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Sample records for survey elucidates population

  1. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2011 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  2. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2010 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  3. Wolf Population Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Snow track surveys are a common method of estimating relative abundance, estimating density, and documenting range use of furbearers and large carnivores. The...

  4. Using spatial capture–recapture to elucidate population processes and space-use in herpetological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, David J.; Miller, David A.W.; Sutherland, Chris; Grant, Evan H. Campbell

    2016-01-01

    The cryptic behavior and ecology of herpetofauna make estimating the impacts of environmental change on demography difficult; yet, the ability to measure demographic relationships is essential for elucidating mechanisms leading to the population declines reported for herpetofauna worldwide. Recently developed spatial capture–recapture (SCR) methods are well suited to standard herpetofauna monitoring approaches. Individually identifying animals and their locations allows accurate estimates of population densities and survival. Spatial capture–recapture methods also allow estimation of parameters describing space-use and movement, which generally are expensive or difficult to obtain using other methods. In this paper, we discuss the basic components of SCR models, the available software for conducting analyses, and the experimental designs based on common herpetological survey methods. We then apply SCR models to Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus), to determine differences in density, survival, dispersal, and space-use between adult male and female salamanders. By highlighting the capabilities of SCR, and its advantages compared to traditional methods, we hope to give herpetologists the resource they need to apply SCR in their own systems.

  5. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1986. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  6. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  7. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Manitoba: 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Manitoba during 1983. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  8. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  9. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1998. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  10. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1983. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  11. Central Quebec: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Central Quebec during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  12. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1989. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  13. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  14. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  15. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1994. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  16. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1996. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  17. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1987. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  18. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1992. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  19. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1990. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  20. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1997. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  1. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1988. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  2. Elucidation of population and coherence dynamics using cross-peaks in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Y.-C.; Engel, Gregory S. [Department of Chemistry and QB3 Institute, University of California, Berkeley (United States) and Physical Bioscience Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fleming, Graham R. [Department of Chemistry and QB3 Institute, University of California, Berkeley (United States) and Physical Bioscience Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: GRFleming@lbl.gov

    2007-11-15

    In this work, we perform a theoretical study on the dynamics and two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of a model trimer system and compare the results to experimental data on the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein. We combine a time-nonlocal quantum master equation formalism and the recently developed method for the efficient calculation of third-order photon echo polarization [M.F. Gelin, D. Egorova, W.J. Domcke, J. Chem. Phys. 123 (2005) 164112] to simulate the 2D electronic spectra of the model system, and compare the time-evolution of the amplitude of cross-peaks to the coherent relaxation dynamics of the system following the excitation by a laser pulse. We show that beats of the upper diagonal peaks in the absolute value 2D spectra provide a direct probe for the coherence dynamics in the system, and the time-evolution of the amplitude of the lower diagonal cross-peaks in the real value 2D spectra can be used to reveal the population transfer among exciton states. Our results verify the intuitive description provided by response functions and demonstrate that the full coherent dynamics in a multichromophoric system can be elucidated using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy.

  3. Using length-frequency data to elucidate the population dynamics of Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N G H; Wootten, R; Sommerville, C

    2009-08-01

    This study uses a novel method for discriminating cohorts and investigating the population dynamics of the parasitic crustacean, Argulus foliaceus. Analysis of parasite length-frequency data was carried out in order to elucidate the timings and drivers behind the parasite's life cycle. Up to 6 cohorts of the parasite emerge through the course of 1 year in still-water trout fisheries in England. Recruitment ceases over the winter months; however, 3 cohorts of the parasite over-winter, 2 as eggs and 1 as a hatched stage. The technique, when used in conjunction with temperature data, also allowed for the reliable prediction of growth rates and provided estimates of egg incubation times and the length of hatching periods. These data showed that growth rates increased exponentially between the observed temperatures of 4 to 22 degrees C. The method allowed for the time taken from hatching to egg laying under field conditions to be predicted and produced estimates that were validated against independent laboratory studies on the growth of the parasite.

  4. Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey was initiated experimentally in 1947 and became operational in 1955. It is conducted cooperatively by the U.S....

  5. Elucidation of the tidal influence on bacterial populations in a monsoon influenced estuary through simultaneous observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Eswaran, R.; Gardade, L.; Kuchi, N.; Mapari, K.E.; Naik, S.D.; Anil, A.C.

    The influence of tides on bacterial populations in a monsoon influenced tropical estuary was assessed through fine resolution sampling (1 to 3 h) during spring and neap tides from mouth to the freshwater end at four stations during pre...

  6. Elucidating the multiple genetic lineages and population genetic structure of the brooding coral Seriatopora (Scleractinia: Pocilloporidae) in the Ryukyu Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yuichi; Nishikawa, Akira; Iguchi, Akira; Nagata, Tomofumi; Uyeno, Daisuke; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    The elucidation of species diversity and connectivity is essential for conserving coral reef communities and for understanding the characteristics of coral populations. To assess the species diversity, intraspecific genetic diversity, and genetic differentiation among populations of the brooding coral Seriatopora spp., we conducted phylogenetic and population genetic analyses using a mitochondrial DNA control region and microsatellites at ten sites in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. At least three genetic lineages of Seriatopora (Seriatopora-A, -B, and -C) were detected in our specimens. We collected colonies morphologically similar to Seriatopora hystrix, but these may have included multiple, genetically distinct species. Although sexual reproduction maintains the populations of all the genetic lineages, Seriatopora-A and Seriatopora-C had lower genetic diversity than Seriatopora-B. We detected significant genetic differentiation in Seriatopora-B among the three populations as follows: pairwise F ST = 0.064-0.116 (all P = 0.001), pairwise G''ST = 0.107-0.209 (all P = 0.001). Additionally, only one migrant from an unsampled population was genetically identified within Seriatopora-B. Because the peak of the settlement of Seriatopora larvae is within 1 d and almost all larvae are settled within 5 d of spawning, our observations may be related to low dispersal ability. Populations of Seriatopora in the Ryukyu Archipelago will probably not recover unless there is substantial new recruitment from distant populations.

  7. Elucidating the population dynamics of Japanese knotweed using integral projection models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Dauer

    Full Text Available Plant demographic studies coupled with population modeling are crucial components of invasive plant management because they inform managers when in a plant's life cycle it is most susceptible to control efforts. Providing land managers with appropriate data can be especially challenging when there is limited data on potentially important transitions that occur belowground. For 2 years, we monitored 4 clonal Japanese knotweed (Polygonumcuspidatum infestations for emergence, survival, shoot height until leaf senescence, dry shoot biomass after senescence, and rhizome connections for 424 shoots. We developed an integral projection model using both final autumn shoot height and shoot biomass as predictors of survival between years, growth from year to year, and number of rhizomes produced by a shoot (fecundity. Numbers of new shoots within an infestation (population growth rate λ were projected to increase 13-233% in a year, with the greatest increase at the most frequently disturbed site. Elasticity analysis revealed population growth at 3 of the 4 sites was primarily due to ramet survival between years and to year-to-year growth in shoot height and shoot biomass. Population growth at the fourth site, the most disturbed, was due to the large production of new rhizomes and associated shoots. In contrast to previous studies, our excavation revealed that most of the shoots were not interconnected, suggesting rhizome production may be limited by the size or age of the plants, resource availability, disturbance frequency, or other factors. Future integration of plant population models with more data on belowground growth structures will clarify the critical stages in Japanese knotweed life cycle and support land managers in their management decisions.

  8. Comparing schizophrenia symptoms in the Iban of Sarawak with other populations to elucidate clinical heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Duncan; Loa, Peter; Thara, Rangaswamy; John, Sujit; McGrath, John; Gratten, Jake; Mowry, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The symptom profile of schizophrenia can vary between ethnic groups. We explored selected symptom variables previously reported to be characteristic of schizophrenia in the Iban of Sarawak in transethnic populations from Australia, India and Sarawak, Malaysia. We tested site differences to confirm previous research, and to explore implications of differences across populations for future investigations. Methods We recruited schizophrenia samples in Australia (n=609), India (n=310) and Sarawak (n=205) primarily for the purposes of genetic studies. We analyzed seven identified variables and their relationship to site using logistic regression, including: global delusions, bizarre delusions, thought broadcast/insertion/withdrawal delusions, global hallucinations, auditory hallucinations, disorganized behavior, and prodromal duration. Results We identified a distinct symptom profile in our Sarawak sample. Specifically, the Iban exhibit: low frequency of thought broadcast/insertion/withdrawal delusions, high frequency of auditory hallucinations and disorganized behavior, with a comparatively short prodrome when compared with Australian and Indian populations. Discussion Understanding between-site variation in symptom profile may complement future transethnic genetic studies, and provide important clues as to the nature of differing schizophrenia expression across ethnically distinct groups. A comprehensive approach to subtyping schizophrenia is warranted, utilizing comprehensively ascertained transethnic samples to inform both schizophrenia genetics and nosology. PMID:24038814

  9. In situ morphometric survey elucidates the evolutionary systematics of the Eurasian Himantoglossum clade (Orchidaceae: Orchidinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Bateman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims The charismatic Himantoglossum s.l. clade of Eurasian orchids contains an unusually large proportion of taxa that are of controversial circumscriptions and considerable conservation concern. Whereas our previously published study addressed the molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of every named taxon within the clade, here we use detailed morphometric data obtained from the same populations to compare genotypes with associated phenotypes, in order to better explore taxonomic circumscription and character evolution within the clade. Methods Between one and 12 plants found in 25 populations that encompassed the entire distribution of the Himantoglossum s.l. clade were measured in situ for 51 morphological characters. Results for 45 of those characters were subjected to detailed multivariate and univariate analyses. Key Results Multivariate analyses readily separate subgenus Barlia and subgenus Comperia from subgenus Himantoglossum, and also the early-divergent H. formosum from the less divergent remainder of subgenus Himantoglossum. The sequence of divergence of these four lineages is confidently resolved. Our experimental approach to morphometric character analysis demonstrates clearly that phenotypic evolution within Himantoglossum is unusually multi-dimensional. Conclusions Degrees of divergence between taxa shown by morphological analyses approximate those previously shown using molecular analyses. Himantoglossum s.l. is readily divisible into three subgenera. The three sections of subgenus Himantoglossum—hircinum, caprinum and formosum—are arrayed from west to east with only limited geographical overlap. At this taxonomic level, their juxtaposition combines with conflict between contrasting datasets to complicate attempts to distinguish between clinal variation and the discontinuities that by definition separate bona fide species. All taxa achieve allogamy via food deceit and have only weak pollinator specificity

  10. Maine & the Maritimes: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Maine and the Maritimes during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  11. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Alberta: May 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Alberta during 1991. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  12. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern and central Alberta: May 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern and central Alberta during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  13. Western and Central Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Western and Central Ontario during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  14. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: May 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  15. Four Square Mile Survey breeding population report for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Production report of Four Square Mile Survey breeding population estimates for 13 species of ducks. Data includes summaries of breeding population estimates...

  16. Surveys, Astrometric Follow-up & Population Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Jedicke, Robert; Micheli, Marco; Ryan, Eileen; Spahr, Timothy; Yeomans, Donald K

    2015-01-01

    Asteroid surveys are the backbone of asteroid science, and with this in mind we begin with a broad review of the impact of asteroid surveys on our field. We then provide a brief history of asteroid discoveries so as to place contemporary and future surveys in perspective. Surveys in the United States have discovered the vast majority of the asteroids and this dominance has been consolidated since the publication of Asteroids III. Our descriptions of the asteroid surveys that have been operational since that time are focussed upon those that have contributed the vast majority of asteroid observations and discoveries. We also provide some insight into upcoming next-generation surveys that are sure to alter our understanding of the small bodies in the inner solar system and provide evidence to untangle their complicated dynamical and physical histories. The Minor Planet Center, the nerve center of the asteroid discovery effort, has improved its operations significantly in the past decade so that it can manage th...

  17. Pseudo-populations a basic concept in statistical surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Quatember, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasizes that artificial or pseudo-populations play an important role in statistical surveys from finite universes in two manners: firstly, the concept of pseudo-populations may substantially improve users’ understanding of various aspects in the sampling theory and survey methodology; an example of this scenario is the Horvitz-Thompson estimator. Secondly, statistical procedures exist in which pseudo-populations actually have to be generated. An example of such a scenario can be found in simulation studies in the field of survey sampling, where close-to-reality pseudo-populations are generated from known sample and population data to form the basis for the simulation process. The chapters focus on estimation methods, sampling techniques, nonresponse, questioning designs and statistical disclosure control.This book is a valuable reference in understanding the importance of the pseudo-population concept and applying it in teaching and research.

  18. Development of a North American survey for monitoring shorebird populations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to investigate the feasibility of a survey for North American shorebird populations that will provide reliable annual indices to...

  19. Surveys of the American Deaf Population: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Russell S.

    2009-01-01

    This is a critical review of surveys conducted on the American deaf population since 1990. There is no agreement among the surveys on the number of deaf and hard of hearing individuals in the US. This behooves us to study the question: Why the lack of agreement in estimates and prevalence rates of the American general deaf and the deaf child…

  20. Estimating trends in alligator populations from nightlight survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Cherkiss, Michael; Jeffery, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Nightlight surveys are commonly used to evaluate status and trends of crocodilian populations, but imperfect detection caused by survey- and location-specific factors makes it difficult to draw population inferences accurately from uncorrected data. We used a two-stage hierarchical model comprising population abundance and detection probability to examine recent abundance trends of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in subareas of Everglades wetlands in Florida using nightlight survey data. During 2001–2008, there were declining trends in abundance of small and/or medium sized animals in a majority of subareas, whereas abundance of large sized animals had either demonstrated an increased or unclear trend. For small and large sized class animals, estimated detection probability declined as water depth increased. Detection probability of small animals was much lower than for larger size classes. The declining trend of smaller alligators may reflect a natural population response to the fluctuating environment of Everglades wetlands under modified hydrology. It may have negative implications for the future of alligator populations in this region, particularly if habitat conditions do not favor recruitment of offspring in the near term. Our study provides a foundation to improve inferences made from nightlight surveys of other crocodilian populations.

  1. An Approach to Elucidate NBS1 Function in DNA Repair Using Frequent Nonsynonymous Polymorphism in Wild Medaka (Oryzias latipes) Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Kento; Kobayashi, Junya; Katsumura, Takafumi; Urushihara, Yusuke; Hida, Kyohei; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Oota, Hiroki; Oda, Shoji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Nbs1 is one of the genes responsible for Nijmegen breakage syndrome, which is marked with high radiosensitivity. In human NBS1 (hNBS1), Q185E polymorphism is known as the factor to cancer risks, although its DSB repair defect has not been addressed. Here we investigated the genetic variations in medaka (Oryzias latipes) wild populations, and found 40 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in medaka nbs1 (olnbs1) gene within 5 inbred strains. A mutation to histidine in Q170 residue in olNbs1, which corresponds to Q185 residue of hNBS1, was widely distributed in the closed colonies derived from the eastern Korean population of medaka. Overexpression of H170 type olNbs1 in medaka cultured cell lines resulted in the increased accumulation of olNbs1 at laser-induced DSB sites. Autophosphorylation of DNA-dependent protein kinase at T2609 was suppressed after the γ-ray irradiation, which was followed by prolonged formation of γ-H2AX foci and delayed DSB repair. These findings suggested that the nonsynonymous SNP (Q170H) in olnbs1, which induced DSB repair defects, is specifically distributed in the eastern Korean population of medaka. Furthermore, examination using the variation within wild populations might provide a novel method to characterize a driving force to spread the disease risk alleles.

  2. Applying genotyping (TILLING and phenotyping analyses to elucidate gene function in a chemically induced sorghum mutant population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franks Cleve

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] is ranked as the fifth most important grain crop and serves as a major food staple and fodder resource for much of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. The recent surge in sorghum research is driven by its tolerance to drought/heat stresses and its strong potential as a bioenergy feedstock. Completion of the sorghum genome sequence has opened new avenues for sorghum functional genomics. However, the availability of genetic resources, specifically mutant lines, is limited. Chemical mutagenesis of sorghum germplasm, followed by screening for mutants altered in important agronomic traits, represents a rapid and effective means of addressing this limitation. Induced mutations in novel genes of interest can be efficiently assessed using the technique known as Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genomes (TILLING. Results A sorghum mutant population consisting of 1,600 lines was generated from the inbred line BTx623 by treatment with the chemical agent ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS. Numerous phenotypes with altered morphological and agronomic traits were observed from M2 and M3 lines in the field. A subset of 768 mutant lines was analyzed by TILLING using four target genes. A total of five mutations were identified resulting in a calculated mutation density of 1/526 kb. Two of the mutations identified by TILLING and verified by sequencing were detected in the gene encoding caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT in two independent mutant lines. The two mutant lines segregated for the expected brown midrib (bmr phenotype, a trait associated with altered lignin content and increased digestibility. Conclusion TILLING as a reverse genetic approach has been successfully applied to sorghum. The diversity of the mutant phenotypes observed in the field, and the density of induced mutations calculated from TILLING indicate that this mutant population represents a useful resource for members of

  3. Elucidating dynamic responses of North Pacific fish populations to climatic forcing: Influence of life-history strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsu, A.; Aydin, K. Y.; King, J. R.; McFarlane, G. A.; Chiba, S.; Tadokoro, K.; Kaeriyama, M.; Watanabe, Y.

    2008-05-01

    In order to explore mechanistic linkages between low-frequency ocean/climate variability, and fish population responses, we undertook comparative studies of time-series of recruitment-related productivity and the biomass levels of fish stocks representing five life-history strategies in the northern North Pacific between the 1950s and the present. We selected seven species: Japanese sardine ( Sardinopus melanostictus) and California sardine ( Sardinopus sagax) (opportunistic strategists), walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma, intermediate strategist), pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, salmonic strategist), sablefish ( Anoplopoma fimbria) and Pacific halibut ( Hippoglossus stenolepis) (periodic strategists) and spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias, equilibrium strategist). The responses in terms of productivity of sardine, pink salmon, sablefish and halibut to climatic regime shifts were generally immediate, delayed, or no substantial responses depending on the particular regime shift year and fish stock (population). In walleye pollock, there were some periods of high productivity and low productivity, but not coincidental to climatic regime shifts, likely due to indirect climate forcing impacts on both bottom-up and top-down processes. Biomass of zooplankton and all fish stocks examined, except for spiny dogfish whose data were limited, indicated a decadal pattern with the most gradual changes in periodic strategists and most intensive and rapid changes in opportunistic strategists. Responses of sardine productivity to regime shifts were the most intense, probably due to the absence of density-dependent effects and the availability of refuges from predators when sardine biomass was extremely low. Spiny dogfish were least affected by environmental variability. Conversely, spiny dogfish are likely to withstand only modest harvest rates due to their very low intrinsic rate of increase. Thus, each life-history strategy type had a unique response to climatic

  4. Malaria knowledge, attitudes and practices in Malawi: survey population characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettling, M; Steketee, R W; Macheso, A; Schultz, L J; Nyasulu, Y; Chitsulo, L

    1994-03-01

    A national knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey was conducted in March-April 1992 to examine malaria illness and the people's response to illness and malaria prevention. Fifty-one households in each of 30 randomly selected communities were sampled and information was recorded from 1,531 households and 7,025 individuals. The population is characterized by low income (average household and per capita income were US $490 and $122, respectively) and low education levels (among adult women, 45% had no formal education and only 3.9% completed more than 8 years of schooling). Characteristics of the population were similar to those found in the 1987 national census, suggesting that the survey population was representative of the larger population of Malawi. Children under 5 years of age made up 15.8% of the population and had the highest rates of fever illness; these children experienced an estimated 9.7 cases/year of fever illness consistent with malaria. Although adults reported fever less frequently, women of reproductive age experienced an estimated 6.9 episodes of fever annually. The burden of malaria morbidity in this population is extremely high and occurs in all age groups.

  5. Disproportionate sampling for population subgroups in telephone surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsbeek, William D; Boyle, Walter R; Agans, Robert P; White, John E

    2007-04-15

    Population studies often seek to examine phenomena in important population subgroups or to compare results among these and other subgroups. When subgroups of interest comprise a relatively small percentage of the population and acceptable subgroup member lists are not available to serve as sampling frames, it may be prohibitively expensive even by telephone to screen through a sample of the entire population. This paper considers some statistical effects of estimation from a class of two-stratum telephone sample designs where part of the frame with a higher subgroup concentration is disproportionately sampled compared to the rest of the frame. Using proportionate sampling as a reference, the relative impact of this disproportionate design is determined for nominal and effective sample sizes, where the latter are tied to the effect of variation in sample weights that occurs in disproportionately allocated samples. Findings are illustrated using two recent telephone surveys. Whereas nominal subgroup sample sizes may be improved by disproportionate sampling, we conclude that both the survey designer and analyst should use this type of design cautiously in telephone surveys.

  6. The Dark Energy Survey: Prospects for resolved stellar populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, Bruno M. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santiago, Basílio X. [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Girardi, Léo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Osservatorio Astronomica di Padova-INAF, Padova (Italy); Camargo, Julio I. B. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Balbinot, Eduardo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); da Costa, Luiz N. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Maia, Marcio A. G. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Makler, Martin [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ogando, Ricardo L. C. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pellegrini, Paulo S. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ramos, Beatriz [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); de Simoni, Fernando [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Armstrong, R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Bertin, E. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Desai, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Kuropatkin, N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lin, H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mohr, J. J. [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Tucker, D. L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy.

  7. A survey of floating population in 50 townships in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q

    1995-01-01

    This article presents the findings from the survey of the floating population in China. The survey was conducted in 1991 among 58 townships in 20 provinces after a pilot survey was carried out in Sanhe County of Hebei Province and Wutai County of Shanxi Province. Townships were selected that were representative of the situations in their province. The final sample included only 50 townships due to poor quality data. The population in the sample townships included 18,926 immigrants, or 22.5% of total population, and 9,678 emigrants, or 11.6% of total population. Among seven suburban townships the immigration rate was 44.9% and the emigration rate was 3.2%. Eight coastal townships had an immigrant population of 24.9% and an emigrant population of 3.9%. Inland townships (35) had an immigration rate of 13.9% and emigration rate of 16.5%. Inland migrants moved to places with better economic conditions. 67.4% of the total floating population was male, and 32.6% was female. 4.88% were aged under 14 years and 1.64% were aged over 60 years. 73.4% were aged 15-29 years. 52.7% of the floating population had a junior high education and 32.1% had an elementary school education. The floating population comprised a high proportion of unmarried persons. Most shifted their occupations from the agricultural to the nonagricultural sector. 84.7% of the floating population lived in suburbs, and many worked as vendors, handicraft workers, and sanitation workers. In coastal areas, most were employed in industries and lived in company dorms or rented houses. The average income was RMB1373. Average household income was RMB347 more than the amount for rural residents. Coastal income was higher. 61% worked in services, construction, and transportation. 16% worked in commerce. 23% were visitors. The author states that the floating population is a product of a large and growing rural labor surplus.

  8. Arecibo pulsar survey using ALFA. III. Precursor survey and population synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiggum, J. K.; Lorimer, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Bates, S. D.; Senty, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Champion, D. J.; Lazarus, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ransom, S. M. [NRAO, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Brazier, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hessels, J. W. T. [ASTRON, Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Nice, D. J. [Department of Physics, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States); Ellis, J.; Allen, B. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee WI 53211 (United States); Bhat, N. D. R. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Crawford, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA 17604-3003 (United States); Deneva, J. S. [Arecibo Observatory, HC3 Box 53995, Arecibo, PR 00612 (United States); and others

    2014-06-01

    The Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) Survey uses the ALFA 7-beam receiver to search both inner and outer Galactic sectors visible from Arecibo (32° ≲ ℓ ≲ 77° and 168° ≲ ℓ ≲ 214°) close to the Galactic plane (|b| ≲ 5°) for pulsars. The PALFA survey is sensitive to sources fainter and more distant than have previously been seen because of Arecibo's unrivaled sensitivity. In this paper we detail a precursor survey of this region with PALFA, which observed a subset of the full region (slightly more restrictive in ℓ and |b| ≲ 1°) and detected 45 pulsars. Detections included 1 known millisecond pulsar and 11 previously unknown, long-period pulsars. In the surveyed part of the sky that overlaps with the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey (36° ≲ ℓ ≲ 50°), PALFA is probing deeper than the Parkes survey, with four discoveries in this region. For both Galactic millisecond and normal pulsar populations, we compare the survey's detections with simulations to model these populations and, in particular, to estimate the number of observable pulsars in the Galaxy. We place 95% confidence intervals of 82,000 to 143,000 on the number of detectable normal pulsars and 9000 to 100,000 on the number of detectable millisecond pulsars in the Galactic disk. These are consistent with previous estimates. Given the most likely population size in each case (107,000 and 15,000 for normal and millisecond pulsars, respectively), we extend survey detection simulations to predict that, when complete, the full PALFA survey should have detected 1000{sub −230}{sup +330} normal pulsars and 30{sub −20}{sup +200} millisecond pulsars. Identical estimation techniques predict that 490{sub −115}{sup +160} normal pulsars and 12{sub −5}{sup +70} millisecond pulsars would be detected by the beginning of 2014; at the time, the PALFA survey had detected 283 normal pulsars and 31 millisecond pulsars, respectively. We attribute the deficiency in normal pulsar

  9. Symposium on cross national comparisons: Youth population surveys about child maltreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    Cross National Comparisons: Youth Population Surveys About Child Maltreatment In this multi-session track, researchers will present the results concerning the epidemiology of child maltreatment from over one dozen general population surveys of youth, covering four continents and portions...

  10. Survey of waterfowl populations and habitat on Nelson Island, Alaska: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a progress report on the survey of waterfowl populations and habitat on Nelson Island in Alaska. Aerial surveys and ground surveys are covered....

  11. Arecibo Pulsar Survey Using ALFA. III. Precursor Survey and Population Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Swiggum, J K; McLaughlin, M A; Bates, S D; Champion, D J; Ransom, S M; Lazarus, P; Brazier, A; Hessels, J W T; Nice, D J; Ellis, J; Senty, T R; Allen, B; Bhat, N D R; Bogdanov, S; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J S; Freire, P C C; Jenet, F A; Karako-Argaman, C; Kaspi, V M; Knispel, B; Lee, K J; Van Leeuwen, J; Lynch, R; Lyne, A G; Scholz, P; Siemens, X; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; Stovall, K; Venkataraman, A; Zhu, W W

    2014-01-01

    The Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) Survey uses the ALFA 7-beam receiver to search both inner and outer Galactic sectors visible from Arecibo ($32^{\\circ}\\lesssim \\ell \\lesssim 77^{\\circ}$ and $168^{\\circ}\\lesssim \\ell \\lesssim 214^{\\circ}$) close to the Galactic plane ($|b|\\lesssim5^{\\circ}$) for pulsars. In this paper we detail a precursor survey of this region with PALFA, which observed a subset of the full region (slightly more restrictive in $\\ell$ and $|b|\\lesssim1^{\\circ}$) and detected 45 pulsars. For both Galactic millisecond and normal pulsar populations, we compare the survey's detections with simulations to model these populations and, in particular, to estimate the number of observable pulsars in the Galaxy. We place 95\\% confidence intervals of 82,000 to 143,000 on the number of detectable normal pulsars and 9,000 to 100,000 on the number of detectable millisecond pulsars in the Galactic disk. These are consistent with previous estimates. Given the most likely population size in each ca...

  12. Monitoring carnivore populations at the landscape scale: occupancy modelling of tigers from sign surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Kota Ullas; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.; Kumar, Narayanarao Samba; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Nichols, James D.; MacKenzie, Darryl I.

    2011-01-01

    1. Assessing spatial distributions of threatened large carnivores at landscape scales poses formidable challenges because of their rarity and elusiveness. As a consequence of logistical constraints, investigators typically rely on sign surveys. Most survey methods, however, do not explicitly address the central problem of imperfect detections of animal signs in the field, leading to underestimates of true habitat occupancy and distribution. 2. We assessed habitat occupancy for a tiger Panthera tigris metapopulation across a c. 38 000-km2 landscape in India, employing a spatially replicated survey to explicitly address imperfect detections. Ecological predictions about tiger presence were confronted with sign detection data generated from occupancy sampling of 205 sites, each of 188 km2. 3. A recent occupancy model that considers Markovian dependency among sign detections on spatial replicates performed better than the standard occupancy model (ΔAIC = 184·9). A formulation of this model that fitted the data best showed that density of ungulate prey and levels of human disturbance were key determinants of local tiger presence. Model averaging resulted in a replicate-level detection probability [inline image] = 0·17 (0·17) for signs and a tiger habitat occupancy estimate of [inline image] = 0·665 (0·0857) or 14 076 (1814) km2 of potential habitat of 21 167 km2. In contrast, a traditional presence-versus-absence approach underestimated occupancy by 47%. Maps of probabilities of local site occupancy clearly identified tiger source populations at higher densities and matched observed tiger density variations, suggesting their potential utility for population assessments at landscape scales. 4. Synthesis and applications. Landscape-scale sign surveys can efficiently assess large carnivore spatial distributions and elucidate the factors governing their local presence, provided ecological and observation processes are both explicitly modelled. Occupancy

  13. The Dark Energy Survey: Prospects for Resolved Stellar Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Rossetto, B M; Girardi, L; Camargo, J I B; Balbinot, E; da Costa, L N; Yanny, B; Maia, M A G; Makler, M; Ogando, R L C; Pellegrini, P S; Ramos, B; de Simoni, F; Armstrong, R; Bertin, E; Desai, S; Kuropatkin, N; Lin, H; Mohr, J J; Tucker, D L

    2011-01-01

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2x10^8 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy. DES will probe low-mass stellar and sub-stellar objects at depths from 3 to 8 times larger than SDSS. The faint end of the main-sequence will be densely sampled beyond 10 kpc. The slope of the low mass end of the stellar IMF will be constrained to within a few hundredth dex, even in the thick disk and halo. In the sub-stellar mass regime, the IMF slope will be potentially constrained to within dlog \\phi(m) / dlog m ~ 0.1$. About 3x10^4 brown dwarf and at least 7.6x10...

  14. Large population survey: strengths and limits. Methodology of the EDIFICE survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Claire; Touboul, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    In France, mass screening for breast and colon cancer issupported by the French National Cancer Institute (INCa). In these nationwide screening campaigns, individuals aged between 50 and 74 years receive a personalized letter inviting them for a screening examination every 2 years. Prostate cancer screening is, however, still controversial and has not been included in the INCa recommendations so far. Research organizations are particularly interested in screening and indeed, several studies have been conducted in France and other countries to examine the different aspects of the subject. To provide actual benefits, screening should be undertaken on a regular scheduled basis. Therefore, several studies have assessed the factors influencing the participation rate of women in breast cancer screening in France (). The Institut National de Prévention et d'Education pour la Santé conducted one of these in 2005: the Baromètre Cancer (including 4046 individuals aged 15 years or older, interviewed by telephone) analysed beliefs and perceptions about cancer screening and studied attendance rates for breast, colon and prostate cancer (including scheduled screening). No previous survey has ever been conducted simultaneously among the general population and physicians with regard to individual and scheduled screening for breast cancer and colorectal cancer (CRC) or individual screening for prostate cancer. EDIFICE is thus the first large-scale survey to assess screening practices in France by analysing the targeted population on the one hand and the clinical practice of French general practitioners (GPs) on the other hand, using the 'mirror study' method to compare results. Two national surveys were conducted in 2005 and 2008. In 2005, only 22 geographical regions were included in the screening programme for CRC.

  15. 1990 waterfowl breeding population survey for South Dakota and North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for North and South Dakota during 1990. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  16. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Ontario, Quebec, and New York: May 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Ontario, Quebec, and New York during 1996. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  17. Alaska-Yukon waterfowl breeding population survey: May 16 to June 14, 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Alaska-Yukon during 1991. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information...

  18. 94 studies on dog population in makurdi, nigeria (ii): a survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STUDIES ON DOG POPULATION IN MAKURDI, NIGERIA (II): A SURVEY OF ... several studies on the ectoparasites of dogs have shown that ..... Epidemiological survey of. JOURNAL OF ... endoparasites of dogs and cats with selamectin.

  19. Pilot study: Waterfowl breeding population survey: Ontario, Quebec, and New York: May 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Ontario, Quebec, and New York during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  20. Southern Ontario, Quebec, and New York: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Southern Ontario, Quebec, and New York during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey...

  1. A survey of FRAXE allele sizes in three populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, N.; Ju, W.; Curley, D. [New York State Institute for Basic Research for Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-09

    FRAXE is a fragile site located at Xq27-8, which contains polymorphic triplet GCC repeats associated with a CpG island. Similar to FRAXA, expansion of the GCC repeats results in an abnormal methylation of the CpG island and is associated with a mild mental retardation syndrome (FRAXE-MR). We surveyed the GCC repeat alleles of FRAXE from 3 populations. A total of 665 X chromosomes including 416 from a New York Euro-American sample (259 normal and 157 with FRAXA mutations), 157 from a Chinese sample (144 normal and 13 FRAXA), and 92 from a Finnish sample (56 normal and 36 FRAXA) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-seven alleles, ranging from 4 to 39 GCC repeats, were observed. The modal repeat number was 16 in the New York and Finnish samples and accounted for 24% of all the chromosomes tested (162/665). The modal repeat number in the Chinese sample was 18. A founder effect for FRAXA was suggested among the Finnish FRAXA samples in that 75% had the FRAXE 16 repeat allele versus only 30% of controls. Sequencing of the FRAXE region showed no imperfections within the GCC repeat region, such as those commonly seen in FRAXA. The smaller size and limited range of repeats and the lack of imperfections suggests the molecular mechanisms underlying FRAXE triplet mutations may be different from those underlying FRAXA. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Stellar Population gradients in galaxy discs from the CALIFA survey

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez-Blazquez, P; Mendez-Abreu, J; Perez, I; Sanchez, S F; Zibetti, S; Aguerri, A; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Catalan, C; Fernandes, R Cid; de Amorim, A; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A; Falcon-Barroso, J; Galazzi, A; Benito, R Garcia; de Paz, A Gil; Delgado, R Gonzalez; Husemann, B; Iglesias-Paramo, Jorge; Jungwiert, B; Marino, R A; Marquez, I; Mast, D; Mendoza, M A; Molla, M; Papaderos, P; Ruiz-Lara, T; van de Ven, G; Walcher, C J; Wisotzki, L

    2014-01-01

    While studies of gas-phase metallicity gradients in disc galaxies are common, very little has been done in the acquisition of stellar abundance gradients in the same regions. We present here a comparative study of the stellar metallicity and age distributions in a sample of 62 nearly face-on, spiral galaxies with and without bars, using data from the CALIFA survey. We measure the slopes of the gradients and study their relation with other properties of the galaxies. We find that the mean stellar age and metallicity gradients in the disc are shallow and negative. Furthermore, when normalized to the effective radius of the disc, the slope of the stellar population gradients does not correlate with the mass or with the morphological type of the galaxies. Contrary to this, the values of both age and metallicity at $\\sim$2.5 scale-lengths correlate with the central velocity dispersion in a similar manner to the central values of the bulges, although bulges show, on average, older ages and higher metallicities than...

  3. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assumpção, Daniela; Dias, Marcia Regina Messaggi Gomes; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Fisberg, Regina Mara; de Azevedo Barros Filho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2). The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  5. Elucidating the structural properties that influence the persistence of PCBs in humans using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megson, David; O'Sullivan, Gwen; Comber, Sean; Worsfold, Paul J; Lohan, Maeve C; Edwards, Melanie R; Shields, Walter J; Sandau, Courtney D; Patterson, Donald G

    2013-09-01

    In human exposure studies involving Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), it is useful to establish when an individual was potentially exposed. Age dating PCB exposure is complex but assessments can be made because different PCB congeners have different residence times in the human body. The less chlorinated congeners generally tend to have shorter residence times because they are biotransformed and eliminated faster than more chlorinated congeners. Therefore, the presence of high proportions of less chlorinated congeners is often indicative of recent exposure. The 2003-04 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset contains results for the concentration of 37 PCBs in a sub-sample of the US population. Multivariate statistical analysis of the NHANES data showed that less chlorinated congeners are not always biotransformed faster than higher chlorinated compounds. For example, PCB 28 (a tri-chlorobiphenyl) appears to be more resistant to biotransformation than PCB 101 and 110 (penta-chlorobiphenyls). Using statistical analysis of the NHANES data in conjunction with previously published studies on PCB persistence in humans, it was possible to identify the structural relationships that determine if a PCB is likely to be from a recent exposure (termed 'episodic') or from steady state exposure. Congeners with chlorine atoms in the 2,5- and 2,3,6-positions appear to be more susceptible to biotransformation whereas congeners with chlorine bonds in the 2,3,4- 2,4,5- 3,4,5- and 2,3,4,5-positions appear to be more persistent. This work shows that future investigations to date PCB exposure would benefit from the analysis of a wide range of congeners, including the selection of key congeners based not only on the degree of chlorination but also on the positions of the chlorine atoms on the biphenyl.

  6. Illiteracy and schizophrenia in China: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianli; Song, Xinming; Chen, Gong; Buka, Stephen L; Zhang, Lei; Pang, Lihua; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2013-03-01

    Illiterate people may frequently experience social discrimination and exclusion in our modern society. It has been suggested that social adversity increases risk of schizophrenia. The current study examines the relation between illiteracy and schizophrenia. We utilized data on 1,909,205 representative Chinese people of age 18 years or older collected by the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability in 2006 (participation rate 99.8%). Experienced clinical psychiatrists diagnosed schizophrenia among those who were psychiatrically disabled with the ICD-10 symptom checklist. Strikingly high prevalence of schizophrenia was observed among the young illiterates aged 18-29 years (prevalence 1.64%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35, 1.93) and 30-39 years (prevalence 1.51%, 95% CI 1.34, 1.68), much higher than the prevalence estimates for general Chinese population of similar age reported by any of the previous studies in mainland China. Among people aged less than 40 years, we found that the illiterates were 2.08 times more likely to develop schizophrenia than the literates with no school or primary school education (odds ratio (OR) = 2.08, 95% CI 1.84, 2.36). The association remained statistically significant after adjustment for age, gender, marital status, household income, and location of residence. Consistently, a strong association between illiteracy and schizophrenia (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.28, 6.11) was found in conditional logistic regression analysis among matched sibling sets aged less than 40 years that further adjusted for genetic confounding. The risk of schizophrenia may have increased among the socially disadvantaged illiterate people.

  7. 78 FR 54622 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey, Annual Social and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey, Annual Social... concerning the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to be conducted in conjunction with the February, March, and April Current Population Survey (CPS). The Census Bureau has conducted this...

  8. Stability of Differential Item Functioning over a Single Population in Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodeen, Hamzeh

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the stability of differential item functioning (DIF) in survey data. Surveys are conducted periodically, and their results are often reported by aggregating responses. Estimating the stability of DIF across subsets of a survey population can be an important indicator in determining the likelihood of DIF stability over…

  9. Dusky Canada goose breeding population survey, May 16 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dusky Canada goose breeding ground surveys were initiated on the Copper River Delta near Cordova, Alaska during the 1970's by the Waterfowl Division of the Alaska...

  10. Dusky Canada goose breeding population survey, May 18 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dusky Canada goose breeding ground surveys were initiated on the Copper River Delta near Cordova, Alaska during the 1970's by the Waterfowl Division of the Alaska...

  11. Comparison of population survey of Multan about cigarette smoking with survey of Abbottabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleel, Muhammad Asif; Nooreen, Rozina; Parveen, Abida; Farhana; Nadeem; Hameed, Abdul

    2002-01-01

    There are different pollutions in the environment e.g. Water pollution, dust pollution, pollen pollution, noise pollution and smoking pollution. As smoking from different sources is a pollution and injurious to health therefore we decided to conduct epidemiological study of smoking in Multan. The study was carried out on 1100 subjects residing in different localities of Multan. A specifically designed questionnaire was filled and the responses computed. The results were then compared with similar survey conducted in Abbottabad and reported earlier. Out of the study population 40.02% were found to be smoking different kinds of tobacco. Out of 442 smoking persons 36.66% are smoking for just company while 57.01% for anxiety and remaining for other reasons. 20-40 cigarettes of different brands per day are used by different occupation persons. The expenditure for cigarette smoking is in the range of Rs:300-2000 per month. Among smoking persons 292 (66.06%) complained of Nocturnal cough, 96 (21.72%) during day and 54 (12.22%) at both time. 125 smokers (28.28%) complained of sputum, while 43 subjects (9.73%) complained of occasional or frequent blood stained sputum. 24 (5.43%) smokers reported of symptoms or diagnosis of Ischeamic heart disease. 35 smokers (7.92%) smoke during fasting of Holy Ramazan. 290 smokers (65.61%) do not hesitate to smoke at public places.

  12. Wood duck population trends from the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Droege, S.; Fredrickson, Leigh H.; Burger, George V.; Havera, Stephen P.; Graber, David A.; Kirby, Ronald E.; Taylor, T. Scott

    1990-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) has been conducted yearly since 1966, and can be used to describe relative population density and trends of birds in North America north of Mexico. Wood ducks (Air sponsa) are difficult to survey using conventional waterfowl monitoring techniques, but a large portion of their range is surveyed by the BBS. Wood ducks are detected at low densities on many BBS routes, and population trends can be estimated for most regions. Populations have been increasing throughout North America since 1966, but statistically significant increases generally occurred only in the early (1966-78) part of the period. Roadside survey methodology used in the BBS has limitations that make it inefficient as a survey technique for wood ducks, and we recommend using modified methodologies that specifically survey wood duck habitat.

  13. Urbanization, ethnicity and cardiovascular risk in a population in transition in Nakuru, Kenya: a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Allen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death among older people in Africa. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of urbanization and ethnicity with CVD risk markers in Kenya. Methods A cross-sectional population-based survey was carried out in Nakuru Kenya in 2007-2008. 100 clusters of 50 people aged ≥50 years were selected by probability proportionate to size sampling. Households within clusters were selected through compact segment sampling. Participants were interviewed by nurses to collect socio-demographic and lifestyle information. Nurses measured blood pressure, height, weight and waist and hip circumference. A random finger-prick blood sample was taken to measure glucose and cholesterol levels. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥140 mm Hg, or diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥90 mm Hg or current use of antihypertensive medication; Diabetes as reported current medication or diet control for diabetes or random blood glucose level ≥11.1 mmol/L; High cholesterol as random blood cholesterol level ≥5.2 mmol/L; and Obesity as Body Mass Index (BMI≥30 kg/m2. Results 5010 eligible subjects were selected, of whom 4396 (88% were examined. There was a high prevalence of hypertension (50.1%, 47.5-52.6%, obesity (13.0%, 11.7-14.5%, diabetes (6.6%, 5.6-7.7% and high cholesterol (21.1%, 18.6-23.9. Hypertension, diabetes and obesity were more common in urban compared to rural groups and the elevated prevalence generally persisted after adjustment for socio-demographic, lifestyle, obesity and cardiovascular risk markers. There was also a higher prevalence of hypertension, obesity, diabetes and high cholesterol among Kikuyus compared to Kalenjins, even after multivariate adjustment. CVD risk markers were clustered both across the district and within individuals. Few people received treatment for hypertension (15%, while the majority of cases with diabetes received treatment (68

  14. A systematic review of childhood maltreatment assessments in population-representative surveys since 1990.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Hovdestad

    Full Text Available Population-representative surveys that assess childhood maltreatment and health are a valuable resource to explore the implications of child maltreatment for population health. Systematic identification and evaluation of such surveys is needed to facilitate optimal use of their data and to inform future research.To inform researchers of the existence and nature of population-representative surveys relevant to understanding links between childhood maltreatment and health; to evaluate the assessment of childhood maltreatment in this body of work.We included surveys that: 1 were representative of the non-institutionalized population of any size nation or of any geopolitical region ≥ 10 million people; 2 included a broad age range (≥ 40 years; 3 measured health; 4 assessed childhood maltreatment retrospectively; and 5 were conducted since 1990. We used Internet and database searching (including CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Social Policy and Practice: January 1990 to March 2014, expert consultation, and other means to identify surveys and associated documentation. Translations of non-English survey content were verified by fluent readers of survey languages. We developed checklists to abstract and evaluate childhood maltreatment content.Fifty-four surveys from 39 countries met inclusion criteria. Sample sizes ranged from 1,287-51,945 and response rates from 15%-96%. Thirteen surveys assessed neglect, 15 emotional abuse; 18 exposure to family violence; 26 physical abuse; 48 sexual abuse. Fourteen surveys assessed more than three types; six of these were conducted since 2010. In nine surveys childhood maltreatment assessments were detailed (+10 items for at least one type of maltreatment. Seven surveys' assessments had known reliability and/or validity.Data from 54 surveys can be used to explore the population health relevance of child maltreatment. Assessment of childhood maltreatment is not comprehensive but

  15. The population of galaxy-galaxy strong lenses in forthcoming optical imaging surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Collett, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing and future imaging surveys represent significant improvements in depth, area and seeing compared to current data-sets. These improvements offer the opportunity to discover up to three orders of magnitude more galaxy-galaxy strong lenses than are currently known. In this work we forecast the number of lenses discoverable in forthcoming surveys and simulate their properties. We generate a population of statistically realistic strong lenses and simulate observations of this population for the Dark Energy Survey (DES), Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and Euclid surveys. We verify our model against the galaxy-scale lens search of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS), predicting 250 discoverable lenses compared to 220 found by Gavazzi et al (2014). The predicted Einstein radius distribution is also remarkably similar to that found by Sonnenfeld et al (2013). For future surveys we find that, assuming Poisson limited lens galaxy subtraction, searches in DES, LSST and Euclid dataset...

  16. Sediment Dynamics and the Burial and Exhumation of Bedrock Reefs as Elucidated by High-resolution Repetitive Sonar Surveys: Northern Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C. D.; Fregoso, T. A.; Golden, N. E.; Finlayson, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    Two high-resolution bathymetric and acoustic backscatter sonar surveys were conducted along the energetic emergent inner shelf of northern Monterey Bay, CA, USA, in the fall of 2005 and the spring of 2006 to determine the impact of winter storm waves, beach erosion, and river floods on biologically-important bedrock reef habitats. The surveys extended from water depths of 4 m to 22 m and covered an area of 3.14 km2, of which 45.8% was bedrock, gravel, and coarse-grained sand and 54.2% was fine-grained sand. Our analysis of the bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data demonstrates that during the 6 months between surveys, 11.4% of the study area was buried by fine-grained sand while erosion exposed of bedrock or coarse-grained sand over 26.5% of the study area. The probability of burial decreased with increasing water depth and rugosity; the probability of exhumation increased with increasing seabed slope and rugosity. Much of the detected change was at the boundary between bedrock and unconsolidated sediment due to burial or exhumation of bedrock. In a number of cases, however, the change in seabed character was apparently due to fluctuations in sediment grain size, where scour exposed what appeared to be an underlying coarser-grained lag or fine-grained sand buried coarser-grained sand. These findings suggest that, in some places, (a) single acoustic surveys typically employed for geologic characterization and/or habitat mapping may not adequately characterize the geomorphology and sedimentologic nature of rocky, energetic inner shelves, and (b) burial and exhumation likely play a role in the life history of the numerous organisms that inhabit these reefs and thus information on the frequency and magnitude of such processes may better constrain our understanding of physical controls on benthic species' distribution patterns.

  17. Chromosome surveys of human populations: between epidemiology and anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2014-09-01

    It is commonly held that after 1945 human genetics turned medical and focussed on the individual rather than on the study of human populations that had become discredited. However, a closer look at the research practices at the time quickly reveals that human population studies, using old and new tools, prospered in this period. The essay focuses on the rise of chromosome analysis as a new tool for the study of human populations. It reviews a broad array of population studies ranging from newborn screening programmes to studies of isolated or 'primitive' people. Throughout, it highlights the continuing role of concerns and opportunities raised by the propagation of atomic energy for civilian and military uses, the collection of large data bases and computers, and the role of international organisations like the World Health Organisation and the International Biological Programme in shaping research agendas and carving out a space for human heredity in the postwar era.

  18. Malheur NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Bobolink Population Density Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Refuge bobolink population is the largest in Oregon and is also the westernmost significant breeding site for this species. The bobolink is a focal species for...

  19. Law and population in Senegal : a survey of legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snyder, F.G.; Savané, M.-A.

    1977-01-01

    Leiden : African Studies Centre (ASC Research report, no. 5), p. 242, 1977.This preliminary survey provides, in a reference format, a compendium of legislation potentially affecting the growth, distribution and composition of thepopulation in Senegal. It starts with an introduction to the characteri

  20. Sediment dynamics and the burial and exhumation of bedrock reefs along an emergent coastline as elucidated by repetitive sonar surveys: Northern Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C.D.; Fregoso, T.A.; Golden, N.E.; Finlayson, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Two high-resolution bathymetric and acoustic backscatter sonar surveys were conducted along the energetic emergent inner shelf of northern Monterey Bay, CA, USA, in the fall of 2005 and the spring of 2006 to determine the impact of winter storm waves, beach erosion, and river floods on biologically-important siliclastic bedrock reef habitats. The surveys extended from water depths of 4 m to 22 m and covered an area of 3.14 km2, 45.8% of which was bedrock, gravel, and coarse-grained sand and 54.2% was fine-grained sand. Our analyses of the bathymetric and acoustic backscatter data demonstrates that during the 6 months between surveys, 11.4% of the study area was buried by fine-grained sand while erosion resulted in the exposure of bedrock or coarse-grained sand over 26.5% of the study area. The probability of burial decreased with increasing water depth and rugosity; the probability of exhumation increased with increasing wave-induced near-bed shear stress, seabed slope and rugosity. Much of the detected change was at the boundary between bedrock and unconsolidated sediment due to sedimentation and erosion burying or exhuming bedrock, respectively. In a number of cases, however, the change in seabed character was apparently due to changes in sediment grain size when scour exposed what appeared to be an underlying coarser-grained lag or the burial of coarser-grained sand and gravel by fine-grained sand. These findings suggest that, in some places, (a) burial and exhumation of nearshore bedrock reefs along rocky, energetic inner shelves occurs over seasonal timescales and appears related to intrinsic factors such as seabed morphology and extrinsic factors such as wave forces, and (b) single acoustic surveys typically employed for geologic characterization and/or habitat mapping may not adequately characterize the geomorphologic and sedimentologic nature of these types of environments that typify most of the Pacific Ocean and up to 50% of the world's coastlines.

  1. Black-tailed prairie dog population survey 2010 report : Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results from the 2010 black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomus ludovicianus) population survey at Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge. This...

  2. Tundra swan population survey in Bristol Bay, northern Alaska Peninsula, June 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A report on a tundra swan survey pilot study conducted in June 2002. The objectives of the project were to get initial population and productivity estimates for...

  3. Experimental waterfowl breeding population survey Maine, the Maritime provinces, and Central Quebec: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Maine, the Maritime provinces, and Central Quebec during 1997. The primary purpose of...

  4. 1992: Northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  5. Tundra swan population survey in Bristol Bay, northern Alaska Peninsula, 2003 and 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) population surveys were conducted in spring and late summer of 2003 and 2008 according to the schedule established in the Alaska...

  6. 1995: Northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  7. Black-tailed prairie dog population survey 2012 report : Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results from the 2012 black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomus ludovicianus) population survey at Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge. This...

  8. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba and western Ontario: May-June 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and western Ontario during 1959. The...

  9. Waterfowl breeding population survey: New York, Eastern Ontario, and Southern Quebec: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for New York, Eastern Ontario, and Southern Quebec during 1999. The primary purpose of...

  10. Sex ratio and time to pregnancy: analysis of four large European population surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, Mike; Bennett, James; Best, Nicky

    2007-01-01

    To test whether the secondary sex ratio (proportion of male births) is associated with time to pregnancy, a marker of fertility. Design Analysis of four large population surveys. Setting Denmark and the United Kingdom. Participants 49 506 pregnancies.......To test whether the secondary sex ratio (proportion of male births) is associated with time to pregnancy, a marker of fertility. Design Analysis of four large population surveys. Setting Denmark and the United Kingdom. Participants 49 506 pregnancies....

  11. Assessing the oral health of an ageing population: methods, challenges and predictors of survey participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Debora C; Brillant, Martha G S; Clovis, Joanne B; McNally, Mary E; Filiaggi, Mark J; Kotzer, Robert D; Lawrence, Herenia P

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the oral health of an ageing population: methods, challenges and predictors of survey participation Objectives To examine predictors of participation and to describe the methodological considerations of conducting a two-stage population-based oral health survey. Methods An observational, cross-sectional survey (telephone interview and clinical oral examination) of community-dwelling adults aged 45–64 and ≥65 living in Nova Scotia, Canada was conducted. Results The survey response rate was 21% for the interview and 13.5% for the examination. A total of 1141 participants completed one or both components of the survey. Both age groups had higher levels of education than the target population; the age 45–64 sample also had a higher proportion of females and lower levels of employment than the target population. Completers (participants who completed interview and examination) were compared with partial completers (who completed only the interview), and stepwise logistic regression was performed to examine predictors of completion. Identified predictors were as follows: not working, post-secondary education and frequent dental visits. Conclusion Recruitment, communications and logistics present challenges in conducting a province-wide survey. Identification of employment, education and dental visit frequency as predictors of survey participation provide insight into possible non-response bias and suggest potential for underestimation of oral disease prevalence in this and similar surveys. This potential must be considered in analysis and in future recruitment strategies. PMID:21916953

  12. Sexual orientation and mental and physical health status: findings from a Dutch population survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandfort, T.G.M.; Bakker, F.; Schellevis, F.G.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. METHODS: Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001

  13. Post occupancy survey of the Arizona LEED NC population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Hugo Dixon

    Existing green building literature has not provided conclusive performance results for energy efficiency, water efficiency and the utilization and proper management of green building features. The few existing energy performance studies had not represented a significant portion of a population, were not random samples, did not included many structures from hot and dry climates and had generated heavily debated results. This thesis examines the fifty-three buildings comprising the Arizona Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED NC) building population and in doing so hypothesizes that Arizona's LEED NC buildings achieve expected energy and water performance and exhibit various energy efficiency correlations. The thesis also establishes a baseline understanding of Arizona's LEED NC population characteristics. Data collection efforts were successful for all desired deliverables with the exception of water performance metrics. Energy analysis results rejected the energy efficiency hypotheses by returning greater energy use intensities than the non-LEED national building stock as well as the design and baseline energy use simulations. The energy correlation analysis returned statistically significant results for a single system attribute and several managerial attributes. The results suggest that the LEED NC rating system requires immediate reevaluation to ensure future green building success in Arizona.

  14. Secondary Data Analysis of National Surveys in Japan Toward Improving Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Nayu

    2016-01-01

    Secondary data analysis of national health surveys of the general population is a standard methodology for health metrics and evaluation; it is used to monitor trends in population health over time and benchmark the performance of health systems. In Japan, the government has established electronic databases of individual records from national surveys of the population's health. However, the number of publications based on these datasets is small considering the scale and coverage of the surveys. There appear to be two major obstacles to the secondary use of Japanese national health survey data: strict data access control under the Statistics Act and an inadequate interdisciplinary research environment for resolving methodological difficulties encountered when dealing with secondary data. The usefulness of secondary analysis of survey data is evident with examples from the author's previous studies based on vital records and the National Health and Nutrition Surveys, which showed that (i) tobacco smoking and high blood pressure are the major risk factors for adult mortality from non-communicable diseases in Japan; (ii) the decrease in mean blood pressure in Japan from the late 1980s to the early 2000s was partly attributable to the increased use of antihypertensive medication and reduced dietary salt intake; and (iii) progress in treatment coverage and control of high blood pressure is slower in Japan than in the United States and Britain. National health surveys in Japan are an invaluable asset, and findings from secondary analyses of these surveys would provide important suggestions for improving health in people around the world.

  15. [Epidemiological basis and results of the National Survey 2001 conducted in the Swiss pig population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadorn, D; Hauser, R; Stärk, K D C

    2002-10-01

    Free trade with animals and animal products requires transparency concerning health information of animal populations. On the basis of the bilateral agreement with the European Union (EU), Switzerland is obliged to document freedom from Aujeszky's disease (AD) in its pig population by conducting surveys on a regular basis. Such a survey was planned for the first time for the year 2001. In this context, it was evaluated whether additional pig diseases should be included in the survey. This article describes the evaluation procedure for the selection of pig diseases integrated in the survey 2001. Additionally, it reports and interprets the results of this survey. All of the 2537 farms and 41,719 blood samples were tested negative. Therefore, it could be documented with a confidence of 99.98% that the AD-prevalence in Switzerland is below 1%.

  16. Bird population and habitat surveys in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraaf, R.M.; Geis, A.D.; Healy, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Breeding bird populations in six habitats in Columbia. MD, were studied to develop procedures suitable for measuring bird use of residential areas and to identify habitat characteristics that define the distribution of various common bird species. A procedure to measure bird use based on 4-min transect counts on plots measuring 91 m ? 91 m proved better than point counts. Transect counts reduced many of the problems associated with counting birds in urban areas, such as varying noise and visibility. Eighty percent of observations were recorded in the first 4 min. Habitat measurement procedures were examined also. It was found that a subsample of woody tree and shrub crown volumes made on 0.2 ha was highly correlated with similar measures made on 0.8-ha plots.

  17. [Participation and representation of the immigrant population in the Spanish National Health Survey 2011-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rábago, Yolanda; La Parra, Daniel; Martín, Unai; Malmusi, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Population health surveys have been the main data source for analysis of immigrants' health status in Spain. The aim of this study was to analyze the representation of this population in the Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS) 2011-2012. We analyzed methodological publications and data from the SNHS 2011-2012 and the population registry. Differences in the participation rate between the national and foreign populations and the causes for these differences were analyzed, as well as the representation of 11 countries of birth in the survey with respect to the general population, with and without weighting. Households with any foreign person had a lower participation rate, either due to a higher error in the sampling frame or to a higher non-response rate. In each country of birth, the sample was smaller than would be expected according to the population registry, especially among the Chinese population. When we applied the sample weights to the 11 countries of birth, the estimated population volume was closer to the estimated volume of the population registry for all the countries considered, although globally both the underrepresentation and the intranational bias remained. The lower participation of the immigrant population and differences in participation depending on the country of origin suggest the existence of a potential bias in the SNHS, which should be taken into account in studies analyzing the health of this population. The lower participation rate should be studied in greater depth in order to take appropriate measures to increase the representativeness of health surveys. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Serologic survey in a chamois population of Abruzzo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gentile

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As part of the Abruzzo National Park wildlife health management program, serum samples from 62 free-living and captive Abruzzo chamois, Rupicapra (pyrenaica ornata, were tested to estimate antibody presence to some pathogenous agents. The serum, drawn during chemical immobilisations for introductions or population study programs, were tested for: bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1, parainfluenza virus (PI3, pesti virus, foot and mouth disease virus (FMD type O-A-C, bovine leukemia virus (BLV, ovicaprini lentivirus, encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV, S-phase brucellae, leptospira interrogans, mycobacterium paratuberculosis, chlamydia psittaci, coxiella burnetii, rickettsia mooseri and conori and toxoplasrna gondii. Twenty-three subjects were found positive to BHV-1 (7/62, pestivirus (6/62, EMCV (8/62, leptospira (5/62 and toxoplasma (4/62. Results did not indicate any active infection but only contact with some pathogenic agents.

  19. Insomnia in Sweden: A Population-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Mallon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Estimate the prevalence of insomnia and examine effects of sex, age, health problems, sleep duration, need for treatment, and usage of sleep medication. Methods. A sample of 1,550 subjects aged 18–84 years was selected for a telephone interview. The interview was completed by 1,128 subjects (72.8%. Results. 24.6% reported insomnia symptoms. Insomnia disorder, that is, insomnia symptoms and daytime consequences, was reported by 10.5%. The prevalence was similar among all age groups, with the exception of women aged 40–49 years who demonstrated a significantly higher prevalence, 21.6%. Having at least one physical or psychiatric disorder was reported by 82.8% of subjects with insomnia disorder. Mean sleep duration for subjects with insomnia disorder was 5.77 hours on weeknights and 7.03 hours on days off/weekends. The corresponding figures for subjects without insomnia disorder were 7.04 hours and 7.86 hours, respectively. Among those with insomnia disorder 62.5% expressed a need for treatment, and 20.0% used prescribed sleep medication regularly. Conclusions. Insomnia disorder is highly prevalent in the population. There are significant associations between insomnia disorder and physical and psychiatric disorders. A majority of subjects with insomnia disorder expressed a need for treatment, indicating a public health problem.

  20. Procedural Attack! Procedural Generation for Populated Virtual Cities: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Gaisbauer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, creating rich virtual worlds "by hand" like in the game Grand Theft Auto V is hugely expensive and limited to large studios. On the other hand, procedural content generation (PCG allows tiny teams to create huge worlds like Hello Games did with only four people (in the beginning for the recently released game No Man's Sky. Following in the footsteps of Hello Games, this paper tries to equip the reader with an overview about the state-of-the-art of how to build such a virtual world, i.e., a populated virtual city with buildings, streets, parks, vegetation, humans, and vehicles, using just PCG assets. Each PCG asset that is envisioned to bring the city to life is grouped and discussed in detail and the latest research trends in PCG are presented together with open questions. Using the above-mentioned PCG assets, instead of months, a city can be built in a mere couple of minutes by a user without much experience in designing 3D assets. The city can then be used for many applications like games, virtual reality (VR, or film.

  1. Implications from distinct sulfate-reducing bacteria populations between cattle manure and digestate in the elucidation of H2S production during anaerobic digestion of animal slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G

    2017-07-01

    Biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of animal slurry consists mainly of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), but also includes other minor gases, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Since it can act as a potent corrosive agent and presents a health hazard even at low concentrations, H2S is considered an undesirable by-product of anaerobic digestion. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) have been identified as the main biological source of H2S in a number of natural, biological, and human-made habitats, and thus represent likely candidate microorganisms responsible for the production of H2S in anaerobic manure digesters. Phylogenetically, SRBs form a divergent group of bacteria that share a common anaerobic respiration pathway that allows them to use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor. While the composition and activity of SRBs have been well documented in other environments, their metabolic potential remains largely uncharacterized and their populations poorly defined in anaerobic manure digesters. In this context, a combination of in vitro culture-based studies and DNA-based approaches, respectively, were used to gain further insight. Unexpectedly, only low to nondetectable levels of H2S were produced by digestate collected from a manure biogas plant documented to have persistently high concentrations of H2S in its biogas (2000-3000 ppm). In contrast, combining digestate with untreated manure (a substrate with comparatively lower sulfate and SRB cell densities than digestate) was found to produce elevated H2S levels in culture. While a 16S rRNA gene-based community composition approach did not reveal likely candidate SRBs in digestate or untreated manure, the use of the dsrAB gene as a phylogenetic marker provided more insight. In digestate, the predominant SRBs were found to be uncharacterized species likely belonging to the genus Desulfosporosinus (Peptococcaceae, Clostridiales, Firmicutes), while Desulfovibrio-related SRBs (Desulfovibrionaceae

  2. [A historical survey of international migration of China population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G

    1987-07-01

    Chinese migration trends in various periods of China's history are discussed. From the earliest times to the present, migration patterns seem unique to each period: 1) Early period of emigration (Qin-Tang Dynasties): The earliest recorded instance of emigration occurred during the Qin dynasty when a traveler went to what is now the Philippines. In the following dynasties, even though migration was limited to religious men and merchants who went abroad and returned to China, the process of migrating was established. 2) Tang to Ming Dynasties (Self-initiated migration): Tang Dynasty records show the beginnings of Chinese residence abroad in Arabia. Land and sea travel developed further, and majority of emigres left China for political, religious or economic reasons. 3) Post-Ming Dynasty (Forced migration): This is a period beginning with the Opium War, where 2 groups, indentured servants and those who were able to purchase their own fare, emigrated as laborers because of necessity. The population on the coast, which had risen dramatically by the 1900's, was subject to war, official corruption, poverty and disease. Migration reached a peak between 1851-1875 when 1,280,000 Chinese left the country, settling mostly in Southeast Asia. Between 1847-1873, it is estimated that between 22%-64% perished along the way. 4) WWI-1949 (Motivated migration): The consequences of 2 world wars and the Great Depression were cause for another mass migration from China for political and economic reasons. This time, however, emigres were not limited to the very poor; also, a large number of overseas Chinese eventually returned to the mainland. Between 1930-34, 350,000 more Chinese returned than left. 5) Post-1949 (A new era): In the 1950s large numbers of overseas Chinese returned to the mainland. In 1978-82, over 4000 Chinese returned to Guangdong alone. A new phenomenon has appeared: migration tends to be limited to visits to relatives or to travel for pleasure or education.

  3. Associated risk factors of knee osteoarthritis: a population survey in Taiyuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qing-yu; Zang, Chang-hai; Li, Xiao-feng; Dong, Hai-yuan; Zhang, Ai-lian; Lin, Ling

    2006-09-20

    Since knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is one of the common diseases, identification of its associated risk factors is of preventive significance. This investigation was designed to investigate the prevalence of KOA in Taiyuan, and identify the associated risk factors of KOA. A population sample was surveyed of 2188 adults aged from 35 to 64 years, living in 6-story buildings without elevators. The protocol of Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology (APLAR) Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) core questionnaire was implemented. The data on knee pain and KOA were collected and analyzed. Variables such as sex, age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), education level, and smoking history, were included in binary logistic regression model for further analysis. The prevalence rates of knee pain and KOA were 13.6% and 10.9%, respectively, significantly higher than those in Shantou of south China and similar to those in Beijing of north China. The prevalence of KOA was significantly higher in women than in men (18.3% versus 8.7% and 15.1% versus 6.3%), with a tendency of increase with age. The prevalence was increased more obviously in women after 40 years old and in men after 45 years old. BMI in KOA group was significantly higher than that in non-KOA group. Binary Logistic regression revealed that age, sex, and BMI were significantly associated with KOA, whereas no significant correlation was seen between KOA and other factors such as climbing stairs, WC, time length of occupation service, education level, smoking history and religious belief. Geography, age, sex, and BMI might be the risk factors of KOA, but climbing stairs, WC, time length of occupation service, education level, smoking history and religious belief are not correlated with KOA. Prevention of KOA should be initiated before the middle-age, especially in female adults, and weight control is necessary. Other factors might also contribute to the

  4. Associated risk factors of knee osteoarthritis: a population survey in Taiyuan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yu; ZANG Chang-hai; LI Xiao-feng; DONG Hai-yuan; ZHANG Ai-lian; LIN Ling

    2006-01-01

    Background Since knee osteoarthrifis (KOA) is one of the common diseases, identification of its associated risk factors is of preventive significance. This investigation was designed to investigate the prevalence of KOA in Taiyuan, and identify the associated risk factors of KOA.Methods A population sample was surveyed of 2188 adults aged from 35 to 64 years, living in 6-story buildings without elevators. The protocol of Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology (APLAR)Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) core questionnaire was implemented. The data on knee pain and KOA were collected and analyzed. Variables such as sex, age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), education level, and smoking history, were included in binary logistic regression model for further analysis.Results The prevalence rates of knee pain and KOA were 13.6% and 10.9%, respectively, significantly higher than those in Shantou of south China and similar to those in Beijing of north China. The prevalence of KOA was significantly higher in women than in men (18.3% versus 8.7% and 15.1% versus 6.3%), with a tendency of increase with age. The prevalence was increased more obviously in women after 40 years old and in men after 45 years old. BMI in KOA group was significantly higher than that in non-KOA group. Binary Logistic regression revealed that age, sex, and BMI were significantly associated with KOA, whereas no significant correlation was seen between KOA and other factors such as climbing stairs, WC, time length of occupation service, education level, smoking history and religious belief.Conclusion Geography, age, sex, and BMI might be the risk factors of KOA, but climbing stairs, WC, time length of occupation service, education level, smoking history and religious belief are not correlated with KOA.Prevention of KOA should be initiated before the middle-age, especially in female adults, and weight control is necessary.Other factors might

  5. The massive stellar population of W49: A spectroscopic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Wei; Bik, Arjan; Bestenlehner, Joachim M.; Henning, Thomas; Pasquali, Anna; Brandner, Wolfgang; Stolte, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Context. Massive stars form on different scales that range from large, dispersed OB associations to compact, dense starburst clusters. The complex structure of regions of massive star formation and the involved short timescales provide a challenge for our understanding of their birth and early evolution. As one of the most massive and luminous star-forming region in our Galaxy, W49 is the ideal place to study the formation of the most massive stars. Aims: By classifying the massive young stars that are deeply embedded in the molecular cloud of W49, we aim to investigate and trace the star formation history of this region. Methods: We analyse near-infrared K-band spectroscopic observations of W49 from LBT/LUCI combined with JHK images obtained with NTT/SOFI and LBT/LUCI. Based on JHK-band photometry and K-band spectroscopy, the massive stars are placed in a Hertzsprung Russell diagram. By comparison with evolutionary models, their age and hence the star formation history of W49 can be investigated. Results: Fourteen O-type stars, as well as two young stellar objects (YSOs), are identified by our spectroscopic survey. Eleven O stars are main sequence stars with subtypes ranging from O3 to O9.5 and masses ranging from ~20 M⊙ to ~120 M⊙. Three of the O stars show strong wind features and are considered to be Of-type supergiants with masses beyond 100 M⊙. The two YSOs show CO emission, which is indicative of the presence of circumstellar disks in the central region of the massive cluster. The age of the cluster is estimated as ~1.5 Myr, with star formation continuing in different parts of the region. The ionising photons from the central massive stars have not yet cleared the molecular cocoon surrounding the cluster. W49 is comparable to extragalactic star-forming regions, and it provides us with a unique chance to study a starburst in detail. Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among

  6. Multiple populations in Galactic globular clusters: a survey in the Strömgren system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso-García, J.; Catelan, M.; Amigo, P.

    2013-01-01

    We are coming to believe that stellar populations in globular clusters are not as simple as they were once thought to be. A growing amount of photometric and spectroscopic evidence shows that globular clusters host at least two different stellar populations. In our contribution to these proceedings...... we present the first results of a survey we are conducting to look for the presence of multiple populations in a significant number of Galactic globular clusters, using the Strömgren system. We intend to photometrically separate these populations and characterize their radial distributions...

  7. Survey, Settlement, and Population History at the Ancient Maya Site of Pacbitun, Belize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Healy, Paul F.; Helmke, Christophe G.B.; Awe, Jaime J.

    2007-01-01

    Survey and excavations of mounds on the outskirts of the site of Pacbitun in western Belize provide insights to the ancient Maya settlement pattern at this medium-sized regional center. This research employed two methods: analysis of structural remains from four separate 1000 m transect surveys...... to have been about 5000-6000 persons. This population estimate is compared with several coeval lowland Maya centers, and found to be reasonable for a medium-sized, Late Classic Maya center....

  8. Near-Earth-object survey progress and population of small near-Earth asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A.

    2014-07-01

    Estimating the total population vs. size of NEAs and the completion of surveys is the same thing since the total population is just the number discovered divided by the estimated completion. I review the method of completion estimation based on ratio of re-detected objects to total detections (known plus new discoveries). The method is quite general and can be used for population estimations of all sorts, from wildlife to various classes of solar system bodies. Since 2001, I have been making estimates of population and survey progress approximately every two years. Plotted below, left, is my latest estimate, including NEA discoveries up to August, 2012. I plan to present an update at the meeting. All asteroids of a given size are not equally easy to detect because of specific orbital geometries. Thus a model of the orbital distribution is necessary, and computer simulations using those orbits need to establish the relation between the raw re-detection ratio and the actual completion fraction. This can be done for any sub-group population, allowing to estimate the population of a subgroup and the expected current completion. Once a reliable survey computer model has been developed and ''calibrated'' with respect to actual survey re-detections versus size, it can be extrapolated to smaller sizes to estimate completion even at very small size where re-detections are rare or even zero. I have recently investigated the subgroup of extremely low encounter velocity NEAs, the class of interest for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), recently proposed by NASA. I found that asteroids of diameter ˜ 10 m with encounter velocity with the Earth lower than 2.5 km/sec are detected by current surveys nearly 1,000 times more efficiently than the general background of NEAs of that size. Thus the current completion of these slow relative velocity objects may be around 1%, compared to 10^{-6} for that size objects of the general velocity distribution. Current surveys are nowhere near

  9. Movements of radio-marked California Ridgway's rails during monitoring surveys: implications for population monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Overton, Cory T.; Schultz, Emily R.; Hull, Joshua M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The California Ridgway's rail Rallus obsoletus obsoletus (hereafter California rail) is a secretive marsh bird endemic to tidal marshes in the San Francisco Bay (hereafter bay) of California. The California rail has undergone significant range contraction and population declines due to a variety of factors, including predation and the degradation and loss of habitat. Call-count surveys, which include call playbacks, based on the standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol have been conducted throughout the bay since 2005 to monitor population size and distribution of the California rail. However, call-count surveys are difficult to evaluate for efficacy or accuracy. To measure the accuracy of call-count surveys and investigate whether radio-marked California rails moved in response to call-count surveys, we compared locations of radio-marked California rails collected at frequent intervals (15 min) to California rail detections recorded during call-count surveys conducted over the same time periods. Overall, 60% of radio-marked California rails within 200 m of observers were not detected during call-count surveys. Movements of radio-marked California rails showed no directional bias (P = 0.92) irrespective of whether or not playbacks of five marsh bird species (including the California rail) were broadcast from listening stations. Our findings suggest that playbacks of rail vocalizations do not consistently influence California rail movements during surveys. However, call-count surveys may underestimate California rail presence; therefore, caution should be used when relating raw numbers of call-count detections to population abundance.

  10. Women in Management: Analysis of Selected Data from the Current Population Survey. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert E.

    The key characteristics, representation, and salaries of women in management versus those of their male counterparts were examined through an analysis of Current Population Survey data collected in March 1995 and 2000. The study focused on the following 10 industries: communications; public administration; business and repair services;…

  11. Estimation of change in populations and communities from monitoring survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Busch, David E.; Trexler, Joel C.

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring surveys provide fundamental information for use in environmental decision making by permitting assessment of both current population (or community) status and change in status, by providing a historical context of the present status, and by documenting response to ongoing management. Conservation of species and communities has historically been based upon monitoring information, and prioritization of species and habitats for conservation action often requires reliable, quantitative results. Although many monitoring programs exist for populations, species, and communities, as well as for biotic and abiotic features of the environment, estimation of population and community change from surveys can sometimes be controversial, and demands on monitoring information have increased greatly in recent years. Information is often required at multiple spatial scales for use in geographic information systems, and information needs exist for description of regional patterns of change in populations, communities, and ecosystems. Often, attempts are made to meet these needs using information collected for other purposes or at inappropriate geographic scales, leading to information that is difficult to analyze and interpret. In this chapter, we address some of the constraints and issues associated with estimating change in wildlife species and species groups from monitoring surveys, and use bird surveys as our primary examples.

  12. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

  13. Improved sampling for airborne surveys to estimate wildlife population parameters in the African Savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaemba, W.; Stein, A.

    2002-01-01

    Parameter estimates, obtained from airborne surveys of wildlife populations, often have large bias and large standard errors. Sampling error is one of the major causes of this imprecision and the occurrence of many animals in herds violates the common assumptions in traditional sampling designs like

  14. Special Educational Resources in the Swedish Upper Secondary Schools: A Total Population Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Joacim

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the special educational resources in the Swedish upper secondary schools using a total population survey that covers all upper secondary schools. Special educators and special teachers together constitute the special educational resources at each school. With two types of regression models (logistic and linear regression), the…

  15. Research on Mail Surveys: Response Rates and Methods in Relation to Population Group and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Judith A.; Green, Kathy

    The purpose of this review was to look for trends across time in response rates and variables studied for published mail surveys and to compare response rates and variables studied for different target populations. Studies were identified in databases in four fields: education, psychology, business and marketing, and sociology. A total of 225…

  16. Reaching hard-to-survey populations : Mode choice and mode preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Marieke; Ongena, Yfke P.; Aarts, Kees

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the effect of response-mode choices on response rates, and responsemode preferences of hard-to-survey populations: young adults, full-time workers, big city inhabitants, and non-Western immigrants. Using address-based sampling, a stratified sample of 3,496 households was selected

  17. Improved sampling for airborne surveys to estimate wildlife population parameters in the African Savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaemba, W.; Stein, A.

    2002-01-01

    Parameter estimates, obtained from airborne surveys of wildlife populations, often have large bias and large standard errors. Sampling error is one of the major causes of this imprecision and the occurrence of many animals in herds violates the common assumptions in traditional sampling designs like

  18. 78 FR 45910 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS) Email Address...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS) Email... concerning the November 2013 Email Address Collection Test Supplement. The Census Bureau and the Bureau of.... We foresee that in the future, we could collect email addresses from our respondents. For those that...

  19. HIV/AIDS Misconceptions among Latinos: Findings from a Population-Based Survey of California Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritieni, Assunta; Moskowitz, Joel; Tholandi, Maya

    2008-01-01

    Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS among Latino adults (N=454) in California were examined using data from a population-based telephone survey conducted in 2000. Common misconceptions concerning modes of HIV transmission included transmission via mosquito or animal bite (64.1%), public facilities (48.3%), or kissing someone on the cheek (24.8%). A…

  20. Food Insecurity, a Determinant of Obesity? - an Analysis from a Population-Based Survey in the Paris Metropolitan Area, 2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Caillavet, France; Lhuissier, Anne; Chauvin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    .... : We used data from third wave of the Health, Inequalities and Social Ruptures (SIRS) cohort study, a longitudinal population-based, representative health and socioepidemiological survey of the general population in the Paris metropolitan area...

  1. Relationships between water mass characteristics and estimates of fish population abundance from trawl surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S J; Perry, R I; Fanning, L P

    1991-01-01

    The Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans conducts annual bottom trawl surveys to monitor changes in the abundance of the major commercially important groundfish populations. Some of these surveys have been in operation for almost 20 yr. The estimates from these surveys often indicate rapid changes in abundance over time beyond that expected from the population dynamics of the fish. Much of this interannual change has been interpreted as variation, the magnitude of which has often made it difficult to measure anything but the most severe effects of fishing, pollution or any other intervention on the population. Recent studies have shown that some of this variation may be attributed to changes in catchability of fish due to the effects of environmental variables on fish distribution. Annual changes in abundance as estimated from such field surveys may be confounded by changes in catchability due to annual changes in environmental conditions. In this study, trawl catches of age 4 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from surveys conducted during March 1979-1988 were compared with concurrent measurements of bottom salinity, temperature and depth. Large catches of age 4 cod are more likely to occur in water characterized as the intermediate cold layer defined by salinities of 32-33.5 and temperatures<5°C. This relationship also appears to be modified by depth. We further show that internnual changes in the estimated abundance from the surveys were, in a number of cases, coincident with changes in the proportion of the bottom water composed of the intermediate cold water layer. The implications that these patterns may have on interpreting trends in the estimates of abundance from trawl surveys are discussed.

  2. Updated U.S. population standard for the Veterans RAND 12-item Health Survey (VR-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Alfredo J; Rogers, William; Fleishman, John A; Qian, Shirley X; Fincke, Benjamin G; Rothendler, James A; Kazis, Lewis E

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop an updated U.S. population standard for the Veterans RAND 12-item Health Survey (VR-12). We used a well-defined and nationally representative sample of the U.S. population from 52,425 responses to the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) collected between 2000 and 2002. We applied modified regression estimates to update the non-proprietary 1990 scoring algorithms. We applied the updated standard to the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) to compute the VR-12 physical (PCS((MEPS standard))) and mental (MCS((MEPS standard))) component summaries based on the MEPS. We compared these scores to PCS and MCS based on the 1990 U.S. population standard. Using the updated U.S. population standard, the average VR-12 PCS((MEPS standard)) and MCS((MEPS standard)) scores in the Medicare HOS were 39.82 (standard deviation [SD] = 12.2) and 50.08 (SD = 11.4), respectively. For the same Medicare HOS, the average PCS and MCS scores based on the 1990 standard were 1.40 points higher and 0.99 points lower in comparison to VR-12 PCS and MCS, respectively. Changes in the U.S. population between 1990 and today make the old standard obsolete for the VR-12, so the updated standard developed here is widely available to serve as such a contemporary standard for future applications for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessments.

  3. Importance of native language in a population-based health survey among ethnic Chinese in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam Cheong; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2008-08-01

    To assess the impacts of survey languages on participation and representativeness of the study subjects in a health survey in a Chinese community in Australia. A random sample of 500 ethnic Chinese in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia was surveyed during November 2005 to February 2006 by using a bilingual survey questionnaire in their preferred languages, i.e. English or Chinese. 210 questionnaires were returned. Two-thirds of the participants chose to answer the questionnaires in Chinese. Besides being older with relatively lower income, they were more likely to be married, have a Chinese family doctor, and visit a Chinese medicine practitioner. Fewer of them have visited the Diabetes Australia website or read any educational information materials about diabetes. The multilingual approach is crucial to improving participation and representativeness of samples from ethnic populations.

  4. Working meeting on blood pressure measurement: suggestions for measuring blood pressure to use in populations surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    As part of the Pan American Hypertension Initiative (PAHI), the Pan American Health Organization and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health of the United States of America conducted a working meeting to discuss blood pressure (BP) measurement methods used in various hypertension prevalence surveys and clinical trials, with the objective of developing a BP measurement protocol for use in hypertension prevalence surveys in the Americas. No such common protocol has existed in the Americas, so it has been difficult to compare hypertension prevention and intervention strategies. This piece describes a proposed standard method for measuring blood pressure for use in population surveys in the Region of the Americas. The piece covers: considerations for developing a common blood pressure measurement protocol, critical issues in measuring blood pressure in national surveys, minimum procedures for blood pressure measurement during surveillance, and quality assessment of blood pressure.

  5. Secondary Data Analysis of National Surveys in Japan Toward Improving Population Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayu Ikeda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Secondary data analysis of national health surveys of the general population is a standard methodology for health metrics and evaluation; it is used to monitor trends in population health over time and benchmark the performance of health systems. In Japan, the government has established electronic databases of individual records from national surveys of the population’s health. However, the number of publications based on these datasets is small considering the scale and coverage of the surveys. There appear to be two major obstacles to the secondary use of Japanese national health survey data: strict data access control under the Statistics Act and an inadequate interdisciplinary research environment for resolving methodological difficulties encountered when dealing with secondary data. The usefulness of secondary analysis of survey data is evident with examples from the author’s previous studies based on vital records and the National Health and Nutrition Surveys, which showed that (i tobacco smoking and high blood pressure are the major risk factors for adult mortality from non-communicable diseases in Japan; (ii the decrease in mean blood pressure in Japan from the late 1980s to the early 2000s was partly attributable to the increased use of antihypertensive medication and reduced dietary salt intake; and (iii progress in treatment coverage and control of high blood pressure is slower in Japan than in the United States and Britain. National health surveys in Japan are an invaluable asset, and findings from secondary analyses of these surveys would provide important suggestions for improving health in people around the world.

  6. When is a species declining? Optimizing survey effort to detect population changes in reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sewell

    Full Text Available Biodiversity monitoring programs need to be designed so that population changes can be detected reliably. This can be problematical for species that are cryptic and have imperfect detection. We used occupancy modeling and power analysis to optimize the survey design for reptile monitoring programs in the UK. Surveys were carried out six times a year in 2009-2010 at multiple sites. Four out of the six species--grass snake, adder, common lizard, slow-worm -were encountered during every survey from March-September. The exceptions were the two rarest species--sand lizard and smooth snake--which were not encountered in July 2009 and March 2010 respectively. The most frequently encountered and most easily detected species was the slow-worm. For the four widespread reptile species in the UK, three to four survey visits that used a combination of directed transect walks and artificial cover objects resulted in 95% certainty that a species would be detected if present. Using artificial cover objects was an effective detection method for most species, considerably increased the detection rate of some, and reduced misidentifications. To achieve an 85% power to detect a decline in any of the four widespread species when the true decline is 15%, three surveys at a total of 886 sampling sites, or four surveys at a total of 688 sites would be required. The sampling effort needed reduces to 212 sites surveyed three times, or 167 sites surveyed four times, if the target is to detect a true decline of 30% with the same power. The results obtained can be used to refine reptile survey protocols in the UK and elsewhere. On a wider scale, the occupancy study design approach can be used to optimize survey effort and help set targets for conservation outcomes for regional or national biodiversity assessments.

  7. A preliminary disease survey in the wild Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, A J; Lovely, C J; Pittman, J M

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary survey of diseases that might be present in the wild Nile crocodile population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood samples were collected from crocodiles ranging in size from 34.0 cm to 463.0 cm total length. Samples were examined for blood parasites and underwent a haematological analysis. Before release the crocodiles were examined for various clinical abnormalities. Of the 144 crocodiles examined, none were visibly sick or displayed any signs of disease. No antibodies to Mycoplasma crocodyli were detected. Hepatozoon pettiti was present in 55.3% of blood smears examined, but there was no significant difference in any of the haematological values between the infected and uninfected crocodiles, and a high prevalence of Hepatozoon infection is not uncommon in other species. Only 7.6% of the examined crocodiles were infested with leeches. Further research is required for several of the crocodilian diseases, in particular to elucidate the role of wild crocodilians as reservoirs of infection.

  8. A preliminary disease survey in the wild Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Leslie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary survey of diseases that might be present in the wild Nile crocodile population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood samples were collected from crocodiles ranging in size from 34.0cmto 463.0cmtotal length. Samples were examined for blood parasites and underwent a haematological analysis. Before release the crocodiles were examined for various clinical abnormalities. Of the 144 crocodiles examined, none were visibly sick or displayed any signs of disease. No antibodies to Mycoplasma crocodyli were detected. Hepatozoon pettiti was present in 55.3 % of blood smears examined, but there was no significant difference in any of the haematological values between the infected and uninfected crocodiles, and a high prevalence of Hepatozoon infection is not uncommon in other species. Only 7.6 % of the examined crocodiles were infested with leeches. Further research is required for several of the crocodilian diseases, in particular to elucidate the role of wild crocodilians as reservoirs of infection.

  9. Bias in little owl population estimates using playback techniques during surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuberogoitia, I.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To test the efficiency of playback methods to survey little owl (Athene noctua populations we carried out two studies: (1 we recorded the replies of radio–tagged little owls to calls in a small area; (2 we recorded call broadcasts to estimate the effectiveness of the method to detect the presence of little owl. In the first study, we detected an average of 8.12 owls in the 30′ survey period, a number that is close to the real population; we also detected significant little owl movements from the initial location (before the playback to the next locations during the survey period. However, we only detected an average of 2.25 and 5.37 little owls in the first 5′ and 10′, respectively, of the survey time. In the second study, we detected 137 little owl territories in 105 positive sample units. The occupation rate was 0.35, the estimated occupancy was 0.393, and the probability of detection was 0.439. The estimated cumulative probability of detection suggests that a minimum of four sampling times would be needed in an extensive survey to detect 95% of the areas occupied by little owls.

  10. A survey of oral health in a population of adults with developmental disabilities: comparison with a national oral health survey of the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A; March, L; Stokes, M L

    1998-08-01

    During 1991, an oral health assessment of 101 adults with developmental disabilities aged from 21 to 53 years was undertaken as part of a broader health survey which also included medical, psychological and nutritional assessments. The study group consisted of a random sample of adults chosen from the developmentally disabled population known to be living in the lower North Shore area of Sydney. This paper describes the results of the oral health assessment and compares them with an oral health survey of the Australian population done in 1987/88. Forty-six per cent of the study group were males (mean age 33.5 years) and 54 per cent were females (mean age 33.0 years). Compared with similar age subgroups in the Australian population, the following factors were more frequently reported in the developmentally disabled group: a dental visit in the last 12 months (65 per cent vs 50 per cent; Odds Ratio (OR) 1.9:95 per cent Confidence Interval (CI): 1.3-2.8); use of public rather than private dental services (42 per cent vs 6 per cent; OR 11.3:95% CI 7.5-16.9); oral mucosal pathology requiring treatment (15 per cent vs 2 per cent; OR 8.5:95% CI 5.2-13.8); severe periodontal disease (16 per cent vs 3 per cent; OR 6.9:95% CI 4.2-11.4); and moderate to severe malocclusion (26 per cent vs 11 per cent; OR 2.1:95% CI 1.3-3.5). Fifty-eight per cent of subjects felt they needed no dental treatment but on examination of the oral mucosa, periodontal tissues and teeth, over 90 per cent were found to require some sort of dental treatment.

  11. Spatially-resolved stellar populations of nearby galaxies in multi-filter surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Roman, Izaskun; Cenarro, A. Javier; Díaz-García, Luis A.; López-Sanjuan, Carlos; Varela, Jesús; J-PLUS Team

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a new technique using a novel approach to analyze unresolved stellar populations of spatially-resolved galaxies based on large sky multi-filter surveys. We have successfully applied this technique to 42 early-type galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey. In agreement with some previous work, we find the gradients of early-type galaxies to be on average slightly positive in age and negative in metallicity at large radii (R > Reff). These mildly negative metallicity gradients support a merging scenario. The positive/flat age gradients could support a more uniformly distributed star formation or even secondary burst triggered by mergers.

  12. Population survey sampling methods in a rural African setting: measuring mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byass Peter

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-based sample surveys and sentinel surveillance methods are commonly used as substitutes for more widespread health and demographic monitoring and intervention studies in resource-poor settings. Such methods have been criticised as only being worthwhile if the results can be extrapolated to the surrounding 100-fold population. With an emphasis on measuring mortality, this study explores the extent to which choice of sampling method affects the representativeness of 1% sample data in relation to various demographic and health parameters in a rural, developing-country setting. Methods Data from a large community based census and health survey conducted in rural Burkina Faso were used as a basis for modelling. Twenty 1% samples incorporating a range of health and demographic parameters were drawn at random from the overall dataset for each of seven different sampling procedures at two different levels of local administrative units. Each sample was compared with the overall 'gold standard' survey results, thus enabling comparisons between the different sampling procedures. Results All sampling methods and parameters tested performed reasonably well in representing the overall population. Nevertheless, a degree of variation could be observed both between sampling approaches and between different parameters, relating to their overall distribution in the total population. Conclusion Sample surveys are able to provide useful demographic and health profiles of local populations. However, various parameters being measured and their distribution within the sampling unit of interest may not all be best represented by a particular sampling method. It is likely therefore that compromises may have to be made in choosing a sampling strategy, with costs, logistics the intended use of the data being important considerations.

  13. Demographic and Ecological Survey of Dog Population in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Gbeminiyi Richard Otolorin; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Asabe Adamu Dzikwi

    2014-01-01

    Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1 : 7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic...

  14. Survey of hearing disorders in an urban population in Rondonia, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia Bevilacqua

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of hearing loss for the population in the urban area. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey based on the World Health Organization Ear and Hearing Disorders Survey Protocol was conducted in 298 households in the urban area of Monte Negro, Rondonia, Northern Brazil, from 2005 to 2007. Ear examinations, behavioral audiometry and pure tone audiometry were conducted on 577 individuals. RESULTS: The results showed that 3.8% (95%CI 2.17;5.45 of population were classified in the disabling hearing impairment category. The prevalence of moderate hearing impairment was 3.4%; severe impairment was 0.4%; and profound hearing impairment was not found. CONCLUSIONS: The impairing hearing loss prevalence found in this study is within of the international prevalence for this level of hearing loss and smaller than observed in a previous study in the South region of Brazil.

  15. Ultralight aircraft surveys reveal marine turtle population increases along the west coast of Reunion Island

    OpenAIRE

    Jean, Claire; Ciccione, Stephane; Ballorain, Katia; Georges, Jean-Yves; Bourjea, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Reunion Island in the south-west Indian Ocean once had significant nesting populations of marine turtles but they declined rapidly after human colonization. In 1996, after regular sightings of turtles offshore, an aerial survey programme was initiated to monitor the occurrence of marine turtles and their distribution along the west coast of the island Between 1998 and 2008, along a 30-km coastline transect between Saint Leu and Saint Paul, a total of 1,845 marine turtle sightings were recorde...

  16. What People Believe about How Memory Works: A Representative Survey of the U.S. Population

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Incorrect beliefs about the properties of memory have broad implications: the media conflate normal forgetting and inadvertent memory distortion with intentional deceit, juries issue verdicts based on flawed intuitions about the accuracy and confidence of testimony, and students misunderstand the role of memory in learning. We conducted a large representative telephone survey of the U.S. population to assess common beliefs about the properties of memory. Substantial numbers of respondents agr...

  17. Risk of Negative Outcomes After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Statewide Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteneck, Gale G; Cuthbert, Jeffery P; Corrigan, John D; Bogner, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the rates of negative outcomes associated with all severities of traumatic brain injury (TBI), treated in all settings or not treated at all, in comparison to the general population. Coloradoans without injury, with injury but no TBI, with mild TBI but no loss of consciousness (LOC), mild TBI with LOC, moderate TBI, or severe TBI. Statewide population-based survey. Computer-assisted, modified Ohio State University TBI Identification Method; Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and National Health Interview Survey questions; Satisfaction with Life Scale; and postconcussive symptoms. Up to 42.5% of participants reported a lifetime history of at least 1 TBI. Multiple negative outcomes were found to increase in prevalence in a stepwise fashion in association with greater TBI severity, with the clearest patterns observed for disability, poor life satisfaction, and impaired memory. Traumatic brain injury was found to be associated with disability and other negative outcomes in a general population survey. This study does not allow us to examine the proximate causes of disability, but it suggests that TBI may serve to both cause disability directly and exacerbate the influence of other etiologies. These relations should be examined in subsequent studies.

  18. Sexual Orientation and Mental and Physical Health Status: Findings From a Dutch Population Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo G.M.; Bakker, Floor; Schellevis, François G.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. Methods. Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001 among an all-age random sample of the population. Of the 19685 persons invited to participate, 65% took part in the survey. Sexual orientation was assessed in persons aged 18 years and older and reported by 98.2% of 9684 participants. The respondents’ characteristics are comparable with those of the Dutch general population. Results. Gay/lesbian participants reported more acute mental health symptoms than heterosexual people and their general mental health also was poorer. Gay/lesbian people more frequently reported acute physical symptoms and chronic conditions than heterosexual people. Differences in smoking, alcohol use, and drug use were less prominent. Conclusions. We found that sexual orientation was associated with mental as well as physical health. The causal processes responsible for these differences by sexual orientation need further exploration. PMID:16670235

  19. Public awareness of sepsis and stroke in Singapore: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Jason; Lim, Hui Fang; Tay, Chee Kiang; Aung, Ngu Wah

    2013-06-01

    Management guidelines emphasise the importance of prompt therapeutic intervention for sepsis as well as stroke, both of which are common causes of death. Unfortunately, a rate-limiting step may be delayed presentation to the emergency department by patients themselves. The aim of this study was to assess public awareness of sepsis and stroke in Singapore. This was a population-based, structured telephone survey of adults in Singapore. There were 1067 completed surveys (response rate 50.3%). The survey population was mostly comparable with the actual Singapore population. Fifty-three respondents (5.0%) had heard of the term sepsis. Of these, 45 respondents (4.2%) could provide at least one accepted definition of sepsis, the commonest being that of an unspecified infection. Respondents mostly heard about sepsis from school, the Internet, and newspapers. On the other hand, 963 respondents (90.3%) had heard of the term stroke. Of these, 818 respondents (76.7%) could name at least one accepted warning sign of stroke, the commonest being that of numbness, while 806 respondents (75.5%) could name at least one accepted risk factor for stroke, the commonest being hypertension. Respondents mostly heard about stroke from television, newspapers, a relative, a friend, media (unspecified), and the Internet. Our findings reflect the differences in the public profile of sepsis versus stroke in Singapore. More concerted efforts involving healthcare professionals, medical societies, statutory boards, and the mass media are required to improve public awareness of these 2 conditions -especially sepsis.

  20. A summary of the survey and study meeting of the population of national minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    A survey and study meeting of the population of national minorities was held in in Lanzhow, China in 1982; the participants of the meeting included 53 scientific research workers from social science academies. In view of the actual conditions in different regions, the participants pointed out that rapid population growth in some regions had already resulted in nonconformity with material production and that it was impeding the development of productive forces and the improvement of the people's livelihood. Participants also earnestly discussed and analyzed the form of marriage and public health conditions in various minority regions. The factors that make it difficult to improve the quality of the minority population are: 1) marriages between cousins, 2) old customs of intermarriages, and 3) hierarchical inner marriages. Extensive discussions were conducted by participants on the family planning and nationality policies, the intensive study of minority populations, the promotion of nationalities' prosperity, and the indications of such prosperity. Huang Guangxue of the State Nationalities Commission pointed out that planned birth is different from birth control and, on the basis of survey and research, stressed the implementation of the principle of classified guidance and differential treatment, and the formulation of family planning policies that are practical and acceptable to the masses.

  1. Defining Arthritis for Public Health Surveillance: Methods and Estimates in Four US Population Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Louise B; Cisternas, Miriam G; Greenlund, Kurt J; Giles, Wayne; Hannan, Casey; Helmick, Charles G

    2017-03-01

    To determine the variability of arthritis prevalence in 4 US population health surveys. We estimated annualized arthritis prevalence in 2011-2012, among adults age ≥20 years, using 2 definition methods, both based on self-report: 1) doctor-/health care provider-diagnosed arthritis in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS); and 2) three arthritis definitions based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) criteria in MEPS (National Arthritis Data Workgroup on Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Conditions [NADW-AORC], Clinical Classifications Software [CCS], and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]). Diagnosed arthritis prevalence percentages using the surveys were within 3 points of one another (BRFSS 26.2% [99% confidence interval (99% CI) 26.0-26.4], MEPS 26.1% [99% CI 25.0-27.2], NHIS 23.5% [99% CI 22.9-24.1], NHANES 23.0% [99% CI 19.2-26.8]), and those using ICD-9-CM were within 5 percentage points of one another (CCS 25.8% [99% CI 24.6-27.1]; CDC 28.3% [99% CI 27.0-29.6]; and NADW-AORC 30.7% [99% CI 29.4-32.1]). The variation in the estimated number (in millions) affected with diagnosed arthritis was 7.8 (BRFSS 58.5 [99% CI 58.1-59.1], MEPS 59.3 [99% CI 55.6-63.1], NHANES 51.5 [99% CI 37.2-65.5], and NHIS 52.6 [99% CI 50.9-54.4]), and using ICD-9-CM definitions it was 11.1 (CCS 58.7 [99% CI 54.5-62.9], CDC 64.3 [99% CI 59.9-68.6], and NADW 69.9 [99% CI 65.2-74.5]). Most (57-70%) reporting diagnosed arthritis also reported ICD-9-CM arthritis; respondents reporting diagnosed arthritis were older than those meeting ICD-9-CM definitions. Proxy response status affected arthritis prevalence differently across surveys. Public health practitioners and decision makers are frequently charged with choosing a single number to represent arthritis

  2. Measuring high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T blood concentration in population surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The blood test for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (HS-CTnT) has been proposed as a marker of cardiovascular risk in the general population, as it is associated with subsequent incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. We aimed at evaluating the feasibility of HS-CTnT testing within large nationally-representative population surveys in which blood samples are collected during household visits, shipped using the standard civil postal service, and then frozen for subsequent analyses. Methods The Health Survey for England (HSE) consists of a series of annual surveys beginning in 1991. It is designed to provide regular information on various aspects of the nation’s health and risk factors. We measured HS-CTnT in the blood of 200 people from the HSE 2016 wave, then froze and stored their blood samples at -40°C for 5–10 weeks, and then thawed and retested them to appreciate the extent of within-person agreement or test-retest reliability of the two measurements. Results The Cronbach's Alpha (Scale Reliability Coefficient) and the Interclass Correlation Coefficient (two-way mixed-effects model for consistency of agreement at individual level) were 0.97 (95%CI = 0.96–0.99) and 0.95 (95%CI = 0.94–0.96) respectively. The time delay from blood withdrawal to analysis and storage (1–4 days) did not affect the results, nor did the freezing time before the retest (5–10 weeks). Conclusion The measurement of HS-CTnT plasma concentration within large nationally-representative surveys such as the Health Survey for England is feasible. PMID:28141863

  3. Characteristics of physical measurement consent in a population-based survey of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakshaug, Joseph W; Couper, Mick P; Ofstedal, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Collecting physical measurements in population-based health surveys has increased in recent years, yet little is known about the characteristics of those who consent to these measurements. To examine the characteristics of persons who consent to physical measurements across several domains, including one's demographic background, health status, resistance behavior toward the survey interview, and interviewer characteristics. We conducted a secondary data analysis of the 2006 Health and Retirement Study, a nationally-representative panel survey of older adults aged 51 and older. We performed multilevel logistic regressions on a sample of 7457 respondents who were eligible for physical measurements. The primary outcome measure was consent to all physical measurements. Seventy-nine percent (unweighted) of eligible respondents consented to all physical measurements. In weighted multilevel logistic regressions controlling for respondent demographics, current health status, survey resistance indicators, and interviewer characteristics, the propensity to consent was significantly greater among Hispanic respondents matched with bilingual Hispanic interviewers, patients with diabetes, and those who visited a doctor in the past 2 years. The propensity to consent was significantly lower among younger respondents, those who have several Nagi functional limitations and infrequently participate in "mildly vigorous" activities, and those interviewed by black interviewers. Survey resistance indicators, such as number of contact attempts and interviewer observations of resistant behavior in prior wave iterations of the Health and Retirement Study were also negatively associated with physical measurement consent. The propensity to consent was unrelated to prior medical diagnoses, including high blood pressure, cancer (excluding skin), lung disease, heart abnormalities, stroke, and arthritis, and matching of interviewer and respondent on race and gender. Physical measurement consent

  4. The Norma arm region Chandra survey catalog: X-ray populations in the spiral arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasini, Francesca M. [Astronomy Department, University of California, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Krivonos, Roman A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); An, Hongjun [Department of Physics, McGill University, Rutherford Physics Building, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Rahoui, Farid [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Gotthelf, Eric V. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: f.fornasini@berkeley.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-506, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey (NARCS), which covers a 2° × 0.°8 region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of ≈20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with ≥3σ confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that ∼50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arm, while 30% are more distant, in the proximity of the far Norma arm or beyond. We argue that a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables dominates the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arms, while intermediate polars and high-mass stars (isolated or in binaries) dominate the far Norma arm. We also present the cumulative number count distribution for sources in our survey that are detected in the hard energy band. A population of very hard sources in the vicinity of the far Norma arm and active galactic nuclei dominate the hard X-ray emission down to f{sub X} ≈ 10{sup –14} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, but the distribution curve flattens at fainter fluxes. We find good agreement between the observed distribution and predictions based on other surveys.

  5. Regionomics: Introductory elucidations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocić Časlav J.

    2002-01-01

    and political; informatics revolution and regional structure (region versus network; global and European frameworks of the regionalization of Serbia. The second part of the paper is dedicated to the issues of institutional arrangements (optimal degree of the /de/centralization of a state, regional politics (regional goals in conflict, arbitrating, /de/centralization; aggregate efficiency versus inter-regional equality; generative regional model: "exceptions" from the "classic" rule: regional development contributes to the national-economic development; prosperity of the territory versus prosperity of the population; inter-regional equality: tendency for redistribution; tendency for centralization; goals of the policy of regional development; spatially coordinated regional-political target system; spatially non-coordinated regional-political target system; instruments of regional policy; evaluation of the results of regional policy; new regional policy from the end of the past and at the beginning of this century and strategies of regional development (primarily, the strategy of achieving the goals of the region.

  6. A Deuteration Survey of the Clump Population in the Gemini OB1 Molecular Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrici, Andrew Scott; Shirley, Yancy L.; Svoboda, Brian E.

    2017-01-01

    Recent maps of dust continuum emission from entire molecular clouds at submillimeter wavelengths have made it possible to survey and study the chemistry of entire core and clump populations within a single cloud. One very strong chemical process in star-forming regions is the fractionation of deuterium in molecules, which results in an increase in the deuterium ratio many orders of magnitude over the ISM [D]/[H] ratio and provides a chemical probe of cold, dense regions. We present a survey of DCO+ 3-2 and N2D+ 3-2 toward the clump population in the high-mass, star-forming Gemini OB1 Molecular Cloud identified from 1.1 mm continuum imaging by the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey. The peak 1.1 mm continuum positions of 52 clumps in the range 188°≤ l ≤194° were observed with the 10m Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. We find that DCO+ emission is detected toward 90% of the clumps with a median deuterium ratio of 0.01 while N2D+ emission is detected toward only 25% of the clumps. The DCO+ fractionation anti-correlates with gas kinetic temperature and linewidth, a measure of the amount of turbulence within the clumps. We compare the deuteration ratios of with physical properties of the clumps and their evolutionary stage.

  7. Accounting for vulnerable populations in rural hazard mitigation plans: results of a survey of emergency managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Mai; Cooper, John; Simon, Matthew; Ricchetti-Masterson, Kristen; Grabich, Shannon; Salvesen, David; Berke, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas of the United States are uniquely vulnerable to the impacts of natural disasters. One possible way to mitigate vulnerability to disasters in rural communities is to have a high-quality hazard mitigation plan in place. To understand the resources available for hazard mitigation planning and determine how well hazard mitigation plans in rural counties meet the needs of vulnerable populations, we surveyed the lead planning or emergency management official responsible for hazard mitigation plans in 96 rural counties in eight states in the Southeastern United States. In most counties, emergency management was responsible for implementing the county's hazard mitigation plan and the majority of counties had experienced a presidentially declared disaster in the last 5 years. Our research findings demonstrated that there were differences in subjective measures of vulnerability (as reported by survey respondents) and objective measures of vulnerability (as determined by US Census data). In addition, although few counties surveyed included outreach to vulnerable groups as a part of their hazard mitigation planning process, a majority felt that their hazard mitigation plan addressed the needs of vulnerable populations "well" or "very well." These differences could result in increased vulnerabilities in rural areas, particularly for certain vulnerable groups.

  8. An emperor penguin population estimate: the first global, synoptic survey of a species from space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available Our aim was to estimate the population of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes fosteri using a single synoptic survey. We examined the whole continental coastline of Antarctica using a combination of medium resolution and Very High Resolution (VHR satellite imagery to identify emperor penguin colony locations. Where colonies were identified, VHR imagery was obtained in the 2009 breeding season. The remotely-sensed images were then analysed using a supervised classification method to separate penguins from snow, shadow and guano. Actual counts of penguins from eleven ground truthing sites were used to convert these classified areas into numbers of penguins using a robust regression algorithm.We found four new colonies and confirmed the location of three previously suspected sites giving a total number of emperor penguin breeding colonies of 46. We estimated the breeding population of emperor penguins at each colony during 2009 and provide a population estimate of ~238,000 breeding pairs (compared with the last previously published count of 135,000-175,000 pairs. Based on published values of the relationship between breeders and non-breeders, this translates to a total population of ~595,000 adult birds.There is a growing consensus in the literature that global and regional emperor penguin populations will be affected by changing climate, a driver thought to be critical to their future survival. However, a complete understanding is severely limited by the lack of detailed knowledge about much of their ecology, and importantly a poor understanding of their total breeding population. To address the second of these issues, our work now provides a comprehensive estimate of the total breeding population that can be used in future population models and will provide a baseline for long-term research.

  9. An emperor penguin population estimate: the first global, synoptic survey of a species from space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T; Larue, Michelle A; Morin, Paul; Kooyman, Gerald L; Wienecke, Barbara; Ratcliffe, Norman; Fox, Adrian J; Fleming, Andrew H; Porter, Claire; Trathan, Phil N

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to estimate the population of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes fosteri) using a single synoptic survey. We examined the whole continental coastline of Antarctica using a combination of medium resolution and Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite imagery to identify emperor penguin colony locations. Where colonies were identified, VHR imagery was obtained in the 2009 breeding season. The remotely-sensed images were then analysed using a supervised classification method to separate penguins from snow, shadow and guano. Actual counts of penguins from eleven ground truthing sites were used to convert these classified areas into numbers of penguins using a robust regression algorithm.We found four new colonies and confirmed the location of three previously suspected sites giving a total number of emperor penguin breeding colonies of 46. We estimated the breeding population of emperor penguins at each colony during 2009 and provide a population estimate of ~238,000 breeding pairs (compared with the last previously published count of 135,000-175,000 pairs). Based on published values of the relationship between breeders and non-breeders, this translates to a total population of ~595,000 adult birds.There is a growing consensus in the literature that global and regional emperor penguin populations will be affected by changing climate, a driver thought to be critical to their future survival. However, a complete understanding is severely limited by the lack of detailed knowledge about much of their ecology, and importantly a poor understanding of their total breeding population. To address the second of these issues, our work now provides a comprehensive estimate of the total breeding population that can be used in future population models and will provide a baseline for long-term research.

  10. The H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey - maps, source catalog and source population

    CERN Document Server

    Carrigan, S; Chaves, R C G; Deli, C; Donath, A; Gast, H; Marandon, V

    2013-01-01

    The H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey (HGPS), the first comprehensive survey of the inner Galaxy at TeV energies, has led to the discovery of an unexpectedly large and diverse population of over 60 sources of TeV gamma rays within its current range of l = 250 to 65 degrees in longitude and |b| < 3.5 degrees in latitude. The data set of the HGPS comprises 2800 hours of high-quality data, taken in the years 2004 to 2013. The sensitivity for the detection of point-like sources is at the level of 2% Crab or better in the HGPS region. The population of TeV gamma-ray emitters is dominated by the pulsar wind nebula and supernova remnant source classes, although nearly a third of the sources remain unidentified or ambiguous. We are presenting the latest HGPS significance and sensitivity maps, as well as a work on the HGPS source catalog, based on a uniform re-analysis of the full data set collected in the last decade. We will also give a brief overview of the H.E.S.S. Galactic source population.

  11. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey V. Young clusters with an OB stellar population

    CERN Document Server

    Alegría, S Ramírez; Chené, A -N; Bonatto, C; Kurtev, R; Amigo, P; Kuhn, M; Gromadzki, M; Carballo-Bello, J A

    2016-01-01

    The ESO public survey VISTA Variables in the V\\'ia L\\'actea (VVV) has contributed with deep multi-epoch photometry of the Galactic bulge and the adjacent part of the disk over 526 square degrees. More than a hundred cluster candidates have been reported thanks to this survey. We present the fifth article in a series of papers focused on young and massive clusters discovered in the VVV survey. In this paper, we present the physical characterization of five clusters with a spectroscopically confirmed OB-type stellar population. To characterize the clusters, we used near-infrared photometry ($J$, $H,$ and $K_S$) from the VVV survey and near-infrared $K$-band spectroscopy from ISAAC at VLT, following the methodology presented in the previous articles of the series. All clusters in our sample are very young (ages between 1-20 Myr), and their total mass are between $(1.07^{+0.40}_{-0.30})\\cdot10^2$ $M_{\\odot}$ and $(4.17^{+4.15}_{-2.08})\\cdot10^3$ $M_{\\odot}$. We observed a relation between the clusters total mass ...

  12. Ideal cardiovascular health prevalence in the Brazilian population - National Health Survey (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Matozinhos, Fernanda Penido; Claro, Rafael; Gomes, Crizian Saar; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Primordial prevention is defined as the initial prevention of risk factors, through the adoption of healthier behaviors. Within this concept, the American Heart Association (AHA) has defined seven metrics, based on evidence, to achieve ideal cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiovascular health in the Brazilian population, according to sex, age, and region of residence, using data from the latest National Health Survey (2013). We assessed the risk factors, as recommended by the AHA, combined (number of factors) and individually: four behavioral (smoking, physical activity, body mass index and diet) and three biological factors (blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol levels). The Brazilian population has reached very low prevalence (1%), for the sum of 7 factors in ideal level. Individually, 3.2% of the population consumed ideal diet, followed by physical activity (23.6%) and body mass index (43.7%). The subjects aged between 18 and 35 years showed higher prevalence of metrics combined at the optimal levels (0.5%), which was also reached by the population of the Northern region. These results indicate that greater efforts are urgent by public policies at the level of primordial prevention in order to achieve appropriate targets of cardiovascular health in the Brazilian population.

  13. Evidence based practice in population health: a regional survey to inform workforce development and organisational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adily, A; Ward, J

    2004-06-01

    To assess current capacity to implement evidence based practice (EBP) in population health. Postal survey of a regional population health workforce in Sydney, Australia. Division of Population Health, South Western Sydney Area Health Service. 104 population health staff (response rate: 73%). In the sample of regional population health practitioners, views about the current promotion of EBP were positive. Non-medical respondents with less that Masters degree were more likely to report "high self assessed need" to increase their capacity in EBP (p = 0.022). Confidence in understanding of EBP terminology was not associated with seniority but with highest level of education reached (pskills" or "need to increase their capacity in EBP" in their current position. The proportion of participants "strongly" supporting implementation of a colorectal cancer screening programme whose benefit was expressed as relative risk reduction was greater than that so supporting a programme whose benefit was expressed as number needed to screen (p = 0.008). Most respondents referred to their immediate managers when seeking support for EBP. The findings provide a quantitative baseline for capacity building through workplace programmes. Managerial commitment has been increased and performance development is now underway.

  14. National Surveys of Population Health: Big Data Analytics for Mobile Health Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Bruce R

    2015-12-01

    At the core of the healthcare crisis is fundamental lack of actionable data. Such data could stratify individuals within populations to predict which persons have which outcomes. If baselines existed for all variations of all conditions, then managing health could be improved by matching the measuring of individuals to their cohort in the population. The scale required for complete baselines involves effective National Surveys of Population Health (NSPH). Traditionally, these have been focused upon acute medicine, measuring people to contain the spread of epidemics. In recent decades, the focus has moved to chronic conditions as well, which require smaller measures over longer times. NSPH have long utilized quality of life questionnaires. Mobile Health Monitors, where computing technologies eliminate manual administration, provide richer data sets for health measurement. Older technologies of telephone interviews will be replaced by newer technologies of smartphone sensors to provide deeper individual measures at more frequent timings across larger-sized populations. Such continuous data can provide personal health records, supporting treatment guidelines specialized for population cohorts. Evidence-based medicine will become feasible by leveraging hundreds of millions of persons carrying mobile devices interacting with Internet-scale services for Big Data Analytics.

  15. Parsing social network survey data from hidden populations using stochastic context-free grammars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art F Y Poon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human populations are structured by social networks, in which individuals tend to form relationships based on shared attributes. Certain attributes that are ambiguous, stigmatized or illegal can create a OhiddenO population, so-called because its members are difficult to identify. Many hidden populations are also at an elevated risk of exposure to infectious diseases. Consequently, public health agencies are presently adopting modern survey techniques that traverse social networks in hidden populations by soliciting individuals to recruit their peers, e.g., respondent-driven sampling (RDS. The concomitant accumulation of network-based epidemiological data, however, is rapidly outpacing the development of computational methods for analysis. Moreover, current analytical models rely on unrealistic assumptions, e.g., that the traversal of social networks can be modeled by a Markov chain rather than a branching process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we develop a new methodology based on stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs, which are well-suited to modeling tree-like structure of the RDS recruitment process. We apply this methodology to an RDS case study of injection drug users (IDUs in Tijuana, México, a hidden population at high risk of blood-borne and sexually-transmitted infections (i.e., HIV, hepatitis C virus, syphilis. Survey data were encoded as text strings that were parsed using our custom implementation of the inside-outside algorithm in a publicly-available software package (HyPhy, which uses either expectation maximization or direct optimization methods and permits constraints on model parameters for hypothesis testing. We identified significant latent variability in the recruitment process that violates assumptions of Markov chain-based methods for RDS analysis: firstly, IDUs tended to emulate the recruitment behavior of their own recruiter; and secondly, the recruitment of like peers (homophily was dependent on

  16. Disability Items From the Current Population Survey (2008-2015) and Permanent Versus Temporary Disability Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bryce; Myers, Andrew; Wong, Jennifer; Ravesloot, Craig

    2017-05-01

    To examine longitudinal responses to the disability indicator questions that have been adopted as the standard across national surveys sponsored by the US Department of Health and Human Services. Data from the Current Population Survey between 2008 and 2015 were linked to create a longitudinal sample of 721 178 individual respondents. Responses to the disability questions fluctuated significantly. Although 17% of all respondents reported a disability at some point, only 3% consistently reported the same set of disabilities. Demographic differences were found between people who always reported a consistent set of disabilities and those whose responses fluctuated. The disability questions capture 2 discrete groups: people who experience a permanent disability and those who experience a temporary disability. Demographic differences between these groups suggest that this is not simply due to measurement error.

  17. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population: a latent class analysis in a Danish population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasen M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marie Eliasen,1 Torben Jørgensen,1–3 Andreas Schröder,4 Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Per Fink,4 Chalotte Heinsvig Poulsen,1,5 Nanna Borup Johansen,1 Lene Falgaard Eplov,5 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Svend Kreiner2 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Centre for Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, 4Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, The Capital Region of Denmark, Hellerup, Denmark Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms.Methods: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark (55.4% women. The participants stated whether they had been considerably bothered by each symptom within 14 days prior to answering the questionnaire. We used latent class analysis to identify the somatic symptom profiles. The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Results: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0% had a profile characterized by no considerable bothering symptoms, while a minor group of 3.9% had profiles defined by a high risk of multiple somatic symptoms. The remaining profiles were more likely to be characterized by a few specific symptoms. The profiles could further be described by their associations with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Conclusion: The identified somatic symptom profiles could be distinguished by number, type, and site of

  18. Investigating the media power of a population health monitoring survey: case study of the NSW Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel, Paola T; Laws, Rachel; Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Hardy, Louise L; King, Lesley

    2013-06-01

    To examine the extent and nature of news coverage of a government-funded population monitoring survey of children and the potential implications of this coverage for public health advocacy. Case study of the NSW Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS), a population monitoring survey of school-aged children's weight and weight-related behaviours, conducted in 1997, 2004 and 2010. Printed news items from all Australian newspapers between January 1997 and December 2011 mentioning the survey findings were identified from the Factiva database and a descriptive analysis of the content conducted. Overall, 144 news items were identified. The news angles focused mainly on physical activity/sedentary behaviour; overweight/obesity and nutrition; however these angles changed between 1997 and 2011, with angles focused on physical activity/sedentary behaviour increasing, compared with overweight/obesity and nutrition angles (p=0.001). Responsibility for obesity and weight-related behaviours was most frequently assigned to parents and food marketing, and the most common solutions were policy strategies and parental/child education and support. Population health surveys are newsworthy and when coupled with strategic dissemination, media can contribute to communicating health issues and interpreting findings in ways that are relevant for consumers, policy makers and stakeholders. Implications : This case study emphasises the news value of government-funded population surveys, while providing a cautionary note about media focus on individual studies rather than a larger body of research evidence. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  19. Diet and dyslipidemias in a Lithuanian rural population aged 25-64: the CINDI survey

    OpenAIRE

    Petkevičienė, Janina; Klumbienė, Jūratė; Ramažauskienė, Vitalija; Kriaučionienė, Vilma; Šakytė, Edita; Grabauskas, Vilius Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the dietary intake of a Lithuanian rural population and to assess the relationship between diet and dyslipidemias. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional health survey was carried out in 5 municipalities of Lithuania in 2007. The random sample was obtained from lists of 25- to 64-year-old inhabitants registered at primary health care centers (n=1739). The food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall was used for the evaluation of nutrition habits. The ...

  20. Moose population estimate, trend, and distribution survey on Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, Game Management Unit 23, 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our moose population estimate for the surveyed area was calculated to be 1,864 ±1911. This included a low stratum estimate of 241, a medium stratum estimate of...

  1. NODC Standard Format Herring Survey Population Density and Distribution (F057) Data (1976-1977) (NODC Accession 0014189)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data type contains data from aircraft surveys of herring schools. These data were collected to provide information on herring population density and...

  2. An assessment of waterbird populations wintering in Port Frederick, Chichagof Island, Alaska, 19-23 February 1982: Boat surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information is presented on the waterbird population of Port Frederick, Chichagof Island, Alaska, as revealed by small boat surveys during February 1982. The...

  3. Distance software: design and analysis of distance sampling surveys for estimating population size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Len; Buckland, Stephen T; Rexstad, Eric A; Laake, Jeff L; Strindberg, Samantha; Hedley, Sharon L; Bishop, Jon Rb; Marques, Tiago A; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2010-02-01

    1.Distance sampling is a widely used technique for estimating the size or density of biological populations. Many distance sampling designs and most analyses use the software Distance.2.We briefly review distance sampling and its assumptions, outline the history, structure and capabilities of Distance, and provide hints on its use.3.Good survey design is a crucial prerequisite for obtaining reliable results. Distance has a survey design engine, with a built-in geographic information system, that allows properties of different proposed designs to be examined via simulation, and survey plans to be generated.4.A first step in analysis of distance sampling data is modelling the probability of detection. Distance contains three increasingly sophisticated analysis engines for this: conventional distance sampling, which models detection probability as a function of distance from the transect and assumes all objects at zero distance are detected; multiple-covariate distance sampling, which allows covariates in addition to distance; and mark-recapture distance sampling, which relaxes the assumption of certain detection at zero distance.5.All three engines allow estimation of density or abundance, stratified if required, with associated measures of precision calculated either analytically or via the bootstrap.6.Advanced analysis topics covered include the use of multipliers to allow analysis of indirect surveys (such as dung or nest surveys), the density surface modelling analysis engine for spatial and habitat modelling, and information about accessing the analysis engines directly from other software.7.Synthesis and applications. Distance sampling is a key method for producing abundance and density estimates in challenging field conditions. The theory underlying the methods continues to expand to cope with realistic estimation situations. In step with theoretical developments, state-of-the-art software that implements these methods is described that makes the methods

  4. [High prevalence of malnutrition among the indigenous early childhood population in Mexico. National Nutrition Survey 1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Zúñiga, María Concepción; Madrigal Fritsch, Herlinda; Villa, Antonio R; Guarneros Soto, Noé

    2003-01-01

    Malnutrition among the indigenous early childhood population is still currently a serious public health problem, and given that no specific studies affording the possibility of knowing the nutritional condition of this population, the question was posed of identifying the prevalence of malnutrition among the indigenous population of Mexico by means of the 1999 National Nutrition Survey. A rural sample was selected from the Northern, Central and Southern regions where 70% or more of the population speak an indigenous language. The weight/age, height/age and weight/height Score Z desviations was calculated for 3,236 preschoolers and 4,899 school-age children. Nationwide and by regions, there were no difference by age group regarding the prevalences of the three indicators. By regions, for preschoolers, the South showed the highest prevalences of underheight (69.8%) and underweight (49.8%) than the North (respectively 36.1% and 22.6%), entailing statistically significant differences (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.04). For overweight and obesity, the North showed a 14.2% prevalence, and the South 5.6% (p Mexico, whilst those due to overalimentation were located in the North, this phenomenon possibly being due to lifestyles and availability of food differing from one region to the other.

  5. Origin of the 12um Emission Across Galaxy Populations from WISE and SDSS Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Donoso, E; Tsai, C; Eisenhardt, P; Stern, D; Assef, R J; Leisawitz, D; Jarrett, T H; Stanford, S A

    2012-01-01

    We cross-matched Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) sources brighter than 1 mJy at 12um with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxy spectroscopic catalog to produce a sample of ~10^5 galaxies at =0.08, the largest of its kind. This sample is dominated (70%) by star-forming (SF) galaxies from the blue sequence, with total IR luminosities in the range ~10^8-10^12 L_sun. We identify which stellar populations are responsible for most of the 12um emission. We find that most (~80%) of the 12um emission in SF galaxies is produced by stellar populations younger than 0.6 Gyr. In contrast, the 12um emission in weak AGN (L[OIII]10^7 L_sun), act as an extension of massive SF galaxies, connecting the SF and weak AGN sequences. This suggests a picture where galaxies form stars normally until an AGN (possibly after a starburst episode) starts to gradually quench the SF activity. We also find that 4.6-12um color is a useful first-order indicator of SF activity in a galaxy when no other data are available.

  6. Fatty acids intake in the Mexican population. Results of the National Nutrition Survey 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal-Medina Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that quality, rather that quantity of fat is the determinant of cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study is to describe quantitatively the intake and adequacy of fatty acid classes among the Mexican population aged 5-90 years from a probabilistic survey. Methods Dietary intake of individual and classes of fatty acids was computed from the dataset of the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT2006, collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Adequacy was calculated in reference to authoritative recommendations. Results The mean intake of total fatty acids (TFA ≈ 25%E fell within WHO recommendations; the intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA among all age-groups (45-60% and of trans fatty acids (TrFA in 30% of school-age children and adolescents and 20% of adults exceeded international recommendations. The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and particularly of n6 and n3 PUFAS, was inadequately insufficient in 50% of the sample. Conclusions The main public health concerns are the high intake of SFA and the suboptimal intake of PUFA in Mexican population. The TrFA intake represents a low public health risk.

  7. Equity of inpatient health care in rural Tanzania: a population- and facility-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Grace A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To explore the equity of utilization of inpatient health care at rural Tanzanian health centers through the use of a short wealth questionnaire. Methods Patients admitted to four rural health centers in the Kigoma Region of Tanzania from May 2008 to May 2009 were surveyed about their illness, asset ownership and demographics. Principal component analysis was used to compare the wealth of the inpatients to the wealth of the region's general population, using data from a previous population-based survey. Results Among inpatients, 15.3% were characterized as the most poor, 19.6% were characterized as very poor, 16.5% were characterized as poor, 18.9% were characterized as less poor, and 29.7% were characterized as the least poor. The wealth distribution of all inpatients (p Conclusion The findings indicated that while current Tanzanian health financing policies may have improved access to health care for children under five, additional policies are needed to further close the equity gap, especially for obstetric inpatients.

  8. The VMC survey. XI. Radial stellar population gradients in the galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Deng, Licai [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Rubele, Stefano; Girardi, Leo; Gullieuszik, Marco [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Wang, Chuchu [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Bekki, Kenji; For, Bi-Qing [ICRAR M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Cioni, Maria-Rosa L. [Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Clementini, Gisella [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Emerson, Jim [Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Groenewegen, Martin A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Ukkel (Belgium); Guandalini, Roald [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D 2401, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Marconi, Marcella; Ripepi, Vincenzo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Piatti, Andrés E. [Observatorio Astrońomico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: joshuali@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-20

    We present a deep near-infrared color-magnitude diagram of the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae, obtained with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) as part of the VISTA near-infrared Y, J, K{sub s} survey of the Magellanic System (VMC). The cluster stars comprising both the subgiant and red giant branches exhibit apparent, continuous variations in color-magnitude space as a function of radius. Subgiant branch stars at larger radii are systematically brighter than their counterparts closer to the cluster core; similarly, red-giant-branch stars in the cluster's periphery are bluer than their more centrally located cousins. The observations can very well be described by adopting an age spread of ∼0.5 Gyr as well as radial gradients in both the cluster's helium abundance (Y) and metallicity (Z), which change gradually from (Y = 0.28, Z = 0.005) in the cluster core to (Y = 0.25, Z = 0.003) in its periphery. We conclude that the cluster's inner regions host a significant fraction of second-generation stars, which decreases with increasing radius; the stellar population in the 47 Tuc periphery is well approximated by a simple stellar population.

  9. General Population Knowledge about Extreme Heat: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Lisbon and Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Cuesta, Julita; van Loenhout, Joris Adriaan Frank; Colaço, Maria da Conceição; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2017-01-28

    Extreme heat is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity. National heat plans have been implemented to minimize the effect of extreme heat. The population's awareness and knowledge of national heat plans and extreme heat is essential to improve the community's behavior and adaptation. A general population survey was conducted in Lisbon and in Madrid to assess this knowledge. We used a questionnaire to interview passers-by. Results were compared between Lisbon and Madrid and between locals and foreigners, using Pearson Chi-square tests and Fisher's exact test. We conducted 260 interviews in six locations of different socio-economic backgrounds in each city. The most frequently mentioned extreme heat-related risk groups were the elderly (79.2%), children (49.6%) and babies (21.5%). The most frequently reported protective measures were increased fluid intake (73.1%) and avoiding exposure to the sun (50.8%). Knowledge about the heat plan was higher in Lisbon (37.2%) than in Madrid (25.2%) (p-value = 0.03). Foreigners had less knowledge of risk groups compared to locals. Heat plans were not widely known in Madrid and Lisbon. Nonetheless, knowledge of practical concepts to face extreme heat, such as certain risk groups and protective measures, was found. Our results were similar to comparable surveys where specific respondents' groups were identified as less knowledgeable. This highlighted the importance of addressing these groups when communicating public health messages on heat. Foreigners should be specifically targeted to increase their awareness.

  10. Mobile Phone Surveys for Collecting Population-Level Estimates in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Dustin G; Pereira, Amanda; Farrenkopf, Brooke A; Labrique, Alain B; Pariyo, George W; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-05-05

    National and subnational level surveys are important for monitoring disease burden, prioritizing resource allocation, and evaluating public health policies. As mobile phone access and ownership become more common globally, mobile phone surveys (MPSs) offer an opportunity to supplement traditional public health household surveys. The objective of this study was to systematically review the current landscape of MPSs to collect population-level estimates in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Primary and gray literature from 7 online databases were systematically searched for studies that deployed MPSs to collect population-level estimates. Titles and abstracts were screened on primary inclusion and exclusion criteria by two research assistants. Articles that met primary screening requirements were read in full and screened for secondary eligibility criteria. Articles included in review were grouped into the following three categories by their survey modality: (1) interactive voice response (IVR), (2) short message service (SMS), and (3) human operator or computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). Data were abstracted by two research assistants. The conduct and reporting of the review conformed to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A total of 6625 articles were identified through the literature review. Overall, 11 articles were identified that contained 19 MPS (CATI, IVR, or SMS) surveys to collect population-level estimates across a range of topics. MPSs were used in Latin America (n=8), the Middle East (n=1), South Asia (n=2), and sub-Saharan Africa (n=8). Nine articles presented results for 10 CATI surveys (10/19, 53%). Two articles discussed the findings of 6 IVR surveys (6/19, 32%). Three SMS surveys were identified from 2 articles (3/19, 16%). Approximately 63% (12/19) of MPS were delivered to mobile phone numbers collected from previously administered household surveys. The majority of MPS (11

  11. The SAGA Survey. I. Satellite Galaxy Populations around Eight Milky Way Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geha, Marla; Wechsler, Risa H.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Tollerud, Erik J.; Weiner, Benjamin; Bernstein, Rebecca; Hoyle, Ben; Marchi, Sebastian; Marshall, Phil J.; Muñoz, Ricardo; Lu, Yu

    2017-09-01

    We present the survey strategy and early results of the “Satellites Around Galactic Analogs” (SAGA) Survey. The SAGA Survey’s goal is to measure the distribution of satellite galaxies around 100 systems analogous to the Milky Way down to the luminosity of the Leo I dwarf galaxy ({M}rgri color criteria. We have discovered a total of 25 new satellite galaxies: 14 new satellite galaxies meet our formal criteria around our complete host systems, plus 11 additional satellites in either incompletely surveyed hosts or below our formal magnitude limit. Combined with 13 previously known satellites, there are a total of 27 satellites around 8 complete Milky-Way-analog hosts. We find a wide distribution in the number of satellites per host, from 1 to 9, in the luminosity range for which there are 5 Milky Way satellites. Standard abundance matching extrapolated from higher luminosities predicts less scatter between hosts and a steeper luminosity function slope than observed. We find that the majority of satellites (26 of 27) are star-forming. These early results indicate that the Milky Way has a different satellite population than typical in our sample, potentially changing the physical interpretation of measurements based only on the Milky Way’s satellite galaxies.

  12. The Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey: X-ray Populations in the Spiral Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasini, Francesca M; Bodaghee, Arash; Krivonos, Roman A; An, Hongjun; Rahoui, Farid; Gotthelf, Eric V; Bauer, Franz E; Stern, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma arm region Chandra survey (NARCS), which covers a 2 deg x 0.8 deg region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of $\\approx$20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with $\\geq3\\sigma$ confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that $\\sim$50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux an...

  13. Survey: Knowledge level of the population about radon in Switzerland; Enquete: niveau de connaissance de la population au sujet du radon en Suisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruson, M.; Murith, C. [Office Federal de la Sante Publique, Section Risques Radiologiques, Berne (Switzerland); Rumo, S. [CBC Marketing Research, Berne (Switzerland)

    2010-01-15

    In 1995, a survey was conducted in order to investigate levels of knowledge about radon among the Swiss population. In 2008, a second survey, using a similar methodology, was carried out by the F.O.P.H.. The new study showed that about 40% of the Swiss population has heard of radon, which represents an increase of 8% over the 1995 survey. Most of the respondents knew that radon causes lung cancer, but believed that the gas also produces other health effects (in particular, migraine and skin conditions). In addition, older people, those with a high level of education and property owners tended to be more familiar with the radon issue than the public at large. The inhabitants of high-risk regions achieved markedly better results, which demonstrate that information campaigns in these regions have been successful. At the same time, additional communication efforts are required in low- and medium-risk municipalities, where the majority of the population lives. (authors)

  14. A nationwide population-based cross-sectional survey of health-related quality of life in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms in Denmark (MPNhealthSurvey)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brochmann Mortensen, Nana; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Christensen, Anne Illemann

    2017-01-01

    of whom 4,236 were eligible for participation and 2,613 (62%) responded. Overall, the respondents covered the broad spectrum of MPN patients, but patients 70-79 years old, living with someone, of a Danish/Western ethnicity, and with a higher level of education exhibited the highest response rate....... CONCLUSION: A nationwide, population-based, and comprehensive HRQoL survey of MPN patients in Denmark was undertaken (MPNhealthSurvey). We believe that the respondents broadly represent the MPN population in Denmark. However, the differences between respondents and nonrespondents have to be taken...

  15. Equity of access to primary healthcare for vulnerable populations: the IMPACT international online survey of innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Lauralie; Furler, John; Densley, Konstancja; Haggerty, Jeannie; Russell, Grant; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Gunn, Jane

    2016-04-12

    Improving access to primary healthcare (PHC) for vulnerable populations is important for achieving health equity, yet this remains challenging. Evidence of effective interventions is rather limited and fragmented. We need to identify innovative ways to improve access to PHC for vulnerable populations, and to clarify which elements of health systems, organisations or services (supply-side dimensions of access) and abilities of patients or populations (demand-side dimensions of access) need to be strengthened to achieve transformative change. The work reported here was conducted as part of IMPACT (Innovative Models Promoting Access-to-Care Transformation), a 5-year Canadian-Australian research program aiming to identify, implement and trial best practice interventions to improve access to PHC for vulnerable populations. We undertook an environmental scan as a broad screening approach to identify the breadth of current innovations from the field. We distributed a brief online survey to an international audience of PHC researchers, practitioners, policy makers and stakeholders using a combined email and social media approach. Respondents were invited to describe a program, service, approach or model of care that they considered innovative in helping vulnerable populations to get access to PHC. We used descriptive statistics to characterise the innovations and conducted a qualitative framework analysis to further examine the text describing each innovation. Seven hundred forty-four responses were recorded over a 6-week period. 240 unique examples of innovations originating from 14 countries were described, the majority from Canada and Australia. Most interventions targeted a diversity of population groups, were government funded and delivered in a community health, General Practice or outreach clinic setting. Interventions were mainly focused on the health sector and directed at organisational and/or system level determinants of access (supply-side). Few innovations

  16. Origin of 12 micrometer Emission Across Galaxy Populations from Wise and ADSS Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donso, E.; Yan, Lin; Tsai, C.; Eisenhardt, P; Stern, D.; Assef, R. J.; Leisawitz, D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Stanford, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    We cross-matched Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer sources brighter than 1 mJy at 12 micron with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy spectroscopic catalog to produce a sample of approx. 10(exp 5) galaxies at z = 0.08, the largest of its kind. This sample is dominated (70%) by star-forming (SF) galaxies from the blue sequence, with total IR luminosities in the range approx 10(exp 8)-10(exp 12) Solar L. We identify which stellar populations are responsible for most of the 12 micron emission. We find that most (approx 80%) of the 12 micron emission in SF galaxies is produced by stellar populations younger than 0.6 Gyr. In contrast, the 12 micron emission in weak active galactic nuclei (AGNs; L [O iii] populations. SF galaxies and weak AGNs follow different L(sub 12 micron) - SFR (star formation rate) relations, with weak AGNs showing excess 12 micron emission at low SFR (0.02-1 solar M /yr). This is likely due to dust grains heated by older stars. While the specific star formation rate (SSFR) of SF galaxies is nearly constant, the SSFR of weak AGNs decreases by approx 3 orders of magnitude, reflecting the very different star formation efficiencies between SF galaxies and massive, early-type galaxies. Stronger type II AGNs in our sample (L(sub [O iii]) > 10(exp 7) solar L ), act as an extension of massive SF galaxies, connecting the SF and weak AGN sequences. This suggests a picture where galaxies form stars normally until an AGN (possibly after a starburst episode) starts to gradually quench the SF activity. We also find that 4.6-12 micron color is a useful first-order indicator of SF activity in a galaxy when no other data are available.

  17. Violence witnessing, perpetrating and victimization in medellin, Colombia: a random population survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. Methods A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. Results We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarmed aggression during last year, and armed threat, other severe threats, robbery, armed physical aggression, and sexual aggression during the lifetime, by age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, and education. Men reported the highest prevalence of being victims, perpetrators and witnesses in all forms of violence, except for robbery and sexual violence. The number of victims per perpetrator was positively correlated with the severity of the type of violence. The highest victimization proportions over the previous twelve months occurred among minors. Perpetrators are typically young unmarried males from lower socio-economic strata. Conclusions Due to very low proportion of victimization report to authorities, periodic surveys should be included in systems for epidemiological monitoring of violence, not only of victimization but also for perpetrators. Victimization information allows quantifying the magnitude of different forms of violence, while data on

  18. Violence witnessing, perpetrating and victimization in medellin, Colombia: a random population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Alexandra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. Methods A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. Results We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarmed aggression during last year, and armed threat, other severe threats, robbery, armed physical aggression, and sexual aggression during the lifetime, by age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, and education. Men reported the highest prevalence of being victims, perpetrators and witnesses in all forms of violence, except for robbery and sexual violence. The number of victims per perpetrator was positively correlated with the severity of the type of violence. The highest victimization proportions over the previous twelve months occurred among minors. Perpetrators are typically young unmarried males from lower socio-economic strata. Conclusions Due to very low proportion of victimization report to authorities, periodic surveys should be included in systems for epidemiological monitoring of violence, not only of victimization but also for perpetrators. Victimization information allows quantifying the magnitude of different forms of

  19. Violence witnessing, perpetrating and victimization in Medellín, Colombia: a random population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Luis F; Montoya, Nilton E; Restrepo, Alexandra

    2011-08-05

    The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarmed aggression during last year, and armed threat, other severe threats, robbery, armed physical aggression, and sexual aggression during the lifetime, by age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, and education. Men reported the highest prevalence of being victims, perpetrators and witnesses in all forms of violence, except for robbery and sexual violence. The number of victims per perpetrator was positively correlated with the severity of the type of violence. The highest victimization proportions over the previous twelve months occurred among minors. Perpetrators are typically young unmarried males from lower socio-economic strata. Due to very low proportion of victimization report to authorities, periodic surveys should be included in systems for epidemiological monitoring of violence, not only of victimization but also for perpetrators. Victimization information allows quantifying the magnitude of different forms of violence, while data on factors associated with aggression and

  20. [Physical activity in adult working population: results from the European National Health Survey for Spain (2009)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Pérez, Carmen; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2015-11-01

    1) To describe physical activity in the Spanish adult working population aged 16-70 years in 2009, and 2) to describe the prevalence of physical activity according to socio-demographic features, self-perceived health status, co-morbidity, and lifestyle habits. An epidemiological population based descriptive study was conducted using individual data taken from the European Health Survey for Spain. Community. The number of subjects aged 16-70 years included in the study was 10,928 (5,628 women and 5,300 men). None. Physical activity and intensity were assessed from questions included in the interview-survey. An analysis was performed on the socio-demographic characteristics and self-rated physical and mental health, using multivariate logistic regression models. Not having a partner (OR 1.44; P<.001), have university studies (OR 1.62; P<.001), non-smoker (OR 1.50; P<.001), and taking medications (OR 1.22; P<.5) were a predictor of intense physical activity in men. The first 3 factors are equal for intense activity in women. In contrast, obesity (OR 0.58; P<.001), and 36-50 years (OR 0.68; P<.001) were factors related to low activity in men. Aged between 36-50 years (OR 1.26; P<.01), suffering≥2 co-morbid conditions (OR 1.30; P<.001), and non-smoker (OR 1.17; P<.5) were also associated with higher probability of reporting moderate physical activity in women. The positive mental health was significant for physical activity in both sexes (OR 1.01; P<.5). This study identified several factors that appear to influence physical activity in the Spanish adult working population, with potential implications for healthcare providers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Population Health Considerations for Pediatric Asthma: Findings from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Ulfat; Byrd, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    Childhood asthma is a prevalent and costly chronic condition. Optimal management enables secondary and tertiary prevention. The goal was to identify population health considerations for pediatric asthma in California to inform the development of quality improvement interventions. California Health Interview Survey 2011-2012 is a random-digit dial telephone survey conducted in 5 languages. It includes 44,000 households from all 58 counties in California. This study assessed factors related to symptom control and health care use in children ages 2-11 years with asthma. An estimated 492,385 (9.6%) of children in California currently have asthma. Urban and rural residents face comparable asthma disease burdens. School-age male children as well as Asian and African American children are disproportionately affected. Asthma causes significant morbidity, with poorer health status, high utilization of emergency care, and the need for daily medication use. Only 38% of children with asthma have a recent asthma management plan. Half of all children with asthma did not receive influenza immunization in the past year, although this reflects the overall low rate of influenza vaccination. Parents of children with asthma frequently utilize the Internet for health information and communication with their child's health care provider. Children with asthma in California face several population-level challenges, including poor health status, low influenza vaccination rates, high use of emergency care, and suboptimal use of health literacy tools. Focusing on improved care coordination and preventive care for high-risk groups is especially urgent given the expansion of public health insurance and impending shortages in the primary care workforce. (Population Health Management 2016;19:145-151).

  2. Use and perceived helpfulness of smoking cessation methods: results from a population survey of recent quitters

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    Perez Donna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing rates of smoking cessation is one of the most effective measures available to improve population health. To advance the goal of increasing successful cessation at the population level, it is imperative that we understand more about smokers' use of cessation methods, as well as the helpfulness of those methods in real-world experiences of quitting. In this survey of recent quitters, we simultaneously examined rates of use and perceived helpfulness of various cessation methods. Methods Recent quitters (within 12 months; n = 1097 completed a telephone survey including questions relating to 13 cessation methods. Indices of use and perceived helpfulness for each method were plotted in a quadrant analysis. Socio-demographic differences were explored using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results From the quadrant analysis, cold turkey, NRT and gradual reduction before quitting had high use and helpfulness; GP advice had high use and lower helpfulness. Prescribed medication and online programs had low use but high helpfulness. Remaining methods had low use and helpfulness. Younger quitters were more likely to use unassisted methods such as cold turkey; older or less educated quitters were more likely to use assisted methods such as prescribed medication or advice from a general practitioner. Conclusions The majority of recent quitters quit cold turkey or cut down before quitting, and reported that these methods were helpful. Efforts to influence population smoking prevalence should attempt to provide support and motivation for smokers choosing these methods, in addition to assessing the effectiveness and accessibility of other methods for smokers who need or choose them.

  3. Measuring population health: costs of alternative survey approaches in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso

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    Henrike Lietz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA. Objective: The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. Design: All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS and integrated (CDA surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. Results: While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. Conclusions: The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality

  4. Population mixtures and searches of lensed and extended quasars across photometric surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter; Agnello, Adriano; Treu, Tommaso

    2017-04-01

    Wide-field photometric surveys enable searches of rare yet interesting objects, such as strongly lensed quasars or quasars with a bright host galaxy. Past searches for lensed quasars based on their optical and near-infrared properties have relied on photometric cuts and spectroscopic preselection (as in the Sloan Quasar Lens Search), or neural networks applied to photometric samples. These methods rely on cuts in morphology and colours, with the risk of losing many interesting objects due to scatter in their population properties, restrictive training sets, systematic uncertainties in catalogue-based magnitudes and survey-to-survey photometric variations. Here, we explore the performance of a Gaussian mixture model to separate point-like quasars, quasars with an extended host and strongly lensed quasars using griz psf and model magnitudes and WISE W1, W2. The choice of optical magnitudes is due to their presence in all current and upcoming releases of wide-field surveys, whereas UV information is not always available. We then assess the contamination from blue galaxies and the role of additional features such as W3 magnitudes or psf-model terms as morphological information. As a demonstration, we conduct a search in a random 10 per cent of the SDSS footprint, and provide the catalogue of the 43 SDSS object with the highest 'lens' score in our selection that survive visual inspection, and are spectroscopically confirmed to host active nuclei. We inspect archival data and find images of 5/43 objects in the Hubble Legacy Archive, including two known lenses. The code and materials are available to facilitate follow-up.

  5. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2 genetic diversity and traditional subsistence: a worldwide population survey.

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    Audrey Sabbagh

    Full Text Available Arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2 is involved in human physiological responses to a variety of xenobiotic compounds, including common therapeutic drugs and exogenous chemicals present in the diet and the environment. Many questions remain about the evolutionary mechanisms that have led to the high prevalence of slow acetylators in the human species. Evidence from recent surveys of NAT2 gene variation suggests that NAT2 slow-causing variants might have become targets of positive selection as a consequence of the shift in modes of subsistence and lifestyle in human populations in the last 10,000 years. We aimed to test more extensively the hypothesis that slow acetylation prevalence in humans is related to the subsistence strategy adopted by the past populations. To this end, published frequency data on the most relevant genetic variants of NAT2 were collected from 128 population samples (14,679 individuals representing different subsistence modes and dietary habits, allowing a thorough analysis at both a worldwide and continent scale. A significantly higher prevalence of the slow acetylation phenotype was observed in populations practicing farming (45.4% and herding (48.2% as compared to populations mostly relying on hunting and gathering (22.4% (P = 0.0007. This was closely mirrored by the frequency of the slow 590A variant that was found to occur at a three-fold higher frequency in food producers (25% as compared to hunter-gatherers (8%. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the Neolithic transition to subsistence economies based on agricultural and pastoral resources modified the selective regime affecting the NAT2 acetylation pathway. Furthermore, the vast amount of data collected enabled us to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description of NAT2 worldwide genetic diversity, thus building up a useful resource of frequency data for further studies interested in epidemiological or anthropological research

  6. Integrating Breeding Bird Survey and demographic data to estimate Wood Duck population size in the Atlantic Flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Sauer, John; Boomer, G. Scott; Devers, Patrick K.; Garrettson, Pamela R.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) uses data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) to assist in monitoring and management of some migratory birds. However, BBS analyses provide indices of population change rather than estimates of population size, precluding their use in developing abundance-based objectives and limiting applicability to harvest management. Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) are important harvested birds in the Atlantic Flyway (AF) that are difficult to detect during aerial surveys because they prefer forested habitat. We integrated Wood Duck count data from a ground-plot survey in the northeastern U.S. with AF-wide BBS, banding, parts collection, and harvest data to derive estimates of population size for the AF. Overlapping results between the smaller-scale intensive ground-plot survey and the BBS in the northeastern U.S. provided a means for scaling BBS indices to the breeding population size estimates. We applied these scaling factors to BBS results for portions of the AF lacking intensive surveys. Banding data provided estimates of annual survival and harvest rates; the latter, when combined with parts-collection data, provided estimates of recruitment. We used the harvest data to estimate fall population size. Our estimates of breeding population size and variability from the integrated population model (N̄ = 0.99 million, SD = 0.04) were similar to estimates of breeding population size based solely on data from the AF ground-plot surveys and the BBS (N̄ = 1.01 million, SD = 0.04) from 1998 to 2015. Integrating BBS data with other data provided reliable population size estimates for Wood Ducks at a scale useful for harvest and habitat management in the AF, and allowed us to derive estimates of important demographic parameters (e.g., seasonal survival rates, sex ratio) that were not directly informed by data.

  7. The High Time Resolution Universe Pulsar Survey VIII: The Galactic millisecond pulsar population

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, L; Barsdell, B R; Bates, S D; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; Champion, D J; Coster, P; D'Amico, N; Jameson, A; Johnston, S; Keith, M J; Kramer, M; Milia, S; Ng, C; Possenti, A; Stappers, B; Thornton, D; van Straten, W

    2013-01-01

    We have used millisecond pulsars (MSPs) from the southern High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) intermediate latitude survey area to simulate the distribution and total population of MSPs in the Galaxy. Our model makes use of the scale factor method, which estimates the ratio of the total number of MSPs in the Galaxy to the known sample. Using our best fit value for the z-height, z=500 pc, we find an underlying population of MSPs of 8.3(\\pm 4.2)*10^4 sources down to a limiting luminosity of L_min=0.1 mJy kpc^2 and a luminosity distribution with a steep slope of d\\log N/d\\log L = -1.45(\\pm 0.14). However, at the low end of the luminosity distribution, the uncertainties introduced by small number statistics are large. By omitting very low luminosity pulsars, we find a Galactic population above L_min=0.2 mJy kpc^2 of only 3.0(\\pm 0.7)*10^4 MSPs. We have also simulated pulsars with periods shorter than any known MSP, and estimate the maximum number of sub-MSPs in the Galaxy to be 7.8(\\pm 5.0)*10^4 pulsars at L=0.1...

  8. Prevalence of coronary artery disease risk factors in Iran: a population based survey

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    Gafarzadeh Motlag A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery disease (CAD is a leading cause of mortality, morbidity, and disability with high health care cost in Iran. It accounts for nearly 50 percent of all deaths per year. Yet little is known about CAD and CAD risk factors in the Iranian population. We aimed to assess the prevalence of different CAD risk factors in an Iranian population. Methods A descriptive cross sectional survey was conducted involving 3000 healthy adults at 18 years of age or above who were recruited with cluster random sampling. Demographic data and risk factors were determined by taking history, physical examination and laboratory tests. Results The average age was 36.23 ± 15.26. There was 1381 female (46% and 1619 male (54% out of which 6.3% were diabetic, 21.6% were smoker, and 15% had positive familial heart disease history. 61% had total cholesterol level > 200 mg/dL, 32% triglyceride > 200 mg/dl, 47.5% LDL-c > 130 mg/dl, 5.4% HDL-c 140 mmHg, 9.1% diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg and 87% of them were physically inactive. Conclusion Clinical and Para-clinical data indicated that Iranian adult population are of a high level of CAD risk factors, which may require urgent decision making to address national control measures regarding CAD.

  9. Population gradients in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Galaxy Catalogue: the role of merging

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    Tortora, C.; Napolitano, N. R.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the role of the environment on the colour and stellar population gradients in a local sample of ˜3500 central and ˜1150 satellite Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) early-type galaxies. The environment is parametrized in terms of the number of satellite galaxies, Ngal, in each group. For central galaxies, we find that both optical colour and mass-to-light (M/L) ratio gradients are shallower in central galaxies residing in denser environments (higher Ngal). This trend is driven by metallicity gradients, while age gradients appear to be less dependent on the environment and to have a larger scatter. On the other hand, satellites do not show any differences in terms of the environment. The same results are found if galaxies are classified by central age, and both central and satellite galaxies have shallower gradients if they are older and steeper gradients if younger, satellites being independent of ages. In central galaxies, we show that the observed trends can be explained with the occurrence of dry mergings, which are more numerous in denser environments and producing shallower colour gradients because of more uniform metallicity distributions due to the mixing of stellar populations, while no final clues about merging occurrence can be obtained for satellites. Finally, we discuss all systematics on stellar population fitting and their impact on the final results.

  10. Galaxy Populations in the 26 most massive Galaxy Clusters in the South Pole Telescope SZE Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Zenteno, A; Desai, S; Stalder, B; Saro, A; Dietrich, J P; Bayliss, M; Bocquet, S; Chiu, I; Gonzalez, A H; Gangkofner, C; Gupta, N; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; McDonald, M; Reichardt, C; Rest, A

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the optical properties of the 26 most massive galaxy clusters selected within the SPT-SZ 2500 deg$^2$ survey. This Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect selected sample spans a redshift range of 0.10 < z < 1.13. We measure the galaxy radial profile, the luminosity function (LF), and the halo occupation number (HON) using optical data with a typical depth of $m^*$ + 2. The stacked radial profiles are consistent with a NFW profile with a concentration of $2.84^{+0.40}_{-0.37}$ for the red sequence (RS) and $2.36^{+0.38}_{-0.35}$ for the total population. Stacking the data in multiple redshift bins shows a hint of redshift evolution in the concentration when both the total population is used, and when only RS galaxies are used (at 2.1$\\sigma$ and 2.8$\\sigma$, respectively). The stacked LF shows a faint end slope $\\alpha = -1.06^{+0.04}_{-0.03}$ for the total and $\\alpha = -0.80^{+0.04}_{-0.03}$ for the RS population. The redshift evolution of $m^*$ is found to be consistent with a passively evolv...

  11. Comparison of diabetes management status between cancer survivors and the general population: results from a Korean population-based survey.

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    Ji-Yeon Shin

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine and compare the prevalences of diabetes awareness, treatment, and adequate glycemic control among cancer survivors in a Korean population and two non-cancer control groups, comprising individuals without a history of cancer but with other chronic diseases (non-cancer, chronic disease controls and individuals without a history of cancer or any other chronic disease (non-cancer, non-chronic disease controls.We analyzed data from 2,660 subjects with prevalent diabetes (aged ≥30 years, who had participated in the 2007-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Awareness was defined as a subject having been diagnosed with diabetes by a clinician. Treatment was defined as a subject who was taking anti-diabetic medicine. Adequate glycemic control was defined as a hemoglobin A1c level of <7%. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive margins were used to evaluate whether awareness, treatment, or adequate glycemic control differed among cancer survivors and the two non-cancer control groups.Cancer survivors had greater awareness compared with the non-cancer, chronic disease and non-cancer, non-chronic disease control groups (85.1%, 80.4%, and 60.4%, respectively. Although the prevalences of treatment and adequate glycemic control were higher for survivors compared with the non-cancer, non-chronic disease controls, they were lower compared with the non-cancer, chronic disease controls. The prevalence of diabetes treatment was 67.5% for cancer survivors, 69.5% for non-cancer, chronic disease controls, and 46.7% for non-cancer, non-chronic disease controls; the prevalences of adequate glycemic control in these three groups were 31.7%, 34.6%, and 17.8%, respectively.Cancer survivors were less likely than the non-cancer chronic disease subjects to receive diabetes management and to achieve adequate glycemic targets. Special attention and education are required to ensure that this population receives

  12. Population stratification in the context of diverse epidemiologic surveys sans genome-wide data

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    Matthew T. Oetjens

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Population stratification or confounding by genetic ancestry is a potential cause of false associations in genetic association studies. Estimation of and adjustment for genetic ancestry has become common practice thanks in part to the availability of ancestry informative markers on genome-wide association study (GWAS arrays. While array data is now widespread, these data are not ubiquitous as several large epidemiologic and clinic-based studies lack genome-wide data. One such large epidemiologic-based study lacking genome-wide data accessible to investigators is the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES, population-based cross-sectional surveys of Americans linked to demographic, health, and lifestyle data conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. DNA samples (n=14,998 were extracted from biospecimens from consented NHANES participants between 1991-1994 (NHANES III, phase 2 and 1999-2002 and represent three major self-identified racial/ethnic groups: non-Hispanic whites (n=6,634, non-Hispanic blacks (n=3,458, and Mexican Americans (n=3,950. We as the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE study genotyped candidate gene and GWAS-identified index variants in NHANES as part of the larger Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE I study for collaborative genetic association studies. To enable basic quality control such as estimation of genetic ancestry to control for population stratification in NHANES san genome-wide data, we outline here strategies that use limited genetic data to identify the markers optimal for characterizing genetic ancestry. From among 411 and 295 autosomal SNPs available in NHANES III and NHANES 1999-2002, we demonstrate that markers with ancestry information can be identified to estimate global ancestry. Despite limited resolution, global genetic ancestry is highly correlated with self-identified race for the majority of participants

  13. Population size and trends for nesting ospreys in northwestern Mexico: Region-wide surveys, 1977, 1992/1993 and 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Anderson, Daniel W.; Vera, Aradit Castellanos; Carton, Jean-Luc E.

    2007-01-01

    We used a double-sampling technique (air plus ground survey) in 2006, with partial double coverage, to estimate the present size of the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting population in northwestern Mexico. With the exception of Natividad, Cedros, and San Benito Islands along the Pacific Coast of Baja California, all three excluded from our coverage in 2006 due to fog, this survey was a repeat of previous surveys conducted by us with the same protocol in 1977 and 1992/1993 (Baja California surveyed in 1992, Sonora and Sinaloa 1993), allowing for estimates of regional population trends. Population estimates at the 'time of aerial survey' include those nesting, but missed from the air. The population estimate for our coverage area in 2006 was 1,343 nesting pairs, or an 81% increase since 1977, but only a 3% increase since 1992/1993. The population on the Gulf side of Baja California generally remained stable during the three surveys (255, 236 and 252 pairs, respectively). The overall Midriff Islands population remained similar from 1992/1993 (308 pairs) to 2006 (289 pairs), but with notable population changes on the largest two islands (Isla Angel de la Guarda: 45 to 105 pairs [+ 60 pairs]; Isla Tiburon: 164 to 109 pairs [- 55 pairs, or -34%]). The estimated osprey population on the Sonora mainland decreased in a manner similar to adjacent Isla Tiburon, i.e., by 26%, from 214 pairs in 1993 to 158 pairs in 2006. In contrast, the population in Sinaloa, which had increased by 150% between 1977 and 1993, grew again by 58% between 1993 and 2006, from 180 to 285 pairs. Our survey confirmed previously described patterns of rapid population changes at a local level, coupled with apparent shifts in spatial distribution. The large ground nesting population that until recently nested on two islands in San Ignacio Lagoon was no longer present on the islands in 2006, but an equivalent number of pairs were found to the north and south of the lagoon, nesting in small towns and along

  14. Dormant Comets Among the Near-Earth Object Population: A Meteor-Based Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Pokorný, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Dormant comets in the near-Earth object (NEO) population are thought to be involved in the terrestrial accretion of water and organic materials. Identification of dormant comets is difficult as they are observationally indistinguishable from their asteroidal counterparts, however they may have produced dust during their final active stages which potentially are detectable today as weak meteor showers at the Earth. Here we present the result of a reconnaissance survey looking for dormant comets using 13~567~542 meteor orbits measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR). We simulate the dynamical evolution of the hypothetical meteoroid streams originated from 407 near-Earth asteroids in cometary orbits (NEACOs) that resemble orbital characteristics of Jupiter-family comets (JFCs). Out of the 44 hypothetical showers that are predicted to be detectable by CMOR, we identify 5 positive detections that are statistically unlikely to be chance associations, including 3 previously known associations. This transla...

  15. Survey of microbial populations within Lake Michigan nearshore waters at two Chicago public beaches

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    Kema Malki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Michigan is a critical resource for the residents of Chicago, providing drinking water to its 9+ million area residents. Along Chicago׳s 26 miles of public beaches the populous urban environment and this freshwater environment meet. While city-led monitoring initiatives investigate pathogenic bacteria in these nearshore waters, very little is known about other microbial species present. We collected surface water samples from two Chicago public beaches – Montrose Beach and 57th Street Beach – every ten days from June 5 through August 4, 2013 as well as once in early Fall (October 4, 2013. Sixteen bacterial communities in total were surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V4 16S rRNA gene. Taxa were identified using Mothur. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI׳s SRA database (part of BioProject PRJNA245802. OTU calls for each read are also available at our online repository: www.lakemichiganmicrobes.com/bacteria/.

  16. What people believe about how memory works: a representative survey of the U.S. population.

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    Daniel J Simons

    Full Text Available Incorrect beliefs about the properties of memory have broad implications: the media conflate normal forgetting and inadvertent memory distortion with intentional deceit, juries issue verdicts based on flawed intuitions about the accuracy and confidence of testimony, and students misunderstand the role of memory in learning. We conducted a large representative telephone survey of the U.S. population to assess common beliefs about the properties of memory. Substantial numbers of respondents agreed with propositions that conflict with expert consensus: Amnesia results in the inability to remember one's own identity (83% of respondents agreed, unexpected objects generally grab attention (78%, memory works like a video camera (63%, memory can be enhanced through hypnosis (55%, memory is permanent (48%, and the testimony of a single confident eyewitness should be enough to convict a criminal defendant (37%. This discrepancy between popular belief and scientific consensus has implications from the classroom to the courtroom.

  17. The CALIFA survey across the Hubble sequence: Spatially resolved stellar population properties in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, R M González; Pérez, E; Fernandes, R Cid; de Amorim, A L; Cortijo-Ferrero, C; Lacerda, E A D; Fernández, R López; Vale-Asari, N; Sánchez, S F; Mollá, M; Ruiz-Lara, T; Sánchez-Blázquez, P; Walcher, C J; Alves, J; Aguerri, J A L; Bekeraité, S; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Galbany, L; Gallazzi, A; Husemann, B; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Kalinova, V; López-Sánchez, A R; Marino, R A; Márquez, I; Masegosa, J; Mast, D; Méndez-Abreu, J; Mendoza, A; del Olmo, A; Pérez, I; Quirrenbach, A; Zibetti, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper characterizes the radial structure of stellar population properties of galaxies in the nearby universe, based on 300 galaxies from the CALIFA survey. The sample covers a wide range of Hubble types, and galaxy stellar mass. We apply the spectral synthesis techniques to recover the stellar mass surface density, stellar extinction, light and mass-weighted ages, and mass-weighted metallicity, for each spatial resolution element in our target galaxies. To study mean trends with overall galaxy properties, the individual radial profiles are stacked in seven bins of galaxy morphology. We confirm that more massive galaxies are more compact, older, more metal rich, and less reddened by dust. Additionally, we find that these trends are preserved spatially with the radial distance to the nucleus. Deviations from these relations appear correlated with Hubble type: earlier types are more compact, older, and more metal rich for a given mass, which evidences that quenching is related to morphology, but not driven ...

  18. Understanding sub-stellar populations using wide-field infrared surveys

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    Hewett P.C.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses benchmark brown dwarfs in various environments, and focuses on those in wide binary systems. We present a summary of the recently discovered T dwarf population from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey, and describe the constraints that it places on our knowledge of the sub-stellar initial mass function. We also present some exciting results from our ongoing search for wide companions to this sample, that has so far revealed an M4-T8.5 binary system at ∼12 parsecs and also the first ever Tdwarf-white dwarf binary system. The T dwarfs in these binaries have their properties constrained by the primary object and are thus benchmark objects that are already testing the predictions of theoretical model atmospheres.

  19. ["What is a bipolar disorder?" Results of a representative survey of the German population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeyer, Matthias C; Matschinger, Herbert

    2005-09-01

    To explore to what extent the lay public knows that the term bipolar disorder denotes a mental disorder. In January 2005, a telephone survey was conducted among a random sample of the German population (n = 1006). Out of four options given, respondents were asked to select the one they considered to be the correct explanation of what is meant by bipolar disorder. Most of the respondents (61%) believed that bipolar disorder is just another term for the melting of the polar ice caps, only 4.6 % associated it with mental illness. The question arises as to whether it makes sense to use a diagnosis which the lay public associates with everything but a mental illness. Since it is impossible to erase the term bipolar disorder from the psychiatric terminology, it seems necessary to increasingly propagate this term among the lay public.

  20. The Red MSX Source Survey: the Massive Young Stellar Population of our Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Lumsden, S L; Urquhart, J S; Oudmaijer, R D; Davies, B; Mottram, J C; Cooper, H D B; Moore, T J T

    2013-01-01

    We present the Red MSX Source (RMS) Survey, the largest statistically selected catalog of young massive protostars and HII regions to date. We outline the construction of the catalog using mid and near infrared color selection, as well as the detailed follow up work at other wavelengths, and at higher spatial resolution in the infrared. We show that within the adopted selection bounds we are more than 90% complete for the massive protostellar population, with a positional accuracy of the exciting source of better than 2 arcseconds. We briefly summarize some of the results that can be obtained from studying the properties of the objects in the catalog as a whole, and find evidence that the most massive stars form: (i) preferentially nearer the Galactic centre than the anti-centre; (ii) in the most heavily reddened environments, suggestive of high accretion rates; and (iii) from the most massive cloud cores.

  1. Estimating population food and nutrient exposure: a comparison of store survey data with household panel food purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2016-05-28

    Population exposure to food and nutrients can be estimated from household food purchases, but store surveys of foods and their composition are more available, less costly and might provide similar information. Our aim was to compare estimates of nutrient exposure from a store survey of packaged food with those from household panel food purchases. A cross-sectional store survey of all packaged foods for sale in two major supermarkets was undertaken in Auckland, New Zealand, between February and May 2012. Longitudinal household food purchase data (November 2011 to October 2012) were obtained from the nationally representative, population-weighted New Zealand Nielsen HomeScan® panel. Data on 8440 packaged food and non-alcoholic beverage products were collected in the store survey. Food purchase data were available for 1229 households and 16 812 products. Store survey data alone produced higher estimates of exposure to Na and sugar compared with estimates from household panel food purchases. The estimated mean difference in exposure to Na was 94 (95 % CI 72, 115) mg/100 g (20 % relative difference; Pfood purchases, store survey data provided a reasonable estimate of average population exposure to key nutrients from packaged foods. However, caution should be exercised in using such data to estimate population exposure to Na and sugar and in generalising these findings to other countries, as well as over time.

  2. THE CHANDRA LOCAL VOLUME SURVEY: THE X-RAY POINT-SOURCE POPULATION OF NGC 404

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, B.; Williams, B. F.; Weisz, D. R. [University of Washington, Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Eracleous, M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gaetz, T. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kong, A. K. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Skillman, E. D. [University of Minnesota, Astronomy Department, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present a comprehensive X-ray point-source catalog of NGC 404 obtained as part of the Chandra Local Volume Survey. A new 97 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of NGC 404 was combined with archival observations for a total exposure of {approx}123 ks. Our survey yields 74 highly significant X-ray point sources and is sensitive to a limiting unabsorbed luminosity of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.35-8 keV band. To constrain the nature of each X-ray source, cross-correlations with multi-wavelength data were generated. We searched overlapping Hubble Space Telescope observations for optical counterparts to our X-ray detections, but find only two X-ray sources with candidate optical counterparts. We find 21 likely low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), although this number is a lower limit due to the difficulties in separating LMXBs from background active galactic nuclei. The X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) in both the soft and hard energy bands are presented. The XLFs in the soft band (0.5-2 keV) and the hard band (2-8 keV) have a limiting luminosity at the 90% completeness limit of 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1} and 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}, respectively, significantly lower than previous X-ray studies of NGC 404. We find the XLFs to be consistent with those of other X-ray populations dominated by LMXBs. However, the number of luminous (>10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}) X-ray sources per unit stellar mass in NGC 404 is lower than is observed for other galaxies. The relative lack of luminous XRBs may be due to a population of LMXBs with main-sequence companions formed during an epoch of elevated star formation {approx}0.5 Gyr ago.

  3. The Influence of Israel Health Insurance Law on the Negev Bedouin Population — A Survey Study

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    Mohammed Morad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension of universal health service insurance to national populations is a relatively new phenomenon. Since 1995, the Israeli National Health Insurance Law (NHIL has provided universal health services to every resident, but the effect of this law on health and health services among minorities has not been examined sufficiently. The goals of this study were to track some of the first changes engendered by the NHIL among the Negev Bedouin Arabs to examine the effects of universal health care services. Methods included analysis of historical and health policy documents, three field appraisals of health care services (1994, 1995, 1999, a region-wide interview survey of Negev Bedouins (1997, and key informant interviews. For the interview survey, a sample of 515 households was chosen from different Bedouin localities representing major sedentarization stages. Results showed that prior to the NHIL, a substantial proportion of the Negev Bedouins were uninsured with limited, locally available health service. Since 1995, health services, particularly primary care clinics and health manpower, have dramatically expanded. The initial expansion appears to have been a marketing ploy, but real improvements have occurred. There was a high level of health service utilization among the Bedouins in the Negev, especially private medical services, hospitals, and night ambulatory medical services. The NHIL brought change to the structure of health services in Israel, namely the institution of a national health system based on proportional allocation of resources (based on size and age and open competition in the provision of quality health care. The expansion of the pool of potential members engendered by the new universal coverage had profound effects on the Health Funds' attitudes towards Negev Bedouins. In addition, real consumer choice was introduced for the first time. Although all the health care needs of this rapidly growing population have yet to be met

  4. National survey on sports injuries in the Netherlands: target populations for sports injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmikli, Sandor L; Backx, Frank J G; Kemler, Helena J; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-03-01

    To define target populations for sports injury prevention programs. A computer-assisted telephone survey on sports injuries and sports participation during 2000-2005 using a 3-month recall period. Data obtained from a representative sample of Dutch citizens. Fifty-eight thousand four hundred five Dutch citizens aged older than 3 years. Age, gender, and type of sports were used to distinguish subgroups with a substantial contribution to sports injuries. The absolute number of sports injuries, the incidence of sports injuries per 10,000 hours, the severity, and costs of sports injuries. Sports participation was associated with 1.5 million injuries per year and 10 injuries per 10,000 hours; of these, 50% had to be treated medically. Two-thirds of all medically treated sports injuries were associated with 9 sports (representing 18 subpopulations, all younger than 55 years): outdoor soccer (males 4-54 years and females 4-17 years), indoor soccer (males 18-34 years), tennis (males/females 35-54 years), volleyball (females 18-54 years), field hockey (males 18-34 years and females 4-17 years), running/jogging (males/females 35-54 years), gymnastics (males/females 4-17 years), skiing/snowboarding (males 4-17 years and females 18-34 years), and equestrian sports (females 18-34 years). These groups showed more than average injury rates and covered two-thirds of all direct and indirect costs (euro 400 million). The survey identified the most important (sports-, age-, and gender-specific) target populations for injury prevention programs in the Netherlands. Sports participants aged older than 55 years were excluded from these target groups because of their limited contribution to the total sports injury problem.

  5. After the First Steps: The Evolution of the National Population Health Survey

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    Yeo, Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishMany changes take place over the lifetime of a longitudinal panel survey.Changing priorities, new supplements, and conflicting demands are factors that may be unforeseen. Theevolution of the National Population Health Survey (NPHS since its first cycle in 1994/95 isdiscussed in this context. Statistics Canada contacts panel members every two years for twenty years,to estimate the health of Canadians and its determinants, health care use, and other characteristics.The NPHS was designed to provide both longitudinal and cross-sectional estimates, and to allow sampleand content supplements. Thsi paper describes the NPHS and the changes in focus needed to move thepanel forward to Cycle 2 and beyond.FrenchPlusieurs changements ont lieu pendant la vie d'une enquête longitudinale parpanel. Les changements de priorités, de nouveaux suppléments, et des demandesconflictuelles sont des facteurs qui peuvent ne pas avoir été prévus. L'évolution del'Enquête nationale sur la santé de la population (ENSP depuis son premier cycleen 1994/95 est discuté dans ce contexte. Statistique Canada contacte les membresdu panel tous les deux ans pendant vingt ans, pour estimer la santé des Canadienset ses déterminants, l'utilisation des soins de santé, et d'autres caractéristiques.L'ENSP a été conçu pour fournir des estimations longitudinales et transversales, etpour permettre l'ajout d'échantillon et de contenu supplémentaires. Ce papier décritl'ENSP et les mises au point nécessaires pour mener le panel au deuxième cycle etau-delà.

  6. Validation of fibromyalgia survey questionnaire and polysymptomatic distress scale in a Persian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidari, Ali; Ghavidel-Parsa, Banafsheh; Amir Maafi, Alireza; Montazeri, Ali; Ghalehbaghi, Babak; Hassankhani, Amir; Aarabi, Yasaman; Haghdoost, Afrooz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess validity of the fibromyalgia survey questionnaire (FSQ) and polysymptomatic distress scale (PSD) in an Iranian population. We also sought to classify the severity levels of fibromyalgia (FM) symptoms according to the PSD scale. Participants were divided into FM and non-FM chronic pain disorder groups according to expert physician diagnosis. Patients in both groups answered to Persian-translated version of FSQ, fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) and Short-Form-12 (SF-12). Both 1990 ACR criteria and FSDC were assessed in participates of two groups. Internal consistency and construct validity were evaluated. There was good internal consistency measured by Cronbach's alpha (0.814 for FSQ). FSQ and its subscales correlated significantly with FIQ scores and SF-12 subscales, indicating acceptable construct validity. The concordance rates of FSQ with 1990 ACR criteria and expert diagnosis were 61.2 and 75.7, respectively (convergence validity). The mean score of PSD and its components in FM group were significantly more than in control groups (discriminative validity). Using lower PSD score cutoff (≥8.5) for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia appeared to be the most effective approach in our population. ROC analysis of the PSD scores revealed 8.5-11.5, 11.5-15 and more than 15, respectively, as a mild, moderate and severe FM. Persian version of FSQ was a valid instrument for application in survey research among Iranian patients with chronic pain disorders. The current study revealed that PSD could be used as a valid tool for assessment of symptoms intensity regardless of fibromyalgia diagnosis.

  7. Do public health surveys provide representative data? Comparison of three different sampling approaches in the adult population of Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolcić, Ivana; Polasek, Ozren

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the sample representativeness in three different types of population-based public health surveys in Croatia. Responses from the household sampling based Croatian Adult Health Survey (CAHS), health insurance register based Croatian Health Survey (CHS) and a telephone survey (TPS) were analysed and compared to gender, age and education composition of the Croatian adult population, based on the 2001 Census. The raw (unweighted) survey data were used and analysed with Spearman's rank test and distance analysis. The results indicated that TPS had the most similar gender composition compared to the Census data. TPS also had the most similar age composition in men, while CHS had the most similar age composition in women. Finally, CAHS had the most similar education composition to the Census data. Three population subgroups were substantially under-sampled in all three surveys--men, younger people, and elderly from the lowest educational classes. For these sub-groups, advanced sampling methods should be employed in order to obtain more precise estimates from public health surveys.

  8. Nutritional status of under-five children in Libya: a national population-based survey

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    Lenoir Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe the nutritional status of children under-five years of age in Libya.Population and methods: A secondary analysis of data of 5348 children taken from a nationalrepresentative, two-stage, cluster-sample survey that was performed in 1995.Results: Prevalence rates of underweight, wasting, stunting, and overweight were determined usingstandard definitions in reference to newly established WHO growth charts. The study revealed that4.3% of children were underweight, 3.7% wasted, 20.7% stunted, and 16.2% overweight. Seventypercent of children had normal weight. Undernutrition was more likely to be found in males, in ruralareas, and in underprivileged groups. Overweight was more likely found in urban, privileged groups.Wasting was more common in arid regions; stunting was more common in mountainous regions of Al-Akhdar, Al-Gharbi, and in Sirt. Al-Akhdar had the highest prevalence of overweight.Conclusion: The country had a low prevalence of underweight and wasting, moderate prevalence ofstunting, and high prevalence of overweight. The country is in the early stages of transition withevidence of dual-burden in some regions. Similar surveys are needed to verify secular trends of thesenutritional problems, particularly overweight.

  9. [Alcohol Consumption in the Colombian Population, 2015 National Mental Health Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Espriella Guerrero, Ricardo Andrés; Rodriguez, Viviana; Rincón, Carlos J; Morales, Diana Cabrera; Rodríguez, Sandy Johanna Pérez; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    National Survey of Mental Health (ENSM) in 2015 in Colombia asks, among other conditions, about alcohol consumption in people 12-17 years old, and 18 and older. Data were presented by age and region, with no cross-references to other categories of mental health problems, disorders, access to services, and health status. To assess alcohol consumption in Colombia, taking into account sociodemographic and clinical screening categories included. Secondary database analysis, sample size: 15,231 people from 13,200 households of five regions (Atlantic, Bogotá, Central, Eastern, and Pacific), with an age range from 12 to 96 years. AUDIT and AUDIT-C were used and stratified according to score and other variables included in the survey analysis. The high-risk drinking category was observed in 2.7% of children studied, with the highest percentage of drinking risk lying in the range of 18 to 44 years, with a clear majority of men. The study finds that a positive AUDIT-C in adults is associated with a higher percentage of non-anxiety, less anxiety problems, and traumatic events and traumatic events related to armed conflict. This requires further studies. Adults with positive AUDIT-C have a greater perception of well-being, but also a higher percentage of households in poverty. The study of individual, social, family and environmental factors in specific populations should be developed in order to make more appropriate interventions. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  10. Changes in depression stigma after the Germanwings crash - Findings from German population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Mnich, Eva; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Kofahl, Christopher; Makowski, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Media coverage of the Germanwings plane crash intensely focused on the co-pilot's mental illness and was criticized for potentially increasing depression stigma. We explored whether stigma beliefs towards persons with depression changed in April 2015 (about one month after the crash) compared to 2014. Telephone surveys among the adult population were conducted in Munich, Germany (N=650 in 2014 and N=601 in 2015). In both surveys, four components of stigma were assessed: (1) characteristics ascribed to persons with a depression, (2) belief in a continuum of symptoms from mental health to mental illness, (3) emotional reactions to people afflicted by depression (fear, anger, and pro-social reactions), and (4) desire for social distance. Some stigmatizing attitudes have increased after the crash. More specifically, we found more pronounced changes in the attributes ascribed (stereotypes) and in the perceived separation from persons afflicted (continuum beliefs) than in the emotional reactions and the desire for social distance. However, overall increase in depression stigma was smaller than expected as changes were not statistically significant in the majority of the analyzed items. Due to the study design no causal interpretation of results is possible. Moreover, evidence presented is confined to a regional German sample. A single devastating event and related media coverage seem to have a limited impact on public stigmatizing attitudes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lagophthalmos surgery in leprosy: findings from a population-based survey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, P; Kim, S H; Tungpakorn, N; Cho, B H; Lim, Y K; Lee, H J; Lewallen, S

    2001-09-01

    Lagophthalmos continues to be a serious problem in cured leprosy patients. We conducted a population-based survey of lagophthalmos surgical coverage (LSC), barriers to lagophthalmos surgery and outcome of lagophthalmos surgery in leprosy patients in South Korea. In our survey, there were 60 patients with lagophthalmos who had needed surgery (> 5 mm gap), 34 of whom had received surgery, resulting in a lagophthalmos surgery coverage of 57%. Among the 34 patients who had received lagophthalmos surgery, 18 needed further surgery. Among those who had never had surgery, none of the demographic indicators predicted surgical uptake; the primary reason given for failure to have surgery was lack of knowledge about it. Outcome of surgery (by eye) showed that 29% of eyes still had a gap of 5 mm or more. The frequency of symptoms (tearing, blurring of vision, pain, etc.) was high. Even in settings with a good eye care infrastructure, such as Korea, uptake of surgery can still be low and results may not be satisfactory to patients. There is a need for practical guidelines for leprosy control programmes in the areas of (a) patient recognition, (b) patient education, (c) monitoring the uptake of surgery, and (d) monitoring the outcome of surgery to ensure the best possible outcome.

  12. Prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish populations: A reanalysis of dementia prevalence surveys, 1990-2008

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    Boix Raquel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish elderly. Methods We identified screening surveys, both published and unpublished, in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality criteria and targeted prevalence of dementia in populations aged 70 years and above. Surveys covering 13 geographically different populations were selected (prevalence period: 1990-2008. Authors of original surveys provided methodological details of their studies through a systematic questionnaire and also raw age-specific data. Prevalence data were compared using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The reanalyzed study population (aged 70 year and above was composed of Central and North-Eastern Spanish sub-populations obtained from 9 surveys and totaled 12,232 persons and 1,194 cases of dementia (707 of Alzheimer's disease, 238 of vascular dementia. Results showed high variation in age- and sex-specific prevalence across studies. The reanalyzed prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in women; increased with age, particularly for Alzheimer's disease; and displayed a significant geographical variation among men. Prevalence was lowest in surveys reporting participation below 85%, studies referred to urban-mixed populations and populations diagnosed by psychiatrists. Conclusion Prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Central and North-Eastern Spain is higher in females, increases with age, and displays considerable geographic variation that may be method-related. People suffering from dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Spain may approach 600,000 and 400,000 respectively. However, existing studies may not be completely appropriate to infer prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in Spain until surveys in Southern Spain are conducted.

  13. A mark-resight survey method to estimate the roaming dog population in three cities in Rajasthan, India

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    Singh Baldev

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. Abstract Background Dog population management is required in many locations to minimise the risks dog populations may pose to human health and to alleviate animal welfare problems. In many cities in India, Animal Birth Control (ABC projects have been adopted to provide population management. Measuring the impact of such projects requires assessment of dog population size among other relevant indicators. Methods This paper describes a simple mark-resight survey methodology that can be used with little investment of resources to monitor the number of roaming dogs in areas that are currently subject to ABC, provided the numbers, dates and locations of the dogs released following the intervention are reliably recorded. We illustrate the method by estimating roaming dog numbers in three cities in Rajasthan, India: Jaipur, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer. In each city the dog populations were either currently subject to ABC or had been very recently subject to such an intervention and hence a known number of dogs had been permanently marked with an ear-notch to identify them as having been operated. We conducted street surveys to record the current percentage of dogs in each city that are ear-notched and used an estimate for the annual survival of ear-notched dogs to calculate the current size of each marked population. Results Dividing the size of the marked population by the fraction of the dogs that are ear-notched we estimated the number of roaming dogs to be 36,580 in Jaipur, 24,853 in Jodhpur and 2,962 in Jaisalmer. Conclusions The mark-resight survey methodology described here is a simple way of providing population estimates for cities with current or recent ABC programmes that include visible marking of dogs. Repeating such surveys on a regular basis will further allow for evaluation of ABC programme impact on population size and reproduction in the remaining unsterilised dog population.

  14. A population-based survey on tanning bed use in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiedemann Peter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The suntanning industry has grown up over the last decade in Europe, mainly because tanned skin is considered socially desirable and attractive. Because of the potential negative impact of artificial tanning on public health, this study was to investigate tanning bed use behaviour, UV related risk perception and beliefs about tanning in the German population. Methods In 2007, a representative telephone survey was carried out among 1501 German residents aged 14 years and older. Results More than one fourth (28% of the German population have used tanning beds at least once before in their lifetime. High-frequency tanning behaviour, i.e. using tanning beds more than 10 times per year, were recorded for 11%. Men and women aged 18 to 44 years and young women under the age of 18 used tanning beds more frequently (>10 times per year. Tanning bed use was positively related to appearance and lifestyle related beliefs as well as to the perception that tanned skin is healthy. Conclusion This analysis indicates that tanning bed use is common in Germany. The positive relationships of appearance and health related beliefs with tanning bed use are of great concern. The results indicate underlying misconceptions about the positive effect of artificial UV radiation compared to natural UV radiation particular for high-frequency tanners. The data shows the importance as well as the limitations for risk communication in its current effort to inform effectively about the dangers of artificial UV radiation.

  15. The VLA Survey of the Chandra Deep Field South. IV. Source Population

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, P; Tozzi, P; Kellermann, K I; Fomalont, E B; Miller, N; Rosati, P; Shaver, P

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of 256 radio sources from our deep (flux density limit of 42 microJy at the field centre at 1.4 GHz) Chandra Deep Field South 1.4 and 5 GHz VLA survey. The radio population is studied by using a wealth of multi-wavelength information in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. The availability of redshifts for ~ 80% of the sources in our complete sample allows us to derive reliable luminosity estimates for the majority of the objects. X-ray data, including upper limits, for all our sources turn out to be a key factor in establishing the nature of faint radio sources. Due to the faint optical levels probed by this study, we have uncovered a population of distant Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) systematically missing from many previous studies of sub-millijansky radio source identifications. We find that, while the well-known flattening of the radio number counts below 1 mJy is mostly due to star forming galaxies, these sources and AGN make up an approximately equal fraction of the sub-m...

  16. AIDS- Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior Survey among the "Migrant" Population in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-fang ZHOU; Xiao-ming SUN; Jonanne Mantell; Xiao-mei RU; Yong WEN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To realize AIDS related knowledge, attitude and behavior among floating people in China and discuss its influencial factors, and to provide the evidence for how to prevent AIDS in floating population.Methods The data were collected from the "Sex and Reproductive Health Baseline Survey among Floating People in China" conducted in March 2004. The standard questionnaires were used to interview altogether 4 900 floating people from 6 provinces.Results Nearly 95.4 % of them had heard about AIDS, but only 0.5% can judge all the transmitted ways and no-transmitted ways correctly, 45.9% believed that we need to isolate the HIV positive people. Only 65.7% knew that using condom can preventive HIV infection, 43.7% showed their understanding about the man who has long time no sexual life has sex with a sexual worker. About 13.6%floating people chose condom as FP method and among them only 34.6% used condom every time.Conclusion Chinese floating people are lack of AIDS knowledge. Most of them do not practise Safe Sex Activity. We need to give more intervention to the floating population.

  17. A population-based survey of the prevalence of refractive error in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewallen, S; Lowdon, R; Courtright, P; Mehl, G L

    1995-12-01

    Refractive errors, particularly myopia, are a common problem in industrialized countries, but the impression exists that myopia may be relatively uncommon in non-industrialized societies. We conducted a population-based survey of refractive error in two groups of Malawians: a group of rural agricultural workers (n = 510) and a group of students at an urban teachers' college (n = 534). The overall prevalence of myopia was low; 2.5% (95% confidence interval 1.3%, 3.7%) of participants had an error of -0.5 D or greater. The mean refractive error (right eye) in the urban student group was +0.52 D compared to +0.62 D among the rural agricultural workers and the excess myopia was accounted for by significant myopia (> or = -0.75 D) in a few individuals, rather than an overall shift towards myopia within the urban student group. Among the rural agricultural workers, literacy predicted refractive error (right eye), with a mean of +0.59 D in the rural literate compared to +0.67 D in the rural illiterate. These findings support the notion that myopia is uncommon in non-industrialized societies and that it is associated with increased literacy but we have not identified specific risk factors within this group to predict the occurrence of significant myopia. In settings such as Malawi, refractive services should be targeted to urban centers, where more educated populations are likely to be found.

  18. Survey into the seafood consumption preferences and patterns in the portuguese population. Gender and regional variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Carlos; Lourenço, Helena; Costa, Sara; Gonçalves, Susana; Nunes, Maria Leonor

    2013-05-01

    With the purpose of achieving a deeper knowledge of one of the most important seafood markets in Europe, a survey into the seafood consumption preferences and patterns in the Portuguese population was carried out. A thorough, comprehensive, and simple questionnaire was developed. Consumers were asked to state their preferences towards fish products, their consumption frequencies, the average meal portion, and the usual culinary treatments. Respondents provided personal data: gender, age, geographical location, education level, weight, height, and health condition. This paper presents the first part of the study's results, focusing mainly on the gender and regional variables. Portuguese consumers prefer wild to cultured fish as well as fat to lean fish. Chilled fish is preferred over frozen, salted/dried, canned, and smoked fish, being the latter the least preferred. Soaked cod, hake, and canned tuna are the most eaten seafood products. Men prefer to a greater extent wild and smoked fish. Men consume more cephalopods and sardine and women eat more frequently hake, pink cusk-eel, and redfish. Coastal populations prefer wild fish. Algarve (southern Portugal) consumers exhibit a stronger tendency to wild and whole fish and consume more sardine and sole. Madeira archipelago consumers are particularly fond of black scabbard fish.

  19. Dormant comets among the near-Earth object population: a meteor-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Brown, Peter G.; Pokorný, Petr

    2016-11-01

    Dormant comets in the near-Earth object (NEO) population are thought to be involved in the terrestrial accretion of water and organic materials. Identification of dormant comets is difficult as they are observationally indistinguishable from their asteroidal counterparts, however, they may have produced dust during their final active stages which potentially are detectable today as weak meteor showers at the Earth. Here we present the result of a reconnaissance survey looking for dormant comets using 13 567 542 meteor orbits measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR). We simulate the dynamical evolution of the hypothetical meteoroid streams originated from 407 near-Earth asteroids in cometary orbits that resemble orbital characteristics of Jupiter-family comets (JFCs). Out of the 44 hypothetical showers that are predicted to be detectable by CMOR, we identify five positive detections that are statistically unlikely to be chance associations, including three previously known associations. This translates to a lower limit to the dormant comet fraction of 2.0 ± 1.7 per cent in the NEO population and a dormancy rate of ˜10-5 yr-1 per comet. The low dormancy rate confirms disruption and dynamical removal as the dominant end state for near-Earth JFCs. We also predict the existence of a significant number of meteoroid streams whose parents have already been disrupted or dynamically removed.

  20. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, T.; Turcanu, C.; Schroeder, J.; Carle, B.

    2010-02-15

    The SCK-CEN 2009 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period July and August 2009. An additional sample , N = 100 is taken from the for the population living in the communities of Lambusart and Wanfercee-Baulet in the municipality of Fleurus. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representatively (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the communication and sociological context. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) Attitude towards science and technology and attitudes toward nuclear energy; III) stake holders engagement; IV)acceptance of legal norms for food products; v) media use; vi) evaluation of nuclear actors; VII) psychometric risk characteristics; VII) safety behaviour and anomy; ix) knowledge about nuclear domain; x) risk communication; xi) consumer's attitude towards food with radioactive contamination. Some of the questions asked in 2009 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2006 and 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues.

  1. Knowledge and attitude toward the hemoglobinopathies premarital screening program in Saudi Arabia: population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sulaiman, Ayman; Suliman, Ahmed; Al Mishari, May; Al Sawadi, Aziza; Owaidah, Tarek M

    2008-01-01

    Genetic screening is an important tool to control, minimize, and prevent genetic disorders. Saudi Arabia started the first national premarital screening (PMS) program to control inherited hemoglobin (Hb) disorders that are the most commonly inherited genetic disorders in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, perception, and attitude among the Saudi population about the PMS program through a questionnaire-based survey. A total of 1,047 candidates were included, divided into three groups. Group A represented the general population, group B was composed of couples presenting for PMS, and group C represented couples who had received their results. There was a fair knowledge among participants of the three groups about the nature of the tests and the targeted disorders, with more than 80% believing that it should include both sexually and genetically transmitted diseases. The concept of genetic counseling was liked by most of the participants. There was a positive attitude toward the program and the majority agreed to apply the PMS program to all couples in all country regions. More than 60% of all the participants were in favor of preventing at-risk marriages.

  2. Sero-Survey of Equine Infectious Anemia in Five Draught Equine Populated Metropolises of Punjab, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hammad Hussain*, Ghulam Muhammad, Ijaz Javed1 and Muhammad Siddique2§

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Equine infectious anemia (EIA is a cosmopolitan fatal recurring retroviral disease of equine family. Keeping in view the importance of the disease, this study was planned and executed to investigate the presence of EIA in 5 draught equine populated metropolises (Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad, Multan and Bahawalpur of Punjab, Pakistan. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted and 430 blood and serum samples were randomly collected from 332 donkeys, 65 horses, and 33 mules along with epidemiological information. Samples were then transported to the laboratory for analysis. Blood samples were tested to determine erythrocyte indices for establishing the type of anemia. Serum samples were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against EIA virus through a commercial ELISA. Although, erythrocyte indices indicated towards presence of anemia in equines, no serum sample was found positive on ELISA. This is a first ever study in Pakistan where presence of EIA was investigated over a wide geographic region and indicated towards the possible disease free status of the selected equine population.

  3. Burden of acute gastrointestinal illness in Denmark 2009: a population-based telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, L; Korsgaard, H; Ethelberg, S

    2012-02-01

    A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted in Denmark throughout 2009 to determine the incidence of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI). Using the Danish population register, a random population sample stratified by gender and age groups was selected and mobile or landline phone numbers found. Representative numbers of interviews were performed by gender, age group and month. A recently proposed international case definition of AGI, including cases with diarrhoea and/or vomiting in a 4-week recall period, was used. A total of 1853 individuals were included and 206 (11·1%) fulfilled the case definition; 78% reported diarrhoea. This corresponds to an overall standardized incidence rate of 1·4 (95% CI 1·2-1·6) episodes of AGI per person-year. The incidence rate was generally higher in the younger age groups; only being 2·3, 1·9 and 0·80 per person-year in the 0-9, 10-39 and ≥40 years age groups, respectively. The incidence rate estimates were considerably higher when calculated from shorter recall periods.

  4. Peruvians’ sleep duration: analysis of a population-based survey on adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained settings, will provide informative evidence on a potentially modifiable risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of sleep duration in the Peruvian adult and adolescent population, together with its socio-demographic profile.Material and Methods. A total of 12,424 subjects, mean age 35.8 years (SD ±17.7, 50.6% males, were included in the analysis. This is a cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the Use of Time National Survey conducted in 2010. We used weighted means and proportions to describe sleep duration according to socio-demographic variables (area and region; sex; age; education attainment; asset index; martial and job status. We used Poisson regressions, taking into account the multistage sampling design of the survey, to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Main outcomes were short- (<6 h and long-sleep duration (≥ 9 h.Results. On average, Peruvians slept 7.7 h (95% CI [7.4–8.0] on weekdays and 8.0 h (95% CI [7.8–8.1] during weekends. The proportions of short- and long-sleep, during weekdays, were 4.3% (95% CI [2.9%–6.3%] and 22.4% (95% CI [14.9%–32.1%], respectively. Regarding urban and rural areas, a much higher proportion of short-sleep was observed in the former (92.0% vs. 8.0%; both for weekdays and weekends. On the multivariable analysis, compared to regular-sleepers (≥ 6 to <9 h, short-sleepers were twice more likely to be older and to have higher educational status, and 50% more likely to be currently employed. Similarly, relative to regular-sleep, long-sleepers were more likely to have a lower socioeconomic status as per educational attainment.Conclusions. In this

  5. Origin of 12 micrometer Emission Across Galaxy Populations from Wise and ADSS Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donso, E.; Yan, Lin; Tsai, C.; Eisenhardt, P; Stern, D.; Assef, R. J.; Leisawitz, D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Stanford, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    We cross-matched Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer sources brighter than 1 mJy at 12 micron with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy spectroscopic catalog to produce a sample of approx. 10(exp 5) galaxies at z = 0.08, the largest of its kind. This sample is dominated (70%) by star-forming (SF) galaxies from the blue sequence, with total IR luminosities in the range approx 10(exp 8)-10(exp 12) Solar L. We identify which stellar populations are responsible for most of the 12 micron emission. We find that most (approx 80%) of the 12 micron emission in SF galaxies is produced by stellar populations younger than 0.6 Gyr. In contrast, the 12 micron emission in weak active galactic nuclei (AGNs; L [O iii] mass for SF galaxies. At fixed 12 micron luminosity, weak AGNs deviate toward higher masses since they tend to be hosted by massive, early-type galaxies with older stellar populations. SF galaxies and weak AGNs follow different L(sub 12 micron) - SFR (star formation rate) relations, with weak AGNs showing excess 12 micron emission at low SFR (0.02-1 solar M /yr). This is likely due to dust grains heated by older stars. While the specific star formation rate (SSFR) of SF galaxies is nearly constant, the SSFR of weak AGNs decreases by approx 3 orders of magnitude, reflecting the very different star formation efficiencies between SF galaxies and massive, early-type galaxies. Stronger type II AGNs in our sample (L(sub [O iii]) > 10(exp 7) solar L ), act as an extension of massive SF galaxies, connecting the SF and weak AGN sequences. This suggests a picture where galaxies form stars normally until an AGN (possibly after a starburst episode) starts to gradually quench the SF activity. We also find that 4.6-12 micron color is a useful first-order indicator of SF activity in a galaxy when no other data are available.

  6. Origin of 12 micrometer Emission Across Galaxy Populations from Wise and ADSS Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donso, E.; Yan, Lin; Tsai, C.; Eisenhardt, P; Stern, D.; Assef, R. J.; Leisawitz, D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Stanford, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    We cross-matched Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer sources brighter than 1 mJy at 12 micron with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy spectroscopic catalog to produce a sample of approx. 10(exp 5) galaxies at z = 0.08, the largest of its kind. This sample is dominated (70%) by star-forming (SF) galaxies from the blue sequence, with total IR luminosities in the range approx 10(exp 8)-10(exp 12) Solar L. We identify which stellar populations are responsible for most of the 12 micron emission. We find that most (approx 80%) of the 12 micron emission in SF galaxies is produced by stellar populations younger than 0.6 Gyr. In contrast, the 12 micron emission in weak active galactic nuclei (AGNs; L [O iii] stars, with ages of approx 1-3 Gyr. We find that L(sub 12 micron) linearly correlates with stellar mass for SF galaxies. At fixed 12 micron luminosity, weak AGNs deviate toward higher masses since they tend to be hosted by massive, early-type galaxies with older stellar populations. SF galaxies and weak AGNs follow different L(sub 12 micron) - SFR (star formation rate) relations, with weak AGNs showing excess 12 micron emission at low SFR (0.02-1 solar M /yr). This is likely due to dust grains heated by older stars. While the specific star formation rate (SSFR) of SF galaxies is nearly constant, the SSFR of weak AGNs decreases by approx 3 orders of magnitude, reflecting the very different star formation efficiencies between SF galaxies and massive, early-type galaxies. Stronger type II AGNs in our sample (L(sub [O iii]) > 10(exp 7) solar L ), act as an extension of massive SF galaxies, connecting the SF and weak AGN sequences. This suggests a picture where galaxies form stars normally until an AGN (possibly after a starburst episode) starts to gradually quench the SF activity. We also find that 4.6-12 micron color is a useful first-order indicator of SF activity in a galaxy when no other data are available.

  7. Population-based survey of cessation aids used by Swedish smokers

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    Rutqvist Lars E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most smokers who quit typically do so unassisted although pharmaceutical products are increasingly used by those who want a quitting aid. Previous Scandinavian surveys indicated that many smokers stopped smoking by switching from cigarettes to smokeless tobacco in the form of snus. However, usage of various cessation aids may have changed in Sweden during recent years due to factors such as the wider availability of pharmaceutical nicotine, the public debate about the health effects of different tobacco products, excise tax increases on snus relative to cigarettes, and the widespread public misconception that nicotine is the main cause of the adverse health effects associated with tobacco use. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional survey was done during November 2008 and September 2009 including 2,599 males and 3,409 females aged between 18 and 89 years. The sampling technique was random digit dialing. Data on tobacco habits and quit attempts were collected through structured telephone interviews. Results The proportion of ever smokers was similar among males (47% compared to females (44%. About two thirds of them reported having stopped smoking at the time of the survey. Among the former smokers, the proportion who reported unassisted quitting was slightly lower among males (68% compared to females (78%. Among ever smokers who reported having made assisted quit attempts, snus was the most frequently reported cessation aid among males (22%, whereas females more frequently reported counseling (8%, or pharmaceutical nicotine (gum 8%, patch 4%. Of those who reported using snus at their latest quit attempt, 81% of males and 72% of females were successful quitters compared to about 50-60% for pharmaceutical nicotine and counseling. Conclusions This survey confirms and extends previous reports in showing that, although most smokers who have quit did so unassisted, snus continues to be the most frequently reported cessation

  8. Vitamin D levels in asymptomatic adults--a population survey in Karachi, Pakistan.

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    Adil Sheikh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well established that low levels of 25(OH Vitamin D (<30 ng/dL are a common finding world over, affecting over a billion of the global population. Our primary objective was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in the asymptomatic adult population of Karachi, Pakistan and the demographic, nutritional and co-morbidity characteristics associated with serum vitamin D levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional population survey was conducted at two spaced out densely populated areas of the city. Serum levels of 25OH vitamin D were measured and GFR as renal function was assessed by using 4 variable MDRD formula. RESULTS: Our sample of 300 had a median age of 48(interquartile range 38-55 years. The median level of serum vitamin D was 18.8 (IQ range 12.65-24.62 ng/dL. A total of 253 (84.3% respondents had low levels (<30 ng/dL of 25OH vitamin D. Serum PTH and vitamin D were negatively correlated (r = -0.176, p = 0.001. The median PTH in the vitamin D sufficiency group was 38.4 (IQ range28.0-48.8pg/mL compared with 44.4 (IQ range 34.3-56.8 pg/mL in the deficiency group (p = 0.011.The median serum calcium level in the sample was 9.46(IQ range 9.18-9.68 ng/dL. Low serum levels of vitamin D were not associated with hypertension (p = 0.771 or with an elevated spot blood pressure (p = 0.164.In our sample 75(26% respondents had an eGFR corresponding to stage 2 and stage 3 CKD. There was no significant correlation between levels of vitamin D and eGFR (r = -0.127, p-value = 0.277. Respondents using daily vitamin D supplements had higher 25 OH vitamin D levels (p-value = 0.021. CONCLUSION: We observed a high proportion of the asymptomatic adult population having low levels of vitamin D and subclinical deterioration of eGFR. The specific cause(s for this observed high prevalence of low 25OH vitamin D levels are not clear and need to be investigated further upon.

  9. Self medication with antibiotics in Yogyakarta City Indonesia: a cross sectional population-based survey

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    Widayati Aris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self medication with antibiotics has become an important factor driving antibiotic resistance. This study investigated the period prevalence, patterns of use, and socio-demographic factors associated with self medication with antibiotics in Yogyakarta City Indonesia. This cross-sectional population-based survey used a pre-tested questionnaire which was self-administered to randomly selected respondents (over 18 years old in Yogyakarta City Indonesia in 2010 (N = 625. Descriptive statistics, chi-square and logistic regression were applied. Results A total of 559 questionnaires were analyzed (response rate = 90%. The period prevalence of self medication with antibiotics during the month prior to the study was 7.3%. Amoxicillin was the most popular (77% antibiotic for self medication besides ampicilline, fradiomisin-gramisidin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin to treat the following symptoms: the common-cold including cough and sore throat, headache, and other minor symptoms; with the length of use was mostly less than five days. Doctors or pharmacists were the most common source of information about antibiotics for self medication (52%. Antibiotics were usually purchased without prescription in pharmacies (64% and the cost of the purchases was commonly less than US $1 (30%. Previous experience was reported to be the main reason for using non-prescribed antibiotics (54%. There were no socio-demographic variables significantly associated with the actual practice of using non-prescribed antibiotics. However, gender, health insurance, and marital status were significantly associated with the intent to self medicate with antibiotics (P Conclusions This study is the first population-based study of self-medication with antibiotics among the Indonesian population. Usage of non-prescribed antibiotics as well as intent of doing so is common across socio-demographic categories. Given the findings, factors influencing people's intentions to

  10. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels in adult population of Bangladesh: Results from STEPS 2006 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, M Mostafa; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Ahmed, Jasimuddin; Talukder, Md Habibullah; Rahman, A H M Shafiqur

    2016-01-01

    A nationally representative survey was carried out to determine the distribution of blood glucose and cholesterol in adult population of Bangladesh in the absence of existing data. The study adopted a multistage and geographically clustered sampling technique of households. A total of 2610 individuals (1444 men and 1166 women) aged 25-64 years were selected from rural and urban areas. Capillary blood glucose and total cholesterol levels were measured using an overnight fasting state. The mean age of the participants was 41 years [standard deviation (SD), 11 years]. Half of them (49%) were from urban areas. Half of them (51%) had primary or higher education. Mean glucose was 74mg/dL (SD 23mg/dL). Men had higher mean glucose levels (79mg/dL) than women (67mg/dL). Age-standardized prevalence of diabetes (blood glucose level ≥126mg/dL and/or use of anti-diabetic medication) was 5.5%. In men, it was almost two-and-half times (7.6%) compared with women (2.8%). It was also double in urban areas (7.8%) compared with rural areas (3.4%). Mean cholesterol level among all participants was 167mg/dL (SD 26mg/dL). Men and women had almost similar levels (169mg/dL versus 166mg/dL, respectively). Prevalence of high cholesterol level (≥240mg/dL) was very low (1.3%) in both men (2.2%) and women (0.5%). However, the prevalence of borderline high cholesterol was substantial (5.8%) in this sample. The prevalence of high hypercholesterolemia is low, whereas there is a high prevalence of borderline high cholesterol and diabetes in the adult population of Bangladesh. This warrants population-based interventions to tackle this problem. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between commuting and health outcomes in a cross-sectional population survey in southern Sweden

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    Hansson Erik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for a mobile workforce inevitably means that the length of the total work day (working and traveling time will increase, but the health effects of commuting have been surprisingly little studied apart from perceived stress and the benefits of physically active commuting. Methods We used data from two cross-sectional population-based public health surveys performed in 2004 and 2008 in Scania, Sweden (56% response rate. The final study population was 21, 088 persons aged 18-65, working > 30 h/week. Duration (one-way and mode of commuting were reported. The outcomes studied were perceived poor sleep quality, everyday stress, low vitality, mental health, self-reported health, and absence from work due to sickness during the past 12 months. Covariates indicating socioeconomic status and family situation, overtime, job strain and urban/rural residency were included in multivariate analyses. Subjects walking or cycling to work Results Monotonous relations were found between duration of public transport commuting and the health outcomes. For the category commuting > 60 min odds ratios (ORs ranged from 1.2 - 1.6 for the different outcomes. For car commuting, the relationships were concave downward or flat, with increasing subjective health complaints up to 30-60 min (ORs ranging from 1.2 - 1.4, and lower ORs in the > 60 min category. A similar concave downward relationship was observed for sickness absence, regardless of mode of transport. Conclusions The results of this study are concordant with the few earlier studies in the field, in that associations were found between commutation and negative health outcomes. This further demonstrates the need to consider the negative side-effects of commuting when discussing policies aimed at increasing the mobility of the workforce. Studies identifying population groups with increased susceptibility are warranted.

  12. Incidence, severity, help seeking, and management of uncomplicated urinary tract infection: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Chris C; Hawking, Meredith K D; Quigley, Anna; McNulty, Cliodna A M

    2015-10-01

    Limited knowledge of the population incidence and management of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) limits information provision and interventions to enhance care in the community. To describe incidence and severity, help seeking, and management of UTI from a population perspective. Household survey in England in 2014. In total, a random sample of 2424 females aged ≥16 years were interviewed in their own homes using computer-assisted interviewing about their UTI symptoms, help seeking, and management. Data were weighted by sex, age, ethnicity, working status, social grade, and housing tenure, and Government Office Region to be broadly representative of the general population. Of the females interviewed, 892 (37%) reported having had at least one UTI in their lifetime (29% had more than one episode). In the past year, 11% of all females reported a UTI and 3% recurrent UTI (≥3 or more). Of those who had ever had a UTI, 48% rated their last UTI as fairly or very severe. In total, 95% consulted a health professional; 65% at their local GP practice during routine consulting hours. Out-of-hours consulting was uncommon but more prevalent in younger females. Of those contacting a health professional, 76% had a urine test, 74% were prescribed an antibiotic, but only 63% of these reported taking the antibiotic. Delayed antibiotic prescribing was rare. UTI symptoms are common; most females consult in general practice, and are prescribed antibiotics, but one-third report not taking the antibiotics as prescribed. Benefit and harms in those taking, and not taking, antibiotics need to be better understood in order to improve help seeking, management, and adherence. Urine tests and antibiotics could be reduced by basing empirical antibiotics on symptoms, and increasing use of back-up prescriptions. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  13. Paranoid Ideation and Violence: Meta-analysis of Individual Subject Data of 7 Population Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coid, Jeremy W; Ullrich, Simone; Bebbington, Paul; Fazel, Seena; Keers, Robert

    2016-07-01

    There is controversy whether associations between psychosis and violence are due to coexisting substance misuse and factors increasing risk in nonpsychotic persons. Recent studies in clinical samples have implicated independent effects of paranoid delusions. Research findings suggest that individual psychotic-like-experiences on the psychosis continuum in the general population are associated with violence; it remains unclear whether this association is due to psychiatric comorbidity. We pooled data from 7 UK general population surveys (n = 23 444) and conducted a meta-analysis of individual subject data. Further meta-analyses were performed to identify heterogeneity. Main exposure variables: 5 psychotic-like-experiences and a categorical measure of psychosis. Comorbidity was established through standardized self-report instruments. Information was collected on violence, severity, victims. Paranoid ideation was associated with violence (AOR 2.26, 95% CI 1.75-2.91), severity and frequency, even when controlling for effects of other psychotic-like-experiences. Associations were not explained by comorbid conditions, including substance dependence. Psychotic disorder was associated with violence and injury to the perpetrator but associations were explained by paranoid ideation. Individual associations between hypomania, thought insertion, hallucinations, and violence were nonsignificant after adjustments, and significantly associated only when comorbid with antisocial personality disorder. Strange experiences were only associated with intimate partner violence. Paranoid ideation on a psychosis-continuum in the general population was associated with violence. All other associations were explained by comorbidity. Further investigation should determine whether paranoid ideation among persons in the community require preventive interventions, similar to those presenting to mental health services. Nevertheless, risks are considerably increased for psychotic

  14. The 2015 Middle Childhood Survey (MCS) of mental health and well-being at age 11 years in an Australian population cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurens, Kristin R; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Dean, Kimberlie; Brinkman, Sally A; Bore, Miles; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Smith, Maxwell; Holbrook, Allyson; Robinson, Kim M; Stevens, Robert; Harris, Felicity; Carr, Vaughan J; Green, Melissa J

    2017-06-23

    The Middle Childhood Survey (MCS) was designed as a computerised self-report assessment of children's mental health and well-being at approximately 11 years of age, conducted with a population cohort of 87 026 children being studied longitudinally within the New South Wales (NSW) Child Development Study. School Principals provided written consent for teachers to administer the MCS in class to year 6 students at 829 NSW schools (35.0% of eligible schools). Parent or child opt-outs from participation were received for 4.3% of children, and MCS data obtained from 27 808 children (mean age 11.5 years, SD 0.5; 49.5% female), representing 85.9% of students at participating schools. Demographic characteristics of participating schools and children are representative of the NSW population. Children completed items measuring Social Integration, Prosocial Behaviour, Peer Relationship Problems, Supportive Relationships (at Home, School and in the Community), Empathy, Emotional Symptoms, Conduct Problems, Aggression, Attention, Inhibitory Control, Hyperactivity-Inattention, Total Difficulties (internalising and externalising psychopathology), Perceptual Sensitivity, Psychotic-Like Experiences, Personality, Self-esteem, Daytime Sleepiness and Connection to Nature. Distributions of responses on each item and construct demarcate competencies and vulnerabilities within the population: most children report mental health and well-being, but the population distribution spanned the full range of possible scores on every construct. Multiagency, intergenerational linkage of the MCS data with health, education, child protection, justice and early childhood development records took place late in 2016. Linked data were used to elucidate patterns of risk and protection across early and middle child development, and these data will provide a foundation for future record linkages in the cohort that will track mental and physical health, social and educational/occupational outcomes into

  15. Survey of U.S. zoo and aquarium animal care staff attitudes regarding humane euthanasia for population management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David M; Ardaiolo, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    The humane euthanasia of animals for population management, or culling, has been suggested as one possible tool for managing animal populations for sustainability, and recent, highly publicized euthanasia of zoo animals in Copenhagen has stimulated global conversation about population management in zoos. We conducted a nationwide survey of U.S. zoo and aquarium personnel, including keepers, managers, and leaders of AZA animal programs, to assess their overall attitudes regarding population management euthanasia. The surveyed populations were generally very aware of the concept of population management euthanasia. Managers and animal program leaders were more supportive of euthanasia than keepers. We found that regardless of role, men were more supportive of euthanasia than women. Those personnel who were aware of instances of population management euthanasia at their institutions before were more supportive of it than those who were not. Support for culling varied with the kind of animal being considered for it, with three general taxon acceptability groupings emerging. Education, tenure in the profession, taxonomic expertise, and whether or not the responder took the survey before or after the Copenhagen events were not strong predictors of attitudes. Overall, the surveyed populations were approximately evenly split in terms of being in favor of euthanasia, not supporting euthanasia, or being unsure. Most responders indicated that they would be more likely to accept culling if more information was provided on its rationale. These results will form the basis for further discussions on the role of humane euthanasia for population management. Zoo Biol. 35:187-200, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. GridSample: an R package to generate household survey primary sampling units (PSUs) from gridded population data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Dana R; Stevens, Forrest R; Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Tatem, Andrew J; Castro, Marcia C

    2017-07-19

    Household survey data are collected by governments, international organizations, and companies to prioritize policies and allocate billions of dollars. Surveys are typically selected from recent census data; however, census data are often outdated or inaccurate. This paper describes how gridded population data might instead be used as a sample frame, and introduces the R GridSample algorithm for selecting primary sampling units (PSU) for complex household surveys with gridded population data. With a gridded population dataset and geographic boundary of the study area, GridSample allows a two-step process to sample "seed" cells with probability proportionate to estimated population size, then "grows" PSUs until a minimum population is achieved in each PSU. The algorithm permits stratification and oversampling of urban or rural areas. The approximately uniform size and shape of grid cells allows for spatial oversampling, not possible in typical surveys, possibly improving small area estimates with survey results. We replicated the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in GridSample by sampling the WorldPop 2010 UN-adjusted 100 m × 100 m gridded population dataset, stratifying by Rwanda's 30 districts, and oversampling in urban areas. The 2010 Rwanda DHS had 79 urban PSUs, 413 rural PSUs, with an average PSU population of 610 people. An equivalent sample in GridSample had 75 urban PSUs, 405 rural PSUs, and a median PSU population of 612 people. The number of PSUs differed because DHS added urban PSUs from specific districts while GridSample reallocated rural-to-urban PSUs across all districts. Gridded population sampling is a promising alternative to typical census-based sampling when census data are moderately outdated or inaccurate. Four approaches to implementation have been tried: (1) using gridded PSU boundaries produced by GridSample, (2) manually segmenting gridded PSU using satellite imagery, (3) non-probability sampling (e.g. random-walk, "spin

  17. A nationwide population-based cross-sectional survey of health-related quality of life in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms in Denmark (MPNhealthSurvey)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brochmann Mortensen, Nana; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Christensen, Anne Illemann

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Department of Hematology, Zealand University Hospital, Denmark, and the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, created the first nationwide, population-based, and the most comprehensive cross-sectional health-related quality of life (HRQoL) survey...... the treatment. The aims of this article are to describe the survey design and the characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Individuals with MPN diagnoses registered in the Danish National Patient Register (NPR) were invited to participate. The registers of the Danish Civil...

  18. A two-stage cluster sampling method using gridded population data, a GIS, and Google EarthTM imagery in a population-based mortality survey in Iraq

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    Galway LP

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality estimates can measure and monitor the impacts of conflict on a population, guide humanitarian efforts, and help to better understand the public health impacts of conflict. Vital statistics registration and surveillance systems are rarely functional in conflict settings, posing a challenge of estimating mortality using retrospective population-based surveys. Results We present a two-stage cluster sampling method for application in population-based mortality surveys. The sampling method utilizes gridded population data and a geographic information system (GIS to select clusters in the first sampling stage and Google Earth TM imagery and sampling grids to select households in the second sampling stage. The sampling method is implemented in a household mortality study in Iraq in 2011. Factors affecting feasibility and methodological quality are described. Conclusion Sampling is a challenge in retrospective population-based mortality studies and alternatives that improve on the conventional approaches are needed. The sampling strategy presented here was designed to generate a representative sample of the Iraqi population while reducing the potential for bias and considering the context specific challenges of the study setting. This sampling strategy, or variations on it, are adaptable and should be considered and tested in other conflict settings.

  19. Expanding HIV testing efforts in concentrated epidemic settings: a population-based survey from rural Vietnam.

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    Anastasia Pharris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To improve HIV prevention and care programs, it is important to understand the uptake of HIV testing and to identify population segments in need of increased HIV testing. This is particularly crucial in countries with concentrated HIV epidemics, where HIV prevalence continues to rise in the general population. This study analyzes determinants of HIV testing in a rural Vietnamese population in order to identify potential access barriers and areas for promoting HIV testing services. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey of 1874 randomly sampled adults was linked to pregnancy, migration and economic cohort data from a demographic surveillance site (DSS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors were associated with having tested for HIV. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of ever-testing for HIV was 7.6%; however 79% of those who reported feeling at-risk of contracting HIV had never tested. In multivariate analysis, younger age (aOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.14-3.01, higher economic status (aOR 3.4, 95% CI 2.21-5.22, and semi-urban residence (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.53-3.66 were associated with having been tested for HIV. HIV testing rates did not differ between women of reproductive age who had recently been pregnant and those who had not. CONCLUSIONS: We found low testing uptake (6% among pregnant women despite an existing prevention of mother-to-child HIV testing policy, and lower-than-expected testing among persons who felt that they were at-risk of HIV. Poverty and residence in a more geographically remote location were associated with less HIV testing. In addition to current HIV testing strategies focusing on high-risk groups, we recommend targeting HIV testing in concentrated HIV epidemic settings to focus on a scaled-up provision of antenatal testing. Additional recommendations include removing financial and geographic access barriers to client-initiated testing, and encouraging provider

  20. Combined analysis of roadside and off-road breeding bird survey data to assess population change in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Colleen M.; Sauer, John

    2017-01-01

    Management interest in North American birds has increasingly focused on species that breed in Alaska, USA, and Canada, where habitats are changing rapidly in response to climatic and anthropogenic factors. We used a series of hierarchical models to estimate rates of population change in 2 forested Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) in Alaska based on data from the roadside North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and the Alaska Landbird Monitoring Survey, which samples off-road areas on public resource lands. We estimated long-term (1993–2015) population trends for 84 bird species from the BBS and short-term (2003–2015) trends for 31 species from both surveys. Among the 84 species with long-term estimates, 11 had positive trends and 17 had negative trends in 1 or both BCRs; negative trends were primarily found among aerial insectivores and wetland-associated species, confirming range-wide negative continental trends for many of these birds. Three species with negative trends in the contiguous United States and southern Canada had positive trends in Alaska, suggesting different population dynamics at the northern edges of their ranges. Regional population trends within Alaska differed for several species, particularly those represented by different subspecies in the 2 BCRs, which are separated by rugged, glaciated mountain ranges. Analysis of the roadside and off-road data in a joint hierarchical model with shared parameters resulted in improved precision of trend estimates and suggested a roadside-related difference in underlying population trends for several species, particularly within the Northwestern Interior Forest BCR. The combined analysis highlights the importance of considering population structure, physiographic barriers, and spatial heterogeneity in habitat change when assessing patterns of population change across a landscape as broad as Alaska. Combined analysis of roadside and off-road survey data in a hierarchical framework may be particularly

  1. On observation distributions for state space models of population survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knape, Jonas; Jonzén, Niclas; Sköld, Martin

    2011-11-01

    1. State space models are starting to replace more simple time series models in analyses of temporal dynamics of populations that are not perfectly censused. By simultaneously modelling both the dynamics and the observations, consistent estimates of population dynamical parameters may be obtained. For many data sets, the distribution of observation errors is unknown and error models typically chosen in an ad-hoc manner. 2. To investigate the influence of the choice of observation error on inferences, we analyse the dynamics of a replicated time series of red kangaroo surveys using a state space model with linear state dynamics. Surveys were performed through aerial counts and Poisson, overdispersed Poisson, normal and log-normal distributions may all be adequate for modelling observation errors for the data. We fit each of these to the data and compare them using AIC. 3. The state space models were fitted with maximum likelihood methods using a recent importance sampling technique that relies on the Kalman filter. The method relaxes the assumption of Gaussian observation errors required by the basic Kalman filter. Matlab code for fitting linear state space models with Poisson observations is provided. 4. The ability of AIC to identify the correct observation model was investigated in a small simulation study. For the parameter values used in the study, without replicated observations, the correct observation distribution could sometimes be identified but model selection was prone to misclassification. On the other hand, when observations were replicated, the correct distribution could typically be identified. 5. Our results illustrate that inferences may differ markedly depending on the observation distributions used, suggesting that choosing an adequate observation model can be critical. Model selection and simulations show that for the models and parameter values in this study, a suitable observation model can typically be identified if observations are

  2. The CINDI Health Monitor Survey. Health behaviour among the Italian adult population, 2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Tenconi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance to the WHO-CINDI (Countrywide Integrated Non-communicable Diseases Intervention Programme, in 2001-2002 Italy participated in the Health Monitor Survey (HMS along with all the other CINDI member countries.

    The survey aimed to investigate, by the use of a standard questionnaire, the self-reported health status, life-habits, social and health conditions, use of health services and other features of the study population.

    Following the international CINDI protocol, the adult population (25-64 years of age from six Italian demonstration areas were chosen: Bassiano-Lenola (LT, Brisighella (RA, Rovescala (PV, Sardinia (CA, SS, Udine (UD; Valle dell’Irno (SA. A total number of 4095 subjects, including both males and females were enrolled, with a participation rate of 53%, equal to 2202 subjects [45.7% males (M and 54.3% females (F]. All age groups were equally represented. From the analysis of the age-standardised rates, the following results were obtained. Self-reported “good state of health”: M 71%, F 56.9%; Hypertension: M 15.6%, F 17.5%; Diabetes: M 6.1%, F 4.2%; Back-illness: M 18%, F 22%; Gastritis: M 12.8%, F 12.6%; Headache: M 31.7%, F 54.6%; Insomnia: M 15.9%, F 28.5%; Daily smokers: M 35.7%, F 23.5%; Daily consumption of wine: M 40.2%, F 15.7%; BMI ≥ 30: M 12.3%, F 13.5%; Regular leisure physical activity: M 27.6%, F 23.1%; Hard physical activity: M 40.5%, F 24%. The results demonstrate how rural areas (Rovescala and Valle dell’Irno experience worse health conditions. Thanks to the HMS, the population’s health needs have been focused and compared to those of other CINDI countries, in order to plan specific interventions aimed at the improvement of lifestyle and health conditions.

  3. Understanding barriers to medication adherence in the hypertensive population by evaluating responses to a telephone survey

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    Nair KV

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kavita V Nair1, Daniel A Belletti3, Joseph J Doyle3, Richard R Allen4, Robert B McQueen1, Joseph J Saseen1, Joseph Vande Griend1, Jay V Patel5, Angela McQueen2, Saira Jan21School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA; 2Horizon Blue Cross Blue Shield of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA; 3Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA, 4Peakstat Statistical Services, Evergreen, CO, USA; 5Care Management International, Marlborough, MA, USABackground: Although hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, adherence to hypertensive medications is low. Previous research identifying factors influencing adherence has focused primarily on broad, population-based approaches. Identifying specific barriers for an individual is more useful in designing meaningful targeted interventions. Using customized telephonic outreach, we examined specific patient-reported barriers influencing hypertensive patients' nonadherence to medication in order to identify targeted interventions.Methods: A telephone survey of 8692 nonadherent hypertensive patients was conducted. The patient sample comprised health plan members with at least two prescriptions for antihypertensive medications in 2008. The telephone script was based on the "target" drug associated with greatest nonadherence (medication possession ratio [MPR] <80% during the four-month period preceding the survey.Results: The response rate was 28.2% of the total sample, representing 63.8% of commercial members and 37.2% of Medicare members. Mean age was 63.4 years. Mean MPR was 61.0% for the target drug. Only 58.2% of Medicare respondents and 60.4% of commercial respondents reported "missing a dose of medication". The primary reason given was "forgetfulness" (61.8% Medicare, 60.8% commercial, followed by "being too busy" (2.7% Medicare, 18.5% commercial and "other reasons" (21.9% Medicare, 8.1% commercial including travel, hospitalization/sickness, disruption of daily events

  4. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Exploring the complex nature and origins of the Galactic bulge populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Matteucci, F.; Spitoni, E.; Schultheis, M.; Hayden, M.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Feltzing, S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Babusiaux, C.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Donati, P.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2017-05-01

    Context. As observational evidence steadily accumulates, the nature of the Galactic bulge has proven to be rather complex: the structural, kinematic, and chemical analyses often lead to contradictory conclusions. The nature of the metal-rich bulge - and especially of the metal-poor bulge - and their relation with other Galactic components, still need to be firmly defined on the basis of statistically significant high-quality data samples. Aims: We used the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey to characterize the bulge metallicity distribution function (MDF), magnesium abundance, spatial distribution, and correlation of these properties with kinematics. Moreover, the homogeneous sampling of the different Galactic populations provided by the Gaia-ESO survey allowed us to perform a comparison between the bulge, thin disk, and thick disk sequences in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane in order to constrain the extent of their eventual chemical similarities. Methods: We obtained spectroscopic data for 2500 red clump stars in 11 bulge fields, sampling the area -10° ≤ l ≤ + 8° and -10° ≤ b ≤ -4° from the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey. A sample of 6300 disk stars was also selected for comparison. Spectrophotometric distances computed via isochrone fitting allowed us to define a sample of stars likely located in the bulge region. Results: From a Gaussian mixture models (GMM) analysis, the bulge MDF is confirmed to be bimodal across the whole sampled area. The relative ratio between the two modes of the MDF changes as a function of b, with metal-poor stars dominating at high latitudes. The metal-rich stars exhibit bar-like kinematics and display a bimodality in their magnitude distribution, a feature which is tightly associated with the X-shape bulge. They overlap with the metal-rich end of the thin disk sequence in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane. On the other hand, metal-poor bulge stars have a more isotropic hot kinematics and do

  5. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey

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    Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Background: The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. Aims: To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households – 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Results: Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16–1.51), unemployment (1.36; 1.18–1.56), single status (1.34; 1.23–1.45), and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08–1.32) or poor (1.33; 1.21–1.47) were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59–0.89). Single (1.50; 1.26–1.78), unemployed (1.39; 1.07–1.80) and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10–1.83) had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married

  6. [Personality Traits Screening in a Colombian Adult Population Sample - Colombian National Survey of Mental Health-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Gabriel Fernando; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martín; Borda Bohigas, Juan Pablo; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    Personality refers to the individual style in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. Traits may configure a personality disorder when there is a long-lasting rigid pattern of inner experience that deviates from the expectations of the individual's culture, are inflexible and form maladaptative schemes in different interpersonal scenarios. Given the pervasiveness of this structure, they cause impairment of functioning in the affected person. To establish the prevalence of personality traits in all selected adults, using the module-structured interview WHO WHM-CIDI-CAPI for clusters A, B and C of personality traits. Colombian National Survey on Mental Health with persons older than 18 years of age. Personality traits that are the most frequently described: Cluster A 46% (95%CI, 45.2-48.1) of people believe they are convinced that there are conspiracies behind many things in the world. Regarding the features of cluster B, 35.6% (95%CI, 34.2-37.0) of the population reports that generally they do not feel bad when offending or upsetting someone and 35.4% (95%CI, 33.9-36.8) refer to show feelings to anyone. The highest proportion of traits were found to the probable borderline personality disorder, as 4.6% (95%CI, 4.1-5.2) of the Colombian population aged 18 and older has 6 or more features of this type, and is the widely reported as an individual entity with similar rates in men and women. The high prevalence of disruptive personality traits requires more research. The high prevalence reported for borderline personality traits suggests the need to implement measures to improve and integrate a collaborative model of care for people afflicted with a possible borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnosis, prevalence estimation and burden measurement in population surveys of headache: presenting the HARDSHIP questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Timothy J; Gururaj, Gopalakrishna; Andrée, Colette; Katsarava, Zaza; Ayzenberg, Ilya; Yu, Sheng-Yuan; Al Jumah, Mohammed; Tekle-Haimanot, Redda; Birbeck, Gretchen L; Herekar, Arif; Linde, Mattias; Mbewe, Edouard; Manandhar, Kedar; Risal, Ajay; Jensen, Rigmor; Queiroz, Luiz Paulo; Scher, Ann I; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Stovner, Lars Jacob

    2014-01-08

    The global burden of headache is very large, but knowledge of it is far from complete and needs still to be gathered. Published population-based studies have used variable methodology, which has influenced findings and made comparisons difficult. The Global Campaign against Headache is undertaking initiatives to improve and standardize methods in use for cross-sectional studies. One requirement is for a survey instrument with proven cross-cultural validity. This report describes the development of such an instrument. Two of the authors developed the initial version, which was used with adaptations in population-based studies in China, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Zambia and 10 countries in the European Union. The resultant evolution of this instrument was reviewed by an expert consensus group drawn from all world regions. The final output was the Headache-Attributed Restriction, Disability, Social Handicap and Impaired Participation (HARDSHIP) questionnaire, designed for application by trained lay interviewers. HARDSHIP is a modular instrument incorporating demographic enquiry, diagnostic questions based on ICHD-3 beta criteria, and enquiries into each of the following as components of headache-attributed burden: symptom burden; health-care utilization; disability and productive time losses; impact on education, career and earnings; perception of control; interictal burden; overall individual burden; effects on relationships and family dynamics; effects on others, including household partner and children; quality of life; wellbeing; obesity as a comorbidity. HARDSHIP already has demonstrated validity and acceptability in multiple languages and cultures. Modules may be included or not, and others (e.g., on additional comorbidities) added, according to the purpose of the study and resources (especially time) available.

  8. Mental-Physical Comorbidity in Korean Adults: Results from a Nationwide General Population Survey in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. Methods Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI) was used in the survey. Prevalence of mental and physical disorders, and risk factors for physical health were calculated, and their associations were evaluated with adjustment for age and sex. Results Subjects with any mental disorder showed significantly higher prevalence of chronic physical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=1.5 to 2.8, psmoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and hypertension (AOR=1.5 to 4.0, p<0.001). Of those with chronic physical conditions, 21.6% had one or more comorbid mental disorder compared with 10.5% of the subjects without chronic physical disorders (AOR=2.6, p<0.001). Contrary to expectations, depressive disorders did not show significant association with hypertension and prevalence of obesity was not influenced by presence of mental disorders. Further studies should assess these findings. Conclusion This is the first identification of significant mental-physical comorbidity in the general Korean population. Clinicians and health care officials should keep in mind of its potential adverse effects on treatment outcome and aggravated disease-related socioeconomic burden.

  9. Genital human papillomavirus infection among women in Bangladesh: findings from a population-based survey.

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    Quamrun Nahar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine. METHODS: We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler. HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using a consensus primer set. RESULTS: Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13-4.11 compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05-3.55 compared to women whose husbands lived with them. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening.

  10. Viewing the body after bereavement due to suicide: a population-based survey in Sweden.

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    Pernilla Omerov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research on the assumed, positive and negative, psychological effects of viewing the body after a suicide loss is sparse. We hypothesized that suicide-bereaved parents that viewed their childs body in a formal setting seldom regretted the experience, and that viewing the body was associated with lower levels of psychological morbidity two to five years after the loss. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 915 suicide-bereaved parents by linkage of nationwide population-based registries and collected data by a questionnaire. The outcome measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. In total, 666 (73% parents participated. Of the 460 parents (69% that viewed the body, 96% answered that they did not regret the experience. The viewing was associated with a higher risk of reliving the child's death through nightmares (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.32 and intrusive memories (RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38, but not with anxiety (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.40 and depression (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.83. One limitation of our study is that we lack data on the informants' personality and coping strategies. CONCLUSIONS: In this Swedish population-based survey of suicide-bereaved parents, we found that by and large everyone that had viewed their deceased child in a formal setting did not report regretting the viewing when asked two to five years after the loss. Our findings suggest that most bereaved parents are capable of deciding if they want to view the body or not. Officials may assist by giving careful information about the child's appearance and other details concerning the viewing, thus facilitating mental preparation for the bereaved person. This is the first large-scale study on the effects of viewing the body after a suicide and additional studies are needed before clinical recommendations can be made.

  11. Children's health and parental socioeconomic factors: a population-based survey in Finland

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    Savolainen Piia H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic inequalities in health are a global problem, not only among the adult population but also among children. However, studies concerning young children especially are rare. The aim of this study was to describe the health of Finnish children under 12 years of age, and the socioeconomic factors associated with health. The socioeconomic factors were parental education level, household net income, and working status. Methods A population-based survey among Finnish children aged under 12 years (n = 6,000 was conducted in spring 2007. A questionnaire was sent to parents, and a response rate of 67% was achieved. Each child's health was explored by asking a parent to report the child's health status on a 5-point Likert scale, current symptoms from a symptoms list, and current disease(s diagnosed by a physician. The final three outcome measures were poor health, the prevalences of psychosomatic symptoms, and long-term diseases. Data were analysed using Pearson's Chi-Square tests, and logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. P-values ≤0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results In total, 3% of parents reported that their child's health status was poor. The prevalences of psychosomatic symptoms and long-term diseases were both 11%. The probability for poor health status was lowest among children aged 3-6 and 7-11 years, and for psychosomatic symptoms among 3-6-year-old children, whereas the odds ratios for long-term diseases was highest among children aged 7-11 years. Parental socioeconomic factors were not associated with the children's health. Conclusions Most of the children were reported by their parent to have good health status, and approximately one tenth had experienced some psychosomatic symptoms or long-term diseases. Our study suggests that parental socioeconomic factors are not associated with the health of children aged under 12 years in Finland.

  12. [Poverty and Mental Disorders in the Colombian Population: National Mental Health Survey 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitian, Hoover; Ruiz-Gaviria, Rafael E; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Poverty has been associated in some studies with poorer outcomes in mental problems and disorders. A circular relationship has been considered in which poverty fosters the appearance of mental illness and this facilitates greater poverty. There are no studies in Colombia on this subject. To describe the association between mental problems and disorders and poverty according to the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) in Colombia. Using the 2015 National Mental Health Survey, adjusted with the expansion factors for the population. The prevalences of mental problems and disorders obtained through semi-structured interviews employing the instruments SRQ-20, AUDIT C and A, modified PCL, familiar APGAR and CIDI CAPI. The poverty status was determined by the MPI. A total of 13,200 households were interviewed, of which 13.5% were classified as in a poverty condition, 6.3% of the adolescents of poor households reported a life-time prevalence of any mental disorder, and 4.6% in the last 12 months. On the other hand, the prevalences for the same age group not in a poverty condition were 7.2% and 3.3%, respectively. For adults in poverty, the prevalence of life-time mental disorders were 9.2%, with 4.3% in the last year, while those not considered poor showed prevalences of 9.1% and 3.9% for the same time periods. For the population of Colombia, there is a relationship between not being able to access the basic basket of goods and the presence of mental diseases, although there does not seems to be an association between an increase in poverty and the deterioration of mental health. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Mouthwash Use in General Population: Results from Adult Dental Health Survey in Grampian, Scotland

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    Kirstin Rhodes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of mouthwash use and to investigate the associated factors in general population.Material and Methods: An Adult Dental Health Survey was conducted on 3,022 residents of Grampian region of Scotland (adjusted participation rate 58.2%. Participants received a questionnaire consisting of questions on oral health and behavioural factors.Results: The majority of participants (38.1% have never used mouthwash, 17.5% used mouthwash less than once a month, 19.4% used mouthwash once every few days and 25.1% used mouthwash daily.Prevalence of use decreased with age (P < 0.001. Woman were more likely to use mouthwash than men (P = 0.004. Mouthwash use decreased with decrease in the level of deprivation (P < 0.001. Never-smokers were less likely to use mouthwash (40.3% compared to smokers (53.1% or those who stopped smoking (46.5% (P < 0.001. Mouthwash was used by smaller proportion of people drinking alcohol on daily basis (36.6%, than by abstainers (42.2% (P = 0.012.There was a positive relationship between flossing or brushing pattern and mouthwash use (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant relationship between mouthwash use and reasons for the last dental visit (P = 0.009.When compared to healthy individuals, mouthwash was used by higher proportion of people reporting that they had gum disease (P = 0.001, ulcers (P = 0.001, oral infections or swelling (P = 0.002 or other problems (P = 0.025.Conclusions: Mouthwash use in general population is associated with socio-demographic, health and behavioural factors.

  14. Stages of change for physical activity in adults from Southern Brazil: a population-based survey

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    Gigante Denise P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that physical activity (PA interventions tailored to individual's stages of change (SoC are more effective in promote behavior change than "one-size-fits-all" interventions. However, only a few researches have investigated these stages towards PA behavior in representative samples of the population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with the SoC for PA in a probabilistic sample of adults aged 20 years or over. Methods A population-based survey was undertaken in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2005. An algorithm was applied to evaluate the SoC for PA, and PA was defined as being engaged in moderate-to-vigorous PA for at least 20 minutes on three times per week. The covariates collected in the questionnaire were: sex, age, skin color, marital status, education level, economic status, family income, smoking, body mass index (BMI and self-reported health status. Data analyses were performed through Poisson and multinomial regression, taking the sampling design into account. Results Face-to-face interviews were applied to 3136 individuals, corresponding to a response rate of 93.5%. The prevalence across the stages was as follows: 38.3% in precontemplation, 13.0% in contemplation, 19.5% in preparation, 5.2% in action and 24.0% in maintenance. The elderly, married, smokers, and those with lower socioeconomic status were less likely to adopt, initiate and maintain regular PA. Conclusion Despite the all benefits of PA, a high proportion of adults from Southern Brazil are physically inactive and do not present intention to engage in regular PA. The profile of those who are inactive but intend to do PA resembles those who are physically active. The findings of the present study can contribute to improve health behaviors and to plan health promotion strategies aimed at increasing the level of PA in the community.

  15. Surveying the meritocracy: the problems of intelligence and mobility in the studies of the Population Investigation Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsden, Edmund

    2014-09-01

    The post-war era saw the emergence of large-scale and longitudinal social and medical surveys in Britain. That these surveys were both representative of an entire nation and could follow individuals throughout their lives, gave them a privileged position in relation to policy-making. This paper will focus on two closely interrelated surveys, both instigated by the Population Investigation Committee at London School of Economics-the National Survey of Health and Development, which began in 1946, and the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947. These surveys had a critical role in educational research and policy and, more specifically, in changing perspectives regarding the concept and measurement of intelligence. They were seen to privilege social and environmental factors as determinants of mental ability, and they shifted attention away from genetic factors and eugenic concerns. However, while the surveys were indeed powerful tools, their structure, the questions they asked, the methods they used and the choices made over the data to be tabulated, also determined what could be known. The paper will examine the growing criticism and debate over the large-scale survey. Many argued that smaller-scale studies were more effective in understanding the social and biological causes of intellectual differences, and better for identifying the benefits and dangers of using intelligence and merit as a means of organising society.

  16. Risk perception of the Belgian population. Results of the public opinion survey in 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aeken, K.; Turcanu, C.; Bombaerts, G.; Carle, B.; Hardeman, F.

    2007-01-15

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN 2006 risk perception barometer is based on over 1000 Computer Assisted Personal Interviews, taken from persons selected to be representative for the Belgian 18+ population, and all realized in the period March 21st to April 12th 2006. Besides the classical background variables used to obtain the quota for representativity (age, language, habitat, gender and social class), we also included a series of questions assessing the sociological context and the psychological personality profile. The main topics in the survey were I) risk perception and confidence in authorities; II) acceptance of legal norms for food products; III) acceptance of countermeasures for the food chain in case of a radiological contamination and associated consumers behaviour; IV) energy; v) disposal of radioactive waste; vi) perception of the Chernobyl accident and its consequences. Some of the questions asked in 2006 are similar to those enquired in the SCK barometer of 2002, in order to study the time evolution of the risk perception associated with various issues. For the part related to acceptance of legal norms and of countermeasures for the food chain, simulated news bulletins were used in order to better reproduce the real-life context of a contamination.

  17. Swift-BAT Survey of Galactic Sources: Catalog and Properties of the Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, R.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Ajello, M.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2010-08-27

    We study the populations of X-ray sources in the Milky Way in the 15-55 keV band using a deep survey with the BAT instrument aboard the Swift observatory. We present the logN-logS distributions of the various source types and we analyze their variability and spectra. For the low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and the high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) we derive the luminosity functions to a limiting luminosity of L{sub X} {approx} 7 x 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1}. Our results confirm the previously found flattening of the LMXB luminosity function below a luminosity of L{sub X} {approx} 10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}. The luminosity function of the HMXBs is found to be significantly flatter in the 15-55 keV band than in the 2-10 keV band. From the luminosity functions we estimate the ratios of the hard X-ray luminosity from HMXBs to the star-formation rate, and the LMXB luminosity to the stellar mass. We use these to estimate the X-ray emissivity in the local universe from X-ray binaries and show that it constitutes only a small fraction of the hard X-ray background.

  18. Influence of Chinese cultural health beliefs among Malaysian Chinese in a suburban population: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, K S; Tan, T W; Ooi, Y T

    2011-04-01

    In a multiethnic nation, it is not uncommon for doctors to encounter patients of different cultural backgrounds. Often, patients' cultural beliefs influence their perception of health and illnesses, and their treatment option. Many Chinese cultural beliefs are influenced by the Taoist concept of yin-yang balance. We interviewed 50 Malaysian Chinese from the general public of a suburban population in order to unravel the impact of Chinese cultural health beliefs on their decision-making, and this was compared with the opinions of 50 Chinese medical students from second to final year. Convenience sampling was then applied. From the survey, 78 percent of the general public believed that 'too much heat' or 'too much coldness' in the body could cause diseases. Compared to the medical students, a significantly higher number of the respondents held such beliefs, including the beliefs that abdominal colic is due to excessive 'wind' in the abdomen, consuming certain food can dispel wind from the body, and the importance of observing taboos during the confinement period after delivery. The majority of respondents from both groups believed that it is acceptable to combine both traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine. There is a discrepancy in the extent to which these beliefs influence the perception of health and illnesses among the general public and among medical students. Healthcare providers need to be aware of such beliefs and practices regarding traditional Chinese medicine among their Chinese patients.

  19. Socioeconomic Inequalities and Occupational Injury Disability in China: A Population-Based Survey

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    Haochen Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of occupational injury disability (OID and to examine the socioeconomic status of OID in China. Methods: The data derived from the China National Sample Survey on Disability in 2006 involving people aged 16–59 years old. Descriptive statistics are used to measure OID’s prevalence, and a binary logistic regression is used to identify the risk factors. Results: The population-weighted prevalence of OID is 1.81 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.67–1.94. Socioeconomic risk factors include male sex, older age, living in urban areas, junior high school education, income below the poverty line, a lack of occupational injury insurance, living in the western region and working in high-risk occupations. Conclusions: OID is common among Chinese people aged 16–59 years old. Being male or older and having a lower income are risk factors for OID, similar to the results of previous research, but education is different. More training and education needs to be implemented to prevent OID.

  20. The SLUGGS survey: Globular cluster stellar population trends from weak absorption lines in stacked spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Usher, Christopher; Brodie, Jean P; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Strader, Jay; Conroy, Charlie; Foster, Caroline; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Arnold, Jacob A

    2014-01-01

    As part of the SLUGGS survey, we stack 1137 Keck DEIMOS spectra of globular clusters from 10 galaxies to study their stellar populations in detail. The stacked spectra have median signal to noise ratios of $\\sim 90$ \\AA$^{-1}$. Besides the calcium triplet, we study weaker sodium, magnesium, titanium and iron lines as well as the H$\\alpha$ and higher order Paschen hydrogen lines. In general, the stacked spectra are consistent with old ages and a Milky Way-like initial mass function. However, we see different metal line index strengths at fixed colour and magnitude, and differences in the calcium triplet--colour relation from galaxy to galaxy. We interpret this as strong evidence for variations in the globular cluster colour--metallicity relation between galaxies. Two possible explanations for the colour--metallicity relation variations are that the average ages of globular clusters vary from galaxy to galaxy or that the average abundances of light elements (i.e. He, C, N and O) differ between galaxies. Stackin...

  1. Knowledge about mammography and associated factors: population surveys with female adults and elderly

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    Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the knowledge about mammography and to identify associated factors in female adults and elderly. Data were obtained from two population surveys, one with female adults and another with elderly women from Florianópolis (SC in 2009 - 2010. A descriptive analysis of the variables was carried out, the appropriate mean of responses about mammography was estimated and crude and adjusted Poisson regression was conducted to identify associated factors. Among adults, 23.1% answered all of the questions appropriately and the appropriate average responses was 7.2 (95%CI 7.1 - 7.3 in a total of 9. In the adjusted model, older age, higher education and income were associated with knowledge about mammography. For the elderly, 15.3% answered all questions appropriately and the average of appropriate responses was 6.4 (95%CI 5.2 - 6.5 and the factors associated with knowledge about mammography in the adjusted model were younger age groups, increased education and income, and identification of mammography as the main diagnostic method for breast cancer. Information about mammography can neither be transmitted in a clear way nor be easily understood; there are also demographic and socioeconomic differences concerning the knowledge about the exam.

  2. Self-esteem and body satisfaction among late adolescents with acne: results from a population survey.

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    Dalgard, Florence; Gieler, Uwe; Holm, Jan Øivind; Bjertness, Espen; Hauser, Stuart

    2008-11-01

    The association of acne and self-evaluation is barely explored among late adolescents in the general population. We sought to explore self-esteem, body satisfaction, and acne among 18-year-old young adults at a community level. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey among 3775 late adolescents. Our response rate was 80%. The prevalence of acne was 13.5%. Girls and boys with acne had significantly more depressive symptoms, lower self-attitude, more feelings of uselessness, fewer feelings of pride, lower self-worth, and lower body satisfaction than those without acne. In a regression model adjusting for body mass index and depressive symptoms, acne explained significantly poor self-attitude for boys only (odds ratio 2.07 [confidence interval 1.10; 3.88]) and poor self-worth for girls only (odds ratio 1.88 [confidence interval 1.23; 2.88]). Not all items of the self-esteem instrument were included. At age 18 years, acne is related to self-evaluation independent of body mass index and depressive symptoms.

  3. A Chandra Archival Survey of the X-ray Source Populations of Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgard, Roy E.; Wright, Simon; Fonseca, Gloria; Santini, Anthony; Fritze, Hannah

    2017-08-01

    We present results of a volume-limited Chandra archival survey of the X-ray point sources populations of nearby galaxies. We define our sample to include all observations of at least 5 ks of any galaxy within 15 Mpc. The complete sample is in excess of 15000 individual point sources, approximately half of which are contained with the D25 ellipses of galaxies. We present spectral and temporal analyses of this sample, from which we can cleanly define the parameter spaces in color, variability, and luminosity occupied by different classes of sources (e.g., LMXBs vs. HMXBs). For all sources, we perform detailed spatial modeling, spectral fitting, multiband X-ray photometry, and multimodal timing analyses. We further discuss source classes as a function of host galaxy morphology, star formation rate, stellar mass distribution, optical extent, interaction history, and metallicity. Finally, we discuss incompleteness in the sample, and what observations can be conducted in the following years to fill the gap.

  4. Heavy cannabis users at elevated risk of stroke: evidence from a general population survey.

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    Hemachandra, Dilini; McKetin, Rebecca; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2016-06-01

    Case reports and hospital-based case-control studies suggest that cannabis use may increase the risk of stroke. We examined the risk of non-fatal stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) among cannabis users in the general community. A general population survey of Australians aged 20-24 years (n=2,383), 40-44 years (n=2,525) and 60-64 years (n=2,547) was used to determine the odds of lifetime stroke or TIA among participants who had smoked cannabis in the past year while adjusting for other stroke risk factors. There were 153 stroke/TIA cases (2.1%). After adjusting for age cohort, past year cannabis users (n=1,043) had 3.3 times the rate of stroke/TIA (95% CI 1.8-6.3, pcannabis weekly or more often (IRR 4.7, 95% CI 2.1-10.7) with no elevation among participants who used cannabis less often. Heavy cannabis users in the general community have a higher rate of non-fatal stroke or transient ischemic attack than non-cannabis users. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. Patient refusal for regional anesthesia in elderly orthopedic population: A cross-sectional survey at a tertiary care hospital

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    Asma Abdus Salam

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This survey showed that the main reasons among elderly female population were the fear of remaining awake and backache. However, overall it was the surgeon′s choice which made patients refuse RA, and the anesthesiologists were the main source of information.

  6. Utilizing the potential of the affected population and prevalent mobile technology during disaster response : Propositions from a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunawan, L.T.; Fitrianie, S.; Brinkman, W.P.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing awareness of the untapped potential of the affected population in a disaster situation, their inclusion in a disaster management is extremely limited. This study aims to survey the literature to see whether utilizing the affected people and prevalent mobile technology can be used

  7. Utilizing the potential of the affected population and prevalent mobile technology during disaster response : Propositions from a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunawan, L.T.; Fitrianie, S.; Brinkman, W.P.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing awareness of the untapped potential of the affected population in a disaster situation, their inclusion in a disaster management is extremely limited. This study aims to survey the literature to see whether utilizing the affected people and prevalent mobile technology can be used

  8. Utilizing the Potential of the Affected Population and Prevalent Mobile Technology during Disaster Response: Propositions for a Literature Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunawan, L.T.; Fitrianie, S.; Brinkman, W.P.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing awareness of the untapped potential of the affected population in a disaster situation, their inclusion in a disaster management is extremely limited. This study aims to survey the literature to see whether utilizing the affected people and prevalent mobile technology can be used

  9. Inconsistent self-reported mammography history: Findings from the National Population Health Survey longitudinal cohort

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    Snider Judy

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported information has commonly been used to monitor mammography utilization across populations and time periods. However, longitudinal investigations regarding the prevalence and determinants of inconsistent responses over time and the impact of such responses on population screening estimates are lacking. Methods Based on longitudinal panel data for a representative cohort of Canadian women aged 40+ years (n = 3,537 assessed in the 1994–95 (baseline and 1996–97 (follow-up National Population Health Survey (NPHS, we examined the prevalence of inconsistent self-reports of mammography utilization. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between women's baseline sociodemographic and health characteristics and 2 types of inconsistent responses: (i baseline reports of ever use which were subsequently contradicted by follow-up reports of never use; and (ii baseline reports of never use which were contradicted by follow-up reports of use prior to 1994–95. Results Among women who reported having a mammogram at baseline, 5.9% (95% confidence interval (CI: 4.6–7.3% reported at follow-up that they had never had one. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that women with such inconsistent responses were more often outside target age groups, from low income households and less likely to report hormone replacement therapy and Pap smear use. Among women reporting never use at baseline and ever use at follow-up, 17.4% (95%CI: 11.7–23.1% reported their most recent mammogram as occurring prior to 1994–95 (baseline and such responses were more common among women aged 70+ years and those in poorer health. Conclusions Women with inconsistent responses of type (i, i.e., ever users at baseline but never users at follow-up, appeared to exhibit characteristics typical of never users of mammography screening. Although limited by sample size, our preliminary analyses suggest that type (ii

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cognitive impairment in the Chinese elderly population: a large national survey

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    Yin P

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Peng Yin,1,* Qingfeng Ma,2,* Limin Wang,1 Peng Lin,3 Mei Zhang,1 Shige Qi,1 Zhihui Wang1 1National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3Department of Health Education, Qingdao Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Previous studies suggested an association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and cognitive impairment, mostly in developed countries. There is no evidence available on the association between these two common chronic disorders in the elderly people in People’s Republic of China where the population is aging rapidly.Methods: The study population was randomly selected from a nationally representative Disease Surveillance Point System in People’s Republic of China. A standardized questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers during a face-to-face interview in the field survey conducted in 2010–2011. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. COPD was measured by self-report and the Medical Research Council respiratory questionnaire was used to assess respiratory symptoms. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to examine the association between COPD and cognitive impairment with adjustment for potential confounding factors.Results: A total of 16,629 subjects aged over 60 years were included in the study. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 9.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.7, 11.1. Chronic phlegm was associated with significantly higher prevalence of cognitive impairment in models adjusted for age, sex, marital status, geographic region, urban/rural, education, smoking status, alcohol drinking, and indoor air pollution (odds ratio [OR] 1.46, 95% CI 1.11, 1.93. Chronic

  11. The Snapshot Hubble U-Band Cluster Survey (SHUCS). I. Survey Description and First Application to the Mixed Star Cluster Population of NGC 4041

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantopoulos, I S; Adamo, A; Silva-Villa, E; Gallagher, J S; Bastian, N; Ryon, J; Westmoquette, M S; Zackrisson, E; Larsen, S S; Weisz, D R; Charlton, J C

    2013-01-01

    We present the Snapshot Hubble U-band Cluster Survey (SHUCS), a project aimed at characterizing the star cluster populations of ten nearby galaxies (d<23 Mpc, half within 12 Mpc) through new F336W (U band equivalent) imaging from WFC3, and archival BVI-equivalent data with HST. Completing the UBVI baseline reduces the age-extinction degeneracy of optical colours, thus enabling the measurement of reliable ages and masses for the thousands of clusters covered by our survey. The sample consists chiefly of face-on spiral galaxies at low inclination, in various degrees of isolation (isolated, in group, merging), and includes two AGN hosts. This first paper outlines the survey itself, the observational datasets, the analysis methods, and presents a proof-of-concept study of the large-scale properties and star cluster population of NGC 4041, a massive SAbc galaxy at a distance of 23 Mpc, and part of a small grouping of six giant members. We resolve two structural components with distinct stellar populations, a mo...

  12. Web based health surveys: Using a Two Step Heckman model to examine their potential for population health analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Karyn; Kinderman, Peter; Pontin, Eleanor; Tai, Sara; Schwannauer, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    In June 2011 the BBC Lab UK carried out a web-based survey on the causes of mental distress. The 'Stress Test' was launched on 'All in the Mind' a BBC Radio 4 programme and the test's URL was publicised on radio and TV broadcasts, and made available via BBC web pages and social media. Given the large amount of data created, over 32,800 participants, with corresponding diagnosis, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics; the dataset are potentially an important source of data for population based research on depression and anxiety. However, as respondents self-selected to participate in the online survey, the survey may comprise a non-random sample. It may be only individuals that listen to BBC Radio 4 and/or use their website that participated in the survey. In this instance using the Stress Test data for wider population based research may create sample selection bias. Focusing on the depression component of the Stress Test, this paper presents an easy-to-use method, the Two Step Probit Selection Model, to detect and statistically correct selection bias in the Stress Test. Using a Two Step Probit Selection Model; this paper did not find a statistically significant selection on unobserved factors for participants of the Stress Test. That is, survey participants who accessed and completed an online survey are not systematically different from non-participants on the variables of substantive interest.

  13. Socio economic position in TB prevalence and access to services: results from a population prevalence survey and a facility-based survey in Bangladesh.

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    Shahed Hossain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Bangladesh DOTS has been provided free of charge since 1993, yet information on access to TB services by different population group is not well documented. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the socio economic position (SEP of actively detected cases from the community and the cases being routinely detected under National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP in Bangladesh. METHODS AND FINDINGS: SEP was assessed by validated asset item for each of the 21,427 households included in the national tuberculosis prevalence survey 2007-2009. A principal component analysis generated household scores and categorized in quartiles. The distribution of 33 actively identified cases was compared with the 240 NTP cases over the identical SEP quartiles to evaluate access to TB services by different groups of the population. The population prevalence of tuberculosis was 5 times higher in the lowest quartiles of population (95.4, 95% CI: 48.0-189.7 to highest quartile population (19.5, 95% CI: 6.9-55.0. Among the 33 cases detected during survey, 25 (75.8% were from lower two quartiles, and the rest 8 (24.3% were from upper two quartiles. Among TB cases detected passively under NTP, more than half of them 137 (57.1% were from uppermost two quartiles, 98 (41% from the second quartile, and 5 (2% in the lowest quartile of the population. This distribution is not affected when adjusted for other factors or interactions among them. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that despite availability free of charge, DOTS is not equally accessed by the poorer sections of the population. However, these figures should be interpreted with caution since there is a need for additional studies that assess in-depth poverty indicators and its determinants in relation to access of the TB services provided in Bangladesh.

  14. Who should be undertaking population-based surveys in humanitarian emergencies?

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    Spiegel Paul B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely and accurate data are necessary to prioritise and effectively respond to humanitarian emergencies. 30-by-30 cluster surveys are commonly used in humanitarian emergencies because of their purported simplicity and reasonable validity and precision. Agencies have increasingly used 30-by-30 cluster surveys to undertake measurements beyond immunisation coverage and nutritional status. Methodological errors in cluster surveys have likely occurred for decades in humanitarian emergencies, often with unknown or unevaluated consequences. Discussion Most surveys in humanitarian emergencies are done by non-governmental organisations (NGOs. Some undertake good quality surveys while others have an already overburdened staff with limited epidemiological skills. Manuals explaining cluster survey methodology are available and in use. However, it is debatable as to whether using standardised, 'cookbook' survey methodologies are appropriate. Coordination of surveys is often lacking. If a coordinating body is established, as recommended, it is questionable whether it should have sole authority to release surveys due to insufficient independence. Donors should provide sufficient funding for personnel, training, and survey implementation, and not solely for direct programme implementation. Summary A dedicated corps of trained epidemiologists needs to be identified and made available to undertake surveys in humanitarian emergencies. NGOs in the field may need to form an alliance with certain specialised agencies or pool technically capable personnel. If NGOs continue to do surveys by themselves, a simple training manual with sample survey questionnaires, methodology, standardised files for data entry and analysis, and manual for interpretation should be developed and modified locally for each situation. At the beginning of an emergency, a central coordinating body should be established that has sufficient authority to set survey standards

  15. Sample Size Calculations for Population Size Estimation Studies Using Multiplier Methods With Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Elizabeth; Chabata, Sungai T; Thompson, Jennifer A; Cowan, Frances M; Hargreaves, James R

    2017-09-14

    While guidance exists for obtaining population size estimates using multiplier methods with respondent-driven sampling surveys, we lack specific guidance for making sample size decisions. To guide the design of multiplier method population size estimation studies using respondent-driven sampling surveys to reduce the random error around the estimate obtained. The population size estimate is obtained by dividing the number of individuals receiving a service or the number of unique objects distributed (M) by the proportion of individuals in a representative survey who report receipt of the service or object (P). We have developed an approach to sample size calculation, interpreting methods to estimate the variance around estimates obtained using multiplier methods in conjunction with research into design effects and respondent-driven sampling. We describe an application to estimate the number of female sex workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. There is high variance in estimates. Random error around the size estimate reflects uncertainty from M and P, particularly when the estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey is low. As expected, sample size requirements are higher when the design effect of the survey is assumed to be greater. We suggest a method for investigating the effects of sample size on the precision of a population size estimate obtained using multipler methods and respondent-driven sampling. Uncertainty in the size estimate is high, particularly when P is small, so balancing against other potential sources of bias, we advise researchers to consider longer service attendance reference periods and to distribute more unique objects, which is likely to result in a higher estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey.

  16. Perspectives on advance directives in Japanese society: A population-based questionnaire survey

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    Slingsby Brian

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan, discussion concerning advance directives (ADs has been on the rise during the past decade. ADs are one method proposed to facilitate the process of communication among patients, families and health care providers regarding the plan of care of a patient who is no longer capable of communicating. In this paper, we report the results of the first in-depth survey on the general population concerning the preferences and use of ADs in Japan. Method A self-administered questionnaire was sent via mail to a stratified random sampling of 560 residents listed in the residential registry of one district of Tokyo, Japan (n = 165,567. Association between correlating factors and specific preferences toward ADs was assessed using contingency table bivariate analysis and multivariate regression model to estimate independent contribution. Results Of the 560 questionnaires sent out, a total of 425 participants took part in the survey yielding a response rate of 75.9 %. The results of the present study indicate that: 1 the most important components to be addressed are the specifics of medical treatment at the end of life stage and disclosure of diagnosis and prognosis; 2 the majority of participants found it suitable to express their directives by word to family and/or physician and not by written documentation; 3 there is no strong need for legal measures in setting up an AD; 4 it is permissible for family and physician to loosely interpret one's directives; 5 the most suitable proxy is considered to be a family member, relative, or spouse. Multivariate analysis found the following five factors as significantly associated with preferences: 1 awareness regarding living wills, 2 experience with the use of ADs, 3 preferences for end-of-life treatment, 4 preferences for information disclosure, and 5 intentions of creating a will. Conclusions Written ADs might be useful in the Japanese setting when the individual either wishes: 1 to not

  17. Using Smartphones and Health Apps to Change and Manage Health Behaviors: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernsting, Clemens; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Oedekoven, Monika; O Sullivan, Julie L; Kanzler, Melanie; Kuhlmey, Adelheid; Gellert, Paul

    2017-04-05

    Chronic conditions are an increasing challenge for individuals and the health care system. Smartphones and health apps are potentially promising tools to change health-related behaviors and manage chronic conditions. The aim of this study was to explore (1) the extent of smartphone and health app use, (2) sociodemographic, medical, and behavioral correlates of smartphone and health app use, and (3) associations of the use of apps and app characteristics with actual health behaviors. A population-based survey (N=4144) among Germans, aged 35 years and older, was conducted. Sociodemographics, presence of chronic conditions, health behaviors, quality of life, and health literacy, as well as the use of the Internet, smartphone, and health apps were assessed by questionnaire at home visit. Binary logistic regression models were applied. It was found that 61.25% (2538/4144) of participants used a smartphone. Compared with nonusers, smartphone users were younger, did more research on the Internet, were more likely to work full-time and more likely to have a university degree, engaged more in physical activity, and less in low fat diet, and had a higher health-related quality of life and health literacy. Among smartphone users, 20.53% (521/2538) used health apps. App users were younger, less likely to be native German speakers, did more research on the Internet, were more likely to report chronic conditions, engaged more in physical activity, and low fat diet, and were more health literate compared with nonusers who had a smartphone. Health apps focused on smoking cessation (232/521, 44.5%), healthy diet (201/521, 38.6%), and weight loss (121/521, 23.2%). The most common app characteristics were planning (264/521, 50.7%), reminding (188/521, 36.1%), prompting motivation (179/521 34.4%), and the provision of information (175/521, 33.6%). Significant associations were found between planning and the health behavior physical activity, between feedback or monitoring and physical

  18. Using Smartphones and Health Apps to Change and Manage Health Behaviors: A Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Stephan U; Oedekoven, Monika; O´Sullivan, Julie L; Kanzler, Melanie; Kuhlmey, Adelheid; Gellert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic conditions are an increasing challenge for individuals and the health care system. Smartphones and health apps are potentially promising tools to change health-related behaviors and manage chronic conditions. Objective The aim of this study was to explore (1) the extent of smartphone and health app use, (2) sociodemographic, medical, and behavioral correlates of smartphone and health app use, and (3) associations of the use of apps and app characteristics with actual health behaviors. Methods A population-based survey (N=4144) among Germans, aged 35 years and older, was conducted. Sociodemographics, presence of chronic conditions, health behaviors, quality of life, and health literacy, as well as the use of the Internet, smartphone, and health apps were assessed by questionnaire at home visit. Binary logistic regression models were applied. Results It was found that 61.25% (2538/4144) of participants used a smartphone. Compared with nonusers, smartphone users were younger, did more research on the Internet, were more likely to work full-time and more likely to have a university degree, engaged more in physical activity, and less in low fat diet, and had a higher health-related quality of life and health literacy. Among smartphone users, 20.53% (521/2538) used health apps. App users were younger, less likely to be native German speakers, did more research on the Internet, were more likely to report chronic conditions, engaged more in physical activity, and low fat diet, and were more health literate compared with nonusers who had a smartphone. Health apps focused on smoking cessation (232/521, 44.5%), healthy diet (201/521, 38.6%), and weight loss (121/521, 23.2%). The most common app characteristics were planning (264/521, 50.7%), reminding (188/521, 36.1%), prompting motivation (179/521 34.4%), and the provision of information (175/521, 33.6%). Significant associations were found between planning and the health behavior physical activity

  19. De-biased populations of Kuiper belt objects from the deep ecliptic survey

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    Adams, E. R.; Benecchi, S. D. [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Gulbis, A. A. S. [The Southern African Large Telescope and South African Astronomical Observatory, Cape Town, 7935 (South Africa); Elliot, J. L. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Buie, M. W. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Trilling, D. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, S San Francisco Street, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Wasserman, L. H. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Deep Ecliptic Survey (DES) was a survey project that discovered hundreds of Kuiper Belt objects from 1998 to 2005. Extensive follow-up observations of these bodies has yielded 304 objects with well-determined orbits and dynamical classifications into one of several categories: Classical, Scattered, Centaur, or 16 mean-motion resonances with Neptune. The DES search fields are well documented, enabling us to calculate the probability on each frame of detecting an object with its particular orbital parameters and absolute magnitude at a randomized point in its orbit. The detection probabilities range from a maximum of 0.32 for the 3:2 resonant object 2002 GF {sub 32} to a minimum of 1.5 × 10{sup –7} for the faint Scattered object 2001 FU {sub 185}. By grouping individual objects together by dynamical classes, we can estimate the distributions of four parameters that define each class: semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and object size. The orbital element distributions (a, e, and i) were fit to the largest three classes (Classical, 3:2, and Scattered) using a maximum likelihood fit. Using the absolute magnitude (H magnitude) as a proxy for the object size, we fit a power law to the number of objects versus H magnitude for eight classes with at least five detected members (246 objects). The Classical objects are best fit with a power-law slope of α = 1.02 ± 0.01 (observed from 5 ≤ H ≤ 7.2). Six other dynamical classes (Scattered plus five resonances) have consistent magnitude distribution slopes with the Classicals, provided that the absolute number of objects is scaled. Scattered objects are somewhat more numerous than Classical objects, while there are only a quarter as many 3:2 objects as Classicals. The exception to the power law relation is the Centaurs, which are non-resonant objects with perihelia closer than Neptune and therefore brighter and detectable at smaller sizes. Centaurs were observed from 7.5 < H < 11, and that population is best

  20. Internet and Mobile Technology Use Among Urban African American Parents: Survey Study of a Clinical Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Leandra; Shabazz, Kanya

    2014-01-01

    Background There is considerable potential for mobile technologies to empower pediatric patients and families by improving their communication with health professionals. National surveys suggest minority parents frequently communicate via mobile technology, but it is uncertain how amenable they are to receiving health care information in this format. Although the low cost and far reach characteristics of mobile health (mHealth) technology makes it advantageous for communication with minority parents, data on acceptance are needed. Objective The objective of the study was to determine utilization of mobile and Internet technology by African American parents in an urban, underserved population, and to assess their interest in receiving health information via text messaging or other technologies (eg, social media and the Internet). Methods A survey was administered to parents of children aged 1-12 years covered by public insurance receiving care at 3 pediatric primary care centers in Washington, DC. Results The African American sample (N=302) was composed of primarily single (75.8%, 229/302) mothers. Almost half had more than a high school education (47.7%, 144/302) and incomes above US $25,000 per year (43.0%, 130/302). Most (97.0%, 293/302) reported owning a cell phone, of which 91.1% (275/302) used it to text and 78.5% (237/302) used it to access the Internet. Most had service plans with unlimited text and data, but 26.5% (80/302) experienced service interruptions in the previous year. Home Internet access was more prevalent among those with higher income (86.2%, 112/130), but it was still relatively pervasive among lower income families (66.9%, 83/124). In adjusted logistic regression models, African American mothers with income greater than US $25,000 annually were 4 times as likely to own a tablet computer than their lower income counterparts. Of the participants, 80.8% (244/302) used social networking, primarily Facebook, and 74.2% (224/302) were interested in

  1. Socioeconomic Determinants of Multimorbidity: A Population-Based Household Survey of Hong Kong Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Y Chung

    Full Text Available Multimorbidity has been well researched in terms of consequences and healthcare implications. Nevertheless, its risk factors and determinants, especially in the Asian context, remain understudied. We tested the hypothesis of a negative relationship between socioeconomic status and multimorbidity, with contextually different patterns from those observed in the West.We conducted our study in the general Hong Kong (HK population. Data on current health conditions, health behaviours, socio-demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was obtained from HK Government's Thematic Household Survey. 25,780 individuals aged 15 or above were sampled. Binary logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for presence of multimorbidity and number of chronic conditions, respectively. Sub-analysis of possible mediation effect through financial burden borne by private housing residents on multimorbidity was also conducted.Unadjusted and adjusted models showed that being female, being 25 years or above, having an education level of primary schooling or below, having less than HK$15,000 monthly household income, being jobless or retired, and being past daily smoker were significant risk factors for the presence of multimorbidity and increased number of chronic diseases. Living in private housing was significantly associated with higher chance of multimorbidity and increased number of chronic diseases only after adjustments.Less advantaged people tend to have higher risks of multimorbidity and utilize healthcare from the public sector with poorer primary healthcare experience. Moreover, middle-class people who are not eligible for government subsidized public housing may be of higher risk of multimorbidity due to psychosocial stress from paying for the severely unaffordable private housing.

  2. Colorectal cancer screening of high-risk populations: A national survey of physicians

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    White Pascale M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of colorectal cancer can be decreased by appropriate use of screening modalities. Patients with a family history of colon cancer and of African-American ethnicity are known to be at higher risk of developing colorectal cancer. We aimed to determine if there is a lack of physician knowledge for colorectal cancer screening guidelines based on family history and ethnicity. Between February and April 2009 an anonymous web-based survey was administered to a random sample selected from a national list of 25,000 internists, family physicians and gastroenterologists. A stratified sampling strategy was used to include practitioners from states with high as well as low CRC incidence. All data analyses were performed following data collection in 2009. Results The average knowledge score was 37 ± 18% among the 512 respondents. Gastroenterologists averaged higher scores compared to internists, and family physicians, p = 0.001. Only 28% of physicians correctly identified the screening initiation point for African-Americans while only 12% of physicians correctly identified the screening initiation point and interval for a patient with a family history of CRC. The most commonly cited barriers to referring high-risk patients for CRC screening were "patient refusal" and "lack of insurance reimbursement." Conclusions There is a lack of knowledge amongst physicians of the screening guidelines for high-risk populations, based on family history and ethnicity. Educational programs to improve physician knowledge and to reduce perceived barriers to CRC screening are warranted to address health disparities in colorectal cancer.

  3. Personality disorder and self-rated health: a population-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Marcella; Hotopf, Matthew; Stewart, Robert; Hatch, Stephani; Hayes, Richard; Moran, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the impact of personality disorder (PD) on the health of people living in the community. The authors set out to examine the association between PD and general health, using a cross-sectional survey of a representative community sample in London, UK. A total of 1,698 adults aged 16 years or over from 1,075 randomly selected households were recruited and interviewed face-to-face by trained interviewers. Using multivariable logistic regression, the authors examined the cross-sectional association between PD screen status, as assessed by the Standardised Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS), and self-rated health, adjusting for demographic and health covariates. Of the participants, 14.5% screened positively for PD. A greater proportion of those scoring positively for PD reported poor self-rated health, compared to screen negative participants (41.3% versus 15.0%). This association was reduced, but remained significant, after adjustment for potential confounders (unadjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.99, 95% CI [2.93, 5.42]; fully adjusted OR = 1.53, 95% CI [1.02, 2.29]. Of note, subthreshold symptoms of PD were significantly associated with poor self-rated health (unadjusted OR per unit SAPAS score increment = 1.53, 95% CI [1.40, 1.67]; fully adjusted OR = 1.19, 95% CI [1.07, 1.33]. Furthermore, people screening positive for PD were more likely to report multiple (three or more) long-standing illnesses. The authors conclude that in the general population, individuals who are at high risk for PD are independently at increased risk of poor general health.

  4. Acupuncture, chiropractic and osteopathy use in Australia: a national population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polus Barbara

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no published national studies on the use in Australia of the manipulative therapies, acupuncture, chiropractic or osteopathy, or on matters including the purposes for which these therapies are used, treatment outcomes and the socio-demographic characteristics of users. Methods This study on the three manipulative therapies was a component of a broader investigation on the use of complementary and alternative therapies. For this we conducted a cross-sectional, population survey on a representative sample of 1,067 adults from the six states and two territories of Australia in 2005 by computer-assisted telephone interviews. The sample was recruited by random digit dialling. Results Over a 12-month period, approximately one in four adult Australians used either acupuncture (9.2%, chiropractic (16.1% or osteopathy (4.6% at least once. It is estimated that, adult Australians made 32.3 million visits to acupuncturists, chiropractors and osteopaths, incurring personal expenditure estimated to be A$1.58 billion in total. The most common conditions treated were back pain and related problems and over 90% of the users of each therapy considered their treatment to be very or somewhat helpful. Adverse events are reported. Nearly one fifth of users were referred to manipulative therapy practitioners by medical practitioners. Conclusion There is substantial use of manipulative therapies by adult Australians, especially for back-related problems. Treatments incur considerable personal expenditure. In general, patient experience is positive. Referral by medical practitioners is a major determinant of use of these manipulative therapies.

  5. Population-Based Survey of Filamentous Fungi and Antifungal Resistance in Spain (FILPOP Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, E.; Peláez, T.; Pemán, J.; Zapico, S.; Alvarez, M.; Rodríguez-Tudela, J. L.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.

    2013-01-01

    A population-based survey was conducted to investigate the epidemiology of and antifungal resistance in Spanish clinical strains of filamentous fungi isolated from deep tissue samples, blood cultures, and respiratory samples. The study was conducted in two different periods (October 2010 and May 2011) to analyze seasonal variations. A total of 325 strains were isolated in 29 different hospitals. The average prevalence was 0.0016/1,000 inhabitants. Strains were identified by sequencing of DNA targets and susceptibility testing by the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing reference procedure. The most frequently isolated genus was Aspergillus, accounting for 86.3% of the isolates, followed by Scedosporium at 4.7%; the order Mucorales at 2.5%; Penicillium at 2.2%, and Fusarium at 1.2%. The most frequent species was Aspergillus fumigatus (48.5%), followed by A. flavus (8.4%), A. terreus (8.1%), A. tubingensis (6.8%), and A. niger (6.5%). Cryptic/sibling Aspergillus species accounted for 12% of the cases. Resistance to amphotericin B was found in 10.8% of the isolates tested, while extended-spectrum triazole resistance ranged from 10 to 12.7%, depending on the azole tested. Antifungal resistance was more common among emerging species such as those of Scedosporium and Mucorales and also among cryptic species of Aspergillus, with 40% of these isolates showing resistance to all of the antifungal compounds tested. Cryptic Aspergillus species seem to be underestimated, and their correct classification could be clinically relevant. The performance of antifungal susceptibility testing of the strains implicated in deep infections and multicentric studies is recommended to evaluate the incidence of these cryptic species in other geographic areas. PMID:23669377

  6. Mutation survey of known LCA genes and loci in the Saudi Arabian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yumei; Wang, Hui; Peng, Jianlan; Gibbs, Richard A; Lewis, Richard Alan; Lupski, James R; Mardon, Graeme; Chen, Rui

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive survey of all known Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) genes and loci in a collection of 37 consanguineous LCA families from Saudi Arabia. Direct PCR and sequencing were used to screen 13 known LCA genes (GUCY2D, CRX, RPE65, TULP1, AIPL1, CRB1, RPGRIP1, LRAT, RDH12, IMPDH1, CEP290, RD3, LCA5). In addition, families without mutations identified were further screened with STR markers around these 13 known LCA genes and two loci. Disease-causing mutations were identified in nine of the 37 families: five in TULP1, two in CRB1, one in RPE65, and one in GUCY2D. Mutations in known genes only accounted for 24% of the Saudi families--much less than what has been observed in the European population (65%). Phenotype-genotype analysis was carried out to investigate the LCA disease penetrance for all families whose mutations identified. All identified mutations were found to segregate perfectly with the disease phenotype. On the other hand, severity of the disease varies for different patients carrying the same mutation and even within the same family. Furthermore, based on homozygosity mapping with both STR and SNP markers, one family is likely to map to the LCA3 locus. These results underscore the importance of studying LCA disease families from different ethnic backgrounds to identify additional novel LCA disease genes. Furthermore, perfect segregation between mutation and disease indicates that LCA is fully penetrant. However, phenotypic variations among patients carrying the same mutation suggest that at least some of the variations in the clinical phenotype is due to modification from the genetic background, environment, or other factors.

  7. Sociodemographic Correlates and Morbidity in Lottery Gamblers: Results from a Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Tang, Benjamin; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Picco, Louisa; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the socio-demographic correlates, the association of mental and physical illness, and the prevalence of pathological gambling among three groups (1) those with lottery gambling only (2) those with lottery and other types of gambling and (3) those with other types of gambling only-such as playing cards, sports betting, horse racing, casino gambling etc. Data was used from a nationwide cross-sectional epidemiological nationally representative survey of the resident (Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents) population in Singapore of 6616 Singaporean adults aged 18 years and older. All respondents were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen to screen for pathological gambling. The diagnoses of mental disorders were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and relevant socio-demographic data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Lottery gambling was by far the most popular form of gambling in Singapore, with 83.5 % of those who had ever gambled indicating that they had participated in lottery gambling. Those who participated in lottery gambling alone were more likely to belong to the older age group (as compared to the 18-35 years age group), be of Indian ethnicity, have a secondary or vocational education, and earn a lower income as compared to the other two groups. Our findings that those with pure lottery gambling were significantly less likely to be pathological gamblers and had significantly lower odds of psychiatric and physical morbidity as compared to the other two groups are unique and need further research.

  8. Characteristics associated with being overweight among the population of Ukraine, results of 2000 survey

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    Chagarna, Natalia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Being overweight is considered among major risk factors of chronic non-communicable diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate main determinants associated with being overweight and obese among the population of Ukraine in transitional period.METHODS. Data from the survey “Health and Well-being in the Transitions” (2000 were used. Body mass index (BMI was used to estimate the level of overweight. Binary dependent variable was computed by setting BMI of 25 as the borderline between normal weight and overweight. Risk of being overweight was compared by educational groups, demographic characteristics, occupation, level of physical activity, and behavioral and eating habits, after adjustment for age and stratification by gender.RESULTS. Among men, those overweight were less likely to smoke (adjusted odds ratio 2,5, while more likely to eat meat more often (AOR=2,3 and to consume more vegetable oil. However, among women being overweight was associated with eating more potatoes (AOR = 0,4 and with frequent vodka intake (AOR = 1,7. Those women who drank beer were less likely to be overweight (AOR = 0,3. Risk of being overweight was related to occupation: those unemployed, housekeepers, and self-employed people were less likely to be overweight than those employed with salaries. Obesity risk was greater in those older than 30. Education and physical activity did not show significant associations with risk of being overweight.CONCLUSION. Eating habits, occupational status, and unhealthy habits were associated with obesity among men and women in different ways. Age was found to be an important factor of being overweight both for males and females. Some of the associated characteristics may be considered causes of being overweight and the others as consequences.

  9. Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS): Stony Asteroids Abundant in the Background and Family Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Michael P.; Emery, Joshua P.; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Lindsay, Sean S.; Lorenzi, Vania

    2016-10-01

    The Hungaria region represents a "purgatory" for the closest, preserved samples of the material from which the terrestrial planets accreted. The Hungaria region harbors a collisional family of Xe-type asteroids, which are situated among a background of predominantly S-complex asteroids. Deciphering their surface composition may provide constraints on the nature of the primordial building blocks of the terrestrial planets. We hypothesize that planetesimals in the inner part of the primordial asteroid belt experienced partial- to full-melting and differentiation, the Hungaria region should retain any petrologically-evolved material that formed there.We have undertaken an observational campaign entitled the Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) to record near-infrared (NIR) spectra to characterize taxonomy, surface mineralogy, and potential meteorite analogs. We used NIR instruments at two ground-based facilities (NASA IRTF; TNG). Our data set includes spectra of 82 Hungaria asteroids (61 background; 21 family), 65 were observed during HARTSS. We compare S-complex background asteroids to calibrations developed via laboratory analyses of ordinary chondrites, and to our analyses (EPMA, XRD, VIS+NIR spectra) of 11 primitive achondrite (acapulcoite-lodranite clan) meteorites.We find that stony S-complex asteroids dominate the Hungaria background population (~80%). Background objects exhibit considerable spectral diversity, when quantified by spectral band parameter measurements, translates to a variety of surface compositions. Two main meteorite groups are represented within the Hungaria background: unmelted, nebular L chondrites (and/or L chondrites), and partially-melted primitive achondrites. H-chondrite mineralogies appear to be absent from the Hungaria background. Xe-type Hungaria family members exhibit spectral homogeneity, consistent with the hypothesis that the family was derived from the disruption of a parent body analogous to an enstatite

  10. OSSOS III - Resonant Trans-Neptunian Populations: Constraints from the first quarter of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Kathryn; Gladman, Brett; Lawler, Samantha; Bannister, Michele T; Kavelaars, J J; Petit, Jean-Marc; Gwyn, Stephen; Alexandersen, Mike; Chen, Ying-Tung; Lykawka, Patryk Sofia; Ip, Wing; Lin, Hsing Wen

    2016-01-01

    The first two observational sky "blocks" of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS) have significantly increased the number of well-characterized observed trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) in Neptune's mean motion resonances. We describe the 31 securely resonant TNOs detected by OSSOS so far, and we use them to independently verify the resonant population models from the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS; Gladman et al. 2012), with which we find broad agreement. We confirm that the 5:2 resonance is more populated than models of the outer Solar System's dynamical history predict; our minimum population estimate shows that the high eccentricity (e>0.35) portion of the resonance is at least as populous as the 2:1 and possibly as populated as the 3:2 resonance. One OSSOS block was well-suited to detecting objects trapped at low libration amplitudes in Neptune's 3:2 resonance, a population of interest in testing the origins of resonant TNOs. We detected three 3:2 objects with libration amplitudes below...

  11. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by those with a chronic disease and the general population - results of a national population based survey

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    McChesney Jane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is becoming more common, but population-based descriptions of its patterns of use are lacking. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CAM use in the general population and for those with asthma, diabetes, epilepsy and migraine. Methods Data from cycles 1.1, 2.1 and 3.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS were used for the study. The CCHS is a national cross-sectional survey administered to 400,055 Canadians aged ≥12 between 2001-2005. Self-reported information about professionally diagnosed health conditions was elicited. CCHS surveys use a multistage stratified cluster design to randomly select a representative sample of Canadian household residents. Descriptive data on the utilization of CAM services was calculated and logistic regression was used to determine what sociodemographic factors predict CAM use. Results Weighted estimates show that 12.4% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 12.2-12.5 of Canadians visited a CAM practitioner in the year they were surveyed; this rate was significantly higher for those with asthma 15.1% (95% CI: 14.5-15.7 and migraine 19.0% (95% CI: 18.4-19.6, and significantly lower for those with diabetes 8.0% (95% CI: 7.4-8.6 while the rate in those with epilepsy (10.3%, 95% CI: 8.4-12.2 was not significantly different from the general population. Conclusion A large proportion of Canadians use CAM services. Physicians should be aware that their patients may be accessing other services and should be prepared to ask and answer questions about the risks and benefits of CAM services in conjunction with standard medical care.

  12. Exploring ethical considerations for the use of biological and physiological markers in population-based surveys in less developed countries

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    Hyder Adnan A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health information needs of developing countries increasingly include population-based estimates determined by biological and physiological measures. Collection of data on these biomarkers requires careful reassessment of ethical standards and procedures related to issues of safety, informed consent, reporting, and referral policies. This paper reviews the survey practices of health examination surveys that have been conducted in developed nations and discusses their application to similar types of surveys proposed for developing countries. Discussion The paper contends that a unitary set of ethical principles should be followed for surveys around the world that precludes the danger of creating double standards (and implicitly lowers standards for work done in developing countries. Global ethical standards must, however, be interpreted in the context of the unique historical and cultural context of the country in which the work is being done. Factors that influence ethical considerations, such as the relationship between investigators in developed and developing countries are also discussed. Summary The paper provides a set of conclusions reached through this discussion and recommendations for the ethical use of biomarkers in populations-based surveys in developing countries.

  13. Furthering the understanding of olfaction, prevalence of loss of smell and risk factors: a population-based survey (OLFACAT study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullol, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; Mariño-Sánchez, Franklin; Quintó, Llorenç; de Haro, Josep; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Valero, Antonio; Picado, Cèsar; Marin, Concepció

    2012-01-01

    To investigate olfaction in general population, prevalence of olfactory dysfunction and related risk factors. Cross-sectional population-based survey, distributing four microencapsulated odorants (rose, banana, musk and gas) and two self-administered questionnaires (odour description; epidemiology/health status). The survey was distributed to general population through a bilingual (Catalan, Spanish) newspaper in Catalonia (Spain), on December 2003. Newspaper readers of all ages and gender; 9348 surveys were analysed from the 10 783 returned. Characteristics of surveyed population, olfaction by age and gender, smell self-perception and smell impairment risk factors. Terms normosmia, hyposmia and anosmia were used when participants detected, recognised or identified all four, one to three or none of the odours, respectively. Survey profile was a 43-year-old woman with medium-high educational level, living in a city. Olfaction was considered normal in 80.6% (detection), 56% (recognition/memory) and 50.7% (identification). Prevalence of smell dysfunction was 19.4% for detection (0.3% anosmia, 19.1% hyposmia), 43.5% for recognition (0.2% anosmia, 43.3% hyposmia) and 48.8% for identification (0.8% anosmia, 48% hyposmia). Olfaction was worse (phistory and poor olfactory self-perception for detection; low educational level, poor self-perception and pregnancy for recognition; and older age, poor self-perception and history of head trauma and loss of smell for identification. Smoking and exposure to noxious substances were mild protective factors for smell recognition. Sense of smell in women is better than in men suggesting a learning process during life with deterioration in older ages. Poor self-perception, history of smell loss, head trauma and pregnancy are potential risk factors for olfactory disorders.

  14. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. VIII. Multiplicity properties of the O-type star population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dunstall, P. R.; Evans, C. J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Taylor, W. D.; Walborn, N. R.; Clark, J. S.; Crowther, P. A.; Herrero, A.; Gieles, M.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-02-01

    Context. The Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud is our closest view of a starburst region and is the ideal environment to investigate important questions regarding the formation, evolution and final fate of the most massive stars. Aims: We analyze the multiplicity properties of the massive O-type star population observed through multi-epoch spectroscopy in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. With 360 O-type stars, this is the largest homogeneous sample of massive stars analyzed to date. Methods: We use multi-epoch spectroscopy and variability analysis to identify spectroscopic binaries. We also use a Monte-Carlo method to correct for observational biases. By modeling simultaneously the observed binary fraction, the distributions of the amplitudes of the radial velocity variations and the distribution of the time scales of these variations, we constrain the intrinsic current binary fraction and period and mass-ratio distributions. Results: We observe a spectroscopic binary fraction of 0.35 ± 0.03, which corresponds to the fraction of objects displaying statistically significant radial velocity variations with an amplitude of at least 20 km s-1. We compute the intrinsic binary fraction to be 0.51 ± 0.04. We adopt power-laws to describe the intrinsic period and mass-ratio distributions: f(log 10P/d) ~ (log 10P/d)π (with log 10P/d in the range 0.15-3.5) and f(q) ~ qκ with 0.1 ≤ q = M2/M1 ≤ 1.0. The power-law indexes that best reproduce the observed quantities are π = -0.45 ± 0.30 and κ = -1.0 ± 0.4. The period distribution that we obtain thus favours shorter period systems compared to an Öpik law (π = 0). The mass ratio distribution is slightly skewed towards low mass ratio systems but remains incompatible with a random sampling of a classical mass function (κ = -2.35). The binary fraction seems mostly uniform across the field of view and independent of the spectral types and luminosity classes. The binary fraction in the outer

  15. Developing accurate survey methods for estimating population sizes and trends of the critically endangered Nihoa Millerbird and Nihoa Finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Farmer, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the results of a comparative study of bird survey methods undertaken for the purpose of improving assessments of the conservation status for the two endemic passerines on the Island of Nihoa—Nihoa Millerbird (Sylviidae: Acrocephalus familiaris kingi) and Nihoa Finch (Fringilidae: Telespiza ultima; also referred herein as millerbird and finch)—both listed as endangered under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Hawai`i Revised Statutes 195D. The current survey protocol, implemented since 1967, has produced a highly variable range of counts for both the millerbird and finch, making difficult assessments of population size and trend. This report details the analyses of bird survey data collected in 2010 and 2011 in which three survey methods were compared―strip-transect, line-transect, and point-transect sampling―and provides recommendations for improved survey methods and protocols. Funding for this research was provided through a Science Support Partnership grant sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).

  16. A Survey of Caffeine Use and Associated Side Effects in a College Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Greene, Douglas; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Surveyed 270 college students concerning their caffeine consumption. Results suggest there is identifiable group using excessive amounts of caffeine. Identified several deleterious effects possibly related to caffeine use. Approximately 75 percent of caffeine users surveyed rarely sought information on caffeine content of products or avoided…

  17. EQ-5D-5L in the General German Population: Comparison and Evaluation of Three Yearly Cross-Section Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Manuel B; Reitmeir, Peter; Vogelmann, Martin; Leidl, Reiner

    2016-03-21

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a key measure for evaluating health status in populations. Using the recent EQ-5D-5L for measurement, this study analyzed quality of life results and their stability over consecutive population surveys. Three cross-section surveys for representative samples of the general German population from 2012, 2013, and 2014 were evaluated using the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system and valuation by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Aggregated sample size reached 6074. The dimension with the highest prevalence of problems was pain/discomfort (31.7%). Compared with 2012 (59.3%), the percentage of participants in the best health state increased slightly in 2013 (63.4%) and 2014 (62%). Over the 3-year period, diabetes and heart disease had the strongest negative influence on mean VAS result. The number of reported chronic diseases cumulatively reduced mean VAS. Extreme problems in one or more dimensions were stated by only 0.1%-0.2% of patients. Of the potential 247 health states with a problem score ≥ 20, only six were observed in the aggregated sample. HRQoL results were fairly stable over the 3 years, but the share of the population with no problems was not. Results from the aggregated sample may serve as updated reference values for the general German population.

  18. EQ-5D-5L in the General German Population: Comparison and Evaluation of Three Yearly Cross-Section Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel B. Huber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQoL is a key measure for evaluating health status in populations. Using the recent EQ-5D-5L for measurement, this study analyzed quality of life results and their stability over consecutive population surveys. Three cross-section surveys for representative samples of the general German population from 2012, 2013, and 2014 were evaluated using the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system and valuation by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS. Aggregated sample size reached 6074. The dimension with the highest prevalence of problems was pain/discomfort (31.7%. Compared with 2012 (59.3%, the percentage of participants in the best health state increased slightly in 2013 (63.4% and 2014 (62%. Over the 3-year period, diabetes and heart disease had the strongest negative influence on mean VAS result. The number of reported chronic diseases cumulatively reduced mean VAS. Extreme problems in one or more dimensions were stated by only 0.1%–0.2% of patients. Of the potential 247 health states with a problem score ≥20, only six were observed in the aggregated sample. HRQoL results were fairly stable over the 3 years, but the share of the population with no problems was not. Results from the aggregated sample may serve as updated reference values for the general German population.

  19. Population prevalence of asthma and its determinants based on European Community Respiratory Health Survey in the United Arab Emirates

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    Mahboub Bassam H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No population study has explored the population distribution of adult asthma in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. The objective is to estimate asthma prevalence in general population in UAE. Methods Using standard European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS questionnaires and tools, this is a cross-sectional assessment of a random sample of the population in established quotas of the seven Emirates in the UAE. We surveyed 1,220 participants, of which 63.2% were male, and 20.1% were UAE Nationals, with a mean (SD age of 32.9 (14.1 years. Results Prevalence of individual respiratory symptoms from the ECRHS screening questionnaire in all participants were generally ranging 8 - 10%, while participants 20-44 years presented lower prevalence in all symptoms (p Conclusion We conclude that asthma is common in the UAE, and gender differences are not observed in reported asthma symptoms in young adults. This being the first population based study exploring the prevalence of asthma and its determinants in the United Arab Emirates based on the ECRHS.

  20. Stellar populations of galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey up to $z \\sim 1$. I. MUFFIT: A Multi-Filter Fitting code for stellar population diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-García, L A; López-Sanjuan, C; Ferreras, I; Varela, J; Viironen, K; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D; Moles, M; Marín-Franch, A; Arnalte-Mur, P; Ascaso, B; Cerviño, M; González-Delgado, R M; Márquez, I; Masegosa, J; Molino, A; Pović, M; Alfaro, E; Aparicio-Villegas, T; Benítez, N; Broadhurst, T; Cabrera-Caño, J; Castander, F J; Fernández-Soto, A; Husillos, C; Infante, L; Aguerri, J A L; Martínez, V J; del Olmo, A; Perea, J; Prada, F; Quintana, J M

    2015-01-01

    We present MUFFIT, a new generic code optimized to retrieve the main stellar population parameters of galaxies in photometric multi-filter surveys, and we check its reliability and feasibility with real galaxy data from the ALHAMBRA survey. Making use of an error-weighted $\\chi^2$-test, we compare the multi-filter fluxes of galaxies with the synthetic photometry of mixtures of two single stellar populations at different redshifts and extinctions, to provide through a Monte Carlo method the most likely range of stellar population parameters (mainly ages and metallicities), extinctions, redshifts, and stellar masses. To improve the diagnostic reliability, MUFFIT identifies and removes from the analysis those bands that are significantly affected by emission lines. We highlight that the retrieved age-metallicity locus for a sample of $z \\le 0.22$ early-type galaxies in ALHAMBRA at different stellar mass bins are in very good agreement with the ones from SDSS spectroscopic diagnostics. Moreover, a one-to-one comp...

  1. [A cross-sectional population survey of knee osteoarthritis in Taiyuan region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Chang-hai; Zeng, Qing-yu; Li, Xiao-feng; Dong, Hai-yuan; Zhang, Ai-lian; Zhao, Qi

    2006-07-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is found to be one of the commonest rheumatic disorders. For prevention of knee OA, the risk factors for this condition should first be identified. A population sample of 2188 adults aged 35 - 64 years, living in 6-story buildings without elevators, was surveyed from April to August 2005 in the urban of Taiyuan region, north China. Protocol of APLAR-COPCORD Core Questionnaire for identification of risk factors for knee OA was implemented. The positive respondents were examined simultaneously by rheumatologists. Lateral and anterior-posterior non-weight-bearing knee radiographs were arranged. Variables such as sex, age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, education level, and smoking et al, were included in binary logistic regression model for further analysis. Prevalence rate of knee pain and knee OA was 13.6% and 10.9% respectively, significantly higher than that in Shantou--in south of China and similar with Beijing--in north of China. Both of these prevalence was significantly higher in women than that in men (18.3% vs. 8.7% and 15.1% vs. 6.3%), and with a tendency of being increased with age. The prevalence rate of knee OA was increased more obviously in people after 40 years old in women and after 45 years old in men. BMI in knee OA group was significantly higher than that in non-knee OA group. Binary logistic regression revealed that age, sex, and BMI were significantly associated with knee OA. Whereas there were no significant association between the other factors such as climbing stairs, waist circumference, time length of occupation service, education level, smoking, as well as religious belief and knee OA. Geography, aging (aged > 40 years in woman and > 45 years in man, respectively), female, and overweight (BMI > or = 24 kg/m(2)) might be the associated risk factors of knee OA. No association between climbing stairs and knee OA was found. Prevention of knee OA should be initiated before the middle-aged, especially

  2. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narbada Thapa

    Full Text Available Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite a number of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age.A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis.National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7-28.0, last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3-20.7 and last 30 days (current drinking 11.8% (95% CI:9.8-14.1. There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages (95.9%, 95% CI:94

  3. Health App Possession Among Smartphone or Tablet Owners in Hong Kong: Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Wang, Man Ping; Chu, Joanna Tw; Wan, Alice; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Lam, Tai Hing

    2017-06-05

    Health apps are increasingly used with important implications for health. Hong Kong is one of the most technologically advanced and connected cities-smartphone ownership and Internet access rates are among the highest in the world. We investigated the prevalence of health app possession and related sociodemographic factors and health behaviors among smartphone or tablet owners in Hong Kong. A territory-wide population-based dual (landline and mobile) telephone survey was conducted in 2016. Respondents were asked whether they had health-related apps on their smartphones or tablets and what functions were available on the apps (eg, tracking physical activity and logging health records). Logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% CI of health app possession for different demographic characteristics, socioeconomic position (education, employment, and income), health behaviors (smoking, alcohol, and physical activity) and health (body mass index and chronic diseases). Of the 4129 smartphone or tablet owners (81.28%, 4129/5080 respondents), 995 (24.10%) had a health app. Tracking physical activity (67.0% of 995) and logging health records (43.0% of 995) were the most common functions of the health apps. Overall, younger age, higher education, and household income were associated with having health apps (all Papps (aOR 1.45 [95% CI 1.20-1.75] for 1-3 days/week, and aOR 1.32 [95% CI 1.07-1.62] for ≥4 days/week). Having a history of chronic diseases was associated with having health apps (aOR 1.36 [95% CI 1.11-1.68]). We have shown a lower prevalence of use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in respondents with lower education and income in the most developed Chinese city. This could be seen as a confirmation of the "Inverse information law," which suggests that those most in need have less use of services and hence receive less benefits from advancements in medicine and health related ICTs.

  4. The CALIFA survey across the Hubble sequence. Spatially resolved stellar population properties in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Delgado, R. M.; García-Benito, R.; Pérez, E.; Cid Fernandes, R.; de Amorim, A. L.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; López Fernández, R.; Vale-Asari, N.; Sánchez, S. F.; Mollá, M.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Walcher, C. J.; Alves, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Bekeraité, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; Gallazzi, A.; Husemann, B.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Kalinova, V.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Mast, D.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Mendoza, A.; del Olmo, A.; Pérez, I.; Quirrenbach, A.; Zibetti, S.

    2015-09-01

    Various different physical processes contribute to the star formation and stellar mass assembly histories of galaxies. One important approach to understanding the significance of these different processes on galaxy evolution is the study of the stellar population content of today's galaxies in a spatially resolved manner. The aim of this paper is to characterize in detail the radial structure of stellar population properties of galaxies in the nearby universe, based on a uniquely large galaxy sample, considering the quality and coverage of the data. The sample under study was drawn from the CALIFA survey and contains 300 galaxies observed with integral field spectroscopy. These cover a wide range of Hubble types, from spheroids to spiral galaxies, while stellar masses range from M⋆ ~ 109 to 7 × 1011 M⊙. We apply the fossil record method based on spectral synthesis techniques to recover the following physical properties for each spatial resolution element in our target galaxies: the stellar mass surface density (μ⋆), stellar extinction (AV), light-weighted and mass-weighted ages (⟨log age⟩L, ⟨log age⟩M), and mass-weighted metallicity (⟨log Z⋆⟩M). To study mean trends with overall galaxy properties, the individual radial profiles are stacked in seven bins of galaxy morphology (E, S0, Sa, Sb, Sbc, Sc, and Sd). We confirm that more massive galaxies are more compact, older, moremetal rich, and less reddened by dust. Additionally, we find that these trends are preserved spatially with the radial distance to the nucleus. Deviations from these relations appear correlated with Hubble type: earlier types are more compact, older, and more metal rich for a given M⋆, which is evidence that quenching is related to morphology, but not driven by mass. Negative gradients of ⟨log age⟩L are consistent with an inside-out growth of galaxies, with the largest ⟨log age⟩L gradients in Sb-Sbc galaxies. Further, the mean stellar ages of disks and bulges are

  5. A nationwide population-based cross-sectional survey of health-related quality of life in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms in Denmark (MPNhealthSurvey): survey design and characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochmann, Nana; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Christensen, Anne Illemann; Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Juel, Knud; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Department of Hematology, Zealand University Hospital, Denmark, and the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, created the first nationwide, population-based, and the most comprehensive cross-sectional health-related quality of life (HRQoL) survey of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). In Denmark, all MPN patients are treated in public hospitals and treatments received are free of charge for these patients. Therefore, MPN patients receive the best available treatment to the extent of its suitability for them and if they wish to receive the treatment. The aims of this article are to describe the survey design and the characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents. Material and methods Individuals with MPN diagnoses registered in the Danish National Patient Register (NPR) were invited to participate. The registers of the Danish Civil Registration System and Statistics Denmark provided information regarding demographics. The survey contained 120 questions: validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires and additional questions addressing lifestyle. Results A total of 4,704 individuals were registered with MPN diagnoses in the NPR of whom 4,236 were eligible for participation and 2,613 (62%) responded. Overall, the respondents covered the broad spectrum of MPN patients, but patients 70–79 years old, living with someone, of a Danish/Western ethnicity, and with a higher level of education exhibited the highest response rate. Conclusion A nationwide, population-based, and comprehensive HRQoL survey of MPN patients in Denmark was undertaken (MPNhealthSurvey). We believe that the respondents broadly represent the MPN population in Denmark. However, the differences between respondents and nonrespondents have to be taken into consideration when examining PROs from the respondents. The results of the investigation of the respondents’ HRQoL in this survey will follow in future articles. PMID:28280390

  6. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  7. The Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy Survey (SDGS); 1, CMDs, Reddening and Population Gradients First evidences of a very metal poor population

    CERN Document Server

    Bellazzini, M; Buonanno, R

    1998-01-01

    We present first results of a large photometric survey devoted to study the star formation history of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph). Three wide strips (9 X 35 arcmin^2) located at l~5 and b=-16, -14, -12 have been observed. Each strip is roughly EW oriented, nearly along the major axis of the galaxy. A control field (~9 X 24 arcmin^2), located outside the body of Sgr dSph has also been observed for statistic decontamination purposes. Accurate and well calibrated V,I photometry down to V~22 have been obtained for is the largest photometric sample (covering the widest spatial extension) ever observed in the Sgr dSph up to now. The main new results presented in this paper are: (1) the possible discovery of a strong asymmetry in the distribution of stars along the major axis, since the north-western arm of the Sgr galaxy (i.e. the region nearer to the Galactic Bulge) apparently shows a significant deficiency of Sgr stars and (2) the first direct detection of a very metal poor (and presumably ...

  8. Survey of Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphenus) Populations on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin County, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — St. Vincent National Wildlife refuge was surveyed January 11 and 12, 1979, in order to determine the current status of the gopher tortoise on refuge lands. St....

  9. 2016 Black-footed Ferret Fall Population Survey at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A report summarizing the fall 2016 and spring 2017 black-footed ferret surveys at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. The primary objectives of the...

  10. October 2016 Recruitment Survey of the Rocky Mountain Population of Greater Sandhill Cranes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sandhill crane flocks were surveyed in the San Luis Valley, Colorado (SLV), during 21-26 October 2016 to assess recruitment (% juveniles (juv.)) in the Rocky...

  11. 2014 black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomus ludovicianus) population survey report : Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomus ludovicianus) town native to Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge in Valentine, NE was surveyed for management purposes the...

  12. Moose Population Survey in the Upper Tanana Valley Game Management Unit 12, Alaska, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We conducted an aerial moose (Alces alces) survey on Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge and the northeast corner of Game Management Unit (GMU) 12 from 6 – 22 November...

  13. The population of AM CVn stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, G.H.A.; Nelemans, G.; Groot, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    The AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn) stars are rare interacting white dwarf binaries, whose formation and evolution are still poorly known. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey provides, for the first time, a sample of six

  14. Transgender-inclusive measures of sex/gender for population surveys: Mixed-methods evaluation and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Greta R.; Braimoh, Jessica; Scheim, Ayden I.; Dharma, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    Given that an estimated 0.6% of the U.S. population is transgender (trans) and that large health disparities for this population have been documented, government and research organizations are increasingly expanding measures of sex/gender to be trans inclusive. Options suggested for trans community surveys, such as expansive check-all-that-apply gender identity lists and write-in options that offer maximum flexibility, are generally not appropriate for broad population surveys. These require limited questions and a small number of categories for analysis. Limited evaluation has been undertaken of trans-inclusive population survey measures for sex/gender, including those currently in use. Using an internet survey and follow-up of 311 participants, and cognitive interviews from a maximum-diversity sub-sample (n = 79), we conducted a mixed-methods evaluation of two existing measures: a two-step question developed in the United States and a multidimensional measure developed in Canada. We found very low levels of item missingness, and no indicators of confusion on the part of cisgender (non-trans) participants for both measures. However, a majority of interview participants indicated problems with each question item set. Agreement between the two measures in assessment of gender identity was very high (K = 0.9081), but gender identity was a poor proxy for other dimensions of sex or gender among trans participants. Issues to inform measure development or adaptation that emerged from analysis included dimensions of sex/gender measured, whether non-binary identities were trans, Indigenous and cultural identities, proxy reporting, temporality concerns, and the inability of a single item to provide a valid measure of sex/gender. Based on this evaluation, we recommend that population surveys meant for multi-purpose analysis consider a new Multidimensional Sex/Gender Measure for testing that includes three simple items (one asked only of a small sub-group) to assess gender

  15. Transgender-inclusive measures of sex/gender for population surveys: Mixed-methods evaluation and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Greta R; Braimoh, Jessica; Scheim, Ayden I; Dharma, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    Given that an estimated 0.6% of the U.S. population is transgender (trans) and that large health disparities for this population have been documented, government and research organizations are increasingly expanding measures of sex/gender to be trans inclusive. Options suggested for trans community surveys, such as expansive check-all-that-apply gender identity lists and write-in options that offer maximum flexibility, are generally not appropriate for broad population surveys. These require limited questions and a small number of categories for analysis. Limited evaluation has been undertaken of trans-inclusive population survey measures for sex/gender, including those currently in use. Using an internet survey and follow-up of 311 participants, and cognitive interviews from a maximum-diversity sub-sample (n = 79), we conducted a mixed-methods evaluation of two existing measures: a two-step question developed in the United States and a multidimensional measure developed in Canada. We found very low levels of item missingness, and no indicators of confusion on the part of cisgender (non-trans) participants for both measures. However, a majority of interview participants indicated problems with each question item set. Agreement between the two measures in assessment of gender identity was very high (K = 0.9081), but gender identity was a poor proxy for other dimensions of sex or gender among trans participants. Issues to inform measure development or adaptation that emerged from analysis included dimensions of sex/gender measured, whether non-binary identities were trans, Indigenous and cultural identities, proxy reporting, temporality concerns, and the inability of a single item to provide a valid measure of sex/gender. Based on this evaluation, we recommend that population surveys meant for multi-purpose analysis consider a new Multidimensional Sex/Gender Measure for testing that includes three simple items (one asked only of a small sub-group) to assess gender

  16. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Discovery of a spatially extended low-mass population in the Vela OB2 association

    CERN Document Server

    Sacco, G G; Randich, S; Franciosini, E; Jackson, R J; Cottaar, M; Spina, L; Palla, F; Mapelli, M; Alfaro, E J; Bonito, R; Damiani, F; Frasca, A; Klutsch, A; Lanzafame, A; Bayo, A; Barrado, D; Jimenez-Esteban, F; Gilmore, G; Micela, G; Vallenari, A; Prieto, C Allende; Flaccomio, E; Carraro, G; Costado, M T; Jofre, P; Lardo, C; Magrini, L; Morbidelli, L; Prisinzano, L; Sbordone, L

    2015-01-01

    The nearby (distance~350-400 pc), rich Vela OB2 association, includes $\\gamma^2$ Velorum, one of the most massive binaries in the solar neighbourhood and an excellent laboratory for investigating the formation and early evolution of young clusters. Recent Gaia-ESO survey observations have led to the discovery of two kinematically distinct populations in the young (10-15 Myr) cluster immediately surrounding $\\gamma^2$ Velorum. Here we analyse the results of Gaia-ESO survey observations of NGC 2547, a 35 Myr cluster located two degrees south of $\\gamma^2$ Velorum. The radial velocity distribution of lithium-rich pre-main sequence stars shows a secondary population that is kinematically distinct from and younger than NGC 2547. The radial velocities, lithium absorption lines, and the positions in a colour-magnitude diagram of this secondary population are consistent with those of one of the components discovered around $\\gamma^2$ Velorum. This result shows that there is a young, low-mass stellar population spread...

  17. MORBIDITY PROFILE, HEALTH SEEKING BEHAVIOUR AND HOME ENVIRONMENT SURVEY FOR ADAPTIVE MEASURES IN GERIATRIC POPULATION – URBAN COMMUNITY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warbhe Priya A, Warbhe Rupesh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population ageing is a significant product of demographic transition. Declining fertility and improved health and longevity have generated rising proportions of the older population. Double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affects the geriatric segment of the population with variable health seeking behaviour. Objectives: To assess morbidity profile, health seeking behaviour and home environmental survey for adaptive measures in geriatric population from an urban community. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study stratified systematic random sampling was applied. Research tool was interviewer based closed ended questionnaire. Adaptive measures as part of environment survey were assessed. Proportions and Pearson’s chi-square test were calculated. Results: 64.1% participants were from 60-69 years age category, 9.1% current smokers. 94.1% had 1-3 morbidities, 4.1% had 4-6 morbidities .37.3% gave a history of fall and 31.4% history of fracture. 13.6% cataract operation, 16.8% procedure for fracture.10% had dental procedure. 54.2% went to UHC and GOVT/BMC hospitals for treatment and 78.6% received both allopathic and ayurvedic treatment. History of fall was not associated with adaptive measures in the house (p=0.952. Conclusions: Majority of the participants suffered from old age related morbidities, hypertension emerged as a major morbidity. Most of the participants relied on government hospitals for treatment. Adaptive measures were lacking in most of the houses.

  18. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. III. A QUINTUPLE STELLAR POPULATION IN NGC 2808

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Jerjen, H. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT, 2611 (Australia); Piotto, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, Padova, IT-35122 (Italy); Renzini, A.; Bedin, L. R. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei,” Univ. di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, Padova, IT-35122 (Italy); Anderson, J.; Bellini, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3800 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini s.n.c., I-64100 Teramo (Italy); D’Antona, F.; Ventura, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy)

    2015-07-20

    In this study we present the first results from multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 2808 as an extension of the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic GCs (GO-13297 and previous proprietary and HST archive data). Our analysis allowed us to disclose a multiple-stellar-population phenomenon in NGC 2808 even more complex than previously thought. We have separated at least five different populations along the main sequence and the red giant branch (RGB), which we name A, B, C, D, and E (though an even finer subdivision may be suggested by the data). We identified the RGB bump in four out of the five RGBs. To explore the origin of this complex color–magnitude diagram, we have combined our multi-wavelength HST photometry with synthetic spectra, generated by assuming different chemical compositions. The comparison of observed colors with synthetic spectra suggests that the five stellar populations have different contents of light elements and helium. Specifically, if we assume that NGC 2808 is homogeneous in [Fe/H] (as suggested by spectroscopy for Populations B, C, D, E, but lacking for Population A) and that population A has a primordial helium abundance, we find that populations B, C, D, E are enhanced in helium by ΔY ∼ 0.03, 0.03, 0.08, 0.13, respectively. We obtain similar results by comparing the magnitude of the RGB bumps with models. Planned spectroscopic observations will test whether Population A also has the same metallicity, or whether its photometric differences with Population B can be ascribed to small [Fe/H] and [O/H] differences rather than to helium.

  19. Prevalence of trachoma in unity state, South Sudan: results from a large-scale population-based survey and potential implications for further surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansy Edwards

    Full Text Available Large parts of South Sudan are thought to be trachoma-endemic but baseline data are limited. This study aimed to estimate prevalence for planning trachoma interventions in Unity State, to identify risk factors and to investigate the effect of different sampling approaches on study conclusions.The survey area was defined as one domain of eight counties in Unity State. Across the area, 40 clusters (villages were randomly selected proportional to the county population size in a population-based prevalence survey. The simplified grading scheme was used to classify clinical signs of trachoma. The unadjusted prevalence of trachoma inflammation-follicular (TF in children aged 1-9 years was 70.5% (95% CI: 68.6-72.3. After adjusting for age, sex, county and clustering of cases at household and village level the prevalence was 71.0% (95% CI: 69.9-72.1. The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT in adults was 15.1% (95% CI: 13.4-17.0 and 13.5% (95% CI: 12.0-15.1 before and after adjustment, respectively. We estimate that 700,000 people (the entire population of Unity State require antibiotic treatment and approximately 54,178 people require TT surgery. Risk factor analyses confirmed child-level associations with TF and highlighted that older adults living in poverty are at higher risk of TT. Conditional simulations, testing the alternatives of sampling 20 or 60 villages over the same area, indicated that sampling of only 20 villages would have provided an acceptable level of precision for state-level prevalence estimation to inform intervention decisions in this hyperendemic setting.Trachoma poses an enormous burden on the population of Unity State. Comprehensive control is urgently required to avoid preventable blindness and should be initiated across the state now. In other parts of South Sudan suspected to be highly trachoma endemic, counties should be combined into larger survey areas to generate the baseline data required to initiate interventions.

  20. Multiple populations in Galactic globular clusters: a survey in the Strömgren system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso-García, J.; Catelan, M.; Amigo, P.;

    2013-01-01

    We are coming to believe that stellar populations in globular clusters are not as simple as they were once thought to be. A growing amount of photometric and spectroscopic evidence shows that globular clusters host at least two different stellar populations. In our contribution to these proceedin...

  1. Drug-induced renal function impairment : a population-based survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monster, TBM; de Jong, PE; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW

    2003-01-01

    Purpose The knowledge that drugs can affect renal function is mainly based on experimental studies or case reports. Thus, it has only been investigated in selected populations. Here we describe drug groups associated with altered renal function in the general population. Methods To study this, we us

  2. Hungaria asteroid region telescopic spectral survey (HARTSS) I: Stony asteroids abundant in the Hungaria background population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Michael P.; Emery, Joshua P.; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Lindsay, Sean S.; Lorenzi, Vania

    2017-07-01

    The Hungaria asteroids remain as survivors of late giant planet migration that destabilized a now extinct inner portion of the primordial asteroid belt and left in its wake the current resonance structure of the Main Belt. In this scenario, the Hungaria region represents a ;purgatory; for the closest, preserved samples of the asteroidal material from which the terrestrial planets accreted. Deciphering the surface composition of these unique samples may provide constraints on the nature of the primordial building blocks of the terrestrial planets. We have undertaken an observational campaign entitled the Hungaria Asteroid Region Telescopic Spectral Survey (HARTSS) to record near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra in order to characterize their taxonomy, surface mineralogy, and potential meteorite analogs. The overall objective of HARTSS is to evaluate the compositional diversity of asteroids located throughout the Hungaria region. This region harbors a collisional family of Xe-type asteroids, which are situated among a background (i.e., non-family) of predominantly S-complex asteroids. In order to assess the compositional diversity of the Hungaria region, we have targeted background objects during Phase I of HARTSS. Collisional family members likely reflect the composition of one original homogeneous parent body, so we have largely avoided them in this phase. We have employed NIR instruments at two ground-based telescope facilities: the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), and the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). Our data set includes the NIR spectra of 42 Hungaria asteroids (36 background; 6 family). We find that stony S-complex asteroids dominate the Hungaria background population (29/36 objects; ∼80%). C-complex asteroids are uncommon (2/42; ∼5%) within the Hungaria region. Background S-complex objects exhibit considerable spectral diversity as band parameter measurements of diagnostic absorption features near 1- and 2-μm indicate that several

  3. Spatio-temporal population genetic survey of the Danish pine marten (Martes martes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Barker, J Stuart F; Madsen, Aksel Bo;

    2008-01-01

    samples indicates changes in the genetic compositions over time, and the higher FST values between the two recent samples, as compared with the two historical samples, indicates that the populations in Sealand and Jutland have drifted apart within a short time span. No deviation from Hardy......A spatio-temporal study of genetic variation in the Danish pine marten (Martes martes) populations from the Jutland peninsula and from the island of Sealand was performed using 11 microsatellite markers. Samples obtained from 1892 to 2003 were subdivided into historical (prior to 1970) and recent...... (from 1970) groups. As compared with the historical samples, there was a significant loss of genetic variation in the recent Jutland population, but not in Sealand. Effective population sizes were estimated using Bayesian-based software (TMVP). Historical effective population sizes were 5897 (90...

  4. Recruitment using mobile telephones in an Irish general population sexual health survey: challenges and practical solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Orla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-coverage of households without a landline telephone is a major concern of telephone survey researchers. Sampling mobile telephone users in national surveys is vital in order to gain access to the growing proportion of households that use mobile telephones extensively or exclusively. The complex logistics of conducting surveys with mobile telephones have been discussed in the literature. This paper outlines the actual challenges encountered during a recent national sexual health survey in Ireland, which utilized a mobile telephone sampling frame to recruit approximately half of the sample. Method The 2010 Irish Contraception and Crisis Pregnancy Survey (ICCP-2010 is a nationally representative sample of adults aged 18-45 years living in Ireland (n = 3002; 1416 recruited by landline telephone and 1586 recruited by mobile telephone. The overall response rate for the survey was 69% (79% for the landline telephone strand; 61% for the mobile telephone strand. All interviews were conducted using computer-assisting telephone interviewing. Results During the 18-week fieldwork period, five main challenges relating to the use of mobile telephones were encountered: (1 explaining to respondents how random digit dialling works in relation to mobile telephones; (2 establishing the respondent's eligibility; (3 calling the respondent with the Caller ID blocked or withheld; (4 calling the respondent when they are in any number of locations or situations; and (5 explaining to respondents the importance of refusal conversion calls for the response rate calculation. Details of how the survey protocols and procedures were monitored and adapted throughout the study to ensure a high response rate are outlined. Conclusion It is undeniably more challenging to recruit respondents using mobile telephones as opposed to landline telephones. Respondents are generally not familiar with being contacted on their personal mobile telephone for the purposes

  5. Modeling the Performance of the LSST in Surveying the Near-Earth Object Population

    CERN Document Server

    Grav, Tommy; Spahr, Tim

    2016-01-01

    We have performed a detailed survey simulation of the LSST performance with regards to near-Earth objects (NEOs) using the project's current baseline cadence. The survey shows that if the project is able to reliably generate linked sets of positions and times (a so-called "tracklet") using two detections of a given object per night and can link these tracklets into a track with a minimum of 3 tracklets covering more than a ~12 day length-of-arc, they would be able to discover 62% of the potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) larger than 140 m in its projected 10 year survey lifetime. This completeness would be reduced to 58% if the project is unable to implement a pipeline using the two detection cadence and has to adopt the four detection cadence more commonly used by existing NEO surveys. When including the estimated performance from the current operating surveys, assuming these would continue running until the start of LSST and perhaps beyond, the completeness fraction for PHAs larger than 140m would be 73...

  6. Interpreting surveys to estimate the size of the monarch butterfly population: Pitfalls and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleasants, John M.; Zalucki, Myron P.; Oberhauser, Karen S.; Brower, Lincoln P.; Taylor, Orley R.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the change in the size of the eastern North American monarch butterfly summer population, studies have used long-term data sets of counts of adult butterflies or eggs per milkweed stem. Despite the observed decline in the monarch population as measured at overwintering sites in Mexico, these studies found no decline in summer counts in the Midwest, the core of the summer breeding range, leading to a suggestion that the cause of the monarch population decline is not the loss of Midwest agricultural milkweeds but increased mortality during the fall migration. Using these counts to estimate population size, however, does not account for the shift of monarch activity from agricultural fields to non-agricultural sites over the past 20 years, as a result of the loss of agricultural milkweeds due to the near-ubiquitous use of glyphosate herbicides. We present the counter-hypotheses that the proportion of the monarch population present in non-agricultural habitats, where counts are made, has increased and that counts reflect both population size and the proportion of the population observed. We use data on the historical change in the proportion of milkweeds, and thus monarch activity, in agricultural fields and non-agricultural habitats to show why using counts can produce misleading conclusions about population size. We then separate out the shifting proportion effect from the counts to estimate the population size and show that these corrected summer monarch counts show a decline over time and are correlated with the size of the overwintering population. In addition, we present evidence against the hypothesis of increased mortality during migration. The milkweed limitation hypothesis for monarch decline remains supported and conservation efforts focusing on adding milkweeds to the landscape in the summer breeding region have a sound scientific basis.

  7. Furthering the understanding of olfaction, prevalence of loss of smell and risk factors: a population-based survey (OLFACAT study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullol, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; Mariño-Sánchez, Franklin; Quintó, Llorenç; de Haro, Josep; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Valero, Antonio; Picado, Cèsar; Marin, Concepció

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate olfaction in general population, prevalence of olfactory dysfunction and related risk factors. Design Cross-sectional population-based survey, distributing four microencapsulated odorants (rose, banana, musk and gas) and two self-administered questionnaires (odour description; epidemiology/health status). Setting The survey was distributed to general population through a bilingual (Catalan, Spanish) newspaper in Catalonia (Spain), on December 2003. Participants Newspaper readers of all ages and gender; 9348 surveys were analysed from the 10 783 returned. Main outcome measures Characteristics of surveyed population, olfaction by age and gender, smell self-perception and smell impairment risk factors. Terms normosmia, hyposmia and anosmia were used when participants detected, recognised or identified all four, one to three or none of the odours, respectively. Results Survey profile was a 43-year-old woman with medium–high educational level, living in a city. Olfaction was considered normal in 80.6% (detection), 56% (recognition/memory) and 50.7% (identification). Prevalence of smell dysfunction was 19.4% for detection (0.3% anosmia, 19.1% hyposmia), 43.5% for recognition (0.2% anosmia, 43.3% hyposmia) and 48.8% for identification (0.8% anosmia, 48% hyposmia). Olfaction was worse (psmell detection decline however smell recognition and identification increased up to fourth decade and declined after the sixth decade of life. Risk factors for anosmia were: male gender, loss of smell history and poor olfactory self-perception for detection; low educational level, poor self-perception and pregnancy for recognition; and older age, poor self-perception and history of head trauma and loss of smell for identification. Smoking and exposure to noxious substances were mild protective factors for smell recognition. Conclusions Sense of smell in women is better than in men suggesting a learning process during life with deterioration in older ages. Poor

  8. [The Health, Well-Being, and Aging ("SABE") survey: methodology applied and profile of the study population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albala, Cecilia; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; León Díaz, Esther María; Ham-Chande, Roberto; Hennis, Anselm J; Palloni, Alberto; Peláez, Martha; Pratts, Omar

    2005-01-01

    This document outlines the methodology of the Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (Health, Well-Being, and Aging) survey (known as the "SABE survey"), and it also summarizes the challenges that the rapid aging of the population in Latin America and the Caribbean imposes on society in general and especially on health services. The populations of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean are aging at a rate that has not been seen in the developed world. The evaluation of health problems and disability among older adults in those countries indicates that those persons are aging with more functional limitations and worse health than is true for their counterparts in developed nations. In addition, family networks in Latin America and the Caribbean are changing rapidly and have less capacity to make up for the lack of protections provided by social institutions. The multicenter SABE study was developed with the objective of evaluating the state of health of older adults in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean: Bridgetown, Barbados; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Havana, Cuba; Mexico City, Mexico; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. The SABE survey has established the starting point for systematic research on aging in urban areas of Latin America and the Caribbean. Comparative studies of these characteristics and with this comparative nature should be extended to other countries, areas, and regions of the world in order to expand the knowledge available on older adults.

  9. Improving knowledge about disability transitions by adding retrospective information to panel surveys. Population Health Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Douglas A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Panel data are often used to estimate key measures of public health, such as years lived with and without disability. Panel surveys commonly measure disability at intervals of one or two years, and occasionally more than two. It is likely that these intervals often include unreported changes in functional status. Unreported changes may bias estimates of disability transition probabilities, which are commonly used to estimate years lived with and without disability. Most surveys do not ask participants about periods with and without disability in the time since they last responded to the survey. We examined a way to improve the usefulness of panel surveys and our understanding of disability processes, by eliciting retrospective disability information. Methods Data were from the United States' National Long Term Care Survey. At each wave, this survey asks disabled respondents how long they have been disabled. We tested whether estimates of probabilities predicting changes in disability status can be improved by making use of this retrospective disability information. Methods included embedded Markov Chain analysis, microsimulation, and the Hausman specification test. Results Estimates based on data that include retrospective information are significantly different from those that use only the more limited information that is contemporaneous to the surveys. They are also more efficient. At age 65, all estimated probabilities for becoming disabled were higher when retrospective information was used, and all probabilities for remaining disabled were lower. Microsimulation revealed that using retrospective information increased the number of functional status transitions. For example, for women the mean number of transitions from nondisabled to disabled or dead was 52.7% greater when retrospective information was added to the analysis. Conclusion Our results suggest that the value of future panel studies for estimating transitions

  10. Incidence of hospital referred head injuries in Norway: a population based survey from the Stavanger region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommer, Bertil Roland; Heskestad, Ben; Baardsen, Roald;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In three previous Norwegian studies conducted between 1974 and 1993, the annual incidence rates of hospital admitted head injuries were 236, 200 and 169 per 100,000 population. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of head injury in the Stavanger region and to compare......,317 inhabitants (2003). RESULTS: The annual incidence rate was 207/100,000 population for hospital referred head injury and 157/100,000 population for hospital admitted head injury. High age- and sex specific incidence rates were observed among the oldest, and the highest rate (882/100,000) among men above 90...

  11. Measuring personal beliefs and perceived norms about intimate partner violence: Population-based survey experiment in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Kakuhikire, Bernard; Perkins, Jessica M; Vořechovská, Dagmar; McDonough, Amy Q; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; Downey, Jordan M; Bangsberg, David R

    2017-05-01

    Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted throughout sub-Saharan Africa indicate there is widespread acceptance of intimate partner violence, contributing to an adverse health risk environment for women. While qualitative studies suggest important limitations in the accuracy of the DHS methods used to elicit attitudes toward intimate partner violence, to date there has been little experimental evidence from sub-Saharan Africa that can be brought to bear on this issue. We embedded a randomized survey experiment in a population-based survey of 1,334 adult men and women living in Nyakabare Parish, Mbarara, Uganda. The primary outcomes were participants' personal beliefs about the acceptability of intimate partner violence and perceived norms about intimate partner violence in the community. To elicit participants' personal beliefs and perceived norms, we asked about the acceptability of intimate partner violence in five different vignettes. Study participants were randomly assigned to one of three survey instruments, each of which contained varying levels of detail about the extent to which the wife depicted in the vignette intentionally or unintentionally violated gendered standards of behavior. For the questions about personal beliefs, the mean (standard deviation) number of items where intimate partner violence was endorsed as acceptable was 1.26 (1.58) among participants assigned to the DHS-style survey variant (which contained little contextual detail about the wife's intentions), 2.74 (1.81) among participants assigned to the survey variant depicting the wife as intentionally violating gendered standards of behavior, and 0.77 (1.19) among participants assigned to the survey variant depicting the wife as unintentionally violating these standards. In a partial proportional odds regression model adjusting for sex and village of residence, with participants assigned to the DHS-style survey variant as the referent group, participants assigned the survey variant

  12. September 2012 Survey of the Rocky Mountain Population of Greater Sandhill Cranes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Greater sandhill cranes of the Rocky Mountain Population (RMP) were counted at fall premigration staging areas in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming during...

  13. Black Tern Population Survey and other Marsh Bird Monitoring Activities in Vermont 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report looks at marsh bird population trends within the marshes of Vermont, and investigates the effect of water level and marsh vegetation changes on marsh...

  14. Bird populations in coastal habitats, Arctic National Wildlife Range, Alaska: Results of 1978 and 1979 surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Within the coastal zone of the Arctic National Wildlife Range, the highest breeding populations of birds occurred in wet and flooded sedge tundra areas surrounded by...

  15. Black Tern Population Survey and other Marsh Bird Monitoring Activities in Vermont 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report looks at marsh bird population trends within the marshes of Vermont, and investigates the effect of water level and marsh vegetation changes on marsh...

  16. Gopher Tortoise Survey, Population Evaluation, and Habitat Suitability: Final Report to Georgia Department of Natural Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report desribes methods and results of the line transect distance sampling approach used to derive baseline gopher tortoise population estimates at 20 sites...

  17. September 2013 Survey of the Rocky Mountain Population of Greater Sandhill Cranes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Greater sandhill cranes of the Rocky Mountain Population (RMP) were counted at fall premigration staging areas in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming during...

  18. Black Tern Population Survey and other Marsh Bird Monitoring Activities in Vermont 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report looks at marsh bird population trends within the marshes of Vermont, and investigates the effect of water level and marsh vegetation changes on marsh...

  19. Black Tern Population Survey and other Marsh Bird Monitoring Activities in Vermont 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report takes a look at marsh bird population trends within the marshes of Vermont, and investigates the effect of water level and marsh vegetation changes on...

  20. Chemokine Receptor Expression on Normal Blood CD56+ NK-Cells Elucidates Cell Partners That Comigrate during the Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses and Identifies a Transitional NK-Cell Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of chemokine receptors (CKR in natural killer- (NK- cells have already been published, but only a few gave detailed information on its differential expression on blood NK-cell subsets. We report on the expression of the inflammatory and homeostatic CKR on normal blood CD56+low CD16+ and CD56+high  CD16-/+low NK-cells. Conventional CD56+low and CD56+high NK-cells present in the normal PB do express CKR for inflammatory cytokines, although with different patterns CD56+low NK-cells are mainly CXCR1/CXCR2+ and CXCR3/CCR5−/+, whereas mostly CD56+high NK-cells are CXCR1/CXCR2− and CXCR3/CCR5+. Both NK-cell subsets have variable CXCR4 expression and are CCR4− and CCR6−. The CKR repertoire of the CD56+low NK-cells approaches to that of neutrophils, whereas the CKR repertoire of the CD56+high NK-cells mimics that of Th1+ T cells, suggesting that these cells are prepared to migrate into inflamed tissues at different phases of the immune response. In addition, we describe a subpopulation of NK-cells with intermediate levels of CD56 expression, which we named CD56+int NK-cells. These NK-cells are CXCR3/CCR5+, they have intermediate levels of expression of CD16, CD62L, CD94, and CD122, and they are CD57− and CD158a−. In view of their phenotypic features, we hypothesize that they correspond to a transitional stage, between the well-known CD56+high and CD56+low NK-cells populations.

  1. Combining Propensity Score Methods and Complex Survey Data to Estimate Population Treatment Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Dong, Nianbo; Lenis, David

    2016-01-01

    Complex surveys are often used to estimate causal effects regarding the effects of interventions or exposures of interest. Propensity scores (Rosenbaum & Rubin, 1983) have emerged as one popular and effective tool for causal inference in non-experimental studies, as they can help ensure that groups being compared are similar with respect to a…

  2. Binge-Eating and Vomiting: A Survey of a High School Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jo A.; Duncan, Pamela A.

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 421 high school females to determine the prevalence of bulimia. Teenage vomiters were found to have higher levels of somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, depression, and disturbed attitudes toward food, eating, and dieting. The findings provided information useful to school personnel who work with adolescents. (JAC)

  3. 77 FR 58510 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Current Population Survey (CPS), Annual Social...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Survey (CPS), Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau, Commerce. ACTION... Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to be conducted in conjunction with the February, March, and... casual attachment to the labor market. The income data from the ASEC are used by social...

  4. Population-Based Pediatric Reference Intervals in General Clinical Chemistry: A Swedish Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridefelt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Very few high quality studies on pediatric reference intervals for general clinical chemistry and hematology analytes have been performed. Three recent prospective community-based projects utilising blood samples from healthy children in Sweden, Denmark and Canada have substantially improved the situation. The Swedish survey included 701 healthy children. Reference intervals for general clinical chemistry and hematology were defined.

  5. Tuberculosis burden in an urban population: a cross sectional tuberculosis survey from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; da Silva, Zacarias J; Ravn, Pernille;

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in low income countries. We conducted a cross sectional survey for pulmonary TB and TB symptoms in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in an urban cohort with known HIV prevalence. TB surveillance in the area is routinely...

  6. Serologic survey for viral and bacterial infections in western populations of Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman Biek; Randall L. Zarnke; Colin Gillin; Margaret Wild; John R. Squires; Mary Poss

    2002-01-01

    A serologic survey for exposure to pathogens in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western North America was conducted. Samples from 215 lynx from six study areas were tested for antibodies to feline parvovirus (FPV), feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis. A subset of...

  7. Tuberculosis burden in an urban population: a cross sectional tuberculosis survey from Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; da Silva, Zacarias J; Ravn, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in low income countries. We conducted a cross sectional survey for pulmonary TB and TB symptoms in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, in an urban cohort with known HIV prevalence. TB surveillance in the area is routinely based...

  8. NGC 1980 Is Not a Foreground Population of Orion: Spectroscopic Survey of Young Stars with Low Extinction in Orion A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Min; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Dániel; Zhang, Lan; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Alonso-Martínez, Miguel; Eiroa, Carlos; Wang, Hongchi

    2017-04-01

    We perform a spectroscopic survey of the foreground population in Orion A with MMT/Hectospec. We use these data, along with archival spectroscopic data and photometric data, to derive spectral types, extinction values, and masses for 691 stars. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope data, we characterize the disk properties of these sources. We identify 37 new transition disk (TD) objects, 1 globally depleted disk candidate, and 7 probable young debris disks. We discover an object with a mass of less than 0.018-0.030 M ⊙, which harbors a flaring disk. Using the Hα emission line, we characterize the accretion activity of the sources with disks, and confirm that the fraction of accreting TDs is lower than that of optically thick disks (46% ± 7% versus 73% ± 9%, respectively). Using kinematic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and APOGEE INfrared Spectroscopy of the Young Nebulous Clusters program (IN-SYNC), we confirm that the foreground population shows similar kinematics to their local molecular clouds and other young stars in the same regions. Using the isochronal ages, we find that the foreground population has a median age of around 1-2 Myr, which is similar to that of other young stars in Orion A. Therefore, our results argue against the presence of a large and old foreground cluster in front of Orion A.

  9. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48% compared to females (46%. Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Patterns of response by sociodemographic characteristics and recruitment methods for women in UK population surveys and cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howcutt, Sarah J; Barnett, Anna L; Barbosa-Boucas, Sofia; Smith, Lesley A

    2017-03-23

    Women are an important public health focus, because they are more likely to experience some social determinants of disease, and they influence family health. Little research has explored the sociodemographic representativeness of women in research studies. We examined the representativeness of female respondents across four sociodemographic factors in UK population surveys and cohort studies. Six UK population-based health surveys (from 2009-2013) and eight Medical Research Council cohort studies (from 1991 to 2014) were included. Percentages of women respondents by age, income/occupation, education status, and ethnicity were compared against contemporary population estimates. Women aged women were under-represented in four of nine studies. Within income/occupation, at the highest deprivation level, the range was 4 percent under-representation to 43 percent over-representation; at the lowest level, it was 6 percent under-representation to 21 percent over representation. Of nine studies reporting educational level, four under-represented women without school qualifications, and three under-represented women with degrees. One of five studies over-represented non-white groups and under-represented white women (by 9 percent). Response patterns varied by topic and recruitment and data collection methods. Future research should focus upon the methods used to identify, reach, and engage women to improve representativeness in studies addressing health behaviors.

  11. The population impact of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes: Analysis of a health population survey in Chile, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoglia, María P; Gormaz, Juan G; Libuy, Matías; Sanhueza, Dérgica; Gajardo, Abraham; Srur, Andrea; Wallbaum, Magdalena; Erazo, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the impact of tobacco use, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and alcohol consumption on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence in the Chilean population. The study-included 5,293 subjects with fasting glycaemia levels from the nationwide cross-sectional health survey in 2010, commissioned by the Ministry of Health, Chile. Crude and Adjusted Odds Ratio to T2DM and its corresponding 95% confidence interval were estimated through logistic regressions. Attributable fractions and population attributable fractions were estimated. T2DM prevalence was 9.5%. Sedentary lifestyles and obesity were significant risk factors for T2DM. 52,4% of T2DM could be avoided if these individuals were not obese, and at a population level, 23% of T2DM could be preventable if obesity did not exist. A 64% of T2DM is explained by sedentariness, and if people would become active, a 62,2% of the cases of diabetes could be avoided. About 79% of T2DM cases in Chile could be prevented with cost-effective strategies focused on preventing sedentary lifestyle and obesity. It's therefore urgent to implement evidence-based public health polices, aimed to decrease the prevalence of T2DM, by controlling its risk factors and consequently, reducing the complications from T2DM.

  12. Reproductive pattern in agrarian and immigrant receptor populations: a survey of El Ejido (SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Verónica; Luna, Francisco

    2005-06-01

    This paper deals with the fertility pattern of the El Ejido population, an agricultural Spanish community characterised by the rapid development of its modern agrarian economy. Consequently, the arrival of immigrants has sharply increased throughout the second half of the twentieth century, with important demographic consequences as well as reproductive changes. The analyses of the age-specific fertility rate (fx) and the total fertility rate (TFR) were used in order to describe the reproductive pattern of this population in 2000. The main characteristics were the following: a) Regarding the temporal change, an important decrease of fx has been observed in all age groups for the last twenty years, as a consequence of progressive birth control. However, the reproductive pattern has kept almost invariable and has been characterised by a maximum fertility at age group of 25-29 years old. b) Regarding the general Spanish fertility, the comparison of fx in both populations suggests a younger maternity in the agricultural population than in the national, the maximum fertility delayed to the 30-34 age group. c) Moreover, the El Ejido population showed a clear higher offspring per woman (TFR = 1.42) than the national (TFR = 1.24), according to the agrarian character of the El Ejido population. d) Finally, this greater reproductive level of El Ejido is also due to the arrival of women at fertile age, who come mainly from Africa, and above all from Morocco.

  13. Galactic bulge population II Cepheids in the VVV survey: period-luminosity relations and a distance to the Galactic centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Rejkuba, M.; Minniti, D.; Surot, F.; Valenti, E.; Zoccali, M.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Romaniello, M.; Kanbur, S. M.; Singh, H. P.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Multiple stellar populations of different ages and metallicities reside in the Galactic bulge that trace its structure and provide clues to its formation and evolution. Aims: We present the near-infrared observations of population II Cepheids in the Galactic bulge from VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) survey. The JHKs photometry together with optical data from Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) survey provide an independent estimate of the distance to the Galactic centre. The old, metal-poor and low-mass population II Cepheids are also investigated as useful tracers for the structure of the Galactic bulge. Methods: We identify 340 population II Cepheids in the VVV survey Galactic bulge catalogue based on their match with the OGLE-III Catalogue. The single-epoch JH and multi-epoch Ks observations complement the accurate periods and optical (VI) mean-magnitudes from OGLE. The sample consisting of BL Herculis and W Virginis subtypes is used to derive period-luminosity relations after correcting mean-magnitudes for the extinction. Our Ks-band period-luminosity relation, Ks = -2.189(0.056) [log (P)-1] + 11.187(0.032), is consistent with published work for BL Herculis and W Virginis variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Results: We present a combined OGLE-III and VVV catalogue with periods, classification, mean magnitudes, and extinction for 264 Galactic bulge population II Cepheids that have good-quality Ks-band light curves. The absolute magnitudes for population II Cepheids and RR Lyraes calibrated using Gaia and Hubble Space Telescope parallaxes, together with calibrated magnitudes for Large Magellanic Cloud population II Cepheids, are used to obtain a distance to the Galactic centre, R0 = 8.34 ± 0.03(stat.) ± 0.41(syst.), which changes by with different extinction laws. While noting the limitation of small number statistics, we find that the present sample of population II Cepheids in the Galactic bulge shows a nearly spheroidal

  14. Survey and comparison of major intestinal flora in captive and wild ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villers, Lynne M; Jang, Spencer S; Lent, Cheryl L; Lewin-Koh, Sock-Cheng; Norosoarinaivo, Jeanne Aimée

    2008-02-01

    A survey to identify the major intestinal species of aerobic bacteria, protozoa and helminths was conducted on captive and wild populations of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Samples were collected from 50 captive lemurs at 11 zoological institutions in the United States. In Madagascar, 98 aerobic bacteria samples and 99 parasite samples were collected from eight sites chosen to cover a variety of populations across the species range. Identical collection, preservation and lab techniques were used for captive and wild populations. The predominant types of aerobic bacteria flora were identified via five separate tests. The tests for parasites conducted included flotation, sedimentation and FA/GC. Twenty-seven bacteria unique to either the captive or wild populations were cultured with eight of these being statistically significantly different. Fourteen bacteria common to both populations were cultured, of which six differed significantly. Entamoeba coli was the only parasite common to both the captive and wild populations. Giardia spp., Isospora spp., strongyles-type ova, Entamoeba spp. and Entamoeba polecki were found only in captive samples. Cryptosporidium, Balantidium coli, pinworm-type ova, and two fluke-like ova were seen only in wild samples. In addition, samples were compared for both bacteria and parasites from three unique field sites in Madagascar. In this three-site comparison, six types of bacteria were statistically significantly different. No significant differences regarding parasites were seen. Significant differences were found between the captive and wild populations, whereas fewer differences were found between sites within Madagascar. Although we isolated Campylobacter and Giardia, all animals appeared clinically healthy. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Describing perceived stigma against Alzheimer's disease in a general population in France: the STIG-MA survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piver, Leslie Cartz; Nubukpo, Philippe; Faure, Angélique; Dumoitier, Nathalie; Couratier, Philippe; Clément, Jean-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes progressive loss of memory and disability, especially in older people. As worldwide population grows older, AD is responsible for an important social and economical burden in many nations. People suffering from AD may experience health-related stigma that influences their attitudes towards seeking assistance. The STIG-MA survey describes perceived stigma against AD in a French population. The STIG-MA questionnaire was completed anonymously by people attending an awareness campaign about AD in Creuse, France, in September 2010. Participants answered 10 questions about how they would feel or react if they had AD. Stigma scores were compared by age, activity, and interest in AD. Thirty-three percent of people attending the campaign filled out the survey. Most were women (85%) younger than 50 years (59%); 10% were older people (older than 75 years). Twenty-one percent worked in health or social fields. Interest in AD was professional (48%), related to family (41%), or personal (11%). Professionals in health fields expressed the highest levels of stigma (p = 0.02). Low stigma was most frequent in older people (p = 0.05). Type of interest did not influence stigma. Shame, loss of self-esteem, and fear of exclusion were expressed the most. The STIG-MA survey confirms that AD is a stigmatizing condition in France. The difference between perceived stigma of older people, those most exposed to AD, and that of health professionals may influence attitudes towards screening and care. Further studies of perceived stigma in these populations are necessary to adapt intervention strategies. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Environmental awareness in Germany 2010. Results of a representative population survey; Umweltbewusstsein in Deutschland 2010. Ergebnisse einer repraesentativen Bevoelkerungsumfrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgstedt, Silke; Christ, Tamina [Sinus-Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Reusswig, Fritz [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    In the background paper under consideration, the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the results of a representative population survey on the environmental awareness in Germany. The topics of this paper are: (a) Environmental policy as a organisational task; (b) Environmental quality, health and risk perception; (c) Climatic change as a cultural change?; (d) Technological and cultural innovations; (e) Environment engagement between personal responsibility and delegation; (f) Milieu-specific potentials for environmentally sensitive consumer behaviour.

  17. Incidence Rate of Community-Acquired Sepsis Among Hospitalized Acute Medical Patients-A Population-Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Laursen, Christian B; Jensen, Thøger Gorm

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Sepsis is a frequent cause of admission, but incidence rates based on administrative data have previously produced large differences in estimates. The aim of the study was to estimate the incidence of community-acquired sepsis based on patients' symptoms and clinical findings at arrival...... to the hospital. DESIGN:: Population-based survey. SETTING:: Medical emergency department from September 1, 2010, to August 31, 2011. PATIENTS:: All patients were manually reviewed using a structured protocol in order to identify the presence of infection. Vital signs and laboratory values were collected...

  18. Generational Differences in Fast Food Intake Among South-Asian Americans: Results From a Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Patti; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Banta, Jim E.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between generational status and fast food consumption among South-Asian Americans. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011. After adjusting for control variables, South-Asian Americans of the third generation or more had a fast food intake rate per week 2.22 times greater than first generation South-Asian Americans. Public health practitioners must focus on ways to improve dietary outcomes among this fast-growing ethnic population in the United States. PMID:25474383

  19. Developing Superior Survey Protocols for Monitoring Population size of Two Endangered Waterbirds (Hawaiian Moorhen and Hawaiian Coot): James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Alae‘ula (Hawiian moorhen) are quite secretive and current survey methods are inadequate to accurately estimate population size. We trapped and banded adult and...

  20. A Comparison of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in General Population Surveys in nine European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Knibbe, Ronald; Derickx, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Aims: This study explored the suitability of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) for cross-national comparable estimates of problem drinking in general populations. On the item level the focus is on responsiveness to cross-national and gender differences. For the set of items...... the focus is on intercorrelations between items, indicating to what extent the AUDIT constitutes a scale. Methods: General population surveys from nine European countries were included. Cross-tabulations were used to analyse cross-national and gender differences in scores on the items. Reliability analysis......'. The reliability analysis shows that in eight of the nine countries frequency of drinking lowers the alpha. Injury and concern of others lead to a lower internal consistency in three countries. Conclusions: There was sufficient variation between countries in the pattern of responses and variation in gender...

  1. Food Insecurity among American Indians and Alaska Natives: A National Profile using the Current Population Survey-Food Security Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Huyser, Kimberly R; Valdes, Jimmy; Simonds, Vanessa Watts

    2017-01-01

    Food insecurity increases the risk for obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cancer-conditions highly prevalent among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Using the Current Population Survey Food Security Supplement, we analyzed the food insecurity trends of AI/ANs compared to other racial and ethnic groups in the United States from 2000 to 2010. From 2000 to 2010, 25% of AI/ANs remained consistently food insecure and AI/ANs were twice as likely to be food insecure compared to whites. Urban AI/ANs were more likely to experience food insecurity than rural AI/ANs. Our findings highlight the need for national and tribal policies that expand food assistance programs; promote and support increased access to healthy foods and community food security, in both rural and urban areas; and reduce the burden of diet-related disparities on low-income and racial/ethnic minority populations.

  2. A Comparison of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in General Population Surveys in nine European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Knibbe, Ronald; Derickx, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Aims: This study explored the suitability of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) for cross-national comparable estimates of problem drinking in general populations. On the item level the focus is on responsiveness to cross-national and gender differences. For the set of items...... the focus is on intercorrelations between items, indicating to what extent the AUDIT constitutes a scale. Methods: General population surveys from nine European countries were included. Cross-tabulations were used to analyse cross-national and gender differences in scores on the items. Reliability analysis......'. The reliability analysis shows that in eight of the nine countries frequency of drinking lowers the alpha. Injury and concern of others lead to a lower internal consistency in three countries. Conclusions: There was sufficient variation between countries in the pattern of responses and variation in gender...

  3. Risk factors for development of critical limb ischemia -- a survey of diabetic vs. nondiabetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosevski, M; Meskovska, S; Tosev, S; Peovska, I; Asikov, I; Georgievska-Ismail, L J

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the risk factors for development of chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI) in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). 127 patients (pts) with PAD (63 with type 2 diabetes and 64 nondiabetic) were randomly included in a cross sectional study. Out of them 17 were with CLI. Population was investigated for age, height, weight, sex, duration of PAD and diabetes, arterial hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, obesity, systolic blood pressure, value of ankle-brachial index, previous claudicating distance and peripheral intervention, amputation, medical treatment with prostanoids, insulin and antiplatelet drugs and histories of cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease and other concomitant diseases. After adjudging linear correlation between mentioned variables and presence of CLI, logistic regression model was built. There were no significant differences in demographic data between both populations. Hyperlipidemia was more frequent in nondiabetic population. Multiple regression model show ankle-brachial index < 0,5, measured in previous 1-3 years (OR 3.39 CI 95% 0.28-40.78), microvascular complication retinopathy (OR 12.98 CI 95% 1.76-95.58), heart failure (OR 1.91 CI 95% 0.29-2.72) and previous prostanoids treatment (OR 15.92 CI 95% 0.53-476.58) as predictors of development of CLI in diabetic population with PAD. After heart failure exclusion of model of nondiabetic pts, previous surgery (OR 3.14 CI 95% 0.61-16.09) and smoking (OR 0.35 CI 95% 0.78-1.62) were presented as prognostic factors for CLI's onset. Our results indicate differences between predictors of CLI's onset in diabetic and nondiabetic population with PAD. Presence of retinopathy, previous measured ankle-brachial index and prostanoids treatment are predictors of development of CLI in diabetic population. Previous surgery is independent predictor for CLI'onset in nondiabetics. Treating concomitant heart failure for both populations

  4. Comparing administrative and survey data for ascertaining cases of irritable bowel syndrome: a population-based investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Targownick Laura E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Administrative and survey data are two key data sources for population-based research about chronic disease. The objectives of this methodological paper are to: (1 estimate agreement between the two data sources for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and compare the results to those for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; (2 compare the frequency of IBS-related diagnoses in administrative data for survey respondents with and without self-reported IBS, and (3 estimate IBS prevalence from both sources. Methods This retrospective cohort study used linked administrative and health survey data for 5,134 adults from the province of Manitoba, Canada. Diagnoses in hospital and physician administrative data were investigated for respondents with self-reported IBS, IBD, and no bowel disorder. Agreement between survey and administrative data was estimated using the κ statistic. The χ2 statistic tested the association between the frequency of IBS-related diagnoses and self-reported IBS. Crude, sex-specific, and age-specific IBS prevalence estimates were calculated from both sources. Results Overall, 3.0% of the cohort had self-reported IBS, 0.8% had self-reported IBD, and 95.3% reported no bowel disorder. Agreement was poor to fair for IBS and substantially higher for IBD. The most frequent IBS-related diagnoses among the cohort were anxiety disorders (34.4%, symptoms of the abdomen and pelvis (26.9%, and diverticulitis of the intestine (10.6%. Crude IBS prevalence estimates from both sources were lower than those reported previously. Conclusions Poor agreement between administrative and survey data for IBS may account for differences in the results of health services and outcomes research using these sources. Further research is needed to identify the optimal method(s to ascertain IBS cases in both data sources.

  5. Estimating HIV incidence among key affected populations in China from serial cross-sectional surveys in 2010–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Cui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV incidence is an important measure for monitoring the development of the epidemic, but it is difficult to ascertain. We combined serial HIV prevalence and mortality data to estimate HIV incidence among key affected populations (KAPs in China. Methods: Serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted among KAPs from 2010 to 2014. Trends in HIV prevalence were assessed by the Cochran-Armitage test, adjusted by risk group. HIV incidence was estimated from a mathematical model that describes the relationship between changes in HIV incidence with HIV prevalence and mortality. Results: The crude HIV prevalence for the survey samples remained stable at 1.1 to 1.2% from 2010 to 2014. Among drug users (DUs, HIV prevalence declined from 4.48 to 3.29% (p<0.0001, and among men who have sex with men (MSM, HIV prevalence increased from 5.73 to 7.75% (p<0.0001. Changes in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs and male patients of sexually transmitted disease clinics were more modest but remained statistically significant (all p<0.0001. The MSM population had the highest incidence estimates at 0.74% in 2011, 0.59% in 2012, 0.57% in 2013 and 0.53% in 2014. Estimates of the annual incidence for DUs and FSWs were very low and may not be reliable. Conclusions: Serial cross-sectional prevalence data from representative samples may be another approach to construct approximate estimates of national HIV incidence among key populations. We observed that the MSM population had the highest incidence for HIV among high-risk groups in China, and we suggest that interventions targeting MSM are urgently needed to curb the growing HIV epidemic.

  6. Demographic data and hemodialysis population dynamics in Qatar: A five year survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fituri Omar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis was initiated in Qatar in 1981, since then the hemodialysis population has been expanding rapidly. This report describes the demographics and outcome of our hemo-dialysis patients during a five years study period. Data of all the patients on regular hemodialysis from January 1 st , 2002 to December 31 st , 2006 were included in this study was collected from the medical records and entered into an especially designed questionnaire. The prevalence of end stage kidney disease in Qatar is 624 patients per million populations with an incidence of 202 patients per million populations per year. Currently, 278 patients are on hemodialysis, 65% of them are Qatari, males represent 51%, whereas 44.6% are between 65-74 years of age. Diabetic nephropathy is the commonest cause of end stage kidney disease (48%, followed by primary glomerulonephritis and hypertensive glomerulopathy. Arteriovenous fistula was the vascular access in 57% of patients. The incidence of Hepatitis B, C and Human immunodeficiency virus had been stable throughhout the study period though our hemodialysis population had increased by 1.5 fold. The first and five years survival rates of our patients were 84 and 53% respectively. Qatar has one of the highest rates of dialysis patients with a good long-term survival report. Peritoneal dialysis remained to be the key solution for the rapidly expanding patients′ pool. Maintenance of national registry of dialysis patients and improving our organ transplant program is an essential goal.

  7. Attitudes towards individuals with halitosis: an online cross sectional survey of the Dutch general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, A. de; Wijk, A.J. van; Horstman, M.; Baat, C. de

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To derive an estimate of encounters with halitosis and to assess the impact of halitosis on their psychosocial interactions with halitosis patients. METHODS: Participants were 1,006 members of an online panel, being representative of the population of the Netherlands with regard to gender

  8. Attitudes towards individuals with halitosis: an online cross sectional survey of the Dutch general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, A.; van Wijk, A.J.; Horstman, M.; de Baat, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To derive an estimate of encounters with halitosis and to assess the impact of halitosis on their psychosocial interactions with halitosis patients. Methods Participants were 1,006 members of an online panel, being representative of the population of the Netherlands with regard to gender,

  9. The 6dF Galaxy Survey: Stellar Population Trends Across and Through the Fundamental Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Springob, Christopher M; Proctor, Rob; Colless, Matthew; Jones, D Heath; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Campbell, Lachlan; Lucey, John; Mould, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    We present results from an analysis of stellar population parameters for 7132 galaxies in the 6dFGS Fundamental Plane (FP) sample. We bin the galaxies along the axes, $v_1$, $v_2$, and $v_3$, of the tri-variate Gaussian to which we have fit the galaxy distribution in effective radius, surface brightness, and central velocity dispersion (FP space), and compute median values of stellar age, [Fe/H], [Z/H], and [$\\alpha$/Fe]. We determine the directions of the vectors in FP space along which each of the binned stellar population parameters vary most strongly. In contrast to previous work, we find stellar population trends not just with velocity dispersion and FP residual, but with radius and surface brightness as well. The most remarkable finding is that the stellar population parameters vary through the plane ($v_1$ direction) and across the plane ($v_3$ direction), but show no variation at all along the plane ($v_2$ direction). The $v_2$ direction in FP space roughly corresponds to `luminosity density'. We inte...

  10. Obesity and mental disorders in the general population : results from the world mental health surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, K.M.; Bruffaerts, R.; Simon, G.E.; Alonso, J.; Angermeyer, M.; de Girolamo, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Gasquet, I.; Haro, J.M.; Karam, E.; Kessler, R.C.; Levinson, D.; Mora, M.E.M.; Browne, M.A.O.; Ormel, J.; Villa, J.P.; Uda, H.; Von Korff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To investigate whether there is an association between obesity and mental disorders in the general populations of diverse countries, and (2) to establish whether demographic variables (sex, age, education) moderate any associations observed. Design: Thirteen cross-sectional, general

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life in Cervical Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J. Korfage (Ida); M.L.E. Essink-Bot (Marie-Louise); F. Mols (Floortje); L.V. van de Poll-Franse (Lonneke); R.F.M.P. Kruitwagen (Roy); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: In a population-based sample of cervical cancer survivors, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed 2-10 years postdiagnosis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: All patients given a diagnosis of cervical cancer in 1995-2003 in the Eindhoven region, The Netherlands, and alive afte

  12. Survey of Permethrin and Malathion Resistance in Human Head Lice Populations from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Knorr, Mette; Rasmussen, Anne-Marie

    2006-01-01

    at the discriminating dose. The connection between permethrin resistance and kdr-like mutations is confirmed by our findings. The frequency of the double mutation T929I-L932 F in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene associated with permethrin resistance was 0.95 in Danish head lice populations....

  13. An Infectious Disease and Mortality Survey in a Population of Free-Ranging African Wild Dogs and Sympatric Domestic Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flacke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease can cause declines in wildlife populations and significantly threaten their survival. Recent expansion of human and domestic animal populations has made wildlife more susceptible to transmission of pathogens from domestic animal hosts. We conducted a pathogen surveillance and mortality survey for the population of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, South Africa, from January 2006–February 2007. Samples were obtained from 24 wild dogs for canine distemper virus (CDV and canine parvovirus (CPV serological testing. Data were collected on the presence of CDV, CPV, and rabies virus in the KZN domestic dog (Canis familiaris population from 2004–06. The presence of these pathogens was confirmed in domestic dogs throughout KZN. Wild dogs exhibited 0% and 4.2% prevalence for CDV and CPV antibodies, respectively. In 2006 the largest wild dog pack in KZN was reduced from 26 individuals to a single animal; disease due to rabies virus was considered the most probable cause. This study provides evidence that CDV, CPV and rabies are potential threats to African wild dog conservation in KZN. The most economical and practical way to protect wild dogs from canine pathogens may be via vaccination of sympatric domestic dogs; however, such programmes are currently limited.

  14. Galaxy populations in the 26 most massive galaxy clusters in the South Pole Telescope SPT-SZ survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenteno, A.; Mohr, J. J.; Desai, S.; Stalder, B.; Saro, A.; Dietrich, J. P.; Bayliss, M.; Bocquet, S.; Chiu, I.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Gangkofner, C.; Gupta, N.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; McDonald, M.; Reichardt, C.; Rest, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present a study of the optical properties of the 26 most massive galaxy clusters within the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) 2500 deg2 survey spanning the redshift range 0.10 Frenk-White profile of concentration 2.84^{+0.40}_{-0.37} for the red sequence (RS) and 2.36^{+0.38}_{-0.35} for the total population. Stacking the data in multiple redshift bins shows slight redshift evolution in the concentration when both the total population is used, and when only RS galaxies are used (at 2.1σ and 2.8σ, respectively). The stacked LF shows a faint end slope α = -1.06^{+0.04}_{-0.03} for the total and α = -0.80^{+0.04}_{-0.03} for the RS population. The redshift evolution of m* is consistent with a passively evolving composite stellar population (CSP) model. Adopting the CSP model predictions, we explore the redshift evolution of the Schechter parameters α and φ*. We find α for the total population to be consistent with no evolution (0.3σ), and mildly significant evidence of evolution for the red galaxies (1.1-2.1σ). The data show that the density φ*/E2(z) decreases with redshift, in tension with the self-similar expectation at a 2.4σ level for the total population. The measured HON-mass relation has a lower normalization than previous low redshift studies. Finally, our data support HON redshift evolution at a 2.1σ level, with clusters at higher redshift containing fewer galaxies than their low-z counterparts.

  15. Enuresis and Hyperactivity-Inattention in Early Adolescence: Findings from a Population-Based Survey in Tokyo (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Kanata

    Full Text Available Enuresis (9% at age 9.5 negatively affects children's psychosocial status. Clinically-diagnosed enuresis (2% at the age is associated with hyperactivity-inattention, and common neural bases have been postulated to underlie this association. It is, however, unclear whether this association is applicable to enuresis overall among the general population of early adolescents when considered comorbid behavioral problems. We aimed to examine whether enuresis correlates with hyperactivity-inattention after controlling for the effects of other behavioral problems.Participants were 4,478 children (mean age 10.2 ± 0.3 years old and their parents from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey (T-EAS, a population-representative cross-sectional study conducted in Tokyo, Japan conducted from 2012 to 2015. Children's enuresis and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity-inattention (as measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, were examined using parent-reporting questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore whether enuresis predicts hyperactivity-inattention.The hyperactivity-inattention score was significantly higher in the enuretic group than the non-enuretic group (enuretic: M (SD = 3.8 (2.3, non-enuretic: M (SD = 3.0 (2.1, Hedge's g = 0.39, p < .001. This association remained significant even after controlling for other behavioral problems and including sex, age, intelligence quotient (IQ, low birth weight and parents' education (β = .054 [95% CI: .028-.080], p < .001.Enuresis was independently associated with hyperactivity-inattention in early adolescents among general population even when other behavioral problems were considered. These results suggest that, as with clinically-diagnosed cases, enuresis may predict need for screening and psychosocial support for hyperactivity-inattention.

  16. Public priorities for osteoporosis and fracture research: results from a general population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskins, Zoe; Jinks, Clare; Mahmood, Waheed; Jayakumar, Prakash; Sangan, Caroline B; Belcher, John; Gwilym, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    This is the first national study of public and patient research priorities in osteoporosis and fracture. We have identified new research areas of importance to members of the public, particularly 'access to information from health professionals'. The findings are being incorporated into the research strategy of the National Osteoporosis Society. This study aimed to prioritise, with patients and public members, research topics for the osteoporosis research agenda. An e-survey to identify topics for research was co-designed with patient representatives. A link to the e-survey was disseminated to supporters of the UK National Osteoporosis Society (NOS) in a monthly e-newsletter. Responders were asked to indicate their top priority for research across four topics (understanding and preventing osteoporosis, living with osteoporosis, treating osteoporosis and treating fractures) and their top three items within each topic. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographics and item ranking. A latent class analysis was applied to identify a substantive number of clusters with different combinations of binary responses. One thousand one hundred eighty-eight (7.4%) respondents completed the e-survey. The top three items overall were 'Having easy access to advice and information from health professionals' (63.8%), 'Understanding further the safety and benefit of osteoporosis drug treatments' (49.9%) and 'Identifying the condition early by screening' (49.2%). Latent class analysis revealed distinct clusters of responses within each topic including primary care management and self-management. Those without a history of prior fracture or aged under 70 were more likely to rate items within the cluster of self-management as important (21.0 vs 12.9 and 19.8 vs 13.3%, respectively). This is the first study of public research priorities in osteoporosis and has identified new research areas of importance to members of the public including access to information. The findings

  17. Measuring infertility in populations: constructing a standard definition for use with demographic and reproductive health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Maya N; Cheung, Hoiwan; Mathers, Colin D; Stevens, Gretchen A

    2012-08-31

    Infertility is a significant disability, yet there are no reliable estimates of its global prevalence. Studies on infertility prevalence define the condition inconsistently, rendering the comparison of studies or quantitative summaries of the literature difficult. This study analyzed key components of infertility to develop a definition that can be consistently applied to globally available household survey data. We proposed a standard definition of infertility and used it to generate prevalence estimates using 53 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). The analysis was restricted to the subset of DHS that contained detailed fertility information collected through the reproductive health calendar. We performed sensitivity analyses for key components of the definition and used these to inform our recommendations for each element of the definition. Exposure type (couple status, contraceptive use, and intent), exposure time, and outcomes were key elements of the definition that we proposed. Our definition produced estimates that ranged from 0.6% to 3.4% for primary infertility and 8.7% to 32.6% for secondary infertility. Our sensitivity analyses showed that using an exposure measure of five years is less likely to misclassify fertile unions as infertile. Additionally, using a current, rather than continuous, measure of contraceptive use over five years resulted in a median relative error in secondary infertility of 20.7% (interquartile range of relative error [IQR]: 12.6%-26.9%), while not incorporating intent produced a corresponding error in secondary infertility of 58.2% (IQR: 44.3%-67.9%). In order to estimate the global burden of infertility, prevalence estimates using a consistent definition need to be generated. Our analysis provided a recommended definition that could be applied to widely available global household data. We also summarized potential biases that should be considered when making estimates of infertility prevalence using household survey data.

  18. Haemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) Study: survey methodology and population demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, A L; Gregory, M; Nugent, D; Garrido, C; Pilgaard, T; Cooper, D L; Iorio, A

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial factors have a significant impact on the quality of life of persons with haemophilia (PWH). The Haemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) initiative was developed to provide a greater understanding of the psychological components which influence the lives of PWH. This article describes the HERO methodology and the characteristics of respondents. Two online surveys (one for adult PWH ≥18 years and one for parents of children surveys included demographic and treatment characteristics, relationships, sexual intimacy, quality of life, barriers to treatment and sources of information. A total of 675 PWH [age, median (range) 36 (18-86 years)] and 561 parents [39 (23-68 years)] completed the survey. PWH/parents reported haemophilia A (74%/76%), B (13%/16%) or with inhibitors (13%/8%). Spontaneous joint bleeding was reported in 76%/52% of PWH/children with haemophilia A, 67%/47% with haemophilia B and 93%/76% with inhibitors. Median number of bleeds (interquartile range) was 7 (2-20) for PWH and 4 (2-10) for children in the past year. Most PWH and children were treated with factor concentrate. PWH reported arthritis (49%) and HIV/HCV infections (18%/43%) related to haemophilia. Most PWH and parent respondents had received formal education (85%/89%) and were employed full- or part-time (60%/72%). HERO is one of the largest multinational studies focused on psychosocial issues in haemophilia, including historical and treatment information that will allow for multivariate analyses of determinants of health in haemophilia.

  19. Husband's control and sexual coercion within marriage: findings from a population-based survey in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Rachel L; Khawaja, Marwan; Linos, Natalia

    2011-11-01

    This article examined sexual coercion within marriage in Egypt. Using cross-sectional survey data from a representative sample of married Egyptian women (N = 5,240), associations between forced intercourse and husband's control, as well as other relevant sociodemographic factors, were assessed through binary logistic regression models. The lifetime prevalence of forced intercourse was 6.2% and 4.6% during the past year, and husband's control was significantly associated with forced intercourse during a woman's lifetime (odds ratio = 3.5) and past year (odds ratio = 2.8). Interventions addressing gender patriarchy and men's control may decrease incidence of sexual coercion in Egypt and similar contexts.

  20. Diagnosis, prevalence estimation and burden measurement in population surveys of headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Timothy J; Gururaj, Gopalakrishna; Andrée, Colette

    2014-01-01

    initiatives to improve and standardize methods in use for cross-sectional studies. One requirement is for a survey instrument with proven cross-cultural validity. This report describes the development of such an instrument. Two of the authors developed the initial version, which was used with adaptations...... of headache-attributed burden: symptom burden; health-care utilization; disability and productive time losses; impact on education, career and earnings; perception of control; interictal burden; overall individual burden; effects on relationships and family dynamics; effects on others, including household...

  1. Partner violence and sexual jealousy in China: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianfu; Parish, William L; Laumann, Edward O; Luo, Ye

    2009-07-01

    Using data from a nationally representative survey in China, this article examines the prevalence and risk factors for partner violence with a special focus on the important role of sexual jealousy. Among women aged 20 to 49, 7.2% reported that they were hit by their partners in the past year. Comparison shows that the Chinese prevalence is modestly below the overall median for other societies. Net of other factors, jealousy exacerbates hitting for both men and women in a reactive pattern, with the jealous partner getting hit. This suggests a rethinking of the role of sexual jealousy in spousal violence in some social settings.

  2. Survey of the black howler monkey, alouatta pigra, population at the Mayan site of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Alejandro; Castellanos, Lucia; Garcia, Yasminda; Franco, Berenice; Munoz, David; Ibarra, Ana; Rivera, Andromeda; Fuentes, Eugenio; Jimenez, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    A survey of the population of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) present at the Mayan site of Palenque was conducted during 2000. A total of 911 man/hours, spread over 112 days were spent surveying the 600 ha area of pristine forest at the site for howler troops. We detected the presence of 136 individuals of which 131 were members of 20 troops, the rest were 3 solitary adult males and 2 adult males travelling as a pair. Ecological density was estimated at 23 individuals/km(2). Mean troop size was 7.0 individuals and it ranged from 2 - 12 individuals; 60% of the troops were multimale. All sighting of howler monkeys were in evergreen rain forest and 75% were in trees > or = 20 m in height. The reported densities and mean troop size are higher than those reported for the species in Guatemala and in central Quintana Roo, Mexico. The vegetation of the forest contains tree species reported to be used by species of Alouatta in the Moraceae, Sapotaceae, Leguminosae, and Lauraceae plant families. Protection of a large perimeter area (ca 1700 ha) around the archeological site by the Mexican government ensures the conservation of the forest and of the black howler monkey population present at the site.

  3. The Third National Health and Morbidity Survey: prevalence of obesity, and abdominal obesity among the Malaysian elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzana, S; Kee, C C; Jamaludin, A R; Noor Safiza, M N; Khor, G L; Jamaiyah, H; Geeta, A; Ahmad Ali, Z; Rahmah, R; Ruzita, A T; Ahmad Fauzi, Y

    2012-03-01

    Obesity is an emerging public health threat in the elderly population in developing countries. Hence, the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey has assessed 4746 individuals aged 60 years and older recruited through a household survey to determine the prevalence of adiposity using body mass index and waist circumference. The national's prevalence of overweight and obesity in men was 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 27.2-31.3) and 7.4% (95% CI = 6.4-8.6), respectively. However, the prevalence decreased with age. The figures in women were 30.3% (95% CI = 28.5-32.1) and 13.8% (95% CI = 12.5-15.2), respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 21.4% (95%CI = 20.2-22.6), with 7.7% (95% CI = 6.7-9.0) in men and 33.4% (95% CI = 31.4-35.3) in women. Predictors of adiposity include the following: Malay and Indian ethnicity, higher education level, higher household income, from urban area, and being married. In conclusion, adiposity affects about one third of the Malaysian elderly population, especially those of the younger age group, women, and those with higher socioeconomic status.

  4. Using Social Media and Targeted Snowball Sampling to Survey a Hard-to-reach Population: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Dusek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Response rates to the academic surveys used in quantitative research are decreasing and have been for several decades among both individuals and organizations. Given this trend, providing doctoral students an opportunity to complete their dissertations in a timely and cost effective manner may necessitate identifying more innovative and relevant ways to collect data while maintaining appropriate research standards and rigor. The case of a research study is presented which describes the data collection process used to survey a hard-to-reach population. It details the use of social media, in this case LinkedIn, to facilitate the distribution of the web-based survey. A roadmap to illustrate how this data collection process unfolded is presented, as well as several “lessons learned” during this journey. An explanation of the considerations that impacted the sampling design is provided. The goal of this case study is to provide researchers, including doctoral students, with realistic expectations and an awareness of the benefits and risks associated with the use of this method of data collection.

  5. Methods for integrated use of fisheries research survey information in understanding marine fish population ecology and better management advice : improving methods for evaluation of research survey information under consideration of survey fish detection and catch efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The thesis developed and improved methods for the integrated analysis of different types of fishery independent research surveys (trawl surveys, acoustic surveys, hydrographical surveys, and gillnet surveys) to study the distribution, density, abundance, migration and

  6. Improving quality in population surveys of headache prevalence, burden and cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Timothy J; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Al Jumah, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    , methodological differences and variable quality are notable among published studies of headache prevalence, burden and cost.The purpose here was to start the process of developing standardized and better methodology in these studies. An expert consensus group was assembled to identify the key methodological...... gained from recent Global Campaign population-based studies, not all yet published. We extracted methodological themes and identified issues within them that were of key importance.We found wide variations in methodology. The themes within which methodological shortcomings had adverse impact on quality...... were the following: study design; selection and/or definition of population of interest; sampling and bias avoidance; sample size estimation; access to selected subjects (managing and reporting non-participation); case definition (including diagnosis and timeframe); case ascertainment (including...

  7. The VMC Survey. XI. Radial Stellar Population Gradients in the Galactic Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai; Rubele, Stefano; Wang, Chuchu; Bekki, Kenji; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L; Clementini, Gisella; Emerson, Jim; For, Bi-Qing; Girardi, Leo; Groenewegen, Martin A T; Guandalini, Roald; Gullieuszik, Marco; Marconi, Marcella; Piatti, Andrés E; Ripepi, Vincenzo; van Loon, Jacco Th

    2014-01-01

    We present a deep near-infrared color--magnitude diagram of the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae, obtained with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) as part of the VISTA near-infrared Y, J, K_s survey of the Magellanic System (VMC). The cluster stars comprising both the subgiant and red-giant branches exhibit apparent, continuous variations in color--magnitude space as a function of radius. Subgiant-branch stars at larger radii are systematically brighter than their counterparts closer to the cluster core; similarly, red-giant-branch stars in the cluster's periphery are bluer than their more centrally located cousins. The observations can very well be described by adopting an age spread of ~0.5 Gyr as well as radial gradients in both the cluster's helium abundance (Y) and metallicity (Z), which change gradually from Y = 0.28, Z = 0.005 in the cluster core to Y = 0.25, Z = 0.003 in its periphery. We conclude that the cluster's inner regions host a significant fraction of second-g...

  8. The Chandra Local Volume Survey: The X-ray Point Source Population of NGC 404

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, B; Eracleous, M; Gaetz, T J; Kong, A K H; Skillman, E D; Weisz, D R

    2012-01-01

    We present a comprehensive X-ray point source catalog of NGC 404 obtained as part of the Chandra Local Volume Survey. A new, 97 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of NGC 404 was combined with archival observations for a total exposure of ~123 ks. Our survey yields 74 highly significant X-ray point sources and is sensitive to a limiting unabsorbed luminosity of ~6x10^35 erg s^-1 in the 0.35-8 keV band. To constrain the nature of each X-ray source, cross-correlations with multi-wavelength data were generated. We searched overlapping HST observations for optical counterparts to our X-ray detections, but find only two X-ray sources with candidate optical counterparts. We find 21 likely low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), although this number is a lower limit due to the difficulties in separating LMXBs from background AGN. The X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) in both the soft and hard energy bands are presented. The XLFs in the soft band (0.5-2 keV) and the hard band (2-8 keV) have a limiting luminosity at the 90% comple...

  9. The VLT LBG Redshift Survey - V. Characterising the z = 3.1 Lyman Alpha Emitter Population

    CERN Document Server

    Bielby, R M; Shanks, T; Francke, H; Crighton, N H M; Bañados, E; González-López, Jorge; Infante, L; Orsi, A

    2016-01-01

    We present a survey of Ly$\\alpha$ emitting galaxies in the fields of the VLT LBG Redshift Survey, incorporating the analysis of narrow band number counts, the rest frame UV luminosity function and the two-point correlation function of Ly$\\alpha$ emitters at $z\\approx3.1$. Our photometric sample consists of 750 LAE candidates, over an area of 1.07 deg$^2$, with estimated equivalent widths of $\\gtrsim65$ \\AA, from 5 fields based on deep Subaru Suprime-Cam imaging data. Added to this we have obtained spectroscopic follow-up observations, which successfully detected Ly$\\alpha$ emission in 35 galaxies. Based on the spectroscopic results, we refined our photometric selection constraints, with the resulting sample having a success rate of $78\\pm18\\%$. We calculate the narrow band number counts for our photometric sample and find these to be consistent with previous studies of LAEs at this redshift. We find the $R$-band continuum luminosity function to be $\\sim10\\times$ lower than the equivalent luminosity function o...

  10. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: stochastic relative biasing between galaxy populations

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, V; Lahav, O; Conway, E; Maddox, S; Baldry, I K; Baugh, C M; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bridges, T; Cannon, R; Cole, S; Colless, M; Collins, C; Couch, W; Dalton, G B; De Propris, R; Driver, S P; Efstathiou, G P; Ellis, Richard S; Frenk, C S; Glazebrook, K; Jackson, C; Lewis, I; Lumsden, S; Madgwick, D; Norberg, P; Peterson, B A; Sutherland, W; Taylor, K

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the clustering of galaxies depends on galaxy type. Such relative bias complicates the inference of cosmological parameters from galaxy redshift surveys, and is a challenge to theories of galaxy formation and evolution. In this paper we perform a joint counts-in-cells analysis on galaxies in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, classified by both colour and spectral type, eta, as early or late type galaxies. We fit three different models of relative bias to the joint probability distribution of the cell counts, assuming Poisson sampling of the galaxy density field. We investigate the nonlinearity and stochasticity of the relative bias, with cubical cells of side 10Mpc \\leq L \\leq 45Mpc (h=0.7). Exact linear bias is ruled out with high significance on all scales. Power law bias gives a better fit, but likelihood ratios prefer a bivariate lognormal distribution, with a non-zero `stochasticity' - i.e. scatter that may result from physical effects on galaxy formation other than those from the loca...

  11. The K20 survey. VII. The spectroscopic catalogue: spectral properties and evolution of the galaxy population

    CERN Document Server

    Mignoli, M; Zamorani, G; Pozzetti, L; Daddi, E; Renzini, A; Broadhurst, T J; Cristiani, S; D'Odorico, S; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Gilmozzi, R; Menci, N; Saracco, P

    2005-01-01

    The K20 survey is a near infrared-selected, deep (Ks < 20) redshift survey targeting galaxies in two independent regions of the sky, the CDFS and the q0055-2659 field. The total Ks-selected sample includes 545 objects. Optical spectra for 525 of them have been obtained, providing 501 spectroscopic identifications (including 12 type-1 AGN and 45 stars). This paper describes the final K20 spectroscopic catalogue, along with the technique used to determine redshifts, measure the spectral features and characterize the spectra. The classification of the galaxy spectra has been performed according to a simple parametric recipe that uses the equivalent widths of the two main emission lines (O[II] and Halpha+[N II]) and two continuum indices (the 4000A break index, and a near-UV color index, C(28-39)). We defined three main spectroscopic classes: red early-type galaxies, blue emission-line galaxies and the intermediate galaxies, which show emission lines but a red continuum. More than 95% of the examined galaxies ...

  12. Statistics for Community Governance: The Yawuru Indigenous Population Survey, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Taylor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of an exercise in Aboriginal community governance in Australia. It sets out the background events that led the Yawuru Native Title Holders Aboriginal Corporation in the town of Broome on Australia’s northwest coast to secure information for its own needs as an act of self-determination and essential governance, and it presents some of the key findings from that exercise. As the Indigenous rights agenda shifts from the pursuit of restitution to the management and implementation of benefits, those with proprietary rights are finding it increasingly necessary to build internal capacity for post-native title governance and community planning, including in the area of information retrieval and application. As an incorporated land-holding group, the Yawuru people of Broome are amongst the first in Australia to move in this area of information gathering, certainly in terms of the degree of local control, participation, and conceptual thinking around the logistics and rationale for such an exercise. An innovative addition has been the incorporation of survey output data into a Geographic Information System to provide for spatial analysis and a decision support mechanism for local community planning. In launching and administering the "Knowing our Community" household survey in Broome, the Yawuru have set a precedent in the acquisition and application of demographic information for internal planning and community development in the post-native title determination era.

  13. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey 2014. I. Nutritional status of the Hungarian adult population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Gergő; Kovács, Viktória Anna; Bakacs, Márta; Martos, Éva

    2017-04-01

    The Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey examines the obesity prevalence, dietary habits and, since 2014, physical activity in Hungarian adults in every 5 years. The survey provides national data representative by age and gender, based on anthropometric measurements and international standards. In 2014, nearly two-thirds of adults were overweight or obese. 28.2% of men and 31.5% of women were obese. Prevalence of morbid obesity were 2.6% and 3.3% in men and women, respectively. Abdominal obesity was more prevalent among women than men (55% vs. 38%), and the rate was increasing with age in both genders. In elderly, 55% of men and almost 80% of women were abdominally obese. In conclusion, the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity is high in Hungarian adults. In order to tackle obesity, we need to obtain representative and measured data, which form the basis of targeted interventions and the assessment of their impact. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(14), 533-540.

  14. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: The Galaxy Population Detected by ALFALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Shan; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle

    2012-01-01

    Making use of HI 21 cm line measurements from the ALFALFA survey (alpha.40) and photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and GALEX, we investigate the global scaling relations and fundamental planes linking stars and gas for a sample of 9417 common galaxies: the alpha.40-SDSS-GALEX sample. In addition to their HI properties derived from the ALFALFA dataset, stellar masses (M_*) and star formation rates (SFRs) are derived from fitting the UV-optical spectral energy distributions. 96% of the alpha.40-SDSS-GALEX galaxies belong to the blue cloud, with the average gas fraction f_HI = M_HI/M_* ~ 1.5. A transition in SF properties is found whereby below M_* ~ 10^9.5 M_sun, the slope of the star forming sequence changes, the dispersion in the specific star formation rate (SSFR) distribution increases and the star formation efficiency (SFE) mildly increases with M_*. The evolutionary track in the SSFR-M_* diagram, as well as that in the color magnitude diagram are linked to the HI content; below this trans...

  15. What Australians know and believe about bird flu: results of a population telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Iverson, Don

    2008-10-01

    The avian influenza A (A/H5N1) virus has attracted the attention of governments and health organizations throughout the world because of its pandemic potential. Despite the emerging nature of A/H5N1, there is limited research on public knowledge and perceptions of this disease. This study is based on a computer-assisted telephone interviewing survey conducted in May 2006 to determine the Australian public's knowledge of A/H5N1, their willingness to engage in preventive behaviors, and their acceptance of potential messages for communication campaigns. Awareness and concern about bird flu is low (lower than a recent survey of U.S. residents). There appears to be widespread support for bird flu control measures initiated by the federal government, although less agreement regarding personal protective behaviors. Our study and those examining the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic suggest that governments, including the Australian government, will encounter a number of significant communication challenges in the event of a bird flu outbreak.

  16. Awareness Regarding Anaesthesiology and Anaesthesiologists among General Population in Developing Country- A Cross Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Khyati Pandya; Dr.Kamla Mehta; Dr. Kirti Patel

    2016-01-01

    "Background: Anaesthesiologists are playing decisive role in patient management. Nowadays, they are involved in pain clinic and critical care also but the general public know little about them. So this study was undertaken to assess the perception of general population from poor socioeconomic area regarding the anaesthesiology and role of anaesthesiologists. Methods: The study was carried out at Shardaben Hospital, Saraspur, in 200 participants, between the age group of 18-75 yrs of age t...

  17. Partner alcohol use, violence and women's mental health: population-based survey in India

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, MB; Patel, V; Bond, JC; Greenfield, TK

    2010-01-01

    Background The relationship between partner alcohol use and violence as risk factors for poor mental health in women is unclear. Aims To describe partner-related and other psychosocial risk factors for common mental disorders in women and examine interrelationships between these factors. Method Data are reported on 821 women aged 18-49 years from a larger population study in north Goa, India. Logistic regression models evaluated tine risks for women's common mental disorders and tested for me...

  18. A new molecular diagnostic tool for surveying and monitoring Triops cancriformis populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham S. Sellers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The tadpole shrimp, Triops cancriformis, is a freshwater crustacean listed as endangered in the UK and Europe living in ephemeral pools. Populations are threatened by habitat destruction due to land development for agriculture and increased urbanisation. Despite this, there is a lack of efficient methods for discovering and monitoring populations. Established macroinvertebrate monitoring methods, such as net sampling, are unsuitable given the organism’s life history, that include long lived diapausing eggs, benthic habits and ephemerally active populations. Conventional hatching methods, such as sediment incubation, are both time consuming and potentially confounded by bet-hedging hatching strategies of diapausing eggs. Here we develop a new molecular diagnostic method to detect viable egg banks of T. cancriformis, and compare its performance to two conventional monitoring methods involving diapausing egg hatching. We apply this method to a collection of pond sediments from the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust Caerlaverock National Nature Reserve, which holds one of the two remaining British populations of T. cancriformis. DNA barcoding of isolated eggs, using newly designed species-specific primers for a large region of mtDNA, was used to estimate egg viability. These estimates were compared to those obtained by the conventional methods of sediment and isolation hatching. Our method outperformed the conventional methods, revealing six ponds holding viable T. cancriformis diapausing egg banks in Caerlaverock. Additionally, designed species-specific primers for a short region of mtDNA identified degraded, inviable eggs and were used to ascertain the levels of recent mortality within an egg bank. Together with efficient sugar flotation techniques to extract eggs from sediment samples, our molecular method proved to be a faster and more powerful alternative for assessing the viability and condition of T. cancriformis diapausing egg banks.

  19. Development of New Methods and Software for Distance Sampling Surveys of Cetacean Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Zucchini et al., 2007) but these add substantially to the complexity of an already complex model and although they are more flexible, they were not...Project Outputs". Borchers, D.L., S.T. Buckland, and W. Zucchini . 2002. Estimating animal abundance: closed populations. Springer. Borchers, D.L., J.L...coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 9:15-28 33 Zucchini , W., Raubenheimer, D. and MacDonald, I.L

  20. Serologic survey for antibodies to canine distemper virus in collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) populations in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Ted H; Heffelfinger, James R; Olding, Ronald J; Wesche, Shannon Lynn; Reggiardo, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    In 1989, a disease outbreak was observed among collared peccaries (javelina, Tayassu tajacu) in southern Arizona (USA) and canine distemper virus (CDV) was isolated from affected animals. Subsequently, 364 sera were collected from hunter-harvested javelina over a 4 yr period (1993-96) and were tested for antibody to CDV. Neutralizing antibody to CDV was detected in 58% of the serum samples suggesting that CDV infection is probably enzootic in the collared peccary populations of southern Arizona.

  1. Attitudes among the general Austrian population towards neonatal euthanasia: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldnagl, Lena; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2014-10-07

    The Groningen Protocol aims at providing guidance in end-of-life decision-making for severely impaired newborns. Since its publication in 2005 many bioethicists and health care professionals have written articles in response. However, only very little is known about the opinion among the general population on this subject. The aim of this study was to present the general attitude towards neonatal euthanasia (NE) among the Austrian population and the factors associated with the respondents' opinion. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the general Austrian population. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were performed with 1,000 interviewees aged 16 years and older. Binary logistic regression was performed in order to determine factors that are independently associated with the respondents' opinion about neonatal euthanasia. While 63.6% of the participants rejected the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns, 36.4% opted either in favor or were undecided. Regression analysis has shown the respondents' educational level (p = 0.005) and experience in the care of terminally ill persons (p = 0.001) to be factors that are positively associated with the rejection of neonatal euthanasia, whereas a higher age was associated with a lower degree of rejection (p = 0.021). We found that the majority of the Austrian population rejects the idea of neonatal euthanasia for severely impaired newborns. However, given the increasing levels of rejection of NE among the younger generations and among people with a higher educational level, it cannot be precluded that the rejection rate might in future increase even further, rather than decrease.

  2. Improving quality in population surveys of headache prevalence, burden and cost: key methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Timothy J; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Al Jumah, Mohammed; Birbeck, Gretchen L; Gururaj, Gopalakrishna; Jensen, Rigmor; Katsarava, Zaza; Queiroz, Luiz Paulo; Scher, Ann I; Tekle-Haimanot, Redda; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Martelletti, Paolo; Dua, Tarun; Chatterji, Somnath

    2013-01-01

    Population-based studies of headache disorders are important. They inform needs assessment and underpin service policy for a set of disorders that are a public-health priority. On the one hand, our knowledge of the global burden of headache is incomplete, with major geographical gaps; on the other, methodological differences and variable quality are notable among published studies of headache prevalence, burden and cost. The purpose here was to start the process of developing standardized and better methodology in these studies. An expert consensus group was assembled to identify the key methodological issues, and areas where studies might fail. Members had competence and practical experience in headache epidemiology or epidemiology in general, and were drawn from all WHO world regions. We reviewed the relevant literature, and supplemented the knowledge gathered from this exercise with experience gained from recent Global Campaign population-based studies, not all yet published. We extracted methodological themes and identified issues within them that were of key importance. We found wide variations in methodology. The themes within which methodological shortcomings had adverse impact on quality were the following: study design; selection and/or definition of population of interest; sampling and bias avoidance; sample size estimation; access to selected subjects (managing and reporting non-participation); case definition (including diagnosis and timeframe); case ascertainment (including diagnostic validation of questionnaires); burden estimation; reporting (methods and results). These are discussed.

  3. Medical Cannabis in Serbia: The Survey of Knowledge and Attitudes in an Urban Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Prpic, Milica; Maric, Gorica; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija

    2017-01-01

    There are some indices in which legalization of medical cannabis in the Republic of Serbia might be considered. The purpose of this research was to assess knowledge and attitudes towards medical cannabis in an urban adult population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in December 2015 and January 2016. A convenience sample of study participants comprised users of the Community Health Center. A total of 360 adults were invited to participate. Data were collected through an anonymous questionnaire. Most participants (77.1%) answered correctly that cancer was indicative of medical cannabis treatment, while the remaining conditions were less frequently recognized. A total of 42% answered correctly that adverse effects of cannabis were hallucinations and dizziness. Persons who previously used cannabis were more knowledgeable on conditions for medical cannabis treatment (ρ = 0.155; p = 0.006). Study respondents expressed positive attitude towards legalization of medical cannabis (median 5 out of 5) and negative towards legalization of recreational cannabis (median 2 out of 5). In conclusion, the adult population in Belgrade had some knowledge of medical cannabis. The overall attitude of our population regarding legalization of medical cannabis was positive, while the attitude towards legalization of cannabis for recreational purposes was negative.

  4. Palaeopathological survey of a population of Mapusaurus (Theropoda: Carcharodontosauridae from the Late Cretaceous Huincul Formation, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil R Bell

    Full Text Available Paleoepidemiology (the study of disease and trauma in prehistoric populations provides insight into the distribution of disease and can have implications for interpreting behavior in extinct organisms. A monospecific bonebed of the giant carcharodontosaurid Mapusaurus (minimum number of individuals = 9 from the Cañadón del Gato site, Neuquén Province, Argentina (Cenomanian provides a rare opportunity to investigate disease within a single population of this important apex predator. Visual inspection of 176 skeletal elements belonging to a minimum of nine individuals yielded a small number of abnormalities on a cervical vertebra, two ribs, pedal phalanx, and an ilium. These are attributed to traumatic (two cases, infectious (two cases and anomalous (one case conditions in a minimum of one individual. The emerging picture for large theropod (abelisaurids, allosaurids, carcharodontosaurids, tyrannosaurids populations suggests that 1 osseous abnormalities were relatively rare (7-19% of individuals but consistently present, and 2 trauma was a leading factor in the frequency of pathological occurrences, evidence of an active, often perilous lifestyle.

  5. Obesity and overweight prevalence and its association with undiagnosed hypertension in Shanghai population, China: a cross-sectional population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjian; Xu, Jiying; Yao, Haihong; Guo, Yanfei; Chen, Minna; Lu, Wei

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obese subjects in the Shanghai population of China and its association with undiagnosed hypertension, by taking age, gender and place of residence (urban or suburban) into account. A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in 2007. The sample included 13,359 participants aged 15-69 years.Weight, height, and blood pressure were recorded, and information about gender, age and place of residence was obtained. Overweight and obesity prevalence were calculated by the body mass index (BMI) definition recommended by Working Group on Obesity in China (normal weight, 18.5-23.9 kg/m(2); overweight, 24-27.9 kg/m(2); obesity, ≥ 28 kg/m(2)). Undiagnosed hypertension was defined by China criteria in accord with that of WHO-ISH (subjects with systolic pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, and/or diastolic pressure ≥ 90 mmHg). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of overweight or obesity with undiagnosed hypertension by adjusting for age, gender and place of residence. The overall overweight, obesity, and undiagnosed hypertension prevalence were 27.6% (95% CI: 26.8-28.4), 6.6% (95% CI: 6.2-7.0), and 15.5% (95% CI: 14.9-16.1), respectively. Compared to normal weight subjects, the odds ratios (OR) for subjects who were overweight and had hypertension was 2.33 (95% CI: 2.10-2.59); that for obesity and hypertension was 4.27 (95% CI: 3.66-4.99). These data suggest that overweight and obesity prevalence and their association with undiagnosed hypertension are high in our study population.

  6. Standardization of total cholesterol measurement in population surveys--pre-analytic sources of variation and their effect on the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Ferrario, Marco; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2005-06-01

    The estimation of population distribution of total cholesterol, as well as other blood lipids requires population surveys. Comparability of the estimates over time or between populations requires a predefined, standardized measurement protocol. This paper will assess the effect of variation in the pre-analytic procedures, on the estimation of population distribution of total cholesterol and the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia. Implications of variation to real survey results are demonstrated on data collected during the WHO MONICA Project. The extent (%) of pre-analytic variations were determined by literature review. Simulations were then used to estimate the effect of these variations on the distribution of total cholesterol values. Three populations were selected as examples for different population distributions of total cholesterol levels and variations resulting from seasonal and postural changes, use of tourniquet, and serum versus plasma collection were simulated both individually and in combinations. Depending on the population distribution of total cholesterol, differences in pre-analytic procedures can explain a difference of up to 1.12 mmol/l in the mean total cholesterol between populations, and a difference up to 41% in the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (> or =6.5 mmol/l). Variation in results on measured total cholesterol levels due to differences in procedures during the pre-analytic stage can diminish substantially the reliability and comparability of measurements among surveys over time and between populations. The effect of pre-analytic variation in the population estimates of total cholesterol can be extensively reduced by standardization and training.

  7. What Do the General Population Know, Believe and Feel about Individuals with Autism and Schizophrenia: Results from a Comparative Survey in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christina Mohr; Martens, Caroline Skat; Nikolajsen, Nanna Dagmar; Skytt Gregersen, Trine; Heckmann Marx, Nanna; Goldberg Frederiksen, Mette; Hansen, Martine Stene

    2016-01-01

    Few studies investigate what members of the general population know about individuals with autism. Only one study has previously investigated how beliefs about autism differ from those about other psychiatric disorders. This study surveyed a convenience sample of the general adult population, within the Northern Region of Denmark, about their…

  8. Inequalities in mental health in the working population of Spain: a National Health Survey-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-de la Torre, Jorge; Artazcoz, Lucía; Molina, Antonio José; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Martín, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    In the working population, poor mental health is a significant problem whose prevalence rates and associated factors could differ by gender, especially in a period of socioeconomic changes. The aims of this study were: a) to determine the prevalence of poor mental health in the working population of Spain in 2011; b) to identify the association of this prevalence with socioeconomic and work-related variables for men and women separately; c) to determine if the patterns differ by gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with data from the National Health Survey of Spain (2011). Of the 21,007 participants in the survey, we selected 7396 whose employment status was described as "working" The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used as a screening tool to detect poor mental health. Prevalences were calculated and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to verify the association between variables. The prevalence of poor mental health was higher among women (19.9%) than men (13.9%), the overall prevalence being 16.8%. The variables associated with a higher prevalence were type of contract and work-related variables in men, and age and socioeconomic variables in women. This study shows that, in the working population of Spain, the prevalence of poor mental health and its related factors differ by gender. Poor mental health is mainly related to socioeconomic variables in women but is mostly associated with work-related variables in men. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Attitudes towards euthanasia in severely ill and dementia patients and cremation in Cyprus: a population-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Population studies on end-of-life decisions have not been conducted in Cyprus. Our study aim was to evaluate the beliefs and attitudes of Greek Cypriots towards end-of-life issues regarding euthanasia and cremation. Methods A population-based telephone survey was conducted in Cyprus. One thousand randomly selected individuals from the population of Cyprus age 20 years or older were invited to participate. Beliefs and attitudes on end-of-life decisions were collected using an anonymous and validated questionnaire. Statistical analyses included cross-tabulations, Pearson’s chi-square tests and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. Results A total of 308 males and 689 females participated in the survey. About 70% of the respondents did not support euthanasia for people with incurable illness and/or elders with dementia when requested by them and 77% did not support euthanasia for people with incurable illness and/or elders with dementia when requested by relatives. Regarding cremation, 78% were against and only 14% reported being in favor. Further statistical analyses showed that male gender, being single and having reached higher educational level were factors positively associated with support for euthanasia in a statistically significant fashion. On the contrary, the more religiosity expressed by study participants, the less support they reported for euthanasia or cremation. Conclusions The vast majority of Greek Cypriots does not support euthanasia for people with incurable illness and/or elders with dementia and also do not support cremation. Certain demographic characteristics such as age and education have a positive influence towards attitudes for euthanasia and cremation, while religiosity exerts a strong negative influence on the above. Family bonding as well as social and cultural traditions may also play a role although not comprehensively evaluated in the current study. PMID:24060291

  10. Attitudes towards euthanasia in severely ill and dementia patients and cremation in Cyprus: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Televantos, Anastasios; Talias, Michael A; Charalambous, Marianna; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S

    2013-09-23

    Population studies on end-of-life decisions have not been conducted in Cyprus. Our study aim was to evaluate the beliefs and attitudes of Greek Cypriots towards end-of-life issues regarding euthanasia and cremation. A population-based telephone survey was conducted in Cyprus. One thousand randomly selected individuals from the population of Cyprus age 20 years or older were invited to participate. Beliefs and attitudes on end-of-life decisions were collected using an anonymous and validated questionnaire. Statistical analyses included cross-tabulations, Pearson's chi-square tests and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. A total of 308 males and 689 females participated in the survey. About 70% of the respondents did not support euthanasia for people with incurable illness and/or elders with dementia when requested by them and 77% did not support euthanasia for people with incurable illness and/or elders with dementia when requested by relatives. Regarding cremation, 78% were against and only 14% reported being in favor. Further statistical analyses showed that male gender, being single and having reached higher educational level were factors positively associated with support for euthanasia in a statistically significant fashion. On the contrary, the more religiosity expressed by study participants, the less support they reported for euthanasia or cremation. The vast majority of Greek Cypriots does not support euthanasia for people with incurable illness and/or elders with dementia and also do not support cremation. Certain demographic characteristics such as age and education have a positive influence towards attitudes for euthanasia and cremation, while religiosity exerts a strong negative influence on the above. Family bonding as well as social and cultural traditions may also play a role although not comprehensively evaluated in the current study.

  11. Effects of habitat change along Breeding Bird Survey routes in the central Appalachians on Cerulean Warbler population

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhone, P.; Wood, P.W.; Dawson, D.

    2007-01-01

    The cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea) is one of the highest priority bird species in the eastern United States because populations have declined 4.3% annually during 1966?2005 based on Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Habitat loss and fragmentation due to land use changes is thought to be one of the major factors contributing to the decline. BBS routes, the primary source for monitoring bird population trends, include 50 sampling stops every 0.8 km. Although data from BBS routes are extrapolated to determine regional trends in bird populations, it is important to understand the effects of habitat changes at the stop-level along BBS routes. Route-level analysis of habitat changes may mask important changes that are occurring at a smaller scale particularly for the cerulean warbler which displays several micro-scale habitat preferences. We are examining cerulean warbler habitat and population changes in its core breeding range of the Ohio Hills and Cumberland Plateau physiographic regions. We quantified land cover changes within 300 m of BBS routes in the core cerulean warbler breeding range of Ohio, West Virginia, and Kentucky by digitizing aerial photographs from two time periods: the 1980s and 2004. We also quantified land cover changes within 300 m of BBS routes with the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) from 1992 and 2001. The hand-digitized aerial photos will be compared with the NLCD to determine how similar the two methods are in quantifying land cover changes. We then compared stop-level land cover changes with stop level changes in cerulean warbler detections within the same time periods along the BBS routes. This will allow for a more detailed analysis of how well habitat changes along BBS routes reflect the changes in cerulean warbler populations.

  12. The young stellar population in the Serpens Cloud Core: An ISOCAM survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kaas, A. A.; Olofsson, G.; Bontemps, S.; Andre, P.; Nordh, L.; Huldtgren, M.; Prusti, T.; P. Persi; Delgado, A. J.; Motte, F.; Abergel, A.; Boulanger, F.; Burgdorf, M.; Casali, M. M.; Cesarsky, C. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present results from an ISOCAM survey in the two broad band filters LW2 (5-8.5 mu) and LW3 (12-18 mu) of a 0.13 square degree coverage of the Serpens Main Cloud Core. A total of 392 sources were detected in the 6.7 mu band and 139 in the 14.3 mu band to a limiting sensitivity of ~ 2 mJy. Only about 50% of the mid-IR excess sources show excesses in the near-IR J-H/H-K diagram. In the central Cloud Core the Class I/Class II number ratio is 19/18, i.e. about 10 times larger than in other youn...

  13. Clean-voided urine culture in surveying populations for urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switzer, S.

    1959-07-01

    As part of a large-scale epidemiologic survey of A Bomb survivors being conducted by the ABCC in Hiroshima, the feasibility of male and female subjects collecting their own clean-voided specimens was tested. Clean-voided, midstream urine specimens were obtained from 441 ambulant, non-hospital subjects and examined by means of the Gram-stain and quantitative culture technique. Collection was performed by the subjects themselves after appropriate instruction, and this yielded specimens satisfactory for quantitative study. The gram-stain of the urinary sediment proved efficient in presaging true bacilluria. The presence of abundant Gram-negative organisms in a fresh urine sediment may be considered presumptive evidence of a urinary tract infection. Utilizing pre-poured, selective media, it was found that counts exceeding 50,000 to 100,000 col./ml. indicate true bacteriuria and will be confirmed by repeated studies. 9 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Iron supplementation among pregnant women: results from a population-based survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci Almeida Cesar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To measure the prevalence and risk factors associated with iron supplementation among pregnant women in the municipality of Rio Grande, Southern Brazil. Methods: All mothers living in this municipality who had children in 2007 were surveyed for demographic, socioeconomic and health care received during pregnancy and childbirth. The statistical analysis consisted of Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance, and the measure of effect was prevalence ratio (PR. Results: Among the 2,557 mothers interviewed (99% of total, 59% were supplemented with iron during pregnancy period. After adjusting for various confounding factors, a higher PR to iron supplementation was observed among teenagers, women with black skin color, primigravidae, who had six or more antenatal visits, who performed prenatal care in public sector and received vitamin during pregnancy. Conclusion: There is a clear need to increase the iron supplementation coverage of all pregnant women, especially among those currently considered with low gestational risk.

  15. Smoking Behavior and Demographic Risk Factors in Argentina: A Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Eugenio; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Guil, Valeria; Gregorich, Steven E.; Mejia, Raul; J.Pérez-Stable, Eliseo

    2007-01-01

    Background Demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with smoking behavior were evaluated in a nationwide household survey in Argentina to describe the status of the tobacco epidemic. Methods Face-to-face interviews with adults, age 20 and older, assessed smoking status, frequency, and age of initiation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare social and demographic characteristics. Results Of the 43,863 participants, 38% of men and 24% of women were current smokers, and 20% of current smokers smoked occasionally. For older men and women, smoking was less prevalent and their probability of quitting higher. Men with more than high school education were less likely to be current smokers. Rates for women did not differ by education. Conclusions The lower smoking rates among men with more education suggest that Argentina has begun to transition to the next stage of the tobacco epidemic. Tobacco control policy must direct efforts to change smoking behavior. PMID:18037987

  16. Responses to GM food content in context with food integrity issues: results from Australian population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Philip; Golley, Sinéad

    2016-01-25

    This study examined community responses to use of genetically modified (GM) content in food in the context of responses to familiar food additives by testing an empirically and theoretically derived model of the predictors of responses to both GM content and food integrity issues generally. A nationwide sample of 849 adults, selected at random from the Australian Electoral Roll, responded to a postal Food and Health Survey. Structural equation modelling analyses confirmed that ratings of general concern about food integrity (related to the presence of preservatives and other additives) strongly predicted negativity towards GM content. Concern about food integrity was, in turn, predicted by environmental concern and health engagement. In addition, both concern about food integrity generally and responses to GM content specifically were weakly predicted by attitudes to benefits of science and an intuitive (i.e., emotionally-based) reasoning style. Data from a follow-up survey conducted under the same conditions (N=1184) revealed that ratings of concern were significantly lower for use of genetic engineering in food than for four other common food integrity issues examined. Whereas the question of community responses to GM is often treated as a special issue, these findings support the conclusion that responses to the concept of GM content in food in Australia are substantially a specific instance of a general sensitivity towards the integrity of the food supply. They indicate that the origins of responses to GM content may be largely indistinguishable from those of general responses to preservatives and other common food additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Household food security in Isfahan based on current population survey adapted questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Rafiei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food security is a state in which all people at every time have physical and economic access to adequate food to obviate nutritional needs and live a healthy and active life. Therefore, this study was performed to quantitatively evaluate the household food security in Esfahan using the localized version of US Household Food Security Survey Module (US HFSSM. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in year 2006 on 3000 households of Esfahan. The study instrument used in this work is 18-item US food security module, which is developed into a localized 15-item questionnaire. This study is performed in two stages of families with no children (under 18 years old and families with children over 18 years old. Results: The results showed that item severity coefficient, ratio of responses given by households and item infit and outfit coefficient in adult′s and children′s questionnaire respectively. According to obtained data, scale score of +3 in adults group is described as determination limit of slight food insecurity and +6 is stated as the limit for severe food insecurity. For children′s group, scale score of +2 is defined to be the limit of slight food insecurity and +5 is the determination limit of severe food insecurity. Conclusions: The main hypothesis of this survey analysis is based on the raw scale score of USFSSM The item of "lack of enough money for buying food" (item 2 and the item of "lack of balanced meal" (3 rd item have the lowest severity coefficient. Then, the ascending rate of item severity continues in first item, 4 th item and keeps increasing into 10 th item.

  18. Blindness and Visual Impairment in an Urban West African Population: The Tema Eye Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budenz, Donald L.; Bandi, Jagadeesh R.; Barton, Keith; Nolan, Winifred; Herndon, Leon; Whiteside-de Vos, Julia; Hay-Smith, Graham; Kim, Hanna; Tielsch, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence, etiologies, and risk factors of blindness and visual impairment among persons age 40 years and older residing in an urban West African location. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Participants Five thousand six hundred and three participants residing in Tema, Ghana. Methods Proportionate random cluster sampling was used to select participants age 40 and over living in the city of Tema. Presenting distance visual acuity was measured at 4 and 1 meters using a reduced Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR) tumbling E chart and then with trial frame based on autorefraction. A screening examination was performed in the field on all participants. Complete clinical examination by an ophthalmologist was performed on participants with best corrected visual acuity visual acuity in the better eye of visual impairment (visual acuity in the better eye of visual impairment was 17.1% and blindness was 1.2%. After refraction and spectacle correction, the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness decreased to 6.7% and 0.75% respectively, suggesting that refractive error is the major correctable etiology of visual impairment and blindness in this population. Of 65 subjects having visual acuity visual impairment, and one to normal. The remaining 43 (66%) had underlying pathology (19 cataract, 9 glaucoma, 3 non-glaucomatous optic neuropathy, 3 corneal opacities, 3 retinal disease, 5 undetermined) that prevented refractive correction. Increased age was a significant risk factor for blindness and visual impairment. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of blindness and visual impairment among those aged ≥40 years in Tema, Ghana, West Africa. Refractive error is a major cause of blindness and visual impairment in this population, followed by cataract, glaucoma, and corneal disease. PMID:22677425

  19. Evaluation of the establishment of herd immunity in the population by means of serological surveys and vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans-Rubió, Pedro

    2012-02-01

    The necessary herd immunity blocking the transmission of an infectious agent in the population is established when the prevalence of protected individuals is higher than a critical value, called the herd immunity threshold. The establishment of herd immunity in the population can be determined using the vaccination coverage and seroepidemiological surveys. The vaccination coverage associated with herd immunity (V(c)) can be determined from the herd immunity threshold and vaccine effectiveness. This method requires a vaccine-specific effectiveness evaluation, and it can be used only for the herd immunity assessment of vaccinated communities in which the infectious agent is not circulating. The prevalence of positive serological results associated with herd immunity can be determined from the herd immunity threshold, in terms of prevalence of antibodies (p(c)) and serological test performance. The herd immunity is established when the prevalence of antibodies is higher than pc. This method can be used to assess the establishment of herd immunity in different population groups, both when the infectious agent is circulating and when it is not possible to assess vaccine effectiveness. The herd immunity assessment in Catalonia, Spain, showed that the additional vaccination coverage required to establish herd immunity was 3-6% for measles, mump and varicella and 11% poliovirus type III in school children, 17-59% for diphtheria in youth and adults and 25-46% for persussis in school children, youth and adults.

  20. [Insomnia and total sleep time in France: prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors in a general population survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, F; Richard, J-B; Léger, D

    2013-12-01

    Sleep is considered as a major protective factor for good health and quality of life. The epidemiology of chronic insomnia and other sleep disorders has recently been developed in France. The aim of this study was to evaluate total sleep time and the prevalence of chronic insomnia in the general population aged 15 to 85 years. It was also to investigate factors associated with sleep disorders. Within the framework of the Health Barometer 2010, a French general population survey, 27,653 15 to 85-year-old individuals were questioned about their health behaviors and attitudes, in particular about their sleeping time and habits. The average sleeping time of the 15 to 85-year-old was 7 hours 13 minutes. It was higher for women than for men (7 hours 18 minutes vs 7 hours 07 minutes; Psocio-demographic characteristics. Since the beginning of 1990s, a single-question inquiry on "sleeping problems present during the last 8 days" has been asked in the Health Barometer. The rate of subjects concerned increased from 1995, with a prevalence stabilized at a high level since 2000. Based on these data, we think that the surveillance of sleep disorders is an important public health issue and that prevention and health educational initiatives should be launched in the general population to promote a better quality of sleep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Toothbrushing, Blood Glucose and HbA1c: Findings from a Random Survey in Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lingyu; Liu, Wenzhao; Xie, Bingwu; Dou, Lei; Sun, Jun; Wan, Wenjuan; Fu, Xiaoming; Li, Guangyue; Huang, Jiao; Xu, Ling

    2016-07-07

    Both diabetes and periodontal disease are prevalent in China. Poor oral hygiene practice is the major cause of periodontal disease. An association between oral hygiene practice and blood glucose level was reported in individuals with diabetes, but not in the general population. We examined the association in a population-based random survey recruiting 2,105 adults without previously diagnosed diabetes in Chongqing city, China. Plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured, and a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was conducted for each respondent. Self-reported toothbrushing frequency was used as a proxy for oral hygiene practice. In a linear model controlling for potential confounders (demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, lifestyle risk factors, BMI, dental visit frequency, etc.), urban residents who barely brushed their teeth had an increase of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.10-0.90) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose, and an increase of 0.26% (0.04-0.47%) in HbA1c, relative to those brushing ≥twice daily; for rural residents, the effects were 0.26 (0.05-0.48) mmol/L in fasting plasma glucose and 0.20% (0.09-0.31%) in HbA1c. Individuals with better oral practice tended to have lower level of blood glucose and HbA1c. Establishing good oral health behavioral habits may be conducive to diabetes prevention and control in the general population.

  2. A cross-sectional survey on the attitudes and interests of rural population towards expanded pharmacist prescribing in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Arief, Mohammad; Ahmad, Akram; Malik, Sadiqa; Gogoi, Lakhya Jyoti; Kalita, Manabendra; Saleem, Fahad; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad

    2017-04-01

    Background Shortage of qualified medical doctors and little or no access to basic medicines and medical facilities are the major rural health concerns in India. Expanding the role of pharmacists to provide prescribing services could improve rural health outcomes. Objective To assess the attitudes of rural population towards pharmacist prescribing and their interest in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services. Setting Rural population of Assam, India. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted for a period of 2 months from March to April 2016 in the State of Assam, India. A multi-stage sampling was used to recruit (n = 410) eligible participants. Main outcome measure Rural population attitudes towards, and interests in using, pharmacist prescribing services. Results The attitudes of participants were generally positive towards pharmacist prescribing. A large proportion of participants (81.5%) agreed that pharmacists should have a prescribing role in rural India. Participants indicated their interest in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services, with greater interests in receiving medications in emergency situations (79.7%) and getting a treatment plan for their medical problem (75.6%). Participants with low income and tertiary education had better attitudes and showed more interest towards expanded pharmacist prescribing services (p < 0.05). Conclusions Most participants had positive attitudes towards pharmacist prescribing and were interested in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services.

  3. The ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters: M54 and Young Populations in the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Siegel, Michael H; Majewski, Steven R; Sarajedini, Ata; Chaboyer, Brian; Nidever, David L; Anderson, Jay; Marín-Franch, Antonio; Rosenberg, Alfred; Bedin, Luigi R; Aparicio, Antonio; King, Ivan; Piotto, Giampaolo; Reid, I Neill

    2007-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope photometry of the massive globular cluster M54 (NGC 6715) and the superposed core of the tidally disrupted Sagittarius (Sgr) dSph galaxy as part of the ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. Our deep (F606W~26.5), high-precision photometry yields an unprecedentedly detailed color-magnitude diagram showing the extended blue horizontal branch and multiple main sequences of the M54+Sgr system. The distance and reddening to M54 are revised usingboth isochrone and main-sequence fitting to (m-M)_0=17.27 and E(B-V)=0.15. Preliminary assessment finds the M54+Sgr field to be dominated by the old metal-poor populations of Sgr and the globular cluster. Multiple turnoffs indicate the presence of at least two intermediate-aged star formation epochs with 4 and 6 Gyr ages and [Fe/H]=-0.4 to -0.6. We also clearly show, for the first time, a prominent, 2.3 Gyr old Sgr population of near-solar abundance. A trace population of even younger (0.1-0.8 Gyr old), more metal-rich ([Fe/H]\\sim0....

  4. A survey of glass found on the headwear and head hair of a random population vs. people working with glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Fiona; Maynard, Philip; Cavanagh-Steer, Karen; Dusting, Tatiana; Roux, Claude

    2013-03-10

    This study investigated the prevalence of glass particles on the headwear and head hair of two different population groups; the general public who do not work with glass, and glaziers from O'Brien(®) Glass Industries who work with glass and have regular contact with broken glass. The 232 samples collected from the head hair and headwear from the random population resulted in the recovery of 6 glass fragments in total on 6 individuals (i.e. one fragment each). All of these fragments were from head hair samples with no multiple fragments recovered. The two headwear samples that were taken revealed no fragments. These results were in contrast to the survey that was conducted on the head hair and headwear of 25 glaziers from O'Brien(®), in which 138 glass fragments were found in total on 24 of the 25 glaziers. The size and number of fragments found in each sample were also generally larger for the glaziers group. The results from this study indicate that the prevalence of glass on the head hair and head wear of the random population is very low in comparison to the head hair and headwear of those who have regular contact with breaking glass. The significance of this finding with respect to the interpretation of glass evidence is also discussed.

  5. Spatial and temporal country-wide survey of temephos resistance in Brazilian populations of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chediak, Mateus; G Pimenta, Fabiano; Coelho, Giovanini E; Braga, Ima A; Lima, José Bento P; Cavalcante, Karina Ribeiro Lj; Sousa, Lindemberg C de; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice V de; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da G; Araújo, Ana Paula de; Ayres, Constância Flávia J; Andrighetti, Maria Teresa M; Gomes, Ricristhi Gonçalves de A; Campos, Kauara B; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2016-05-01

    The organophosphate temephos has been the main insecticide used against larvae of the dengue and yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) in Brazil since the mid-1980s. Reports of resistance date back to 1995; however, no systematic reports of widespread temephos resistance have occurred to date. As resistance investigation is paramount for strategic decision-making by health officials, our objective here was to investigate the spatial and temporal spread of temephos resistance in Ae. aegypti in Brazil for the last 12 years using discriminating temephos concentrations and the bioassay protocols of the World Health Organization. The mortality results obtained were subjected to spatial analysis for distance interpolation using semi-variance models to generate maps that depict the spread of temephos resistance in Brazil since 1999. The problem has been expanding. Since 2002-2003, approximately half the country has exhibited mosquito populations resistant to temephos. The frequency of temephos resistance and, likely, control failures, which start when the insecticide mortality level drops below 80%, has increased even further since 2004. Few parts of Brazil are able to achieve the target 80% efficacy threshold by 2010/2011, resulting in a significant risk of control failure by temephos in most of the country. The widespread resistance to temephos in Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations greatly compromise effective mosquito control efforts using this insecticide and indicates the urgent need to identify alternative insecticides aided by the preventive elimination of potential mosquito breeding sites.

  6. Spatial and temporal country-wide survey of temephos resistance in Brazilian populations of Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chediak, Mateus; G Pimenta, Fabiano; Coelho, Giovanini E; Braga, Ima A; Lima, José Bento P; Cavalcante, Karina Ribeiro LJ; de Sousa, Lindemberg C; de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice V; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da G; de Araújo, Ana Paula; Ayres, Constância Flávia J; Andrighetti, Maria Teresa M; Gomes, Ricristhi Gonçalves de A; Campos, Kauara B; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2016-01-01

    The organophosphate temephos has been the main insecticide used against larvae of the dengue and yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) in Brazil since the mid-1980s. Reports of resistance date back to 1995; however, no systematic reports of widespread temephos resistance have occurred to date. As resistance investigation is paramount for strategic decision-making by health officials, our objective here was to investigate the spatial and temporal spread of temephos resistance in Ae. aegypti in Brazil for the last 12 years using discriminating temephos concentrations and the bioassay protocols of the World Health Organization. The mortality results obtained were subjected to spatial analysis for distance interpolation using semi-variance models to generate maps that depict the spread of temephos resistance in Brazil since 1999. The problem has been expanding. Since 2002-2003, approximately half the country has exhibited mosquito populations resistant to temephos. The frequency of temephos resistance and, likely, control failures, which start when the insecticide mortality level drops below 80%, has increased even further since 2004. Few parts of Brazil are able to achieve the target 80% efficacy threshold by 2010/2011, resulting in a significant risk of control failure by temephos in most of the country. The widespread resistance to temephos in Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations greatly compromise effective mosquito control efforts using this insecticide and indicates the urgent need to identify alternative insecticides aided by the preventive elimination of potential mosquito breeding sites. PMID:27143489

  7. Maxent-directed field surveys identify new populations of narrowly endemic habitat specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody M. Rhoden

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Rare or narrowly endemic organisms are difficult to monitor and conserve when their total distribution and habitat preferences are incompletely known. One method employed in determining distributions of these organisms is species distribution modeling (SDM. Methods Using two species of narrowly endemic burrowing crayfish species as our study organisms, we sought to ground validate Maxent, a commonly used program to conduct SDMs. We used fine scale (30 m resolution rasters of pertinent habitat variables collected from historical museum records in 2014. We then ground validated the Maxent model in 2015 by randomly and equally sampling the output from the model. Results The Maxent models for both species of crayfish showed positive relationships between predicted relative occurrence rate and crayfish burrow abundance in both a Receiver Operating Characteristic and generalized linear model approach. The ground validation of Maxent led us to new populations and range extensions of both species of crayfish. Discussion We conclude that Maxent is a suitable tool for the discovery of new populations of narrowly endemic, rare habitat specialists and our technique may be used for other rare, endemic organisms.

  8. Maxent-directed field surveys identify new populations of narrowly endemic habitat specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Cody M; Peterman, William E; Taylor, Christopher A

    2017-01-01

    Rare or narrowly endemic organisms are difficult to monitor and conserve when their total distribution and habitat preferences are incompletely known. One method employed in determining distributions of these organisms is species distribution modeling (SDM). Using two species of narrowly endemic burrowing crayfish species as our study organisms, we sought to ground validate Maxent, a commonly used program to conduct SDMs. We used fine scale (30 m) resolution rasters of pertinent habitat variables collected from historical museum records in 2014. We then ground validated the Maxent model in 2015 by randomly and equally sampling the output from the model. The Maxent models for both species of crayfish showed positive relationships between predicted relative occurrence rate and crayfish burrow abundance in both a Receiver Operating Characteristic and generalized linear model approach. The ground validation of Maxent led us to new populations and range extensions of both species of crayfish. We conclude that Maxent is a suitable tool for the discovery of new populations of narrowly endemic, rare habitat specialists and our technique may be used for other rare, endemic organisms.

  9. Population-based survey of taeniasis along the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton Behravesh, C; Mayberry, L F; Bristol, J R; Cardenas, V M; Mena, K D; Martínez-Ocaña, J; Flisser, A; Snowden, K F

    2008-06-01

    Taenia solium and T. saginata are zoonotic tapeworms of substantial medical and economic importance. Although human taeniasis is widely recognised as an endemic problem in Mexico, its presence in the United States is poorly understood. The first population-based study to estimate the prevalence of human infection with Taenia tapeworms along the Texas-Mexico border has recently been conducted. Households were interviewed in the Texan city of El Paso and in the neighbouring Ciudad Juárez, in Mexico. Faecal samples from household members were then checked for Taenia eggs by flotation and/or for Taenia copro-antigens in an ELISA. The overall prevalence of taeniasis in this border region was found to be 3% but, compared with the residents of Juárez, El Paso residents were 8.6-fold more likely to be tapeworm carriers. The interviews revealed some important differences between the two study sites, particularly the more frequent use of anthelminthic drugs on the Mexican side of the border. These findings have implications in terms of the planning of effective health-education campaigns to decrease the prevalence of taeniasis in the human populations along the Texas-Mexico border.

  10. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey VIII. Multiplicity properties of the O-type star population

    CERN Document Server

    Sana, H; de Mink, S E; Dunstall, P R; Evans, C J; Henault-Brunet, V; Apellaniz, J Maiz; Ramirez-Agudelo, O H; Taylor, W D; Walborn, N R; Clark, J S; Crowther, P A; Herrero, A; Gieles, M; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Vink, J S

    2012-01-01

    Aims. We analyze the multiplicity properties of the massive O-type star population. With 360 O-type stars, this is the largest homogeneous sample of massive stars analyzed to date. Methods. We use multi-epoch spectroscopy and variability analysis to identify spectroscopic binaries. We also use a Monte-Carlo method to correct for observational biases. Results. We observe a spectroscopic binary fraction of 0.35\\pm0.03, which corresponds to the fraction of objects displaying statistically significant radial velocity variations with an amplitude of at least 20km/s. We compute the intrinsic binary fraction to be 0.51\\pm0.04. We adopt power-laws to describe the intrinsic period and mass-ratio distributions: f_P ~ (log P)^\\pi\\ (with 0.15 7.8', i.e. approx117 pc) and among the O9.7 I/II objects are however significantly lower than expected from statistical fluctuations. Conclusions. Using simple evolutionary considerations, we estimate that over 50% of the current O star population in 30 Dor will exchange mass with ...

  11. Risk assessment of additives through soft drinks and nectars consumption on Portuguese population: a 2010 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Janina S G; Silva, Liliana S O; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether the Portuguese population is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, aspartame, caffeine, benzoic and sorbic acid through an assessment of dietary intake of additives and specific consumption of four types of beverages, traditional soft drinks and soft drinks based on mineral waters, energetic drinks, and nectars. The highest mean levels of additives were found for caffeine in energetic drinks, 293.5mg/L, for saccharin in traditional soft drinks, 18.4 mg/L, for acesulfame-K and aspartame in nectars, with 88.2 and 97.8 mg/L, respectively, for benzoic acid in traditional soft drinks, 125.7 mg/L, and for sorbic acid in soft drinks based on mineral water, 166.5 mg/L. Traditional soft drinks presented the highest acceptable daily intake percentages (ADIs%) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, benzoic and sorbic acid and similar value for saccharin (0.5%) when compared with soft drinks based on mineral water, 0.7%, 0.08%, 7.3%, and 1.92% versus 0.2%, 0.053%, 0.6%, and 0.28%, respectively. However for saccharin the highest percentage of ADI was obtained for nectars, 0.9%, in comparison with both types of soft drinks, 0.5%. Therefore, it is concluded that the Portuguese population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for the studied additives.

  12. Measuring self-rated social health of Iranians: a population based survey in three cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Background and objectives: Social health as third dimension of health, along with physical and mental health, has drawn more attention in recent years among policy makers and health system managers. No other study, to our knowledge, has documented measuring individual-level social health in Iran. In response to this need, our study tends to assess Iranians self-rated social health through conducting a survey in 3 cities of Iran. Methods: We conducted a survey using cross sectional method in three cities of Iran included people more than 18 years old. We use a random sample size of 800 people. The scale provides a total score of social health and three sub-scores. Total score was calculated by summing all 33 items, so the range was between 33 to 165, considering that higher score indicating better social health. Psychometric parameters of scale were acceptable. To interpret scores, respondents were categorized into five ordered groups as quintiles for amount of social health. To compare social health scores in different demographic groups multiple linear regression was employed to interpret association between demographic variables and social health score. Results: From a pool of 800 persons, 794 (99% agreed to participate and filled out the questionnaire completely.  The mean of self-rated social health score was 105.0 (95% confidence interval, 103.8 to 106.2. 50% of participants had medium level of social health. social health score was higher for those who live in Urmia as a small city in comparison with big cities- Tehran and Isfahan (P V< 0.001 and was lower for unemployed people (PV= 0.029. There was no association between social health score and other factors such as sex, age and educational level (PV>0.05 Conclusion:This study may be considered as the first step in evidence-based policy-making in the field of social health in Iran. Certainly, it is necessary to conduct more studies to measure social health and its

  13. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among Saudi Adult Population: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla A. Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and predictors of hypertension among Saudi adult population. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select 4758 adult participants. Three blood pressure measurements using an automatic sphygmomanometer, sociodemographics, and antihypertensive modalities were obtained. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 25.5%. Only 44.7% of hypertensives were aware, 71.8% of them received pharmacotherapy, and only 37.0% were controlled. Awareness was significantly associated with gender, age, geographical location, occupation, and comorbidity. Applying drug treatment was significantly more among older patients, but control was significantly higher among younger patients and patients with higher level of physical activity. Significant predictors of hypertension included male gender, urbanization, low education, low physical activity, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion prevalence is high, but awareness, treatment, and control levels are low indicating a need to develop a national program for prevention, early detection, and control of hypertension.

  14. Trends and variation in the management of oesophagogastric cancer patients: a population-based survey

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    Greenberg David C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous evidence indicates potential variation in the quality of care of cancer patients. We aimed to examine whether recent changes in the treatment of oesophagogastric cancers have been distributed equally among different patient subgroups. Methods We analysed population-based cancer registry data about the treatment patterning of oesophagogastric cancer (other than oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma during 1995-2006. Results There were 14,077 patients aged ≥40 years (69% men. There was only limited information on stage, and no information on co-morbidity status. During successive triennia, curative surgery use decreased from 28% to 20% (p Conclusions During the study period, curative surgery decreased by a third and chemotherapy use increased by more than three-fold, reflecting improvements in the appropriateness and quality of management, but chemotherapy use, in particular, was unequal, both by socioeconomic status and gender.

  15. Population-based nutritional risk survey of pensioners in Yerevan, Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, S J; Welch, K; Laumark, S; Peterson, D E; Ratard, R C; Toole, M J; Farley, T A

    1994-01-01

    Armenia, a republic of the former Soviet Union, currently suffers from hyperinflation of its currency, a five-year country-wide blockade, and a war with Azerbaijan. Pensioners 60 years of age or older may be at high risk for significant nutritional deficits. We drew a stratified systematic sample (with a random starting point) of 456 pensioner names from all eight administrative regions in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. We administered a questionnaire that gathered data including self-reported weight and height, demographic characteristics, living conditions, medical and dietary history, income, and aid received from various sources. The survey yielded 381 of 456 (84%) completed interviews. Ninety-one percent reported their diet had gotten worse during the past six months, including less variety (83%) and quantity (85%) of food. Seventy-six percent reported they did not have enough money to buy food, and 91% had cut the size of their meals or skipped meals. Forty-five percent reported a weight loss of > or = 5 kg in the previous year. After we adjusted for potential confounders, weight loss of > or = 5 kg was associated with illness affecting eating (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.4, 3.4), not having received aid (adjusted OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1, 4.1), and cutting the size of or skipping meals (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1, 6.7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Allergic rhinitis in northern vietnam: increased risk of urban living according to a large population survey

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    Lâm Hoàng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about prevalence and risk factors of allergic rhinitis and chronic nasal symptoms among adults in Vietnam. We aimed to estimate the prevalence, risk factor patterns and co-morbidities of allergic rhinitis and chronic nasal symptoms in one urban and one rural area in northern Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted from August 2007 to January 2008 in urban Hoankiem and rural Bavi in Hanoi among adults aged 21-70 years. Of 7008 randomly selected subjects, 91.7% participated in Bavi and 70.3% in Hoankiem. Results Allergic rhinitis ever or chronic nasal symptoms were reported by 50.2%. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis ever was considerably higher in Hoankiem compared to Bavi, 29.6% vs 10.0% (p Conclusions Allergic rhinitis ever was considerably more common in the urban area. Nasal blocking and runny nose was each reported by about one third of the studied sample with no major urban-rural difference. Further, exposure to air pollution at work was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis ever, nasal blocking and runny nose.

  17. Attributes of researchers and their strategies to recruit minority populations: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S; Garza, Mary A; Kim, Kevin H; Ryan, Christopher; Thomas, Stephen B

    2012-11-01

    Despite NIH mandates for inclusion, recruiting minorities is challenging for biomedical and public health researchers. Little is known about how attributes of researchers affect their choice of recruitment strategies. The purpose of this study was to address this gap by examining how use of recruitment strategies relates to other researcher characteristics. To do this, we conducted an online survey from May to August 2010 with researchers (principal investigators, research staff, and IRB members) in which we measured the number and types of recruitment strategies utilized, along with other characteristics of the researchers and their research. We identified two clusters of researchers: comprehensive researchers who utilized a greater number and more diverse and active recruitment strategies, and traditional researchers, who utilized fewer and more passive strategies. Additional characteristics that distinguished the two groups were that comprehensive researchers were more likely than traditional researchers to 1) report racial and ethnic differences as one of their specific aims or hypotheses, 2) receive federal (CDC and NIH) funding, 3) conduct behavioral or epidemiological research, and 4) have received training in conducting research with and recruiting minorities. Traditional researchers, on the other hand, were more likely to conduct clinical research and a greater (though non-significant) percentage received funding from pharmaceutical sources. This study provides a novel description of how researcher attributes are related to their recruitment strategies and raises a number of future research questions to further examine the implications of this relationship.

  18. A survey of small RNA population during FR-induced apical hook opening

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    Ying eLi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Photomorphogenesis is a mechanism employed by plants to regulate their architecture and developmental program in response to light conditions. As they emerge into light for the first time, dark-grown seedlings employ a rapid and finely-controlled photomorphogenic signaling network. Small RNAs have increasingly been revealed to play an important role in regulating multiple aspects of plant development, by modulating the stability of mRNAs. The rapid alteration of the mRNA transcriptome is a known hallmark of the de-etiolation response, thus we investigated the small RNA transcriptome during this process in specific seedling tissues. Here we describe a survey of the small RNA expression profile in four tissues of etiolated soybean seedlings, the cotyledons, hypocotyl and the convex and concave sides of the apical hook. We also investigate how this profile responds to a one-hour far-red light treatment. Our data suggests that miRNAs show a different global profile between these tissues and treatments, suggesting a possible role for tissue- and treatment-specific expression in the differential morphology of the seedling on de-etiolation. Further evidence for the role of miRNA in light-regulated development is given by the de-etiolation responses of a hypomorphic ago1 mutant, which displays reduced and delayed photomorphogenic responses in apical hook and cotyledon angle to far-red light.

  19. Health-state utilities in a prisoner population: a cross-sectional survey

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    Levy Michael H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-state utilities for prisoners have not been described. Methods We used data from a 1996 cross-sectional survey of Australian prisoners (n = 734. Respondent-level SF-36 data was transformed into utility scores by both the SF-6D and Nichol's method. Socio-demographic and clinical predictors of SF-6D utility were assessed in univariate analyses and a multivariate general linear model. Results The overall mean SF-6D utility was 0.725 (SD 0.119. When subdivided by various medical conditions, prisoner SF-6D utilities ranged from 0.620 for angina to 0.764 for those with none/mild depressive symptoms. Utilities derived by the Nichol's method were higher than SF-6D scores, often by more than 0.1. In multivariate analysis, significant independent predictors of worse utility included female gender, increasing age, increasing number of comorbidities and more severe depressive symptoms. Conclusion The utilities presented may prove useful for future economic and decision models evaluating prison-based health programs.

  20. Determinants for acceptance of preventive treatment against heart disease - a web-based population survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients' perception of risk and their lifestyle choices are of major importance in the treatment of common chronic diseases. This study reveals determinants for and knowledge about why people accept or reject preventive medical interventions against heart disease. Methods: A represen......Background: Patients' perception of risk and their lifestyle choices are of major importance in the treatment of common chronic diseases. This study reveals determinants for and knowledge about why people accept or reject preventive medical interventions against heart disease. Methods......: A representative sample of 40-60-year-old Danish inhabitants was invited to participate in a web-based survey. The respondents were presented with a hypothetical scenario and asked to imagine that they were at an increased risk of heart disease, and subsequently presented with an offer of a preventive medical...... intervention. The aim was to elicit preference structures when potential patients are presented with different treatment conditions. Results: About one third of the respondents were willing to accept preventive medical treatment. Respondents with personal experience with heart disease were more likely...

  1. Population survey of attitudes and beliefs regarding organic, genetically modified, and irradiated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwira Baumblatt, Jane A; Carpenter, L Rand; Wiedeman, Caleb; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Jones, Timothy F

    2017-03-01

    Sales of organic foods are increasing due to public demand, while genetically modified (GM) and irradiated foods are often viewed with suspicion. The aim of this research was to examine consumer attitudes toward organic, GM and irradiated foods to direct educational efforts regarding their consumption Methods: A telephone survey of 1838 residents in Tennessee, USA was conducted regarding organic, GM, and irradiated foods. Approximately half of respondents (50.4%) purchased organic food during the previous 6 months ('consumers'). The most common beliefs about organic foods by consumers were higher cost (92%), and fewer pesticides (89%). Consumers were more likely than non-consumers to believe organic food tasted better (prevalence ratio 3.6; 95% confidence interval 3.02-4.23). A minority of respondents were familiar with GM foods (33%) and irradiated foods (22%). Organic food consumption is common in Tennessee, but knowledge about GM and irradiated foods is less common. Consumer health education should emphasize the benefits of these food options, and the safety of GM and irradiated foods.

  2. Atherosclerosis profile and incidence of cardiovascular events: a population-based survey

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    Bullano Michael F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic progressive disease often presenting as clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD events. This study evaluated the characteristics of individuals with a diagnosis of atherosclerosis and estimated the incidence of CVD events to assist in the early identification of high-risk individuals. Methods Respondents to the US SHIELD baseline survey were followed for 2 years to observe incident self-reported CVD. Respondents had subclinical atherosclerosis if they reported a diagnosis of narrow or blocked arteries/carotid artery disease without a past clinical CVD event (heart attack, stroke or revascularization. Characteristics of those with atherosclerosis and incident CVD were compared with those who did not report atherosclerosis at baseline but had CVD in the following 2 years using chi-square tests. Logistic regression model identified characteristics associated with atherosclerosis and incident events. Results Of 17,640 respondents, 488 (2.8% reported having subclinical atherosclerosis at baseline. Subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with age, male gender, dyslipidemia, circulation problems, hypertension, past smoker, and a cholesterol test in past year (OR = 2.2 [all p Conclusion Self-report of subclinical atherosclerosis identified an extremely high-risk group with a >25% risk of a CVD event in the next 2 years. These characteristics may be useful for identifying individuals for more aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic efforts.

  3. Person-fit statistics, response sets and survey participation in a population-based cohort study

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    Müller Jörg M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Person-fit methodology is a promising technique for identifying subjects whose test scores have questionable validity. Less is known however about this technique’s ability to predict survey participation longitudinally. This study presents theory-derived expectations related to social desirability, the tendency for extreme responding and traitedness for specific deviating answer patterns and an expected consistence of person-fit scores across 27 personality scales. Data from 5,114 subjects (Amelang, 1997 were reanalysed with a polytomous-Rasch model to estimate scale scores and von Davier and Molenaar’s (2003 person-fit statistics. The person-fit statistics of the 27 scales were examined together with the 27 person parameter scores in one common factor analysis. The person-fit scores served as indicators of the latent factor ‘scalability’ while the person-parameter scores were considered to index the bias introduced by social desirability. The sign of factor loadings showed consistency and validity of the tendency for social desirability and extreme responding. Moreover, the personfit- based subject classification derived from the baseline data was able to predict subjects’ participation at a 8,5-year follow-up. However, the nature of those associations was contrary to our predictions. The discussion addresses explanations and practical implications, but also the limitations pertaining to the identification and interpretation of person-fit scores.

  4. The deep OB star population in Carina from the VST Photometric H$\\alpha$ Survey (VPHAS+)

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr-Smith, M; Napiwotzki, R; Simón-Díaz, S; Wright, N J; Barentsen, G; Eislöffel, J; Farnhill, H J; Greimel, R; Monguió, M; Kalari, V; Parker, Q A; Vink, J S

    2016-01-01

    Massive OB stars are critical to the ecology of galaxies, and yet our knowledge of OB stars in the Milky Way, fainter than $V \\sim 12$, remains patchy. Data from the VST Photometric H$\\alpha$ Survey (VPHAS+) permit the construction of the first deep catalogues of blue excess-selected OB stars, without neglecting the stellar field. A total of 14900 candidates with 2MASS cross-matches are blue-selected from a 42 square-degree region in the Galactic Plane, capturing the Carina Arm over the Galactic longitude range $282^{\\circ} \\lesssim \\ell \\lesssim 293^{\\circ}$. Spectral energy distribution fitting is performed on these candidates' combined VPHAS+ $u,g,r,i$ and 2MASS $J,H,K$ magnitudes. This delivers: effective temperature constraints, statistically separating O from early-B stars; high-quality extinction parameters, $A_0$ and $R_V$ (random errors typically $ 3.5$) extinction laws are ubiquitous in the region, over the distance range 2.5--3 kpc to $\\sim$10~kpc. Near prominent massive clusters, $R_V$ tends to ri...

  5. Impact of conjunctivochalasis on visual quality of life: a community population survey.

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    Qihua Le

    Full Text Available Conjunctivochalasis (Cch is a very common ocular disorder, which can cause an unstable tear film and ocular discomfort. The study of vision-related quality of life (VR-QoL in a community population with Cch can provide a better understanding of the impact of Cch on common people than objective clinical examinations alone. This cross-sectional comparative study enrolled 360 participants ≥ 40 years old living in Sanle Community, Shanghai. In the study, 198 subjects were diagnosed with Cch and 86 with dry eye syndrome (DES without Cch. The remaining 76 subjects were normal controls. Socio-demographical data were collected, and Cch and related ocular symptoms and signs were evaluated. In addition, all participants were required to complete the Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25 and Ocular Surface Disease Index Questionnaire (OSDI. Main outcome measures include the comparison on the OSDI score and VFQ-25 score among the subgroups, and the correlation of these scores with the socio-demographical and clinical data. The results revealed that subjects with Cch had significantly decreased tear film stability even compared with those with DES (P = 0.001. The participants with either Cch or DES reported significantly higher OSDI scores and lower VFQ-25 composite scores than the normal controls (P<0.001 and 0.007 respectively. Further comparisons among the subgroups of Cch revealed that the following factors were associated with higher OSDI scores and lower VFQ-25 composite scores: nasal-side Cch, chalasis folds higher than tear meniscus height, punctal occlusion, or increased extent of chalasis on digital pressure. In conclusion, Cch was associated with an adverse impact on VR-QoL in a community population, and the impairment in VR-QoL had a significant correlation with disease severity and tear film abnormalities.

  6. Survey of population health in towns with nuclear and fossil fuel power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, E.; Shubik, V. M.

    2004-07-01

    Comparative assessment of population health in Sosnovy Bor with nuclear power plant and Kirovsk with fossil fuel power station was made for public and administration information. Both towns are located in Leningrad administrative region at 150 km distance from each other. In nuclear power town radiological situation was assessed as normal and in Kirovsk up to 1995 yr. with coal fuel, maximum permissible levels of suspended particle of sulfur oxide in atmosphere were exceeded in 6-9% of samples. After 1995 yr. the natural gas was used as fuel. Demographic data for 1991-2000 yrs indicate that mortality including infants mortality and stillborns was lower in Sosnovy Bor (NOS) then in Kirovsk (fossil fuel) and on average Leningrad administrative region. Birth rate and population growth was higher in Sosnovy Bor at the same time surprisingly the recorded morbidity was higher in Sosnovy Bor which might be explained by extensive medical supervision and improved diagnostics. However, cancer and tuberculosis morbidity was lower in Sosnovy Bor. In Kirovsk in 1997-2000 yrs. oncological morbidity was higher on average comparing to Leningrad administrative region. Oncological mortality in Sosnovy Bor in 1997-2000 yrs. was lower than in Kirovsk and Leningrad region Standardized annual mortality in Sosnovy Bor, Kirovsk and Leningrad administrative region was 128.3, 209.6 and 211.7 on 100 000 respectively. Health state of pregnant women, deliveries, new-born condition were all in normal range in Sosnovy Bor, contrary to higher increased abortion rate and pregnancy complications in Kirovsk. These findings need further studies. (Author)

  7. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic globular clusters - IX. The Atlas of multiple stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, A. P.; Piotto, G.; Renzini, A.; Marino, A. F.; Bedin, L. R.; Vesperini, E.; D'Antona, F.; Nardiello, D.; Anderson, J.; King, I. R.; Yong, D.; Bellini, A.; Aparicio, A.; Barbuy, B.; Brown, T. M.; Cassisi, S.; Ortolani, S.; Salaris, M.; Sarajedini, A.; van der Marel, R. P.

    2017-01-01

    We use high-precision photometry of red-giant-branch (RGB) stars in 57 Galactic globular clusters (GCs), mostly from the `Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV Legacy Survey of Galactic GCs', to identify and characterize their multiple stellar populations. For each cluster the pseudo-two-colour diagram (or `chromosome map') is presented, built with a suitable combination of stellar magnitudes in the F275W, F336W, F438W, and F814W filters that maximizes the separation between multiple populations. In the chromosome map of most GCs (type-I clusters), stars separate in two distinct groups that we identify with the first (1G) and the second generation (2G). This identification is further supported by noticing that 1G stars have primordial (oxygen-rich, sodium-poor) chemical composition, whereas 2G stars are enhanced in sodium and depleted in oxygen. This 1G-2G separation is not possible for a few GCs where the two sequences have apparently merged into an extended, continuous sequence. In some GCs (type-II clusters) the 1G and/or the 2G sequences appear to be split, hence displaying more complex chromosome maps. These clusters exhibit multiple subgiant branches (SGBs) also in purely optical colour-magnitude diagrams, with the fainter SGB joining into a red RGB which is populated by stars with enhanced heavy-element abundance. We measure the RGB width by using appropriate colours and pseudo-colours. When the metallicity dependence is removed, the RGB width correlates with the cluster mass. The fraction of 1G stars ranges from ˜8 per cent to ˜67 per cent and anticorrelates with the cluster mass, indicating that incidence and complexity of the multiple population phenomenon both increase with cluster mass.

  8. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program, Part A; Fisheries Creel Survey and Population Status Analysis, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotts, Jim; Shields, John; Underwood, Keith

    2002-05-01

    The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program is the result of a merger between two projects, the Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Program (BPA No. 8806300) and the Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Project (BPA No. 9404300). These projects were merged in 1996 to continue work historically completed under the separate projects, and is now referred to as the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program. Creel and angler surveys estimated that anglers made 196,775 trips to Lake Roosevelt during 1998, with an economic value of $8.0 million dollars, based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI). In 1998 it was estimated that 9,980 kokanee salmon, 226,809 rainbow trout, 119,346 walleye, and over 14,000 smallmouth bass and other species were harvested. Creel data indicates that hatchery reared rainbow trout contribute substantially to the Lake Roosevelt fishery. The contribution of kokanee salmon to the creel has not met the expectations of fishery managers to date, and is limited by entrainment from the reservoir, predation, and possible fish culture obstacles. The 1998 Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Creel and Population Analysis Annual Report includes analyses of the relative abundance of fish species, and reservoir habitat relationships (1990-1998). Fisheries surveys (1990-1998) indicate that walleye and burbot populations appear to be increasing, while yellow perch, a preferred walleye prey species, and other prey species are decreasing in abundance. The long term decreasing abundance of yellow perch and other prey species are suspected to be the result of the lack of suitable multiple reservoir elevation spawning and rearing refugia for spring spawning reservoir prey species, resulting from seasonal spring-early summer reservoir elevation manipulations, and walleye predation. Reservoir water management is both directly, and indirectly influencing the success of mitigation hatchery production of kokanee salmon and rainbow trout. Tag return data suggested excessive entrainment occurred in

  9. Daily physical activities and sports in adult survivors of childhood cancer and healthy controls: a population-based questionnaire survey.

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    Corina S Rueegg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthy lifestyle including sufficient physical activity may mitigate or prevent adverse long-term effects of childhood cancer. We described daily physical activities and sports in childhood cancer survivors and controls, and assessed determinants of both activity patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a questionnaire survey including all children diagnosed with cancer 1976-2003 at age 0-15 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry, who survived ≥5 years and reached adulthood (≥20 years. Controls came from the population-based Swiss Health Survey. We compared the two populations and determined risk factors for both outcomes in separate multivariable logistic regression models. The sample included 1058 survivors and 5593 controls (response rates 78% and 66%. Sufficient daily physical activities were reported by 52% (n = 521 of survivors and 37% (n = 2069 of controls (p<0.001. In contrast, 62% (n = 640 of survivors and 65% (n = 3635 of controls reported engaging in sports (p = 0.067. Risk factors for insufficient daily activities in both populations were: older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.5, 95CI 1.2-2.0, female gender (OR 1.6, 95CI 1.3-1.9, French/Italian Speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.7, and higher education (OR for university education: 2.0, 95CI 1.5-2.6. Risk factors for no sports were: being a survivor (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.1-1.6, older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.8, migration background (OR 1.5, 95CI 1.3-1.8, French/Italian speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.2-1.7, lower education (OR for compulsory schooling only: 1.6, 95CI 1.2-2.2, being married (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.0, having children (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.4-1.9, obesity (OR 2.4, 95CI 1.7-3.3, and smoking (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.1. Type of diagnosis was only associated with sports. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Physical activity levels in survivors were lower than recommended, but comparable to controls and

  10. Genetic variants associated with fasting blood lipids in the U.S. population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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    Mueller Patricia W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of genetic variants related to blood lipid levels within a large, population-based and nationally representative study might lead to a better understanding of the genetic contribution to serum lipid levels in the major race/ethnic groups in the U.S. population. Methods Using data from the second phase (1991-1994 of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, we examined associations between 22 polymorphisms in 13 candidate genes and four serum lipids: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, total cholesterol (TC, and triglycerides (TG. Univariate and multivariable linear regression and within-gene haplotype trend regression were used to test for genetic associations assuming an additive mode of inheritance for each of the three major race/ethnic groups in the United States (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American. Results Variants within APOE (rs7412, rs429358, PON1 (rs854560, ITGB3 (rs5918, and NOS3 (rs2070744 were found to be associated with one or more blood lipids in at least one race/ethnic group in crude and adjusted analyses. In non-Hispanic whites, no individual polymorphisms were associated with any lipid trait. However, the PON1 A-G haplotype was significantly associated with LDL-C and TC. In non-Hispanic blacks, APOE variant rs7412 and haplotype T-T were strongly associated with LDL-C and TC; whereas, rs5918 of ITGB3 was significantly associated with TG. Several variants and haplotypes of three genes were significantly related to lipids in Mexican Americans: PON1 in relation to HDL-C; APOE and NOS3 in relation to LDL-C; and APOE in relation to TC. Conclusions We report the significant associations of blood lipids with variants and haplotypes in APOE, ITGB3, NOS3, and PON1 in the three main race/ethnic groups in the U.S. population using a large, nationally representative and population-based sample

  11. Daily physical activities and sports in adult survivors of childhood cancer and healthy controls: a population-based questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueegg, Corina S; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Rebholz, Cornelia E; Michel, Gisela; Zwahlen, Marcel; Grotzer, Michael; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2012-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle including sufficient physical activity may mitigate or prevent adverse long-term effects of childhood cancer. We described daily physical activities and sports in childhood cancer survivors and controls, and assessed determinants of both activity patterns. The Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a questionnaire survey including all children diagnosed with cancer 1976-2003 at age 0-15 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry, who survived ≥5 years and reached adulthood (≥20 years). Controls came from the population-based Swiss Health Survey. We compared the two populations and determined risk factors for both outcomes in separate multivariable logistic regression models. The sample included 1058 survivors and 5593 controls (response rates 78% and 66%). Sufficient daily physical activities were reported by 52% (n = 521) of survivors and 37% (n = 2069) of controls (psports (p = 0.067). Risk factors for insufficient daily activities in both populations were: older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.5, 95CI 1.2-2.0), female gender (OR 1.6, 95CI 1.3-1.9), French/Italian Speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.7), and higher education (OR for university education: 2.0, 95CI 1.5-2.6). Risk factors for no sports were: being a survivor (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.1-1.6), older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.8), migration background (OR 1.5, 95CI 1.3-1.8), French/Italian speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.2-1.7), lower education (OR for compulsory schooling only: 1.6, 95CI 1.2-2.2), being married (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.0), having children (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.4-1.9), obesity (OR 2.4, 95CI 1.7-3.3), and smoking (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.1). Type of diagnosis was only associated with sports. Physical activity levels in survivors were lower than recommended, but comparable to controls and mainly determined by socio-demographic and cultural factors. Strategies to improve physical activity levels could be similar as for the general population.

  12. Is there a demand for physical activity interventions provided by the health care sector? Findings from a population survey

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    Walter Lars

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care providers in many countries have delivered interventions to improve physical activity levels among their patients. Thus far, less is known about the population's interest to increase their physical activity levels and their opinion about the health care provider's role in physical activity promotion. The aims of this paper were to investigate the self-reported physical activity levels of the population and intention to increase physical activity levels, self-perceived need for support, and opinions about the responsibilities of both individuals and health care providers to promote physical activity. Methods A regional public health survey was mailed to 13 440 adults (aged 18-84 years living in Östergötland County (Sweden in 2006. The survey was part of the regular effort by the regional Health Authorities. Results About 25% of the population was categorised as physically active, 38% as moderately active, 27% as somewhat active, and 11% as low active. More than one-third (37% had no intentions to increase their physical activity levels, 36% had thought about change, while 27% were determined to change. Lower intention to change was mainly associated with increased age and lower education levels. 28% answered that physical activity was the most important health-related behaviour to change "right now" and 15% of those answered that they wanted or needed support to make this change. Of respondents who might be assumed to be in greatest need of increased activity (i.e. respondents reporting poor general health, BMI>30, and inactivity more than one-quarter wanted support to make improvements to their health. About half of the respondents who wanted support to increase their physical activity levels listed health care providers as a primary source for support. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is considerable need for physical activity interventions in this population. Adults feel great responsibility for

  13. The value of vaccination: results of an Italian survey among Medical Doctors, Policy Makers and General Population

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    Chiara Cadeddu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:

    Background: In the Italian context, evolving toward the abandonment of compulsory vaccination, the
    maintenance of adequate levels of coverage appears as essential. The promotion of a good vaccination
    knowledge, supported by strong scientific evidence, and the collaboration of all the involved stakeholders,
    appears hence fundamental. The aim of this survey was to understand why vaccination is not appreciated
    for its real value by different stakeholders.
    Methods: In collaboration with other Italian Universities and Health Districts, in Summer 2011 we submitted
    a survey of 17 questions to a convenience sample of Italian Medical Doctors, Policy Makers and General
    Population. The main questions analyzed the importance of vaccination for health, actions to attain vaccination
    value and consequences of a free choice policy.
    Results: Of the 173 stakeholders interviewed, 78% of Medical Doctors, 82% Policy Makers and 46%
    General Population believe that vaccination is important for health. The most important actions suggested
    for strengthening vaccination were information about its efficacy and safety and studies on its impact on
    Public Health, according to most of General Population and of Medical Doctors and Policy Makers, respectively.
    According to 60.4% Medical Doctors, 72.8% Policy Makers and 56.3% General Population the abolition
    of compulsory vaccination would lead to a reduction of vaccinees in all the Italian regions.
    Conclusions: Our study confirms the need for a thorough “education in vaccination”. Among stakeholders
    there are still doubts that hinder the decision process about vaccination policies and programmes. On
    the other hand, a call for an “Alliance” for promoting and implementing vaccination to its full potential
    would be favoured, as

  14. Pilot pathfinder survey of oral hygiene and periodontal conditions in the rural population of The Gambia (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, R A; Lucaciu, A; Fotouhi, K; Markovic, L; Gaengler, P; Zimmer, S

    2011-02-01

    To document oral hygiene and periodontal conditions in the rural population of The Gambia. Cross-sectional study according to the recommendations of the WHO for oral health surveys. Examination by two calibrated investigators in the health centres of rural communities after a public radio call. Patients were randomly allocated to the investigators.   162 patients (20-54 years old; 52.5% female, 47.5% male). Patients were interviewed for personal information and examined in a full-mouth recording. Oral Hygiene Index (OHI), Gingival Index (GI), Community Periodontal Index (CPI), and the Gingivitis-Periodontitis-Missing/Teeth Index (GPM/T). Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon-rank-sum test and Kruskal-Wallis test with statistical significance at P Africa). © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Quality of life, social position and occupational groups in Brazil: evidence from a population-based survey

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    Luisa Sorio Flor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether occupation, variable that reflects social position, is associated with good quality of life among Brazilians. It is a cross-sectional study based on data obtained from a population-based survey carried out in Brazil in 2008. The sample composed of 12,423 Brazilians, older than 20 years. Physical and mental quality of life were both measured by SF-36 and scores were grouped in "above the mean" and "below the mean" to set binary outcomes. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to verify the impact of occupational position on the chances of better physical and mental quality of life, controlling it by socio-demographic and health variables. Results showed that Brazilians included on the labour market have better chances of a good physical and mental quality of life, even if controlled by other variables.

  16. [Hungarian Diet and Nutritional Status Survey - OTÁP2014. II. Energy and macronutrient intake of the Hungarian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkadi Nagy, Eszter; Bakacs, Márta; Illés, Éva; Nagy, Barbara; Varga, Anita; Kis, Orsolya; Schreiberné Molnár, Erzsébet; Martos, Éva

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess and monitor the dietary habits and nutrient intake of Hungarian adults. Three-day dietary records were used for dietary assessment, the sample was representative for the Hungarian population aged ≥18ys by gender and age. The mean proportion of energy from fat was higher (men: 38 energy%, women: 37 energy%), that from carbohydrates was lower (men: 45 energy%, women: 47 energy%) than recommended, the protein intake is adequate. Unfavorable change compared to the previous survey in 2009 was the increase of fat and saturated fatty acid energy percent in women, the decrease in fruit and vegetable consumption, which explains the decreased fiber intake. An increasing trend in added sugar energy percent in each age groups of both genders was observed compared to 2009. Interventions focusing on the promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption and decreasing of saturated fat and added sugar intake are needed. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(15), 587-597.

  17. Native and foreign born as predictors of pediatric asthma in an Asian immigrant population: a cross sectional survey

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    Woodin Mark

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma prevalence is lower in less developed countries and among some recent immigrant populations in the US, but the reasons for this are not clear. One possibility is that early childhood infections are protective against asthma. Methods We surveyed Asian immigrant children (n = 204; age 4–18 to assess the relationship between asthma and native or foreign place of birth. We included questions about environmental exposures, demographic variables and family history of asthma to test whether they might explain effects of place of birth on asthma. Results The native and foreign born groups were similar in most respects. Analysis of association with diagnosed asthma for all ages together resulted in two logistic regression models. Both retained born in the US (ORs were 3.2 and 4.3; p Conclusion Our findings are consistent with early childhood infections that are prevalent outside the US protecting against asthma.

  18. Linking Errors between Two Populations and Tests: A Case Study in International Surveys in Education

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    Dirk Hastedt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This simulation study was prompted by the current increased interest in linking national studies to international large-scale assessments (ILSAs such as IEA's TIMSS, IEA's PIRLS, and OECD's PISA. Linkage in this scenario is achieved by including items from the international assessments in the national assessments on the premise that the average achievement scores from the latter can be linked to the international metric. In addition to raising issues associated with different testing conditions, administrative procedures, and the like, this approach also poses psychometric challenges. This paper endeavors to shed some light on the effects that can be expected, the linkage errors in particular, by countries using this practice. The ILSA selected for this simulation study was IEA TIMSS 2011, and the three countries used as the national assessment cases were Botswana, Honduras, and Tunisia, all of which participated in TIMSS 2011. The items selected as items common to the simulated national tests and the international test came from the Grade 4 TIMSS 2011 mathematics items that IEA released into the public domain after completion of this assessment. The findings of the current study show that linkage errors seemed to achieve acceptable levels if 30 or more items were used for the linkage, although the errors were still significantly higher compared to the TIMSS' cutoffs. Comparison of the estimated country averages based on the simulated national surveys and the averages based on the international TIMSS assessment revealed only one instance across the three countries of the estimates approaching parity. Also, the percentages of students in these countries who actually reached the defined benchmarks on the TIMSS achievement scale differed significantly from the results based on TIMSS and the results for the simulated national assessments. As a conclusion, we advise against using groups of released items from international assessments in national

  19. Epidemiology of unintentional injuries in childhood: a population-based survey in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otters, Hanneke; Schellevis, François G; Damen, Jurgen; van der Wouden, Johannes C; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Koes, Bart W

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the incidence of unintentional injuries presented in general practice, and to identify children at risk from experiencing an unintentional injury. We used the data of all 0–17-year-old children from a representative survey in 96 Dutch general practices in 2001. We computed incidence rates and multilevel multivariate regression analysis in different age strata and identified patient and family characteristics associated with an elevated injury risk. Nine thousand four hundred and eighty-four new injury episodes were identified from 105 353 new health problems presented in general practice, giving an overall incidence rate of 115 per 1000 person years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 113 to 118). Sex and residence in rural areas are strong predictors of injury in all age strata. Also, in children aged 0–4 years, a higher number of siblings is associated with elevated injury risk (≥3 siblings odds ratio [OR] = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.08) and in the 12–17-year-olds, ethnic background and socioeconomic class are associated with experiencing an injury (non-western children OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.81; low socioeconomic class OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.22 to 1.58). Unintentional injury is a significant health problem in children in general practice, accounting for 9% of all new health problems in children. In all age groups, boys in rural areas are especially at risk to experience an injury. PMID:16105373

  20. Moderately overweight and obese patients in general practice: a population based survey

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    Schuit Albertine J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a main threat to public health in the Western world and is associated with diseases such as diabetes mellitus and coronary heart diseases. Up to now a minority of research studied the relation between obesity and the use of primary health care. In the Netherlands the general practitioner (GP is the main primary health care provider. The objective of this article is to evaluate GP consultation and prescription of drugs in moderate and severely overweight (obese persons in the Netherlands. Methods Data were used from a representative survey of morbidity in Dutch general practice in 2001. Our study sample consisted of 8,944 adult respondents (18+ years who participated in an extensive health interview. Interview data were linked to morbidity and prescription registration data from 95 general practices where respondents were listed. Body mass index (BMI was calculated using self-reported height and weight. Analyses were controlled for clustering within practices as well as for socio-demographic and life style characteristics. Results Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was observed in 8.9% of men and 12.4% of women; for moderate overweight (BMI 25- Conclusion Obesity increases the workload of Dutch general practitioners and the use of prescribed medication. The current increase in the prevalence of obesity will further increase the use of health care and related costs. Since a large majority of Dutch persons visit their GP over the course of one year, GPs' potential role in effective prevention strategies cannot be denied.

  1. Causal beliefs about obesity and associated health behaviors: results from a population-based survey

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    Coups Elliot J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several genetic variants are associated with obesity risk. Promoting the notion of genes as a cause for obesity may increase genetically deterministic beliefs and decrease motivation to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors. Little is known about whether causal beliefs about obesity are associated with lifestyle behaviors. Study objectives were as follows: 1 to document the prevalence of various causal beliefs about obesity (i.e., genes versus lifestyle behaviors, and 2 to determine the association between obesity causal beliefs and self-reported dietary and physical activity behaviors. Methods The study data were drawn from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS. A total of 3,534 individuals were included in the present study. Results Overall, 72% of respondents endorsed the belief that lifestyle behaviors have 'a lot' to do with causing obesity, whereas 19% indicated that inheritance has 'a lot' to do with causing obesity. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that the belief that obesity is inherited was associated with lower reported levels of physical activity (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.77-0.99 and fruit and vegetable consumption (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76-0.99. In contrast, the belief that obesity is caused by lifestyle behaviors was associated with greater reported levels of physical activity (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.62, but was not associated with fruit and vegetable intake (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.90-1.28. Conclusions Causal beliefs about obesity are associated with some lifestyle behaviors. Additional research is needed to determine whether promoting awareness of the genetic determinants of obesity will decrease the extent to which individuals will engage in the lifestyle behaviors essential to healthy weight management.

  2. The relationship between Taekwondo training habits and injury: a survey of a collegiate Taekwondo population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Natalia; Bhatia, Subir; Campos, Luis F; Nguyen, Dahn V; Chang, Eric Y

    2015-01-01

    To correlate training habits of Taekwondo (TKD) athletes to risk for injury. TKD is a Korean marital art that has been growing in popularity, with nearly 2 million individuals practicing the sport in the United States. Because of the combative nature of the sport, injuries are an inherent risk. However, data on proper training habits, types of injuries sustained during training, and recommendations for athletes to avoid injury are lacking. Frequently, studies of TKD evaluate athletes' injuries during tournaments, but most do not evaluate athletes in training. Increased training would potentially create more injuries secondary to increased exposure. This is a cross-sectional observational survey of 72 collegiate TKD athletes from the Pacific West Sanctioned Taekwondo Tournaments in the 2008-2009 season. Variables analyzed during training and competitions were training sessions per week, workout habits, belt level, years of experience, and characteristics of injury (location, type, mechanism, situation, treatment, and days missed). TKD training habits of individuals who practiced four or more times per week (odds ratio [OR], 4.5; P=0.005) or sparred for more than 2 hours (OR, 8.7; P=0.003) were associated with significantly increased odds (risk) of sustaining an injury. Those who had more than 3 years of tournament experience were more likely to sustain an injury (OR, 0.198; P=0.020). Increased risk for injury with more frequent practice and longer sparring should remind coaches and trainers that monitoring and adjusting the athletes' training schedules and exposure time could decrease the chance of injury. An athlete that has spent more years in tournaments along with high-frequency and long-duration training was associated with greater risk for injuries. Prevention and education about the risk for exposure to injury may may help athletes and trainers promote prevention strategies and adjust an athletes' training and tournament schedules to decrease the risk for

  3. Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Management in the Thai Population, National Health Examination Survey IV, 2009

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    Wichai Aekplakorn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence and management of dyslipidemia in Thai adults using data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey IV in 2009. Dyslipidemia was defined based on the Third Adult Treatment Panel guidelines. A total of 19,021 adults aged 20 yr and over were included. Mean (SE levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides were 206.4 (1.03, 46.9 (0.34, 128.7 (1.09, and 131.4 (2.20 mg/dL, respectively. Prevalence of high LDL-C, low HDL-C, and high triglycerides were 29.6 %, 47.1 %, and 38.6%, respectively. Compared with individuals in the north and northeast, residents in Bangkok and Central region had significant higher levels of LDL-C but lower level of HDL-C. Triglyceride level was the highest in the northeast residents. Overall, 66.5% of Thais had some forms of dyslipidemia. Awareness and treatment of high LDL-C among those with high LDL-C were 17.8% and 11.7%, respectively. Among individuals aware of high LDL-C, those at highest CHD risk compared with those at low risk had higher percentage of treatment (73.1% versus 51.7%, resp. but lower percentage of control at goal (32.9% versus 76.4%, resp.. Various forms of dyslipidemia are common in Thai adults, with a low level of awareness and treatment of high LDL-C.

  4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome on the US Mexico Border: A Survey in an Indigent Population Using Rome III Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Marc J; Schmulson, Max J; Bashashati, Mohammad; Jia, Yi; Dwivedi, Alok; Ortiz, Melchor; Casner, Nancy; Byrd, Theresa; Shokar, Navkiran

    2017-08-04

    To investigate the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and its association with health perception and health care-seeking behavior in this Mexican American population. The prevalence of IBS ranges from 3% to 20.4% in the United States and 4.4% to 16% in Mexico, based on Rome III and II criteria. However, its epidemiological profile in the US Mexico border is unknown. We conducted a survey in a randomly selected indigent population (N=521) recruited into a colon cancer screening program (ACCION). The prevalence of IBS was estimated and a multivariable logistic regression was carried out to determine the associated risk factors. Results are summarized using odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 464 (89%) completed the survey (mean age, 56.7 y; female, 74.8%). Country of birth was Mexico in 90.5% and the United States in 8.2% and acculturation was more Spanish (94.8%) than English (5.2%). Overall, 5.6% (95% CI, 3.7-8.1) fulfilled criteria for IBS with a predominance among women (6.9%) versus men (1.7%) (P=0.03). On the basis of multivariable analysis, lower number of bowel movements/week (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-1.00), having a primary care physician: 4.09 (1.51-11.12), using herbal treatments: 2.76 (1.08-7.06) and a previous IBS diagnosis: 23.11 (3.44-155.45), were significantly associated with the presence of IBS. The prevalence of IBS on the US Mexico border is comparable with data obtained from studies in both countries. Consulting a primary care physician as an associated factor may reveal the high rate of health-care seeking in IBS patients, while herbal treatments may reflect a cultural influence.

  5. Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys

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    Isabelle Guelinckx

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM to total water intake (TWI; therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%–30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS 2008/2009–2011/2012 were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%. As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%–90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public.

  6. The VISTA Carina Nebula Survey II. Spatial distribution of the infrared-excess-selected young stellar population

    CERN Document Server

    Zeidler, Peter; Ratzka, Thorsten; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Petr-Gotzens, Monika G

    2016-01-01

    We performed a deep wide-field (6.76 deg^2) near-infrared survey with the VISTA telescope that covers the entire extent of the Carina nebula complex (CNC). The point-source catalog created from these data contains around four million individual objects down to masses of 0.1 M_sun. We present a statistical study of the large-scale spatial distribution and an investigation of the clustering properties of infrared-excesses objects, which are used to trace disk-bearing young stellar objects (YSOs). We find that a (J - H) versus (Ks - [4.5]) color-color diagram is well suited to tracing the population of YSO-candidates (cYSOs) by their infrared excess. We identify 8781 sources with strong infrared excess, which we consider as cYSOs. This sample is used to investigate the spatial distribution of the cYSOs with a nearest-neighbor analysis. The surface density distribution of cYSOs agrees well with the shape of the clouds as seen in our Herschel far-infrared survey. The strong decline in the surface density of excess...

  7. The Extent and Distribution of Gambling-Related Harms and the Prevention Paradox in a British Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To examine whether the "prevention paradox" applies to British individuals in relation to gambling-related harm. Methods Data were derived from 7,756 individuals participating in the British Gambling Prevalence Survey 2010, a comprehensive interview-based survey conducted in Great Britain between November 2009 and May 2010. Gambling-related harm was assessed using an adapted version of the DSM-IV Pathological Gambling criteria. The previous year's prevalence of problem gamblers was examined using the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Gambling involvement was measured by gambling frequency and gambling participation (gambling volume as expressed by time and money spent gambling). Results The prevalence rates for past-year gambling harms were dependence harm (16.4%), social harm (2.2%), and chasing losses (7.9%). Gambling-related harms were distributed across low- to moderate-risk gamblers (and not limited to just problem gamblers) and were reported by the majority of gamblers who were non-high time and spend regular gamblers than high time and spend regular gamblers. Conclusions The prevention paradox is a promising way of examining gambling-related harm. This suggests that prevention of gambling might need to consider the population approach to minimizing gambling harm.

  8. The association between lifetime cigarette smoking and dysphonia in the Korean general population: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Haewon

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between current smoking and lifetime amount smoked and the incidence of dysphonia using data from a national cross-sectional survey that represents the Korean population. Subjects were 3,600 non-institutionalised civilian adults over the age of 19 (1,501 males and 2,099 females) who completed the laryngeal examination of the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). For lifetime amount smoked, subjects were classified as light smokers (≤26.7 pack years), medium smokers (26.7-40.5 pack years), heavy smokers (40.5-55.5 pack years), and very heavy smokers (55.5-156 pack years) based on pack years (packs smoked per day × years as a smoker). The odds ratio (OR) for the statistical test was presented using hierarchical logistic regression. When adjusted for covariates (age, gender, level of education, income, occupation, alcohol consumption and pain/discomfort during the last two weeks), current smokers had a 1.8 times (OR = 1.77, 95% CI [1.17-2.68]) higher risk for self-reported voice problems than non-smokers. Moreover, current smokers had a 1.6 times (OR = 1.56, 95% CI [1.02-2.38]) higher risk of laryngeal disorder (p lifetime smoking amount and dysphonia.

  9. Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelinckx, Isabelle; Tavoularis, Gabriel; König, Jürgen; Morin, Clémentine; Gharbi, Hakam; Gandy, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM) to total water intake (TWI); therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%–30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF) 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008/2009–2011/2012) were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%). As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%–90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public. PMID:27754402

  10. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

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    Zandile J. Mchiza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  11. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchiza, Zandile J; Steyn, Nelia P; Hill, Jillian; Kruger, Annamarie; Schönfeldt, Hettie; Nel, Johanna; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2015-09-23

    One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  12. Eating behaviors and overweight among adolescents: a population-based survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors and overweight among population-based adolescents in Japan. Study subjects comprised adolescents in the seventh grade (age range, 12-13 years) from Ina, a town in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, between 1999 and 2008. The height and weight of the subjects were measured, and information concerning eating behaviors (eating speed and eating until full) was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Among boys (n = 1586), fast eating speed significantly increased the odds ratio (OR) for overweight when compared with medium eating speed, regardless of eating until full or not; moreover, a more marked increase in the OR was observed among boys eating until full (OR: 2.78, 95% confidence interval: 1.76-4.38) than among those not eating until full (2.43, 1.41-4.20). Among girls (n = 1542), fast eating speed led to a significant increase in the OR in those eating until full; however, no significant increases were observed in the OR in those eating quickly and not until full. Among adolescents, fast eating speed was associated with overweight; furthermore, the combination of both fast eating speed and eating until full may have a significant effect on overweight.

  13. Eating Behaviors and Overweight among Adolescents: A Population-Based Survey in Japan

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    Hirotaka Ochiai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors and overweight among population-based adolescents in Japan. Methods. Study subjects comprised adolescents in the seventh grade (age range, 12–13 years from Ina, a town in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, between 1999 and 2008. The height and weight of the subjects were measured, and information concerning eating behaviors (eating speed and eating until full was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Results. Among boys (n=1586, fast eating speed significantly increased the odds ratio (OR for overweight when compared with medium eating speed, regardless of eating until full or not; moreover, a more marked increase in the OR was observed among boys eating until full (OR: 2.78, 95% confidence interval: 1.76–4.38 than among those not eating until full (2.43, 1.41–4.20. Among girls (n=1542, fast eating speed led to a significant increase in the OR in those eating until full; however, no significant increases were observed in the OR in those eating quickly and not until full. Conclusions. Among adolescents, fast eating speed was associated with overweight; furthermore, the combination of both fast eating speed and eating until full may have a significant effect on overweight.

  14. Affordability of population towards dental care in Mathura City—A household survey

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    Maj Kundan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the factors of affordability towards dental care in Mathura city. Material and Methods The present study included 100 households from which 100 persons were interviewed above the age group of 25 years. Data was collected with the help of structured Questionnaires & Face interviews. Information was collected regarding Socio-demographic variables & attitudes of the subjects towards the utilization of dental service and the affordability of the dental services. The data was then statistically analyzed using chi square test. Results In the present study it was found that the income and education were significantly associated with the affordability of the dental services. Individuals having an income of above Rs 20, 000/ were found to afford the available dental care. Individuals having educational qualification of graduate and above were utilizing the dental services better than others. Conclusion Within the limitation of this study, we can conclude that the utilization of dental services is not very high among Mathura city population. The affordability factor such as income, education and occupation were identified as the major factor towards utilization of dental services. However place of visit differs according to income, education and occupation.

  15. All India survey for analyses of colors in sweets and savories: exposure risk in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sumita; Khanna, Subhash K; Das, Mukul

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the exposure assessment of food colors through 2 major groups, sweets and savories, at a national level so as to evolve a scientific yardstick to fix levels of colors in commodities based on technological and safety requirement. A vast majority of colored food commodities (83.6%) were found to employ permitted colors and confirmed a marked decline in the trend of use of nonpermitted colors (NPCs). Of the 4 zones of India, East zone showed the maximum adulteration (80.3%) both by exceeding the prescribed limits of permitted colors (72.3%) and the use of NPCs (28.7%). Tartrazine was the most popular color among the permitted list, which ranged from 12.5 to 1091 mg/kg. Rhodamine B was the most prevalent dye in the NPCs group. On the basis of average consumption of food commodities and average levels of detected colors, the intake of Sunset Yellow FCF saturates the acceptable daily intake limit to a maximum of 47.8% in children, which is a cause of concern. The uniform maximum permissible limit of synthetic colors at 100 mg/kg under the Indian rules thus needs to be reviewed and should rather be governed by the technological necessity and the consumption profiles of food commodities so that the vulnerable population should not unnecessary be exposed to excessive amounts of synthetic colors to pose health risks.

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on organ donation among a selected adult population of Pakistan

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    Saleem Taimur

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. Methods Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.15 and associations were tested using the Pearson's Chi square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of knowledge status and motivation of organ donation. Results Knowledge about organ donation was significantly associated with education (p = 0.000 and socioeconomic status (p = 0.038. 70/198 (35.3% people expressed a high motivation to donate. Allowance of organ donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate (p = 0.000. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant (p Conclusion Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures should be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars.

  17. Epilepsy in Cambodia-treatment aspects and policy implications: a population-based representative survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devender Bhalla

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We tested two treatment strategies to determine: treatment (a prognosis (seizure frequency, mortality, suicide, and complications, (b safety and adherence of treatment, (c self-reported satisfaction with treatment and self-reported productivity, and policy aspects (a number of required tablets for universal treatment (NRT, (b cost of management, (c manpower-gap and requirements for scaling-up of epilepsy care. METHODS: We performed a random-cluster survey (N = 16510 and identified 96 cases (≥1 year of age in 24 villages. They were screened by using a validated instrument and diagnosed by the neurologists. International guidelines were used for defining and classifying epilepsy. All were given phenobarbital or valproate (cost-free in two manners patient's door-steps (March 2009-March 2010, primary-treatment-period, PTP and treatment through health-centers (March 2010-June 2011, treatment-continuation-period, TCP. The emphasis was to start on a minimum dosage and regime, without any polytherapy, according to the age of the recipients. No titration was done. Seizure-frequency was monthly and self-reported. RESULTS: The number of seizures reduced from 12.6 (pre-treatment to 1.2 (end of PTP, following which there was an increase to 3.4 (end of TCP. Between start of PTP and end of TCP, >60.0% became and remained seizure-free. During TCP, ∼26.0% went to health centers to collect their treatment. Complications reduced from 12.5% to 4.2% between start and end of PTP and increased to 17.2% between start and end of TCP. Adverse events reduced from 46.8% to 16.6% between start and end of PTP. Nearly 33 million phenobarbital 100 mg tablets are needed in Cambodia. CONCLUSIONS: Epilepsy responded sufficiently well to the conventional treatment, even when taken at a minimal dosage and a simple daily regimen, without any polytherapy. This is yet another confirmation that it is possible to substantially reduce direct burden of epilepsy

  18. The relationship between Taekwondo training habits and injury: a survey of a collegiate Taekwondo population

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    Covarrubias N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Natalia Covarrubias,1 Subir Bhatia,2 Luis F Campos,3 Dahn V Nguyen,2,3 Eric Y Chang1,4,51Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; 2School of Medicine, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Institute for Clinical and Translational Science, Irvine, CA, USA; 4Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Care, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; 5Reeve-Irvine Research Center, Irvine, CA, USA Objective: To correlate training habits of Taekwondo (TKD athletes to risk for injury. Background: TKD is a Korean marital art that has been growing in popularity, with nearly 2 million individuals practicing the sport in the United States. Because of the combative nature of the sport, injuries are an inherent risk. However, data on proper training habits, types of injuries sustained during training, and recommendations for athletes to avoid injury are lacking. Frequently, studies of TKD evaluate athletes’ injuries during tournaments, but most do not evaluate athletes in training. Hypothesis: Increased training would potentially create more injuries secondary to increased exposure. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational survey of 72 collegiate TKD athletes from the Pacific West Sanctioned Taekwondo Tournaments in the 2008–2009 season. Variables analyzed during training and competitions were training sessions per week, workout habits, belt level, years of experience, and characteristics of injury (location, type, mechanism, situation, treatment, and days missed. Results: TKD training habits of individuals who practiced four or more times per week (odds ratio [OR], 4.5; P=0.005 or sparred for more than 2 hours (OR, 8.7; P=0.003 were associated with significantly increased odds (risk of sustaining an injury. Those who had more than 3 years of tournament experience were more likely to sustain an injury (OR, 0.198; P=0.020. Conclusion: Increased risk for injury

  19. The deep OB star population in Carina from the VST Photometric Hα Survey (VPHAS+)

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    Mohr-Smith, M.; Drew, J. E.; Napiwotzki, R.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Wright, N. J.; Barentsen, G.; Eislöffel, J.; Farnhill, H. J.; Greimel, R.; Monguió, M.; Kalari, V.; Parker, Q. A.; Vink, J. S.

    2017-02-01

    Massive OB stars are critical to the ecology of galaxies and yet our knowledge of OB stars in the Milky Way, fainter than V ∼ 12, remains patchy. Data from the VST Photometric Hα Survey (VPHAS+) permit the construction of the first deep catalogues of blue excess-selected OB stars, without neglecting the stellar field. A total of 14 900 candidates with 2MASS cross-matches are blue-selected from a 42 deg2 region in the Galactic plane, capturing the Carina Arm over the Galactic longitude range 282° ≲ ℓ ≲ 293°. Spectral energy distribution fitting is performed on these candidates' combined VPHAS+ u, g, r, i and 2MASS J, H, K magnitudes. This delivers effective temperature constraints, statistically separating O from early-B stars and high-quality extinction parameters, A0 and RV (random errors typically ∼0.1). The high-confidence O-B2 candidates number 5915 and a further 5170 fit to later B spectral type. Spectroscopy of 276 of the former confirms 97 per cent of them. The fraction of emission-line stars among all candidate B stars is 7-8 per cent. Greyer (RV > 3.5) extinction laws are ubiquitous in the region, over the distance range 2.5-3 to ∼10 kpc. Near prominent massive clusters, RV tends to rise, with particularly large and chaotic excursions to RV ∼ 5 seen in the Carina Nebula. The data reveal a hitherto unnoticed association of 108 O-B2 stars around the O5If+ star LSS 2063 (ℓ = 289.77°, b = -1.22°). Treating the OB star scaleheight as a constant within the thin disc, we find an orderly mean relation between extinction (A0) and distance in the Galactic longitude range, 287.6° < ℓ < 293.5°, and infer the subtle onset of thin-disc warping. A halo around NGC 3603, roughly a degree in diameter, of ∼500 O-B2 stars with 4 < A0(mag) < 7 is noted.

  20. Aerial survey of certain Aleutian sea otter populations 19-27 May 1959 and estimates of the total sea otter populations in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to present the results of our 1959 aerial survey with an evaluation of this survey based on sample boat and shore observations. Only...

  1. A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards avian influenza in an adult population of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinelli Paolo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several public health strategic interventions are required for effective prevention and control of avian influenza (AI and it is necessary to create a communication plan to keep families adequately informed on how to avoid or reduce exposure. This investigation determined the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors relating to AI among an adult population in Italy. Methods From December 2005 to February 2006 a random sample of 1020 adults received a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of transmission and prevention about AI, attitudes towards AI, behaviors regarding use of preventive measures and food-handling practices, and sources of information about AI. Results A response rate of 67% was achieved. Those in higher socioeconomic classes were more likely to identify the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI. Those older, who knew the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI, and who still need information, were more likely to know that washing hands soap before and after touching raw poultry meat and using gloves is recommended to avoid spreading of AI through food. The risk of being infected was significantly higher in those from lower socioeconomic classes, if they did not know the definition of AI, if they knew that AI could be transmitted by eating and touching raw eggs and poultry foods, and if they did not need information. Compliance with the hygienic practices during handling of raw poultry meat was more likely in those who perceived to be at higher risk, who knew the hygienic practices, who knew the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI, and who received information from health professionals and scientific journals. Conclusion Respondents demonstrate no detailed understanding of AI, a greater perceived risk, and a lower compliance with precautions behaviors and health educational strategies are strongly needed.

  2. Mediterranean diet and longevity in Sicily: survey in a Sicani Mountains population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasto, Sonya; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Rizzo, Claudia; Monastero, Roberto; Marchese, Antonio; Caruso, Calogero

    2012-04-01

    Over the past several years, increasing evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet has a beneficial influence on several age-related diseases, showing protective effect on health and longevity. Mediterranean diet refers to dietary patterns found in olive-growing regions of the Mediterranean countries. Previous data reported that in Sicily, Italy, the largest Mediterranean island, there are some mountainous regions where there is a high frequency of male centenarians with respect to the Italian average. The aim of the present study was to characterize centenarians living in one of this region, the Sicani Mountains, located in western Sicily. Present data shows that in this zone there are more centenarians with respect to the Italian average. In fact, in the three villages of the Sicani Mountains, there were 15 people ranging from 100 to 107 years old, of the total population of about 10,000 inhabitants. This centenarian number was more than six-fold higher the national average (15.0 vs. 2.4/10,000); the female/male ratio was 1.5 in the study area, whereas the national ratio is 4.54. Centenarians living in these villages had anthropometric measurements within normal limits and moderate sensory disability without any sign of age-related diseases, including cognitive deterioration and dementia. In addition, their clinical chemistry profile was similar to young controls and far better than that of old controls. Unequivocally, their nutritional assessment showed a high adherence to the Mediterranean nutritional profile, with low glycemic index food consumed. Overall, close adherence to Mediterranean diet seems to play a key role in age-related disease prevention and in attaining longevity.

  3. Eating practices and habitus in mothers. A Brazilian population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Sato, Priscila; da Rocha Pereira, Patrícia; de Carvalho Stelmo, Isis; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Ulian, Mariana Dimitrov; Sabatini, Fernanda; Martins, Paula Andrea; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2014-11-01

    A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with mothers living in the city of Santos, Brazil, in order to investigate their eating practices, and the interface between those practices and the concept of habitus. From a cluster analysis of the scores for dietary pattern and for food preparation and consumption, the mothers were categorised into five clusters of eating practices: practical mothers (19.8%), symbiotic mothers (3.2%), health-conscious hedonists (17.3%), traditionalists (34.6%), and family cooks (25.1%). To access the habitus of the eating-practice clusters, the following variables were compared: location of residence, profession, socioeconomic status, weight-loss practices, risk behaviours for eating disorders, disordered eating attitudes, body dissatisfaction, and cultural and technological consumption. For all the groups, the observed eating practices were permeated by responsibility for the family's diet, but with different manifestations. For symbiotic mothers, practical mothers, and family cooks, the primary function of their relation with food was to nourish their families, with little expression of their own tastes and preferences. The traditionalists and the health-conscious hedonists, on the other hand, manifested their role as mothers by providing food considered 'nutritionally proper' to their family members. Furthermore, aspects of contemporary lifestyles, such as little time for food, individualisation of meals, and consumption of processed foods, were found to coexist with the valorisation and maintenance of the traditional meals within some groups. The variety of eating practices could not be understood as a linear association between economic and cultural capitals; however, eating practices seemed to interact with those capitals, composing a habitus.

  4. The Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, a novel infrastructure for population health research: rationale and methods

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    Friedman Elliot M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based public health requires the existence of reliable information systems for priority setting and evaluation of interventions. Existing data systems in the United States are either too crude (e.g., vital statistics, rely on administrative data (e.g., Medicare or, because of their national scope (e.g., NHANES, lack the discriminatory power to assess specific needs and to evaluate community health activities at the state and local level. This manuscript describes the rationale and methods of the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, a novel infrastructure for population health research. Methods/Design The program consists of a series of independent annual surveys gathering health-related data on representative samples of state residents and communities. Two-stage cluster sampling is used to select households and recruit approximately 800-1,000 adult participants (21-74 years old each year. Recruitment and initial interviews are done at the household; additional interviews and physical exams are conducted at permanent or mobile examination centers. Individual survey data include physical, mental, and oral health history, health literacy, demographics, behavioral, lifestyle, occupational, and household characteristics as well as health care access and utilization. The physical exam includes blood pressure, anthropometry, bioimpedance, spirometry, urine collection and blood draws. Serum, plasma, and buffy coats (for DNA extraction are stored in a biorepository for future studies. Every household is geocoded for linkage with existing contextual data including community level measures of the social and physical environment; local neighborhood characteristics are also recorded using an audit tool. Participants are re-contacted bi-annually by phone for health history updates. Discussion SHOW generates data to assess health disparities across state communities as well as trends on prevalence of health outcomes and

  5. Prevalence of birth defects and risk-factor analysis from a population-based survey in Inner Mongolia, China

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    Zhang Xingguang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth Defects are a series of diseases that seriously affect children's health. Birth defects are generally caused by several interrelated factors. The aims of the article is to estimate the prevalence rate and types of birth defects in Inner Mongolia, China, to compare socio-demographic characteristics among the children with birth defects and to analyze the association between risk factors and birth defects. Methods Data used in this study were obtained through baseline survey of Inner Mongolia Birth Defects Program, a population-based survey conducted from 2005 to 2008. The survey used cluster sampling method in all 12 administrative districts of Inner Mongolia. Sampling size is calculated according to local population size at a certain percentage. All live births, stillbirths and abortions born from October 2005 to September 2008, whose families lived in Inner Mongolia at least one year, were included. The cases of birth defects were diagnosed by the clinical doctors according to their experiences with further laboratory tests if needed. The inclusion criteria of the cases that had already dead were decided according to death records available at local cites. We calculated prevalence rate and 95% confidence intervals of different groups. Outcome variable was the occurrence of birth defects and associations between risk factors and birth defects were analyzed by using Poisson regression analysis. Results 976 children with birth defects were diagnosed. The prevalence rate of birth defects was 156.1 per 10000 births (95%CI: 146.3-165.8. The prevalence rate of neural tube defect (20.1 per 10000 births including anencephaly(6.9 per 10000, spina bifida (10.6 per 10000, and encephalocele (2.7 per 10000 was the highest, followed by congenital heart disease (17.1 per 10000. The relative risk (RR for maternal age less than 25 was 2.22 (95%CI: 2.05, 2.41. The RR of the ethnic Mongols was lower than Han Chinese (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0

  6. Decreased renal function and associated factors in cities, towns and rural areas of Tanzania: a community-based population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Robert; Baisley, Kathy; Kavishe, Bazil; Were, Jackson; Mghamba, Janneth; Smeeth, Liam; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kapiga, Saidi

    2016-03-01

    Data on renal dysfunction in sub-Saharan Africa, comparing urban and rural areas, have not yet been reported. Therefore, we aimed to determine the distribution of low estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) in urban and rural Tanzania, to describe factors associated with low eGFR and to quantify fractions attributable to common risk factors. We conducted a community-based survey of 1095 randomly selected Tanzanian adults (≥18 years). A structured questionnaire and examinations were used to document sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, anthropomorphic measurements and blood pressure. Blood tests were performed for HIV infection, diabetes mellitus and creatinine. eGFR was calculated using two equations recommended for African adults. Serum creatinine was available for 1043 participants: 170 in Mwanza city, 326 in district towns and 547 in rural areas. Mean age was 35.5 years and 54% were females. The prevalence of eGFR renal function is common in Tanzania, particularly in district towns, and unique risk factors for kidney disease may exist in this population. Population-specific strategies for prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease are needed for Africa. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Patient interest in and familiarity with anti-aging therapies: A survey of the general dermatology clinic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darland, Allison M; Chubb, Heather A; Sachs, Dana L; Helfrich, Yolanda R

    2017-08-03

    The appearance of aging skin is a common complaint among dermatology patients. There is an expanding market for anti-aging therapies, but little information is available regarding which patients utilize these treatments and patient preferences regarding treatment. To describe the patient population utilizing anti-aging therapies, assess patient familiarity with treatment options, and learn where treatment information is most often obtained. Three hundred patients were surveyed in the University of Michigan General Dermatology Clinic. Fifty-three percent of the general dermatology patient population has used an anti-aging treatment in the past; 66% reported interest in the future use. Interest is high among all genders, ages, and incomes. Most subjects obtained treatment information from magazines, but subjects were more likely to pursue treatment if information was obtained from a dermatologist. Demographics of anti-aging therapy are changing, and a wide variety of patients pursue treatment. Patients are largely unfamiliar with most treatment options and are more likely to pursue treatment after receiving treatment information from a dermatologist. The information presented in this study is helpful to both dermatologists and marketers of anti-aging products. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. IX. The Atlas of Multiple Stellar Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, A P; Renzini, A; Marino, A F; Bedin, L R; Vesperini, E; D'Antona, F; Nardiello, D; Anderson, J; King, I R; Yong, D; Bellini, A; Aparicio, A; Barbuy, B; Brown, T M; Cassisi, S; Ortolani, S; Salaris, M; Sarajedini, A; van der Marel, R P

    2016-01-01

    We use high-precision photometry of red-giant-branch (RGB) stars in 57 Galactic globular clusters (GCs), mostly from the `Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV Legacy Survey of Galactic globular clusters', to identify and characterize their multiple stellar populations. For each cluster the pseudo two-color diagram (or `chromosome map') is presented, built with a suitable combination of stellar magnitudes in the F275W, F336W, F438W and F814W filters that maximizes the separation between multiple populations. In the chromosome map of most GCs (Type I clusters), stars separate in two distinct groups that we identify with the first (1G) and the second generation (2G). This identification is further supported by noticing that 1G stars have primordial (oxygen-rich, sodium-poor) chemical composition, whereas 2G stars are enhanced in sodium and depleted in oxygen. This 1G-2G separation is not possible for a few GCs where the two sequences have apparently merged into an extended, continuous sequence. In some GCs (Type II c...

  9. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Population-Wide Wait Times for Patients Seeking Medical vs. Cosmetic Dermatologic Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Geeta; Goldberg, Hanna R; Barense, Morgan D; Bell, Chaim M

    2016-01-01

    Though previous work has examined some aspects of the dermatology workforce shortage and access to dermatologic care, little research has addressed the effect of rising interest in cosmetic procedures on access to medical dermatologic care. Our objective was to determine the wait times for Urgent and Non-Urgent me