarid Mediterranean Lebna catchment, northeastern Tunisia. The temporal evolution of SWC is a dry-wet-dry pattern. Gravimetric soil water content sampling and ECa measured with EM38 (Geonics Ltd., Ontario, Canada) surveys have been performed simultaneously. ECa measurements, geo-referenced with GPS, were collected raising the EM38 to sample at various depths of the soil. The EM38 was placed in both horizontal and vertical dipole modes on a PVC stand 150 cm above the soil surface. The number of investigated points varied between n=70 in February to n=38 in October 2012. Results showed that different SWC related to the soil spatial variability and lead to differences in ECa averaged values and a substantial changes in the ECa as SWC changed. The relationship between SWC an ECa in a separate vertical and horizontal mode using all possible sets of surveys was tested with linear regression. The correlation coefficient between ECa and SWC for the horizontal mode was lower than the vertical mode. Coefficients of determination of linear regressions between SWC in 0-100 cm soil depth and ECa in the vertical mode were, r²=0.74, in February 2013, r²=0.52 in October 2012. The lowest correlations were found in horizontal mode when SWC

  4. Multimorbidity in Australia: Comparing estimates derived using administrative data sources and survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Judy M.; Zwar, Nicholas; Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Jorm, Louisa

    2017-01-01

    Background Estimating multimorbidity (presence of two or more chronic conditions) using administrative data is becoming increasingly common. We investigated (1) the concordance of identification of chronic conditions and multimorbidity using self-report survey and administrative datasets; (2) characteristics of people with multimorbidity ascertained using different data sources; and (3) whether the same individuals are classified as multimorbid using different data sources. Methods Baseline survey data for 90,352 participants of the 45 and Up Study—a cohort study of residents of New South Wales, Australia, aged 45 years and over—were linked to prior two-year pharmaceutical claims and hospital admission records. Concordance of eight self-report chronic conditions (reference) with claims and hospital data were examined using sensitivity (Sn), positive predictive value (PPV), and kappa (κ).The characteristics of people classified as multimorbid were compared using logistic regression modelling. Results Agreement was found to be highest for diabetes in both hospital and claims data (κ = 0.79, 0.78; Sn = 79%, 72%; PPV = 86%, 90%). The prevalence of multimorbidity was highest using self-report data (37.4%), followed by claims data (36.1%) and hospital data (19.3%). Combining all three datasets identified a total of 46 683 (52%) people with multimorbidity, with half of these identified using a single dataset only, and up to 20% identified on all three datasets. Characteristics of persons with and without multimorbidity were generally similar. However, the age gradient was more pronounced and people speaking a language other than English at home were more likely to be identified as multimorbid by administrative data. Conclusions Different individuals, with different combinations of conditions, are identified as multimorbid when different data sources are used. As such, caution should be applied when ascertaining morbidity from a single data source as the agreement

  5. Effect of nutrition survey 'cleaning criteria' on estimates of malnutrition prevalence and disease burden: secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Sonya; Seal, Andrew; Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos; Kerac, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Tackling childhood malnutrition is a global health priority. A key indicator is the estimated prevalence of malnutrition, measured by nutrition surveys. Most aspects of survey design are standardised, but data 'cleaning criteria' are not. These aim to exclude extreme values which may represent measurement or data-entry errors. The effect of different cleaning criteria on malnutrition prevalence estimates was unknown. We applied five commonly used data cleaning criteria (WHO 2006; EPI-Info; WHO 1995 fixed; WHO 1995 flexible; SMART) to 21 national Demographic and Health Survey datasets. These included a total of 163,228 children, aged 6-59 months. We focused on wasting (low weight-for-height), a key indicator for treatment programmes. Choice of cleaning criteria had a marked effect: SMART were least inclusive, resulting in the lowest reported malnutrition prevalence, while WHO 2006 were most inclusive, resulting in the highest. Across the 21 countries, the proportion of records excluded was 3 to 5 times greater when using SMART compared to WHO 2006 criteria, resulting in differences in the estimated prevalence of total wasting of between 0.5 and 3.8%, and differences in severe wasting of 0.4-3.9%. The magnitude of difference was associated with the standard deviation of the survey sample, a statistic that can reflect both population heterogeneity and data quality. Using these results to estimate case-loads for treatment programmes resulted in large differences for all countries. Wasting prevalence and caseload estimations are strongly influenced by choice of cleaning criterion. Because key policy and programming decisions depend on these statistics, variations in analytical practice could lead to inconsistent and potentially inappropriate implementation of malnutrition treatment programmes. We therefore call for mandatory reporting of cleaning criteria use so that results can be compared and interpreted appropriately. International consensus is urgently needed

  6. Effect of nutrition survey ‘cleaning criteria’ on estimates of malnutrition prevalence and disease burden: secondary data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Crowe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tackling childhood malnutrition is a global health priority. A key indicator is the estimated prevalence of malnutrition, measured by nutrition surveys. Most aspects of survey design are standardised, but data ‘cleaning criteria’ are not. These aim to exclude extreme values which may represent measurement or data-entry errors. The effect of different cleaning criteria on malnutrition prevalence estimates was unknown. We applied five commonly used data cleaning criteria (WHO 2006; EPI-Info; WHO 1995 fixed; WHO 1995 flexible; SMART to 21 national Demographic and Health Survey datasets. These included a total of 163,228 children, aged 6–59 months. We focused on wasting (low weight-for-height, a key indicator for treatment programmes. Choice of cleaning criteria had a marked effect: SMART were least inclusive, resulting in the lowest reported malnutrition prevalence, while WHO 2006 were most inclusive, resulting in the highest. Across the 21 countries, the proportion of records excluded was 3 to 5 times greater when using SMART compared to WHO 2006 criteria, resulting in differences in the estimated prevalence of total wasting of between 0.5 and 3.8%, and differences in severe wasting of 0.4–3.9%. The magnitude of difference was associated with the standard deviation of the survey sample, a statistic that can reflect both population heterogeneity and data quality. Using these results to estimate case-loads for treatment programmes resulted in large differences for all countries. Wasting prevalence and caseload estimations are strongly influenced by choice of cleaning criterion. Because key policy and programming decisions depend on these statistics, variations in analytical practice could lead to inconsistent and potentially inappropriate implementation of malnutrition treatment programmes. We therefore call for mandatory reporting of cleaning criteria use so that results can be compared and interpreted appropriately. International consensus

  7. Anomalies on orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew G.; Georgi, Howard

    2001-03-16

    We discuss the form of the chiral anomaly on an S1/Z2 orbifold with chiral boundary conditions. We find that the 4-divergence of the higher-dimensional current evaluated at a given point in the extra dimension is proportional to the probability of finding the chiral zero mode there. Nevertheless the anomaly, appropriately defined as the five dimensional divergence of the current, lives entirely on the orbifold fixed planes and is independent of the shape of the zero mode. Therefore long distance four dimensional anomaly cancellation ensures the consistency of the higher dimensional orbifold theory.

  8. Absorbed dose rate due to intake of natural radionuclides by Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) estimated near uranium anomaly at Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios], E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio], E-mail: Delcy@inb.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The uranium mining at Santa Quiteria (Santa Quiteria Unit - USQ) is in its environmental licensing phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the USQ, a monitoring program is underway. However, radioprotection of biota is not explicitly mentioned in Brazilian norms. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to behave in a pro-active way as expected by licensing organs, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology, based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected biomarker was the fish tilapia (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). Since there are no exposition limits for biota, in Brazil, the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5 x 10{sup 3} {mu}Gy/y has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for tilapia was 2.76 x 10{sup 0} {mu}Gy/y, that is less than 0.1 % of the limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was U-238, with 99% of the absorbed dose rate. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that in pre-operational conditions analyzed natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to the biota. (author)

  9. Estimation of geographic variation in human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in men and women: an online survey using facebook recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik J; Hughes, John; Oakes, J Michael; Pankow, James S; Kulasingam, Shalini L

    2014-09-01

    Federally funded surveys of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake are important for pinpointing geographically based health disparities. Although national and state level data are available, local (ie, county and postal code level) data are not due to small sample sizes, confidentiality concerns, and cost. Local level HPV vaccine uptake data may be feasible to obtain by targeting specific geographic areas through social media advertising and recruitment strategies, in combination with online surveys. Our goal was to use Facebook-based recruitment and online surveys to estimate local variation in HPV vaccine uptake among young men and women in Minnesota. From November 2012 to January 2013, men and women were recruited via a targeted Facebook advertisement campaign to complete an online survey about HPV vaccination practices. The Facebook advertisements were targeted to recruit men and women by location (25 mile radius of Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States), age (18-30 years), and language (English). Of the 2079 men and women who responded to the Facebook advertisements and visited the study website, 1003 (48.2%) enrolled in the study and completed the survey. The average advertising cost per completed survey was US $1.36. Among those who reported their postal code, 90.6% (881/972) of the participants lived within the previously defined geographic study area. Receipt of 1 dose or more of HPV vaccine was reported by 65.6% women (351/535), and 13.0% (45/347) of men. These results differ from previously reported Minnesota state level estimates (53.8% for young women and 20.8% for young men) and from national estimates (34.5% for women and 2.3% for men). This study shows that recruiting a representative sample of young men and women based on county and postal code location to complete a survey on HPV vaccination uptake via the Internet is a cost-effective and feasible strategy. This study also highlights the need for local estimates to assess the variation in HPV

  10. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Palsson: Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands Biennial Bottom Trawl Survey estimates of catch per unit effort, biomass, population at length, and associated tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GOA/AI Bottom Trawl Estimate database contains abundance estimates for the Alaska Biennial Bottom Trawl Surveys conducted in the Gulf of Alaska and the Aleutian...

  11. Theoretically Optimal Distributed Anomaly Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel general framework for distributed anomaly detection with theoretical performance guarantees is proposed. Our algorithmic approach combines existing anomaly...

  12. An estimate of hernia prevalence in Sierra Leone from a nationwide community survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hiten D; Groen, Reinou S; Kamara, Thaim B; Samai, Mohamed; Farahzad, Mina M; Cassidy, Laura D; Kushner, Adam L; Wren, Sherry M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A large number of unrepaired inguinal hernias is expected in sub-Saharan Africa where late presentation often results in incarceration, strangulation, or giant scrotal hernias. However, no representative population-based data is available to quantify the prevalence of hernias. We present data on groin masses in Sierra Leone to estimate prevalence, barriers to care, and associated disability. Methods A cluster randomized, cross-sectional household survey of 75 clusters of 25 households with 2 respondents each was designed to calculate the prevalence of and disability caused by groin hernias in Sierra Leone using a verbal head-to-toe examination. Barriers to hernia repairs were assessed by asking participants the main reason for delay in surgical care. Results Information was obtained from 3645 respondents in 1843 households, of which 1669 (46%) were male and included in the study. In total, 117 males or 7.01% (95% CI 5.64-8.38) reported a soft or reducible swelling likely representing a hernia with four men having two masses. Of the 93.2% who indicated the need for health care, only 22.2% underwent a procedure, citing limited funds (59.0%) as the major barrier to care. On disability assessment, 20.2% were not able to work secondary to the groin swelling. Conclusions The results indicate groin masses represent a major burden for the male population in Sierra Leone. Improving access to surgical care for adult patients with hernias and early intervention for children will be vital to address the burden of disease and prevent complications or limitations of daily activity. PMID:24241327

  13. Voxelwise meta-ananlysis of gray matter anomalies in progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson’s disease using anatomic likelihood estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifang eShang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous voxel-based morphometry (VBM studies on gray matter (GM of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP and Parkinson’s disease (PD have been conducted separately. Identifying the different neuroanatomical changes in GM resulting from PSP and PD through meta-analysis will aid the differential diagnosis of PSP and PD. In this study, a systematic review of VBM studies of patients with PSP and PD relative to healthy controls (HC in the Embase and PubMed databases from January 1995 to April 2013 was conducted. The anatomical distribution of the coordinates of GM differences was meta-analyzed using anatomical likelihood estimation. Separate maps of GM changes were constructed and subtraction meta-analysis was performed to explore the differences in GM abnormalities between PSP and PD. Nine PSP studies and 24 PD studies were included. GM reductions were present in the bilateral thalamus, basal ganglia, midbrain, insular cortex and inferior frontal gyrus, and left precentral gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus in PSP. Atrophy of GM was concentrated in the bilateral middle and inferior frontal gyrus, precuneus, left precentral gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, right superior parietal lobule, and right cuneus in PD. Subtraction meta-analysis indicated that GM volume was lesser in the bilateral midbrain, thalamus, and insula in PSP compared with that in PD. Our meta-analysis indicated that PSP and PD shared a similar distribution of neuroanatomical changes in the frontal lobe, including inferior frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus, and that atrophy of the midbrain, thalamus, and insula are neuroanatomical markers for differentiating PSP from PD.

  14. Curie Point Depth, Geothermal Gradient and Heat-Flow Estimation and Geothermal Anomaly Exploration from Integrated Analysis of Aeromagnetic and Gravity Data on the Sabalan Area, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, A.; Norouzi, G. H.; Moradzadeh, A.; Riahi, M. A.; Porkhial, S.

    2017-03-01

    Prospecting the geothermal resources in northwest of Iran, conducted in 1975, revealed several promising areas and introduced the Sabalan geothermal field as a priority for further studies. The Sabalan Mt., representing the Sabalan geothermal field, is a large stratovolcano which consists of an extensive central edifice built on a probable tectonic horst of underlying intrusive and effusive volcanic rocks. In this study, Curie point depth (CPD), geothermal gradient and heat-flow map were constituted from spectral analysis of the aeromagnetic data for the NW of Iran. The top of the geothermal resource (i.e., the thickness of the overburden) was evaluated by applying the Euler deconvolution method on the residual gravity data. The thickness of the geothermal resource was calculated by subtracting the Euler depths obtained from the CPDs in the geothermal anomalous region. The geothermal anomalous region was defined by the heat-flow value greater than 150 mW/m2. CPDs in the investigated area are found between 8.8 km in the Sabalan geothermal field and 14.1 in the northeast. The results showed that the geothermal gradient is higher than 62 °C/km and the heat-flow is higher than 152 mW/m2 for the geothermal manifestation region; the thickness of the geothermal resource was also estimated to vary between 5.4 and 9.1 km. These results are consistent with the drilling and other geological information. Findings indicate that the CDPs agree with earthquake distribution and the type of thermal spring is related to the depth of the top of the geothermal resource.

  15. Curie Point Depth, Geothermal Gradient and Heat-Flow Estimation and Geothermal Anomaly Exploration from Integrated Analysis of Aeromagnetic and Gravity Data on the Sabalan Area, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, A.; Norouzi, G. H.; Moradzadeh, A.; Riahi, M. A.; Porkhial, S.

    2016-12-01

    Prospecting the geothermal resources in northwest of Iran, conducted in 1975, revealed several promising areas and introduced the Sabalan geothermal field as a priority for further studies. The Sabalan Mt., representing the Sabalan geothermal field, is a large stratovolcano which consists of an extensive central edifice built on a probable tectonic horst of underlying intrusive and effusive volcanic rocks. In this study, Curie point depth (CPD), geothermal gradient and heat-flow map were constituted from spectral analysis of the aeromagnetic data for the NW of Iran. The top of the geothermal resource (i.e., the thickness of the overburden) was evaluated by applying the Euler deconvolution method on the residual gravity data. The thickness of the geothermal resource was calculated by subtracting the Euler depths obtained from the CPDs in the geothermal anomalous region. The geothermal anomalous region was defined by the heat-flow value greater than 150 mW/m2. CPDs in the investigated area are found between 8.8 km in the Sabalan geothermal field and 14.1 in the northeast. The results showed that the geothermal gradient is higher than 62 °C/km and the heat-flow is higher than 152 mW/m2 for the geothermal manifestation region; the thickness of the geothermal resource was also estimated to vary between 5.4 and 9.1 km. These results are consistent with the drilling and other geological information. Findings indicate that the CDPs agree with earthquake distribution and the type of thermal spring is related to the depth of the top of the geothermal resource.

  16. Anomaly Detection in Sequences

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a set of novel algorithms which we call sequenceMiner, that detect and characterize anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences that...

  17. Neutrino anomalies without oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandip Pakvasa

    2000-01-01

    I review explanations for the three neutrino anomalies (solar, atmospheric and LSND) which go beyond the `conventional' neutrino oscillations induced by mass-mixing. Several of these require non-zero neutrino masses as well.

  18. Scattering anomaly in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Silveirinha, Mario G

    2016-01-01

    In time-reversal invariant electronic systems the scattering matrix is anti-symmetric. This property enables an effect, designated here as "scattering anomaly", such that the electron transport does not suffer from back reflections, independent of the specific geometry of the propagation path or the presence of time-reversal invariant defects. In contrast, for a generic time-reversal invariant photonic system the scattering matrix is symmetric and there is no similar anomaly. Here, it is theoretically proven that despite these fundamental differences there is a wide class of photonic platforms - in some cases formed only by time-reversal invariant media - in which the scattering anomaly can occur. It is shown that an optical system invariant under the action of the composition of the time-reversal, parity and duality operators is characterized by an anti-symmetric scattering matrix. Specific examples of photonic platforms wherein the scattering anomaly occurs are given, and it is demonstrated with full wave n...

  19. The Pioneer Anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    de Diego, Jose A

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the radio-metric data from Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts has indicated the presence of an unmodeled acceleration starting at 20 AU, which has become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The nature of this acceleration is uncertain. In this paper we give a description of the effect and review some relevant mechanisms proposed to explain the observed anomaly. We also discuss on some future projects to investigate this phenomenon.

  20. DREDed Anomaly Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Boyda, E; Pierce, A T; Boyda, Ed; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pierce, Aaron

    2002-01-01

    We offer a guide to dimensional reduction (DRED) in theories with anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. Evanescent operators proportional to epsilon arise in the bare Lagrangian when it is reduced from d=4 to d= (4-2 epsilon) dimensions. In the course of a detailed diagrammatic calculation, we show that inclusion of these operators is crucial. The evanescent operators conspire to drive the supersymmetry-breaking parameters along anomaly-mediation trajectories across heavy particle thresholds, guaranteeing the ultraviolet insensitivity.

  1. Anomalies and gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mielke, E W

    2006-01-01

    Anomalies in Yang-Mills type gauge theories of gravity are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the relation between the Dirac spin, the axial current j_5 and the non-covariant gauge spin C. Using diagrammatic techniques, we show that only generalizations of the U(1)- Pontrjagin four--form F^ F= dC arise in the chiral anomaly, even when coupled to gravity. Implications for Ashtekar's canonical approach to quantum gravity are discussed.

  2. SADM potentiometer anomaly investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian; Mussett, David; Cattaldo, Olivier; Rohr, Thomas

    2005-07-01

    During the last 3 years Contraves Space have been developing a Low Power (1-2kW) Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM) aimed at small series production. The mechanism was subjected to two test programmes in order to qualify the SADM to acceptable levels. During the two test programmes, anomalies were experienced with the Potentiometers provided by Eurofarad SA and joint investigations were undertaken to resolve why these anomalies had occurred. This paper deals with the lessons learnt from the failure investigation on the two Eurofarad (rotary) Potentiometer anomaly. The Rotary Potentiometers that were used were fully redundant; using two back to back mounted "plastic tracks". It is a pancake configuration mounted directly to the shaft of the Slip Ring Assembly at the extreme in-board end of the SADM. It has no internal bearings. The anomaly initially manifested itself as a loss of performance in terms of linearity, which was first detected during Thermal Vacuum testing. A subsequent anomaly manifested itself by the complete failure of the redundant potentiometer again during thermal vacuum testing. This paper will follow and detail the chain of events following this anomaly and identifies corrective measures to be applied to the potentiometer design and assembly process.

  3. New estimates of the number of children living with substance misusing parents: results from UK national household surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulkner Nathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existing estimates of there being 250,000 - 350,000 children of problem drug users in the UK (ACMD, 2003 and 780,000 - 1.3 million children of adults with an alcohol problem (AHRSE, 2004 are extrapolations of treatment data alone or estimates from other countries, hence updated, local and broader estimates are needed. Methods The current work identifies profiles where the risk of harm to children could be increased by patterns of parental substance use and generates new estimates following secondary analysis of five UK national household surveys. Results The Health Survey for England (HSfE and General Household Survey (GHS (both 2004 generated consistent estimates - around 30% of children under-16 years (3.3 - 3.5 million in the UK lived with at least one binge drinking parent, 8% with at least two binge drinkers and 4% with a lone (binge drinking parent. The National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (NPMS indicated that in 2000, 22% (2.6 million lived with a hazardous drinker and 6% (705,000 with a dependent drinker. The British Crime Survey (2004 and NPMS (2000 indicated that 8% (up to 978,000 of children lived with an adult who had used illicit drugs within that year, 2% (up to 256,000 with a class A drug user and 7% (up to 873,000 with a class C drug user. Around 335,000 children lived with a drug dependent user, 72,000 with an injecting drug user, 72,000 with a drug user in treatment and 108,000 with an adult who had overdosed. Elevated or cumulative risk of harm may have existed for the 3.6% (around 430,000 children in the UK who lived with a problem drinker who also used drugs and 4% (half a million where problem drinking co-existed with mental health problems. Stronger indicators of harm emerged from the Scottish Crime Survey (2000, according to which 1% of children (around 12,000 children had witnessed force being used against an adult in the household by their partner whilst drinking alcohol and 0.6% (almost 6000

  4. State of the Practice in Software Effort Estimation: A Survey and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Trendowicz, Adam; Münch, Jürgen; Jeffery, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Part 7: Project Management; International audience; Effort estimation is a key factor for software project success, defined as delivering software of agreed quality and functionality within schedule and budget. Traditionally, effort estimation has been used for planning and tracking project resources. Effort estimation methods founded on those goals typically focus on providing exact estimates and usually do not support objectives that have recently become important within the software indust...

  5. Estimating recreational harvest using interview-based recall survey: Implication of recalling in weight or numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz

    2013-01-01

    For many overfished marine stocks, recreational fishing continues even though recovery plans are implemented and commercial landings regulated. In such cases, unbiased and precise estimates of recreational harvest are important for successful management. Harvest estimation often relies on intervi......For many overfished marine stocks, recreational fishing continues even though recovery plans are implemented and commercial landings regulated. In such cases, unbiased and precise estimates of recreational harvest are important for successful management. Harvest estimation often relies...

  6. Multifactor Screener in the 2000 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement: Uses of Screener Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary intake estimates derived from the Multifactor Screener are rough estimates of usual intake of fruits and vegetables, fiber, calcium, servings of dairy, and added sugar. These estimates are not as accurate as those from more detailed methods (e.g., 24-hour recalls).

  7. Bouguer gravity anomaly data grid for the conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grid of gravity anomaly data for the conterminous United States and adjacent marine areas was constructed from National Information Mapping Agency (NIMA) gravity...

  8. Bouguer gravity anomaly data grid for the conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grid of gravity anomaly data for the conterminous United States and adjacent marine areas was constructed from National Information Mapping Agency (NIMA)...

  9. Aeromagnetic Anomaly Map of Bangladesh (mag8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs and arc labels that hold the Aeromagnetic anomaly value for contours and type contours of the original map of Bangladesh with the same...

  10. Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Map of Bangladesh (grav8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs and arc labels that hold the Bouguer Gravity anomaly value for contours and type contours of the original map of Bangladesh with the same...

  11. National estimates of Australian gambling prevalence: f indings from a dual‐frame omnibus survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, G. J.; Jackson, A. C.; Pennay, D. W.; Francis, K. L.; Pennay, A.; Lubman, D. I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background, aims and design The increase in mobile telephone‐only households may be a source of bias for traditional landline gambling prevalence surveys. Aims were to: (1) identify Australian gambling participation and problem gambling prevalence using a dual‐frame (50% landline and 50% mobile telephone) computer‐assisted telephone interviewing methodology; (2) explore the predictors of sample frame and telephone status; and (3) explore the degree to which sample frame and telephone status moderate the relationships between respondent characteristics and problem gambling. Setting and participants A total of 2000 adult respondents residing in Australia were interviewed from March to April 2013. Measurements Participation in multiple gambling activities and Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). Findings Estimates were: gambling participation [63.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.4–66.3], problem gambling (0.4%, 95% CI = 0.2–0.8), moderate‐risk gambling (1.9%, 95% CI = 1.3–2.6) and low‐risk gambling (3.0%, 95% CI = 2.2–4.0). Relative to the landline frame, the mobile frame was more likely to gamble on horse/greyhound races [odds ratio (OR) = 1.4], casino table games (OR = 5.0), sporting events (OR = 2.2), private games (OR = 1.9) and the internet (OR = 6.5); less likely to gamble on lotteries (OR = 0.6); and more likely to gamble on five or more activities (OR = 2.4), display problem gambling (OR = 6.4) and endorse PGSI items (OR = 2.4‐6.1). Only casino table gambling (OR = 2.9) and internet gambling (OR = 3.5) independently predicted mobile frame membership. Telephone status (landline frame versus mobile dual users and mobile‐only users) displayed similar findings. Finally, sample frame and/or telephone status moderated the relationship between gender, relationship status, health and problem gambling (OR = 2.9–7.6). Conclusion Given expected future increases in the

  12. Computing the Deflection of the Vertical for Improving Aerial Surveys: A Comparison between EGM2008 and ITALGEO05 Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzaghi, Riccardo; Carrion, Daniela; Pepe, Massimiliano; Prezioso, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies on the influence of the anomalous gravity field in GNSS/INS applications have shown that neglecting the impact of the deflection of vertical in aerial surveys induces horizontal and vertical errors in the measurement of an object that is part of the observed scene; these errors can vary from a few tens of centimetres to over one meter. The works reported in the literature refer to vertical deflection values based on global geopotential model estimates. In this paper we compared this approach with the one based on local gravity data and collocation methods. In particular, denoted by ξ and η, the two mutually-perpendicular components of the deflection of the vertical vector (in the north and east directions, respectively), their values were computed by collocation in the framework of the Remove-Compute-Restore technique, applied to the gravity database used for estimating the ITALGEO05 geoid. Following this approach, these values have been computed at different altitudes that are relevant in aerial surveys. The (ξ, η) values were then also estimated using the high degree EGM2008 global geopotential model and compared with those obtained in the previous computation. The analysis of the differences between the two estimates has shown that the (ξ, η) global geopotential model estimate can be reliably used in aerial navigation applications that require the use of sensors connected to a GNSS/INS system only above a given height (e.g., 3000 m in this paper) that must be defined by simulations. PMID:27472333

  13. Computing the Deflection of the Vertical for Improving Aerial Surveys: A Comparison between EGM2008 and ITALGEO05 Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Barzaghi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the influence of the anomalous gravity field in GNSS/INS applications have shown that neglecting the impact of the deflection of vertical in aerial surveys induces horizontal and vertical errors in the measurement of an object that is part of the observed scene; these errors can vary from a few tens of centimetres to over one meter. The works reported in the literature refer to vertical deflection values based on global geopotential model estimates. In this paper we compared this approach with the one based on local gravity data and collocation methods. In particular, denoted by ξ and η, the two mutually-perpendicular components of the deflection of the vertical vector (in the north and east directions, respectively, their values were computed by collocation in the framework of the Remove-Compute-Restore technique, applied to the gravity database used for estimating the ITALGEO05 geoid. Following this approach, these values have been computed at different altitudes that are relevant in aerial surveys. The (ξ, η values were then also estimated using the high degree EGM2008 global geopotential model and compared with those obtained in the previous computation. The analysis of the differences between the two estimates has shown that the (ξ, η global geopotential model estimate can be reliably used in aerial navigation applications that require the use of sensors connected to a GNSS/INS system only above a given height (e.g., 3000 m in this paper that must be defined by simulations.

  14. Evaluation of post-mortem estimated dental age versus real age: a retrospective 21-year survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reppien, Kirsa; Sejrsen, Birgitte; Lynnerup, Niels

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of methods used for forensic dental age estimation. We analysed all cases over the last 21 years (1984-2004) of unidentified bodies that were examined for identification purposes (including age assessment), and of which secure identification...... was subsequently achieved. In total, the study included 51 cases and 7 different methods had been used for dental age estimation, with the Bang/Ramm and the Gustafson/Johanson methods being the most frequently applied. The age estimates had usually been recorded as 10-year intervals. Factual ages at death were...... the estimated age, and in six cases by more than 6 years. The average difference between factual age at death and estimated age was 4.5 years. The four subadults in the material were all correctly estimated within an age range of +/-3 years. Our study showed that forensic odontological age estimates...

  15. Comparison of aerial survey procedures for estimating polar bear density: Results of pilot studies in northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lyman L.; Garner, Gerald W.; Garner, Gerald W.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Manly, Bryan F.J.; McDonald, Lyman L.; Robertson, Donna G.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and International Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears mandate that boundaries and sizes of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations be known so they can be managed at optimum sustainable levels. However, data to estimate polar bear numbers for the Chukchi/Bering Sea and Beaufort Sea populations in Alaska are limited. We evaluated aerial line transect methodology for assessing the size of these Alaskan polar bear populations during pilot studies in spring 1987 and summer 1994. In April and May 1987 we flew 12.239 km of transect lines in the northern Bering, Chukchi, and western Beaufort seas. In June 1994 we flew 6.244 km of transect lines in a primary survey unit using a helicopter, and 5,701 km of transect lines in a secondary survey unit using a fixed-wing aircraft in the Beaufort Sea. We examined visibility bias in aerial transect surveys, double counts by independent observers, single-season mark-resight methods, the suitability of using polar bear sign to stratify the study area, and adaptive sampling methods. Fifteen polar bear groups were observed during the 1987 study. Probability of detecting bears decreased with increasing perpendicular distance from the transect line, and probability of detecting polar bear groups likely increased with increasing group size. We estimated population density in high density areas to be 446 km2/bear. In 1994, 15 polar bear groups were observed by independent front and rear seat observers on transect lines in the primary survey unit. Density estimates ranged from 284 km2/bear to 197 km2/bear depending on the model selected. Low polar bear numbers scattered over large areas of polar ice in 1987 indicated that spring is a poor time to conduct aerial surveys. Based on the 1994 survey we determined that ship-based helicopter or land-based fixed-wing aerial surveys conducted at the ice-edge in late summer-early fall may produce robust density estimates for polar bear

  16. Survey of electric utility demand for western coal. [1972-6 actual; 1976-1985 estimated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asbury, J.G.; Kim, H.R.; Kouvalis, A.

    1977-01-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of electric utility demand for western coal. The sources of survey information are: (1) Federal Power Commission Form 423 data on utility coal purchases covering the period July 1972 through June 1976 and (2) direct survey data on utility coal-purchase intentions for power plants to be constructed by 1985. Price and quantity data for western coal consumed in existing plants have been assembled and presented to illustrate price and market-share trends in individual consuming regions over recent years. Coal source, quality, and quantity data are presented for existing and planned generating plants.

  17. Continuous Space Estimation: Increasing WiFi-Based Indoor Localization Resolution without Increasing the Site-Survey Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much research has taken place in WiFi indoor localization systems, their accuracy can still be improved. When designing this kind of system, fingerprint-based methods are a common choice. The problem with fingerprint-based methods comes with the need of site surveying the environment, which is effort consuming. In this work, we propose an approach, based on support vector regression, to estimate the received signal strength at non-site-surveyed positions of the environment. Experiments, performed in a real environment, show that the proposed method could be used to improve the resolution of fingerprint-based indoor WiFi localization systems without increasing the site survey effort.

  18. Continuous Space Estimation: Increasing WiFi-Based Indoor Localization Resolution without Increasing the Site-Survey Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Noelia; Ocaña, Manuel; Alonso, Jose M; Kim, Euntai

    2017-01-13

    Although much research has taken place in WiFi indoor localization systems, their accuracy can still be improved. When designing this kind of system, fingerprint-based methods are a common choice. The problem with fingerprint-based methods comes with the need of site surveying the environment, which is effort consuming. In this work, we propose an approach, based on support vector regression, to estimate the received signal strength at non-site-surveyed positions of the environment. Experiments, performed in a real environment, show that the proposed method could be used to improve the resolution of fingerprint-based indoor WiFi localization systems without increasing the site survey effort.

  19. Continuous Space Estimation: Increasing WiFi-Based Indoor Localization Resolution without Increasing the Site-Survey Effort †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Noelia; Ocaña, Manuel; Alonso, Jose M.; Kim, Euntai

    2017-01-01

    Although much research has taken place in WiFi indoor localization systems, their accuracy can still be improved. When designing this kind of system, fingerprint-based methods are a common choice. The problem with fingerprint-based methods comes with the need of site surveying the environment, which is effort consuming. In this work, we propose an approach, based on support vector regression, to estimate the received signal strength at non-site-surveyed positions of the environment. Experiments, performed in a real environment, show that the proposed method could be used to improve the resolution of fingerprint-based indoor WiFi localization systems without increasing the site survey effort. PMID:28098773

  20. National sample survey organization survey report: An estimation of prevalence of mental illness and its association with age in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Ram; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T

    2015-01-01

    The Indian population suffers with significant burden of mental illness. The prevalence rate and its association with age and other demographic indicators are needed for planning purpose. This study attempted to calculate age-wise prevalence of mental illness for rural and urban settings, and its association with age. Data published in National Sample Survey Organization (2002) report on disability is used for the analysis. Spearman correlation for strength of association, z-test for difference in prevalence, and regression statistics for predicting the prevalence rate of mental illness are used. Overall population have 14.9/1000 prevalence of mental illness. It is higher in rural setting 17.1/1000 than urban 12.7/1000 (P < 0.001). There is a strong correlation found with age in rural (ϱ = 0.910, P = 0.001) and urban (ϱ = 0.940, P = 0.001). Results of this study confirm other epidemiological research in India. Large-population epidemiological studies are recommended.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF GRAVITY BOUGUER ANOMALIES OF STATE OF OHIO AND THE ISOSTATIC ANOMALIES IN NORTH ATLANTIC IN FOURIER SERIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravity anomalies were developed in Fourier series in two test areas: 2 x 3 deg area in the State of Ohio, and 10 x 35 deg area in the Atlantic...based only on the original anomaly values and the topography, and the mean gravity anomalies were estimated for the same squares as in the Fourier series method...The result is that this second manual method has smaller standard errors than the Fourier series method, and that this kind of extrapolation

  2. Biomass estimates of Pacific herring Clupea harengus pallasi, in California from the 1985-86 spawning-ground surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Spratt, Jerome D.

    1986-01-01

    The 1985-86 spawning biomass estimate of Pacific herring, Clupea harengus pallasi, in San Francisco Bay is 49,000 tons. The relatively small population increases during 1984 and 1985 indicate that the population is rebuilding slowly from the 1983-84 season when only 40,000 tons of herring spawned. Spawning-ground surveys in Tomales Bay were inconclusive. Herring normally spawn in eelgrass, Zostera marina, beds; this season herring spawned unexpectedly in deeper water, disrupting our...

  3. A mark-resight survey method to estimate the roaming dog population in three cities in Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Baldev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. Abstract Background Dog population management is required in many locations to minimise the risks dog populations may pose to human health and to alleviate animal welfare problems. In many cities in India, Animal Birth Control (ABC projects have been adopted to provide population management. Measuring the impact of such projects requires assessment of dog population size among other relevant indicators. Methods This paper describes a simple mark-resight survey methodology that can be used with little investment of resources to monitor the number of roaming dogs in areas that are currently subject to ABC, provided the numbers, dates and locations of the dogs released following the intervention are reliably recorded. We illustrate the method by estimating roaming dog numbers in three cities in Rajasthan, India: Jaipur, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer. In each city the dog populations were either currently subject to ABC or had been very recently subject to such an intervention and hence a known number of dogs had been permanently marked with an ear-notch to identify them as having been operated. We conducted street surveys to record the current percentage of dogs in each city that are ear-notched and used an estimate for the annual survival of ear-notched dogs to calculate the current size of each marked population. Results Dividing the size of the marked population by the fraction of the dogs that are ear-notched we estimated the number of roaming dogs to be 36,580 in Jaipur, 24,853 in Jodhpur and 2,962 in Jaisalmer. Conclusions The mark-resight survey methodology described here is a simple way of providing population estimates for cities with current or recent ABC programmes that include visible marking of dogs. Repeating such surveys on a regular basis will further allow for evaluation of ABC programme impact on population size and reproduction in the remaining unsterilised dog population.

  4. General expression for spectrum of magnetic anomaly due to long tabular body and its characteristics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mishra, D.C.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.

    A general expression for spectrum of magnetic anomalies-vertical, horizontal and total intensity - due to a long tabular body is derived which is used to estimate the body parameters. The analysis is extended to a marine magnetic anomaly recorded...

  5. The estimation of patients' views on organizational aspects of a general dental practice by general dental practitioners: a survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truin Gert-Jan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the changes in dental healthcare, such as the increasing assertiveness of patients, the introduction of new dental professionals, and regulated competition, it becomes more important that general dental practitioners (GDPs take patients' views into account. The aim of the study was to compare patients' views on organizational aspects of general dental practices with those of GDPs and with GDPs' estimation of patients' views. Methods In a survey study, patients and GDPs provided their views on organizational aspects of a general dental practice. In a second, separate survey, GDPs were invited to estimate patients' views on 22 organizational aspects of a general dental practice. Results For 4 of the 22 aspects, patients and GDPs had the same views, and GDPs estimated patients' views reasonably well: 'Dutch-speaking GDP', 'guarantee on treatment', 'treatment by the same GDP', and 'reminder of routine oral examination'. For 2 aspects ('quality assessment' and 'accessibility for disabled patients' patients and GDPs had the same standards, although the GDPs underestimated the patients' standards. Patients had higher standards than GDPs for 7 aspects and lower standards than GDPs for 8 aspects. Conclusion On most aspects GDPs and patient have different views, except for social desirable aspects. Given the increasing assertiveness of patients, it is startling the GDP's estimated only half of the patients' views correctly. The findings of the study can assist GDPs in adapting their organizational services to better meet the preferences of their patients and to improve the communication towards patients.

  6. Anomalies without Massless Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Gurlanik, Z

    1994-01-01

    Baryon and lepton number in the standard model are violated by anomalies, even though the fermions are massive. This problem is studied in the context of a two dimensional model. In a uniform background field, fermion production arise from non-adiabatic behavior that compensates for the absence of massless modes. On the other hand, for localized instanton-like configurations, there is an adiabatic limit. In this case, the anomaly is produced by bound states which travel across the mass gap. The sphaleron corresponds to a bound state at the halfway point.

  7. Classical Trace Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Farhoudi, M.

    1995-01-01

    We seek an analogy of the mathematical form of the alternative form of Einstein's field equations for Lovelock's field equations. We find that the price for this analogy is to accept the existence of the trace anomaly of the energy-momentum tensor even in classical treatments. As an example, we take this analogy to any generic second order Lagrangian and exactly derive the trace anomaly relation suggested by Duff. This indicates that an intrinsic reason for the existence of such a relation sh...

  8. Congenital laryngeal anomalies,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Rutter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is essential for clinicians to understand issues relevant to the airway management of infants and to be cognizant of the fact that infants with congenital laryngeal anomalies are at particular risk for an unstable airway. Objectives: To familiarize clinicians with issues relevant to the airway management of infants and to present a succinct description of the diagnosis and management of an array of congenital laryngeal anomalies. Methods: Revision article, in which the main aspects concerning airway management of infants will be analyzed. Conclusions: It is critical for clinicians to understand issues relevant to the airway management of infants.

  9. Estimating tuberculosis incidence from primary survey data: a mathematical modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, V. K.; Laxminarayan, R.; Arinaminpathy, N.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for improved estimations of the burden of tuberculosis (TB). OBJECTIVE: To develop a new quantitative method based on mathematical modelling, and to demonstrate its application to TB in India. DESIGN: We developed a simple model of TB transmission dynamics to estimate the annual incidence of TB disease from the annual risk of tuberculous infection and prevalence of smear-positive TB. We first compared model estimates for annual infections per smear-positive TB case using previous empirical estimates from China, Korea and the Philippines. We then applied the model to estimate TB incidence in India, stratified by urban and rural settings. RESULTS: Study model estimates show agreement with previous empirical estimates. Applied to India, the model suggests an annual incidence of smear-positive TB of 89.8 per 100 000 population (95%CI 56.8–156.3). Results show differences in urban and rural TB: while an urban TB case infects more individuals per year, a rural TB case remains infectious for appreciably longer, suggesting the need for interventions tailored to these different settings. CONCLUSIONS: Simple models of TB transmission, in conjunction with necessary data, can offer approaches to burden estimation that complement those currently being used. PMID:28284250

  10. Use of miniroutes and Breeding Bird Survey data to estimate abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    1. Information on relative abundance is easily obtained and adds greatly to the value of an atlas project. 2. The Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) provides annual counts (birds per 50 roadside stops) that can be used to: (1) map relative abundance by physiographic region within a state or province, (2) map relative abundance on a more local scale by using results from individual routes, or (3) compute estimates of total state populations of a species. Where BBS coverage is too scanty to permit mapping, extra temporary routes may be established to provide additional information for the atlas. Or, if continuing coverage is anticipated, additional permanent random routes can be assigned by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 3. Miniroutes of 15 or more stops can be established in individual atlas blocks to serve the dual purposes of providing efficient uniform coverage and providing information on relative abundance. Miniroutes can also be extracted from BBS routes to supplement special atlas coverage, or vice versa; but the data from the BBS will not be confined to individual atlas blocks. 4. Advantages of 15- or 20-stop Miniroutes over 25-stop Miniroutes are several: the ability to do two per morning and the lower variability among M1niroute results. Also, many 5-km atlas blocks do not have enough secondary roads to accommodate 25 stops at one-half mile intervals. Disadvantages of 15-stop Miniroutes starting at sunrise are the smaller numbers of birds recorded, missing of the very productive dawn chorus period (Robbins 1981), and missing crepuscular species (rails, woodcock, owls, and goatsuckers). 5. Advantages of recording counts of individuals rather than checking only species presence at Miniroute stops are that: (1) relative abundance can be mapped rather than frequency only (a measure of frequency is already available in the number of blocks recording each species); (2) population change can be measured over a period of years when the next atlas is made; and (3

  11. Estimating ice-melange properties with repeat UAV surveys over Store Glacier, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toberg, Nick; Ryan, Johnny; Christoffersen, Poul; Snooke, Neal; Todd, Joe; Hubbard, Alun

    2016-04-01

    observed melange height with the model of hydrostatic equilibrium, we estimate the mean thickness to be 126 m. Whereas the mean melange elevation did not change appreciably in our study area, from the date observations started on 13 May until it disintegrated 4-8 June, we found daily melange elevation change up to 140 % of the observed mean value when tabular icebergs were added to it. Observations showed this increase in melange thickness halted calving and that calving did not resume until the melange had thinned and returned to the observed mean value. We found the mean daily speed of the melange to be 46 m/day, from 13 May to 4 June, whereas the terminus of the glacier flowed with a mean daily velocity of 16 m/day while the melange was present. The higher mean speed of the melange is explained by the motion of large tabular icebergs, which travelled hundreds of metres into the fjord over the course of a single day. The imagery collected over Store Glacier provide evidence that large tidewater glaciers are stabilized by proglacial ice mélange forming in winter. When melange was present, large calving events strengthened melange by adding to its overall thickness distribution, stopping calving altogether for up to several days following a large calving event, and slowing the flow of the glacier to half of the speed observed the previous day. When the melange was advected suddenly down the fjord, with no apparent weakening, the glacier responded by increasing both flow speed and calving rate simultaneously. The data produced from repeat UAV surveys clearly demonstrates the potential of this new and rapidly advancing method of data collection.

  12. Evaluation of angler reporting accuracy in an off-site survey to estimate statewide steelhead harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, J. L.; Whitney, D.; Schill, D. J.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Accuracy of angler-reported data on steelhead, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), harvest in Idaho, USA, was quantified by comparing data recorded on angler harvest permits to the numbers that the same group of anglers reported in an off-site survey. Anglers could respond to the off-site survey using mail or Internet; if they did not respond using these methods, they were called on the telephone. A majority of anglers responded through the mail, and the probability of responding by Internet decreased with increasing age of the respondent. The actual number of steelhead harvested did not appear to influence the response type. Anglers in the autumn 2012 survey overreported harvest by 24%, whereas anglers in the spring 2013 survey under-reported steelhead harvest by 16%. The direction of reporting bias may have been a function of actual harvest, where anglers harvested on average 2.6 times more fish during the spring fishery than the autumn. Reporting bias that is a function of actual harvest can have substantial management and conservation implications because the fishery will be perceived to be performing better at lower harvest rates and worse when harvest rates are higher. Thus, these findings warrant consideration when designing surveys and evaluating management actions.

  13. Including information about comorbidity in estimates of disease burden: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jordi; Vilagut, Gemma; Chatterji, Somnath; Heeringa, Steven; Schoenbaum, Michael; Üstün, T. Bedirhan; Rojas-Farreras, Sonia; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Aimee N.; Kovess, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Liu, Zhaorui; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, Jose; Uda, Hidenori; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    Background The methodology commonly used to estimate disease burden, featuring ratings of severity of individual conditions, has been criticized for ignoring comorbidity. A methodology that addresses this problem is proposed and illustrated here with data from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Although the analysis is based on self-reports about one’s own conditions in a community survey, the logic applies equally well to analysis of hypothetical vignettes describing comorbid condition profiles. Methods Face-to-face interviews in 13 countries (six developing, nine developed; n = 31,067; response rate = 69.6%) assessed 10 classes of chronic physical and 9 of mental conditions. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess overall perceived health. Multiple regression analysis with interactions for comorbidity was used to estimate associations of conditions with VAS. Simulation was used to estimate condition-specific effects. Results The best-fitting model included condition main effects and interactions of types by numbers of conditions. Neurological conditions, insomnia, and major depression were rated most severe. Adjustment for comorbidity reduced condition-specific estimates with substantial between-condition variation (.24–.70 ratios of condition-specific estimates with and without adjustment for comorbidity). The societal-level burden rankings were quite different from the individual-level rankings, with the highest societal-level rankings associated with conditions having high prevalence rather than high individual-level severity. Conclusions Plausible estimates of disorder-specific effects on VAS can be obtained using methods that adjust for comorbidity. These adjustments substantially influence condition-specific ratings. PMID:20553636

  14. Evaluation of estimation methods for meiofaunal biomass from a meiofaunal survey in Bohai Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青田; 王新华; 胡桂坤

    2010-01-01

    Studies in the coastal area of Bohai Bay,China,from July 2006 to October 2007,suggest that the method of meiofaunal biomass estimation affected the meiofaunal analysis.Conventional estimation methods that use a unique mean individual weight value for nematodes to calculate total biomass may cause deviation of the results.A modified estimation method,named the Subsection Count Method (SCM),was also used to calculate meiofaunal biomass.This entails only a slight increase in workload but generates results of g...

  15. A modified DOI-based method to statistically estimate the depth of investigation of dc resistivity surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deceuster, John; Etienne, Adélaïde; Robert, Tanguy; Nguyen, Frédéric; Kaufmann, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    Several techniques are available to estimate the depth of investigation or to identify possible artifacts in dc resistivity surveys. Commonly, the depth of investigation (DOI) is mainly estimated by using an arbitrarily chosen cut-off value on a selected indicator (resolution, sensitivity or DOI index). Ranges of cut-off values are recommended in the literature for the different indicators. However, small changes in threshold values may induce strong variations in the estimated depths of investigation. To overcome this problem, we developed a new statistical method to estimate the DOI of dc resistivity surveys based on a modified DOI index approach. This method is composed of 5 successive steps. First, two inversions are performed by using different resistivity reference models for the inversion (0.1 and 10 times the arithmetic mean of the logarithm of the observed apparent resistivity values). Inversion models are extended to the edges of the survey line and to a depth range of three times the pseudodepth of investigation of the largest array spacing used. In step 2, we compute the histogram of a newly defined scaled DOI index. Step 3 consists of the fitting of the mixture of two Gaussian distributions (G1 and G2) to the cumulative distribution function of the scaled DOI index values. Based on this fitting, step 4 focuses on the computation of an interpretation index (II) defined for every cell j of the model as the relative probability density that the cell j belongs to G1, which describes the Gaussian distribution of the cells with a scaled DOI index close to 0.0. In step 5, a new inversion is performed by using a third resistivity reference model (the arithmetic mean of the logarithm of the observed apparent resistivity values). The final electrical resistivity image is produced by using II as alpha blending values allowing the visual discrimination between well-constrained areas and poorly-constrained cells.

  16. The reactor antineutrino anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haser, Julia; Buck, Christian; Lindner, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Major discoveries were made in the past few years in the field of neutrino flavour oscillation. Nuclear reactors produce a clean and intense flux of electron antineutrinos and are thus an essential neutrino source for the determination of oscillation parameters. Most currently the reactor antineutrino experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO have accomplished to measure θ{sub 13}, the smallest of the three-flavour mixing angles. In the course of these experiments two anomalies emerged: (1) the reanalysis of the reactor predictions revealed a deficit in experimentally observed antineutrino flux, known as the ''reactor antineutrino anomaly''. (2) The high precision of the latest generation of neutrino experiments resolved a spectral shape distortion relative to the expected energy spectra. Both puzzles are yet to be solved and triggered new experimental as well as theoretical studies, with the search for light sterile neutrinos as most popular explanation for the flux anomaly. This talk outlines the two reactor antineutrino anomalies. Discussing possible explanations for their occurrence, recent and upcoming efforts to solve the reactor puzzles are highlighted.

  17. Bolivian Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the country of Bolivia.Number of columns is 550 and number of rows is 900. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  18. Minnesota Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1.5 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Minnesota. Number of columns is 404 and number of rows is 463. The order of the data is from the lower left to...

  19. Estimating sea floor dynamics in the Southern North Sea to improve bathymetric survey planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorst, Leendert Louis

    2009-01-01

    Safe nautical charts require a carefully designed bathymetric survey policy, especially in shallow sandy seas that potentially have dynamic sea floor patterns. Bathymetric resurveying at sea is a costly process with limited resources, though. A pattern on the sea floor known as tidal sand waves is c

  20. The estimation of sea floor dynamics from bathymetric surveys of a sand wave area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorst, Leendert; Roos, Pieter C.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Lindenbergh, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of series of offshore bathymetric surveys provides insight into the morphodynamics of the sea floor. This knowledge helps to improve resurvey policies for the maintenance of port approaches and nautical charting, and to validate morphodynamic models. We propose a method for such an anal

  1. Estimating occupancy of rare fishes using visual surveys, with a comparison to backpack electrofishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albanese, Brett; Owers, Katharine A.; Weiler, Deborah A.; Pruitt, William

    2011-01-01

    There is an ongoing need to monitor the status of imperiled fishes in the southeastern United States using effective methods. Visual surveys minimize harm to target species, but few studies have specifically examined their effectiveness compared to other methods or accounted for imperfect species de

  2. Estimating Occupancy of Rare Fishes Using Visual Surveys, with a Comparison to Backpack Electrofishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albanese, Brett; Owers, Katharine A.; Weiler, Deborah A.; Pruitt, William

    2011-01-01

    There is an ongoing need to monitor the status of imperiled fishes in the southeastern United States using effective methods. Visual surveys minimize harm to target species, but few studies have specifically examined their effectiveness compared to other methods or accounted for imperfect species de

  3. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1975. Geological Survey Circular 765.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C. Richard; Reeves, E. Bodette

    The United States Geological Survey has compiled data on water use in this country every fifth year since 1950. This document is the most recent of this series and presents data on water withdrawn for use in the United States in 1975. In the introduction, recent and present water use studies are discussed along with a description of the…

  4. Environmental and production survey methodology to estimate severity and extent of aquaculture impact in three areas of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Palerud

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The project “Environmental Monitoring and Modelling of Aquaculture in the Philippines” known as EMMA, was undertaken by the National Integrated Fisheries Technology Development Centre (NIFTDC of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR and Akvaplan-niva AS of Tromsø, Norway. The project was funded by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD. This project tested survey equipment for the monitoring of aquaculture impact to the water column and sediment. Baseline surveys were undertaken as the goal of the study was to develop suitable aquaculture monitoring techniques and adapt predictive models to assist in identifying risk areas for aquaculture and allow planned development of sustainable aquaculture. Three different locations were chosen as case studies - Bolinao, Pangasinan (marine site, Dagupan (brackish water site, and Taal Lake (freshwater site. Production surveys were also undertaken to estimate production and nutrient outputs to the water bodies in order to be able to link aquaculture production with severity and extent of impacts. Different methodologies for the estimation of production were tested to find a cost effective and accurate methodology.

  5. Astrometric solar system anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, Michael Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, John D [PROPULSION LABORATORY

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  6. The Pioneer Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor T. Toth

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Radio-metric Doppler tracking data received from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from heliocentric distances of 20-70 AU has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, blue-shifted frequency drift uniformly changing with a rate of ~6 × 10–9 Hz/s. Ultimately, the drift was interpreted as a constant sunward deceleration of each particular spacecraft at the level of aP = (8.74 ± 1.33 × 10–10 m/s2. This apparent violation of the Newton's gravitational inverse square law has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the physical properties of the anomaly and the conditions that led to its detection and characterization. We review various mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and discuss the current state of efforts to determine its nature. A comprehensive new investigation of the anomalous behavior of the two Pioneers has begun recently. The new efforts rely on the much-extended set of radio-metric Doppler data for both spacecraft in conjunction with the newly available complete record of their telemetry files and a large archive of original project documentation. As the new study is yet to report its findings, this review provides the necessary background for the new results to appear in the near future. In particular, we provide a significant amount of information on the design, operations and behavior of the two Pioneers during their entire missions, including descriptions of various data formats and techniques used for their navigation and radio-science data analysis. As most of this information was recovered relatively recently, it was not used in the previous studies of the Pioneer anomaly, but it is critical for the new investigation.

  7. Spectral Methods for Magnetic Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. L.; Gee, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Spectral methods, that is, those based in the Fourier transform, have long been employed in the analysis of magnetic anomalies. For example, Schouten and MaCamy's Earth filter is used extensively to map patterns to the pole, and Parker's Fourier transform series facilitates forward modeling and provides an efficient algorithm for inversion of profiles and surveys. From a different, and perhaps less familiar perspective, magnetic anomalies can be represented as the realization of a stationary stochastic process and then statistical theory can be brought to bear. It is vital to incorporate the full 2-D power spectrum, even when discussing profile data. For example, early analysis of long profiles failed to discover the small-wavenumber peak in the power spectrum predicted by one-dimensional theory. The long-wavelength excess is the result of spatial aliasing, when energy leaks into the along-track spectrum from the cross-track components of the 2-D spectrum. Spectral techniques may be used to improve interpolation and downward continuation of survey data. They can also evaluate the reliability of sub-track magnetization models both across and and along strike. Along-strike profiles turn out to be surprisingly good indicators of the magnetization directly under them; there is high coherence between the magnetic anomaly and the magnetization over a wide band. In contrast, coherence is weak at long wavelengths on across-strike lines, which is naturally the favored orientation for most studies. When vector (or multiple level) measurements are available, cross-spectral analysis can reveal the wavenumber interval where the geophysical signal resides, and where noise dominates. One powerful diagnostic is that the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-path components of the field must be constant 90 degrees. To illustrate, it was found that on some very long Project Magnetic lines, only the lowest 10% of the wavenumber band contain useful geophysical signal. In this

  8. Methods and Systems for Characterization of an Anomaly Using Infrared Flash Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay M. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for characterizing an anomaly in a material comprises (a) extracting contrast data; (b) measuring a contrast evolution; (c) filtering the contrast evolution; (d) measuring a peak amplitude of the contrast evolution; (d) determining a diameter and a depth of the anomaly, and (e) repeating the step of determining the diameter and the depth of the anomaly until a change in the estimate of the depth is less than a set value. The step of determining the diameter and the depth of the anomaly comprises estimating the depth using a diameter constant C.sub.D equal to one for the first iteration of determining the diameter and the depth; estimating the diameter; and comparing the estimate of the depth of the anomaly after each iteration of estimating to the prior estimate of the depth to calculate the change in the estimate of the depth of the anomaly.

  9. Estimating HIV incidence among key affected populations in China from serial cross-sectional surveys in 2010–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Cui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV incidence is an important measure for monitoring the development of the epidemic, but it is difficult to ascertain. We combined serial HIV prevalence and mortality data to estimate HIV incidence among key affected populations (KAPs in China. Methods: Serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted among KAPs from 2010 to 2014. Trends in HIV prevalence were assessed by the Cochran-Armitage test, adjusted by risk group. HIV incidence was estimated from a mathematical model that describes the relationship between changes in HIV incidence with HIV prevalence and mortality. Results: The crude HIV prevalence for the survey samples remained stable at 1.1 to 1.2% from 2010 to 2014. Among drug users (DUs, HIV prevalence declined from 4.48 to 3.29% (p<0.0001, and among men who have sex with men (MSM, HIV prevalence increased from 5.73 to 7.75% (p<0.0001. Changes in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs and male patients of sexually transmitted disease clinics were more modest but remained statistically significant (all p<0.0001. The MSM population had the highest incidence estimates at 0.74% in 2011, 0.59% in 2012, 0.57% in 2013 and 0.53% in 2014. Estimates of the annual incidence for DUs and FSWs were very low and may not be reliable. Conclusions: Serial cross-sectional prevalence data from representative samples may be another approach to construct approximate estimates of national HIV incidence among key populations. We observed that the MSM population had the highest incidence for HIV among high-risk groups in China, and we suggest that interventions targeting MSM are urgently needed to curb the growing HIV epidemic.

  10. Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Bird, L.; Weaver, S.; Flores-Espino, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-05-01

    Most renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS costs and benefits is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. This study provides an overview of methods used to estimate RPS compliance costs and benefits, based on available data and estimates issued by utilities and regulators. Over the 2010-2012 period, average incremental RPS compliance costs in the United States were equivalent to 0.8% of retail electricity rates, although substantial variation exists around this average, both from year-to-year and across states. The methods used by utilities and regulators to estimate incremental compliance costs vary considerably from state to state and a number of states are currently engaged in processes to refine and standardize their approaches to RPS cost calculation. The report finds that state assessments of RPS benefits have most commonly attempted to quantitatively assess avoided emissions and human health benefits, economic development impacts, and wholesale electricity price savings. Compared to the summary of RPS costs, the summary of RPS benefits is more limited, as relatively few states have undertaken detailed benefits estimates, and then only for a few types of potential policy impacts. In some cases, the same impacts may be captured in the assessment of incremental costs. For these reasons, and because methodologies and level of rigor vary widely, direct comparisons between the estimates of benefits and costs are challenging.

  11. The Effects of Relativistic Corrections on Cosmological Parameter Estimations from SZE Cluster Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Z H

    2003-01-01

    Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) cluster surveys are anticipated to yield tight constraints on cosmological parameters such as the equation of state of dark energy. In this paper, we study the impact of relativistic corrections of the thermal SZE on the cluster number counts expected from a cosmological model and thus, assuming that other cosmological parameters are known to high accuracies, on the determination of the $w$ parameter and $\\sigma_8$ from a SZE cluster survey, where $w=p/\\rho$ with $p$ the pressure and $\\rho$ the density of dark energy, and $\\sigma_8$ is the rms of the extrapolated linear density fluctuation smoothed over $8\\hbox{Mpc}h^{-1}$. For the purpose of illustrating the effects of relativistic corrections, our analyses mainly focus on $\

  12. Bathymetric survey and estimation of storage capacity of lower Sixmile Creek reservoir, Ithaca, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernly, John F.; Zajd, Jr., Henry J.; Coon, William F.

    2016-10-05

    During 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Ithaca, New York, and the New York State Department of State, conducted a bathymetric survey of the lower Sixmile Creek reservoir in Tompkins County, New York. A former water-supply reservoir for the City of Ithaca, the reservoir is no longer a functional component of Ithaca’s water-supply system, having been replaced by a larger reservoir less than a mile upstream in 1911. Excessive sedimentation has substantially reduced the reservoir’s water-storage capacity and made the discharge gate at the base of the 30-foot dam, which creates the reservoir, inoperable. U.S. Geological Survey personnel collected bathymetric data by using an acoustic Doppler current profiler. Across more than half of the approximately 14-acre reservoir, depths were manually measured because of interference from aquatic vegetation with the acoustic Doppler current profiler. City of Ithaca personnel created a bottom-elevation surface from these depth data. A second surface was created from depths that were manually measured by City of Ithaca personnel during 1938. Surface areas and storage capacities were computed at 1-foot increments of elevation for both bathymetric surveys. The results indicate that the current storage capacity of the reservoir at its normal water-surface elevation is about 84 acre-feet and that sediment accumulated between 1938 and 2015 has decreased the reservoir’s capacity by about 68 acre-feet. This sediment load is attributed to annual inputs from the watershed above the reservoir, as well as from an episodic landslide that filled a large part of the reservoir along its northern edge in 1949.

  13. The CSIRO Healthy Diet Score: An Online Survey to Estimate Compliance with the Australian Dietary Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few dietary assessment tools that are scientifically developed and freely available online. The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO Healthy Diet Score survey asks questions about the quantity, quality, and variety of foods consumed. On completion, individuals receive a personalised Diet Score—reflecting their overall compliance with the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Over 145,000 Australians have completed the survey since it was launched in May 2015. The average Diet Score was 58.8 out of a possible 100 (SD = 12.9. Women scored higher than men; older adults higher than younger adults; and normal weight adults higher than obese adults. It was most common to receive feedback about discretionary foods (73.8% of the sample, followed by dairy foods (55.5% and healthy fats (47.0%. Results suggest that Australians’ diets are not consistent with the recommendations in the guidelines. The combination of using technology and providing the tool free of charge has attracted a lot of traffic to the website, providing valuable insights into what Australians’ report to be eating. The use of technology has also enhanced the user experience, with individuals receiving immediate and personalised feedback. This survey tool will be useful to monitor population diet quality and understand the degree to Australians’ diets comply with dietary guidelines.

  14. Estimating $\\beta$ from redshift-space distortions in the 2dF galaxy survey

    CERN Document Server

    Hatton, S J

    1999-01-01

    Given the failure of existing models for redshift-space distortions to provide a highly accurate measure of the beta-parameter, and the ability of forthcoming surveys to obtain data with very low random errors, it becomes necessary to develop better models for these distortions. Here we review the failures of the commonly used velocity dispersion models and present an empirical method for extracting beta from the quadrupole statistic that has little systematic offset over a wide range of beta and cosmologies. This empirical model is then applied to an ensemble of mock 2dF southern strip catalogues to illustrate the technique and see how accurately we can recover the true value of beta. We compare this treatment with the error we expect to find due to the finite volume of the survey. We find that non-linear effects reduce the range of scales over which beta can be fitted, and introduce covariances between nearby modes in excess of those introduced by the convolution with the survey window function. The result ...

  15. The CSIRO Healthy Diet Score: An Online Survey to Estimate Compliance with the Australian Dietary Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Gilly A.; Baird, Danielle; Golley, Rebecca K.; Noakes, Manny

    2017-01-01

    There are few dietary assessment tools that are scientifically developed and freely available online. The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Healthy Diet Score survey asks questions about the quantity, quality, and variety of foods consumed. On completion, individuals receive a personalised Diet Score—reflecting their overall compliance with the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Over 145,000 Australians have completed the survey since it was launched in May 2015. The average Diet Score was 58.8 out of a possible 100 (SD = 12.9). Women scored higher than men; older adults higher than younger adults; and normal weight adults higher than obese adults. It was most common to receive feedback about discretionary foods (73.8% of the sample), followed by dairy foods (55.5%) and healthy fats (47.0%). Results suggest that Australians’ diets are not consistent with the recommendations in the guidelines. The combination of using technology and providing the tool free of charge has attracted a lot of traffic to the website, providing valuable insights into what Australians’ report to be eating. The use of technology has also enhanced the user experience, with individuals receiving immediate and personalised feedback. This survey tool will be useful to monitor population diet quality and understand the degree to Australians’ diets comply with dietary guidelines. PMID:28075355

  16. Older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bynum Debra L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of life expectancy assist physicians and patients in medical decision-making. The time-delayed benefits for many medical treatments make an older adult's life expectancy estimate particularly important for physicians. The purpose of this study is to assess older adults' beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy. Methods We performed a mixed qualitative-quantitative cross-sectional study in which 116 healthy adults aged 70+ were recruited from two local retirement communities. We interviewed them regarding their beliefs about physician-estimated life expectancy in the context of a larger study on cancer screening beliefs. Semi-structured interviews of 80 minutes average duration were performed in private locations convenient to participants. Demographic characteristics as well as cancer screening beliefs and beliefs about life expectancy were measured. Two independent researchers reviewed the open-ended responses and recorded the most common themes. The research team resolved disagreements by consensus. Results This article reports the life-expectancy results portion of the larger study. The study group (n = 116 was comprised of healthy, well-educated older adults, with almost a third over 85 years old, and none meeting criteria for dementia. Sixty-four percent (n = 73 felt that their physicians could not correctly estimate their life expectancy. Sixty-six percent (n = 75 wanted their physicians to talk with them about their life expectancy. The themes that emerged from our study indicate that discussions of life expectancy could help older adults plan for the future, maintain open communication with their physicians, and provide them knowledge about their medical conditions. Conclusion The majority of the healthy older adults in this study were open to discussions about life expectancy in the context of discussing cancer screening tests, despite awareness that their physicians' estimates could be inaccurate

  17. An analysis of I/O efficient order-statistic-based techniques for noise power estimation in the HRMS sky survey's operational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, G. A.; Olsen, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    Noise power estimation in the High-Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS) sky survey element is considered as an example of a constant false alarm rate (CFAR) signal detection problem. Order-statistic-based noise power estimators for CFAR detection are considered in terms of required estimator accuracy and estimator dynamic range. By limiting the dynamic range of the value to be estimated, the performance of an order-statistic estimator can be achieved by simpler techniques requiring only a single pass of the data. Simple threshold-and-count techniques are examined, and it is shown how several parallel threshold-and-count estimation devices can be used to expand the dynamic range to meet HRMS system requirements with minimal hardware complexity. An input/output (I/O) efficient limited-precision order-statistic estimator with wide but limited dynamic range is also examined.

  18. XYY chromosome anomaly and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, M; MacBeth, R; Varma, S L

    1998-02-07

    Sex chromosome anomalies have been associated with psychoses, and most of the evidence is linked to the presence of an additional X chromosome. We report a patient with XYY chromosome anomaly who developed schizophrenia.

  19. The Meth Project and Teen Meth Use: New Estimates from the National and State Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D Mark; Elsea, David

    2015-12-01

    In this note, we use data from the national and state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys for the period 1999 through 2011 to estimate the relationship between the Meth Project, an anti-methamphetamine advertising campaign, and meth use among high school students. During this period, a total of eight states adopted anti-meth advertising campaigns. After accounting for pre-existing downward trends in meth use, we find little evidence that the campaign curbed meth use in the full sample. We do find, however, some evidence that the Meth Project may have decreased meth use among White high school students.

  20. Discrete R Symmetries and Anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Dine(Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Santa Cruz CA 95064, U.S.A.); Angelo Monteux(Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, U.S.A.)

    2012-01-01

    We comment on aspects of discrete anomaly conditions focussing particularly on $R$ symmetries. We review the Green-Schwarz cancellation of discrete anomalies, providing a heuristic explanation why, in the heterotic string, only the "model-independent dilaton" transforms non-linearly under discrete symmetries; this argument suggests that, in other theories, multiple fields might play a role in anomaly cancellations, further weakening any anomaly constraints at low energies. We provide examples...

  1. Site-specific estimates of water yield applied in regional acid sensitivity surveys across western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Runoff or water yield is an important input to the Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC model for estimating critical loads of acidity. Herein, we present site-specific water yield estimates for a large number of lakes (779 across three provinces of western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia using an isotope mass balance (IMB approach. We explore the impact of applying site-specific hydrology as compared to use of regional runoff estimates derived from gridded datasets in assessing critical loads of acidity to these lakes. In general, the average water yield derived from IMB is similar to the long-term average runoff; however, IMB results suggest a much larger range in hydrological settings of the lakes, attributed to spatial heterogeneity in watershed characteristics and landcover. The comparison of critical loads estimates from the two methods suggests that use of average regional runoff data in the SSWC model may overestimate critical loads for the majority of lakes due to systematic skewness in the actual runoff distributions. Implications for use of site-specific hydrology in regional critical loads assessments across western Canada are discussed.

  2. Estimating adolescent risk for hearing loss based on data from a large school-based survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Vogel (Ineke); H. Verschuure (Hans); C.P.B. van der Ploeg (Catharina); J. Brug (Hans); H. Raat (Hein)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjectives. We estimated whether and to what extent a group of adolescents were at risk of developing permanent hearing loss as a result of voluntary exposure to high-volume music, and we assessed whether such exposure was associated with hearing-related symptoms. Methods. In 2007, 1512

  3. Estimating adolescent risk for hearing loss based on data from a large school-based survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, L.; Verschuure, H.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Brug, J.; Raat, H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated whether and to what extent a group of adolescents were at risk of developing permanent hearing loss as a result of voluntary exposure to high-volume music, and we assessed whether such exposure was associated with hearing-related symptoms. Methods. In 2007, 1512 adolescents

  4. National-scale crop type mapping and area estimation using multi-resolution remote sensing and field survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X. P.; Potapov, P.; Adusei, B.; King, L.; Khan, A.; Krylov, A.; Di Bella, C. M.; Pickens, A. H.; Stehman, S. V.; Hansen, M.

    2016-12-01

    Reliable and timely information on agricultural production is essential for ensuring world food security. Freely available medium-resolution satellite data (e.g. Landsat, Sentinel) offer the possibility of improved global agriculture monitoring. Here we develop and test a method for estimating in-season crop acreage using a probability sample of field visits and producing wall-to-wall crop type maps at national scales. The method is first illustrated for soybean cultivated area in the US for 2015. A stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design was used to collect field data to estimate national soybean area. The field-based estimate employed historical soybean extent maps from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Cropland Data Layer to delineate and stratify U.S. soybean growing regions. The estimated 2015 U.S. soybean cultivated area based on the field sample was 341,000 km2 with a standard error of 23,000 km2. This result is 1.0% lower than USDA's 2015 June survey estimate and 1.9% higher than USDA's 2016 January estimate. Our area estimate was derived in early September, about 2 months ahead of harvest. To map soybean cover, the Landsat image archive for the year 2015 growing season was processed using an active learning approach. Overall accuracy of the soybean map was 84%. The field-based sample estimated area was then used to calibrate the map such that the soybean acreage of the map derived through pixel counting matched the sample-based area estimate. The strength of the sample-based area estimation lies in the stratified design that takes advantage of the spatially explicit cropland layers to construct the strata. The success of the mapping was built upon an automated system which transforms Landsat images into standardized time-series metrics. The developed method produces reliable and timely information on soybean area in a cost-effective way and could be implemented in an operational mode. The approach has also been applied for other crops in

  5. Anomaly-safe discrete groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mu-Chun, E-mail: muchunc@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Fallbacher, Maximilian, E-mail: m.fallbacher@tum.de [Physik–Department T30, Technische Universität München, James–Franck–Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ratz, Michael, E-mail: michael.ratz@tum.de [Physik–Department T30, Technische Universität München, James–Franck–Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Trautner, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.trautner@tum.de [Physik–Department T30, Technische Universität München, James–Franck–Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S., E-mail: patrick.vaudrevange@tum.de [Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); TUM Institute for Advanced Study, Lichtenbergstraße 2a, 85748 Garching (Germany); Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig–Maximilians–Universität München, Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany)

    2015-07-30

    We show that there is a class of finite groups, the so-called perfect groups, which cannot exhibit anomalies. This implies that all non-Abelian finite simple groups are anomaly-free. On the other hand, non-perfect groups generically suffer from anomalies. We present two different ways that allow one to understand these statements.

  6. Anomaly-safe discrete groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Chun Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We show that there is a class of finite groups, the so-called perfect groups, which cannot exhibit anomalies. This implies that all non-Abelian finite simple groups are anomaly-free. On the other hand, non-perfect groups generically suffer from anomalies. We present two different ways that allow one to understand these statements.

  7. Distance sampling to estimate abundance of biological populations : protocol for distance sampling surveys of coyotes at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Protocol for distance sampling surveys of coyotes at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA). Line transects are used to estimate the density of...

  8. Diagnosis, prevalence estimation and burden measurement in population surveys of headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Timothy J; Gururaj, Gopalakrishna; Andrée, Colette

    2014-01-01

    initiatives to improve and standardize methods in use for cross-sectional studies. One requirement is for a survey instrument with proven cross-cultural validity. This report describes the development of such an instrument. Two of the authors developed the initial version, which was used with adaptations...... of headache-attributed burden: symptom burden; health-care utilization; disability and productive time losses; impact on education, career and earnings; perception of control; interictal burden; overall individual burden; effects on relationships and family dynamics; effects on others, including household...

  9. Use of microwave digestion for estimation of heavy metal content of soils in a geochemical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, D

    1998-07-01

    A procedure for the rapid and safe analysis of soils with widely differing organic matter contents has been investigated and validated. Surface soils, totalling 295 and sampled on a grid basis, representing 22% of the land-base of the Republic of Ireland, have been analysed for cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc. Soil concentrations of cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel exhibit patterns of regionalised elevation. Implications of this elevation are considered in relation to sewage sludge application to land, future requirement for baseline surveys and concerns over concentrations in food products.

  10. Total infrared luminosity estimation from local galaxies in AKARI all sky survey

    CERN Document Server

    Solarz, A; Pollo, A

    2016-01-01

    We aim to use the a new and improved version of AKARI all sky survey catalogue of far-infrared sources to recalibrate the formula to derive the total infrared luminosity. We cross-match the faint source catalogue (FSC) of IRAS with the new AKARI-FIS and obtained a sample of 2430 objects. Then we calculate the total infrared (TIR) luminosity $L_{\\textrm{TIR}}$ from the Sanders at al. (1996) formula and compare it with total infrared luminosity from AKARI FIS bands to obtain new coefficients for the general relation to convert FIR luminosity from AKARI bands to the TIR luminosity.

  11. The combination of satellite and topographic/isostatic potential models for mean anomaly determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Pavlis, Nikolaos

    A method is presented for the estimation of a global gravity anomaly field using the combination of satellite-derived potential coefficient models and the coefficients implied by the Airy-Heiskanen topographic/isostatic potential (Rummel et al., 1988) from topographic models with a 30-km depth of compensation. Gravity anomalies calculated with this method are compared with a terrestrial 1 x 1 degree anomaly file where the anomaly standard deviations were less than 10 mgals. Using the GEM T1 model (Marsh et al., 1988) to degree 36, the rms anomaly discrepency was + or - 19 mgals, while the rms values for the terrestrial anomalies was + or - 28 mgals.

  12. Craniofacial anomalies in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keusch, C F; Mulliken, J B; Kaplan, L C

    1991-01-01

    Studies of twins provide insight into the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the causality of structural anomalies. Thirty-five affected twin pairs were identified from a group of 1114 patients with congenital craniofacial deformities evaluated from 1972 to 1989. Forty-three of these 70 twins exhibited one or more craniofacial anomalies; these were analyzed for dysmorphic characteristics, zygosity, concordance, and family history. The anomalies were categorized into two groups: malformations and deformations. The malformations (n = 36) included hemifacial microsomia (n = 10), cleft lip and palate (n = 8), cleft palate (n = 4), rare facial cleft (n = 2), craniosynostosis (n = 2), Binder syndrome (n = 2), Treacher Collins syndrome (n = 2), craniopagus (n = 2), CHARGE association (n = 1), frontonasal dysplasia (n = 2), and constricted ears (n = 1). The deformations (n = 7) included plagiocephaly (n = 5), hemifacial hypoplasia (n = 1), and micrognathia (n = 1). Twenty-one monozygotic and 14 dizygotic twin pairs were identified. The concordance rate was 33 percent for monozygotic twins and 7 percent for dizygotic twins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The effect of scale on the interpretation of geochemical anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, P.K.; Eppinger, R.G.; Turner, R.L.; Shiquan, S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of geochemical surveys changes with scale. Regional surveys identify areas where mineral deposits are most likely to occur, whereas intermediate surveys identify and prioritize specific targets. At detailed scales specific deposit models may be applied and deposits delineated. The interpretation of regional geochemical surveys must take into account scale-dependent difference in the nature and objectives of this type of survey. Overinterpretation of regional data should be resisted, as should recommendations to restrict intermediate or detailed follow-up surveys to the search for specific deposit types or to a too limited suite of elements. Regional surveys identify metallogenic provinces within which a variety of deposit types and metals are most likely to be found. At intermediate scale, these regional provinces often dissipate into discrete clusters of anomalous areas. At detailed scale, individual anomalous areas reflect local conditions of mineralization and may seem unrelated to each other. Four examples from arid environments illustrate the dramatic change in patterns of anomalies between regional and more detailed surveys. On the Arabian Shield, a broad regional anomaly reflects the distribution of highly differentiated anorogenic granites. A particularly prominent part of the regional anomaly includes, in addition to the usual elements related to the granites, the assemblage of Mo, W and Sn. Initial interpretation suggested potential for granite-related, stockwork Mo deposits. Detailed work identified three separate sources for the anomaly: a metal-rich granite, a silicified and stockwork-veined area with scheelite and molybdenite, and scheelite/powellite concentrations in skarn deposits adjacent to a ring-dike complex. Regional geochemical, geophysical and remote-sensing data in the Sonoran Desert, Mexico, define a series of linear features interpreted to reflect fundamental, northeast-trending fractures in the crust that served as the prime

  14. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  15. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) population size survey in the 2007 chikungunya outbreak area in Italy. II: Estimating epidemic thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, M; Angelini, P; Venturelli, C; Maccagnani, B; Bellini, R

    2012-03-01

    Our study compared different estimates of adult mosquito abundance (Pupal Demographic Survey [PDS], Human Landing Collection [HLC], Number of Bites declared by Citizens during interviews [NBC]) to the mean number of eggs laid in ovitraps. We then calculated a disease risk threshold in terms of number of eggs per ovitrap above which an arbovirus epidemic may occur. The study was conducted during the summers of 2007 and 2008 in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy where a chikungunya epidemic occurred in 2007. Ovitrap monitoring lasted from May to September, while adult sampling by means of PDS, HLC, and NBC was repeated three times each summer. Based on calculated rate of increase of the disease (R(0)) and the number of bites per human per day measured during the outbreak, we estimated that only 10.1% of the females transmitted the chikungunya virus in the principal focus. Under our conditions, we demonstrated that a positive correlation can be found between the females' density estimated by means of PDS, HLC, and NBC and the mean number of eggs in the ovitraps. We tested our hypothesis during the 2007 secondary outbreak of CHIKV in Cervia, and found that R(0) calculated based on the number of biting females estimated from the egg density was comparable to the R(0) calculated based on the progression of the human cases. The identification of an epidemic threshold based on the mean egg density may define the high risk areas and focus control programs.

  16. Correcting cosmological parameter biases for all redshift surveys induced by estimating and reweighting redshift distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Markus Michael; Hoyle, Ben; Paech, Kerstin; Seitz, Stella

    2017-04-01

    Photometric redshift uncertainties are a major source of systematic error for ongoing and future photometric surveys. We study different sources of redshift error caused by choosing a suboptimal redshift histogram bin width and propose methods to resolve them. The selection of a too large bin width is shown to oversmooth small-scale structure of the radial distribution of galaxies. This systematic error can significantly shift cosmological parameter constraints by up to 6σ for the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w. Careful selection of bin width can reduce this systematic by a factor of up to 6 as compared with commonly used current binning approaches. We further discuss a generalized resampling method that can correct systematic and statistical errors in cosmological parameter constraints caused by uncertainties in the redshift distribution. This can be achieved without any prior assumptions about the shape of the distribution or the form of the redshift error. Our methodology allows photometric surveys to obtain unbiased cosmological parameter constraints using a minimum number of spectroscopic calibration data. For a DES-like galaxy clustering forecast, we obtain unbiased results with respect to errors caused by suboptimal histogram bin width selection, using only 5k representative spectroscopic calibration objects per tomographic redshift bin.

  17. [Chickenpox case estimation in acyclovir pharmacy survey and early bioterrorism detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Tamie; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Kawanohara, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2011-11-01

    Early potential health hazards and bioterrorism threats require early detection. Smallpox cases caused by terrorist could, for example, be treated by prescribing acyclovir to those having fever and vesicle exanthema diagnosed as chicken pox. We have constructed real-time pharmacy surveillance scenarios using information technology (IT) to monitor acyclovir prescription. We collected the number of acyclovir prescriptions from 5138 pharmacies using the Application Server Provider System (ASP) to estimate the number of cases. We then compared the number of those given acyclovir under 15 years old from pharmacy surveillance and sentinel surveillance for chickenpox under the Infection Disease Control Law. The estimated number of under 15 years old prescribed acyclovir in pharmacy surveillance resembled sentinel surveillance results and showed a similar seasonal chickenpox pattern. The correlation coefficient was 0.8575. The estimated numbers of adults, older than 15 but under 65 years old, and elderly, older than 65, prescribed acyclovir showed no clear seasonal pattern. Pharmacy surveillance for acyclovir identified the baseline and can be used to detect unusual chickenpox outbreak. Bioterrorism attack could potentially be detected using smallpox virus when acyclovir prescription for adults suddenly increases without outbreaks in children or the elderly. This acyclovir prescription monitoring such as an application is, to our knowledge, the first of its kind anywhre.

  18. Estimating cetacean density and abundance in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea through aerial surveys: Implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigada, Simone; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Donovan, Greg; Pierantonio, Nino; Cañadas, Ana; Vázquez, José Antonio; Burt, Louise

    2017-07-01

    Systematic, effective monitoring of animal population parameters underpins successful conservation strategy and wildlife management, but it is often neglected in many regions, including much of the Mediterranean Sea. Nonetheless, a series of systematic multispecies aerial surveys was carried out in the seas around Italy to gather important baseline information on cetacean occurrence, distribution and abundance. The monitored areas included the Pelagos Sanctuary, the Tyrrhenian Sea, portions of the Seas of Corsica and Sardinia, the Ionian Seas as well as the Gulf of Taranto. Overall, approximately 48,000 km were flown in either spring, summer and winter between 2009-2014, covering an area of 444,621 km2. The most commonly observed species were the striped dolphin and the fin whale, with 975 and 83 recorded sightings, respectively. Other sighted cetacean species were the common bottlenose dolphin, the Risso's dolphin, the sperm whale, the pilot whale and the Cuvier's beaked whale. Uncorrected model- and design-based estimates of density and abundance for striped dolphins and fin whales were produced, resulting in a best estimate (model-based) of around 95,000 striped dolphins (CV=11.6%; 95% CI=92,900-120,300) occurring in the Pelagos Sanctuary, Central Tyrrhenian and Western Seas of Corsica and Sardinia combined area in summer 2010. Estimates were also obtained for each individual study region and year. An initial attempt to estimate perception bias for striped dolphins is also provided. The preferred summer 2010 uncorrected best estimate (design-based) for the same areas for fin whales was around 665 (CV=33.1%; 95% CI=350-1260). Estimates are also provided for the individual study regions and years. The results represent baseline data to develop efficient, long-term, systematic monitoring programmes, essential to evaluate trends, as required by a number of national and international frameworks, and stress the need to ensure that surveys are undertaken regularly and

  19. New digital magnetic anomaly database for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, C.A.; Pilkington, M.; Cuevas, A.; Hernandez, I.; Urrutia, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Consejo de Recursos Minerales of Mexico (CRM) are compiling an upgraded digital magnetic anomaly database and map for North America. This trinational project is expected to be completed by late 2002.

  20. Digital data grids for the magnetic anomaly map of North America

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital magnetic anomaly database and map for the North American continent is the result of a joint effort by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), U. S....

  1. Correcting cosmological parameter biases for all redshift surveys induced by estimating and reweighting redshift distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Rau, Markus Michael; Paech, Kerstin; Seitz, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Photometric redshift uncertainties are a major source of systematic error for ongoing and future photometric surveys. We study different sources of redshift error caused by common suboptimal binning techniques and propose methods to resolve them. The selection of a too large bin width is shown to oversmooth small scale structure of the radial distribution of galaxies. This systematic error can significantly shift cosmological parameter constraints by up to $6 \\, \\sigma$ for the dark energy equation of state parameter $w$. Careful selection of bin width can reduce this systematic by a factor of up to 6 as compared with commonly used current binning approaches. We further discuss a generalised resampling method that can correct systematic and statistical errors in cosmological parameter constraints caused by uncertainties in the redshift distribution. This can be achieved without any prior assumptions about the shape of the distribution or the form of the redshift error. Our methodology allows photometric surve...

  2. Velocity Segregation and Systematic Biases In Velocity Dispersion Estimates With the SPT-GMOS Spectroscopic Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, Matthew.B. [MIT, MKI; Zengo, Kyle [Colby Coll.; Ruel, Jonathan [Harvard U., Phys. Dept.; Benson, Bradford A. [Fermilab; Bleem, Lindsey E. [Argonne; Bocquet, Sebastian [Argonne; Bulbul, Esra [MIT, MKI; Brodwin, Mark [Missouri U., Kansas City; Capasso, Raffaella [Munich, Tech. U., Universe; Chiu, I-non [Taiwan, Natl. Tsing Hua U.; McDonald, Michael [MIT, MKI; Rapetti, David [NASA, Ames; Saro, Alex [Munich, Tech. U., Universe; Stalder, Brian [Inst. Astron., Honolulu; Stark, Antony A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Strazzullo, Veronica [Munich, Tech. U., Universe; Stubbs, Christopher W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Zenteno, Alfredo [Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.

    2016-12-08

    The velocity distribution of galaxies in clusters is not universal; rather, galaxies are segregated according to their spectral type and relative luminosity. We examine the velocity distributions of different populations of galaxies within 89 Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SZ) selected galaxy clusters spanning $ 0.28 < z < 1.08$. Our sample is primarily draw from the SPT-GMOS spectroscopic survey, supplemented by additional published spectroscopy, resulting in a final spectroscopic sample of 4148 galaxy spectra---2868 cluster members. The velocity dispersion of star-forming cluster galaxies is $17\\pm4$% greater than that of passive cluster galaxies, and the velocity dispersion of bright ($m < m^{*}-0.5$) cluster galaxies is $11\\pm4$% lower than the velocity dispersion of our total member population. We find good agreement with simulations regarding the shape of the relationship between the measured velocity dispersion and the fraction of passive vs. star-forming galaxies used to measure it, but we find a small offset between this relationship as measured in data and simulations in which suggests that our dispersions are systematically low by as much as 3\\% relative to simulations. We argue that this offset could be interpreted as a measurement of the effective velocity bias that describes the ratio of our observed velocity dispersions and the intrinsic velocity dispersion of dark matter particles in a published simulation result. Measuring velocity bias in this way suggests that large spectroscopic surveys can improve dispersion-based mass-observable scaling relations for cosmology even in the face of velocity biases, by quantifying and ultimately calibrating them out.

  3. Detailed gravity anomalies from GEOS-3 satellite altimetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalapillai, G. S.; Mourad, A. G.

    1978-01-01

    A technique for deriving mean gravity anomalies from dense altimetry data was developed. A combination of both deterministic and statistical techniques was used. The basic mathematical model was based on the Stokes' equation which describes the analytical relationship between mean gravity anomalies and geoid undulations at a point; this undulation is a linear function of the altimetry data at that point. The overdetermined problem resulting from the excessive altimetry data available was solved using Least-Squares principles. These principles enable the simultaneous estimation of the associated standard deviations reflecting the internal consistency based on the accuracy estimates provided for the altimetry data as well as for the terrestrial anomaly data. Several test computations were made of the anomalies and their accuracy estimates using GOES-3 data.

  4. Short GMC lifetimes: an observational estimate with the PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS)

    CERN Document Server

    Meidt, Sharon E; Dobbs, Clare L; Pety, Jerome; Thompson, Todd A; Garcia-Burillo, Santiago; Leroy, Adam K; Schinnerer, Eva; Colombo, Dario; Querejeta, Miguel; Kramer, Carsten; Schuster, Karl F; Dumas, Gaelle

    2015-01-01

    We describe and execute a novel approach to observationally estimate the lifetimes of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). We focus on the cloud population between the two main spiral arms in M51 (the inter-arm region) where cloud destruction via shear and star formation feedback dominates over formation processes. By monitoring the change in GMC number densities and properties from one side of the inter-arm to the other, we estimate the lifetime as a fraction of the inter-arm travel time. We find that GMC lifetimes in M51's inter-arm are finite and short, 20 to 30 Myr. Such short lifetimes suggest that cloud evolution is influenced by environment, in which processes can disrupt GMCs after a few free-fall times. Over most of the region under investigation shear appears to regulate the lifetime. As the shear timescale increases with galactocentric radius, we expect cloud destruction to switch primarily to star formation feedback at larger radii. We identify a transition from shear- to feedback-dominated disruption t...

  5. Using recall surveys to estimate harvest of cod, eel and sea migrating brown trout in Danish angling and recreational passive gear fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Nielsen, Jan; Storr-Paulsen, Marie

    , as all recreational fishermen have to purchase a personal non-transferable and time limited national license before fishing. However, this list will not include those fishing illegally without a license. Therefore, two types of recall surveys with their own questionnaires and group of respondents were...... carried out. The first survey - the license list survey – was carried out once in 2009 and twice in 2010. This survey had a sampling frame corresponding to the list of persons that had purchased a license within the last 12 months. Respondents were asked to provide detailed information on catch and effort...... per ICES area and quarter. In order to also estimate the fraction of fishermen that fished without a valid license, a second survey, called – the Omnibus survey-, was carried out four times. This survey targeted the entire Danish population between 16 and 74 of age...

  6. A survey of the apes in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic: A comparison between the census and survey methods of estimating the gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nest group density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almasi, A.; Blom, A.; Heitkönig, I.M.A.; Kpanou, J.B.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of apes was carried out between October 1996 and May 1997 in the Dzanga sector of the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic (CAR), to estimate gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) densities. The density estimates were based on nest counts. The st

  7. A statistical model for estimation of fish density including correlation in size, space, time and between species from research survey data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kristensen, Kasper; Lewy, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP) statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes...

  8. Application of airborne gamma spectrometric survey data to estimating terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates: an example in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, H A; Revzan, K L; Smith, A R

    1994-01-01

    We examined the applicability of radioelement data from the National Aerial Radiometric Reconnaissance, an element of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation, to estimate terrestrial gamma-ray absorbed dose rates, by comparing dose rates calculated from aeroradiometric surveys of uranium, thorium, and potassium concentrations with dose rates calculated from a radiogeologic data base and the distribution of lithologies in California. Gamma-ray dose rates increase generally from north to south following lithological trends, with low values of 25-30 nGy h-1 in the northernmost 1 x 2 degrees quadrangles between 41 and 42 degrees N to high values of 75-100 nGy h-1 in southeastern California. Lithologic-based estimates of mean dose rates in the quadrangles generally match those from aeroradiometric data, with statewide means of 63 and 60 nGy h-1, respectively. These are intermediate between a population-weighted global average of 51 nGy h-1 reported in 1982 by UNSCEAR and a weighted continental average of 70 nGy h-1, based on the global distribution of rock types. The concurrence of lithologically and aeroradiometrically determined dose rates in California, with its varied geology and topography encompassing settings representative of the continents, indicates that the National Aerial Radiometric Reconnaissance data are applicable to estimates of terrestrial absorbed dose rates from natural gamma emitters.

  9. Developing Calibration Weights and Standard-Error Estimates for a Survey of Drug-Related Emergency-Department Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kott Phillip S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a two-step calibration-weighting scheme for a stratified simple random sample of hospital emergency departments. The first step adjusts for unit nonresponse. The second increases the statistical efficiency of most estimators of interest. Both use a measure of emergency-department size and other useful auxiliary variables contained in the sampling frame. Although many survey variables are roughly a linear function of the measure of size, response is better modeled as a function of the log of that measure. Consequently the log of size is a calibration variable in the nonresponse-adjustment step, while the measure of size itself is a calibration variable in the second calibration step. Nonlinear calibration procedures are employed in both steps. We show with 2010 DAWN data that estimating variances as if a one-step calibration weighting routine had been used when there were in fact two steps can, after appropriately adjusting the finite-population correct in some sense, produce standard-error estimates that tend to be slightly conservative.

  10. The Single Cigarette Economy in India--a Back of the Envelope Survey to Estimate its Magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Pranay; Kumar, Ravinder; Ray, Shreelekha; Sharma, Narinder; Bhattarcharya, Bhaktimay; Mishra, Deepak; Sinha, Mukesh K; Christian, Anant; Rathinam, Arul; Singh, Gurbinder

    2015-01-01

    Sale of single cigarettes is an important factor for early experimentation, initiation and persistence of tobacco use and a vital factor in the smoking epidemic in India as it is globally. Single cigarettes also promote the sale of illicit cigarettes and neutralises the effect of pack warnings and effective taxation, making tobacco more accessible and affordable to minors. This is the first study to our knowledge which estimates the size of the single stick market in India. In February 2014, a 10 jurisdiction survey was conducted across India to estimate the sale of cigarettes in packs and sticks, by brands and price over a full business day. We estimate that nearly 75% of all cigarettes are sold as single sticks annually, which translates to nearly half a billion US dollars or 30 percent of the India's excise revenues from all cigarettes. This is the price which the consumers pay but is not captured through tax and therefore pervades into an informal economy. Tracking the retail price of single cigarettes is an efficient way to determine the willingness to pay by cigarette smokers and is a possible method to determine the tax rates in the absence of any other rationale.

  11. The ALHAMBRA survey: an empirical estimation of the cosmic variance for merger fraction studies based on close pairs

    CERN Document Server

    López-Sanjuan, C; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Varela, J; Molino, A; Arnalte-Mur, P; Ascaso, B; Castander, F J; Fernández-Soto, A; Huertas-Company, M; Márquez, I; Martínez, V J; Masegosa, J; Moles, M; Pović, M; Aguerri, J A L; Alfaro, E; Benítez, N; Broadhurst, T; Cabrera-Caño, J; Cepa, J; Cerviño, M; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D; Del Olmo, A; Delgado, R M González; Husillos, C; Infante, L; Perea, J; Prada, F; Quintana, J M

    2014-01-01

    Our goal is to estimate empirically, for the first time, the cosmic variance that affects merger fraction studies based on close pairs. We compute the merger fraction from photometric redshift close pairs with 10h^-1 kpc <= rp <= 50h^-1 kpc and Dv <= 500 km/s, and measure it in the 48 sub-fields of the ALHAMBRA survey. We study the distribution of the measured merger fractions, that follow a log-normal function, and estimate the cosmic variance sigma_v as the intrinsic dispersion of the observed distribution. We develop a maximum likelihood estimator to measure a reliable sigma_v and avoid the dispersion due to the observational errors (including the Poisson shot noise term). The cosmic variance of the merger fraction depends mainly on (i) the number density of the populations under study, both for the principal (n_1) and the companion (n_2) galaxy in the close pair, and (ii) the probed cosmic volume V_c. We find a significant dependence on neither the search radius used to define close companions, t...

  12. Detecting Patterns of Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    detect anomalies in the dataset is used in [Leung and Leckie, 2005] and [Eskin et al., 2002]. One-class SVMs [Li et al., 2003, Heller et al., 2003] and...IEE Proceedings F, 140(2): 107–113, 1993. J.D.F. Habbema, J. Hermans , and K. Vandenbroek. A stepwise discriminant analysis pro- gram using density...Technometrics, 29(4):409–412, 1987. K.A. Heller , K.M. Svore, A. Keromytis, and S.J. Stolfo. One class support vector machines for detecting anomalous

  13. Chiral supergravity and anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Mielke, E W; Macias, Alfredo; Mielke, Eckehard W.

    1999-01-01

    Similarily as in the Ashtekar approach, the translational Chern-Simons term is, as a generating function, instrumental for a chiral reformulation of simple (N=1) supergravity. After applying the algebraic Cartan relation between spin and torsion, the resulting canonical transformation induces not only decomposition of the gravitational fields into selfdual and antiselfdual modes, but also a splitting of the Rarita-Schwinger fields into their chiral parts in a natural way. In some detail, we also analyze the consequences for axial and chiral anomalies.

  14. Low Risk Anomalies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian; Zechner, Josef

    This paper shows theoretically and empirically that beta- and volatility-based low risk anomalies are driven by return skewness. The empirical patterns concisely match the predictions of our model that endogenizes the role of skewness for stock returns through default risk. With increasing downside...... of betting against beta/volatility among low skew firms compared to high skew firms is economically large. Our results suggest that the returns to betting against beta or volatility do not necessarily pose asset pricing puzzles but rather that such strategies collect premia that compensate for skew risk...

  15. When do anomalies begin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, Alan; Gingerich, Owen

    1992-02-01

    The present historical and methodological consideration of scientific anomalies notes that some of these are recognized as such, after long neglect, only after the emergence of compelling explanations for their presence in the given theory in view of an alternative conceptual framework. These cases of 'retrorecognition' are indicative not merely of a significant characteristic of the process of conceptual development and scientific discovery, but of the bases for such process in human psychology. Attention is given to the illustrative cases of the 'flatness problem' in big bang theory, the perigee-opposition problem in Ptolemaic astronomy, the continental-fit problem in geology, and the equality of inertial and gravitational mass.

  16. The diphoton anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardecchia, M.

    2017-07-01

    In December 2015, the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations presented results from data taken at the LHC with pp collisions at the center-of-mass energy of √{s} = 13{ TeV} . In the search for resonances decaying into two photons, both experiments observed a tantalising excess of events at an invariant mass of the photon pair of 750GeV. In this contribution, I will summarise some of the main phenomenological and theoretical aspects of this anomaly in terms of New Physics.

  17. Velocity Segregation and Systematic Biases In Velocity Dispersion Estimates with the SPT-GMOS Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Matthew. B.; Zengo, Kyle; Ruel, Jonathan; Benson, Bradford A.; Bleem, Lindsey E.; Bocquet, Sebastian; Bulbul, Esra; Brodwin, Mark; Capasso, Raffaella; Chiu, I.-non; McDonald, Michael; Rapetti, David; Saro, Alex; Stalder, Brian; Stark, Antony A.; Strazzullo, Veronica; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Zenteno, Alfredo

    2017-03-01

    The velocity distribution of galaxies in clusters is not universal; rather, galaxies are segregated according to their spectral type and relative luminosity. We examine the velocity distributions of different populations of galaxies within 89 Sunyaev Zel’dovich (SZ) selected galaxy clusters spanning 0.28population. We find good agreement with simulations regarding the shape of the relationship between the measured velocity dispersion and the fraction of passive versus star-forming galaxies used to measure it, but we find a small offset between this relationship as measured in data and simulations, which suggests that our dispersions are systematically low by as much as 3% relative to simulations. We argue that this offset could be interpreted as a measurement of the effective velocity bias that describes the ratio of our observed velocity dispersions and the intrinsic velocity dispersion of dark matter particles in a published simulation result. Measuring velocity bias in this way suggests that large spectroscopic surveys can improve dispersion-based mass-observable scaling relations for cosmology even in the face of velocity biases, by quantifying and ultimately calibrating them out.

  18. Interpreting surveys to estimate the size of the monarch butterfly population: Pitfalls and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleasants, John M.; Zalucki, Myron P.; Oberhauser, Karen S.; Brower, Lincoln P.; Taylor, Orley R.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the change in the size of the eastern North American monarch butterfly summer population, studies have used long-term data sets of counts of adult butterflies or eggs per milkweed stem. Despite the observed decline in the monarch population as measured at overwintering sites in Mexico, these studies found no decline in summer counts in the Midwest, the core of the summer breeding range, leading to a suggestion that the cause of the monarch population decline is not the loss of Midwest agricultural milkweeds but increased mortality during the fall migration. Using these counts to estimate population size, however, does not account for the shift of monarch activity from agricultural fields to non-agricultural sites over the past 20 years, as a result of the loss of agricultural milkweeds due to the near-ubiquitous use of glyphosate herbicides. We present the counter-hypotheses that the proportion of the monarch population present in non-agricultural habitats, where counts are made, has increased and that counts reflect both population size and the proportion of the population observed. We use data on the historical change in the proportion of milkweeds, and thus monarch activity, in agricultural fields and non-agricultural habitats to show why using counts can produce misleading conclusions about population size. We then separate out the shifting proportion effect from the counts to estimate the population size and show that these corrected summer monarch counts show a decline over time and are correlated with the size of the overwintering population. In addition, we present evidence against the hypothesis of increased mortality during migration. The milkweed limitation hypothesis for monarch decline remains supported and conservation efforts focusing on adding milkweeds to the landscape in the summer breeding region have a sound scientific basis.

  19. SHORT GMC LIFETIMES: AN OBSERVATIONAL ESTIMATE WITH THE PdBI ARCSECOND WHIRLPOOL SURVEY (PAWS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meidt, Sharon E.; Hughes, Annie; Schinnerer, Eva; Colombo, Dario; Querejeta, Miguel [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie / Königstuhl 17 D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dobbs, Clare L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Pety, Jérôme [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Thompson, Todd A. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); García-Burillo, Santiago [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional—OAN, Observatorio de Madrid Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Kramer, Carsten [Instituto Radioastronomía Milimétrica, Av. Divina Pastora 7, Nucleo Central, E-18012 Granada (Spain); Schuster, Karl F.; Dumas, Gaëlle [Observatoire de Paris, 61 Avenue de l’Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2015-06-10

    We describe and execute a novel approach to observationally estimate the lifetimes of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). We focus on the cloud population between the two main spiral arms in M51 (the inter-arm region) where cloud destruction via shear and star formation feedback dominates over formation processes. By monitoring the change in GMC number densities and properties across the inter-arm, we estimate the lifetime as a fraction of the inter-arm travel time. We find that GMC lifetimes in M51's inter-arm are finite and short, 20–30 Myr. Over most of the region under investigation shear appears to regulate the lifetime. As the shear timescale increases with galactocentric radius, we expect cloud destruction to switch primarily to feedback at larger radii. We identify a transition from shear- to feedback-dominated disruption, finding that shear is more efficient at dispersing clouds, whereas feedback transforms the population, e.g., by fragmenting high-mass clouds into lower mass pieces. Compared to the characteristic timescale for molecular hydrogen in M51, our short lifetimes suggest that gas can remain molecular while clouds disperse and reassemble. We propose that galaxy dynamics regulates the cycling of molecular material from diffuse to bound (and ultimately star-forming) objects, contributing to long observed molecular depletion times in normal disk galaxies. We also speculate that, in extreme environments like elliptical galaxies and concentrated galaxy centers, star formation can be suppressed when the shear timescale is short enough that some clouds will not survive to form stars.

  20. Public Release of Estimated Impact-Based Earthquake Alerts - An Update to the U.S. Geological Survey PAGER System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D. J.; Jaiswal, K. S.; Marano, K.; Hearne, M.; Earle, P. S.; So, E.; Garcia, D.; Hayes, G. P.; Mathias, S.; Applegate, D.; Bausch, D.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has begun publicly releasing earthquake alerts for significant earthquakes around the globe based on estimates of potential casualties and economic losses. These estimates should significantly enhance the utility of the USGS Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system that has been providing estimated ShakeMaps and computing population exposures to specific shaking intensities since 2007. Quantifying earthquake impacts and communicating loss estimates (and their uncertainties) to the public has been the culmination of several important new and evolving components of the system. First, the operational PAGER system now relies on empirically-based loss models that account for estimated shaking hazard, population exposure, and employ country-specific fatality and economic loss functions derived using analyses of losses due to recent and past earthquakes. In some countries, our empirical loss models are informed in part by PAGER’s semi-empirical and analytical loss models, and building exposure and vulnerability data sets, all of which are being developed in parallel to the empirical approach. Second, human and economic loss information is now portrayed as a supplement to existing intensity/exposure content on both PAGER summary alert (available via cell phone/email) messages and web pages. Loss calculations also include estimates of the economic impact with respect to the country’s gross domestic product. Third, in order to facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake responses based on our probable loss estimates, in early 2010 we proposed a four-level Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS). Instead of simply issuing median estimates for losses—which can be easily misunderstood and misused—this scale provides ranges of losses from which potential responders can gauge expected overall impact from strong shaking. EIS is based on two complementary criteria: the estimated cost of damage, which is most suitable for U

  1. OPAD data analysis. [Optical Plumes Anomaly Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntine, Wray L.; Kraft, Richard; Whitaker, Kevin; Cooper, Anita E.; Powers, W. T.; Wallace, Tim L.

    1993-01-01

    Data obtained in the framework of an Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) program intended to create a rocket engine health monitor based on spectrometric detections of anomalous atomic and molecular species in the exhaust plume are analyzed. The major results include techniques for handling data noise, methods for registration of spectra to wavelength, and a simple automatic process for estimating the metallic component of a spectrum.

  2. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ultrasound reports. Aborted fetuses and still born babies were collected for autopsy after the consent of parents. These babies were fixed in 10% formalin and autopsy was done after fixing, and anomalies were noted. Results: Total births during study period were 3000. There were 61 babies with congenital anomalies and 6 babies had anomalies of urinary system. Among the urinary system anomalies 1 baby had bilateral renal agenesis, 1 baby had unilateral renal agenesis with anophthalmia (Fraser syndrome, 2 babies had Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCDK and 1 live baby had hydronephrosis due to obstruction at pelvi ureteric junction, and 1 live female baby had polycystic kidneys. Conclusion: Incidence of urinary system anomalies in the present study was 2 per 1000 births. U/S detection of urinary anomalies varies with period of gestation, amniotic fluid volume and visualisation of urinary bladder. Autopsy helps to detect renal agenesis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 743-748

  3. Estimation of total catch of silver kob Argyrosomus inodorus by recreational shore-anglers in Namibia using a roving-roving creel survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, C.H.; Beyer, Jan

    1999-01-01

    A statistical sampling method is described to estimate the annual catch of silver kob Agryrosomus indorus by recreational shore-anglers in Namibia. The method is based on the theory of progressive counts and on-site roving interviews of anglers, with catch counts and measurements at interception......, using data taken during a survey from 1 October 1995 to 30 September 1996. Two different methods of estimating daily catch were tested by sampling the same population of anglers using a complete and an incomplete survey. The mean rate estimator, calculated by the ratio of the means with progressive...

  4. Diagnosis, prevalence estimation and burden measurement in population surveys of headache: presenting the HARDSHIP questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Timothy J; Gururaj, Gopalakrishna; Andrée, Colette; Katsarava, Zaza; Ayzenberg, Ilya; Yu, Sheng-Yuan; Al Jumah, Mohammed; Tekle-Haimanot, Redda; Birbeck, Gretchen L; Herekar, Arif; Linde, Mattias; Mbewe, Edouard; Manandhar, Kedar; Risal, Ajay; Jensen, Rigmor; Queiroz, Luiz Paulo; Scher, Ann I; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Stovner, Lars Jacob

    2014-01-08

    The global burden of headache is very large, but knowledge of it is far from complete and needs still to be gathered. Published population-based studies have used variable methodology, which has influenced findings and made comparisons difficult. The Global Campaign against Headache is undertaking initiatives to improve and standardize methods in use for cross-sectional studies. One requirement is for a survey instrument with proven cross-cultural validity. This report describes the development of such an instrument. Two of the authors developed the initial version, which was used with adaptations in population-based studies in China, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Zambia and 10 countries in the European Union. The resultant evolution of this instrument was reviewed by an expert consensus group drawn from all world regions. The final output was the Headache-Attributed Restriction, Disability, Social Handicap and Impaired Participation (HARDSHIP) questionnaire, designed for application by trained lay interviewers. HARDSHIP is a modular instrument incorporating demographic enquiry, diagnostic questions based on ICHD-3 beta criteria, and enquiries into each of the following as components of headache-attributed burden: symptom burden; health-care utilization; disability and productive time losses; impact on education, career and earnings; perception of control; interictal burden; overall individual burden; effects on relationships and family dynamics; effects on others, including household partner and children; quality of life; wellbeing; obesity as a comorbidity. HARDSHIP already has demonstrated validity and acceptability in multiple languages and cultures. Modules may be included or not, and others (e.g., on additional comorbidities) added, according to the purpose of the study and resources (especially time) available.

  5. A synthesis of convenience survey and other data to estimate undiagnosed HIV infection among men who have sex with men in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kate; Seaman, Shaun R; De Angelis, Daniela; Presanis, Anne M; Dodds, Julie P; Johnson, Anne M; Mercey, Danielle; Gill, O Noel; Copas, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    Hard-to-reach population subgroups are typically investigated using convenience sampling, which may give biased estimates. Combining information from such surveys, a probability survey and clinic surveillance, can potentially minimize the bias. We developed a methodology to estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in England and Wales aged 16-44 years in 2003, making fuller use of the available data than earlier work. We performed a synthesis of three data sources: genitourinary medicine clinic surveillance (11 380 tests), a venue-based convenience survey including anonymous HIV testing (3702 MSM) and a general population sexual behaviour survey (134 MSM). A logistic regression model to predict undiagnosed infection was fitted to the convenience survey data and then applied to the MSMs in the population survey to estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed infection in the general MSM population. This estimate was corrected for selection biases in the convenience survey using clinic surveillance data. A sensitivity analysis addressed uncertainty in our assumptions. The estimated prevalence of undiagnosed HIV in MSM was 2.4% [95% confidence interval (95% CI 1.7-3.0%)], and between 1.6% (95% CI 1.1-2.0%) and 3.3% (95% CI 2.4-4.1%) depending on assumptions; corresponding to 5500 (3390-7180), 3610 (2180-4740) and 7570 (4790-9840) men, and undiagnosed fractions of 33, 24 and 40%, respectively. Our estimates are consistent with earlier work that did not make full use of data sources. Reconciling data from multiple sources, including probability-, clinic- and venue-based convenience samples can reduce bias in estimates. This methodology could be applied in other settings to take full advantage of multiple imperfect data sources.

  6. Data processing for the mise-a-la-masse survey; Ryuden den`iho tansa no data shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, K.; Mizunaga, H.; Ushijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kaieda, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Data processing method was studied for mise-a-la-masse survey. Mise-a-la-masse method using wells as current sources measures resultant ground surface potential difference, and detects underground local resistivity anomaly. To extract resistivity anomaly largely different from surroundings, the anomaly is extracted as difference between the estimated value of regular resistivity structure (background) and potential difference or apparent resistivity. The following three approximations were attempted to estimate the background: the theoretical equation assuming isotropic homogeneous resistivity structure, that assuming horizontal multi-layered structure and the exponential function of distance from linear electrode for apparent resistivity, and these were compared with each other by numerical model experiment. The data processing method which determines the resistivity structure of the background and the residual of apparent resistivity distribution by inversion analysis using the above second equation, could precisely extract local resistivity anomaly, and estimate the depth distribution of resistivity. 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The opportunity costs of informal elder-care in the United States: new estimates from the American Time Use Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chari, Amalavoyal V; Engberg, John; Ray, Kristin N; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2015-06-01

    To provide nationally representative estimates of the opportunity costs of informal elder-care in the United States. Data from the 2011 and 2012 American Time Use Survey. Wage is used as the measure of an individual's value of time (opportunity cost), with wages being imputed for nonworking individuals using a selection-corrected regression methodology. The total opportunity costs of informal elder-care amount to $522 billion annually, while the costs of replacing this care by unskilled and skilled paid care are $221 billion and $642 billion, respectively. Informal caregiving remains a significant phenomenon in the United States with a high opportunity cost, although it remains more economical (in the aggregate) than skilled paid care. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. A Preliminary Full Spectrum Magnetic Anomaly Database of the United States With Improved Long Wavelengths for Studying Continental Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, D.; Sabaka, T.; Elshayat, A.; Aref, A.; Elawadi, E.; Kucks, R.; Hill, P.; Phillips, J.; Finn, C.; Bouligand, C.; Blakely, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Under an initiative started by Thomas G. Hildenbrand of the U. S. Geological Survey, we have improved the long-wavelength (50-2500 km) content of the regional magnetic anomaly compilation for the conterminous United States by utilizing a nearly homogeneous set of National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) magnetic surveys flown from 1975 to 1981. The surveys were flown in quadrangles of 2° of longitude by 1° of latitude with E-W flight-lines spaced 4.8 to 9.6 km, N-S tie-lines variably spaced, and a nominal terrain clearance of 122 m. Many of the surveys used base-station magnetometers to remove external field variations. NURE surveys were originally processed with IGRF core-field models, which left behind non- uniform residual trends in the data and discontinuities at survey boundaries. In this study, in place of the IGRF/DGRF, we used a spatially and temporally continuous model of the magnetic field known as the Comprehensive Model (CM), which allowed us to avoid discontinuities at survey boundaries. The CM simultaneously models the core magnetic field and long-wavelength ionospheric and magnetospheric fields, along with their induced components in the earth. Because of the availability of base-stations for removing external fields, we removed only the core-derived geomagnetic field based on CM4 (spherical harmonic degree 13) for our compilation. The NURE data have short-wavelength (less than 30 km) noise due to cultural sources, base-station offsets, and residual external field effects. It is possible to reduce and even remove these defects by identifying and editing them and by applying leveling and micro-leveling. There are also many high resolution individual surveys over the U.S. which could be incorporated into the improved NURE database; however, this could take a few years. Therefore, we have created a preliminary full spectrum magnetic anomaly database by combining short-wavelength magnetic anomalies from the North American Magnetic Anomaly Map (NAMAM

  9. THE DETECTION RATE OF EARLY UV EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE: A DEDICATED GALEX/PTF SURVEY AND CALIBRATED THEORETICAL ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganot, Noam; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, Eran O.; Sagiv, Ilan; Waxman, Eli; Lapid, Ofer [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ben-Ami, Sagi [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chelouche, Doron; Rafter, Stephen [Physics Department, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, 31905 Haifa (Israel); Behar, Ehud; Laor, Ari [Physics Department, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel); Poznanski, Dovi; Nakar, Ehud; Maoz, Dan [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Trakhtenbrot, Benny [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27 Zurich 8093 (Switzerland); Neill, James D.; Barlow, Thomas A.; Martin, Christofer D., E-mail: noam.ganot@gmail.com [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 278-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Collaboration: ULTRASAT Science Team; WTTH consortium; GALEX Science Team; Palomar Transient Factory; and others

    2016-03-20

    The radius and surface composition of an exploding massive star, as well as the explosion energy per unit mass, can be measured using early UV observations of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). We present the first results from a simultaneous GALEX/PTF search for early ultraviolet (UV) emission from SNe. Six SNe II and one Type II superluminous SN (SLSN-II) are clearly detected in the GALEX near-UV (NUV) data. We compare our detection rate with theoretical estimates based on early, shock-cooling UV light curves calculated from models that fit existing Swift and GALEX observations well, combined with volumetric SN rates. We find that our observations are in good agreement with calculated rates assuming that red supergiants (RSGs) explode with fiducial radii of 500 R{sub ⊙}, explosion energies of 10{sup 51} erg, and ejecta masses of 10 M{sub ⊙}. Exploding blue supergiants and Wolf–Rayet stars are poorly constrained. We describe how such observations can be used to derive the progenitor radius, surface composition, and explosion energy per unit mass of such SN events, and we demonstrate why UV observations are critical for such measurements. We use the fiducial RSG parameters to estimate the detection rate of SNe during the shock-cooling phase (<1 day after explosion) for several ground-based surveys (PTF, ZTF, and LSST). We show that the proposed wide-field UV explorer ULTRASAT mission is expected to find >85 SNe per year (∼0.5 SN per deg{sup 2}), independent of host galaxy extinction, down to an NUV detection limit of 21.5 mag AB. Our pilot GALEX/PTF project thus convincingly demonstrates that a dedicated, systematic SN survey at the NUV band is a compelling method to study how massive stars end their life.

  10. Statistical Anomaly Detection for Monitoring of Human Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, K.; Fuse, T.

    2015-05-01

    Understanding of human dynamics has drawn attention to various areas. Due to the wide spread of positioning technologies that use GPS or public Wi-Fi, location information can be obtained with high spatial-temporal resolution as well as at low cost. By collecting set of individual location information in real time, monitoring of human dynamics is recently considered possible and is expected to lead to dynamic traffic control in the future. Although this monitoring focuses on detecting anomalous states of human dynamics, anomaly detection methods are developed ad hoc and not fully systematized. This research aims to define an anomaly detection problem of the human dynamics monitoring with gridded population data and develop an anomaly detection method based on the definition. According to the result of a review we have comprehensively conducted, we discussed the characteristics of the anomaly detection of human dynamics monitoring and categorized our problem to a semi-supervised anomaly detection problem that detects contextual anomalies behind time-series data. We developed an anomaly detection method based on a sticky HDP-HMM, which is able to estimate the number of hidden states according to input data. Results of the experiment with synthetic data showed that our proposed method has good fundamental performance with respect to the detection rate. Through the experiment with real gridded population data, an anomaly was detected when and where an actual social event had occurred.

  11. Estimates of U.S. Commercial Building Electricity Intensity Trends: Issues Related to End-Use and Supply Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.

    2004-09-04

    This report examines measurement issues related to the amount of electricity used by the commercial sector in the U.S. and the implications for historical trends of commercial building electricity intensity (kWh/sq. ft. of floor space). The report compares two (Energy Information Administration) sources of data related to commercial buildings: the Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and the reporting by utilities of sales to commercial customers (survey Form-861). Over past two decades these sources suggest significantly different trend rates of growth of electricity intensity, with the supply (utility)-based estimate growing much faster than that based only upon the CBECS. The report undertakes various data adjustments in an attempt to rationalize the differences between these two sources. These adjustments deal with: 1) periodic reclassifications of industrial vs. commercial electricity usage at the state level and 2) the amount of electricity used by non-enclosed equipment (non-building use) that is classified as commercial electricity sales. In part, after applying these adjustments, there is a good correspondence between the two sources over the the past four CBECS (beginning with 1992). However, as yet, there is no satisfactory explanation of the differences between the two sources for longer periods that include the 1980s.

  12. 工业过程异常检测、寿命预测与维修决策的研究进展%A Survey on Anomaly Detection, Life Prediction and Maintenance Decision for Industrial Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周东华; 魏慕恒; 司小胜

    2013-01-01

    作为保障工业过程安全性、可靠性和经济性的重要技术,异常检测、寿命预测与维修决策在过去几十年得到了越来越广泛的关注和长足的发展.本文结合异常检测、寿命预测与维修决策各研究环节之间的相互联系,综述了异常检测、寿命预测与维修决策的联合研究现状,重点总结了异常检测与寿命预测、异常检测与维修决策、寿命预测与维修决策、维修决策与备件管理的联合研究动态.最后,探讨了该领域中存在的问题及未来的研究方向.%The past decades have witnessed an increasingly growing research interest and significant progress on various aspects of anomaly detection,life prediction,and maintenance decision.In this paper,according to the linkages among anomaly detection,life prediction,and maintenance decision,the state of the art of the integrated studies of anomaly detection,life prediction,and maintenance decision are reviewed and the potential issues needed to be solved are highlighted.Particularly,the emphasis is placed on the development of integrated anomaly detection and life prediction,integrated anomaly detection and maintenance decision,integrated life prediction and maintenance decision,and integrated maintenance decision and spare parts ordering.Finally,the unsolved problems and future research directions in the reviewed field are discussed.

  13. Estimation of Bouguer Density Precision: Development of Method for Analysis of La Soufriere Volcano Gravity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Gunawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol3no3.20084The precision of topographic density (Bouguer density estimation by the Nettleton approach is based on a minimum correlation of Bouguer gravity anomaly and topography. The other method, the Parasnis approach, is based on a minimum correlation of Bouguer gravity anomaly and Bouguer correction. The precision of Bouguer density estimates was investigated by both methods on simple 2D syntetic models and under an assumption free-air anomaly consisting of an effect of topography, an effect of intracrustal, and an isostatic compensation. Based on simulation results, Bouguer density estimates were then investigated for a gravity survey of 2005 on La Soufriere Volcano-Guadeloupe area (Antilles Islands. The Bouguer density based on the Parasnis approach is 2.71 g/cm3 for the whole area, except the edifice area where average topography density estimates are 2.21 g/cm3 where Bouguer density estimates from previous gravity survey of 1975 are 2.67 g/cm3. The Bouguer density in La Soufriere Volcano was uncertainly estimated to be 0.1 g/cm3. For the studied area, the density deduced from refraction seismic data is coherent with the recent Bouguer density estimates. New Bouguer anomaly map based on these Bouguer density values allows to a better geological intepretation.    

  14. Estimation of Bouguer Density Precision: Development of Method for Analysis of La Soufriere Volcano Gravity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Gunawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol3no3.20084The precision of topographic density (Bouguer density estimation by the Nettleton approach is based on a minimum correlation of Bouguer gravity anomaly and topography. The other method, the Parasnis approach, is based on a minimum correlation of Bouguer gravity anomaly and Bouguer correction. The precision of Bouguer density estimates was investigated by both methods on simple 2D syntetic models and under an assumption free-air anomaly consisting of an effect of topography, an effect of intracrustal, and an isostatic compensation. Based on simulation results, Bouguer density estimates were then investigated for a gravity survey of 2005 on La Soufriere Volcano-Guadeloupe area (Antilles Islands. The Bouguer density based on the Parasnis approach is 2.71 g/cm3 for the whole area, except the edifice area where average topography density estimates are 2.21 g/cm3 where Bouguer density estimates from previous gravity survey of 1975 are 2.67 g/cm3. The Bouguer density in La Soufriere Volcano was uncertainly estimated to be 0.1 g/cm3. For the studied area, the density deduced from refraction seismic data is coherent with the recent Bouguer density estimates. New Bouguer anomaly map based on these Bouguer density values allows to a better geological intepretation.    

  15. The Shape of Things to Come: Estimating Northern-Hemisphere (NH) Transient Climate Response Through Hindcasting and Forecasting the Frequency Distribution of Earth's NH Land Temperature Anomalies for the Period 1951-2071

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, D. F.

    2016-12-01

    Northern-hemisphere (NH) heatwaves, during which temperatures rise 5 standard deviations (SD), sigma, above the historical mean temperature, mu, are becoming frequent; these events skew temperature anomaly (delta T) profiles towards extreme values. Although general extreme value (GEV) distributions have modeled precipitation data, their application to temperatures have met with limited success. This work presents a modified three-parameter (mu, sigma and tau (skew)) Exponential-Gaussian (eGd) model that hindcasts decadal NH land winter (DJF) and summer (JJA) delta Ts from 1951 to 2011, and forecasts profiles for a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario for 2061-2071. We accessed 12 numerical binned (0.05 °C/bin) z-scored NH decadal datasets (posted online until August 2015) from the publicly available website http://www.columbia.edu/ mhs119/PerceptionsAndDice/ mentioned in Hansen et al, PNAS 109 E2415-E2423 (2012) and stated to be in the public domain. No pre-processing was done. Parameters were calculated for the 12 NH datasets pasted into Microsoft Excel™ through the method of moments for 1-tail distributions and through the BEST deconvolution program described by Pommé and Marroyo, Applied Radiation and Isotopes 96 148-153 (2015) for 2-tail distributions. We used maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), residual sum of squares (RSS) and F-test to find optimal parameter values. Calculated 1st (= sigma + tau) and 2nd (= sigma2 + tau2) moments were found to be within 0.5% of observed values. Land delta Ts were recovered from the z-score values by multiplying the winter data by its SD (1.2 °C) and likewise the summer data by 0.6 °C. Results were all within 0.05 °C of 10-year averages from the GHCNv3 NH land dataset. Assuming BAU (increases from 2.1 to 2.6 ppm/y CO2) and using temperature rises of 0.27 °C and 0.35 °C per decade, for summer and winter, respectively, and forecasting to 2071, we obtain for the transient climate response for doubled CO2 (560 ppm CO2) mean

  16. Counting children at risk: exploring a method to estimate the number of children exposed to parental mental illness using adult health survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Diego Garcia; Padoin, Cintia Vontobel; Veldhuizen, Scott

    2008-11-01

    Children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders have an increased risk of several psychiatric disorders, impaired development, behavioural problems, injuries, physical illness and mortality. Even though this high-risk group has been shown to benefit from health promotion and preventive interventions, estimates of the size of the population at risk are not available. Estimating the number of exposed children using adult survey data will likely generate valuable information for health policy, planning, and advocacy. In this paper, the authors present a method to indirectly estimate the size of this population using secondary data. A Canadian adult health survey and the Census were combined to estimate the prevalence of exposure of children less than 12 years to parental and non-parental psychiatric disorders. A method to combine census and survey data is presented and tested under varying degrees of data availability. Results are compared to the actual number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders and discussed. The most accurate estimates were obtained when the most complete survey was combined with relatively detailed census information. Incomplete survey simulations produced substantial underestimates of the prevalence of exposure even when combined with detailed census information.

  17. Alternative Methods for Defining Osteoarthritis and the Impact on Estimating Prevalence in a US Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, Miriam G.; Murphy, Louise; Sacks, Jeffrey J.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Pasta, David J.; Helmick, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Provide a contemporary estimate of osteoarthritis (OA) by comparing accuracy and prevalence of alternative definitions of OA. Methods The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) household component (HC) records respondent-reported medical conditions as open-ended responses; professional coders translate these responses into ICD-9-CM codes for the medical conditions files. Using these codes and other data from the MEPS-HC medical conditions files, we constructed three case definitions of OA and assessed them against medical provider diagnoses of ICD-9-CM 715 [osteoarthrosis and allied disorders] in a MEPS subsample. The three definitions were: 1) strict = ICD-9-CM 715; 2) expanded = ICD-9-CM 715, 716 [other and unspecified arthropathies], OR 719 [other and unspecified disorders of joint]); and 3) probable = strict OR expanded + respondent-reported prior diagnosis of OA or other arthritis excluding rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Results Sensitivity and specificity of the three definitions were: strict – 34.6% and 97.5%; expanded – 73.8% and 90.5%; and probable – 62.9% and 93.5%. Conclusion The strict definition for OA (ICD-9-CM 715) excludes many individuals with OA. The probable definition of OA has the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity relative to the two other MEPS-based definitions and yields a national annual estimate of 30.8 million adults with OA (13.4% of US adult population) for 2008 – 2011. PMID:26315529

  18. Early Mathematics Achievement Trajectories: English-Language Learner and Native English-Speaker Estimates, Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Greg; Bryant, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Kindergarten Class of 1998 –1999, to (a) estimate mathematics achievement trends through 5th grade in the population of students who are English-language proficient by the end of kindergarten, (b) compare trends across primary language groups within this English-language proficient group, (c) evaluate the effect of low socioeconomic status (SES) for English-language proficient students and within different primary language groups, and (d) estimate language-group trends in specific mathematics skill areas. The group of English-language proficient English-language learners (ELLs) was disaggregated into native Spanish speakers and native speakers of Asian languages, the 2 most prevalent groups of ELLs in the United States. Results of multilevel latent variable growth modeling suggest that primary language may be less salient than SES in explaining the mathematics achievement of English-language proficient ELLs. The study also found that mathematics-related school readiness is a key factor in explaining subsequent achievement differences and that the readiness gap is prevalent across the range of mathematics-related skills. PMID:21574702

  19. Early mathematics achievement trajectories: English-language learner and native English-speaker estimates, using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Greg; Bryant, Diane

    2011-07-01

    This study used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999, to (a) estimate mathematics achievement trends through 5th grade in the population of students who are English-language proficient by the end of kindergarten, (b) compare trends across primary language groups within this English-language proficient group, (c) evaluate the effect of low socioeconomic status (SES) for English-language proficient students and within different primary language groups, and (d) estimate language-group trends in specific mathematics skill areas. The group of English-language proficient English-language learners (ELLs) was disaggregated into native Spanish speakers and native speakers of Asian languages, the 2 most prevalent groups of ELLs in the United States. Results of multilevel latent variable growth modeling suggest that primary language may be less salient than SES in explaining the mathematics achievement of English-language proficient ELLs. The study also found that mathematics-related school readiness is a key factor in explaining subsequent achievement differences and that the readiness gap is prevalent across the range of mathematics-related skills.

  20. Quivers via anomaly chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casero, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: roberto.casero@mib.infn.it; Trincherini, Enrico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126 Milan (Italy)

    2003-09-01

    We study quivers in the context of matrix models. We introduce chains of generalized Konishi anomalies to write the quadratic and cubic equations that constrain the resolvents of general affine A-circumflex{sub n-1} and non-affine A{sub n} quiver gauge theories, and give a procedure to calculate all higher-order relations. For these theories we also evaluate, as functions of the resolvents, VEV's of chiral operators with two and four bi-fundamental insertions. As an example of the general procedure we explicitly consider the two simplest quivers A{sub 2} and A-circumflex{sub 1}, obtaining in the first case a cubic algebraic curve, and for the affine theory the same equation as that of U(N) theories with adjoint matter, successfully reproducing the RG cascade result. (author)

  1. Quivers via anomaly chains

    CERN Document Server

    Casero, R; Casero, Roberto; Trincherini, Enrico

    2003-01-01

    We study quivers in the context of matrix models. We introduce chains of generalized Konishi anomalies to write the quadratic and cubic equations that constrain the resolvents of general affine and non-affine quiver gauge theories, and give a procedure to calculate all higher-order relations. For these theories we also evaluate, as functions of the resolvents, VEV's of chiral operators with two and four bifundamental insertions. As an example of the general procedure we explicitly consider the two simplest quivers A2 and A1(affine), obtaining in the first case a cubic algebraic curve, and for the affine theory the same equation as that of U(N) theories with adjoint matter, successfully reproducing the RG cascade result.

  2. Low Risk Anomalies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian; Zechner, Josef

    risk, the standard capital asset pricing model (CAPM) increasingly overestimates expected equity returns relative to firms' true (skew-adjusted) market risk. Empirically, the profitability of betting against beta/volatility increases with firms' downside risk, and the risk-adjusted return differential...... of betting against beta/volatility among low skew firms compared to high skew firms is economically large. Our results suggest that the returns to betting against beta or volatility do not necessarily pose asset pricing puzzles but rather that such strategies collect premia that compensate for skew risk......This paper shows theoretically and empirically that beta- and volatility-based low risk anomalies are driven by return skewness. The empirical patterns concisely match the predictions of our model that endogenizes the role of skewness for stock returns through default risk. With increasing downside...

  3. Cubic anomalies in WMAP

    CERN Document Server

    Land, K; Land, Kate; Magueijo, Joao

    2004-01-01

    We perform a frequentist analysis of the bispectrum of WMAP first year data. We find clear signal domination up to l=200, with overall consistency with Gaussianity except for the following features. There is a flat patch (i.e. a low chi-squared region) in the same-l components of the bispectrum spanning the range l=32-62; this may be interpreted as ruling out Gaussianity at the 99.6% confidence level. There is also an asymmetry between the North and South inter-l bispectrum components at the 99% confidence level. The preferred asymmetry axis correlates well with the (l,b)=(57,10) direction quoted in the literature for asymmetries in the power spectrum and three-point correlation function. However our analysis of the quadrupole (its bispectrum and principal axes) fail to make contact with previously claimed anomalies.

  4. Spatially explicit burden estimates of malaria in Tanzania: bayesian geostatistical modeling of the malaria indicator survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gosoniu

    Full Text Available A national HIV/AIDS and malaria parasitological survey was carried out in Tanzania in 2007-2008. In this study the parasitological data were analyzed: i to identify climatic/environmental, socio-economic and interventions factors associated with child malaria risk and ii to produce a contemporary, high spatial resolution parasitaemia risk map of the country. Bayesian geostatistical models were fitted to assess the association between parasitaemia risk and its determinants. bayesian kriging was employed to predict malaria risk at unsampled locations across Tanzania and to obtain the uncertainty associated with the predictions. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulation methods were employed for model fit and prediction. Parasitaemia risk estimates were linked to population data and the number of infected children at province level was calculated. Model validation indicated a high predictive ability of the geostatistical model, with 60.00% of the test locations within the 95% credible interval. The results indicate that older children are significantly more likely to test positive for malaria compared with younger children and living in urban areas and better-off households reduces the risk of infection. However, none of the environmental and climatic proxies or the intervention measures were significantly associated with the risk of parasitaemia. Low levels of malaria prevalence were estimated for Zanzibar island. The population-adjusted prevalence ranges from 0.29% in Kaskazini province (Zanzibar island to 18.65% in Mtwara region. The pattern of predicted malaria risk is similar with the previous maps based on historical data, although the estimates are lower. The predicted maps could be used by decision-makers to allocate resources and target interventions in the regions with highest burden of malaria in order to reduce the disease transmission in the country.

  5. Algebraic study of chiral anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Juan Mañes; Raymond Stora; Bruno Zumino

    2012-06-01

    The algebraic structure of chiral anomalies is made globally valid on non-trivial bundles by the introduction of a fixed background connection. Some of the techniques used in the study of the anomaly are improved or generalized, including a systematic way of generating towers of ‘descent equations’.

  6. Anomaly mediation deformed by axion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Kazunori, E-mail: kazunori@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)

    2013-05-13

    We show that in supersymmetric axion models the axion supermultiplet obtains a sizable F-term due to a non-supersymmetric dynamics and it generally gives the gaugino masses comparable to the anomaly mediation contribution. Thus the gaugino mass relation predicted by the anomaly mediation effect can be significantly modified in the presence of axion to solve the strong CP problem.

  7. What is a Timing Anomaly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassez, Franck; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Olesen, Mads Chr.

    2012-01-01

    Timing anomalies make worst-case execution time analysis much harder, because the analysis will have to consider all local choices. It has been widely recognised that certain hardware features are timing anomalous, while others are not. However, defining formally what a timing anomaly is, has bee...

  8. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  9. Lithospheric analysis of satellite geopotential anomalies of East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li

    Satellite gravity and magnetic anomalies are used to study the lithosphere of East Asia. Free-air gravity anomalies are decomposed into terrain-correlated, mantle/core and intracrustal components by spectral correlation analysis of the free-air gravity anomalies and terrain gravity effects. Compensated terrain gravity anomalies are obtained by removing the terrain-correlated free-air gravity anomalies. They are used to estimate the Moho undulation and crustal thickness by Gauss-Legendre quadrature (GLQ) inversion techniques assuming a Airy-Heiskanen model of crustal compensation. These results are used to develop enhanced reduction procedures to generate an improved Magsat magnetic anomaly map for East Asia. A degree 12 core field is removed from the data that are updated for the crustal components in the core field differences between degree 14 and 12. These components are estimated by using spectral correlation analysis to compare the Magsat anomalies to the magnetic effect of the crust that is available from the first vertical derivative of the terrain-correlated free-air gravity anomalies via Poisson's theorem. External field effects are separated using pass-by-pass correlation analysis of the dusk and dawn data sets and their spectral reconstruction. Coherent components in the dusk and dawn maps are combined to estimate the magnetic anomalies of the lithosphere. Long wavelength magnetic features related to lower crustal thickness variations are converted into effective magnetization contrasts by a new GLQ inversion technique. Effective magnetization contrasts of the lower crust range over ±4 A/m in accordance petrological studies. Finally, a new GLQ integration formula for triangular wedge sources is derived for modeling of satellite-altitude geopotential field anomalies from arbitrarily shaped sources. Detailed magnetization and density contrasts for central India, the Tibetan Plateau, and the Bengal Gulf region are modeled by this new formula. Positive

  10. Market Rationality: Efficient Market Hypothesis versus Market Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Can Yalcin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Market efficiency theory suggests that market is rational and provides correct pricing. That is, the current prices of securities are close to their fundamental values because of either the rational investors or the arbitragers’ buy and sell action of underpriced or overpriced stocks. On the other hand, observed market anomalies have a challenge for this argument. They claim that irrational investment activities and the arbitrage opportunities’ being limited in markets cause some market anomalies that are inconsistent with efficient market hypothesis. The most commonly seen anomalies are the “volume”, “volatility”, “cash dividends”, “equity premium puzzle”, and the “predictability”. This work is a literature survey, and its main objective is to deal with efficient market theory and market anomalies in order to examine the question “Are markets rational or not"?

  11. Market Rationality: Efficient Market Hypothesis versus Market Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Can Yalcin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Market efficiency theory suggests that market is rational and provides correct pricing. That is, the current prices of securities are close to their fundamental values because of either the rational investors or the arbitragers' buy and sell action of underpriced or overpriced stocks. On the other hand, observed market anomalies have a challenge for this argument. They claim that irrational investment activities and the arbitrage opportunities' being limited in markets cause some market anomalies that are inconsistent with efficient market hypothesis. The most commonly seen anomalies are the "volume", "volatility", "cash dividends", "equity premium puzzle", and the "predictability". This work is a literature survey, and its main objective is to deal with efficient market theory and market anomalies in order to examine the question "Are markets rational or not"?

  12. Magnetic anomalies over the Andaman Islands and their geological significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P B V Subba Rao; M Radhakrishna; K Haripriya; B Someswara Rao; D Chandrasekharam

    2016-03-01

    The Andaman Islands form part of the outer-arc accretionary sedimentary complex belonging to the Andaman–Sumatra active subduction zone. The islands are characterized by thick cover of Neogene sediments along with exposed ophiolite rocks at few places. A regional magnetic survey was carriedout for the first time over the Andaman Islands with a view to understand the correlation of anomaly signatures with surface geology of the islands. The residual total field magnetic anomaly maps have revealed distinct magnetic anomalies having intermediate to high amplitude magnetic signatures andcorrelate with the areas over/close to the exposed ophiolite rocks along the east coast of north, middle and the south Andaman Islands. The 2D modelling of magnetic anomalies along selected E–W profiles across the islands indicate that the ophiolite bodies extend to a depth of about 5–8 km and spatiallycorrelate with the mapped fault/thrust zones.

  13. Age estimation by facial image: a survey%人脸图像的年龄估计技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王先梅; 梁玲燕; 王志良; 胡四泉

    2012-01-01

    Age information, as an important personal trait, has great potential in safety surveillance, human-computer interaction, multimedia applications, and face recognition. As an emerging biometric information identification technology, face-image based age estimation has gained great attention resently and has become one of the important research topics in machine learning and computer vision. In this paper, we survey most existing commonly used methods in face-image based age estimation, especially focusing on the extraction of age features and classification. Then, we also introduce some face aging databases and evaluation protocols, which are widely used at present. Based on these databases and evaluation methods, a comparison of the performances of several age estimation systems is presented. Finally, the challenges and promising directions of age estimation techniques are discussed.%年龄信息作为人体的一种重要生物特征,在安全监控、人机交互、视频检索等领域有着巨大的应用潜力,并且是人脸识别技术的主要瓶颈问题之一.基于人脸图像的年龄估计技术作为一种新兴的生物特征识别技术,目前已经成为计算机视觉、人机交互等领域的一个重要研究课题.为此对国内外近几年来在年龄估计技术方面的发展情况进行了综述,主要包括年龄特征提取与年龄分类模式两大部分.同时对常用的年龄数据库、性能评价指标进行了总结,并在此基础上对当前的一些年龄估计系统的性能进行了对比.最后,对基于人脸图像的年龄估计技术所面临的挑战以及可能的发展方向进行了讨论.

  14. The ALHAMBRA survey: An empirical estimation of the cosmic variance for merger fraction studies based on close pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sanjuan, C.; Cenarro, A. J.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Varela, J.; Molino, A.; Arnalte-Mur, P.; Ascaso, B.; Castander, F. J.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Huertas-Company, M.; Márquez, I.; Martínez, V. J.; Masegosa, J.; Moles, M.; Pović, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alfaro, E.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Benítez, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Cepa, J.; Cerviño, M.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Del Olmo, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husillos, C.; Infante, L.; Perea, J.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2014-04-01

    Aims: Our goal is to estimate empirically the cosmic variance that affects merger fraction studies based on close pairs for the first time. Methods: We compute the merger fraction from photometric redshift close pairs with 10 h-1 kpc ≤ rp ≤ 50 h-1 kpc and Δv ≤ 500 km s-1 and measure it in the 48 sub-fields of the ALHAMBRA survey. We study the distribution of the measured merger fractions that follow a log-normal function and estimate the cosmic variance σv as the intrinsic dispersion of the observed distribution. We develop a maximum likelihood estimator to measure a reliable σv and avoid the dispersion due to the observational errors (including the Poisson shot noise term). Results: The cosmic variance σv of the merger fraction depends mainly on (i) the number density of the populations under study for both the principal (n1) and the companion (n2) galaxy in the close pair and (ii) the probed cosmic volume Vc. We do not find a significant dependence on either the search radius used to define close companions, the redshift, or the physical selection (luminosity or stellar mass) of the samples. Conclusions: We have estimated the cosmic variance that affects the measurement of the merger fraction by close pairs from observations. We provide a parametrisation of the cosmic variance with n1, n2, and Vc, σv ∝ n1-0.54Vc-0.48 (n_2/n_1)-0.37 . Thanks to this prescription, future merger fraction studies based on close pairs could properly account for the cosmic variance on their results. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) at Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC).Appendix is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. A national survey (NAP5-Ireland baseline) to estimate an annual incidence of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jonker, W R

    2014-06-29

    As part of the 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland concerning accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, we issued a questionnaire to every consultant anaesthetist in each of 46 public hospitals in Ireland, represented by 41 local co-ordinators. The survey ascertained the number of new cases of accidental awareness becoming known to them for patients under their care or supervision for a calendar year, as well as their career experience. Consultants from all hospitals responded, with an individual response rate of 87% (299 anaesthetists). There were eight new cases of accidental awareness that became known to consultants in 2011; an estimated incidence of 1:23 366. Two out of the eight cases (25%) occurred at or after induction of anaesthesia, but before surgery; four cases (50%) occurred during surgery; and two cases (25%) occurred after surgery was complete, but before full emergence. Four cases were associated with pain or distress (50%), one after an experience at induction and three after experiences during surgery. There were no formal complaints or legal actions that arose in 2011 related to awareness. Depth of anaesthesia monitoring was reported to be available in 33 (80%) departments, and was used by 184 consultants (62%), 18 (6%) routinely. None of the 46 hospitals had a policy to prevent or manage awareness. Similar to the results of a larger survey in the UK, the disparity between the incidence of awareness as known to anaesthetists and that reported in trials warrants explanation. Compared with UK practice, there appears to be greater use of depth of anaesthesia monitoring in Ireland, although this is still infrequent.

  16. Disparities in receipt of family planning services by disability status: New estimates from the National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, William; Bloom, Tina; Hughes, Rosemary; Horton, Leah; Mojtabai, Ramin; Alhusen, Jeanne L

    2017-07-01

    A substantial and increasing population of US women of childbearing age live with disability. Disability-based disparities in access to family planning services have been previously documented, but few studies have used population-based data sources or evidence-based measures of disability. To determine population-based estimates of use of family planning services among women 15-44 years of age in the United States, and to examine differences by disability status. This is a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey, the 2011-2015 National Survey of Family Growth. These analyses include 11,300 female respondents between the ages of 15 and 44 who completed in-person interviews in respondents' homes. Approximately 17.8% of respondents reported at least one disability in at least one domain. Women with disabilities were less likely than those without disabilities to receive services; the largest differences by disability status were seen among women with low education, low income, and those who were not working. Logistic regression analysis suggests that women with physical disabilities and those with poorer general health are less likely to receive services. Women living with disabilities reported lower receipt of family planning services compared to women without disabilities, but the differences were small in some subgroups and larger among disadvantaged women. Physical disabilities and poor health may be among the factors underlying these patterns. Further research is needed on other factors that affect the ability of women with disabilities to obtain the services they need to prevent unintended pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimation of Pap-test coverage in an area with an organised screening program: challenges for survey methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raggi Patrizio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytological screening programme of Viterbo has completed the second round of invitations to the entire target population (age 25–64. From a public health perspective, it is important to know the Pap-test coverage rate and the use of opportunistic screening. The most commonly used study design is the survey, but the validity of self-reports and the assumptions made about non respondents are often questioned. Methods From the target population, 940 women were sampled, and responded to a telephone interview about Pap-test utilisation. The answers were compared with the screening program registry; comparing the dates of Pap-tests reported by both sources. Sensitivity analyses were performed for coverage over a 36-month period, according to various assumptions regarding non respondents. Results The response rate was 68%. The coverage over 36 months was 86.4% if we assume that non respondents had the same coverage as respondents, 66% if we assume they were not covered at all, and 74.6% if we adjust for screening compliance in the non respondents. The sensitivity and specificity of the question, "have you ever had a Pap test with the screening programme" were 84.5% and 82.2% respectively. The test dates reported in the interview tended to be more recent than those reported in the registry, but 68% were within 12 months of each other. Conclusion Surveys are useful tools to understand the effectiveness of a screening programme and women's self-report was sufficiently reliable in our setting, but the coverage estimates were strongly influenced by the assumptions we made regarding non respondents.

  18. Identification of Geochemical Anomaly by Multifractal Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shuyun; Cheng Qiuming; Ke Xianzhong; Bao Zhengyu; Wang Changming; Quan Haoli

    2008-01-01

    The separation of anomalies from geochemical background is an important part of data analysis because lack of such identifications might have profound influence on or even distort the final analysis results. In this article, 1 672 geochemical analytical data of 11 elements, including Cu, Mo, Ag, Sn, and others, from a region within Tibet, South China, are used as one example. Together with the traditional anomaly recognition method of using the iterative mean ±2σ, local multifractality theory has been utilized to delineate the ranges of geochemical anomalies of the elements. To different degrees, on the basis of original data mapping, C-A fractal analysis and singularity exponents, Sn differs from the other 10 elements. Moreover, geochemical mapping results based on values of the multifractal asymmetry index for all elements delineate the highly anomalous area. Similar to other 10 elements, the anomalous areas of Sn delineated by the asymmetry index distribute along the main structure orientations. According to the asymmetry indexes, the 11 elements could be classified into 3 groups: (1) Ag and Au, (2) As-Sb-Cu-Pb-Zn-Mo, and (3) Sn-Bi-W.This paragenetic association of elements can be used to interpret possible origins of mineralization, which is in agreement with petrological analysis and field survey results.

  19. Education on, Exposure to, and Management of Vascular Anomalies During Otolaryngology Residency and Pediatric Otolaryngology Fellowship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Robert; Jabbour, Noel; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Bauman, Nancy; Darrow, David H; Elluru, Ravindhra; Grimmer, J Fredrik; Perkins, Jonathan; Richter, Gresham; Shin, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    The field of vascular anomalies presents diverse challenges in diagnosis and management. Although many lesions involve the head and neck, training in vascular anomalies is not universally included in otolaryngology residencies and pediatric otolaryngology (POTO) fellowships. To explore the education in, exposure to, and comfort level of otolaryngology trainees with vascular anomalies. A survey was distributed to 39 POTO fellows and 44 residents in postgraduate year 5 who matched into POTO fellowships from April 22 through June 16, 2014. Survey responses from trainees on exposure to, education on, and comfort with vascular anomalies. Forty-four residents in postgraduate year 5 who applied to POTO fellowships and 39 POTO fellows were emailed the survey. Fourteen respondents were unable to be contacted owing to lack of a current email address. Thirty-six of 69 residents and fellows (18 fellows and 18 residents [52%]) responded to the survey. Twenty-seven trainees (75%) reported no participation in a vascular anomalies clinic during residency; 6 of these 27 individuals (22%) trained at institutions with a vascular anomalies clinic but did not participate in the clinic, and 28 of the 36 respondents (78%) reported that they had less than adequate or no exposure to vascular anomalies in residency. Among POTO fellows, 11 of 17 (65%) did not participate in a vascular anomalies clinic during fellowship, even though 8 of the 11 had a vascular anomalies clinic at their fellowship program. During fellowship training, 12 of 18 fellows (67%) reported that they had adequate exposure to vascular anomalies. Only 20 respondents (56%) felt comfortable distinguishing among diagnoses of vascular anomalies, and only 4 residents (22%) and 9 fellows (50%) felt comfortable treating patients with vascular anomalies. All fellows believed that training in vascular anomalies was important in fellowship, and 100% of respondents indicated that increased exposure to diagnosis and management of

  20. Evaluation of a method using survey counts and tag data to estimate the number of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) using a coastal haulout in northwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaile, Brian; Jay, Chadwick V.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Fischbach, Anthony S.

    2017-01-01

    Increased periods of sparse sea ice over the continental shelf of the Chukchi Sea in late summer have reduced offshore haulout habitat for Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and increased opportunities for human activities in the region. Knowing how many walruses could be affected by human activities would be useful to conservation decisions. Currently, there are no adequate estimates of walrus abundance in the northeastern Chukchi Sea during summer–early autumn. Estimating abundance in autumn might be possible from coastal surveys of hauled out walruses during periods when offshore sea ice is unavailable to walruses. We evaluated methods to estimate the size of the walrus population that was using a haulout on the coast of northwestern Alaska in autumn by using aerial photography to count the number of hauled out walruses (herd size) and data from 37 tagged walruses to estimate availability (proportion of population hauled out). We used two methods to estimate availability, direct proportions of hauled out tagged walruses and smoothed proportions using local polynomial regression. Point estimates of herd size (4200–38,000 walruses) and total population size (76,000–287,000 walruses) ranged widely among days and between the two methods of estimating availability. Estimates of population size were influenced most by variation in estimates of availability. Coastal surveys might be improved most by counting walruses when the greatest numbers are hauled out, thereby reducing the influence of availability on population size estimates. The chance of collecting data during peak haulout periods would be improved by conducting multiple surveys.

  1. A protocol to identify and minimise selection and information bias in abattoir surveys estimating prevalence, using Fasciola hepatica as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Rebecca I; Forbes, Andrew; Graham, David A; Messam, Locksley L McV

    2017-09-01

    Abattoir surveys and findings from post-mortem meat inspection are commonly used to estimate infection or disease prevalence in farm animal populations. However, the function of an abattoir is to slaughter animals for human consumption, and the collection of information on animal health for research purposes is a secondary objective. This can result in methodological shortcomings leading to biased prevalence estimates. Selection bias can occur when the study population as obtained from the abattoir is not an accurate representation of the target population. Virtually all of the tests used in abattoir surveys to detect infections or diseases that impact animal health are imperfect, leading to errors in identifying the outcome of interest and consequently, information bias. Examination of abattoir surveys estimating prevalence in the literature reveals shortcomings in the methods used in these studies. While the STROBE-Vet statement provides clear guidance on the reporting of observational research, we have not found any guidelines in the literature advising researchers on how to conduct abattoir surveys. This paper presents a protocol in two flowcharts to help researchers (regardless of their background in epidemiology) to first identify, and, where possible, minimise biases in abattoir surveys estimating prevalence. Flowchart 1 examines the identification of the target population and the appropriate study population while Flowchart 2 guides the researcher in identifying, and, where possible, correcting potential sources of outcome misclassification. Examples of simple sensitivity analyses are also presented which approximate the likely uncertainty in prevalence estimates due to systematic errors. Finally, the researcher is directed to outline any limitations of the study in the discussion section of the paper. This protocol makes it easier to conduct an abattoir survey using sound methods, identifying and, where possible, minimizing biases. Copyright © 2017

  2. Reconstruction of Rift Valley fever transmission dynamics in Madagascar: estimation of force of infection from seroprevalence surveys using Bayesian modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Marie-Marie; Grosbois, Vladimir; Tran, Annelise; Nomenjanahary, Lalaina Arivony; Rakotoarinoro, Mihaja; Andriamandimby, Soa-Fy; Rogier, Christophe; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Chevalier, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    The force of infection (FOI) is one of the key parameters describing the dynamics of transmission of vector-borne diseases. Following the occurrence of two major outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Madagascar in 1990–91 and 2008–09, recent studies suggest that the pattern of RVF virus (RVFV) transmission differed among the four main eco-regions (East, Highlands, North-West and South-West). Using Bayesian hierarchical models fitted to serological data from cattle of known age collected during two surveys (2008 and 2014), we estimated RVF FOI and described its variations over time and space in Madagascar. We show that the patterns of RVFV transmission strongly differed among the eco-regions. In the North-West and Highlands regions, these patterns were synchronous with a high intensity in mid-2007/mid-2008. In the East and South-West, the peaks of transmission were later, between mid-2008 and mid-2010. In the warm and humid northwestern eco-region favorable to mosquito populations, RVFV is probably transmitted all year-long at low-level during inter-epizootic period allowing its maintenance and being regularly introduced in the Highlands through ruminant trade. The RVF surveillance of animals of the northwestern region could be used as an early warning indicator of an increased risk of RVF outbreak in Madagascar. PMID:28051125

  3. Metallicity estimates for A-, F-, and G-type stars from the Edinburgh-Cape blue object survey

    CERN Document Server

    Beers, T C; O'Donoghue, D; Kilkenny, D; Stobie, R S; Koen, C; Wilhelm, R

    2000-01-01

    The Edinburgh-Cape Blue Object Survey is an ongoing project to identify and analyse a large sample of hot stars selected initially on the basis of photographic colours (down to a magnitude limit B~18.0) over the entire high-Galactic-latitude southern sky, then studied with broadband UBV photometry and medium-resolution spectroscopy. Due to unavoidable errors in the initial candidate selection, stars that are likely metal-deficient dwarfs and giants of the halo and thick-disk populations are inadvertently included, yet are of interest in their own right. In this paper we discuss a total of 206 candidate metal-deficient dwarfs, subgiants, giants, and horizontal-branch stars with photoelectric colours redder than (B-V)o = 0.3, and with available spectroscopy. Radial velocities, accurate to ~10-15 km/s, are presented for all of these stars. Spectroscopic metallicity estimates for these stars are obtained using a recently re-calibrated relation between Ca II K-line strength and (B-V)o colour. The identification of...

  4. Improving the Magnetic Anomaly Map of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIndoo, M.; Shaw, A.; Batir, J.; Ravat, D.; Milligan, P.; Kucks, R. P.; Hill, P.; Hildenbrand, T. G.

    2007-05-01

    We have improved magnetic anomaly map of the United States using National Uranium Reconnaissance & Evaluations (NURE) aeromagnetic surveys collected during the 1970s. Previous versions of these data processed using IGRF/DGRF do not mesh well at the survey boundaries because of leveling artifacts. Similarly, the U.S. component of the North American magnetic anomaly map has long wavelength errors caused by warping of hundreds of state and local aeromagnetic surveys during the merging process. The main difference in our processing that has allowed us to retain proper base levels is the use of the temporally continuous main field Comprehensive Model (CM4) by Sabaka et al. (2004, GJI, 159, 521-547). The advantage of using the NURE surveys is that most of these surveys have time information and diurnal variation observed with basestation magnetometers is removed from them. Furthermore, we have cleaned the NURE data by removing many spurious values through visual inspection. Some NURE surveys did not have total field values or time information. For these surveys, we reintroduced the IGRF for their approximate date and removed the core field determined by CM4. We compare the results of our processing and improvements with the U.S. aeromagnetic anomaly data prepared by different merging techniques. The improved map is more suitable for regional geologic and geodynamic interpretations.

  5. Interpretation of magnetic anomalies using a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaftan, İlknur

    2017-07-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) is an artificial intelligence method used for optimization. We applied a GA to the inversion of magnetic anomalies over a thick dike. Inversion of nonlinear geophysical problems using a GA has advantages because it does not require model gradients or well-defined initial model parameters. The evolution process consists of selection, crossover, and mutation genetic operators that look for the best fit to the observed data and a solution consisting of plausible compact sources. The efficiency of a GA on both synthetic and real magnetic anomalies of dikes by estimating model parameters, such as depth to the top of the dike (H), the half-width of the dike (B), the distance from the origin to the reference point (D), the dip of the thick dike (δ), and the susceptibility contrast (k), has been shown. For the synthetic anomaly case, it has been considered for both noise-free and noisy magnetic data. In the real case, the vertical magnetic anomaly from the Pima copper mine in Arizona, USA, and the vertical magnetic anomaly in the Bayburt-Sarıhan skarn zone in northeastern Turkey have been inverted and interpreted. We compared the estimated parameters with the results of conventional inversion methods used in previous studies. We can conclude that the GA method used in this study is a useful tool for evaluating magnetic anomalies for dike models.

  6. Theoretical Estimates of Integrated Sachs-Wolfe Effect Detection through EMU-ASKAP Survey with Confusion, Position Uncertainty, Shot Noise and SNR analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Syed Faisal ur

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses ISW estimates through EMU-ASKAP survey. The main ideas this paper covers include: 1- Discussion on source distribution, confusion, position accuracy and shotnoise (with discussion focusing on SN ratios). 2- Selection of maximum redshift and maximum 'l' ranges in relation with SN ratios. Note: Complete abstract is available in the document.

  7. Effect on trend estimates of the difference between survey respondents and non-respondents: results from 27 populations in the WHO MONICA Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Dobson, Annette; Kulathinal, Sangita

    2005-01-01

    In the World Health Organization (WHO) MONICA (multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) Project considerable effort was made to obtain basic data on non-respondents to community based surveys of cardiovascular risk factors. The first purpose of this paper is to examine differences in socio-economic and health profiles among respondents and non-respondents. The second purpose is to investigate the effect of non-response on estimates of trends. Socio-economic and health profile between respondents and non-respondents in the WHO MONICA Project final survey were compared. The potential effect of non-response on the trend estimates between the initial survey and final survey approximately ten years later was investigated using both MONICA data and hypothetical data. In most of the populations, non-respondents were more likely to be single, less well educated, and had poorer lifestyles and health profiles than respondents. As an example of the consequences, temporal trends in prevalence of daily smokers are shown to be overestimated in most populations if they were based only on data from respondents. The socio-economic and health profiles of respondents and non-respondents differed fairly consistently across 27 populations. Hence, the estimators of population trends based on respondent data are likely to be biased. Declining response rates therefore pose a threat to the accuracy of estimates of risk factor trends in many countries.

  8. How Radiation Oncologists Evaluate and Incorporate Life Expectancy Estimates Into the Treatment of Palliative Cancer Patients: A Survey-Based Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Yolanda D., E-mail: ydtseng@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Krishnan, Monica S. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sullivan, Adam J. [Department of Biostatistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Jones, Joshua A. [Harvard Palliative Medicine Fellowship Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chow, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Balboni, Tracy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: We surveyed how radiation oncologists think about and incorporate a palliative cancer patient’s life expectancy (LE) into their treatment recommendations. Methods and Materials: A 41-item survey was e-mailed to 113 radiation oncology attending physicians and residents at radiation oncology centers within the Boston area. Physicians estimated how frequently they assessed the LE of their palliative cancer patients and rated the importance of 18 factors in formulating LE estimates. For 3 common palliative case scenarios, physicians estimated LE and reported whether they had an LE threshold below which they would modify their treatment recommendation. LE estimates were considered accurate when within the 95% confidence interval of median survival estimates from an established prognostic model. Results: Among 92 respondents (81%), the majority were male (62%), from an academic practice (75%), and an attending physician (70%). Physicians reported assessing LE in 91% of their evaluations and most frequently rated performance status (92%), overall metastatic burden (90%), presence of central nervous system metastases (75%), and primary cancer site (73%) as “very important” in assessing LE. Across the 3 cases, most (88%-97%) had LE thresholds that would alter treatment recommendations. Overall, physicians’ LE estimates were 22% accurate with 67% over the range predicted by the prognostic model. Conclusions: Physicians often incorporate LE estimates into palliative cancer care and identify important prognostic factors. Most have LE thresholds that guide their treatment recommendations. However, physicians overestimated patient survival times in most cases. Future studies focused on improving LE assessment are needed.

  9. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....

  10. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. All grid cells within the rectangular data area (from 61 to 66 degrees North latitude and...

  11. ALP hints from cooling anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Giannotti, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    We review the current status of the anomalies in stellar cooling and argue that, among the new physics candidates, an axion-like particle would represent the best option to account for the hinted additional cooling.

  12. Notes on Anomaly Induced Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Landsteiner, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Chiral anomalies give rise to dissipationless transport phenomena such as the chiral magnetic and vortical effects. In these notes I review the theory from a quantum field theoretic, hydrodynamic and holographic perspective. A physical interpretation of the otherwise somewhat obscure concepts of consistent and covariant anomalies will be given. Vanishing of the CME in strict equilibrium will be connected to the boundary conditions in momentum space imposed by the regularization. The role of the gravitational anomaly will be explained. That it contributes to transport in an unexpectedly low order in the derivative expansion can be easiest understood via holography. Anomalous transport is supposed to play also a key role in understanding the electronics of advanced materials, the Dirac- and Weyl (semi)metals. Anomaly related phenomena such as negative magnetoresistivity, anomalous Hall effect, thermal anomalous Hall effect and Fermi arcs can be understood via anomalous transport. Finally I briefly review a holo...

  13. A review of non-strabismic accommodative-vergence anomalies in school-age children. Part 1: Vergence anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O. Wajuihian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Comfortable reading and the performance of near point activities involve efficient accommodative and vergence systems. However, accommodative and vergence anomalies are associated with various symptoms that impair efficient near point tasks. Although several studies investigated accommodative-vergence anomalies in school-age populations, their findings were diverse owing to differences in diagnostic techniques and the criteria used to define the variables. The aim of this paper is to derive prevalence and distribution estimates of vergence anomalies in school-age children and address variations in the study methods and findings. Despite variations in the study methods and findings, accommodativevergence anomalies were common in school-age populations. Variations and limitations of previous studies are discussed and recommendations for improving future studies are suggested.

  14. Renormalization group flows and anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Komargodski, Zohar

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews various aspects of renormalization group flows and anomalies. The chapter considers specific Euclidean two-dimensional theories. Namely, the theories are invariant under translations and rotations in the two space directions. Here the chapter studies theories where, if possible, certain equations hold in fact also at coincident points. In other words, the chapter looks at theories where there is no local gravitational anomaly.

  15. Situs anomalies on prenatal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Stefan F; Brugger, Peter C; Nemec, Ursula; Bettelheim, Dieter; Kasprian, Gregor; Amann, Gabriele; Rimoin, David L; Graham, John M; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-04-01

    Situs anomalies refer to an abnormal organ arrangement, which may be associated with severe errors of development. Due regard being given to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US), this study sought to demonstrate the in utero visualization of situs anomalies on MRI, compared to US. This retrospective study included 12 fetuses with situs anomalies depicted on fetal MRI using prenatal US as a comparison modality. With an MRI standard protocol, the whole fetus was assessed for anomalies, with regard to the position and morphology of the following structures: heart; venous drainage and aorta; stomach and intestines; liver and gallbladder; and the presence and number of spleens. Situs inversus totalis was found in 3/12 fetuses; situs inversus with levocardia in 1/12 fetuses; situs inversus abdominis in 2/12 fetuses; situs ambiguous with polysplenia in 3/12 fetuses, and with asplenia in 2/12 fetuses; and isolated dextrocardia in 1/12 fetuses. Congenital heart defects (CHDs), vascular anomalies, and intestinal malrotations were the most frequent associated malformations. In 5/12 cases, the US and MRI diagnoses were concordant. Compared to US, in 7/12 cases, additional MRI findings specified the situs anomaly, but CHDs were only partially visualized in six cases. Our initial MRI results demonstrate the visualization of situs anomalies and associated malformations in utero, which may provide important information for perinatal management. Using a standard protocol, MRI may identify additional findings, compared to US, which confirm and specify the situs anomaly, but, with limited MRI visualization of fetal CHDs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anomaly detection on cup anemometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Enrique; Pindado, Santiago; Martínez, Alejandro; Meseguer, Encarnación; García, Luis

    2014-12-01

    The performances of two rotor-damaged commercial anemometers (Vector Instruments A100 LK) were studied. The calibration results (i.e. the transfer function) were very linear, the aerodynamic behavior being more efficient than the one shown by both anemometers equipped with undamaged rotors. No detection of the anomaly (the rotors’ damage) was possible based on the calibration results. However, the Fourier analysis clearly revealed this anomaly.

  17. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-09-01

    To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey. We compared 148 MSM aged 18-64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010-2012, with men in the same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS); 797 in the London Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey; and 1234 in Scotland's Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey. Analyses compared men reporting at least one male sexual partner (past year) on similarly worded questions and multivariable analyses accounted for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. MSM in convenience surveys were younger and better educated than MSM in Natsal-3, and a larger proportion identified as gay (85%-95% vs 62%). Partner numbers were higher and same-sex anal sex more common in convenience surveys. Unprotected anal intercourse was more commonly reported in EMIS. Compared with Natsal-3, MSM in convenience surveys were more likely to report gonorrhoea diagnoses and HIV testing (both past year). Differences between the samples were reduced when restricting analysis to gay-identifying MSM. National probability surveys better reflect the population of MSM but are limited by their smaller samples of MSM. Convenience surveys recruit larger samples of MSM but tend to over-represent MSM identifying as gay and reporting more sexual risk behaviours. Because both sampling strategies have strengths and weaknesses, methods are needed to triangulate data from probability and convenience surveys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Addressing catch mechanisms in gillnets improves modeling of selectivity and estimates of mortality rates: a case study using survey data on an endangered stock of Arctic char

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, T.; Setzer, M.; Pope, John George;

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of fish stock size distributions from survey data requires knowledge about gear selectivity. However, selectivity models rest on assumptions that seldom are analyzed. Departures from these can lead to misinterpretations and biased management recommendations. Here, we use survey data...... on great Arctic char (Salvelinus umbla) to analyze how correcting for entanglement of fish and nonisometric growth might improve estimates of selectivity curves, and subsequently estimates of size distribution and age-specific mortality. Initial selectivity curves, using the entire data set, were wide...... and asymmetric, with poor model fits. Removing potentially nonmeshed fish had the greatest positive effect on model fit, resulting in much narrower and less asymmetric selection curves, while attempting to take nonisometric growth into account, by using girth rather than length, improved model fit...

  19. Using recall surveys to estimate harvest of cod, eel and sea migrating brown trout in Danish angling and recreational passive gear fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Nielsen, Jan; Storr-Paulsen, Marie

    , as all recreational fishermen have to purchase a personal non-transferable and time limited national license before fishing. However, this list will not include those fishing illegally without a license. Therefore, two types of recall surveys with their own questionnaires and group of respondents were......Recreational fishing is a popular outdoor leisure activity in Europe but the actual impact on the targeted stocks is often unknown. Besides angling, marine recreational fishing in Denmark is practiced using passive gear, such as gill- and fykenets. A list of participants is updated continuously...... per ICES area and quarter. In order to also estimate the fraction of fishermen that fished without a valid license, a second survey, called – the Omnibus survey-, was carried out four times. This survey targeted the entire Danish population between 16 and 74 of age...

  20. Structure of La Primavera caldera, Jalisco, Mexico, deduced from gravity anomalies and drilling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, I.; Mena, M.

    1991-07-01

    Previous studies of La Primavera caldera have mostly been based on surface geology and topography. Since 1980, many wells, exploring for geothermal energy, have reached depths of about 2 to 3 km at the center of the caldera. The results of the drillings, together with those of the gravity surveys, provide information about the subsurface structure of the caldera, and shed light on its formation. The drilling results and gravity anomalies at La Primavera caldera and San Marcos, located at about 40 km distance from the caldera, suggest that regional gravity anomalies can be interpreted in terms of depths of the granitic basements: the basement beneath La Primavera caldera is about 3 km deep and consists of roughly the same horizon as that beneath San Marcos. The drilling results within the caldera reveal that the depth of the caldera fills ranges from 0.3 to 1 km at the drilling sites. The andesite basement, about 1 km deep, remains approximately horizontal, and the granitic basement has a depth of about 3 km. The surface topographies, such as the postcaldera domes, scarcely disturb the subsurface strata. The local gravity anomalies show two lows within the caldera reflecting the configuration of caldera bottom, two funnel-shaped depressions, one of which corresponds to a vent of the Tala tuff deduced from geological observations. The mass deficiency within the caldera estimated from the gravity anomaly, satisfies the general relationship that the mass deficiency is proportional to the caldera diameter cubed. This means that caldera structure is three-dimensional: the larger the diameter, the deeper the funnel-shape. At present this argument may be limited to funnel-shaped calderas.

  1. Space weather and space anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A large database of anomalies, registered by 220 satellites in different orbits over the period 1971-1994 has been compiled. For the first time, data from 49 Russian Kosmos satellites have been included in a statistical analysis. The database also contains a large set of daily and hourly space weather parameters. A series of statistical analyses made it possible to quantify, for different satellite orbits, space weather conditions on the days characterized by anomaly occurrences. In particular, very intense fluxes (>1000 pfu at energy >10 MeV of solar protons are linked to anomalies registered by satellites in high-altitude (>15000 km, near-polar (inclination >55° orbits typical for navigation satellites, such as those used in the GPS network, NAVSTAR, etc. (the rate of anomalies increases by a factor ~20, and to a much smaller extent to anomalies in geostationary orbits, (they increase by a factor ~4. Direct and indirect connections between anomaly occurrence and geomagnetic perturbations are also discussed.

  2. Density surface fitting to estimate the abundance of humpback whales based on the NASS-95 and NASS- 2001 aerial and shipboard surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles GM Paxton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Generalized additive models (GAMs with spatially referenced covariates were fitted to data collected during the 1995 and 2001 Icelandic (shipboard and aerial and Faroese (shipboard only components of the North Atlantic Sightings Surveys (NASS-95 and NASS-2001. The shipboard surveys extended from the east coast of Greenland, around Iceland, down to an area along the west coast ofIreland (in 1995 and to the north of the United Kingdom (in 2001. In contrast, the aerial surveys were limited to Icelandic coastal waters only. The aim of the analysis was to predict density, and hence abundance, of humpback whales throughout the survey regions and also to establish if there was any evidence that humpback whale density was related to sea surface temperature or depth.Fitting GAMs to the 1995 data proved problematic and so various subsets of the data were used in an attempt to improve the model fitting. Such difficulties did not occur with the 2001 data. Confidence intervals (CIs for the abundance estimates were estimated using bootstrap sampling methods.The estimated humpback whale abundance for the region covered by the aerial and shipboard surveys in 1995 was 10,521 (95% CI: 3,716–24,636 using all available data and 7,625 (3,641–22,424 if survey blocks with 0 sightings around the Faroes and south of 60˚ N where no humpback whales were detected were excluded from the analysis. The estimate for the total survey region in 2001 was 14,662 (9,441–29,879. The high upper bounds of the confidence intervals were thought to be caused by a paucity of effort over wide areas of the survey leading to interpolation. Overall, the uncertainty associated with these abundance estimates was approximately equal to, or greater than, that associated with a stratified distance analysis. Given these wide CIs the evidence for a substantial difference in abundance between years was equivocal. However there was evidence to suggest that humpback whales congregated in

  3. How many people have alcohol use disorders?: using the harmful dysfunction analysis to reconcile prevalence estimates in two community surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome C Wakefield

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Community prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders (AUDs provided by epidemiological studies using DSM-based diagnostic criteria pose several challenges: the rates appear implausibly high to many epidemiologists; they do not converge across similar studies; and, due to low service utilization by those diagnosed as disordered, they yield estimates of unmet need for services so high that credibility for planning purposes is jeopardized. For example, two early community studies using DSM diagnostic criteria, the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (ECA and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, yielded lifetime AUD prevalence rates of 14% and 24%, respectively, with NCS unmet need for services 19% of the entire population. Attempts to address these challenges by adding clinical significance requirements to diagnostic criteria have proven unsuccessful. Hypothesizing that these challenges are due to high rates of false positive diagnoses of problem drinking as AUDs, we test an alternative approach. We use the harmful dysfunction (HD analysis of the concept of mental disorder as a guide to construct more valid criteria within the framework of the standard out-of-control model of AUD. The proposed HD criteria require harm and dysfunction, where harm can be any negative social, personal, or physical outcome, and dysfunction requires either withdrawal symptoms or inability to stop drinking. Using HD criteria, ECA and NCS lifetime prevalences converge to much-reduced rates of 6% and 6.8%, respectively. Due to higher service utilization rates, NCS lifetime unmet need is reduced to 3.4%. Service-use and duration comparisons suggest increased diagnostic validity. Moreover, HD criteria eliminate 90% of transient teenage drinking from disorder status. The HD version of the out-of-control model thus potentially resolves the three classic prevalence challenges while offering a more rigorous approach to distinguishing AUDs from problematic drinking.

  4. How Many People have Alcohol Use Disorders? Using the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis to Reconcile Prevalence Estimates in Two Community Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Jerome C.; Schmitz, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Community prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) provided by epidemiological studies using DSM-based diagnostic criteria pose several challenges: the rates appear implausibly high to many epidemiologists; they do not converge across similar studies; and, due to low service utilization by those diagnosed as disordered, they yield estimates of unmet need for services so high that credibility for planning purposes is jeopardized. For example, two early community studies using DSM diagnostic criteria, the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (ECA) and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), yielded lifetime AUD prevalence rates of 14 and 24%, respectively, with NCS unmet need for services 19% of the entire population. Attempts to address these challenges by adding clinical significance requirements to diagnostic criteria have proven unsuccessful. Hypothesizing that these challenges are due to high rates of false-positive diagnoses of problem drinking as AUDs, we test an alternative approach. We use the harmful dysfunction (HD) analysis of the concept of mental disorder as a guide to construct more valid criteria within the framework of the standard out-of-control model of AUD. The proposed HD criteria require harm and dysfunction, where harm can be any negative social, personal, or physical outcome, and dysfunction requires either withdrawal symptoms or inability to stop drinking. Using HD criteria, ECA and NCS lifetime prevalences converge to much-reduced rates of 6 and 6.8%, respectively. Due to higher service utilization rates, NCS lifetime unmet need is reduced to 3.4%. Service use and duration comparisons suggest that HD criteria possess increased diagnostic validity. Moreover, HD criteria eliminate 90% of transient teenage drinking from disorder status. The HD version of the out-of-control model thus potentially resolves the three classic prevalence challenges while offering a more rigorous approach to distinguishing AUDs from problematic drinking. PMID

  5. Investigating tectonic and bathymetric features of the Indian Ocean using MAGSAT magnetic anomaly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailor, R. V.; Lazarewicz, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    An equivalent source anomaly map and a map of the relative magnetization for the investigation region were produced. Gravimetry, bathymetry, and MAGSAT anomaly maps were contoured in pseudocolor displays. Finally, an autoregressive spectrum estimation technique was verified with synthetic data and shown to be capable of resolving exponential power spectra using small samples of data. Interpretations were made regarding the relationship between MAGSAT data spectra and crustal anomaly spectra.

  6. Midwives' views on of appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests: do they match clients' preferences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Hutton, E.K.; Spelten, E.R.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: this study aims to provide insight into: (a) midwives' views on appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests, and (b) whether these views match clients' preferences regarding antenatal counselling. Design: a comparative (midwives versus clients) questionnaire survey. Cog

  7. Midwives' views on appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests: Do they match clients' preferences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Hutton, E.K.; Spelten, E.R.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: this study aims to provide insight into: (a) midwives' views on appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests, and (b) whether these views match clients' preferences regarding antenatal counselling. DESIGN: a comparative (midwives versus clients) questionnaire survey. Cog

  8. MODIS/TERRA MOD14 Thermal Anomalies & Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  9. MODIS/TERRA MOD14A1 Thermal Anomalies & Fire Daily L3 Global 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  10. MODIS/AQUA MYD14A1 Thermal Anomalies & Fire Daily L3 Global 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  11. MODIS/AQUA MYD14 Thermal Anomalies & Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  12. Midwives' views on of appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests: do they match clients' preferences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Hutton, E.K.; Spelten, E.R.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: this study aims to provide insight into: (a) midwives' views on appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests, and (b) whether these views match clients' preferences regarding antenatal counselling. Design: a comparative (midwives versus clients) questionnaire survey.

  13. Midwives' views on appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests: Do they match clients' preferences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Hutton, E.K.; Spelten, E.R.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: this study aims to provide insight into: (a) midwives' views on appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests, and (b) whether these views match clients' preferences regarding antenatal counselling. DESIGN: a comparative (midwives versus clients) questionnaire survey.

  14. Anomaly detection for machine learning redshifts applied to SDSS galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyle, Ben; Paech, Kerstin; Bonnett, Christopher; Seitz, Stella; Weller, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of anomaly detection for machine learning redshift estimation. Anomaly detection allows the removal of poor training examples, which can adversely influence redshift estimates. Anomalous training examples may be photometric galaxies with incorrect spectroscopic redshifts, or galaxies with one or more poorly measured photometric quantity. We select 2.5 million 'clean' SDSS DR12 galaxies with reliable spectroscopic redshifts, and 6730 'anomalous' galaxies with spectroscopic redshift measurements which are flagged as unreliable. We contaminate the clean base galaxy sample with galaxies with unreliable redshifts and attempt to recover the contaminating galaxies using the Elliptical Envelope technique. We then train four machine learning architectures for redshift analysis on both the contaminated sample and on the preprocessed 'anomaly-removed' sample and measure redshift statistics on a clean validation sample generated without any preprocessing. We find an improvement on all measured stat...

  15. Coronary Artery Anomalies in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Scansen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow though reports also exist in the horse and pig. The most well-known anomaly in veterinary medicine is anomalous coronary artery origin with a prepulmonary course in dogs, which limits treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis. A categorization scheme for coronary artery anomalies in animals is suggested, dividing these anomalies into those of major or minor clinical significance. A review of coronary artery development, anatomy, and reported anomalies in domesticated species is provided and four novel canine examples of anomalous coronary artery origin are described: an English bulldog with single left coronary ostium and a retroaortic right coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and transseptal left coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and absent left coronary artery with a prepulmonary paraconal interventricular branch and an interarterial circumflex branch; and a mixed-breed dog with tetralogy of Fallot and anomalous origin of all coronary branches from the brachiocephalic trunk. Coronary arterial fistulae are also described including a coronary cameral fistula in a llama cria and an English bulldog with coronary artery aneurysm and anomalous shunting vessels from the right coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk. These examples are provided with the intent to raise awareness and improve understanding of such defects.

  16. Determining surface wave arrival angle anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Erik W. F.; Ekström, Göran

    2002-06-01

    A new method for measuring arrival angles of teleseismic Love and Rayleigh waves is developed. The new method utilizes estimates of surface wave dispersion to create a phase-matched filter to isolate the Love or Rayleigh wave in three-component recordings. The polarization of the filtered wave group is determined in the time domain by application of a variation of the complex polarization method of Vidale [1986]. Orientation, linearity, and ellipticity of particle motion are estimated in several frequency bands to determine the frequency-dependent polarization. The method employs an iterative scheme, by which a predicted Love wave, based on the estimated dispersion and polarization, is subtracted from the three-component data prior to the estimation of Rayleigh wave polarization, and vice versa. The method is applied to an extensive set of Global Seismographic Network data covering the years 1989-1998. Between 4244 and 15,075 measurements are collected for fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh waves at nine different periods (37 to 150 s). Measurement uncertainties are estimated using the statistics of observations for pairwise similar paths and are generally of the order of 15-50% of the total signal, depending on the period and the wave type. Large and azimuthally invariant angle anomalies are documented for several stations and are consistent with misorientation of the horizontal seismometers. Two schemes are employed to determine the misorientations: (1) an azimuthally weighted average at each station, and (2) a joint inversion for seismometer misorientation and globally heterogeneous phase velocities. The determined corrections are robust and correlate well with those reported in earlier studies. Azimuthally varying arrival angle anomalies are shown to agree qualitatively with predictions of wave refraction calculated for recent phase velocity maps, which explain up to 30% of the variance in the new measurements.

  17. Paired Comparison Survey Analyses Utilizing Rasch Methodology of the Relative Difficulty and Estimated Work Relative Value Units of CPT® Code 27279

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorio, Morgan; Ferrara, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint arthrodesis (“MI SIJ fusion”) received a Category I CPT® code (27279) effective January 1, 2015 and was assigned a work relative value unit (“RVU”) of 9.03. The International Society for the Advancement of Spine Surgery (“ISASS”) conducted a study consisting of a Rasch analysis of two separate surveys of surgeons to assess the accuracy of the assigned work RVU. Methods A survey was developed and sent to ninety-three ISASS surgeon committee members. Respondents were asked to compare CPT® 27279 to ten other comparator CPT® codes reflective of common spine surgeries. The survey presented each comparator CPT® code with its code descriptor as well as the description of CPT® 27279 and asked respondents to indicate whether CPT® 27279 was greater, equal, or less in terms of work effort than the comparator code. A second survey was sent to 557 U.S.-based spine surgeon members of ISASS and 241 spine surgeon members of the Society for Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery (“SMISS”). The design of the second survey mirrored that of the first survey except for the use of a broader set of comparator CPT® codes (27 vs. 10). Using the work RVUs of the comparator codes, a Rasch analysis was performed to estimate the relative difficulty of CPT® 27279, after which the work RVU of CPT® 27279 was estimated by regression analysis. Results Twenty surgeons responded to the first survey and thirty-four surgeons responded to the second survey. The results of the regression analysis of the first survey indicate a work RVU for CPT® 27279 of 14.36 and the results of the regression analysis of the second survey indicate a work RVU for CPT® 27279 of 14.1. Conclusion The Rasch analysis indicates that the current work RVU assigned to CPT® 27279 is undervalued at 9.03. Averaging the results of the regression analyses of the two surveys indicates a work RVU for CPT® 27279 of 14.23.

  18. Spacecraft Environmental Anomalies Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    two basic materials on its surface -- one a conductor, the second an insulator (for example the insulator might be the solar cell cover glass ( silicon ...the minimum value del$ading on the naterial. Ito ionization loss in other materials ca be esWti d f(mm the emrgy loss in silicon by multiplying by the... resistivides which can be used to estimate charge buildup. 3-lU Table 3-1. Resistivity Table TITLE DESCRIPTION RESISTIVITY REFERENCE ALUMINA -- 10 11 TO 1014

  19. Estimating detection probability for Canada lynx Lynx canadensis using snow-track surveys in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Lucretia E. Olson; David L. Turner; Nicholas J. DeCesare; Jay A. Kolbe

    2012-01-01

    We used snow-tracking surveys to determine the probability of detecting Canada lynx Lynx canadensis in known areas of lynx presence in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA during the winters of 2006 and 2007. We used this information to determine the minimum number of survey replicates necessary to infer the presence and absence of lynx in areas of similar lynx...

  20. Five-Factor Screener in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement: Uses of Screener Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary intake estimates derived from the Five-Factor Screener are rough estimates of usual intake of fruits and vegetables, fiber, calcium, servings of dairy, and added sugar. These estimates are not as accurate as those from more detailed methods (e.g., 24-hour recalls).

  1. Microwave radiometric signatures of temperature anomalies in tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick; Sobers, Tamara; St. Peter, Benjamin; Siqueira, Paul; Capraro, Geoffrey

    2012-03-01

    Because of its ability to measure the temperature-dependent power of electromagnetic radiation emitted from tissue down to several centimeters beneath the skin, microwave radiometry has long been of interest as a means for identifying the internal tissue temperature anomalies that arise from abnormalities in physiological parameters such as metabolic and blood perfusion rates. However, the inherent lack of specificity and resolution in microwave radiometer measurements has limited the clinical usefulness of the technique. The idea underlying this work is to make use of information (assumed to be available from some other modality) about the tissue configuration in the volume of interest to study and improve the accuracy of anomaly detection and estimation from radiometric data. In particular, knowledge of the specific anatomy and the properties of the overall measurement system enable determination of the signatures of localized physiological abnormalities in the radiometry data. These signatures are used to investigate the accuracy with which the location of an anomaly can be determined from radiometric measurements. Algorithms based on matches to entries in a signature dictionary are developed for anomaly detection and estimation. The accuracy of anomaly identification is improved when the coupling of power from the body to the sensor is optimized. We describe the design of a radiometer waveguide having dielectric properties appropriate for biomedical applications.

  2. Preliminary Analyses of Beidou Signal-In Anomaly Since 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Ren, J.; Liu, W.

    2016-06-01

    As BeiDou navigation system has been operational since December 2012. There is an increasing desire to use multiple constellation to improve positioning performance. The signal-in-space (SIS) anomaly caused by the ground control and the space vehicle is one of the major threats to affect the integrity. For a young Global Navigation Satellite System, knowledge about SIS anomalies in history is very important for not only assessing the SIS integrity performance of a constellation but also providing the assumption for ARAIM (Advanced Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring). In this paper, the broadcast ephemerides and the precise ones are pre-processed for avoiding the false anomaly identification. The SIS errors over the period of Mar. 2013-Feb. 2016 are computed by comparing the broadcast ephemerides with the precise ones. The time offsets between GPST (GPS time) and BDT (BeiDou time) are estimated and removed by an improved estimation algorithm. SIS worst-UREs are computed and a RMS criteria are investigated to identify the SIS anomalies. The results show that the probability of BeiDou SIS anomalies is in 10-3 level in last three years. Even though BeiDou SIS integrity performance currently cannot match the GPS integrity performances, the result indicates that BeiDou has a tendency to improve its integrity performance.

  3. Probabilistic Anomaly Detection Based On System Calls Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Maciołek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an application of probabilistic approach to the anomaly detection (PAD. Byanalyzing selected system calls (and their arguments, the chosen applications are monitoredin the Linux environment. This allows us to estimate “(abnormality” of their behavior (bycomparison to previously collected profiles. We’ve attached results of threat detection ina typical computer environment.

  4. Anomaly Monitoring Method for Key Components of Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a fault diagnosis method for key components of satellite, called Anomaly Monitoring Method (AMM, which is made up of state estimation based on Multivariate State Estimation Techniques (MSET and anomaly detection based on Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT. On the basis of analysis failure of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs, we divided the failure of LIBs into internal failure, external failure, and thermal runaway and selected electrolyte resistance (Re and the charge transfer resistance (Rct as the key parameters of state estimation. Then, through the actual in-orbit telemetry data of the key parameters of LIBs, we obtained the actual residual value (RX and healthy residual value (RL of LIBs based on the state estimation of MSET, and then, through the residual values (RX and RL of LIBs, we detected the anomaly states based on the anomaly detection of SPRT. Lastly, we conducted an example of AMM for LIBs, and, according to the results of AMM, we validated the feasibility and effectiveness of AMM by comparing it with the results of threshold detective method (TDM.

  5. Shortening Anomalies in Supersymmetric Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Gomis, Jaume; Ooguri, Hirosi; Seiberg, Nathan; Wang, Yifan

    2016-01-01

    We present new anomalies in two-dimensional ${\\mathcal N} =(2, 2)$ superconformal theories. They obstruct the shortening conditions of chiral and twisted chiral multiplets at coincident points. This implies that marginal couplings cannot be promoted to background super-fields in short representations. Therefore, standard results that follow from ${\\mathcal N} =(2, 2)$ spurion analysis are invalidated. These anomalies appear only if supersymmetry is enhanced beyond ${\\mathcal N} =(2, 2)$. These anomalies explain why the conformal manifolds of the K3 and $T^4$ sigma models are not K\\"ahler and do not factorize into chiral and twisted chiral moduli spaces and why there are no ${\\mathcal N} =(2, 2)$ gauged linear sigma models that cover these conformal manifolds. We also present these results from the point of view of the Riemann curvature of conformal manifolds.

  6. Boundary terms of conformal anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Solodukhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the structure of the boundary terms in the conformal anomaly integrated over a manifold with boundaries. We suggest that the anomalies of type B, polynomial in the Weyl tensor, are accompanied with the respective boundary terms of the Gibbons–Hawking type. Their form is dictated by the requirement that they produce a variation which compensates the normal derivatives of the metric variation on the boundary in order to have a well-defined variational procedure. This suggestion agrees with recent findings in four dimensions for free fields of various spins. We generalize this consideration to six dimensions and derive explicitly the respective boundary terms. We point out that the integrated conformal anomaly in odd dimensions is non-vanishing due to the boundary terms. These terms are specified in three and five dimensions.

  7. Multiple Visceral and Peritoneal Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Prabhu S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral and peritoneal anomalies are frequently encountered during cadaveric dissections and surgical procedures of abdomen. A thorough knowledge of the same is required for the success of diagnostic, surgical and radiological procedures of abdomen. We report multiple peritoneal and visceral anomalies noted during dissection classes for medical undergraduates. The anomalies were found in an adult male cadaver aged approximately 70 years. The right iliac fossa was empty due to the sub-hepatic position of caecum and appendix. The sigmoid colon formed an inverted “U” shaped loop above the sacral promontory in the median position. It entered the pelvis from the right side and descended along the lateral wall of the pelvis. The sigmoid mesocolon was attached obliquely to the posterior abdominal wall, just above the sacral promontory. Further there was a cysto-colic fold of peritoneum extending from the right colic flexure. We discuss the clinical significance of the variations.

  8. Electromagnetic Duality and Entanglement Anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Donnelly, William; Wall, Aron

    2016-01-01

    Duality is an indispensable tool for describing the strong-coupling dynamics of gauge theories. However, its actual realization is often quite subtle: quantities such as the partition function can transform covariantly, with degrees of freedom rearranged in a nonlocal fashion. We study this phenomenon in the context of the electromagnetic duality of abelian $p$-forms. A careful calculation of the duality anomaly on an arbitrary $D$-dimensional manifold shows that the effective actions agree exactly in odd $D$, while in even $D$ they differ by a term proportional to the Euler number. Despite this anomaly, the trace of the stress tensor agrees between the dual theories. We also compute the change in the vacuum entanglement entropy under duality, relating this entanglement anomaly to the duality of an "edge mode" theory in two fewer dimensions. Previous work on this subject has led to conflicting results; we explain and resolve these discrepancies.

  9. Conformal Anomalies and Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Meissner, Krzysztof A

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the presence of conformal anomalies in gravitational theories can lead to observable modifications to Einstein's equations via the induced anomalous effective actions, whose non-localities can overwhelm the smallness of the Planck scale. The fact that no such effects have been seen in recent cosmological or gravitational wave observations therefore imposes strong restrictions on the field content of possible extensions of Einstein's theory: all viable theories should have vanishing conformal anomalies. We then show that, among presently known theories, a complete cancellation of conformal anomalies in $D=4$ for both the $C^2$ invariant and the Euler (Gauss-Bonnet) invariant $E_4$ can only be achieved for $N$-extended supergravities with $N\\geq 5$, as well as for M theory compactified to four dimensions.

  10. Boundary terms of conformal anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solodukhin, Sergey N., E-mail: Sergey.Solodukhin@lmpt.univ-tours.fr

    2016-01-10

    We analyze the structure of the boundary terms in the conformal anomaly integrated over a manifold with boundaries. We suggest that the anomalies of type B, polynomial in the Weyl tensor, are accompanied with the respective boundary terms of the Gibbons–Hawking type. Their form is dictated by the requirement that they produce a variation which compensates the normal derivatives of the metric variation on the boundary in order to have a well-defined variational procedure. This suggestion agrees with recent findings in four dimensions for free fields of various spins. We generalize this consideration to six dimensions and derive explicitly the respective boundary terms. We point out that the integrated conformal anomaly in odd dimensions is non-vanishing due to the boundary terms. These terms are specified in three and five dimensions.

  11. Off-road sampling reveals a different grassland bird community than roadside sampling: implications for survey design and estimates to guide conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy I. Wellicome

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grassland bird species continue to decline steeply across North America. Road-based surveys such as the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS are often used to estimate trends and population sizes and to build species distribution models for grassland birds, although roadside survey counts may introduce bias in estimates because of differences in habitats along roadsides and in off-road surveys. We tested for differences in land cover composition and in the avian community on 21 roadside-based survey routes and in an equal number of adjacent off-road walking routes in the grasslands of southern Alberta, Canada. Off-road routes (n = 225 point counts had more native grassland and short shrubs and less fallow land and road area than the roadside routes (n = 225 point counts. Consequently, 17 of the 39 bird species differed between the two route types in frequency of occurrence and relative abundance, measured using an indicator species analysis. Six species, including five obligate grassland species, were more prevalent at off-road sites; they included four species listed under the Canadian federal Species At Risk Act or listed by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada: Sprague's Pipit (Anthus spragueii, Baird's Sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii, the Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus, and McCown's Longspur (Rhynchophanes mccownii. The six species were as much as four times more abundant on off-road sites. Species more prevalent along roadside routes included common species and those typical of farmland and other human-modified habitats, e.g., the European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris, the Black-billed Magpie (Pica hudsonia, and the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus. Differences in avian community composition between roadside and off-road surveys suggest that the use of BBS data when generating population estimates or distribution models may overestimate certain common species and underestimate others of conservation

  12. Health expectancy in the occupied Palestinian territory: estimates from the Gaza Strip and the West Bank: based on surveys from 2006 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qlalweh, Khaled; Duraidi, Mohammed; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Strip and the West Bank. Participants: 17 034 and 38 071 adults aged 20 or over participating the Palestinian Family Health Surveys of 2006 and 2010. Death rates for 2007 and 2010 covered the entire population. Outcome measures: Life expectancy and expected lifetime with and without chronic disease were......Objectives: The purpose of the study was to estimate health expectancy for the Palestinian population and to evaluate changes that have taken place over the past 5 years. Design: Mortality data and population-based health surveys. Setting: The Israeli-occupied Palestinian territory of the Gaza...... estimated using the Sullivan method on the basis of mortality data and data on the prevalence of chronic disease. Results: Life expectancy at the age of 20 increased from 52.8 years in 2006 to 53.3 years in 2010 for men and from 55.1 years to 55.7 years for women. In 2006, expected lifetime without...

  13. Methodology for estimating dietary data from the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Ramírez-Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the methodology used to clean up and estimate dietary intake (DI data from the Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SFFQ of the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Materials and methods. DI was collected through a shortterm SFFQ regarding 140 foods (from October 2011 to May 2012. Energy and nutrient intake was calculated accordingto a nutrient database constructed specifically for the SFFQ. Results. A total of 133 nutrients including energy and fiber were generated from SFFQ data. Between 4.8 and 9.6% of the survey sample was excluded as a result of the cleaning process. Valid DI data were obtained regarding energy and nutrients consumed by 1 212 pre-school children, 1 323 school children, 1 961 adolescents, 2 027 adults and 526 older adults. Conclusions. We documented the methodology used to clean up and estimate DI from the SFFQ used in national dietary assessments in Mexico.

  14. Bias of health estimates obtained from chronic disease and risk factor surveillance systems using telephone population surveys in Australia: results from a representative face-to-face survey in Australia from 2010 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Dal Grande

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging communication technologies have had an impact on population-based telephone surveys worldwide. Our objective was to examine the potential biases of health estimates in South Australia, a state of Australia, obtained via current landline telephone survey methodologies and to report on the impact of mobile-only household on household surveys. Methods Data from an annual multi-stage, systematic, clustered area, face-to-face population survey, Health Omnibus Survey (approximately 3000 interviews annually, included questions about telephone ownership to assess the population that were non-contactable by current telephone sampling methods (2006 to 2013. Univariable analyses (2010 to 2013 and trend analyses were conducted for sociodemographic and health indicator variables in relation to telephone status. Relative coverage biases (RCB of two hypothetical telephone samples was undertaken by examining the prevalence estimates of health status and health risk behaviours (2010 to 2013: directory-listed numbers, consisting mainly of landline telephone numbers and a small proportion of mobile telephone numbers; and a random digit dialling (RDD sample of landline telephone numbers which excludes mobile-only households. Results Telephone (landline and mobile coverage in South Australia is very high (97 %. Mobile telephone ownership increased slightly (7.4 %, rising from 89.7 % in 2006 to 96.3 % in 2013; mobile-only households increased by 431 % over the eight year period from 5.2 % in 2006 to 27.6 % in 2013. Only half of the households have either a mobile or landline number listed in the telephone directory. There were small differences in the prevalence estimates for current asthma, arthritis, diabetes and obesity between the hypothetical telephone samples and the overall sample. However, prevalence estimate for diabetes was slightly underestimated (RCB value of −0.077 in 2013. Mixed RCB results were found for having a

  15. Limitations of Aneuploidy and Anomaly Detection in the Obese Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Zozzaro-Smith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic and can have a profound effect on pregnancy risks. Obese patients tend to be older and are at increased risk for structural fetal anomalies and aneuploidy, making screening options critically important for these women. Failure rates for first-trimester nuchal translucency (NT screening increase with obesity, while the ability to detect soft-markers declines, limiting ultrasound-based screening options. Obesity also decreases the chances of completing the anatomy survey and increases the residual risk of undetected anomalies. Additionally, non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT is less likely to provide an informative result in obese patients. Understanding the limitations and diagnostic accuracy of aneuploidy and anomaly screening in obese patients can help guide clinicians in counseling patients on the screening options.

  16. Boundary Anomalies and Correlation Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    It was shown recently that boundary terms of conformal anomalies recover the universal contribution to the entanglement entropy and also play an important role in the boundary monotonicity theorem of odd-dimensional quantum field theories. Motivated by these results, we investigate relationships between boundary anomalies and the stress tensor correlation functions in conformal field theories. In particular, we focus on how the conformal Ward identity and the renormalization group equation are modified by boundary central charges. Renormalized stress tensors induced by boundary Weyl invariants are also discussed, with examples in spherical and cylindrical geometries.

  17. Population Estimates, Health Care Characteristics, and Material Hardship Experiences of U.S. Children With Parent-Reported Speech-Language Difficulties: Evidence From Three Nationally Representative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonik, Rajan A; Parish, Susan L; Akorbirshoev, Ilhom; Son, Esther; Rosenthal, Eliana

    2017-10-05

    To provide estimates for the prevalence of parent-reported speech-language difficulties in U.S. children, and to describe the levels of health care access and material hardship in this population. We tabulated descriptive and bivariate statistics using cross-sectional data from the 2007 and 2011/2012 iterations of the National Survey of Children's Health, the 2005/2006 and 2009/2010 iterations of the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, and the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Prevalence estimates ranged from 1.8% to 5.0%, with data from two of the three surveys preliminarily indicating increased prevalence in recent years. The largest health care challenge was in accessing care coordination, with 49%-56% of children with parent-reported speech-language difficulties lacking full access. Children with parent-reported speech-language difficulties were more likely than peers without any indications of speech-language difficulties to live in households experiencing each measured material hardship and participating in each measured public benefit program (e.g., 20%-22% experiencing food insecurity, compared to 11%-14% of their peers without any indications of speech-language difficulties). We found mixed preliminary evidence to suggest that the prevalence of parent-reported speech-language difficulties among children may be rising. These children face heightened levels of material hardship and barriers in accessing health care.

  18. The Demographic Assessment for Health Literacy (DAHL): a new tool for estimating associations between health literacy and outcomes in national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchate, Amresh D; Ash, Arlene S; Gazmararian, Julie A; Wolf, Michael S; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2008-10-01

    To impute limited health literacy from commonly measured socio-demographic data and to compare it to the Short-Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) for estimating the influence of limited health literacy on health status in the elderly. The Prudential Medicare Study assesses the S-TOFHLA score, leading to a "reference standard" classification of 25% of people with inadequate literacy; the National Health Interview Survey has no such assessment. We estimated a regression of S-TOFHLA on sex, age, years of schooling, and race/ethnicity in The Prudential Medicare Study data to derive a Demographic Assessment for Health Literacy (DAHL) score, and imputed inadequate literacy to the 25% with the lowest DAHL scores. Using regression, we then examined associations between several health status measures (including hypertension, diabetes, physical and mental SF-12) and inadequate literacy (imputed or test-based). Estimates of association using imputed inadequate literacy closely approximate those obtained using S-TOFHLA-based inadequate literacy for most outcomes examined. As few population surveys measure health literacy, the DAHL, a readily calculated health literacy proxy score, may be useful for expanding the scope of health literacy research in national survey data.

  19. A random cluster survey and a convenience sample give comparable estimates of immunity to vaccine preventable diseases in children of school age in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Heath; Riddell, Michaela A; Gidding, Heather F; Nolan, Terry; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2002-08-19

    We compared estimates of the age-specific population immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B and varicella zoster viruses in Victorian school children obtained by a national sero-survey, using a convenience sample of residual sera from diagnostic laboratories throughout Australia, with those from a three-stage random cluster survey. When grouped according to school age (primary or secondary school) there was no significant difference in the estimates of immunity to measles, mumps, hepatitis B or varicella. Compared with the convenience sample, the random cluster survey estimated higher immunity to rubella in samples from both primary (98.7% versus 93.6%, P = 0.002) and secondary school students (98.4% versus 93.2%, P = 0.03). Despite some limitations, this study suggests that the collection of a convenience sample of sera from diagnostic laboratories is an appropriate sampling strategy to provide population immunity data that will inform Australia's current and future immunisation policies. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. Developing accurate survey methods for estimating population sizes and trends of the critically endangered Nihoa Millerbird and Nihoa Finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Farmer, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the results of a comparative study of bird survey methods undertaken for the purpose of improving assessments of the conservation status for the two endemic passerines on the Island of Nihoa—Nihoa Millerbird (Sylviidae: Acrocephalus familiaris kingi) and Nihoa Finch (Fringilidae: Telespiza ultima; also referred herein as millerbird and finch)—both listed as endangered under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Hawai`i Revised Statutes 195D. The current survey protocol, implemented since 1967, has produced a highly variable range of counts for both the millerbird and finch, making difficult assessments of population size and trend. This report details the analyses of bird survey data collected in 2010 and 2011 in which three survey methods were compared―strip-transect, line-transect, and point-transect sampling―and provides recommendations for improved survey methods and protocols. Funding for this research was provided through a Science Support Partnership grant sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).

  1. 多阶段抽样调查资料的加权估计法%Weighted estimation methods for multistage sampling survey data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓艳; 魏永越; 陈峰

    2009-01-01

    多阶段抽样技术广泛应用于流行病学现况调查中,但针对其所得资料的统计分析方法往往选择不当.文中介绍一种用于多阶段抽样调查资料的统计分析方法--加权估计法,以推广针对此类资料的恰当的分析方法.在介绍加权估计法基本原理的基础上通过两个二阶段分层整群抽样的实际调查资料实现这种算法.加权估计法可以校正由多阶段抽样导致的三种效应:群效应、分层效应、不等概率性,给出无偏点估计和比较客观的误差估计,并作出正确的统计推断.%Multistage sampling techniques are widely applied in the cross-sectional study of epidemiology, while methods based on independent assumption are still used to analyze such complex survey data. This paper aims to introduce the application of weighted estimation methods for the complex survey data. A brief overview of basic theory is described, and then a practical analysis is illustrated to apply to the weighted estimation algorithm in a stratified two-stage clustered sampling data. For multistage sampling survey data, weighted estimation method can be used to obtain unbiased point estimation and more reasonable variance estimation, and so make proper statistical inference by correcting the clustering, stratification and unequal probability effects.

  2. Band Iron Formations and Satellite Magnetic Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, K. A.; Wasilewski, P.

    2005-05-01

    Band Iron Formations (BIF) are mainly Precambrian (2.5-1.8 Ga) sedimentary deposits and are composed of alternating layers of iron rich material and silica (chert). Precambrian BIF mark growth in the level of free oxygen in the atmosphere and the ocean which happened about 2.2 Ga. Distribution of main BIF includes Hamersley Range, Australia; Transvaal-Griquatown, South Africa; Minas Gerais, Brazil; Labrador Trough, Canada, and Kursk-Krivoi Rog (Russia). Together these five very large BIF deposits constitute about 90 percent of Earth's total estimated BIF (5.76*10 14 ). On each continent these ancient rocks usually metamorphosed and crystallized include what are variously described as hematite-quartzites, banded iron formations, banded jaspers or calico-rocks. West African, Hudson Bay and Western Australian Satellite Magnetic Anomalies coincide with distribution BIF deposits. The Kursk Satellite Magnetic Anomaly (KMA) (about 22 nT at the altitude=400km, centered at 51o N, 37o E) also was identified by ground and aeromagnetic observations and is recognized as one of the largest magnetic anomaly on the Earth. Magnetic modeling shows that immense Precambrian iron ore deposits (iron bands) of Voronezh uplift are the main source of KMA. Magnetic properties of 10000 BIF samples outcropped in the KMA area have been measured and analyzed (Krutikhovskaya et al., 1964) Rockmag BIF dataset is presented at: http://core2.gsfc.nasa.gov/MPDB/datasets.html. Mean NRM value is about 42 A/M, Qn about 1.4. Demagnetization tests suggest that hard and stable NRM component is caused by hematite occurring in BIF in different forms and grain sizes. Hematite deposits discovered on Mars in western equatorial area with layered topography of Aram Chaos and Sinus Meridiani could be of hydrothermal origin and may be formed similar to hematite precipitated in BIF on Earth.

  3. Comparison of administrative and survey data for estimating vitamin A supplementation and deworming coverage of children under five years of age in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmohamed, Amynah; Doledec, David

    2017-07-01

    To compare administrative coverage data with results from household coverage surveys for vitamin A supplementation (VAS) and deworming campaigns conducted during 2010-2015 in 12 African countries. Paired t-tests examined differences between administrative and survey coverage for 52 VAS and 34 deworming dyads. Independent t-tests measured VAS and deworming coverage differences between data sources for door-to-door and fixed-site delivery strategies and VAS coverage differences between 6- to 11-month and 12- to 59-month age group. For VAS, administrative coverage was higher than survey estimates in 47 of 52 (90%) campaign rounds, with a mean difference of 16.1% (95% CI: 9.5-22.7; P < 0.001). For deworming, administrative coverage exceeded survey estimates in 31 of 34 (91%) comparisons, with a mean difference of 29.8% (95% CI: 16.9-42.6; P < 0.001). Mean ± SD differences in coverage between administrative and survey data were 12.2% ± 22.5% for the door-to-door delivery strategy and 25.9% ± 24.7% for the fixed-site model (P = 0.06). For deworming, mean ± SD differences in coverage between data sources were 28.1% ± 43.5% and 33.1% ± 17.9% for door-to-door and fixed-site distribution, respectively (P = 0.64). VAS administrative coverage was higher than survey estimates in 37 of 49 (76%) comparisons for the 6- to 11-month age group and 45 of 48 (94%) comparisons for the 12- to 59-month age group. Reliance on health facility data alone for calculating VAS and deworming coverage may mask low coverage and prevent measures to improve programmes. Countries should periodically validate administrative coverage estimates with population-based methods. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Classifying Star Forming Cores through Chemical Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoq, Sadia; Jackson, J.; Foster, J.

    2011-05-01

    The chemical makeup of Infrared Dark Clouds may offer a method to classify star forming cores. This study uses the molecular line maps from the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) Survey, observed using the 22-m ATNF Mopra Telescope. The relative abundances of the four molecules, N2H+, HNC, HCN and HCO+ are calculated for each of 500 cores to determine the chemical signatures of star forming cores in their early evolutionary stages, as deduced from Spitzer data. Cores are classified as prestellar, protostellar, or HII regions. Initial findings indicate that sources with relatively strong N2H+ lines are prestellar, whereas weak N2H+ lines may designate protostellar or HII regions. These chemical anomalies, where the N2H+ lines are either very prominent or weak are rare, suggesting that these are short-lived chemical phases.

  5. Global gravitational anomalies and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Subham Dutta; David, Justin R.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the constraints imposed by global gravitational anomalies on parity odd induced transport coefficients in even dimensions for theories with chiral fermions, gravitinos and self dual tensors. The η-invariant for the large diffeomorphism corresponding to the T transformation on a torus constraints the coefficients in the thermal effective action up to mod 2. We show that the result obtained for the parity odd transport for gravitinos using global anomaly matching is consistent with the direct perturbative calculation. In d = 6 we see that the second Pontryagin class in the anomaly polynomial does not contribute to the η-invariant which provides a topological explanation of this observation in the `replacement rule'. We then perform a direct perturbative calculation for the contribution of the self dual tensor in d = 6 to the parity odd transport coefficient using the Feynman rules proposed by Gaumé and Witten. The result for the transport coefficient agrees with that obtained using matching of global anomalies.

  6. Anomalies and noncommutative index theory

    CERN Document Server

    Perrot, D

    2006-01-01

    These are the notes of a lecture given during the summer school "Geometric and Topological Methods for Quantum Field Theory", Villa de Leyva, Colombia, july 11 - 29, 2005. We review basic facts concerning gauge anomalies and discuss the link with the Connes-Moscovici index formula in noncommutative geometry.

  7. Bony anomaly of Meckel's cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Salter, E George; Oakes, W Jerry

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the seemingly rare occurrence of bone formation within the proximal superior aspect of Meckel's cave thus forming a bony foramen for the proximal trigeminal nerve to traverse. The anatomy of Meckel's cave is reviewed and the clinical potential for nerve compression from this bony anomaly discussed.

  8. Conformal anomalies and gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Krzysztof A.; Nicolai, Hermann

    2017-09-01

    We argue that the presence of conformal anomalies in gravitational theories can lead to observable modifications to Einstein's equations via the induced anomalous effective actions, whose non-localities can overwhelm the smallness of the Planck scale. The fact that no such effects have been seen in recent cosmological or gravitational wave observations therefore imposes strong restrictions on the field content of possible extensions of Einstein's theory: all viable theories should have vanishing conformal anomalies. We then show that a complete cancellation of conformal anomalies in D = 4 for both the C2 invariant and the Euler (Gauss-Bonnet) invariant E4 can only be achieved for N-extended supergravity multiplets with N ⩾ 5, as well as for M theory compactified to four dimensions. Although there remain open questions, in particular concerning the true significance of conformal anomalies in non-conformal theories, as well as their possible gauge dependence for spin s ⩾3/2, these cancellations suggest a hidden conformal structure of unknown type in these theories.

  9. Connecting Stratospheric and Ionospheric Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraggs, M. E.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Zhang, S.; Coster, A. J.; Benkevitch, L. V.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates any relationship between lunar phases and ionospheric anomalies that appear at low latitudes concurrently with sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs). The study utilizes World-wide GPS Receiver Network Total Electron Content (TEC) data spanning 13 years (2001-2014) and focuses on the changes in the equatorial ionization anomaly the Western hemisphere. TEC is highly variable due to the influences of solar flux, geomagnetic activity, and seasonal variation and these influences are removed by the use of model. This empirical TEC model is a combination of linear dependencies of solar flux (F10.7) and geomagnetic activity (Ap3) with a third degree polynomial dependency for day-of-year (DOY). With such dependencies removed, the remaining TEC variation could be resolved and attributed to an appropriate mechanism. Lunar phase and apside was investigated in particular, especially the new and full moon phases during perigees when tidal forcing would be most powerful. Lunar tidal forcing on planetary waves is also examined as being physically responsible for setting up conditions that may give rise to SSWs and ionospheric anomalies. Preliminary results suggest that such anomalies may be enhanced in intensity during the full or new moon and even more so during perigee by different amounts depending on whether the SSW is a major (40-60%) or minor (20-45%) event.

  10. Thermal anomalies in stressed Teflon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Wulff, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    In the course of testing polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) as a calorimetric gasketing material, serendipity revealed a thermal anomaly in stressed film that occurs concomitantly with the well-documented 25 C transition. The magnitude of the excess energy absorption - about 35 cal/g - is suggested to be related to the restricted thermal expansion of the film.

  11. Estimating energy requirements in hospitalised underweight and obese patients requiring nutritional support: a survey of dietetic practice in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judges, D; Knight, A; Graham, E; Goff, L M

    2012-03-01

    Many methods are available to determine energy requirements, however, all have limitations, particularly when used for the obese. The aim of this survey was to investigate current practice in the estimation of energy requirements in an underweight and obese hospitalised patient in a large cohort of UK dietitians. A cross-sectional anonymous online survey of UK registered dietitians was performed. A total of 672 responses were received. Underweight patient: prediction equations with adjustment for metabolic stress and physical activity were most commonly used (90%). The median estimated energy requirement was 2079 kcals/day. The estimated energy requirement using calorie per kilogram method was significantly lower compared with equations (Prequirements was found (PNutrition support dietitians used a lower stress factor compared with non-nutrition support dietitians (P=0.016). Method used to estimate the energy requirements was associated with years in clinical practice and place of work (Prequirements was found, particularly in the obese patient group. In an age of rapidly increasing rates of obesity a professional consensus of treatment of this patient group is needed.

  12. Can the use of psychoactive drugs in the general adult population be estimated based on data from a roadside survey of drugs and driving?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallvard Gjerde

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A roadside survey of drugs and driving was performed in south-eastern Norway in 2005-6. Samples of saliva from a total of 10,503 drivers above 20 years of age were analysed, and the results were weighted for under- and over-sampling compared to the population distribution in the study area. Weighted results were compared with data on dispensed prescriptions of zopiclone, codeine and diazepam at Norwegian pharmacies in the same area and with self-reported use of cannabis. When using roadside data to estimate drug use, the use of medicinal drugs was under-estimated by 17-59% compared to amounts dispensed. One of the main reasons for the under-estimation may be that a large proportion of the users of psychoactive medicinal drugs are not frequent drivers. For cannabis, self-reported data corresponded approximately to the estimated prevalence range. The results indicate that roadside surveys cannot be used for accurate estima tions of drug use in the population, but may provide minimum figures.

  13. Prevalence of HIV among MSM in Europe: comparison of self-reported diagnoses from a large scale internet survey and existing national estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Country level comparisons of HIV prevalence among men having sex with men (MSM is challenging for a variety of reasons, including differences in the definition and measurement of the denominator group, recruitment strategies and the HIV detection methods. To assess their comparability, self-reported data on HIV diagnoses in a 2010 pan-European MSM internet survey (EMIS were compared with pre-existing estimates of HIV prevalence in MSM from a variety of European countries. Methods The first pan-European survey of MSM recruited more than 180,000 men from 38 countries across Europe and included questions on the year and result of last HIV test. HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS was compared with national estimates of HIV prevalence based on studies using biological measurements or modelling approaches to explore the degree of agreement between different methods. Existing estimates were taken from Dublin Declaration Monitoring Reports or UNAIDS country fact sheets, and were verified by contacting the nominated contact points for HIV surveillance in EU/EEA countries. Results The EMIS self-reported measurements of HIV prevalence were strongly correlated with existing estimates based on biological measurement and modelling studies using surveillance data (R2=0.70 resp. 0.72. In most countries HIV positive MSM appeared disproportionately likely to participate in EMIS, and prevalences as measured in EMIS are approximately twice the estimates based on existing estimates. Conclusions Comparison of diagnosed HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS with pre-existing estimates based on biological measurements using varied sampling frames (e.g. Respondent Driven Sampling, Time and Location Sampling demonstrates a high correlation and suggests similar selection biases from both types of studies. For comparison with modelled estimates the self-selection bias of the Internet survey with increased participation of men diagnosed with HIV has to be

  14. The revised aeromagnetic anomaly map of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Faggioni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the revised aeromagnetic anomaly map of Italy and its surrounding seas, projected at reference altitude of 2500 m and geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The magnetic data set used for the map compilation is composed of the total intensity field data acquired partly during the aeromagnetic surveys performed by the Italian National Oil Company (Agip - Direzione Esplorazione Idrocarburi between 1971 and 1980, and during the new surveys committed by the Geophysical Corporate Services of Eni Spa - Exploration & Production Division in the years 2001-2002. In both campaigns the recorded data were very dense and uniformly distributed over the examined area. A detailed re-processing of this data set and a re-organization into a new digital database were carried out. The re-processing was done using modern adequate techniques, obtaining a remarkable exploitation of the data information content. The result is a colour shaded relief map that shows on a large scale many of the structural lineaments of the Italian area. The inclusion of a larger number of data and the subtraction of an appropriate magnetic reference field are the main reasons of an enhancement in the anomaly definition. This new map replaces the previous Agip version, and aims to become the reference aeromagnetic cartography of the Italian area. We think this work will be useful both for researchers interested in large scale tectonic studies, and for anyone interested in the investigation of smaller scale structures, such as volcanic complexes or infra-sedimentary magnetic bodies, as well as for mining research.

  15. Self-potential anomalies in some Italian volcanic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Silenziario

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of Self-Potential (SP space and time variations in volcanic areas may provide useful information on both the geometrical structure of the volcanic apparatuses and the dynamical behaviour of the feeding and uprising systems. In this paper, the results obtained on the islands of Vulcano (Eolian arc and Ponza (Pontine archipelago and on the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius complex are shown. On the island of Vulcano and on the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius apparatus areal SP surveys were performed with the aim of evidencing anomalies closely associated to the zones of major volcanic activity. On the island of Vulcano a profile across the fumaroles along the crater rim of the Fossa Cone was also carried out in order to have a direct relationship between fumarolic fracture migration and flow rate and SP anomaly space and time variations. The areal survey on the island of Ponza, which is considered an inactive area, is assumed as a reference test with which to compare the amplitude and pattern of the anomalies in the active areas. A tentative interpretation of the SP anomalies in volcanic areas is suggested in terms of electrokinetic phenomena, related to the movement of fluids of both volcanic and non-volcanic origin.

  16. A decline in new HIV infections in South Africa: estimating HIV incidence from three national HIV surveys in 2002, 2005 and 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M Rehle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Three national HIV household surveys were conducted in South Africa, in 2002, 2005 and 2008. A novelty of the 2008 survey was the addition of serological testing to ascertain antiretroviral treatment (ART use. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a validated mathematical method to estimate the rate of new HIV infections (HIV incidence in South Africa using nationally representative HIV prevalence data collected in 2002, 2005 and 2008. The observed HIV prevalence levels in 2008 were adjusted for the effect of antiretroviral treatment on survival. The estimated "excess" HIV prevalence due to ART in 2008 was highest among women 25 years and older and among men 30 years and older. In the period 2002-2005, the HIV incidence rate among men and women aged 15-49 years was estimated to be 2.0 new infections each year per 100 susceptible individuals (/100pyar (uncertainty range: 1.2-3.0/100pyar. The highest incidence rate was among 15-24 year-old women, at 5.5/100pyar (4.5-6.5. In the period 2005-2008, incidence among men and women aged 15-49 was estimated to be 1.3/100 (0.6-2.5/100pyar, although the change from 2002-2005 was not statistically significant. However, the incidence rate among young women aged 15-24 declined by 60% in the same period, to 2.2/100pyar, and this change was statistically significant. There is evidence from the surveys of significant increases in condom use and awareness of HIV status, especially among youth. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis demonstrates how serial measures of HIV prevalence obtained in population-based surveys can be used to estimate national HIV incidence rates. We also show the need to determine the impact of ART on observed HIV prevalence levels. The estimation of HIV incidence and ART exposure is crucial to disentangle the concurrent impact of prevention and treatment programs on HIV prevalence.

  17. Incremental Commute Time Distance and Applications in Anomaly Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khoa, Nguyen Lu Dang

    2011-01-01

    Commute Time Distance (CTD) is a random walk based metric on graphs. CTD has found widespread applications in many domains including personalized search, collaborative filtering and making search engines robust against manipulation. Our interest is inspired by the use of CTD as a metric for anomaly detection. It has been shown that CTD can be used to simultaneously identify both global and local anomalies. Here we propose an accurate and efficient approximation for computing the CTD in an incremental fashion in order to facilitate real-time applications. An online anomaly detection algorithm is designed where the CTD of each new arriving data point to any point in the current graph can be estimated in constant time ensuring a real-time response. Moreover, the proposed approach can also be applied in many other applications that utilize commute time distance.

  18. Müllerian duct anomalies diagnosed by saline contrast sonohysterography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Eva; Stampe Sørensen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of uterine müllerian duct anomalies in a general population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital in collaboration with the Danish Civil Registry. PATIENT(S): A total of 1,654 women randomly recruited from a general population; 686 women...... were eligible and accepted inclusion (429 pre- and 257 postmenopausal). Saline contrast sonohysterography (SCSH) was finally performed in 622 women (aged 20-74 years) (the procedure was impossible owing to cervical stenosis in 58, contraindicated in 2, other patient-related factors in 4). INTERVENTION(S.......7%), 1 complete septate (1.6%), and 1 unicorn uterus (1.6%). Müllerian anomalies were significantly more frequently diagnosed in nulliparous (20% [26 of 128]) compared with parous women (7% [35 of 494]). Müllerian anomalies were more frequent in women with oligomenorrhea compared with women with normal...

  19. Estimation of multi-state life table functions and their variability from complex survey data using the SPACE Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Cai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The multistate life table (MSLT model is an important demographic method to document life cycle processes. In this study, we present the SPACE (Stochastic Population Analysis for Complex Events program to estimate MSLT functions and their sampling variability. It has several advantages over other programs, including the use of microsimulation and the bootstrap method to estimate the sampling variability. Simulation enables researchers to analyze a broader array of statistics than the deterministic approach, and may be especially advantageous in investigating distributions of MSLT functions. The bootstrap method takes sample design into account to correct the potential bias in variance estimates.

  20. 不等概分类整群抽样下的均值估计及其性质%The Estimation of Mean Under the Circumstances of Non-equal-probability Classified Cluster Sample Survey and Its Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙道德

    2003-01-01

    Basing on the multi nomial distribution and its nature, the paper conducts analysis of method of non-equal probability classified cluster sample survey and the un-bias estimation of mean, and further researches and provides the deviation square of the estimation and the un-bias estimation of the deviation square.

  1. Anomaly Detection in Gas Turbine Fuel Systems Using a Sequential Symbolic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Anomaly detection plays a significant role in helping gas turbines run reliably and economically. Considering the collective anomalous data and both sensitivity and robustness of the anomaly detection model, a sequential symbolic anomaly detection method is proposed and applied to the gas turbine fuel system. A structural Finite State Machine is used to evaluate posterior probabilities of observing symbolic sequences and the most probable state sequences they may locate. Hence an estimation-based model and a decoding-based model are used to identify anomalies in two different ways. Experimental results indicate that both models have both ideal performance overall, but the estimation-based model has a strong robustness ability, whereas the decoding-based model has a strong accuracy ability, particularly in a certain range of sequence lengths. Therefore, the proposed method can facilitate well existing symbolic dynamic analysis- based anomaly detection methods, especially in the gas turbine domain.

  2. Acoustic surveys for juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay: Abundance estimate as an indicator of the next year's recruitment and spatial distribution patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2013-08-16

    A series of acoustic surveys (JUVENA) began in 2003 targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay. A specific methodology was designed for mapping and estimating juvenile abundance annually, four months after the spawning season. After eight years of the survey, a consistent picture of the spatial pattern of the juvenile anchovy has emerged. Juveniles show a vertical and horizontal distribution pattern that depends on size. The younger individuals are found isolated from other species in waters closer to the surface, mainly off the shelf within the mid-southern region of the bay. The largest juveniles are usually found deeper and closer to the shore in the company of adult anchovy and other pelagic species. In these eight years, the survey has covered a wide range of juvenile abundances, and the estimates show a significant positive relationship between the juvenile biomasses and the one-year-old recruits of the following year. This demonstrates that the JUVENA index provides an early indication of the strength of next year\\'s recruitment to the fishery and can therefore be used to improve the management advice for the fishery of this short-lived species. © 2013 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  3. Focal skin defect, limb anomalies and microphthalmia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, K.E.; Andersson, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    We describe two unrelated female patients with congenital single focal skin defects, unilateral microphthalmia and limb anomalies. Growth and psychomotor development were normal and no brain malformation was detected. Although eye and limb anomalies are commonly associated, clinical anophthalmia and

  4. Does adjusting for recall in trend analysis affect coverage estimates for maternal and child health indicators? An analysis of DHS and MICS survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobubelo K. Ngandu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS are the major data sources in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs for evaluating health service coverage. For certain maternal and child health (MCH indicators, the two surveys use different recall periods: 5 years for DHS and 2 years for MICS. Objective: We explored whether the different recall periods for DHS and MICS affect coverage trend analyses as well as missing data and coverage estimates. Designs: We estimated coverage, using proportions with 95% confidence intervals, for four MCH indicators: intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, tetanus vaccination, early breastfeeding and postnatal care. Trends in coverage were compared using data from 1 standard 5-year DHS and 2-year MICS recall periods (unmatched and 2 DHS restricted to 2-year recall to match the MICS 2-year recall periods (matched. Linear regression was used to explore the relationship between length of recall, missing data and coverage estimates. Results: Differences in coverage trends were observed between matched and unmatched data in 7 of 18 (39% comparisons performed. The differences were in the direction of the trend over time, the slope of the coverage change or the significance levels. Consistent trends were seen in 11 of the 18 (61% comparisons. Proportion of missing data was inversely associated with coverage estimates in both short (2 years and longer (5 years recall of the DHS (r=−0.3, p=0.02 and r=−0.4, p=0.004, respectively. The amount of missing information was increased for longer recall compared with shorter recall for all indicators (significant odds ratios ranging between 1.44 and 7.43. Conclusions: In a context where most LMICs are dependent on population-based household surveys to derive coverage estimates, users of these types of data need to ensure that variability in recall periods and the proportion of missing data across data

  5. Prevalence of dental anomalies in orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongudomporn, U; Freer, T J

    1998-12-01

    The prevalence of dental anomalies including agenesis, crown shape, tooth position, root shape, and invagination were examined in 111 orthodontic patients; 74.77 per cent of the patients exhibited at least one dental anomaly. Invagination was found to be the most prevalent anomaly, whereas supernumerary teeth and root dilaceration were the least frequent anomalies. Dental invagination and short or blunt roots were significantly more prevalent in females than in males. Implications for orthodontic treatment planning are discussed.

  6. Chameleon effect and the Pioneer anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John D

    2012-01-01

    The possibility that the apparent anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft may be due, at least in part, to a chameleon field effect is examined. A small spacecraft, with no thin shell, can have a more pronounced anomalous acceleration than a large compact body, such as a planet, having a thin shell. The chameleon effect seems to present a natural way to explain the differences seen in deviations from pure Newtonian gravity for a spacecraft and for a planet, and appears to be compatible with the basic features of the Pioneer anomaly, including the appearance of a jerk term. However, estimates of the size of the chameleon effect indicate that its contribution to the anomalous acceleration is negligible. We conclude that any inverse-square component in the anomalous acceleration is more likely caused by an unmodelled reaction force from solar-radiation pressure, rather than a chameleon field effect.

  7. Quantum gravitational anomaly as a dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kazinski, P O

    2015-01-01

    The general properties of a perfect relativistic fluid resulting from the quantum gravitational anomaly are investigated. It is found that, in the limit of a weak gravitational field, this fluid possesses a polytropic equation of state characterized by two universal constants: the polytropic constant and the natural polytropic index. Based on the astrophysical data, the estimates for the polytropic constant are given. It is shown that this fluid can describe a considerable part of the cold dark matter. The quantum theory of such a fluid is constructed in the framework of the background field method. The Ward identities associated with the entropy and vorticity conservation laws are derived. The leading gradient corrections to the pressure of the perfect fluid are found and the restrictions on their form are obtained. These restrictions guarantee, in particular, the absence of ghosts in the model. The second order nonlinear corrections to the equations of motion of a perfect relativistic fluid are analyzed and...

  8. Accuracy estimates for some global analytical models of the Earth's main magnetic field on the basis of data on gradient magnetic surveys at stratospheric balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, Yu. P.; Brekhov, O. M.; Bondar, T. N.; Filippov, S. V.; Petrov, V. G.; Tsvetkova, N. M.; Frunze, A. Kh.

    2014-03-01

    Two global analytical models of the main magnetic field of the Earth (MFE) have been used to determine their potential in deriving an anomalous MFE from balloon magnetic surveys conducted at altitudes of ˜30 km. The daily mean spherical harmonic model (DMSHM) constructed from satellite data on the day of balloon magnetic surveys was analyzed. This model for the day of magnetic surveys was shown to be almost free of errors associated with secular variations and can be recommended for deriving an anomalous MFE. The error of the enhanced magnetic model (EMM) was estimated depending on the number of harmonics used in the model. The model limited by the first 13 harmonics was shown to be able to lead to errors in the main MFE of around 15 nT. The EMM developed to n = m = 720 and constructed on the basis of satellite and ground-based magnetic data fails to adequately simulate the anomalous MFE at altitudes of 30 km. To construct a representative model developed to m = n = 720, ground-based magnetic data should be replaced by data of balloon magnetic surveys for altitudes of ˜30 km. The results of investigations were confirmed by a balloon experiment conducted by Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Moscow Aviation Institute.

  9. Global repeat discovery and estimation of genomic copy number in a large, complex genome using a high-throughput 454 sequence survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varala Kranthi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive computational and database tools are available to mine genomic and genetic databases for model organisms, but little genomic data is available for many species of ecological or agricultural significance, especially those with large genomes. Genome surveys using conventional sequencing techniques are powerful, particularly for detecting sequences present in many copies per genome. However these methods are time-consuming and have potential drawbacks. High throughput 454 sequencing provides an alternative method by which much information can be gained quickly and cheaply from high-coverage surveys of genomic DNA. Results We sequenced 78 million base-pairs of randomly sheared soybean DNA which passed our quality criteria. Computational analysis of the survey sequences provided global information on the abundant repetitive sequences in soybean. The sequence was used to determine the copy number across regions of large genomic clones or contigs and discover higher-order structures within satellite repeats. We have created an annotated, online database of sequences present in multiple copies in the soybean genome. The low bias of pyrosequencing against repeat sequences is demonstrated by the overall composition of the survey data, which matches well with past estimates of repetitive DNA content obtained by DNA re-association kinetics (Cot analysis. Conclusion This approach provides a potential aid to conventional or shotgun genome assembly, by allowing rapid assessment of copy number in any clone or clone-end sequence. In addition, we show that partial sequencing can provide access to partial protein-coding sequences.

  10. INTERPRETASI DATA ANOMALI MEDAN MAGNETIK UNTUK MENGIDENTIFIKASI PENINGGALAN KADIPATEN PASIR LUHUR DESA TAMANSARI KARANGLEWAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Arfian Susanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic surveying have been done in the area around of the Carangandul site, District of Karang lewas, Regent of Banyumas. The research purpose is for identify Kadipaten Pasir Luhur’s remainder whom maybe buried at around that sites. The total magnetic intensity data obtained, then be processed, corrected, and reduced so thatbe obtained the local magnetic anomaly data. Modeling process to magnetic anomaly data with two dimensions (2D have been done by utilize Mag2DC for windows software. Based on the modeling results, be obtained the subsurface lithology section with magnetic susceptibility values of 0.0141 – 0.0626 cgs units. The interpretation ofmodeling resultsshow thatin the depth of 0 – 10 meters be found the sand stone, then in the depth of 10 – 125 meters befound the breccia-andesite rocks, then in the depth of 125 – 250 meters be found the andesite rocks with insert of sand, and then in the depth of 250–500 meters be found two pieces of rocks i.e. breccia-andesite and andesite-basaltic from volcanic lava boulder of Slamet Volcano which be estimated as the basement inthe research area. Based on the interpretation resultis not found available distribution of pure andesite as sites that exist on the surface.

  11. [Ectopia cordis and cardiac anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Alberto; Rodrigo, David; Luis, María Teresa; Pastor, Esteban; Galdeano, José Miguel; Esteban, Susana

    2002-11-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare disease that occurs in 5.5 to 7.9 per million live births. Only 267 cases had been reported as of 2001, most (95%) associated with other cardiac anomalies. We studied the cardiac malformations associated in 6 patients with ectopia cordis. Depending on where the defect was located, the cases of ectopia were classified into four groups: cervical, thoracic, thoraco-abdominal, and abdominal. All 6 patients died before the third day of life, 4 during delivery. Three of the patients were included in the thoracic group, whereas the other 3 belonged to the thoraco-abdominal group. All the patients had associated ventricular septal defects, 3 double-outlet right ventricle (50%) and the rest (50%) tetralogy of Fallot-pulmonary atresia. Two patients with double-outlet right ventricle presented mitral-valve pathology, a parachute valve and an atresic mitral valve. None of these cardiac anomalies have been reported to date.

  12. On Anomaly Mediated SUSY Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    de Alwis, S P

    2008-01-01

    A discrepancy between the Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (AMSB) gaugino mass calculated from the work of Kaplunovsky and Louis (hep-th/9402005) (KL) and other calculations in the literature is explained, and it is argued that the KL expression is the correct one relevant to the Wilsonian action. Furthermore it is argued that the AMSB contribution to the squark and slepton masses should be replaced by the contribution pointed out by Dine and Seiberg (DS) which has nothing to do with Weyl anomalies. This is not in general equivalent to the AMSB expression, and it is shown that there are models in which the usual AMSB expression would vanish but the DS one is non-zero. In fact the latter has aspects of both AMSB and gauge mediated SUSY breaking. In particular like the latter, it gives positive squared masses for sleptons.

  13. Theory of Geological Anomaly in Remote Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Geological anomaly is geological body or complex body with obviously different compositions, structures or orders of genesis as compared with those in the surrounding areas. Geological anomaly, restrained by the geological factors closely associated with ore-forming process, is an important clue to ore deposits. The geological anomaly serves as a geological sign to locate ore deposits. Therefore, it is very important to study how to define the characteristics of geological anomaly and further to locate the changes in these characteristics. In this paper, the authors propose the geological anomaly based on the remote-sensing images and data, and expound systematically such image features as scale, size, boundary, morphology and genesis of geological anomalies. Then the authors introduce the categorization of the geological anomalies according to their geneses. The image characteristics of some types of geological anomalies, such as the underground geological anomaly, are also explained in detail. Based on the remote-sensing interpretation of these geological anomalies, the authors conclude that the forecasting and exploration of ore deposits should be focused on the following three aspects: (1) the analysis of geological setting and geological anomaly; (2) the analysis of circular geological anomaly, and (3) the comprehensive forecasting of ore deposits and the research into multi-source information.

  14. Fetal renal anomalies : diagnosis, management, and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen-Elias, Henrica Antonia Maria

    2004-01-01

    In two to three percent of fetuses structural anomalies can be found with prenatal ultrasound investigation. Anomalies of the urinary tract account for 15 to 20% of these anomalies with a detection rate of approximately of 90%. In Chapter 2, 3 and 4 we present reference curves for size and growth of

  15. Fetal renal anomalies : diagnosis, management, and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen-Elias, Henrica Antonia Maria

    2004-01-01

    In two to three percent of fetuses structural anomalies can be found with prenatal ultrasound investigation. Anomalies of the urinary tract account for 15 to 20% of these anomalies with a detection rate of approximately of 90%. In Chapter 2, 3 and 4 we present reference curves for size and growth

  16. Gravity and geoid anomalies of the Philippine Sea: Evidence on the depth of compensation for the negative residual water depth anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowin, C.

    1982-01-01

    A negative free-air gravity anomaly which occurs in the central part of the Philippine Sea was examined to determine the distribution and nature of possible regional mass excesses or deficiencies. Geoid anomalies from GEOS-3 observation were positive. A negative residual geoid anomaly consistent with the area of negative free-air gravity anomalies were found. Theoretical gravity-topography and geoid-topography admittance functions indicated that high density mantle at about 60 km dept could account for the magnitudes of the gravity and residual geoid anomaly and the 1 km residual water depth anomaly in the Philippine Sea. The negative residual depth anomaly may be compensated for by excess density in the uppermost mantle, but the residual geoid and regional free-air gravity anomalies and a slow surface wave velocity structure might result from low-density warm upper mantle material lying beneath the zone of high-density uppermost mantle. From a horizontal disk approximation, the depth of the low-density warm mantle was estimated to be on the order of 200 km.

  17. Bifid rib: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythili Krishnan Rathinasabapathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of the bifid rib was found during routine bone study. The distal part of the osseous rib bifurcated into two divisions with an angle of 60°. Both divisions had their own costal cartilage. Bifid rib is a congenital abnormality of the rib cage and usually asymptomatic, often discovered incidentally on chest X-ray. Effects of this neuroskeletal anomaly can include respiratory difficulties and neurological limitations.

  18. Sharing AIS Related Anomalies (SARA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    misconfiguration and intentional misuse. These unintended behaviours generate an abundance of anomalies that the security community has an interest in monitoring...Lastly, the feedback loop formed with clients is essential to SARA’s advancement. The more SARA is exposed, the better and faster it can be adapted...to end-user needs and thus be adopted by them. This section is organised as follows : • Section 2.1 describes the strategy used to identify potential

  19. Evaluation of alternative age-based methods for estimating relative abundance from survey data in relation to assessment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Casper Willestofte; Nielsen, Anders; Kristensen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Indices of abundance from fishery-independent trawl surveys constitute an important source of information for many fish stock assessments. Indices are often calculated using area stratified sample means on age-disaggregated data, and finally treated in stock assessment models as independent...... observations. We evaluate a series of alternative methods for calculating indices of abundance from trawl survey data (delta-lognormal, delta-gamma, and Tweedie using Generalized Additive Models) as well as different error structures for these indices when used as input in an age-based stock assessment model...... the different indices produced. The stratified mean method is found much more imprecise than the alternatives based on GAMs, which are found to be similar. Having time-varying index variances is found to be of minor importance, whereas the independence assumption is not only violated but has significant impact...

  20. Anomaly mediation in superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, J.P. [Rudolf Peierls Center for Theoretical Physics, 1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Balliol College, Oxford, OX1 3BJ (United Kingdom); Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara CA 93106-4030 (United States); Goodsell, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Palti, E. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2011-01-15

    We study anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking in type IIB string theory and use our results to test the supergravity formula for anomaly mediated gaugino masses. We compute 1-loop gaugino masses for models of D3-branes on orbifold singularities with 3-form fluxes by calculating the annulus correlator of 3-form flux and two gauginos in the zero momentum limit. Consistent with supergravity expectations we find both anomalous and running contributions to 1-loop gaugino masses. For background Neveu-Schwarz H-flux we find an exact match with the supergravity formula. For Ramond-Ramond flux there is an off-shell ambiguity that precludes a full matching. The anomaly mediated gaugino masses, while determined by the infrared spectrum, arise from an explicit sum over UV open string winding modes. We also calculate brane-to-brane tree-level gravity mediated gaugino masses and show that there are two contributions coming from the dilaton and from the twisted modes, which are suppressed by the full T{sup 6} volume and the untwisted T{sup 2} volume respectively. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Anomaly mediation in superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Joseph P. [Rudolf Peierls Center for Theoretical Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Balliol College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Palti, Eran [Centre de Physique Theoretique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France)

    2010-08-15

    We study anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking in type IIB string theory and use our results to test the supergravity formula for anomaly mediated gaugino masses. We compute 1-loop gaugino masses for models of D3-branes on orbifold singularities with 3-form fluxes by calculating the annulus correlator of 3-form flux and two gauginos in the zero momentum limit. Consistent with supergravity expectations we find both anomalous and running contributions to 1-loop gaugino masses. For background Neveu-Schwarz H-flux we find an exact match with the supergravity formula. For Ramond-Ramond flux there is an off-shell ambiguity that precludes a full matching. The anomaly mediated gaugino masses, while determined by the infrared spectrum, arise from an explicit sum over UV open string winding modes. We also calculate brane-to-brane tree-level gravity mediated gaugino masses and show that there are two contributions coming from the dilaton and from the twisted modes, which are suppressed by the full T{sup 6} volume and the untwisted T{sup 2} volume respectively. (orig.)

  2. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  3. Trace anomalies from quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Bastianelli, F; Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Nieuwenhuizen, Peter van

    1993-01-01

    The 1-loop anomalies of a d-dimensional quantum field theory can be computed by evaluating the trace of the regulated path integral jacobian matrix, as shown by Fujikawa. In 1983, Alvarez-Gaum\\'e and Witten observed that one can simplify this evaluation by replacing the operators which appear in the regulator and in the jacobian by quantum mechanical operators with the same (anti)commutation relations. By rewriting this quantum mechanical trace as a path integral with periodic boundary conditions for a one-dimensional supersymmetric nonlinear sigma model, they obtained the chiral anomalies for spin 1/2 and 3/2 fields and selfdual antisymmetric tensors in d dimensions. In this article, we treat the case of trace anomalies for spin 0, 1/2 and 1 fields in a gravitational and Yang-Mills background. We do not introduce a supersymmetric sigma model, but keep the original Dirac matrices $\\g^\\m$ and internal symmetry generators $T^a$ in the path integral. As a result, we get a matrix-valued action. Gauge covariance o...

  4. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John D

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. Next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr$^{-1}$. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction ...

  5. Estimating the rate and elevation dependence of net accretion in a freshwater tidal marsh using DEM-registered surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadol, D. D.; Elmore, A. J.; Engelhardt, K.; Sanders, G.

    2012-12-01

    Tidal freshwater marshes contribute to estuary health by filtering excess sediment and nutrients delivered from the watershed, but their extent and persistence is threatened by rising sea level. To maintain a semi-emergent position, the marsh surface must gain elevation by accreting mineral and/or organic material at a rate comparable to sea level rise. Historic records of sea level rise (SLR) are available from tide gages, but records of historic elevation change at the necessary precision are rare. Additionally, sedimentation, compaction, erosion, and the resultant net elevation gain are spatially heterogeneous across a marsh, varying with elevation, among other factors. We solve this issue at our study site by taking advantage of a 1992 total station survey of the marsh and RTK GPS surveys from 2005 and 2012, and registering them all against an airborne LiDAR derived DEM. Thus, although no points are directly reoccupied, survey vs. DEM trends can be found for each survey, and an average rate of elevation change can be calculated as a function of DEM elevation. We found rates of net elevation gain ranging spatially from 3-5 mm/yr between the years 1992-2012, similar to the historic rate of SLR at a nearby Washington, DC tide gage of 4 mm/yr over the past 28 years. Net elevation change varied as DEM elevation increased, with several local minima and maxima potentially related to variations and transitions in vegetation community. Assuming IPCC predicted sea level rise and a fixed relationship between elevation and net accretion, we then forecast marsh elevation relative to sea level and associated vegetative community changes through the 21st century using an inundation model that considers net accretion and a constant relationship between vegetation community type and elevation.

  6. Estimating the location of baleen whale calls using dual streamers to support mitigation procedures in seismic reflection surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Shima H.; Tolstoy, Maya; Wilcock, William S. D.

    2017-01-01

    In order to mitigate against possible impacts of seismic surveys on baleen whales it is important to know as much as possible about the presence of whales within the vicinity of seismic operations. This study expands on previous work that analyzes single seismic streamer data to locate nearby calling baleen whales with a grid search method that utilizes the propagation angles and relative arrival times of received signals along the streamer. Three dimensional seismic reflection surveys use multiple towed hydrophone arrays for imaging the structure beneath the seafloor, providing an opportunity to significantly improve the uncertainty associated with streamer-generated call locations. All seismic surveys utilizing airguns conduct visual marine mammal monitoring surveys concurrent with the experiment, with powering-down of seismic source if a marine mammal is observed within the exposure zone. This study utilizes data from power-down periods of a seismic experiment conducted with two 8-km long seismic hydrophone arrays by the R/V Marcus G. Langseth near Alaska in summer 2011. Simulated and experiment data demonstrate that a single streamer can be utilized to resolve left-right ambiguity because the streamer is rarely perfectly straight in a field setting, but dual streamers provides significantly improved locations. Both methods represent a dramatic improvement over the existing Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) system for detecting low frequency baleen whale calls, with ~60 calls detected utilizing the seismic streamers, zero of which were detected using the current R/V Langseth PAM system. Furthermore, this method has the potential to be utilized not only for improving mitigation processes, but also for studying baleen whale behavior within the vicinity of seismic operations. PMID:28199400

  7. Estimating the location of baleen whale calls using dual streamers to support mitigation procedures in seismic reflection surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Shima H; Tolstoy, Maya; Wilcock, William S D

    2017-01-01

    In order to mitigate against possible impacts of seismic surveys on baleen whales it is important to know as much as possible about the presence of whales within the vicinity of seismic operations. This study expands on previous work that analyzes single seismic streamer data to locate nearby calling baleen whales with a grid search method that utilizes the propagation angles and relative arrival times of received signals along the streamer. Three dimensional seismic reflection surveys use multiple towed hydrophone arrays for imaging the structure beneath the seafloor, providing an opportunity to significantly improve the uncertainty associated with streamer-generated call locations. All seismic surveys utilizing airguns conduct visual marine mammal monitoring surveys concurrent with the experiment, with powering-down of seismic source if a marine mammal is observed within the exposure zone. This study utilizes data from power-down periods of a seismic experiment conducted with two 8-km long seismic hydrophone arrays by the R/V Marcus G. Langseth near Alaska in summer 2011. Simulated and experiment data demonstrate that a single streamer can be utilized to resolve left-right ambiguity because the streamer is rarely perfectly straight in a field setting, but dual streamers provides significantly improved locations. Both methods represent a dramatic improvement over the existing Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) system for detecting low frequency baleen whale calls, with ~60 calls detected utilizing the seismic streamers, zero of which were detected using the current R/V Langseth PAM system. Furthermore, this method has the potential to be utilized not only for improving mitigation processes, but also for studying baleen whale behavior within the vicinity of seismic operations.

  8. Survey of furan in heat processed foods by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and estimated adult exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehouse, Kim M; Nyman, Patricia J; McNeal, Timothy P; Dinovi, Michael J; Perfetti, Gracia A

    2008-03-01

    Furan is a suspected human carcinogen that is formed in some processed foods at low ng per g levels. Recent improvements in analytical methodology and scientific instrumentation have made it possible to accurately measure the amount of furan in a wide variety of foods. Results from analysis of more than 300 processed foods are presented. Furan was found at levels ranging from non-detectable (LOD, 0.2-0.9 ng g(-1)) to over 100 ng g(-1). Exposure estimates for several adult food types were calculated, with brewed coffee being the major source of furan in the adult diet (0.15 microg kg(-1) body weight day(-1)). Estimates of mean exposure to furan for different subpopulations were calculated. For consumers 2 years and older, the intake is estimated to be about 0.2 microg kg(-1) body weight day(-1).

  9. Multibeam Maser Survey of methanol and excited OH in the Magellanic Clouds: new detections and maser abundance estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Green, J A; Fuller, G A; Breen, S L; Brooks, K; Burton, M G; Chrysostomou, A; Cox, J; Diamond, P J; Ellingsen, S P; Gray, M D; Hoare, M G; Masheder, M R W; McClure-Griffiths, N; Pestalozzi, M; Phillips, C; Quinn, L; Thompson, M A; Voronkov, M; Walsh, A; Ward-Thompson, D; Wong-McSweeney, D; Yates, J A; Cohen, R J

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of the first complete survey of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds for 6668-MHz methanol and 6035-MHz excited-state hydroxyl masers. In addition to the survey, higher-sensitivity targeted searches towards known star-formation regions were conducted. The observations yielded the discovery of a fourth 6668-MHz methanol maser in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), found towards the star-forming region N160a, and a second 6035-MHz excited-state hydroxyl maser, found towards N157a. We have also re-observed the three previously known 6668-MHz methanol masers and the single 6035-MHz hydroxyl maser. We failed to detect emission from either transition in the Small Magellanic Cloud. All observations were initially made using the Methanol Multibeam (MMB) survey receiver on the 64-m Parkes telescope as part of the MMB project and accurate positions have been measured with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). We compare the maser populations in the Magellanic Clouds with those of our Galax...

  10. Mapping snow depth in complex alpine terrain with close range aerial imagery - estimating the spatial uncertainties of repeat autonomous aerial surveys over an active rock glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Jason; Marcer, Marco; Bodin, Xavier; Brenning, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Snow depth mapping in open areas using close range aerial imagery is just one of the many cases where developments in structure-from-motion and multi-view-stereo (SfM-MVS) 3D reconstruction techniques have been applied for geosciences - and with good reason. Our ability to increase the spatial resolution and frequency of observations may allow us to improve our understanding of how snow depth distribution varies through space and time. However, to ensure accurate snow depth observations from close range sensing we must adequately characterize the uncertainty related to our measurement techniques. In this study, we explore the spatial uncertainties of snow elevation models for estimation of snow depth in a complex alpine terrain from close range aerial imagery. We accomplish this by conducting repeat autonomous aerial surveys over a snow-covered active-rock glacier located in the French Alps. The imagery obtained from each flight of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is used to create an individual digital elevation model (DEM) of the snow surface. As result, we obtain multiple DEMs of the snow surface for the same site. These DEMs are obtained from processing the imagery with the photogrammetry software Agisoft Photoscan. The elevation models are also georeferenced within Photoscan using the geotagged imagery from an onboard GNSS in combination with ground targets placed around the rock glacier, which have been surveyed with highly accurate RTK-GNSS equipment. The random error associated with multi-temporal DEMs of the snow surface is estimated from the repeat aerial survey data. The multiple flights are designed to follow the same flight path and altitude above the ground to simulate the optimal conditions of repeat survey of the site, and thus try to estimate the maximum precision associated with our snow-elevation measurement technique. The bias of the DEMs is assessed with RTK-GNSS survey observations of the snow surface elevation of the area on and surrounding

  11. Congenital anomalies among live births in a polluted area. A ten-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianicolo Emilio Antonio Luca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital anomalies and their primary prevention are a crucial public health issue. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of congenital anomalies in Brindisi, a city in southeastern Italy at high risk of environmental crisis. Methods This research concerned newborns up to 28 days of age, born between 2001 and 2010 to mothers resident in Brindisi and discharged with a diagnosis of congenital anomaly. We classified cases according to the coding system adopted by the European Network for the Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT. Prevalence rates of congenital anomalies in Brindisi were compared with those reported by EUROCAT. Logistic regression models were adapted to evaluate the association between congenital anomalies and municipality of residence of the mother during pregnancy. Results Out of 8,503 newborns we recorded 194 subjects with congenital anomalies (228.2/10,000 total births, 1.2 times higher than the one reported by the EUROCAT pool of registries. We observed 83 subjects with congenital heart diseases with an excess of 49.1%. Odds Ratios for congenital heart diseases significantly increased for newborns to mothers resident in Brindisi (OR 1.75 CI 95% 1.30-2.35. Conclusions Our findings indicated an increased prevalence of Congenital Anomalies (especially congenital heart diseases in the city of Brindisi. More research is needed in order to analyze the role of factors potentially involved in the causation of congenital anomalies.

  12. Assessment of Non-Response Bias in Estimates of Alcohol Consumption: Applying the Continuum of Resistance Model in a General Population Survey in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Shaun; Shelton, Nicola; Connor, Jennie

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown heavier drinkers are less likely to respond to surveys and require extended efforts to recruit. This study applies the continuum of resistance model to explore how survey estimates of alcohol consumption may be affected by non-response bias in three consecutive years of a general population survey in England. Methods Using the Health Survey for England (HSE) survey years 2011–13, number of contact attempts (1–6 and 7+) were explored by socio-demographic and drinking characteristics. The odds of drinking more than various thresholds were modelled using logistic regression. Assuming that non-participants were similar to those who were difficult to contact (the continuum of resistance model), the effect of non-response on measures of drinking was investigated. Results In the fully-adjusted regression model, women who required 7+ calls were significantly more likely to drink more than the UK Government’s recommended daily limit (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.33, P = 0.003) and to engage in heavy episodic drinking (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.07–1.42, P = 0.004), however this was not significant in men in the fully-adjusted model. When the continuum of resistance model was applied, there was an increase in average weekly alcohol consumption of 1.8 units among men (a 12.6% relative increase), and an increase of 1.5 units among women (a 20.5% relative increase). There was also an increase in the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking of 2.5% among men (an 12.0% relative increase) and of 2.0% among women (a 15.8% relative increase), although other measures of drinking were less affected. Conclusion Overall alcohol consumption and the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking were higher among HSE participants who required more extended efforts to contact. The continuum of resistance model suggests non-response bias does affect survey estimates of alcohol consumption. PMID:28141834

  13. Efficiencies of Internet-based digital and paper-based scientific surveys and the estimated costs and time for different-sized cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin E Uhlig

    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate the relative efficiencies of five Internet-based digital and three paper-based scientific surveys and to estimate the costs for different-sized cohorts. METHODS: Invitations to participate in a survey were distributed via e-mail to employees of two university hospitals (E1 and E2 and to members of a medical association (E3, as a link placed in a special text on the municipal homepage regularly read by the administrative employees of two cities (H1 and H2, and paper-based to workers at an automobile enterprise (P1 and college (P2 and senior (P3 students. The main parameters analyzed included the numbers of invited and actual participants, and the time and cost to complete the survey. Statistical analysis was descriptive, except for the Kruskal-Wallis-H-test, which was used to compare the three recruitment methods. Cost efficiencies were compared and extrapolated to different-sized cohorts. RESULTS: The ratios of completely answered questionnaires to distributed questionnaires were between 81.5% (E1 and 97.4% (P2. Between 6.4% (P1 and 57.0% (P2 of the invited participants completely answered the questionnaires. The costs per completely answered questionnaire were $0.57-$1.41 (E1-3, $1.70 and $0.80 for H1 and H2, respectively, and $3.36-$4.21 (P1-3. Based on our results, electronic surveys with 10, 20, 30, or 42 questions would be estimated to be most cost (and time efficient if more than 101.6-225.9 (128.2-391.7, 139.8-229.2 (93.8-193.6, 165.8-230.6 (68.7-115.7, or 188.2-231.5 (44.4-72.7 participants were required, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study efficiency depended on the technical modalities of the survey methods and engagement of the participants. Depending on our study design, our results suggest that in similar projects that will certainly have more than two to three hundred required participants, the most efficient way of conducting a questionnaire-based survey is likely via the Internet with a digital questionnaire

  14. A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2014-01-01

    This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

  15. A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2014-01-01

    This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

  16. Development and Congenital Anomalies of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Tadokoro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the pancreas develops is essential to understand the pathogenesis of congenital pancreatic anomalies. Recent studies have shown the advantages of investigating the development of frogs, mice, and chickens for understanding early embryonic development of the pancreas and congenital anomalies, such as choledochal cysts, anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction, annular pancreas, and pancreas divisum. These anomalies arise from failure of complete rotation and fusion during embryogenesis. There are many theories in the etiology of congenital anomalies of the pancreas. We review pancreas development in humans and other vertebrates. In addition, we attempt to clarify how developmental failure is related to congenital pancreatic anomalies.

  17. Global Anomalies and Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Golkar, Siavash

    2015-01-01

    We show that matching anomalies under large gauge transformations and large diffeomorphisms can explain the appearance and non-renormalization of couplings in effective field theory. We focus on %thermal partition functions and thermal effective field theory where we argue that the appearance of certain unusual Chern-Simons couplings is a consequence of global anomalies. As an example, we show that a mixed global anomaly in four dimensions fixes the chiral vortical effect coefficient. This is an experimentally measurable prediction from a global anomaly. For certain situations, we propose a simpler method for calculating global anomalies which uses correlation functions rather than eta invariants.

  18. Peak data for U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations, Texas network and computer program to estimate peak-streamflow frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, R.M.; Asquith, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    About 23,000 annual peak streamflows and about 400 historical peak streamflows exist for about 950 stations in the surface-water data-collection network of Texas. These data are presented on a computer diskette along with the corresponding dates, gage heights, and information concerning the basin, and nature or cause for the flood. Also on the computer diskette is a U.S. Geological Survey computer program that estimates peak-streamflow frequency based on annual and historical peak streamflow. The program estimates peak streamflow for 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence intervals and is based on guidelines established by the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data. Explanations are presented for installing the program, and an example is presented with discussion of its options.

  19. The potential of the European network of congenital anomaly registers (EUROCAT) for drug safety surveillance : a descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Willemijn M.; Cornel, Martina C.; Dolk, Helen; de Walle, Hermien E. K.; Armstrong, Nicola C.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.

    Background European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) is a network of population-based congenital anomaly registries in Europe surveying more than I million births per year, or 25% of the births in the European Union. This paper describes the potential of the EUROCAT collaboration for

  20. Ground survey of active Central American volcanoes in November - December 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, R. E. (Principal Investigator); Rose, W. I., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Thermal anomalies at two volcanoes, Santiaguito and Izalco, have grown in size in the past six months, based on repeated ground survey. Thermal anomalies at Pacaya volcano have became less intense in the same period. Large (500 m diameter) thermal anomalies exist at 3 volcanoes presently, and smaller scale anomalies are found at nine other volcanoes.

  1. Major congenital anomalies in a Danish region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Birkelund, Anne Sofie

    2014-01-01

    congenital anomaly, 13.9% had a chromosomal anomaly and 7.7% were multiple congenital anomalies. The combined foetal and infant mortality in the study area was 11.6 per 1,000 births. 19% (2.2 per 1,000) of these deaths were foetuses and infants with major congenital anomalies. Combined foetal and infant......INTRODUCTION: This study describes the prevalence of congenital anomalies and changes over time in birth outcome, mortality and chronic maternal diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was based on population data from the EUROCAT registry covering the Funen County, Denmark, 1995......-2008. The registry covers live births, foetal deaths with a gestational age (GA) of 20 weeks or more, and terminations of pregnancy due to congenital anomalies (TOPFA). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of congenital anomalies was 2.70% (95% confidence interval: 2.58-2.80). The majority of cases had an isolated...

  2. Estimation and Short-Term Prediction of the Course of the HIV Epidemic Using Demographic and Health Survey Methodology-Like Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Blaizot

    Full Text Available Mathematical models have played important roles in the understanding of epidemics and in the study of the impacts of various behavioral or medical measures. However, modeling accurately the future spread of an epidemic requires context-specific parameters that are difficult to estimate because of lack of data. Our objective is to propose a methodology to estimate context-specific parameters using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS-like data that can be used in mathematical modeling of short-term HIV spreading.The model splits the population according to sex, age, HIV status, and antiretroviral treatment status. To estimate context-specific parameters, we used individuals' histories included in DHS-like data and a statistical analysis that used decomposition of the Poisson likelihood. To predict the course of the HIV epidemic, sex- and age-specific differential equations were used. This approach was applied to recent data from Kenya. The approach allowed the estimation of several key epidemiological parameters. Women had a higher infection rate than men and the highest infection rate in the youngest age groups (15-24 and 25-34 years whereas men had the highest infection rate in age group 25-34 years. The immunosuppression rates were similar between age groups. The treatment rate was the highest in age group 35-59 years in both sexes. The results showed that, within the 15-24 year age group, increasing male circumcision coverage and antiretroviral therapy coverage at CD4 ≤ 350/mm3 over the current 70% could have short-term impacts.The study succeeded in estimating the model parameters using DHS-like data rather than literature data. The analysis provides a framework for using the same data for estimation and prediction, which can improve the validity of context-specific predictions and help designing HIV prevention campaigns.

  3. Elevation Difference and Bouguer Anomaly Analysis Tool (EDBAAT) User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittle, Aaron M.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2017-06-16

    This report describes a software tool that imports gravity anomaly point data from the Gravity Database of the United States (GDUS) of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and University of Texas at El Paso along with elevation data from The National Map (TNM) of the U.S. Geological Survey that lie within a user-specified geographic area of interest. Further, the tool integrates these two sets of data spatially and analyzes the consistency of the elevation of each gravity station from the GDUS with TNM elevation data; it also evaluates the consistency of gravity anomaly data within the GDUS data repository. The tool bins the GDUS data based on user-defined criteria of elevation misfit between the GDUS and TNM elevation data. It also provides users with a list of points from the GDUS data, which have Bouguer anomaly values that are considered outliers (two standard deviations or greater) with respect to other nearby GDUS anomaly data. “Nearby” can be defined by the user at time of execution. These outputs should allow users to quickly and efficiently choose which points from the GDUS would be most useful in reconnaissance studies or in augmenting and extending the range of individual gravity studies.

  4. Reports on investigations of uranium anomalies. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodknight, C.S.; Burger, J.A. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    During the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program, conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC), radiometric and geochemical surveys and geologic investigations detected anomalies indicative of possible uranium enrichment. Data from the Aerial Radiometric and Magnetic Survey (ARMS) and the Hydrogeochemical and Stream-Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR), both of which were conducted on a national scale, yielded numerous anomalies that may signal areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. Results from geologic evaluations of individual 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangles for the NURE program also yielded anomalies, which could not be adequately checked during scheduled field work. Included in this volume are individual reports of field investigations for the following six areas which were shown on the basis of ARMS, HSSR, and (or) geologic data to be anomalous: (1) Hylas zone and northern Richmond basin, Virginia; (2) Sischu Creek area, Alaska; (3) Goodman-Dunbar area, Wisconsin; (4) McCaslin syncline, Wisconsin; (5) Mt. Withington Cauldron, Socorro County, New Mexico; (6) Lake Tecopa, Inyo County, California. Field checks were conducted in each case to verify an indicated anomalous condition and to determine the nature of materials causing the anomaly. The ultimate objective of work is to determine whether favorable conditions exist for the occurrence of uranium deposits in areas that either had not been previously evaluated or were evaluated before data from recent surveys were available. Most field checks were of short duration (2 to 5 days). The work was done by various investigators using different procedures, which accounts for variations in format in their reports. All papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  5. A Survey of State of Charge Estimation Methods%蓄电池SOC估算方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季迎旭; 杜海江; 孙航

    2014-01-01

    Battery state of charge (SOC) is one of the important parameters in battery management system. An accurate estimation for the battery SOC is of great significance. Firstly, the general problems existing in the definition of SOC is analyzed, and the fact is discussed that the various conditions of power battery SOC is better described by the definition with power instead of coulomp. Secondly, the existing estimation methods are divided into fopen-circuit voltage method, ampere-hour integral method, advanced estimation method and composite method, and their advantages, disadvantages and adaptive working conditions are analyzed. Data mining and data fusion technology are introduced to the recorded history of battery management system (BMS) data for the SOC estimation to improve the accuracy and scope of application.%电池荷电状态(state of charge,SOC)是电池管理系统(Battery Management System,BMS)的重要参数,准确估算电池SOC具有重要意义。首先分析了一般SOC定义存在的问题,提出以电能代替电量定义SOC更能准确描述在各种工况下动力电池的荷电容量;其次将已提出的估算方法分为开路电压法、安时积分法、高级估算方法和复合方法等四类,并对各自优缺点和适应工况进行分析。提出充分利用数据挖掘和数据融合技术将BMS记录的历史数据用于SOC估算,有助于提高计算精度和适用范围。

  6. Statistical Survey of Persistent Organic Pollutants: Risk Estimations to Humans and Wildlife through Consumption of Fish from U.S. Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Angela L; Wathen, John B; Lazorchak, James M; Olsen, Anthony R; Kincaid, Thomas M

    2017-02-23

    U.S. EPA conducted a national statistical survey of fish tissue contamination at 540 river sites (representing 82 954 river km) in 2008-2009, and analyzed samples for 50 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including 21 PCB congeners, 8 PBDE congeners, and 21 organochlorine pesticides. The survey results were used to provide national estimates of contamination for these POPs. PCBs were the most abundant, being measured in 93.5% of samples. Summed concentrations of the 21 PCB congeners had a national weighted mean of 32.7 μg/kg and a maximum concentration of 857 μg/kg, and exceeded the human health cancer screening value of 12 μg/kg in 48% of the national sampled population of river km, and in 70% of the urban sampled population. PBDEs (92.0%), chlordane (88.5%) and DDT (98.7%) were also detected frequently, although at lower concentrations. Results were examined by subpopulations of rivers, including urban or nonurban and three defined ecoregions. PCBs, PBDEs, and DDT occur at significantly higher concentrations in fish from urban rivers versus nonurban; however, the distribution varied more among the ecoregions. Wildlife screening values previously published for bird and mammalian species were converted from whole fish to fillet screening values, and used to estimate risk for wildlife through fish consumption.

  7. Congenital anomalies in Primorsky region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, P; Voronin, S; Golokhvast, K

    2015-01-01

    According to WHO hereditary diseases and congenital malformations contribute significantly to the health of population. Thus, the problems of epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of congenital abnormalities are of interest for many researchers [2]. In addition, the dynamic accounting for the incidence of congenital malformations and hereditary diseases allows the researchers to assess the ecological situation in the region [1]. The occurrence of congenital anomalies in the world varies; it depends heavily on how carefully the data is collected [4]. Multifactorial or polygenic diseases develop under the influence of environmental factors in the presence of defective genes. They can constitute up to 90% of all chronic pathology [2-5]. To determine the incidence of congenital anomalies under the influence of environmental factors. The study used the methodology of system evaluation of congenital anomalies incidence in Primorsky region, depending on bio-climatic and environmental conditions. The authors used health statistics for the period from 2000 to 2014, F.12 class for congenital abnormalities in adolescents and children that were compared in geographical and temporal aspects with environmental factors of 33 settlements in Primorsky region. The environment is represented by nature and climate (6 factor modules) and sanitation (7 factor modules) blocks of factors. When formalizing the information database of the environment a specially developed 10-point assessment scale was used. Statistical processing of the information was carried out using Pearson's chi-squared test and multiple regression method from SSPS application program package. The study found that over the 15-year period the level of congenital abnormalities in children increased by 27.5% and in adolescents - by 35.1%, and in 2014 it amounted to 1687.6 and 839.3 per 100 000 people, respectively. The predictive model shows a steady further growth of this pathology. The incidence

  8. Effect of External Disturbing Gravity Field on Spacecraft Guidance and Surveying Line Layout for Marine Gravity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Motao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Centred on the support requirement of flying track control for a long range spacecraft, a detail research is made on the computation of external disturbing gravity field, the survey accuracy of gravity anomaly on the earth' surface and the program of surveying line layout for marine gravity survey. Firstly, the solution expression of navigation error for a long range spacecraft is analyzed and modified, and the influence of the earth's gravity field on flying track of spacecraft is evaluated. Then with a given limited quota of biased error of spacecraft drop point, the accuracy requirement for calculating the external disturbing gravity field is discussed and researched. Secondly, the data truncation error and the propagated data error are studied and estimated, and the quotas of survey resolution and computation accuracy for gravity anomaly on the earth' surface are determined. Finally, based on the above quotas, a corresponding program of surveying line layout for marine gravity survey is proposed. A numerical test has been made to prove the reasonableness and validity of the suggested program.

  9. Chiral Anomaly in Contorted Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Mielke, E W

    1999-01-01

    The Dirac equation in Riemann-Cartan spacetimes with torsion is reconsidered. As is well-known, only the axial covector torsion $A$, a one-form, couples to massive Dirac fields. Using diagrammatic techniques, we show that besides the familiar Riemannian term only the Pontrjagin type four-form $dA\\wedge dA$ does arise additionally in the chiral anomaly, but not the Nieh-Yan term $d ^* A$, as has been claimed recently. Implications for cosmic strings in Einstein-Cartan theory as well as for Ashtekar's canonical approach to quantum gravity are discussed.

  10. Endocrine disruptors and congenital anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Rittler

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The specialized literature was reviewed concerning the suspected increasing secular trends in the frequency of female births, male genital congenital anomalies, abnormal sperm counts, and testicular cancer. Although no risk factors could be identified yet, the observed sex ratio decline during the last decades has been considered to be an effect of certain pollutants on normal hormone activity, and human reproductive development. Reported increasing trends in the frequencies of hypospadias and cryptorchidism are very difficult to be interpreted due to the large variability in the registered frequency of these malformations due to operational as well as biological reasons.

  11. Recognising serious umbilical cord anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Andrew S J; Jayapal, Sathiya S K; Whitburn, Jessica A S; Akinbiyi, Bolutito A; Willetts, Ian E

    2013-11-27

    Umbilical vessel catheterisation is a common intervention in neonatal care. Many complications are recognised, some of which are life-threatening. We report the case of a term neonate who was compromised at birth following antepartum haemorrhage with evidence of multiorgan ischaemic injury. Following resuscitation and umbilical vessel catheterisation, she developed pneumoperitoneum. At laparotomy, a patent vitellointestinal duct was identified and resected. Intestinal perforation was found in the duct wall, most plausibly explained by the unintentional catheterisation of the duct via the umbilicus. Learning to recognise umbilical cord anomalies, such as patent vitellointestinal duct, can be simple and could prevent potentially serious complications.

  12. Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

  13. Case-control analysis of paternal age and trisomic anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, E; Morris, J K

    2010-11-01

    To determine whether older paternal age increases the risk of fathering a pregnancy with Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), Klinefelter (XXY) or XYY syndrome. Case-control: cases with each of these syndromes were matched to four controls with Down syndrome from within the same congenital anomaly register and with maternal age within 6 months. Data from 22 EUROCAT congenital anomaly registers in 12 European countries. Diagnoses with observed or (for terminations) predicted year of birth from 1980 to 2005, comprising live births, fetal deaths with gestational age ≥ 20 weeks and terminations after prenatal diagnosis of the anomaly. Data include 374 cases of Patau syndrome, 929 of Edwards syndrome, 295 of Klinefelter syndrome, 28 of XYY syndrome and 5627 controls with Down syndrome. Odds ratio (OR) associated with a 10-year increase in paternal age for each anomaly was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results were adjusted to take account of the estimated association of paternal age with Down syndrome (1.11; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.23). The OR for Patau syndrome was 1.10 (95% CI 0.83 to 1.45); for Edwards syndrome, 1.15 (0.96 to 1.38); for Klinefelter syndrome, 1.35 (1.02 to 1.79); and for XYY syndrome, 1.99 (0.75 to 5.26). There was a statistically significant increase in the odds of Klinefelter syndrome with increasing paternal age. The larger positive associations of Klinefelter and XYY syndromes with paternal age compared with Patau and Edwards syndromes are consistent with the greater percentage of these sex chromosome anomalies being of paternal origin.

  14. MODIS/TERRA MOD14A2 Thermal Anomalies & Fire 8-Day L3 Global 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  15. MODIS/AQUA MYD14A2 Thermal Anomalies & Fire 8-Day L3 Global 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  16. MODIS/AQUA MYD14A2 Thermal Anomalies & Fire 8-Day L3 Global 1km Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  17. MODIS/AQUA MYD14A1 Thermal Anomalies & Fire Daily L3 Global 1km Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  18. MODIS/TERRA MOD14A2 Thermal Anomalies & Fire 8-Day L3 Global 1km Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  19. MODIS/TERRA MOD14 Thermal Anomalies & Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  20. MODIS/AQUA MYD14 Thermal Anomalies & Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  1. MODIS/TERRA MOD14A1 Thermal Anomalies & Fire Daily L3 Global 1km Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  2. Inference of Altimeter Accuracy on Along-track Gravity Anomaly Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A correlation model between along-track gravity anomaly accuracy, spatial resolution and altimeter accuracy is proposed. This new model is based on along-track gravity anomaly recovery and resolution estimation. Firstly, an error propagation formula of along-track gravity anomaly is derived from the principle of satellite altimetry. Then the mathematics between the SNR (signal to noise ratio and cross spectral coherence is deduced. The analytical correlation between altimeter accuracy and spatial resolution is finally obtained from the results above. Numerical simulation results show that along-track gravity anomaly accuracy is proportional to altimeter accuracy, while spatial resolution has a power relation with altimeter accuracy. e.g., with altimeter accuracy improving m times, gravity anomaly accuracy improves m times while spatial resolution improves m0.4644 times. This model is verified by real-world data.

  3. Risk of congenital anomalies after exposure to asthma medication in the first trimester of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, E.; Hansen, A. Vinkel; Morris, J.

    2016-01-01

    .12–3.49) was associated with exposure to combination treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta-2-agonists. Associations with renal dysplasia were driven by exposure to short-acting beta-2-agonists (2.37; 1.20–4.67). Conclusion: The increased risk of congenital anomalies for women taking asthma......Objective: To examine the effect of maternal exposure to asthma medications on the risk of congenital anomalies. Design: Meta-analysis of aggregated data from three cohort studies. Setting: Linkage between healthcare databases and EUROCAT congenital anomaly registries. Population: 519 242...... estimated separately for each register and combined in meta-analyses. Main outcome measures: ORs for all congenital anomalies and specific congenital anomalies. Results: Overall exposure prevalence was 3.76%. For exposure to asthma medication in general, the adjusted OR (adjOR) for a major congenital...

  4. A rare case of cardiac anomaly: prenatally diagnosed ectopia cordis

    OpenAIRE

    Çelik, Yalçın; Hallıoğlu, Olgu; Basut, Nursel; Demetgül, Hasan; Esin Kibar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital malformation in which the heart is located partially or totally outside the thoracic cavity. The estimated prevalence of ectopia cordis is 5.5–7.9 per million births and it comprises 0.1% of congenital heart diseases. Ectopia cordis is associated with other congenital heart diseases and various tissue and organ disorders. Common cardiac anomalies associated with ectopia cordis include ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, righ...

  5. The driving of baroclinic anomalies at different timescales

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Fuentes, Javier; Zurita-Gotor, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the internal variability of zonal-mean baroclinicity over the Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes. The first two leading modes describe a meridional baroclinicity shift and a sharpening/broadening of baroclinicity, with the shift becoming more dominant at low frequency. The lifecycles of the baroclinic anomalies, estimated by means of lagged regression analysis, are qualitatively different depending on the frequency range. At high frequency, the zonal-mean baroclinicity si...

  6. Cerebrovascular disturbances in children with Arnold-Kiary anomaly I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlitina T.N.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Data of diagnostics of cerebrovascular disorders in craniovertebral passage due to Arnold — Kiary anomaly I have been considered. Clinical picture of the disease in different age groups has been represented. Condition of extra- and intracranial part of vertebral arteries and venous plexuses of the cervical part of vertebral column and craniovertebral passage, pathological asymmetry of the blood flow have been estimated. Efficacy of conservative and surgical treatment has been compared.

  7. Pattern recognition in the ALFALFA.70 and Sloan Digital Sky Surveys: a catalogue of ˜500 000 H I gas fraction estimates based on artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimoorinia, Hossen; Ellison, Sara L.; Patton, David R.

    2017-02-01

    The application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the estimation of H I gas mass fraction (M_{H I}/{{M}_{*}}) is investigated, based on a sample of 13 674 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with H I detections or upper limits from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA). We show that, for an example set of fixed input parameters (g - r colour and i-band surface brightness), a multidimensional quadratic model yields M_{H I}/{{M}_{*}} scaling relations with a smaller scatter (0.22 dex) than traditional linear fits (0.32 dex), demonstrating that non-linear methods can lead to an improved performance over traditional approaches. A more extensive ANN analysis is performed using 15 galaxy parameters that capture variation in stellar mass, internal structure, environment and star formation. Of the 15 parameters investigated, we find that g - r colour, followed by stellar mass surface density, bulge fraction and specific star formation rate have the best connection with M_{H I}/{{M}_{*}}. By combining two control parameters, that indicate how well a given galaxy in SDSS is represented by the ALFALFA training set (PR) and the scatter in the training procedure (σfit), we develop a strategy for quantifying which SDSS galaxies our ANN can be adequately applied to, and the associated errors in the M_{H I}/{{M}_{*}} estimation. In contrast to previous works, our M_{H I}/{{M}_{*}} estimation has no systematic trend with galactic parameters such as M⋆, g - r and star formation rate. We present a catalogue of M_{H I}/{{M}_{*}} estimates for more than half a million galaxies in the SDSS, of which ˜150 000 galaxies have a secure selection parameter with average scatter in the M_{H I}/{{M}_{*}} estimation of 0.22 dex.

  8. A study of dental anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sook; Kim, Jae Duck [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of dental anomalies in 600 normal persons (male:363, female:237) at age 14 to 39 years, through history taking, oral examination, and radiographic observations of subjects. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The prevalence of individual dental anomalies were as follows; Congenitally missing teeth 7%; supernumerary teeth 1.33%; ectopic eruption 8.50%; transposition 0.33%; rotation 23.67%; microdontia 11.16% (peg lateral is 5.33%; third molar 5.83%); prolonged retention of deciduous teeth 1.33%; crowding 49.83%; and spacing 15.17%. 2. Alterations in numbers of teeth : The most frequently missing teeth were mandibular lateral incisors, followed by mandibular second premolars and maxillary second premolars. In numbers of congenitally missing teeth per person, 52.38% had one missing tooth and 30.95% had two missing teeth. In supernumerary teeth, there was higher rate in male than in female. Most supernumerary teeth were mesiodens of median area in maxilla and the eruption pattern of that teeth generally was unerupted state. 3. In transposition, exchange of position of teeth involved the canine and first premolar. 4. Congenital missing rate of permanent successors in prolonged retention of deciduous teeth was 69.23%. 5. Crowding and spacing had respectively higher rate in mandible and in maxilla.

  9. Multimodality imaging of vascular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Vascular malformations and hemangiomas are common in children but remain a source of confusion during diagnosis, in part because of the lack of a uniform terminology. With the existing treatments for hemangiomas and vascular malformations, it is important to make the correct diagnosis initially to prevent adverse physical and emotional sequelae in not only the child but also the family. The diagnosis of vascular malformations is made primarily by the clinician and based on the physical exam. Imaging is carried out using predominantly ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which are complementary modalities. In most cases of vascular anomalies, US is the first line of imaging as it is readily available, less expensive, lacks ionizing radiation and does not require sedation. MRI is also of great help for further characterizing the lesions. Conventional arteriography is reserved for cases that require therapeutic intervention, more commonly for arteriovenous malformations. Radiographs usually play no role in diagnosing vascular anomalies in children. In this article, the author describes the terminology and types of hemangiomas and vascular malformations and their clinical, histological features, as well as the imaging approach and appearance.

  10. New analytic solutions for modeling vertical gravity gradient anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Sep; Wessel, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Modern processing of satellite altimetry for use in marine gravimetry involves computing the along-track slopes of observed sea-surface heights, projecting them into east-west and north-south deflection of the vertical grids, and using Laplace's equation to algebraically obtain a grid of the vertical gravity gradient (VGG). The VGG grid is then integrated via overlapping, flat Earth Fourier transforms to yield a free-air anomaly grid. Because of this integration and associated edge effects, the VGG grid retains more short-wavelength information (e.g., fracture zone and seamount signatures) that is of particular importance for plate tectonic investigations. While modeling of gravity anomalies over arbitrary bodies has long been a standard undertaking, similar modeling of VGG anomalies over oceanic features is not commonplace yet. Here we derive analytic solutions for VGG anomalies over simple bodies and arbitrary 2-D and 3-D sources. We demonstrate their usability in determining mass excess and deficiency across the Mendocino fracture zone (a 2-D feature) and find the best bulk density estimate for Jasper seamount (a 3-D feature). The methodologies used herein are implemented in the Generic Mapping Tools, available from gmt.soest.hawaii.edu.

  11. Estimation of intake of bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether (BADGE) from canned fish consumption in Europe and migration survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, C; Theobald, A; Wiltschko, D; Anklam, E

    1999-11-01

    The exposure to bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether (BADGE) from canned fish in oil was assessed from consumption data collected for each Member State of the European Union and Switzerland, and migration data from a European survey on 382 samples. Trade figures were used when no consumption data were available. The average consumption of canned fish in Europe was 2.3 kg per person per year, with values ranging from 0.2 kg per person per year in the United Kingdom to 5.1 kg per person per year in Denmark. The exposure to BADGE was calculated as microgram per person per day. The data indicated that exposure to BADGE was in the range below 4 mg per person per year, i.e. 9 micrograms per person per day, hence a fairly low exposure in part due to the fact that canned fish is a relatively minor dietary item. An approximation assuming the general figure of a 60 kg adult, would thus be 0.15 microgram/kg body weight per day. This is a fairly limited exposure considering the provisional limit in food had been set a 1 mg/kg and assumed 1 kg of food ingested. In countries for which increased exposure was found, the reason was mainly caused by one individual sample exhibiting a high concentration rather than a larger number of samples with mildly elevated concentrations.

  12. Electromagnetic field anomalies above an isometric depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubtsova, N. S.

    1981-12-01

    The paper examines the three-dimensional simulation of the electromagnetic field above an isometric depression with conducting deposits. The model makes it possible to study the development of electromagnetic anomalies over such a depression and to make qualitative as well as quantitative assessments of the dependence of electromagnetic anomalies on field frequency, the dimensions of geoelectric inhomogeneities, and the specific resistance of the foundation of the depression. The present approach can be used in geoelectric and magnetotelluric studies of electromagnetic anomalies.

  13. Network anomaly detection a machine learning perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid rise in the ubiquity and sophistication of Internet technology and the accompanying growth in the number of network attacks, network intrusion detection has become increasingly important. Anomaly-based network intrusion detection refers to finding exceptional or nonconforming patterns in network traffic data compared to normal behavior. Finding these anomalies has extensive applications in areas such as cyber security, credit card and insurance fraud detection, and military surveillance for enemy activities. Network Anomaly Detection: A Machine Learning Perspective presents mach

  14. Development and Congenital Anomalies of the Pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Tadokoro; Masaru Takase; Bunsei Nobukawa

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how the pancreas develops is essential to understand the pathogenesis of congenital pancreatic anomalies. Recent studies have shown the advantages of investigating the development of frogs, mice, and chickens for understanding early embryonic development of the pancreas and congenital anomalies, such as choledochal cysts, anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction, annular pancreas, and pancreas divisum. These anomalies arise from failure of complete rotation and fusion during embryo...

  15. Peters anomaly: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Ramanath; Ferri, Sara; Whittaker, Beatrice; Liu, Margaret; Lazzaro, Douglas R

    2011-08-01

    Peters anomaly is a rare dramatic finding at birth and can be associated with other systemic malformations. We performed a literature review of multiple case reports and case series to better define the common characteristics and unusual findings associated with Peters anomaly. A representative case is discussed followed by a literature review of multiple case reports and case series. The literature search was conducted for the years 1969 to 2009. Cases and case series were included in the review of published English ophthalmic literature. Cases were excluded if no information was reported on ocular and systemic malformations or if no information was reported on surgical interventions or outcomes. In addition, if cases did not report laterality of the lesion, they were excluded from the review. Fifty-eight cases were found that fit the above criteria, and the relevant cases were reviewed to better characterize the systemic malformations, interventions, and outcomes associated with Peters anomaly reported in the literature. Fifty-eight cases of Peters anomaly were reviewed. Of those cases reporting sex, 56% were men and 44% of cases were women. In terms of laterality, 67.2% of cases were bilateral versus 32.8% of cases that were unilateral. Moreover, bilateral cases of Peters anomaly were associated with a higher rate of systemic malformations (71.8%) versus unilateral Peters anomaly (36.8%). This difference was significant (P anomaly type I (87.5%), as opposed to those patients with Peters anomaly type II (14.2%) (P anomaly are presented. Cornea specialists who care for pediatric patients should be aware of the common and uncommon associations with Peters anomaly. Although bilateral Peters anomaly is much more commonly associated with systemic malformations, we believe that all patients with Peters anomaly should be screened for systemic malformations by both pediatricians and geneticists and undergo chromosomal analysis and molecular genetic testing.

  16. Effects of a child with a craniofacial anomaly on stability of the parental relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Dane; Pai, Lori; Belfer, Myron L; Mulliken, John B

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine rates of divorce in parents of children with various types of craniofacial anomalies and to analyze possible confounding factors. A 29-question survey was sent to parents of all children evaluated in the Craniofacial Centre between 1992 and 1997. Parents were questioned regarding pre- and postnatal marital stability, whether the child's facial anomaly contributed to divorce, and involvement in the child's welfare. Using deformational posterior plagiocephaly as a control group, rates of divorce vs. non-divorce were compared for craniofacial anomalies, categorized as asymmetric (hemifacial microsomia, unilateral coronal synostosis, cleft lip, cleft lip/palate) or symmetric (syndromic-craniosynostosis, orbital hypertelorism, Treacher Collins syndrome). Major anomalies (hemifacial microsomia, craniosynostosis, orbital hypertelorism, Treacher Collins syndrome) were also compared to minor anomalies (cleft lip, cleft lip/palate). Surveys were sent to both parents in 412 families; 403 surveys were returned; and the results were evaluated in 275 families (67%). Frequency analysis demonstrated an overall divorce rate of 6.8% and 4.9% separation. Anomalies associated with the highest rate of divorce were hemifacial microsomia (24.0%), syndromic craniosynostosis (12.2%), and cleft lip/palate (6.8%). 79% of non-divorced couples reported a strong prenatal relationship, whereas 59% of divorced couples reported a problematic relationship. Following birth of the affected child, 47% of non-divorced couples responded that the bonds became stronger and 41% of divorced couples thought the relationship worsened. Two-sided Fisher exact test comparing control vs. all other anomalies showed significance (p=.030) for rates of divorce. Separation of anomalies into asymmetric vs. symmetric and major vs. minor categories demonstrated no significant difference in divorce rate (p>.05). The mother was more likely to become a child's primary caregiver

  17. Symptomatology associated with accommodative and binocular vision anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz, Ángel; Carbonell-Bonete, Stela; Cacho-Martínez, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    To determine the symptoms associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions and to assess the methods used to obtain the subjects' symptoms. We conducted a scoping review of articles published between 1988 and 2012 that analysed any aspect of the symptomatology associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions. The literature search was performed in Medline (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO and FRANCIS. A total of 657 articles were identified, and 56 met the inclusion criteria. We found 267 different ways of naming the symptoms related to these anomalies, which we grouped into 34 symptom categories. Of the 56 studies, 35 employed questionnaires and 21 obtained the symptoms from clinical histories. We found 11 questionnaires, of which only 3 had been validated: the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS V-15) and CIRS parent version, both specific for convergence insufficiency, and the Conlon survey, developed for visual anomalies in general. The most widely used questionnaire (21 studies) was the CISS V-15. Of the 34 categories of symptoms, the most frequently mentioned were: headache, blurred vision, diplopia, visual fatigue, and movement or flicker of words at near vision, which were fundamentally related to near vision and binocular anomalies. There is a wide disparity of symptoms related to accommodative and binocular dysfunctions in the scientific literature, most of which are associated with near vision and binocular dysfunctions. The only psychometrically validated questionnaires that we found (n=3) were related to convergence insufficiency and to visual dysfunctions in general and there no specific questionnaires for other anomalies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  18. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, M.; Oikawa, A.; Matoba, A.

    1987-05-01

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions.

  19. Vascular anomalies: differential diagnosis and mimickers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzon, Maria C; Weitz, Nicole; Powell, Julie

    2016-09-01

    Vascular anomalies are very common in children and encompass a wide spectrum of diseases. Many vascular anomalies can be mistaken for infantile hemangioma (IH). In addition, there is a variety of rare disorders including benign and malignant tumors that may mimic IH and other types of vascular anomalies. Understanding the clinical features, natural history, and typical clinical course of different types of vascular anomalies is essential in order to make the correct diagnosis and guide management. Radiologic imaging plays an important role in establishing the diagnosis; and when the diagnosis remains in doubt, a biopsy performed by a surgical specialist with expertise may prove to be lifesaving.

  20. The "Parity" Anomaly On An Unorientable Manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The "parity" anomaly -- more accurately described as an anomaly in time-reversal or reflection symmetry -- arises in certain theories of fermions coupled to gauge fields and/or gravity in a spacetime of odd dimension. The "parity" anomaly has traditionally been studied on orientable manifolds only, but recent developments involving topological superconductors have made it clear that one can get more information by asking what happens on an unorientable manifold. In this paper, we analyze the "parity" anomaly for fermions coupled to gauge fields and gravity in $2+1$ dimensions. We consider applications to gapped boundary states of a topological superconductor and to M2-branes in string/M-theory.