WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey cover letter

  1. Effect on survey response rate of hand written versus printed signature on a covering letter: randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN67566265

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayers Sarah

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important that response rates to postal surveys are as high as possible to ensure that the results are representative and to maximise statistical power. Previous research has suggested that any personalisation of approach helps to improve the response rate. This experiment tested whether personalising questionnaires by hand signing the covering letter improved the response rate compared with a non-personalised group where the investigator's signature on the covering letter was scanned into the document and printed. Methods Randomised controlled trial. Questionnaires about surgical techniques of caesarean section were mailed to 3,799 Members and Fellows of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists resident in the UK. Individuals were randomly allocated to receive a covering letter with either a computer printed signature or a hand written signature. Two reminders were sent to non-respondents. The outcome measures were the proportion of questionnaires returned and their time to return. Results The response rate was 79.1% (1506/1905 in the hand-signed group and 78.4% (1484/1894 in the scanned and printed signature group. There was no detectable difference between the groups in response rate or time taken to respond. Conclusion No advantage was detected to hand signing the covering letter accompanying a postal questionnaire to health professionals.

  2. The Best Use of a Cover Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    So when should you use a cover letter? Only as part of a limited, targeted campaign to reach potential employers. Take the time to research and understand a company before committing yourself on paper as a potential employee, if you have no idea what the company does,

  3. Physics Letters B, Volume 716, Issue 1- Cover Page

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2012-01-01

    The cover page of the Physics Letters B Journal, Volume 716, Issue 1, dedicated to the observation of a new particle in the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. To celebrate this historical discovery, Elsevier reprinted the ATLAS and the CMS articles together with a foreword by Peter Higgs and the other scientists that predicted the existence of the so-called Higgs boson and published this in a separate booklet.

  4. Writing Cover Letters That Address Instructor Feedback Improves Final Papers in a Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Frances; Gaze, Catherine M.; Braasch, Jason L. G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how writing cover letters to the instructor influenced final papers in research methods courses. After receiving instructor feedback on drafts of each section of an American Psychological Association style research paper throughout the semester, students in two classes wrote cover letters to the instructor explaining how the instructor…

  5. Writing Cover Letters That Address Instructor Feedback Improves Final Papers in a Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Frances; Gaze, Catherine M.; Braasch, Jason L. G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how writing cover letters to the instructor influenced final papers in research methods courses. After receiving instructor feedback on drafts of each section of an American Psychological Association style research paper throughout the semester, students in two classes wrote cover letters to the instructor explaining how the instructor…

  6. Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Chauvet, Jean-Marie; Fetzer, James; Waltzman, Rand

    1985-01-01

    Letters to the editor on genetic epistemology; a reaction to Nilsson's article "AI Prepares for 2001" and a reaction to the Kosko letter to the editor (Fall 1984, p. 5). Also a note on the AAAI-84 Profile and "Meta-Ravioli" (use of the prefix "meta").

  7. MODERN TENDENCIES IN COVER LETTER WRITING AND THE ROMANIAN LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Nistorescu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents modern tendencies in cover letter writing in present-day Romanianlabor market. The various terms in use for this variety are given, as well as statistics aboutits use in association with the CV in actual job applications. The Romanian writtentypology is analyzed in contrast with the American pattern and the similarities with thelatter are pointed out.

  8. Improving Cover-Letter Writing Skills of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Robert; Delano, Monica; Scott, Renee

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated a multicomponent intervention for improving the cover-letter writing skills of individuals with intellectual disabilities. An intervention that included modeling, self-monitoring, prompting, and feedback increased correct performance for all participants. In addition, the skill was demonstrated across audiences.

  9. Improving Cover-Letter Writing Skills of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Robert; Delano, Monica; Scott, Renee

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated a multicomponent intervention for improving the cover-letter writing skills of individuals with intellectual disabilities. An intervention that included modeling, self-monitoring, prompting, and feedback increased correct performance for all participants. In addition, the skill was demonstrated across audiences.

  10. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    At the request of you, our readers, this year we are introducing a "Letters to the Editor" column. We value your comments, positive and negative, on our layout, content and pictures and will make continuous efforts to improve our magazine. We welcome your comments and views on all aspects of China. [We reserve the right to edit for content, clarity or length.]If your letter or e-mail is published, you receive a gift!

  11. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  12. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Dear Editor, I am a loyal reader of your magazine. I read Issue No.9 (March 2, 2006) and was deeply impressed by the articles on tobacco. Tobacco is indeed a big problem in China. Well, I would like to introduce, through your letters page, an association closely related to tobacco control. It is called Green Breathing Association, a student organization in Xiamen University (probably the first one of its kind in China). The mission of Green Breathing is to promote the public awareness of tobac-

  13. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Maths for physics? Help! Fire! Energy and mass Maths for physics? As a maths graduate working as a university research associate I should be well qualified to support my daughter, who has just started AS-level physics, with the maths she needs for the course. There seems to be little integration between the maths and physics departments, so that maths needed for physics has not yet been covered in maths lessons. This is a problem I remember from my own school days, but the shorter timescale and modular nature of the AS and A2 levels means that it is essential that this mismatch of knowledge is resolved now. I would like to know whether physics teachers in the UK have encountered this problem and whether there is a deficiency in the maths syllabus in relation to the requirements of the AS and A2 levels in Physics or whether this is a problem peculiar to my daughter's school. Eleanor Parent of A-level student, Sheffield, UK Help! Fire! Is there a crisis in physics education? Is physics didactics coming to an end? Yes and no. Being a delegate from Norway at the on-going conference Physics on Stage (6-10 November 2000) at CERN in Geneva, I have had the opportunity to discuss this with people from all over Europe. Yes, there is a crisis. (Look at the proceedings for details on this.) I'd like to take a broader look at this situation. Like Hari Seldon in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Trilogy, I believe that there is nothing like a real crisis to get things going... Famous is the quote from the American Patent Office around 1890: 'Everything has been invented that could be invented'. Fortunately, this spurred action. The Michelson and Morley experiment heralded a most exciting period for physics. Just a cosmic blink later we put a person on the Moon. Coming back to the crisis - I am certain that in the near future we will see an interesting development

  14. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco Problem Your recent cover story 'Tobacco Dilemma" (Issue No.9, March 2, 2006) should not be a dilemma at all. The Chinese Government should just come down very hard on cigarette smoking. It does not make sense to let tobacco smoking proliferate because it enriches government coffers through heftv taxes. Tobacco smokine is an

  15. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Alternative view of education in Zambia Pedantry or compromise Alternative view of education in Zambia I have just read the 'On the Map' report of the International School of Lusaka with very mixed feelings (Physics Education, March 2001). I have recently spent some time in Zambia, in Lusaka, and share Sue Pears' love for the country and the Zambians. The ISL is indeed a good, prestigious school, similar to International Schools in many other countries. But, as in most other developing countries, there is enormous variation between the different types of schooling, and the ISL is at one end of the spectrum. Most schools in Zambia are less favoured. Zambia is a wonderful, beautiful country full of the most friendly and resourceful people I know. It is also a very poor country. It is a country of enormous contrasts and its schools reflect that variation. It has a tiny, affluent 'middle' class of professionals, politicians, businessmen, employees of international businesses and NGOs—nearly all paid from overseas budgets. It has an enormous majority of poor folk, cheerfully living in very basic conditions but sharing their lives in extended families without complaint. The government is virtually bankrupt, and consequently those paid by the government—teachers, police, nurses etc—get a pittance. The wage for a teacher in a typical school is #20 per month (compared to a typical teacher in the UK who gets 100 times more, about #2000 per month). The GNP in Zambia is about 1 per day per person, and this has to pay for all the schools, hospitals, police, and the civic infrastructure that we take so much for granted (the GNP in UK is about 60 per day per person). Consequently most state schools do not have resources; they have a classroom and a teacher but little else. What resources the school has will be paid for by the school fees that every

  16. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE Contents: Force on a pendulum Sound slows down Bond is back Force on a pendulum The simple pendulum has been used by several educationalists for investigating the patterns of thinking among students and their observations that Aristotelian thinking persists among students at college level. I had also considered the simple pendulum in my 1985 letter in Physics Today [1], so I was interested to read the test given by Lenka Czudková and Jana Musilová [2]. When students were asked to draw net forces acting on the particle at various positions, 31.9% of students believed that the net force was tangential to the particle's path the whole time. To me this is no surprise because in our derivation of the equation for the period of a simple pendulum we assume that the unbalanced sine component provides the restoring force for the harmonic motion of the bob. Of course, Czudková and Musilová's question asked students for the net force on the particle, not the component. The student's answer fits well with the logic of the equilibrium of forces and the parallelogram law. Lastly, let me bring out the similarity between the student's answer and the thinking of George Gamow. He used to call positrons 'donkey' electrons because of their displacement against the applied force, before Paul Dirac termed them positrons. Victor Weisskeptf told me this anecdote in a letter in May 1982. References [1] Sathe D 1985 Phys. Today 38 144 [2] Czudková L and Musilová J 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 428 Dileep V Sathe Dadawala Jr College, Pune, India Sound slows down Without wanting to stir up more trouble amongst the already muddy waters of Physics teaching, consider how many times you have heard (or, more worryingly, read) this: 'Sound waves travel faster in a denser material' But...The velocity of simple longitudinal waves in a bulk medium is given by v = (K/ρ)1/2 where K is

  17. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: M-set as metaphor The abuse of algebra M-set as metaphor 'To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour' William Blake's implied relativity of spatial and temporal scales is intriguing and, given the durability of this worlds-within-worlds concept (he wrote in 1803) in art, literature and science, the blurring of distinctions between the very large and the very small must strike some kind of harmonious chord in the human mind. Could this concept apply to the physical world? To be honest, we cannot be absolutely sure. Most cosmological thinking still retains the usual notions of a finite universe and an absolute size scale extending from smallest to largest objects. In the boundless realm of mathematics, however, the story is quite different. The M-set was discovered by the French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in 1980, created by just a few simple lines of computer code that are repeated recursively. As in Blake's poem, this 'world' has no bottom we have an almost palpable archetype for the concept of infinity. I would use the word 'tangible', but one of the defining features of the M-set is that nowhere in the labyrinth can one find a surface smooth enough for a tangent. Upon magnification even surfaces that appeared to be smooth explode with quills and scrolls and lightning bolts and spiral staircases. And there is something more, something truly sublime. Observe a small patch with unlimited magnifying power and, as you observe the M-set on ever-smaller scales, down through literally endless layers of ornate structure, you occasionally come upon a rapidly expanding cortex of dazzling colour with a small black structure at its centre. The black spot appears to be the M-set itself! There is no end to the hierarchy, no bottom-most level, just endless recursive

  18. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The Editor welcomes letters, by e-mail to ped@iop.org or by post to Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UK. Contents: Quantum uncertainties Reflections in a plastic box A brief history of quantum physics Correction Grammar and gender Quantum uncertainties Whilst I enjoyed Gesche Pospiech's article ('Uncertainty and complementarity: the heart of quantum physics' 2000 Phys. Educ. 35 393 9) I would like to expand on two comments he makes. Firstly the author claims that QM is linear, and a consequence of this is that any two superimposed states form an admissible third state. This is rather too sweeping, as it is true only for degenerate states. Otherwise quantum mechanics would allow a continuum of energies between states by a simple admixture of levels. The proof of this statement is trivial. For a Hamiltonian H and two orthogonal wavefunctions, ψ1 and ψ2 with energies E1 and E2 then (ψ1 + ψ2) is not an eigenfunction of that Hamiltonian as H(ψ1 + ψ2) = E1ψ1 + E2ψ2 ≠ E(ψ1 + ψ2) for any value of E, unless E1 = E2. Secondly Pospiech states that quantum objects show wave- or particle-like behaviour, depending on the measuring apparatus, and that occasionally experiments (such as Taylor's) reveal both. I would contest the validity of this type of thinking. All experiments on quantum objects reveal both types of behaviour—even ones which simply show straight line motion of photons. What is important, in addition, is our interpretation of the results. It takes an understanding of QED, for example, to see that an experiment which otherwise shows particle behaviour is, in fact, showing quantum behaviour. More contentiously though I would suggest that detection apparatus is incapable of detecting anything other than particles. Wave-like behaviour is revealed only by an analysis of the paths the particle could have taken. In other words, the interference of continuous fields sometimes predicts the same results when the detection is averaged over many events

  19. Effect on Mail Survey Return Rates of Including Questionnaires With Follow-Up Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Charles M.; Lamb, Charles W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Two thousand questionnaires were mailed to respondents allocated among seven treatments. Controls received an initial mailing (questionnaire and cover letter) only. The remaining six treatments varied by number of follow-up mailings and whether another questionnaire copy was included. Results suggest more than one follow-up letter with a…

  20. Tips for a physician in getting the right job, part II: the curriculum vitae, cover letter, and personal statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay A

    2013-09-01

    It is very important that a job seeker prepares an excellent curriculum vitae (CV) and cover letter. Often a personal statement is also needed. If these are not done well, often an interview is not granted. There are different formats and headings for the CV, depending on the type of job sought and the institution the job is located in. There are also some differences in how this is done between different countries. However, there are also many common elements of a proper CV.

  1. Resource Letter MPCVW-1: Modeling Political Conflict, Violence, and Wars: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Ana P.; Velásquez, Nicolás; Manrique, Pedro; Hong, Qi; Johnson, Nicholas; Johnson, Neil

    2013-11-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide into the literature on modeling and explaining political conflict, violence, and wars. Although this literature is dominated by social scientists, multidisciplinary work is currently being developed in the wake of myriad methodological approaches that have sought to analyze and predict political violence. The works covered herein present an overview of this abundance of methodological approaches. Since there is a variety of possible data sets and theoretical approaches, the level of detail and scope of models can vary quite considerably. The review does not provide a summary of the available data sets, but instead highlights recent works on quantitative or multi-method approaches to modeling different forms of political violence. Journal articles and books are organized in the following topics: social movements, diffusion of social movements, political violence, insurgencies and terrorism, and civil wars.

  2. Award Letter: Expanded Scoter and Scaup Survey: Boreal Alaska and Old Crow Flats, Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Award letter in response to Alaska Region Inventory and Monitoring 2017 request for proposals. Issued to Yukon Flats NWR for project “Expanded Scoter and Scaup...

  3. An Experimental Examination of the Content of Persuasion Letters on Nonresponse Rates and Survey Estimates in a Nonresponse Follow-Up Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristen Olson; James M. Lepkowski; David H. Garabrant

    2011-01-01

    .... One method is persuasion letters sent from study staff to nonrespondents that are tailored to the types of concerns raised by the respondent and recorded in paradata about the survey recruitment process...

  4. NASA/DoD Aerospace knowledge diffusion research project. III - The impact of a sponsor letter on mail survey response rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the impact of two interventions in the design of mail surveys. The interventions were devised to increase response rates and to clarify sample eligibility. To test their effectiveness, interventions occurred at different points in each of three surveys. One intervention was a letter from the research sponsor (NASA) supporting the research. The other intervention was the inclusion of a postcard that could be used by the respondent to indicate that the questionnaire was not appropriate for him/her. The sample was drawn from the membership of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics research society. The results indicate that the sponsor letter improved response rates under certain conditions described in the paper. The postcards assisted in identifying noneligible persons particularly when they accompanied a pre-survey letter. The implications for survey costs are discussed.

  5. NASA/DoD Aerospace knowledge diffusion research project. III - The impact of a sponsor letter on mail survey response rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the impact of two interventions in the design of mail surveys. The interventions were devised to increase response rates and to clarify sample eligibility. To test their effectiveness, interventions occurred at different points in each of three surveys. One intervention was a letter from the research sponsor (NASA) supporting the research. The other intervention was the inclusion of a postcard that could be used by the respondent to indicate that the questionnaire was not appropriate for him/her. The sample was drawn from the membership of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics research society. The results indicate that the sponsor letter improved response rates under certain conditions described in the paper. The postcards assisted in identifying noneligible persons particularly when they accompanied a pre-survey letter. The implications for survey costs are discussed.

  6. Advance letters as a way of reducing non-response in a National Health Telephone Survey: Differences between listed and unlisted numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena von der Lippe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a methodological study based on the German Health Update Survey 2009. The study generated telephone numbers randomly and determined the listing status of the selected numbers. The set of listed numbers was randomly split: one half received advance letters, the other half did not. Differences in response rates and demographic characteristics are analyzed in detail.

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 3: The impact of a sponsor letter on mail survey response rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    We describe the impact of two interventions in the design of mail surveys. The interventions were devised to increase response rates and to clarify sample eligibility. To test their effectiveness, the interventions occurred at different points in each of three surveys. One intervention was a letter from the research sponsor (NASA) supporting the research. The other intervention was the inclusion of a postcard that could be used by the respondent to indicate that the questionnaire was not appropriate for him/her. The sample was drawn from the membership of a professional aerospace research society, the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). Scientists and engineers are difficult to survey for two reasons. First, there are significant problems with the definition of scientists and engineers. Second, typically there are low response rates in surveys of this group. These two problems were found in the NASA surveys. The results indicate that the sponsor letter improved response rates under certain conditions described here. The postcards assisted in identifying non-eligible persons, particularly when the postcards accompanied a pre-survey letter. The implications for survey costs are discussed.

  8. Resource Letter QI-1: Quantum Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Frederick W.

    2016-07-01

    This Resource Letter surveys the history and modern developments in the field of quantum information. It is written to guide advanced undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and other new researchers to the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. The topics covered include quantum states and processes, quantum coding and cryptography, quantum computation, the experimental implementation of quantum information processing, and the role of quantum information in the fundamental properties and foundations of physical theories.

  9. Estimation of Fractional Vegetation Cover Based on Digital Camera Survey Data and a Remote Sensing Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhen-qi; HE Fen-qin; YIN Jian-zhong; LU Xia; TANG Shi-lu; WANG Lin-lin; LI Xiao-jing

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to improve the monitoring speed and precision of fractional vegetation cover (fc). It mainly focuses onfc estimation when fcmax andfcmin are not approximately equal to 100% and 0%, respectively due to using remote sensing image with medium or low spatial resolution. Meanwhile, we present a new method offc estimation based on a random set offc maximum and minimum values from digital camera (DC) survey data and a dimidiate pixel model. The results show that this is a convenient, efficient and accurate method forfc monitoring, with the maximum error -0.172 and correlation coefficient of 0.974 between DC survey data and the estimated value of the remote sensing model. The remaining DC survey data can be used as verification data for the precision of thefc estimation. In general, the estimation offc based on DC survey data and a remote sensing model is a brand-new development trend and deserves further extensive utilization.

  10. Applications of the U.S. Geological survey's global land cover product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with several international agencies and universities, has produced a global land cover characteristics database. The land cover data were created using multitemporal analysis of advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite images in conjunction with other existing geographic data. A translation table permits the conversion of the land cover classes into several conventional land cover schemes that are used by ecosystem modelers, climate modelers, land management agencies, and other user groups. The alternative classification schemes include Global Ecosystems, the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, the Simple Biosphere, the USGS Anderson Level 2, and the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme. The distribution system for these data is through the World Wide Web ( the web site address is: http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/landdaac/glcc/glcc.html) or by magnetic media upon special request. The availability of the data over the World Wide Web, in conjunction with the flexible database structure, allows easy data access to a wide range of users. The web site contains a user registration form that allows analysis of the diverse applications of large-area land cover data. Currently, applications are divided among mapping (20 percent), conservation (30 percent), and modeling (35 percent).

  11. Land Use and Land Cover - LAND_COVER_2006_USGS_IN: Land Cover in Indiana, Derived from the 2006 National Land Cover Database (United States Geological Survey, 30-Meter TIFF Image)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — LAND_COVER_2006_USGS_IN is a grid (30-meter cell size) showing 2006 Land Cover data in Indiana. This grid is a subset of the National Land Cover Data (NLCD 2006)...

  12. Direct Versus Indirect Supervision of Fellows Covering Football Events: A Survey of Fellows and Program Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascano, Charles A.; Stovak, Mark L.; Harvey, A. T.

    2010-01-01

    Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) program requirements mandate “adequate supervision,” of residents, but there is little guidance for sports medicine fellowship directors regarding the transition from direct to indirect supervision of fellows covering football games. Objective We sought to gather evidence of current supervision practices in the context of injury outcomes. Methods Fellows and program directors of ACGME-accredited sports medicine fellowship programs were invited to complete an online survey regarding their experience and current supervision practice at football games. Criteria for transition to autonomy and desired changes in supervision practice were elicited. Player safety was quantified by noting the number of field-side emergencies, whether an attending was present, and whether better outcomes might have resulted from the presence of an attending. Results A total of 80 fellows and 50 program directors completed the online survey. Direct supervision was lacking in about 50% of high school games and 20% of college games. A resulting cost in terms of player safety was estimated to apply to 5% of serious injuries by fellows' report but less than 0.5% by directors' report. Written criteria for transitioning from direct supervision to autonomy were the exception rather than the rule. The majority of fellows and directors expressed satisfaction with the current level of supervision, but 20% of fellows would prefer more supervision through postgame review. Conclusions Football games covered by fellows are often not directly supervised. Absence of an attending affected the outcomes of 5% or less of serious injuries. Transition to autonomy does not usually require meeting written criteria. Fellows might benefit from additional off-site supervision. PMID:21976096

  13. A Satellite Survey of Cloud Cover and Water Vapor in the Southwestern USA and Northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, E.; Avila, R.; Erasmus, A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Walker, A. R.; Blum, R.

    2017-03-01

    Cloud cover and water vapor conditions in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico were surveyed as a preparatory work for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) in situ site testing program. Although the telescope site is already selected, the TMT site testing team decided to make public these results for its usefulness for the community. Using 58 months of meteorological satellite observations between 1993 July and 1999 September, different atmospheric parameters were quantified from data of the 10.7 μm and of 6.7 μm windows. In particular, cloud cover and water vapor conditions were identified in preferred areas. As a result of the aerial analysis, 15 sites of existing and potential telescope were selected, compared, and ranked in terms of their observing quality. The clearest sites are located along the spine of the Baja peninsula and into southern California on mountain peaks above the temperature inversion layer. A steep gradient of cloudiness was observed along the coast where coastal cloud and fog are trapped below the inversion layer. Moving from west to east over the continent, a significant increase in cloudiness was observed. The analysis shows that San Pedro Mártir, San Gorgonio Mountain and San Jacinto Peak have the largest fraction of clear sky conditions (∼74%). The site with the optimal combination of clear skies and low precipitable water vapor is Boundary Peak, Nevada. An approach based in satellite data provided a reliable method for sites comparison.

  14. Curriculum Vitae and Related Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sharyl Bender

    This booklet, which was developed by a college career center, explains the purpose of and procedures for writing curriculum vitae (CV) and related letters. The following topics are covered: when a CV is appropriate, points to consider when writing a CV, items usually included, possible sections to include in a CV, and steps in writing cover…

  15. 1890's Land Cover/Use - Mississippi River Commission Surveys, Pool 12

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In the late 1880's and early 1900's the Mississippi River Commission (MRC) conducted an extensive high-resolution survey of the Mississippi River from Cairo,...

  16. 1890's Land Cover/Use - Mississippi River Commission Surveys, Pool 18

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In the late 1880's and early 1900's the Mississippi River Commission (MRC) conducted an extensive high-resolution survey of the Mississippi River from Cairo,...

  17. 1890's Land Cover/Use - Mississippi River Commission Surveys, Pool 11

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In the late 1880's and early 1900's the Mississippi River Commission (MRC) conducted an extensive high-resolution survey of the Mississippi River from Cairo,...

  18. 1890's Land Cover/Use - Mississippi River Commission Surveys, Open River 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In the late 1880's and early 1900's the Mississippi River Commission (MRC) conducted an extensive high-resolution survey of the Mississippi River from Cairo,...

  19. 1890's Land Cover/Use - Mississippi River Commission Surveys, Pool 10

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In the late 1880's and early 1900's the Mississippi River Commission (MRC) conducted an extensive high-resolution survey of the Mississippi River from Cairo,...

  20. 1890's Land Cover/Use - Mississippi River Commission Surveys, Pool 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In the late 1880's and early 1900's the Mississippi River Commission (MRC) conducted an extensive high-resolution survey of the Mississippi River from Cairo,...

  1. 1890's Land Cover/Use - Mississippi River Commission Surveys, Pool 16

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In the late 1880's and early 1900's the Mississippi River Commission (MRC) conducted an extensive high-resolution survey of the Mississippi River from Cairo,...

  2. 1890's Land Cover/Use - Mississippi River Commission Surveys, Pool 24

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In the late 1880's and early 1900's the Mississippi River Commission (MRC) conducted an extensive high-resolution survey of the Mississippi River from Cairo,...

  3. 1890's Land Cover/Use - Mississippi River Commission Surveys, Pool 13

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In the late 1880's and early 1900's the Mississippi River Commission (MRC) conducted an extensive high-resolution survey of the Mississippi River from Cairo,...

  4. 1890's Land Cover/Use - Mississippi River Commission Surveys, Pool 15

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In the late 1880's and early 1900's the Mississippi River Commission (MRC) conducted an extensive high-resolution survey of the Mississippi River from Cairo,...

  5. 1890's Land Cover/Use - Mississippi River Commission Surveys, Pool 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In the late 1880's and early 1900's the Mississippi River Commission (MRC) conducted an extensive high-resolution survey of the Mississippi River from Cairo,...

  6. Enhanced Historical Land-Use and Land-Cover Data Sets of the U.S. Geological Survey: Data Source Index Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This polygon data set provides ancillary information to supplement a release of enhanced U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) historical land-use and land-cover data. The...

  7. Deformation of the Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Cover Between November 1996 and April 1997: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R.

    2000-01-01

    Quasi-linear features of the scale of kilometers to hundreds of kilometers can be observed in the high-resolution deformation fields of the sea ice cover produced by the RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System.

  8. zCOSMOS : A large VLT/VIMOS redshift survey covering 0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lilly, S. J.; Le Fevre, O.; Renzini, A.; Zamorani, G.; Scodeggio, M.; Contini, T.; Carollo, C. M.; Hasinger, G.; Kneib, J.-P.; Iovino, A.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mainieri, V.; Mignoli, M.; Silverman, J.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bottini, D.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; Daddi, E.; Feldmann, R.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Kampczyk, P.; Kovac, K.; Lamareille, F.; Leauthaud, A.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; McCracken, H. J.; Marinoni, C.; Pello, R.; Ricciardelli, E.; Scarlata, C.; Vergani, D.; Sanders, D. B.; Schinnerer, E.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Arnouts, S.; Aussel, H.; Bardelli, S.; Brusa, M.; Cappi, A.; Ciliegi, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Foucaud, S.; Franceschini, R.; Halliday, C.; Impey, C.; Knobel, C.; Koekemoer, A.; Kurk, J.; Maccagni, D.; Maddox, S.; Marano, B.; Marconi, G.; Meneux, B.; Mobasher, B.; Moreau, C.; Peacock, J. A.; Porciani, C.; Pozzetti, L.; Scaramella, R.; Schiminovich, D.; Shopbell, P.; Smail, I.; Thompson, D.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Zucca, E.

    2007-01-01

    zCOSMOS is a large-redshift survey that is being undertaken in the COSMOS field using 600 hr of observation with the VIMOS spectrograph on the 8mVLT. The survey is designed to characterize the environments of COSMOS galaxies from the 100 kpc scales of galaxy groups up to the 100 Mpc scale of the cos

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program- Land Cover Data v2.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset combines the work of several different projects to create a seamless data set for the contiguous United States. Data from four regional Gap Analysis...

  10. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  11. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  12. Letter to jane addams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, M

    1995-06-01

    This letter, written to one of the founding figures in social work, draws parallels between primary prevention at the beginning and the end of the twentieth century. As expected, the letter remains unanswered.

  13. Van: An Open Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, John Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This essay is an open letter from a classroom teacher to a concerned citizen. The letter lists a variety of problems caused largely by standardization and the more corrosive effects of positivism. Many of these problems are unknown to those outside the immediate school setting. While the letter focuses on a specific setting, an inner city school…

  14. Land Cover and Land Use in Slovakia within the LUCAS 201 5 Pan-European Harmonized Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Hutár

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The LUCAS project was launched following a decision by the European Parliament and Council of the European Union in May 2000. Eurostat started the LUCAS pilot project in close cooperation with the technical support of the Directorate General for Agriculture and Rural Development’s Joint Research Centre in 2001 . The main aim of the project is to provide a common, aligned, in situ overview of agricultural and environmental data, using GNSS and photo documentation for specific, georeferenced points. Research was carried out in Slovakia over a three-year period, starting in 2006. In 2009, an evaluation of land cover/use was carried out. This article presents the process of preparing, securing, conducting and researching the management of land cover and land use in Slovakia. The survey was launched in 201 2. The classification base consists of eight categories of land cover and land use, which are broken down into more detail. The result is a structured database of images and digital records for 2,455 selected points. The largest class mapped is forestland. The stabilization of the sampling scheme allowed the construction of a time series for monitoring land cover changes for selected types.

  15. Influence of coral cover and structural complexity on the accuracy of visual surveys of coral-reef fish communities

    KAUST Repository

    Coker, D. J.

    2017-04-20

    Using manipulated patch reefs with combinations of varying live-coral cover (low, medium and high) and structural complexity (low and high), common community metrics (abundance, diversity, richness and community composition) collected through standard underwater visual census techniques were compared with exhaustive collections using a fish anaesthetic (clove oil). This study showed that reef condition did not influence underwater visual census estimates at a community level, but reef condition can influence the detectability of some small and cryptic species and this may be exacerbated if surveys are conducted on a larger scale.

  16. TEACHERS' VIEWS ON CURSIVE LETTERS FONTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol DURAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is subject to forms of writing letters in cursive font. Research is descriptive screening model. Researcher, 227 primary school teachers with the first writing in cursive writing teaching to previously made in the province and district in Ankara, " Cursive Letters Shape Writing Assessment" named semi-structure interview form applied. Teachers in this survey, the shape of the letter, if appropriate, the letter an "appropriate" to write, did not find the appropriate letter in the shape of the new propositions were asked to spell. The data was descriptively analysed and interpreted after then. 16% of teachers participating in the research, the teaching of cursive writing not find a significant and steep wants to return to perpendicular to the basic text writing. 12% of the teachers, the cursive letters stated that the whole appropriate shape patterns grows. Participated in the study with other teachers, most of the letters in "appropriate" expression while falling, "b, d, f, k, r, s, ş, v, z, B, D, L, T, Z" the letters and shape patterns indicate that it should be changed new faces in this case suggested shape.

  17. The Otter (Lutra lutra L. Signs and the Banks Tree Cover: A Survey in Central and Eastern Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radostina Dimitrova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during 2011 – 2012 at different water basins (rivers and micro dams situated in Central and Eastern Bulgaria. Transects with 600 m length were walked along the banks in otter signs search. The search was stopped when the first otter signs were registered. As a whole we found domination of the very good or excellent bank tree cover. A total of 61% of transects were with tree cover between 50% and 100%. Almost equal were the stretches without or with little tree vegetation. At all transects surveyed the spraints dominated with 61%. All other otter signs were with low percentage. The otter tracks (foot prints were on second place with 20% of occurrence, followed by the food remains with 7%. At 12% of transects we did not find any otter signs. As a whole the otter was registered in 88% of transects, a sign for a good population. Highest preference we registered for walking or feeding of the otter at the open banks with no or with weak tree cover.

  18. A Retrospective Analysis Comparing the New Standardized Letter of Recommendation in Dermatology with the Classic Narrative Letter of Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffenberger, Jessica A; Mosser, Joy; Lee, Grace; Pootrakul, Llana; Harfmann, Katya; Fabbro, Stephanie; Faith, Esteban Fernandez; Carr, David; Plotner, Alisha; Zirwas, Matthew; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H

    2016-09-01

    Background: In an effort to avoid numerous problems associated with narrative letters of recommendation, a dermatology standardized letter of recommendation was utilized in the 2014-2015 resident application cycle. Objective: A comparison of the standardized letter of recommendation and narrative letters of recommendation from a single institution and application cycle to determine if the standardized letter of recommendation met its original goals of efficiency, applicant stratification, and validity. Methods: Eight dermatologists assessed all standardized letters of recommendation/narrative letters of recommendation pairs received during the 2014-2015 application cycle. Five readers repeated the analysis two months later. Each letter of recommendation was evaluated based on a seven question survey. Letter analysis and survey completion for each letter was timed. Results: Compared to the narrative letters of recommendation, the standardized letter of recommendation is easier to interpret (precommendation are also faster to interpret (precommendation (precommendation appears to be meeting its initial goals of 1) efficiency, 2) applicant stratification, and 3) validity. (J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2016;9(9):36-2.).

  19. Survey of genome size in 28 hydrothermal vent species covering 10 families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnivard, Eric; Catrice, Olivier; Ravaux, Juliette; Brown, Spencer C; Higuet, Dominique

    2009-06-01

    Knowledge of genome size is a useful and necessary prerequisite for the development of many genomic resources. To better understand the origins and effects of DNA gains and losses among species, it is important to collect data from a broad taxonomic base, but also from particular ecosystems. Oceanic thermal vents are an interesting model to investigate genome size in very unstable environments. Here we provide data estimated by flow cytometry for 28 vent-living species among the most representative from different hydrothermal vents. We also report the genome size of closely related coastal decapods. Haploid C-values were compared with those previously reported for species from corresponding orders or infraorders. This is the first broad survey of 2C values in vent organisms. Contrary to expectations, it shows that certain hydrothermal vent species have particularly large genomes. The vent squat lobster Munidopsis recta has the largest genome yet reported for any anomuran: 2C=31.1 pg=30.4x10(9) bp. In several groups, such as Brachyura, Phyllodocida, and Veneroida, vent species have genomes that clearly rank at the high end of published values for each group. We also describe the highest DNA content yet recorded for the Brachyura (coastal crabs Xantho pilipes and Necora puber). Finally, analysis of genome size variation across populations revealed unexpected intraspecific variation in the vent shrimp Mirocaris fortunata that could not be attributed simply to ploidy changes.

  20. Enhanced Historical Land-Use and Land-Cover Data Sets of the U.S. Geological Survey: polygon format files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set depicts land use and land cover from the 1970s and 1980s and has been previously published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in other file formats....

  1. Enhanced Historical Land-Use and Land-Cover Data Sets of the U.S. Geological Survey: Tile Index Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This polygon data set documents the spatial extent of polygon files included in a release of enhanced U.S. Geological Survey historical land-use and land-cover data.

  2. Enhanced Historical Land-Use and Land-Cover Data Sets of the U.S. Geological Survey: raster format files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set depicts land use and land cover from the 1970s and 1980s and has been previously published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in other file formats....

  3. Enhanced Historical Land-Use and Land-Cover Data Sets of the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Curtis V.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Clawges, Rick M.

    2007-01-01

    Historical land-use and land-cover data, available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the conterminous United States and Hawaii, have been enhanced for use in geographic information systems (GIS) applications. The original digital data sets were created by the USGS in the late 1970s and early 1980s and were later converted by USGS and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to a geographic information system (GIS) format in the early 1990s. These data were made available on USEPA's Web site since the early 1990s and have been used for many national applications, despite minor coding and topological errors. During the 1990s, a group of USGS researchers made modifications to the data set for use in the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These edited files have been further modified to create a more accurate, topologically clean, and seamless national data set. Several different methods, including custom editing software and several batch processes, were applied to create this enhanced version of the national data set. The data sets are included in this report in the commonly used shapefile and Tagged Image Format File (TIFF) formats. In addition, this report includes two polygon data sets (in shapefile format) representing (1) land-use and land-cover source documentation extracted from the previously published USGS data files, and (2) the extent of each polygon data file.

  4. The Business Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 9-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Business. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: This guide, designed for direct student use, indicates the parts of a business letter, a placement guide, and steps for typing letters. Worksheets and illustrations indicate forms of block and indented styles; open, closed, and mixed punctuation; the…

  5. Luminosity and redshift dependence of the covering factor of active galactic nuclei viewed with WISE and Sloan digital sky survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toba, Y.; Matsuhara, H. [Department of Space and Astronautical Science, the Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Oyabu, S. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Malkan, M. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Gandhi, P. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1-3LE (United Kingdom); Nakagawa, T.; Isobe, N.; Shirahata, M.; Oi, N.; Takita, S.; Yano, K. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Ohyama, Y. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617 Taiwan (China); Yamauchi, C., E-mail: toba@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Misato Observatory, 180 Matsugamine, Misato-cho, Kaiso-gun, Wakayama 640-1366 (Japan)

    2014-06-10

    In this work, we investigate the dependence of the covering factor (CF) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on the mid-infrared (MIR) luminosity and the redshift. We constructed 12 and 22 μm luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.006 ≤z ≤ 0.3 using Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. Combining the WISE catalog with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic data, we selected 223,982 galaxies at 12 μm and 25,721 galaxies at 22 μm for spectroscopic classification. We then identified 16,355 AGNs at 12 μm and 4683 AGNs at 22 μm by their optical emission lines and cataloged classifications in the SDSS. Following that, we estimated the CF as the fraction of Type 2 AGN in all AGNs whose MIR emissions are dominated by the active nucleus (not their host galaxies) based on their MIR colors. We found that the CF decreased with increasing MIR luminosity, regardless of the choice of Type 2 AGN classification criteria, and the CF did not change significantly with redshift for z ≤ 0.2. Furthermore, we carried out various tests to determine the influence of selection bias and confirmed that similar dependences exist, even when taking these uncertainties into account. The luminosity dependence of the CF can be explained by the receding torus model, but the 'modified' receding torus model gives a slightly better fit, as suggested by Simpson.

  6. Letters: Subs, Not Missiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsipis, Kosta

    1989-01-01

      In a letter, MIT physicist Kosta Tsipis responds to a column in the August 1988 "Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists" and clarifies his position in regard to the MX and Trident II missile programs...

  7. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  8. Suicide letters in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Boon-Hock; Chia, Audrey; Tai, Bee-Choo

    2008-01-01

    The contents of suicide letters provide insight into the reasons for suicide and the mental states of victims. Coroner court records of 1,721 Singaporean suicides occurring between 2000 and 2004 were reviewed, 398 (23%) of whom left suicide letters. Letter writers tended to be younger, single, and less likely to have mental or physical illness. A reason for suicide was evident in 58%. Major reasons included school and relationship problems in the young, financial and marital problems in adults and physical illnesses in the elderly. Positive sentiment (care/concern) was expressed in 59%. Negative emotions in 45% of which despondency/agony (60%) was the most common, followed by emptiness (25%), guilt/shame (15%), hopelessness (10%), and anger (3%). The study of these letters suggests that there are combinations of social, psychological and physical factors that influence a person to suicide, all of which are important in the prevention, assessment, and management of suicide.

  9. Letters from Our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Since the first publication of Cultural Exchang-China& World in October 1992,we have received a unmber of verykind letters from Chinese and foreign readers giving support andencouagement to this magazine.We would like to take thisopportunity to thank them all and to invite others to write in as well,especially if they have suggestions or criticisms to make.Thefollowing are letters from two of our overseas readers.

  10. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal.

  11. PRL S-030A Verification Survey at Former McClellan AFB, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    Consultative Letter 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Oct 2012 – Feb 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PRL S-030A Verification Survey at Former McClellan AFB ...verification survey from 23-25 Oct 12 at site PRL S-030A on former McClellan AFB , CA. This verification survey was conducted at the site after the...of Aerospace Medicine (USAFSAM), former McClellan AFB , radium-226, verification survey, final status survey, independent radiological assessment 16

  12. Temporal processing deficits in letter-by-letter reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Janet L; Eskes, Gail A

    2007-01-01

    Theories of the cognitive impairment underlying letter-by-letter reading vary widely, including prelexical and lexical level deficits. One prominent prelexical account proposes that the disorder results from difficulty in processing multiple letters simultaneously. We investigated whether this deficit extends to letters presented in rapid temporal succession. A letter-by-letter reader, G.M., was administered a rapid serial visual presentation task that has been used widely to study the temporal processing characteristics of the normal visual system. Comparisons were made to a control group of 6 brain-damaged individuals without reading deficits. Two target letters were embedded at varying temporal positions in a stream of rapidly presented single digits. After each stream, the identities of the two letters were reported. G.M. required an extended period of time after he had processed one letter before he was able to reliably identify a second letter, relative to the controls. In addition, G.M.'s report of the second letter was most impaired when it immediately followed the first letter, a pattern not seen in the controls, indicating that G.M. had difficulty processing the two items together. These data suggest that a letter-by-letter reading strategy may be adopted to help compensate for a deficit in the temporal processing of letters.

  13. Characterizing historical (1992-2010) transitions between grassland and cropland in mainland France through mining land-cover survey data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Xiao; Catherine Mignolet; Jean-Franois Mari; Marc Benot

    2015-01-01

    Grassland, as one of the largest ecosystems on the earth, supports various goods and services to humanity. Historical y, humans have increased agricultural output primarily by cropland expansion and agricultural intensiifcation. The cropland area was primarily gained at the expense of grassland and forests. Apart from grassland conversion, increasing consumption of calorie-and meat-intensive diets drives the intensiifcation of livestock systems, which is shifting steadily from grazing to feeding with crops. To cope with the environmental degradation due to agriculture, various forms of‘green payment’ were implemented to promote the adoption of sustainable farming practices over the last two decades in the European Union. The aim of this study is to monitor the recent transitions (1992–2010) between grassland and cropland during two Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms at the French mainland scale. We proposed an innovative approach to link grassland con-version to agricultural commodities and farming systems practices. We ifrst assessed the grassland-to-cropland conversion and further investigated the crop sequence patterns that were observed to be dominant after the conversion through mining land-cover survey data Teruti and Teruti-Lucas. We found the trends of the transitions between grassland and cropland over the two time intervals:The loss of grassland (1992–2003) and restoration or re-expansion of grassland (2006–2010) in mainland France. Our ifnding on the crop sequence patterns after the grassland conversion reveals two notable evolutions of agricultural production systems. These evolutions were related to the increase in the proportion of cropland in the total agricultural land use. One evolution was most likely inlfuenced by the demand for fodder:The conversion from grazing livestock to feeding livestock. Another evolution was the conversion from livestock production to ifeld crop production. Our results indicate that the intensiifcation of

  14. Accuracy assessment for the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Land-Cover Mapping Program: New York and New Jersey Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiliang Zhu; Limin Yang; Stephen V. Stehman; Raymond L. Czaplewski

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with other government and private organizations, is producing a conterminous U.S. land-cover map using Landsat Thematic Mapper 30-meter data for the Federal regions designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Accuracy assessment is to be conducted for each Federal region to estimate overall and class-specific...

  15. Invitation Letter to Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dear Friends As the transaction for Foundry Institution of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (FICMES), China Foundry,published quarterly from August 2004 to a worldwide readership in English by Foundry Journal Agency, covers the whole fields of foundry technology for iron, steel and non-ferrous castings, including sand molding casting, die casting, investment casting, etc. The focus of China Foundry is on original practical and theoretical research in the foundry industry. Significant survey or similar papers are also considered for publication. There are five columns in it: Special Review, Research & Development, Overseas Foundry, Industry Information, and Advertisements.China Foundry is indexed by Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-E) (available through the Web of Science,beginning with the first issue of 2007), Chemical Abstract (CA), Cambridge Science Abstract (CSA) and Abstract Journal (AJ) and so on.

  16. The Fuzzy Scarlet Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Critics of the public release of teacher evaluation scores sometimes liken these ratings to the scarlet letter worn by Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's classic novel. The comparison is apt. But public school teachers who are subjected to public shaming because of their students' test scores can rarely expect the opportunities for redemption…

  17. On The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹

    2016-01-01

    Reading The Scarlet Letter, one is mostly impressed by the spirit of The Bible the story depicted. The book chiefly discusses sin and how to atone for it. Hester Prynne is the heroine of the fiction. This paper researches her fate to illustrate the influence of The Bible to Hawthorne.

  18. Letter to the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Ann Marshall

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A letter to the Editor alerting the ASM education community to the passing of Dr. Joseph P. Caruso, influential colleague and co-author of an article included in the scientific citizenship-themed issue of the Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education (JMBE.

  19. The Scarlet Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawthorne, Nathaniel

    2005-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter is the story of three New England settlers at odds with the Puritan society in which they live. Roger Chillingworth, an ageing scholar, arrives in New England after two years' separation from his wife Hester to find her on trial for adultery. She refuses to reveal her lover's iden

  20. Lincoln's Letter to Siam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mary; Childress, Marilyn

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the problem of the U.S. president receiving gifts from foreign dignitaries. The reproducible letter from President Lincoln to King Rama IV of Siam in which he accepts two gifts and graciously declines proffered elephants serves as center for discussion of the problem. Suggestions for teaching and a crossword puzzle are included. (KC)

  1. Letters in this Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Reforming the General Chemistry Textbook individual letters by Edward T. Samulski; Stephen J. Hawkes; Stephen J. Fisher; J. Stephen Hartman; A. R. H. Cole; Stanley Pine, Ronald Archer, and Herbert Kaesz; Jimmy Reeves; Robert Hill; and Brock Spencer, C. Bradley Moore and Nedah Rose. Re: article by R. J. Gillespie The author replies

  2. The Scarlet Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawthorne, Nathaniel

    2005-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter is the story of three New England settlers at odds with the Puritan society in which they live. Roger Chillingworth, an ageing scholar, arrives in New England after two years' separation from his wife Hester to find her on trial for adultery. She refuses to reveal her lover's

  3. The Fuzzy Scarlet Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Critics of the public release of teacher evaluation scores sometimes liken these ratings to the scarlet letter worn by Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's classic novel. The comparison is apt. But public school teachers who are subjected to public shaming because of their students' test scores can rarely expect the opportunities for redemption…

  4. CS-10 Verification Survey at Former McClellan AFB, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    Consultative Letter 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Feb 2013 – Jul 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CS-10 Verification Survey at Former McClellan AFB ...assessment/verification survey from 20-22 Feb 2013 at site CS- 10 on former McClellan AFB , CA. Radium-226 was the sole radionuclide of concern. Cabrera...Aerospace Medicine (USAFSAM), former McClellan AFB , radium-226, verification survey, final status survey, independent radiological assessment 16

  5. President Nixon's Letter of Resignation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mary; Childress, Marilyn

    1982-01-01

    Contains a primary source document--President Nixon's resignation letter--and suggests teaching strategies for its use with secondary level students. To refresh students' memories of the events surrounding the letter, a selective chronology is also presented. (RM)

  6. Symbolism in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠杰

    2007-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne is the greatest American romantic novelist during the nineteenth century. This paper researches the symbolism in his masterpiece The Scarlet Letter from the aspect of the symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter.

  7. Letters to a Young Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. D.; Schulman, Grace

    2001-01-01

    Presents two letters to a young writer, modeled on the influential "Letters to a Young Poet" by Rainer Maria Rilke. Notes the first letter situates itself when a young writer first turns toward poetry; and the second addresses the relationship between mentorship and the imagination, questioning the right of any writer to presume to guide the…

  8. Letters to a Young Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. D.; Schulman, Grace

    2001-01-01

    Presents two letters to a young writer, modeled on the influential "Letters to a Young Poet" by Rainer Maria Rilke. Notes the first letter situates itself when a young writer first turns toward poetry; and the second addresses the relationship between mentorship and the imagination, questioning the right of any writer to presume to guide the…

  9. Resource Letter NO-1: Nonlinear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmire, Elsa

    2011-03-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on nonlinear optics. Books, journals, and websites are introduced that cover the general subject. Journal articles and websites are cited covering the following topics: second-order nonlinearities in transparent media including second-harmonic generation and optical parametric oscillation, third-order and higher nonlinearities, nonlinear refractive index, absorptive nonlinearities such as saturable absorption and multiphoton absorption, and scattering nonlinearities such as stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering. Steady-state and transient phenomena, fiber optics, solitons, nonlinear wave mixing, optical phase conjugation, nonlinear spectroscopy, and multiphoton microscopy are all outlined.

  10. A Letter to Alien

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱政榜

    2012-01-01

    Dear Alien, 1 am sorry to hear that you have some problems. I hear you argued with your best friend. 1 think you could call him up or go to his home. You could write him a letter. And you could tell him you are sony. Or maybe you could give him a ticket to a ball game. I am sure you will get on well with him again.

  11. The Danish letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Ejlers, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The talk will focus on Danish type designers and their work on Æ (AE), Ø (Oslash) and Å (Aring). These 'anomalies' found in the Danish written language, often causes difficulties for type designers. The counters of Ø/ø sometimes appear overcrowded, the uppercase Æ can result in an uncomfortably o......' attempt to create the optimal variation of these letters, we will give a brief introduction to the Danish typography tradition ranging from the early 20th Century and up until today....

  12. The Danish letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Ejlers, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The talk will focus on Danish type designers and their work on Æ (AE), Ø (Oslash) and Å (Aring). These 'anomalies' found in the Danish written language, often causes difficulties for type designers. The counters of Ø/ø sometimes appear overcrowded, the uppercase Æ can result in an uncomfortably o......' attempt to create the optimal variation of these letters, we will give a brief introduction to the Danish typography tradition ranging from the early 20th Century and up until today....

  13. A comparison of letter and digit processing in letter-by-letter reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Janet L; Eskes, Gail A

    2008-01-01

    The extent to which letter-by-letter reading results from a specific orthographic deficit, as compared with a nonspecific disturbance in basic visuoperceptual mechanisms, is unclear. The current study directly compared processing of letters and digits in a letter-by-letter reader, G.M., using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task and a speeded matching task. Comparisons were made to a group of six brain-damaged individuals without reading deficits. In the RSVP task, G.M. had increased difficulty reporting the target identities when they were letters, as compared with digits. Although this general pattern was also evident in the control group, the magnitude of the letter-digit accuracy difference was greater in G.M. Similarly, in the matching task, G.M. was slower to match letters than digits, relative to the control group, although his response times to both item types were increased. These data suggest that letter-by-letter reading, at least in this case, results from a visuoperceptual encoding deficit that particularly affects letters, but also extends to processing of digits to a lesser extent. Results are consistent with the notion that a left occipitotemporal area is specialized for letter processing with greater bilaterality in the visual processing of digits.

  14. Allographic agraphia for single letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichelli, Alina; Machetta, Francesca; Zadini, Antonella; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient (PS) who, following acute encephalitis with residual occipito-temporal damage, showed a selective deficit in writing cursive letters in isolation, but no difficulty to write cursive-case words and non-words. Notably, he was able to recognize the same allographs he could not write and to produce both single letters and words in print. In addition to this selective single letter writing difficulty, the patient demonstrated an inability to correctly perform a series of imagery tasks for cursive letters. PS's performance may indicate that single letter production requires explicit imagery. Explicit imagery may not be required, instead, when letters have to be produced in the context of a word: letter production in this case may rely on implicit retrieval of well learned scripts in a procedural way.

  15. Young Children's Letter-Sound Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Barbara; Carr, Alex

    2003-01-01

    This study with 83 normally developing children (ages 4-6) compared three essential skills in early literacy, letter-sound recognition, letter-sound recall, and letter reproduction. Children performed better in letter-sound recognition than in letter-sound recall and letter reproduction. There were no performance differences due to sex or age.…

  16. Peer assessment of outpatient consultation letters – feasibility and satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojeiji Suzan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Written correspondence is one of the most important forms of communication between health care providers, yet there is little feedback provided to specialists. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and satisfaction of a peer assessment program on consultation letters and to determine inter-rater reliability between family physicians and specialists. Methods A rating scale of nine 5-point Likert scale items including specific content, style items, education value of the letter and an overall rating was developed from a previous validated tool. Nine Internal Medicine specialists/subspecialists from two tertiary care centres submitted 10 letters with patient and physician identifiers removed. Two Internal Medicine specialists, and 2 family physicians from the other centre rated each letter (to protect writer anonymity. A satisfaction survey was sent to each writer and rater after collation of the results. A follow-up survey was sent 6–8 months later. Results There was a high degree of satisfaction with the process and feedback. The rating scale information was felt to be useful and appropriate for evaluating the quality of consultation letters by 6/7 writers. 5/7 seven writers felt that the feedback they received resulted in immediate changes to their letters. Six months later, 6/9 writers indicated they had maintained changes in their letters. Raters rank ordered letters similarly (Cronbach's alpha 0.57–0.84 but mean scores were highly variant. At site 1 there were significant differences in scoring brevity (p Conclusion Most participants found peer assessment of letters feasible and beneficial and longstanding changes occurred in some individuals. Family physicians and specialists appear to have different expectations on some items. Further studies on reliability and validity, with a larger sample, are required before high stakes professional assessments include consultation letters.

  17. Letters to the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Comment on `Magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances' José Luis Giordano Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, CPSI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Twins paradox S R Carson Norton College, Malton, North Yorkshire, UK On alternative ways of finding the ratio of specific heats of gases Tomas Ficker Physics Department, Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic

  18. Salary-Trend Studies of Faculty for the Years 1988-89 and 1991-92 in the Following Academic Disciplines/Major Fields: Engineering-Related Technologies; Foreign Language; Geography; Geology; History; Home Economics; Letters; Library and Archival Sciences; Life Sciences; Mathematics; Multi-Interdisciplinary Studies; Music; Nursing; Philosophy and Religion; and Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Richard D.; And Others

    This volume provides comparative data for faculty salaries in public and private colleges, based on an annual survey of over 600 colleges and universities. Data cover the following disciplines: Engineering Related Technologies, Foreign Languages, Geography, Geology, History, Home Economics, Letters, Library and Archival Sciences, Life Sciences,…

  19. Salary Trend Studies of Faculty for the Years 1986-87 and 1989-90 in the Following Disciplines/Major Fields: Engineering; Foreign Languages; Geology; Home Economics; Letters; Library and Archival Sciences; Life Sciences; Mathematics; Multi-Interdisciplinary Studies; Music; Nursing; and Philosophy and Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Richard D.; And Others

    This volume provides comparative data for faculty salaries in public and private colleges, based on an annual survey of over 700 colleges and universities. Data cover the following disciplines: Engineering; Foreign Languages; Geological Sciences; Home Economics; Letters; Library and Archival Sciences; Life Sciences; Mathematics;…

  20. Salary-Trend Studies of Faculty for the Years 1988-89 and 1991-92 in the Following Academic Disciplines/Major Fields: Engineering-Related Technologies; Foreign Language; Geography; Geology; History; Home Economics; Letters; Library and Archival Sciences; Life Sciences; Mathematics; Multi-Interdisciplinary Studies; Music; Nursing; Philosophy and Religion; and Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Richard D.; And Others

    This volume provides comparative data for faculty salaries in public and private colleges, based on an annual survey of over 600 colleges and universities. Data cover the following disciplines: Engineering Related Technologies, Foreign Languages, Geography, Geology, History, Home Economics, Letters, Library and Archival Sciences, Life Sciences,…

  1. Salary Trend Studies of Faculty for the Years 1986-87 and 1989-90 in the Following Disciplines/Major Fields: Engineering; Foreign Languages; Geology; Home Economics; Letters; Library and Archival Sciences; Life Sciences; Mathematics; Multi-Interdisciplinary Studies; Music; Nursing; and Philosophy and Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Richard D.; And Others

    This volume provides comparative data for faculty salaries in public and private colleges, based on an annual survey of over 700 colleges and universities. Data cover the following disciplines: Engineering; Foreign Languages; Geological Sciences; Home Economics; Letters; Library and Archival Sciences; Life Sciences; Mathematics;…

  2. A high-resolution line survey of IRC +10216 with Herschel/HIFI. First results: Detection of warm silicon dicarbide (SiC2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernicharo, J.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Decin, L.; Encrenaz, P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Agúndez, M.; De Beck, E.; Müller, H. S. P.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Barlow, M.J.; Benz, A.; Crimier, N.; Daniel, F.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Fich, M.; Gaier, T.; García-Lario, P.; de Koter, A.; Khouri, T.; Liseau, R.; Lombaert, R.; Erickson, N.; Pardo, J. R.; Pearson, J. C.; Shipman, R.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Teyssier, D.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first results of a high-spectral-resolution survey of the carbon-rich evolved star IRC+10216 that was carried out with the HIFI spectrometer onboard Herschel. This survey covers all HIFI bands, with a spectral range from 488 to 1901 GHz. In this letter we focus on the band-1b spectrum

  3. Hydrogeochemical survey of groundwater for selected areas in the Arabian Shield and in cover rocks, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, John B.; Miller, W. Roger

    1989-01-01

    In the spring of 1984, a hydrogeochemical survey was conducted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to test ground water as a sampling medium in exploration for mineral deposits. Eighty-one water samples (mostly from wells) were collected. The samples were analysed for the presence and concentration of major cations and anions, as well as a suite of trace elements. Most of the water samples contained high concentrations of dissolved salts. The majority of the samples showed no significant amounts of the trace elements. A few well-water samples contained moderately anomalous concentrations of zinc, molybdenum, and uranium. These anomalies could be due to salinity effects, contamination, or the proximity of mineral sources. This survey has established some baseline water-chemistry data, especially for the trace metals, which to date have not been reported in ground water in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  4. A Cultural Resource Survey of the East Shore of Lake Oahe, South Dakota. Volume 1. Covering Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    limited evidence of several small debris scatters, none of which were investigated (Roetzel and Woolworth 1978). One of these sites (39CA15) is...flake fragments were recorded during a reconnaissance of the southern shore of Pollock Bay (Roetzel and Woolworth 1978). In 1979, more extensive remains...K.A., and N.L. Woolworth 1978 The archeological and historical survey and report on a proposed project near Pollock and Herried, South Dakota

  5. A Survey on Cover Song Identification%多版本音乐识别技术研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖川; 李伟; 殷玥; 薛敏; 朱碧磊; 冯瑞

    2012-01-01

    音乐作品通常具有多个不同版本.重新演奏、演绎使得各版本音乐在音质、速度、节奏、结构、基调、和声、歌词等多个方面都可能产生不同,这使得多版本音乐识别成为一个具有挑战性的研究领域.近年来多版本音乐识别技术发展迅速,本文对其包含的五个关键技术模块进行描述,分别是特征提取模块、基调不变性模块、速度不变性模块、结构不变性模块、相似性计算模块;其次概要介绍该领域的典型算法;最后总结当前存在的问题,并讨论进一步的研究方向.%There usually exist various versions (covers) of a music work. New performances or interpretations of a music piece may cause differences on timbre, tempo, rhythm, structure, key, harmony and lyrics etc., which makes cover song identification a challenging task. In this paper, we summarize five key technical modules which are feature extraction, key invariance, tempo invariance, structure invariance and similarity computing, then introduce representative algorithms, at last discuss the unsolved issues and future directions.

  6. A STUDY ON LEGIBILITY OF LETTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve ERSAN,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the most general sense, lettering is the art of drawing letters, in which the letter forms carry illustrtive features. In this research which is titled "An Analysis on Legibility in Letterings Used in Print Advertisements", letterings used in and specially designed for print ads are analysed and their contribution to the ads are examined. Legibility, which is the fundamental function of writing and typography is examined in the field of lettering that has an illustrative approach. Also, the article puts emphasis on the technique and form’s contribution on content in letterings. Keywords: Lettering, print advertisements, letter design, illustration, legibility.

  7. Teaching Written Communication Skills in Professional Selling: The Cover Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Vicki L.

    2006-01-01

    The selling process steps have been an integral part of professional selling courses and textbooks for years. Although slight changes have been made in their wording and format, most textbooks are consistent in the recommended process for an effective sales interaction. In an effort to combine teaching the selling process with the increased demand…

  8. A Survey of the Impact of Deyolking on Biological Processes Covered by Shotgun Proteomic Analyses of Zebrafish Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahlouni, Fatima; Szarka, Szabolcs; Shulaev, Vladimir; Prokai, Laszlo

    2015-12-01

    Deyolking, the removal of the most abundant protein from the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo, is a common technique for in-depth exploration of proteome-level changes in vivo due to various environmental stressors or pharmacological impacts during embryonic stage of development. However, the effect of this procedure on the remaining proteome has not been fully studied. Here, we report a label-free shotgun proteomics survey on proteome coverage and biological processes that are enriched and depleted as a result of deyolking. Enriched proteins are involved in cellular energetics and development pathways, specifically implicating enrichment related to mitochondrial function. Although few proteins were removed completely by deyolking, depleted molecular pathways were associated with calcium signaling and signaling events implicating immune system response.

  9. Accuracy Assessment for the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Land-Cover Mapping Program: New York and New Jersey Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Yang, Limin; Stehman, Stephen V.; Czaplewski, Raymond L.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with other government and private organizations, is producing a conterminous U.S. land-cover map using Landsat Thematic Mapper 30-meter data for the Federal regions designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Accuracy assessment is to be conducted for each Federal region to estimate overall and class-specific accuracies. In Region 2, consisting of New York and New Jersey, the accuracy assessment was completed for 15 land-cover and land-use classes, using interpreted 1:40,000-scale aerial photographs as reference data. The methodology used for Region 2 features a two-stage, geographically stratified approach, with a general sample of all classes (1,033 sample sites), and a separate sample for rare classes (294 sample sites). A confidence index was recorded for each land-cover interpretation on the 1:40,000-scale aerial photography The estimated overall accuracy for Region 2 was 63 percent (standard error 1.4 percent) using all sample sites, and 75.2 percent (standard error 1.5 percent) using only reference sites with a high-confidence index. User's and producer's accuracies for the general sample and user's accuracy for the sample of rare classes, as well as variance for the estimated accuracy parameters, were also reported. Narrowly defined land-use classes and heterogeneous conditions of land cover are the major causes of misclassification errors. Recommendations for modifying the accuracy assessment methodology for use in the other nine Federal regions are provided.

  10. Osterc's letters to Milojević

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Melita B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The correspondence between two of the most important composers in Yugoslavia during the period between the two world wars: Miloje Milojević (1884-1946, a Serb living in Belgrade, and Slavko Osterc (1895-1946, Slovene living in Ljubljana, gives us valuable insight into their musical aspirations ambitions, relations to other colleagues, the functioning of musical institutions and the cultural and even political climate of the times. The stylistic features of their works are basically different, Milojević being a modernist with late romantic roots, while Osterc was inclined to objectivity of the neoclassical and "constructive expressionist type. The main topics of their correspondence include: the activities of the Yugoslav section of the International Society for Contemporary Music, in which they were very much involved, and the efforts they made to have their works performed both in the country and abroad. Milojević and Osterc maintained very good relations throughout the period covered by this exchange of letters, that is from 1933-1941 (Osterc's last letter was sent three months before his death in May 1941 and their correspondence provides evidence of several instances of the mutual generosity, as they helped each other in their careers. The portion of this correspondence that is kept in Ljubljana - Milojević's letters to Osterc - has already been published and analyzed by Dragotin Cvetko. As such, the edition of the remaining correspondence, Osterc's letters to Milojević, that is kept in the private archive of Milojević's grandson Vlastimir Trajković in Belgrade, completes the picture. The language Osterc used was his mother tongue, Slovenian, with "borrowings" from the Serbian, the result being an often amusing mixture of the two.

  11. Checklist Evaluation for Teaching Business Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, M. Latif

    1981-01-01

    Offers a checklist for use in evaluating business letters written by students. Contends that the checklist can simplify paper checking, objectify grading, help students better prepare their letter assignments, and facilitate their understanding of letter writing principles. (FL)

  12. Exploiting a Corpus of Business Letters from a Phraseological, Functional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates how a freely available online corpus has been exploited in a module on teaching business letters covering the following four speech acts (functions) commonly found in business letters: invitations, requests, complaints and refusals. It is proposed that different strategies are required for teaching potentially…

  13. Exploiting a Corpus of Business Letters from a Phraseological, Functional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates how a freely available online corpus has been exploited in a module on teaching business letters covering the following four speech acts (functions) commonly found in business letters: invitations, requests, complaints and refusals. It is proposed that different strategies are required for teaching potentially…

  14. How to Write a Business Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N·J·斯特克

    2004-01-01

    @@ Generally speaking, there are two kinds of letters, business letters and personal letters. By "business" we do not mean buying, selling, or exchanging goods with people or companies, although it can mean that, but important matters we have to discuss or deal with. A business letter may be a recommendation, a job/college application, an inquiry, an answer, an invitation, a complaint, etc. In other words, all letters that are not "personal"are "business" letters.

  15. Letter to editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichmann JP

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available James P ReichmannSales & Marketing, American HomePatient, Brentwood, TN, USA, I would like to congratulate the authors of the article entitled, "Optimal management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy" for the comprehensive review of treatments for a frequent complication of pregnancy.1 Although this letter arrives well after publication I think it is important for researchers in the future to have clarification on one seemingly minor but important point. In order to avoid confusion it must be pointed out that in the metoclopramide section the statement "subcutaneous metoclopramide is effective in many women with NVP and HG" is supported by one observational trial on continuous subcutaneous metoclopramide.2 This distinction is very important because that study reported patients were receiving the drug for 26.7 days on average at a cost of $4432 per patient. Unfavorable cost comparisons have been previously published.3 The recommendation that more studied and less expensive alternatives are explored prior to subjecting the patient to this extreme measure seems prudent.4 Perhaps the use of the reference to continuous subcutaneous metoclopramide may have been accidental but the suggestion that "these findings are reassuring, especially for women who experience excessive sleepiness…" implies that women on Diclectin® who report being tired are advanced to continuous subcutaneous metoclopramide seems like a waste of health care resources and a little reckless.1View original paper by Ebrahimi and colleagues.

  16. Overview of research activities associated with the World Health Organization: results of a survey covering 2006/07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Robert F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the first comprehensive effort to provide an overview of the research associated with the World Health Organization (WHO headquarters in 2006/07. Methods Information was obtained by questionnaire and interviews with senior staff operating at WHO headquarters in Geneva. Research type, purpose and resources (both financial and staff were defined and compared for each of the 37 departments identified and a comparative analysis was made with the global burden of disease as expressed by Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY. Results Research expenditure in 2006/07 was estimated at US$215 million. WHO is involved in more than 60 research networks/partnerships and often WHO itself is the network host. Using the DALY model, 84% of the funding WHO allocates to research goes to DALY Type I diseases (communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional diseases which represents 40% of DALY. 4% is allocated to Daly Type II (non-communicable diseases which contributes to 48% of DALY. 45% of WHO permanent staff are involved with health research and the WHO's approach to research is predominantly focused on policy, advocacy, health systems and population based research. The Organization principally undertakes secondary research using published data and commissions others to conduct this work through contracts or research grants. This approach is broadly in line with the stated strategy of the Organization. Conclusions The difficulty in undertaking this survey highlights the complexity of obtaining an Organization-wide assessment of research activity in the absence of common standards for research classification, methods for priority setting and a mechanism across WHO, or within the governance of global health research more generally, for managing a research portfolio. This paper presents a strategic birds-eye view of the WHO research portfolio using methodologies that, with further development, may provide the strategic

  17. Covering young adults under the Affordable Care Act: the importance of outreach and Medicaid expansion: findings from the Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey of Young Adults, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara R; Rasmussen, Petra W; Garber, Tracy; Doty, Michelle M

    2013-08-01

    There is concern that many young adults (ages 19--29) will remain without health insurance in 2014 despite the Affordable Care Act's reforms, including subsidized private coverage offered in new state marketplaces and expanded Medicaid eligibility. How things turn out will likely depend on outreach efforts and states' decisions on expanding Medicaid. Commonwealth Fund Health Insurance Tracking Survey data from 2011 and 2013 show increasing awareness among young adults of the 2010 requirement that health plans cover children under age 26. Of the estimated 15 million young adults enrolled in a parent's plan in the prior 12 months, 7.8 million would not likely have been eligible to enroll prior to the law. Still, only 27 percent of 19-to-29-year-olds are aware of the marketplaces. Meanwhile, most uninsured young adults living below poverty will not have access to subsidized public or private insurance in states opting out of the Medicaid expansion.

  18. Osler and the infected letter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ambrose, Charles T

    2005-01-01

    .... The dissemination of anthrax spores in the US mail in 2001 was a recent example. In 1901, two medical journals reported outbreaks of smallpox presumably introduced by letters contaminated with variola viruses...

  19. Letter from the Friends Chairman

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Letter from the Friends Chairman Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents ... FNLM Chairman Paul Rogers converse at a recent Friends function at the National Library of Medicine. Photo ...

  20. The Style of Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kai

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the application of Systemic Functional Granunar (SFG) to the analysis of English Business Letters (EBL). With China's opening up to the outside, especially its entrance into WTO, international business is becoming more and more popular. Most of the transactions in international business are discussed in detail through airmail letters, telegrams, telexes, faxes or E-mails.As a world language, English is used widely in the negotiation of international businesses. Writing a piece of effective English Business Letter is of great importance. As a medium between the business partners, EBL affects the interaction and negotiation between them. This article is intended to seek the linguistic characteristics of business letters and prove that the theories of SFG can be used to analyze EBL discourse and they are actually effective.

  1. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  2. Readability of standard appointment letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel M; Gilchrist, Anne

    2010-06-01

    Introduction and aims The first contact a clinical service has with a patient is often an appointment letter and thus it is important that this letter is written in a way which is accessible. One concern is to write in language which is easily able to be read by the majority of recipients. A simple initial way to assess this is by using measures of readability of text.Methods We applied measures to examine the readability of appointment and administrative letters sent to young people by clinicians in the Young People's Department at the Royal Cornhill Hospital in Aberdeen.Results Many letters were unlikely to be understood by our youngest patients. We revised the letters to meet an agreed standard of readability, and agreed their routine use within the team. All letters were significantly improved on standard measures of readability and were preferred by patients.Conclusions The methods used are feasible, easily available and may be helpful to clinicians working in other specialties to improve the level of readability of written communication. This will help patients and families in their first contact with any clinical service.

  3. Resource Letter HEPP-1: History of elementary-particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovis, R.C. (Department of Physics, Clark Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (USA)); Kragh, H. (TISK Project, Roskilde University Centre, Postbox 260, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark))

    1991-09-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature on the history of modern elementary-particle physics. Histories that treat developments from the 1930s through the 1980s are focused on and a sampling is included of the historiography covering the period c. 1890--1930, the prehistory of elementary-particle physics as a discipline. Also included are collections of scientific papers, which might be especially valuable to individuals who wish to undertake historical research on particular scientists or subfields of elementary-particle physics. The introduction presents some statistical data and associated references for elementary-particle physics and surveys historiographical approaches and issues that are represented in historical accounts in the bibliography. All references are assigned a rating of E (Elementary), I (Intermediate), or A (Advanced) based on their technical or conceptual difficulty or their appropriateness for a person attempting a graduated study of the history of modern particle physics. That is, items labeled E are suitable for the layman or would be fundamental to a beginning exploration of the history of particle physics, whereas items labeled A are technically demanding (mathematically, historiographically, or philosophically) or would be most appropriate for specialized or advanced examinations of various topics.

  4. Letter from the editor

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas J., Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Dear readers and contributors of the Earth Sciences Research Journal,Thanks again to be part of this interesting professional journal. With pretty proud I want to present this new issue (17:1, June-2013) with interesting research products coming from Antarctic continent,Mexico, Botswana, India, Turkey, Nigeria and Iran. Currently, ESRJ is covered in the top scientificIndex and Bibliographic Database as Academic Search Complete, DOAJ, Fuente Académica, GeoRef,Scopus, ISI web of Knowledge, Lati...

  5. Letter Writing: A Tool for Counselor Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Rachel M.

    2008-01-01

    Letter writing is an integral component of narrative therapy practice. In addition to the benefits of letter writing in counseling practice, letter writing may hold interesting possibilities for use in counselor education. This article provides a brief review of the benefits of letter writing in counseling practice and discusses the potential use…

  6. Essay: Physical Review Letters; Sam Goudsmit's Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Robert K

    2008-01-18

    Sam Goudsmit implemented his vision of converting the Letters section of Physical Review into a distinct journal fifty years ago. Physical Review Letters was designed to publish "only papers that really deserve rapid communication." The new journal became so successful with physicists throughout the world that Physical Review Letters now publishes 3500 Letters per year.

  7. Unit 2: Application Letters & The Job Interview

    OpenAIRE

    Aleson Carbonell, Marian

    2007-01-01

    Unit 2a_ Letters of Application and the CV: Reading the employment section. Unit 2b_Letters of Application and the CV:Writing Letters and the Job Hunting Process. Unit 2c_ Letters of Application and the CV: The Job Interview.

  8. Harvard Education Letter. Volume 24, Number 6, November-December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, Caroline, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Harvard Education Letter" is published bimonthly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education. This issue of "Harvard Education Letter" contains the following articles: (1) When Worlds Collide: Universal PreK Brings New Challenges for Public Elementary Schools (David McKay Wilson); (2) Answers and Questions: Schools Survey Their Students--and…

  9. The New Scarlet Letter: Student Perceptions of the Accounting Profession after Enron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mimi; Kreuze, Jerry; Langsam, Sheldon

    2004-01-01

    Recent scandals have tarnished the integrity of the accounting profession, marking it with a modern version of the scarlet letter "A," which represented disgrace in Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter." In this study, the authors surveyed college business students on their perceptions of the accounting profession and examined how it can…

  10. The New Scarlet Letter: Student Perceptions of the Accounting Profession after Enron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mimi; Kreuze, Jerry; Langsam, Sheldon

    2004-01-01

    Recent scandals have tarnished the integrity of the accounting profession, marking it with a modern version of the scarlet letter "A," which represented disgrace in Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter." In this study, the authors surveyed college business students on their perceptions of the accounting profession and examined how it can…

  11. Effects of Letter-Identification Training on Letter Naming in Prereading Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Schmidt, Anna C.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2013-01-01

    Three prereading children who named 0 to 3 of 20 targeted letters were taught to select the 20 printed letters when they heard spoken letter names. For all participants, letter-identification training resulted in naming for the majority of letters.

  12. Symbolism in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑文良

    2005-01-01

    A famous writer in American Renaissance, Nathaniel Hawthorne was deeply influenced by three thoughts, Puritanism consciousness, transcendental philosophy and transcendentalism .Novel The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most remarkable masterpiece. It thoroughly response to people's spirit wreck of Puritanism and unbridled pursuit for happy life. Meanwhile, The Scarlet Letter also makes Nathanael Hawthorne known all around the world. Hawthorne uses the symbolism so skilfful that it enhances the artistic effects of his work greatly. This paper researches the symbolism in this novel from the following aspects: the changing symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter, the names of the major characters and many objects that are described in the novel to make the symbolism clear to the readers.

  13. Symbolism in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑文良

    2005-01-01

    A famous writer in American Renaissance, Nathaniel Hawthorne was deeply influenced by three thoughts, Puritanism consciousness, transcendental philosophy and transcendentalism .Novel The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most remarkable masterpiece. It thoroughly response to people's spirit wreck of Puritanism and unbridled pursuit for happy life. Meanwhile, The Scarlet Letter also makes Nathaniel Hawthorne known all around the world. Hawthorne uses the symbolism so skillful that it enhances the artistic effects of his work greatly. This paper researches the symbolism in this novel from the following aspects: the changing symbolic meaning of the scarlet letter, the names of the major characters and many objects that are described in the novel to make the symbolism clear to the readers.

  14. Understanding uncertainties in non-linear population trajectories: a Bayesian semi-parametric hierarchical approach to large-scale surveys of coral cover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Vercelloni

    Full Text Available Recently, attempts to improve decision making in species management have focussed on uncertainties associated with modelling temporal fluctuations in populations. Reducing model uncertainty is challenging; while larger samples improve estimation of species trajectories and reduce statistical errors, they typically amplify variability in observed trajectories. In particular, traditional modelling approaches aimed at estimating population trajectories usually do not account well for nonlinearities and uncertainties associated with multi-scale observations characteristic of large spatio-temporal surveys. We present a Bayesian semi-parametric hierarchical model for simultaneously quantifying uncertainties associated with model structure and parameters, and scale-specific variability over time. We estimate uncertainty across a four-tiered spatial hierarchy of coral cover from the Great Barrier Reef. Coral variability is well described; however, our results show that, in the absence of additional model specifications, conclusions regarding coral trajectories become highly uncertain when considering multiple reefs, suggesting that management should focus more at the scale of individual reefs. The approach presented facilitates the description and estimation of population trajectories and associated uncertainties when variability cannot be attributed to specific causes and origins. We argue that our model can unlock value contained in large-scale datasets, provide guidance for understanding sources of uncertainty, and support better informed decision making.

  15. Understanding uncertainties in non-linear population trajectories: a Bayesian semi-parametric hierarchical approach to large-scale surveys of coral cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercelloni, Julie; Caley, M Julian; Kayal, Mohsen; Low-Choy, Samantha; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, attempts to improve decision making in species management have focussed on uncertainties associated with modelling temporal fluctuations in populations. Reducing model uncertainty is challenging; while larger samples improve estimation of species trajectories and reduce statistical errors, they typically amplify variability in observed trajectories. In particular, traditional modelling approaches aimed at estimating population trajectories usually do not account well for nonlinearities and uncertainties associated with multi-scale observations characteristic of large spatio-temporal surveys. We present a Bayesian semi-parametric hierarchical model for simultaneously quantifying uncertainties associated with model structure and parameters, and scale-specific variability over time. We estimate uncertainty across a four-tiered spatial hierarchy of coral cover from the Great Barrier Reef. Coral variability is well described; however, our results show that, in the absence of additional model specifications, conclusions regarding coral trajectories become highly uncertain when considering multiple reefs, suggesting that management should focus more at the scale of individual reefs. The approach presented facilitates the description and estimation of population trajectories and associated uncertainties when variability cannot be attributed to specific causes and origins. We argue that our model can unlock value contained in large-scale datasets, provide guidance for understanding sources of uncertainty, and support better informed decision making.

  16. THE POWER OF LOWERCASE LETTERS IN READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdevs GÜNEŞ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the most superior way of obtaining knowledge is reading. Reading gives direction to the individual's language, cognitive, social skills and future. For this reason, great importance is given to the teaching of reading. The teaching of reading is carried out based on two basic skills including word recognition and comprehension. In the word recognition process, appearance of the letters the shapes of the wordswritten in uppercase or lowercase letters are effective. Brain research reveal that the words written in small letters more quickly recognized and understood. Based on the recognition of words written in capital letters, small letters become stronger and they are recognised easier than the capital letters. For this reason, a text written in small letter is read more quickly than in capital letters. In addition, text in lowercase letters makes to examine all the details of the text, in-depth awareness and understanding. Small letters are in the process of visual recognition, attention, and remember the rule affects reading, seeing, understanding, and accelerates the configuration tasks in mind. This situation makes the use of lowercase letters in advertising. The advertising in small letters and logos were more easily recognized and remembered. Therefore, in order to increase strength of association big companies and brands, are used lowercase letters. In reading activities taking these results into well known and necessary precautions should be taken about lowercase letters.

  17. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2010-05-01

    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  18. Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Elena

    2008-01-01

    This resource letter is designed to guide students, educators, and researchers through (some of) the literature on black holes. Both the physics and astrophysics of black holes are discussed. Breadth has been emphasized over depth, and review articles over primary sources. We include resources ranging from non-technical discussions appropriate for broad audiences to technical reviews of current research. Topics addressed include classification of stationary solutions, perturbations and stability of black holes, numerical simulations, collisions, the production of gravity waves, black hole thermodynamics and Hawking radiation, quantum treatments of black holes, black holes in both higher and lower dimensions, and connections to nuclear and condensed matter physics. On the astronomical end, we also cover the physics of gas accretion onto black holes, relativistic jets, gravitationally red-shifted emission lines, evidence for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems and super-massive black holes at the centers...

  19. Land Cover Characterization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover mapping. The USGS Anderson system defined the principles for land use and land cover mapping that have been the model both nationally and internationally for more than 20 years. The Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP) is founded on the premise that the Nation's needs for land cover and land use data are diverse and increasingly sophisticated. The range of projects, programs, and organizations that use land cover data to meet their planning, management, development, and assessment objectives has expanded significantly. The reasons for this are numerous, and include the improved capabilities provided by geographic information systems, better and more data-intensive analytic models, and increasing requirements for improved information for decision making. The overall goals of the LCCP are to:

  20. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Marcus, Specht

    2014-01-01

    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense co

  1. Letter to a Young Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Describes, in the form of a letter to a young writer, how the author celebrates the pendulous life of the poet: from arrogance to uncertainty, from misstep to breakthrough. Emphasizes the sustaining force of reading and the need to be initiated into one's own work by the work of others. (SG)

  2. "The Scarlet Letter". [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel "The Scarlet Letter," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that the ending of a novel does not resolve all of the questions that may occur to readers; and that readers may imagine characters living out their lives beyond the ending the author gave to a novel. The main…

  3. Resource Letter ANP-1: Advances in Neutrino Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Maury C.

    2016-12-01

    Three of the twelve fundamental fermions in particle physics are neutrinos. It was long thought that neutrinos might be massless, but we now know through the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations that neutrinos have mass. This resource letter will cover the history of the growth in our knowledge about neutrinos since they were first proposed in the 1930s, and also covers some up the upcoming experiments which will further our understanding of neutrino properties. Results from experiments are described that use various sources of neutrinos including nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, accelerators, and supernovae. In this resource letter, the resources that can be used to trace the past, present, and anticipated future advances in neutrino physics are reviewed.

  4. Effects of stimulus duration and inter-letter spacing on letter-in-string identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouki, Yousri; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    Effects of stimulus duration and inter-letter spacing were studied in a letter-in-string identification paradigm. Participants were shown strings of 5 random consonants (e.g., PGKDM) centered on fixation and were asked to identify the letter that had appeared at a post-cued location. Stimulus duration was manipulated in Experiment 1 (13 ms-91 ms), and inter-letter spacing manipulated in Experiment 2 (for a fixed stimulus duration of 26 ms). We contrasted performance to outer-letters (positions 1 and 5) with non-central inner letters (positions 2 and 4), the first-letter (position 1) with the final letter (position 5), and the central-letter (position 3) with the other inner letters (positions 2 and 4). The outer-letter advantage and the first-letter advantage were present throughout the entire range of exposure durations, whereas the central-letter advantage increased with longer exposures. On the other hand, increased spacing reduced both the outer-letter advantage and the first-letter advantage, whereas it led to a greater central-letter advantage. Changes in acuity and crowding as a function of stimulus exposure and inter-letter spacing, can account for this pattern of results.

  5. Letter to President [Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Lostwood Wilderness area. The letter discusses the...

  6. The Presentation of Courtesy in Business Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文君

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays the tendency of economic globalization in the world brings about increasingly closer international trade cooperation. The business letter has been an important communicative tool in the international trade. A polite business letter could promote the trade and help achieve the business cooperation. Therefore the presentation of courtesy in the business letter is of great significance. This paper presents a study of the courtesy in the business letter from the lexical aspect.

  7. The Long and Short of Genetic Counseling Summary Letters: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenbuck, J; Temme, R; Pond, D; Baker, J; Jarvis, K; Liu, M; Dugan, S; Mendelsohn, N J

    2015-08-01

    Genetic counseling summary letters are intended to reinforce information received during genetic counseling, but little information is available on patient/family responses to these letters. We conducted a case-control study to assess the effectiveness of two different letter formats. Parents of children receiving a new diagnosis were enrolled. The control group (n = 85) received a genetic counseling summary letter in a narrative format, 4-5 pages in length. After the control enrollment period, genetic counselors were trained by a professional medical writer to develop a concise letter format. The case group (n = 64) received a concise letter, approximately 1.5 pages in length, utilizing simple sentences, lay terms, and lists/bullet points. Parents completed a survey 4 weeks after the visit to rate the letter's format, usefulness, and their emotional reaction. Results show that parents in the case group rated the letter more highly (p = 0.023), particularly in the emotional response dimension (rating changes in anxiety, depression, fear, ability to cope, and confidence in response to the letter). Parents in the case group also rated the genetic counseling session more highly (p = 0.039). In the control group, parents without a college degree were more likely to rate the letter as too long and the level of medical detail as too high. In the case group, no significant differences were seen between parents with or without a college degree. These data suggest that a short genetic counseling summary letter is rated higher by parents, and is particularly associated with a more positive emotional reaction. A short letter format highlighting the basic facts related to the genetic condition may be more useful to parents of diverse educational backgrounds, and may support a positive emotional adaptation at the time of a new diagnosis. Genetic counselors may benefit from specific instruction in medical and educational writing.

  8. 7 CFR 3560.709 - Demand letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demand letter. 3560.709 Section 3560.709 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Unauthorized Assistance § 3560.709 Demand letter. (a) If a... repayment schedule, the Agency will send the borrower a demand letter specifying: (1) The amount of...

  9. 31 CFR 29.511 - Demand letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demand letters. 29.511 Section 29.511... Overpayments § 29.511 Demand letters. Except as provided in § 29.516(e), before starting collection action to recover an overpayment, the Benefits Administrator must send a demand letter that informs the debtor in...

  10. Beyond Zebra: Preschoolers' Knowledge about Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Richmond-Welty, E. Daylene; Tincoff, Ruth

    1997-01-01

    Argues that an important type of child knowledge about letters is knowledge of the phonological structure of the letters' names in English. Concludes that learning the alphabet forms the basis for generalizations about the structure of letter names. (22 references) (Author/CK)

  11. Letter names and phonological awareness help children to learn letter-sound relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Martins, Cláudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea

    2011-05-01

    Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds occur either at the beginning (e.g., the letter /be/) or in the middle (e.g., the letter /'eli/) of the letter name. The control group was taught the shapes of the letters but not their names. Then both groups were taught the sounds of the letters. Results showed an advantage for the experimental group, but only for beginning-sound letters. Experiment 2 investigated whether training in phonological awareness could boost the learning of letter sounds, particularly middle-sound letters. In addition to learning the names of beginning- and middle-sound letters, children in the experimental group were taught to categorize words according to rhyme and alliteration, whereas controls were taught to categorize the same words semantically. All children were then taught the sounds of the letters. Results showed that children who were given phonological awareness training found it easier to learn letter sounds than controls. This was true for both types of letters, but especially for middle-sound letters. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Michelangelo, a Tireless Letter Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Charles Fiorato

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A titan of artistic creation, the sculptor-painter-architect Michelangelo was also a tireless letter writer. Five hundred and eighteen of his letters have reached us, stretching from his youth to the eve of his death, but we know that many others have been lost. Written in a kind of familiar Florentine and in a style of minimalist ‘realism’ – which does not prevent the presence of either impetuous polemical flights or pages of literary indulgence – these letters deal mainly with everyday subjects: day-by-day relationships, either endearing or resentful, with his relatives, financial or property matters and, above all, the marriage problems which concerned his nephew Leonardo, the sole heir of the family. But one also discovers in them the artist’s warm feelings of friendship and love, his poetic and aesthetic exchanges, his relationships, often conflictual, with his fellow-artists and patrons as well as his reflections on old age and death. All in all, these letters represent a documentary chronicle of a Florentine bourgeois family and the technical hassle of an entrepreneur’s activity. If, on the one hand, the Carteggio does not shed light either on Michelangelo’s conception of art or the way in which he realized his works, on the other it illustrates certain latent aspects of his projects, as well as of his personality, which was at the same time melancholy and aggressive, surprisingly whole and manifold. This luxuriant correspondence presents, so to speak, a ‘genetic’ interest, since it reveals the hidden face of the brilliant conceiver and creator, of the artist and entrepreneur struggling with the obstacles whose overcoming makes creation possible. 

  13. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T. L.

    2016-01-01

    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect. PMID:27088895

  14. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L

    2016-01-01

    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect.

  15. A bread-and-butter letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道庚

    2007-01-01

    @@ letter作"信"讲是很常用的词,私人信件是personal letter,业务信件叫做business letter,祝贺信是letter of congratulation,邀请信是letter of invitation 等等.还有一种信是a bread-and-butter letter,你知道是什么信吗?我们知道bread and butter是涂有黄油的面包,那么,a bread-and-butter letter就是"黄油面包信"吧?非也.

  16. Documentary Letters of Credit, Legal Nature and Sources of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Hamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt about risky nature of international trade. Such risk can be conceptualized as country risk, transportation risk, customer risk and etc. Documentary Letters of Credit (LC are used as a method of payment in international business for many centuries in order to reduce risk of trade specially when parties are located in different countries and do not have precise information from financial standing of each other. In such occasion LC will reduce the risk of trade by shifting payment obligation from buyer as an individual to a payment guarantee of a bank as a legal entity in return for presentation of complying documents with terms of credit by seller. Familiarity with legal nature and different legal frameworks which govern the international operation of documentary letters of credit can facilitate the process of international trade for businessmen and boost national economies. However, lack of knowledge about them can impose huge losses on international traders. Situation will be more complicated when we understand that there are many internationally recognized legal frameworks which can affect the operation of LC and they get frequently updated in order to address technological and economic developments in global market. In this paper, author tries to answer questions regarding (i what are international legal frameworks governing operation of documentary letters of credit? (ii which areas of LC operation has been covered by them and (iii how do they address the legal questions regarding international operation of documentary letters of credit?

  17. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Despicable Acts Images of children starving to death are always disturbing.After reading a report about how food aid is being stolen and then sold on the market in Somalia I was saddened,sickened and outraged at the same time.A news report from Associated Press said that the food reaches the hungry people in the refugee camps and is then being removed from them with threats of violence and sold for profit.What kind of people are these that we share the planet with.What would make someone

  18. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dear Editor, Ref.To our tele talk to day,I have the honour to write you as you claimed that"Rarely do journalist challenge the Dalai Lama". Dalai Lama is an hypocrite who used to systematically fool people and his principle of peace are too bogus,he must be stopped in the frame work of peace as his fol-lowers are sluggish and kept themself burried under ignorance.

  19. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    EkooniBaje It brings me much joy to write about your article on Lagos(February issue).I felt obliged to use this opportunity to show to China and the rest of the world that there is a home for them in Lagos."Eko o ni Baje" is a popular local slogan in Lagos,Nigeria which simply means "Lagos will not spoil." Recently,the Nigerian community in Beijing and across China together with the Chinese Government celebrated 40 years of bilateral trade relations with China.This is to

  20. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding by Lawrence J. Sacks and by Derek W. Smith Re: articles by R. J. Gillespie and by D. W. Smith D. W. Smith replies Capsaicin Hazard by Paul E. Vorndam Re: article by J. D. Batchelor and B. T. Jones B. T. Jones reply Editor's Note: Hazards Re: JCE 1999, 76, 240 and JCE 2000, 77, 266.

  1. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Give Peace a Chance The African Union(AU) has put forward a four-point formula to end the civil war in Libya.These points are:an immediate ceasefire by all military actions;continued humanitarian aid to those in need;protection of foreigners,including African expatriates living in Libya;and creation of a necessary political reforms agenda to eliminate the causes of the present crisis.This is all a clear indication that the AU is

  2. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Veggie Dream I was interested to read your articles about vegetarianism(January issue) and how it is catching on in China.I always imagined China to be a meat eating country before. Being vegetarian is very misunderstood by many people.I am a vegetarian and it has taught me to be very tolerant.If I go to any banquet,dinner,buffet,cocktail party,or any other event where food is served,I have learned to always try and eat beforehand or at least carry some of my own snacks.Vegetarians are rarely,if ever,catered for at social events,apart from the odd carrot or celery stick,tucked away in between the moun-

  3. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Female Farmers Zambian female farming groups are very happy to hear the news that the government has launched a $500,000 Sustainable Livelihood and Women Empowerment Project. Poor women farmer groups will now at least have some opportunity of getting financial help as well as help with new technology.We women farmers will also get help with training and livestock resources.The project is said to support 1,900 households and is in part of the process toward meeting the millennium goals.

  4. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    My name is Tom R. Chambers. I have been teaching English in Sheng Da College (near Zhengzhou) for two years,and faithfully reading your publication for over a year. I am also a documentary photographer, and I wonder if you'd be interested in publishing my experiences in China. I've created a Sheng Da College/China Travels website, which I feel is aninteresting approach to a travelogue,

  5. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Winter's Entertainment by Terry L. Helser Ammonia-Air Mixtures Can Be Explosive by David Tudela Re: article by S. Toby The author replies Teaching Statistical Methods by Ken Muranaka Re: article by K. Thomasson, S. Lofthus-Merschman, M. Humbert, and N. Kulevsky The author K. A. Thomasson replies Properties of Zeolite A Obtained from Powdered Laundry Detergent by Pamela J. Davis, Herman van Bekkum, and Eric N. Coker Re: article by D. A. Lindquist and A. L. Smoot The author D. A. Lindquist replies Photon-Initiated Hydrogen-Chlorine Reaction by Richard W. Schwenz and Lynn Geiger Re: article by L. M. Egolf and J. T. Keiser (J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, A208) Precision and Accuracy in Measurements by Volker B. E. Thomsen Re: article by R. Treptow The author replies

  6. Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Waste Not,Want Not I enjoy reading your magazine and was moved by your story about the massive famine in the Horn of Africa in your September issue.Last week I attended a banquet for an outgoing official at a popular restaurant in Beijing.We had many different dishes and after we had finished I noticed how much food remained uneaten on the table.After having read your story I thought about how so much is wasted in one place and so much needed in another.How does that happen? I felt guilty and wanted to do something to help at that moment. I think as people sharing the same planet we must be aware of what goes on

  7. LETTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deqyi

    2008-01-01

    Dear degyi, Number two arrived-it looks good-it looks normal Tibet again after all that NEWS NEWS NEWS we had last week about Lhasa.I haven't read it yet-just turning the pages to get first impression. I like the clear printing pictures of mountains Tibetan areas,Tibetan horse,Tibetan sheep grazing at foot of mountains,Tibetan girls in out of this world Tibetan dresses,Tibetan town under Heaven, Kyirong men,rope bridge with streamers.Tibetan history engraved in rock; I like beer-but I don't like beer tac...

  8. Forest Cover Types - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays general forest cover types for the United States. Data were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) composite images...

  9. Pragmatic Functions of Hedges in Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐璐

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present research to explore the hedges used English business letters. Several samples have been chosen to make qualitative study in order to achieve the goal of answering the following question: what are the pragmatic functions of hedges being used in business letters? After analyzing the samples, the conclusion could be came that the employment of hedges in business letters has three pragmatic functions—giving the right amount of information, being polite and self-production.

  10. Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firor, John W.

    1994-06-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

  11. National Land Cover Database: 1986-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 92 (National Land Cover Dataset 1992) is a 21-category land cover classification scheme that has been applied consistently over the conterminous U.S. It is...

  12. National Land Cover Database: 1986-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 92 (National Land Cover Dataset 1992) is a 21-category land cover classification scheme that has been applied consistently over the conterminous U.S. It is...

  13. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  14. Effect of orthographic processes on letter-identity and letter-position encoding in dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eReilhac

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify letters and encode their position is a crucial step of the word recognition process. However and despite their word identification problem, the ability of dyslexic children to encode letter-identity and letter-position within strings was not systematically investigated. This study aimed at filling this gap and further explored how letter identity and letter position encoding is modulated by letter context in developmental dyslexia. For this purpose, a letter-string comparison task was administered to French dyslexic children and two chronological-age (CA and reading-age (RA-matched control groups. Children had to judge whether two successively and briefly presented 4-letter-strings were identical or different. Letter-position and letter-identity were manipulated through the transposition (e.g., RTGM vs. RMGT or substitution of two letters (e.g., TSHF vs. TGHD. Non-words, pseudo-words and words were used as stimuli to investigate sub-lexical and lexical effects on letter encoding. Dyslexic children showed both substitution and transposition detection problems relative to CA controls. A substitution advantage over transpositions was only found for words in dyslexic children whereas it extended to pseudo-words in RA controls and to all type of items in CA controls. Letters were better identified in the dyslexic group when belonging to orthographically familiar strings. Letter position encoding was very impaired in dyslexic children who did not show any word context effect in contrast to CA controls. Overall, the current findings point to a strong letter identity and letter position encoding disorder in developmental dyslexia.

  15. Letters from the Future: Suggestions for Using Letter Writing as a School Counselling Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Hinkle, Michelle Gimenez; Protivnak, Jake J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a school counselling intervention that utilises letters written from the future. Few peer-reviewed articles have addressed the use of letter writing in a school counselling context, and none have focused on the use of letters from the future as a means of school counsellor intervention. The authors present a theoretical…

  16. Disentangling the Developmental Trajectories of Letter Position and Letter Identity Coding Using Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezilas, Yvette; McKague, Meredith; Kohnen, Saskia; Badcock, Nicholas A.; Castles, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Masked transposed-letter (TL) priming effects have been used to index letter position processing over the course of reading development. Whereas some studies have reported an increase in TL priming over development, others have reported a decrease. These findings have led to the development of 2 somewhat contradictory accounts of letter position…

  17. Letter-Name Letter-Sound and Phonological Awareness: Evidence from Greek-Speaking Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolitsis, George; Tafa, Eufimia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the development of letter-sound and letter-name knowledge and their relation to each other and to various aspects of phonological awareness in a sample of Greek kindergarten children who did not know how to read. One hundred twenty children aged 58-69 months were assessed on letter-sound and…

  18. Disentangling the Developmental Trajectories of Letter Position and Letter Identity Coding Using Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezilas, Yvette; McKague, Meredith; Kohnen, Saskia; Badcock, Nicholas A.; Castles, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Masked transposed-letter (TL) priming effects have been used to index letter position processing over the course of reading development. Whereas some studies have reported an increase in TL priming over development, others have reported a decrease. These findings have led to the development of 2 somewhat contradictory accounts of letter position…

  19. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2014v19n1p158 Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  20. Cover Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuning; Ruben; Lehn; Renz; Garcia; Ksenofontov; Gütlich; Wegelius; Rissanen

    2000-07-17

    The cover picture shows how both, fine arts and science, avail themselves of a system of intertwined symbolic and iconic languages. They make use of a common set of abstracted signs to report on their results. Thus, already in 1925, Wassily Kandinsky painted a masterpiece (bottom), which now, 75 years later, might be regarded as a blueprint for a scientific project. In his painting, Kandinsky pictured a grid-shaped sign that resembles in effect an actual molecular switch. Apparently following an enigmatic protocol, the groups of Lehn and Gütlich (see p. 2504 ff. for more details) constructed a grid-type inorganic architecture that operates as a three-level magnetic switch (center) triggered by three external perturbations (p, T, hnu). The switching principle is based on the spin-crossover phenomenon of Fe(II) ions and can be monitored by Mössbauer spectroscopy (left) and magnetic measurements (rear). Maybe not by chance, the English translation of the title of the painting "signs" is a homonym of "science", since both presented works are a product of the insatiable curiosity of man and his untiring desire to recognize his existence.

  1. Land Use and Land Cover, WI Agricultural Statistics Service (WASS) WI Cropland Data Layer. Agriculture and non-ag land cover categories based on survey data (ground truth), satellite imagery classification, FSA common land unit, and 2001 National Land Cover dataset., Published in 2008, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Land Use and Land Cover dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2008. It is...

  2. From Numbers to Letters: Feedback Regularization in Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Nicola; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Marin-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Word reading in alphabetic languages involves letter identification, independently of the format in which these letters are written. This process of letter "regularization" is sensitive to word context, leading to the recognition of a word even when numbers that resemble letters are inserted among other real letters (e.g., M4TERI4L). The present…

  3. Statistical Learning, Letter Reversals, and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Gordon, Jessica; Boada, Richard; Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2014-01-01

    Reversal errors play a prominent role in theories of reading disability. We examined reversal errors in the writing of letters by 5- to 6-year-old children. Of the 130 children, 92 had a history of difficulty in producing speech sounds, a risk factor for reading problems. Children were more likely to reverse letter forms that face left, such as…

  4. Essay: the origin of physical review letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, George L

    2008-11-21

    When Sam Goudsmit, then Editor of Physical Review, decided to publish the Letters separately, he asked me to become Assistant Editor of the new journal. I wound up staying at PRL for a quarter of a century. I describe some of the new techniques we developed to speed up review and production so that Letters could be quickly published.

  5. 24 CFR 241.1010 - Feasibility letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Feasibility letter. 241.1010 Section 241.1010 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1010 Feasibility letter. (a) Request for study. The owner may request...

  6. Letters to the Editor: What Is Stuttering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yairi, Ehud; Watkins, Ruth; Ambrose, Nicoline; Paden, Elaine

    2001-01-01

    The authors of a research report (1999) on the diagnosis of stuttering in young children respond to a critical letter by questioning the accuracy, validity, credibility, and internal consistency of the letter writer's criticisms. The reply goes on to clarify the evaluation of stuttering-like disfluencies and single-syllable word repetitions in…

  7. Writing Back and Forth: Class Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulwiler, Toby

    1997-01-01

    Recommends that college teachers and their students exchange weekly letters, in either paper or electronic form, as a familiar and friendly means of communication. The method increases dialog, suggests rethinking, and encourages rewriting while keeping the stakes low. Students respond well to the assignment. Samples of student letters and comments…

  8. Feminist Criticism in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏福林; 何志燕

    2007-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter written by Nathaniel Hawthorne is a great book. Through feminist criticism we can get how The Scarlet Letter may be read as dramatizing Hester Prynne's spiritual and physical struggle to survive as an individual in a society whose values authorize the privileged power of men.

  9. Genre Analysis of Letters of Complaint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹劲草

    2014-01-01

    This article makes a genre analysis of letter of complaint according to Swales’ theory in hope that some enlightenment wil be provided for the traders in writing letters of complaint in a more efficient way. The study focus on the structural features, grammatical features and lexical features.

  10. Cognitive Determinants of Early Letter Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Suha; Weil-Barais, Annick

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the general cognitive determinants of alphabetic letter knowledge. It involved 60 French kindergarten children (mean age: five years six months). Two test batteries were used: the CMS to evaluate general cognitive abilities (memory, attention, and learning), and the LKT to assess letter knowledge and its various…

  11. Design Improvements for Frequently Misrecognized Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Larson, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    To enhance typeface legibility we studied how to improve the design of individual letters. Three diff erent fonts were created, each containing several variations of the most frequently misrecognized letters. These variations were tested both with distance and short exposure methodologies. Creati...

  12. Prefix Codes: Equiprobable Words, Unequal Letter Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Golin, Mordecai; Young, Neal E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a near-linear-time algorithm for a variant of Huffman coding, in which the letters may have non-uniform lengths (as in Morse code), but with the restriction that each word to be encoded has equal probability. [See also ``Huffman Coding with Unequal Letter Costs'' (2002).

  13. Reflection on Letter from Birmingham Jail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远艳; 罗瑞

    2015-01-01

    "Letter from Birmingham Jail" is written by Martin Luther King,Jr.,who is a famous American civil rights leader.This essay attempts to analyze three major arguments in this letter to arouse people’s consciousness to cherish and protect our freedom.

  14. Reflection on Letter from Birmingham Jail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远艳; 罗瑞

    2015-01-01

    Letter from Birmingham Jail” is written by Martin Luther King,Jr.,who is a famous American civil rights leader.This essay attempts to analyze three major arguments in this letter to arouse people’s consciousness to cherish and protect our freedom.

  15. Resource Letter PTG-1: Precision Tests of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Will, Clifford M

    2010-01-01

    This resource letter provides an introduction to some of the main current topics in experimental tests of general relativity as well as to some of the historical literature. It is intended to serve as a guide to the field for upper-division undergraduate and graduate students, both theoretical and experimental, and for workers in other fields of physics who wish learn about experimental gravity. The topics covered include alternative theories of gravity, tests of the principle of equivalence, solar-system and binary-pulsar tests, searches for new physics in gravitational arenas, and tests of gravity in new regimes, involving astrophysics and gravitational radiation.

  16. Global Land Cover Characterization: 1992-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long history of involvement in multi-scale, and multi-temporal land cover characterization and mapping of the world. During...

  17. Evolutionary theory in letters to the editor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Eric Orion; Lowe, Clayton Cory

    2015-05-01

    This research note presents the results of a content analysis of 234 letters to the editors that discuss evolutionary theory and were published in American newspapers. We find that letters to the editor both support and hinder the cause of teaching evolutionary theory in American secondary schools. On the one hand, anti-evolutionary theory messages are marginalized in the letters section. This marginalization signals a low level of legitimacy for creationism. It might also contribute to the sense of tension that sustains creationist identities. On the other hand, relatively few letters explicitly note the fact that scientists or the scientific community accept evolution. Interestingly, the obscuration of the scientific community's support for evolutionary theory occurs both in letters supporting and opposing evolutionary theory. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Letter identification and the neural image classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B; Ahumada, Albert J

    2015-02-12

    Letter identification is an important visual task for both practical and theoretical reasons. To extend and test existing models, we have reviewed published data for contrast sensitivity for letter identification as a function of size and have also collected new data. Contrast sensitivity increases rapidly from the acuity limit but slows and asymptotes at a symbol size of about 1 degree. We recast these data in terms of contrast difference energy: the average of the squared distances between the letter images and the average letter image. In terms of sensitivity to contrast difference energy, and thus visual efficiency, there is a peak around ¼ degree, followed by a marked decline at larger sizes. These results are explained by a Neural Image Classifier model that includes optical filtering and retinal neural filtering, sampling, and noise, followed by an optimal classifier. As letters are enlarged, sensitivity declines because of the increasing size and spacing of the midget retinal ganglion cell receptive fields in the periphery.

  19. Critical contrastive rhetoric: The influence of L2 letter writing instruction on L1letter writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Fakharzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed critical contrastive rhetoric to investigate the L2 to L1 transfer of organizational pattern and directness level of speech acts in business complaint letters. By examining the L1 complaint letters of 30 tourism university students in two phases of study, pre and post instruction of English complaint letter, the study revealed that the rhetorical organization of Persian letters are in a state of hybridity. The post instruction comparison of letters, however, showed a tendency towards applying English conventions both in organization and directness level of complaint speech act in the L1 complaint letters. The results also revealed that after instruction the expert in the field of tourism viewed some letters as inappropriate in terms of politeness which is reflected through some lexical items.

  20. Differences between English and Chinese Sales Promotion Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Yu-yan

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to figure out the differences in English and Chinese sales promotion letters by analyzing ten selected letters from business writing books and websites, which might provide more valuable information for businessmen in their sales promotion letter writing.

  1. Congratulations on Acta Metallurgica Sinica-English Letters being indexed/abstracted in SCIE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Acta Metallurgica Sinica-English Letters is covered in Thomson Reuter's products and services. Beginning with V.22 (1) 2009, this publication is indexed and abstracted in: Science Citation Index Expanded (also known as SciSearch; Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition; Current Contents)/Engineering Computing and Technology.

  2. Statistical mechanics of letters in words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Greg J; Bialek, William

    2010-06-01

    We consider words as a network of interacting letters, and approximate the probability distribution of states taken on by this network. Despite the intuition that the rules of English spelling are highly combinatorial and arbitrary, we find that maximum entropy models consistent with pairwise correlations among letters provide a surprisingly good approximation to the full statistics of words, capturing ∼92% of the multi-information in four-letter words and even "discovering" words that were not represented in the data. These maximum entropy models incorporate letter interactions through a set of pairwise potentials and thus define an energy landscape on the space of possible words. Guided by the large letter redundancy we seek a lower-dimensional encoding of the letter distribution and show that distinctions between local minima in the landscape account for ∼68% of the four-letter entropy. We suggest that these states provide an effective vocabulary which is matched to the frequency of word use and much smaller than the full lexicon.

  3. Letters are functional in word identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, D W; Klitzke, D

    1977-05-01

    Are words identified as if they are single-unit patterns, or does letter processing mediate word identification? In the main, accuracy experiments have been found to support the mediated model, whereas recent reaction time experiments have been interpreted in favor of the single-unit pattern hypothesis. In the latter experiments, subjects could search for a target word in a test word as quickly as for a target letter in a test letter. The analysis of these results, however, did not consider the role of parallel processing of individual letters, lateral masking, limited capacity, and similarity between the target and test alternatives. In the present experiment, the advantage of parallel processing of letters in words was attenuated by manipulating similarity. The reaction times showed a processing advantage for single letters over words. This result as well as all of the previous results can be described in terms of processing mechanisms of the mediated model, the same mechanisms that have already been utilized to describe the accuracy of letter and word identification in tachistoscopic experiments.

  4. A red-letter day !

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Today is a red-letter day for the LHC and CERN as a beam of protons has travelled around the LHC ring for the very first time! The start of LHC operation marks the end of a long period in which you have given your all, and this first particle beam circulating in the accelerator now paves the way for discoveries that will open up a whole new field of knowledge. The history of the LHC began in 1984 with a debate on the possible objectives of a future accelerator, based on the state of our knowledge at that time. The CERN Council then approved the single-stage construction of the LHC in 1996, giving the go-ahead for the work that has now reached completion. For the past twelve years, physicists, engineers and technicians from CERN and its associated institutes have been engaged in constructing the three pillars of the LHC: the accelerator (including the upgrade of the existing accelerator chain), the four experiments, and the computing ...

  5. Culture and subculture in transactional letter writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the relative contributions of subculture membership and mother-tongue status/target culture membership in writing transactional letters. We examined the letters accompanying articles initially submitted for publication by 26 NSE and 23 NNSE academics, and compared them...... to use appropriate language. The native non-professionals controlled some appropriate phrases, and were able to use appropriate vocabulary, but had very little idea of the rhetoric, while the non-native non-professionals produced grammatically competent letters that were inappropriate in both rhetoric...

  6. A letter from Janet Benshoof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benshoof, J

    1997-06-06

    This letter to readers of "Reproductive Freedom News" criticizes the American Medical Association's (AMA) Board of Trustees for endorsing a bill in the US Senate that would ban "partial-birth" abortions and allow the imprisonment of physicians who perform the procedure. The decision of the Board of Trustees was made in total disregard to the AMA bylaws, because the decision ran counter to the recommendations of an AMA task force that concluded that the AMA should take no action on this bill but seek to preserve the ability of physicians to use their discretion in providing medical care and the viability line in abortion legislation. The proposed criminal ban fails to contain a viability line; provides no exception to protect a woman's health, medical choice, or safety; and provides no exception in cases of fetal anomaly. The action by the Board of Trustees seriously undermines the work of the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy and gives abortion opponents ammunition to mount a serious challenge to the Roe vs. Wade decision. The AMA endorsement goes beyond simply stating that the procedure should never be used; it endorses giving physicians who perform such abortions, for whatever reason, prison terms. This position undermines two critical principles long upheld by the AMA: 1) that physicians must be able to carry out their medical responsibilities free from government interference and 2) that women have a fundamental right to decide on the appropriate provision of abortion services within their physician-patient relationship. The damage from this endorsement can and should be undone by the AMA's House of Delegates at their meeting in June 1997.

  7. Gender bias found in recommendation letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-11-01

    Female postdoctoral fellowship applicants are half as likely as their male counterparts to receive glowing recommendation letters, according to a study by researchers at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO).

  8. Army Response Letter - signed February 3, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    A response letter to Ms. Hanmer regarding her request related to a permit application being considered by the New Orleans District Corps of Engineers for a project proposed by Plantation Landing Resort, Inc.

  9. Army Response Letter - signed April 27, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army response letter regarding a request to elevate the decision of the New England Division Engineer (DE) to issue a permit to the Maine Department of Transportation to construct a marine terminal at Sears Island.

  10. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter U

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 7 of 7 ... African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter U ... English and other European languages and literatures, Chinese and other Asian languages and ... UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology.

  11. Why doctors do not answer referral letters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the obvious benefits to patient care, answers to referral letters .... value on brevity and educational value than specialists.9 As brevity is preferred, PHC doctors ... suggested that personal contact plays an important role in the decision.

  12. Scott's Lake Excavation Letters on Human Remains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is two letters written about the repatriation of Santee Indian human remains and funerary objects to Santee Sioux Tribe. Includes an inventory of human remains...

  13. 2013 FEMA Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  14. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes original research, case report/case series, letter to the editor, reviews of health ... Democracy & Development: Journal of West African Affairs ... Civic organisations and the new and innovative programmes, activities, and ...

  15. Stochastic Flips on Two-letter Words

    CERN Document Server

    Bodini, Olivier; Regnault, Damien

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple Markov process inspired by the problem of quasicrystal growth. It acts over two-letter words by randomly performing \\emph{flips}, a local transformation which exchanges two consecutive different letters. More precisely, only the flips which do not increase the number of pairs of consecutive identical letters are allowed. Fixed-points of such a process thus perfectly alternate different letters. We show that the expected number of flips to converge towards a fixed-point is bounded by $O(n^3)$ in the worst-case and by $O(n^{5/2}\\ln{n})$ in the average-case, where $n$ denotes the length of the initial word.

  16. Letter to President [Valentine National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge Wilderness area....

  17. Due lettere di Friedrich Hölderlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Hölderlin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Here's the first italian translation of two letters by Friedrich Hölderlin, written between November 1798 and January 1799 and adressed respectively to Christian Ludwig Neuffer (the first one and to Hölderlin's youngest brother Karl (the second one. Aim of these two letters is to clarify and to take a deeper look into the notion of lebendiges, the “living element”, which is at the heart of Hölderlins' poetics. Translated by Mariagrazia Portera.

  18. Attentional Processing of Letter Strings by Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Virginie; Siéroff, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Reading a letter string requires attentional orienting toward the beginning of the string (left-dominant orientation), followed by orienting along the string. These attentional-orienting processes differ according to the lexicality of the letter string: Sequential processes apply when reading nonwords or pseudowords, while words can be processed more globally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of these attentional processes involved in reading. We conducted two experiments in 6- (first grade), 7- (second grade), and 9-year-old (fourth grade) children, using a procedure that required the detection of a letter (Experiment 1) or a nonletter (Experiment 2) target in a string of five characters. The target character could occur in the second (left) or fourth (right) position in the string. Results showed an advantage for left nonletter targets as early as age 6 and of left letter targets as early as age 7. In 6-year-olds, only good readers detected a left letter target faster than a right letter target; others detected a right letter target faster. Thus, dominant orienting toward the beginning of the letter string is not fully developed in children before the second year of reading. A possibility is that beginning readers have difficulties inhibiting an attention-orienting bias toward the right visual field in linguistic tasks. The results also showed that the lexicality effect on these attentional processes develops gradually until the fourth year of reading. We believe that the procedure used in this study will be very valuable for evaluating attentional difficulties during reading acquisition.

  19. On the Commercial Features of Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬娜

    2008-01-01

    Effective business communication is the"lifeblood"of every organization and a key to success in your business career. Generally,each trade or each business achieves an agreement and then draws up a contract after buyer and seller exchange business letter. Thus,a successful business letter is one of the most personal method to promote a business career. The paper informs how to write suc-cessful correspondence.

  20. Symbols of Pearl in The Scarlet letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Aiqing

    2002-01-01

    This article evaluates The Scatet Letter with the help of analyzing the symbolic meanings of Pearl. In this article, the author attempts to propose the symbols of Pearl from four aspects: the function of the letter, the symbol of Hester's distillation of instinct;the symbol of freedom; the symbol of consummation. From the interpretation of the symbols of Pearl, it has been proved that Pearl becomes Hawthorne' s best vehicle to convey his attitudes toward Puritanism.

  1. On Coding Non-Contiguous Letter Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric eDandurand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the hypothesis that printed word identification initially involves the parallel mapping of visual features onto location-specific letter identities, we analyze the type of information that would be involved in optimally mapping this location-specific orthographic code onto a location-invariant lexical code. We assume that some intermediate level of coding exists between individual letters and whole words, and that this involves the representation of letter combinations. We then investigate the nature of this intermediate level of coding given the constraints of optimality. This intermediate level of coding is expected to compress data while retaining as much information as possible about word identity. Information conveyed by letters is a function of how much they constrain word identity and how visible they are. Optimization of this coding is a combination of minimizing resources (using the most compact representations and maximizing information. We show that in a large proportion of cases, non-contiguous letter sequences contain more information than contiguous sequences, while at the same time requiring less precise coding. Moreover, we found that the best predictor of human performance in orthographic priming experiments was within-word ranking of conditional probabilities, rather than average conditional probabilities. We conclude that from an optimality perspective, readers learn to select certain contiguous and non-contiguous letter combinations as information that provides the best cue to word identity.

  2. A genome-wide BAC end-sequence survey of sugarcane elucidates genome composition, and identifies BACs covering much of the euchromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsoo; Lee, Tae-Ho; Compton, Rosana O; Robertson, Jon S; Pierce, Gary J; Paterson, Andrew H

    2013-01-01

    BAC-end sequences (BESs) of hybrid sugarcane cultivar R570 are presented. A total of 66,990 informative BESs were obtained from 43,874 BAC clones. Similarity search using a variety of public databases revealed that 13.5 and 42.8 % of BESs match known gene-coding and repeat regions, respectively. That 11.7 % of BESs are still unmatched to any nucleotide sequences in the current public databases despite the fact that a close relative, sorghum, is fully sequenced, indicates that there may be many sugarcane-specific or lineage-specific sequences. We found 1,742 simple sequence repeat motifs in 1,585 BESs, spanning 27,383 bp in length. As simple sequence repeat markers derived from BESs have some advantages over randomly generated markers, these may be particularly useful for comparing BAC-based physical maps with genetic maps. BES and overgo hybridization information was used for anchoring sugarcane BAC clones to the sorghum genome sequence. While sorghum and sugarcane have extensive similarity in terms of genomic structure, only 2,789 BACs (6.4 %) could be confidently anchored to the sorghum genome at the stringent threshold of having both-end information (BESs or overgos) within 300 Kb. This relatively low rate of anchoring may have been caused in part by small- or large-scale genomic rearrangements in the Saccharum genus after two rounds of whole genome duplication since its divergence from the sorghum lineage about 7.8 million years ago. Limiting consideration to only low-copy matches, 1,245 BACs were placed to 1,503 locations, covering ~198 Mb of the sorghum genome or about 78 % of the estimated 252 Mb of euchromatin. BESs and their analyses presented here may provide an early profile of the sugarcane genome as well as a basis for BAC-by-BAC sequencing of much of the basic gene set of sugarcane.

  3. Letter Position Dyslexia in Arabic: From Form to Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Haddad-Hanna, Manar

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the reading of 11 Arabic-speaking individuals with letter position dyslexia (LPD), and the effect of letter form on their reading errors. LPD is a peripheral dyslexia caused by a selective deficit to letter position encoding in the orthographic-visual analyzer, which results in migration of letters within words, primarily of middle letters. The Arabic orthography is especially interesting for the study of LPD because Arabic letters have different forms in different positions in the word. As a result, some letter position errors require letter form change. We compared the rate of letter migrations that change letter form with migrations that do not change letter form in 10 Arabic-speaking individuals with developmental LPD, and one bilingual Arabic and Hebrew-speaking individual with acquired LPD. The results indicated that the participants made 40% letter position errors in migratable words when the resulting word included the letters in the same form, whereas migrations that changed letter form almost never occurred. The error rate of the Arabic-Hebrew bilingual reader was smaller in Arabic than in Hebrew. However, when only words in which migrations do not change letter form were counted, the rate was similar in Arabic and Hebrew. Hence, whereas orthographies with multiple letter forms for each letter might seem more difficult in some respects, these orthographies are in fact easier to read in some forms of dyslexia. Thus, the diagnosis of LPD in Arabic should consider the effect of letter forms on migration errors, and use only migratable words that do not require letter-form change. The theoretical implications for the reading model are that letter form (of the position-dependent type found in Arabic) is part of the information encoded in the abstract letter identity, and thus affects further word recognition processes, and that there might be a pre-lexical graphemic buffer in which the checking of orthographic well-formedness takes place

  4. 33 CFR 127.009 - Letter of recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Letter of recommendation. 127.009... General § 127.009 Letter of recommendation. After the COTP receives the Letter of Intent under § 127.007(a) or (b), the COTP issues a Letter of Recommendation as to the suitability of the waterway for LNG...

  5. Neural Correlates of Top-Down Letter Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Hongchuan; Rieth, Cory A.; Huber, David E.; Li, Wu; Lee, Kang; Tian, Jie

    2010-01-01

    This fMRI study investigated top-down letter processing with an illusory letter detection task. Participants responded whether one of a number of different possible letters was present in a very noisy image. After initial training that became increasingly difficult, they continued to detect letters even though the images consisted of pure noise,…

  6. Representation of Letter Position in Spelling: Evidence from Acquired Dysgraphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; McCloskey, Michael; Rapp, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The graphemic representations that underlie spelling performance must encode not only the identities of the letters in a word, but also the positions of the letters. This study investigates how letter position information is represented. We present evidence from two dysgraphic individuals, CM and LSS, who perseverate letters when spelling: that…

  7. La lettre d'affaires: Projet de principes d'une methodologie d'apprentissage (The Business Letter: How To Write One).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clijsters, Willy

    Instruction in business letter-writing, particularly in the context of the business French course, is discussed. First, the kinds of business communications (face-to-face, print, and electronic) currently used are surveyed briefly, and a taxonomy of the content of business communication is presented. Conventions of French business letters are then…

  8. Use of a modified journal club and letters to editors to teach critical appraisal skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bart N; Johnson, Claire D

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report the use of a journal club and letter to the editor writing project to teach critical appraisal skills to health sciences students. Data were collected from 22 consecutive classes (n = 907 students) between 1997 and 2003. The program took place in an 11-week evidence-based practice course in the second year of a chiropractic curriculum. After didactic preparation, students participated in several journal club exercises to appraise papers representing specific research designs. Students then critically appraised a recent article of their choice and wrote a critical appraisal essay in the form of a letter to the editor. The project was evaluated through a review of student assessment, an anonymous survey instrument, and the number of letters submitted and published. Assessments of student performance were consistently high, yielding an average score of 23.7 out of 25 possible points on an objective scale. Responses from 277 students completing a survey on their perceptions of the project were positive, indicating that the goals of the project were being met. Over the 7-year period, approximately 450 letters were written, 12 were submitted for publication, and 10 were published. The results of this study suggest that the use of a journal club and letter-to-the-editor writing project may provide a means by which health care students can gain skills in critical appraisal. Further investigation into these methods should be undertaken.

  9. Letters of Recommendation: Association with Interviewers' Perceptions and Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, VyVy N

    2017-06-01

    Objective Letters of recommendation (LORs) are an inescapable aspect of the application process. Standardized LORs (SLORs) have been developed and compared with traditional narrative LORs (NLORs). This study investigated whether there was a difference in degree of association between LOR types and face-to-face interviews. Interviewer preference for LOR was anonymously surveyed. Study Design Survey. Setting Single-institution otolaryngology residency program, 1 year before and 4 years after introduction of SLORs. Subjects and Methods Residency interviewers indicated on a visual analog scale how well their impression of an applicant compared between the LOR and the face-to-face interview. Interviewers assessed each applicant, each year, based on LOR type. Results Of 2573 assessments, 964 were collected (37.5% response rate), including 927 responses related to NLORs, 561 to SLORs, and 316 to medical student performance evaluations (ie, dean's letters). The average association of VAS scores between LORs and interviews ranged from 72 to 81 across years and LOR types. Sixty-one percent of interviewers preferred NLORs, and 13% preferred SLORs. Reasons for these preferences included more information provided in NLORs versus faster read time with SLORs. Conclusions Interviewers' perceptions of applicants based on LORs and face-to-face interviews were comparable across LOR types over the last 5 years. For many reasons, the general utility of the LOR remains questionable, and the continued need for it should be critically assessed.

  10. Gambia Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  11. Usage and User Acceptance of Applied Physics Letters Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingoldsby, Timothy C.

    1996-03-01

    Applied Physics Letters Online became the first established physics print journal to appear online in full-text, hyperlinked form effective with January 1996 issues. In partnership with the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC), APL Online at the same time became the first established scientific or engineering journal to appear on the World Wide Web, in addition to being available through OCLC's proprietary Guidon user interface. AIP has now accumulated usage data for more than one year of operation, and has recently completed a survey of its full subscriber base. Usage has steadily increased throughout the year, with subscribers showing a clear preference for the Web version, even though it provides an interface in many ways inferior to OCLC's Guidon. Usage data and subscriber survey results will be presented, and directions for future research in online information delivery will be presented.

  12. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  13. Letter-Transposition Effects Are Not Universal: The Impact of Transposing Letters in Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of letter-transposition in Hebrew in three masked-priming experiments. Hebrew, like English has an alphabetic orthography where sequential and contiguous letter strings represent phonemes. However, being a Semitic language it has a non-concatenated morphology that is based on root derivations. Experiment 1 showed that…

  14. Alphabetic skills in preschool: a preliminary study of letter naming and letter writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfese, Victoria J; Beswick, Jennifer; Molnar, Andrew; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Development of letter naming and writing (skills in writing first name, dictated and copied letters, and dictated and copied numbers) was examined in 79 preschool children (M age = 56 months). Skills were assessed in the fall to determine the status of these procedural skills that are components of alphabetic knowledge at the start of the school year. Children with high letter-naming scores also had high scores on letter writing, including dictated or copied letters and writing some or all of the letters of their names. Letter-naming skills were related to number-writing skills whether the numbers were dictated or copied. The highest writing scores were found for first name writing compared to writing or copying letters and numbers. A focus on the development of procedural knowledge in the preschool period may yield the hopep for impacts on later reading skills that has not been found in curricula emphasizing conceptual knowledge (e.g., knowledge of print concepts, book conventions).

  15. Analysis of reliability of professor recommendation letters based on concordance with self-introduction letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyun

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the concordance between a checklist's categories of professor recommendation letters and characteristics of the self-introduction letter. Checklists of professor recommendation letters were analyzed and classified into cognitive, social, and affective domains. Simple correlation was performed to determine whether the characteristics of the checklists were concordant with those of the self-introduction letter. The difference in ratings of the checklists by pass or fail grades was analyzed by independent sample t-test. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether a pass or fail grade was influenced by ratings on the checklists. The Cronbach alpha value of the checklists was 0.854. Initiative, as an affective domain, in the professor's recommendation letter was highly ranked among the six checklist categories. Self-directed learning in the self-introduction letter was influenced by a pass or fail grade by logistic regression analysis (pprofessor recommendation letters and the sum of all characteristics in the self-introduction letter.

  16. ERP Correlates of Letter Identity and Letter Position Are Modulated by Lexical Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gomez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created…

  17. The Symbolic Significance of The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力

    2007-01-01

    As a great romantic novelist in America in 19th century, Hawthorne was outstanding in handling the application of symbolism. The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most important symbolic novel, which stands as the best work of Hawthorne and one of the indubitable masterpieces of American literature. This thesis aims at the exploration of the usage of the symbolism in the novel. It mainly discusses the deep symbolic significance of the scarlet letter "A" and the little pearl. The scarlet letter is the central symbol of the novel. Its symbolic meaning changes from 'adultery' to 'able', even 'angelic' in the novel. It also examines the symbolic meanings of little Pearl and some typical natural surroundings such as the jail, the forest, the rosebush and so on.

  18. [Structured electronic consultation letter for shoulder disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloneva, Juha; Oikari, Marjo; Ylinen, Jari; Ingalsuo, Minna; Ilkka, Kunnamo; Ilkka, Kiviranta

    2012-01-01

    Referral to a specialist has a significant influence on management of the patient and costs associated with the treatments. However, development and research of the process by which patients are referred has been almost neglected. Expectations considering the purpose, contents, and timing of the referral of the consulting physician and the consultant do not always meet. A structured, electronic consultation letter was developed to respond this need. Functionality and interactivity are the key elements of the referral, including (1) an electronic referral letter to a specialist, (2) interactive education in clinical examination and management of shoulder disorders, and (3) an instrument of clinical examination and documentation of shoulder disorders.

  19. A bread-and-butter letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道庚

    2007-01-01

    letter作“信”讲是很常用的词,私人信件是personal letter。业务信件叫做business letter,祝贺信是letter of congratulation,邀请信是letter of invitation等等。还有一种信是a bread—and—butter letter,你知道是什么信吗?我们知道bread and butter是涂有黄油的面包,那么,a bread—and—butter leuer就是“黄油面包信”吧?非也。

  20. Traditions of martyrdom in the Ignatian Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fuhrmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The letters of Ignatius represent one of the key texts for the emergence of martyrdom during the second century AD in Christianity. This article is concerned with the question whether Ignatius contributed to a “theology of martyrdom” or whether he rather relied on previous traditions. The author argues, by undertaking an analysis of certain pragmatics and semantics, that the motif of martyrdom is solely used to buttress Ignatius’ claim for authority among his intended addressees by referring to an understanding of martyrdom that has its roots in the New Testament. An identification of the author of the letters with a historical martyr is regarded as unlikely.

  1. Visual and proprioceptive recognition of cursive letters in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinter, Annie; Chartrel, Estelle

    2008-09-01

    Two experiments investigated visual and proprioceptive recognition of cursive letters in young children. In Experiment 1, children aged 3-5 years were asked to recognize a visually presented target letter after a 3s inspection time, from among two distracters: a highly and a moderately similar letter. Visual letter recognition improved rapidly between 3 and 5 years and was a function of the "uniqueness" of letter shape and of letter frequency. In Experiment 2, children aged 4-6 years were asked to recognize a target letter from among 2 distracters, after having traced over the letter in a "blind" condition, with their hand guided by the experimenter. Proprioceptive recognition developed more slowly than visual recognition, and was not a function of letter frequency. The results are discussed in terms of integration versus differentiation of perceptual information, and of the tendency to base recognition on local rather than global similarity.

  2. Representation of Letter Position in Spelling: Evidence from Acquired Dysgraphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; McCloskey, Michael; Rapp, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The graphemic representations that underlie spelling performance must encode not only the identities of the letters in a word, but also the positions of the letters. This study investigates how letter position information is represented. We present evidence from two dysgraphic individuals, CM and LSS, who perseverate letters when spelling: that is, letters from previous spelling responses intrude into subsequent responses. The perseverated letters appear more often than expected by chance in the same position in the previous and subsequent responses. We used these errors to address the question of how letter position is represented in spelling. In a series of analyses we determined how often the perseveration errors produced maintain position as defined by a number of alternative theories of letter position encoding proposed in the literature. The analyses provide strong evidence that the grapheme representations used in spelling encode letter position such that position is represented in a graded manner based on distance from both edges of the word. PMID:20378104

  3. Modern physics letters A special issue on hadrontherapy

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    CERN Courier Review (Jul 8, 2016) : The applications of nuclear and particle physics to medicine have seen extraordinary development since the discovery of X-rays by Röntgen at the end of the 19th century. Medical imaging and oncologic therapy with photons and charged particles (specifically hadrons) are currently hot research topics. This special issue of Modern Physics Letters is dedicated to hadron therapy, which is the frontier of cancer radiation therapy, and aims at filling a gap in the current literature on medical physics. Through 10 invited review papers, the volume presents the basics of hadron therapy, along with the most recent scientific and technological developments in the field. The first part covers topics such as the history of hadron therapy, radiation biophysics, particle accelerators, dose-delivery systems and treatment planning. In the second part, more specific topics are treated, including dose and beam monitoring, proton computer tomography, innoacustics and microdosimetry. This vo...

  4. Letters in the Forest: Global precedence effect disappears for letters but not for non-letters under reading-like conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eLachmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Normally-skilled reading involves special processing strategies for letters, which are habitually funneled into an abstract letter code. On the basis of previous studies we argue that this habit leads to the preferred usage of an analytic strategy for the processing of letters, while non-letters are preferably processed via a holistic strategy. The well-known Global Precedence Effect (GPE seems to contradict to this assumption, since, with compound, hierarchical figures, including letter items, faster responses are observed to the global than to the local level of the figure, as well as an asymmetric interference effect from global to local level. We argue that with letters these effects depend on presentation conditions; only when they elicit the processing strategies automatized for reading, an analytic strategy for letters in contrast to non-letters is to be expected. We compared the GPE for letters and non-letters in central viewing, with the global stimulus size close to the functional visual field in whole word reading (6.5o of visual angle and local stimuli close to the critical size for fluent reading of individual letters (.5o of visual angle. Under these conditions, the GPE remained robust for non-letters. For letters, however, it disappeared: letters showed no overall response time advantage for the global level and symmetric congruence effects (local-to-global as well as global-to local interference. We interpret these results as according to the view that reading is based on resident analytic visual processing strategies for letters.

  5. Crowding Affects Letters and Symbols Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Jonathan; Tydgat, Ilse; Issele, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1 through 3 compared 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by 2 other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets.…

  6. The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Ternier, Stefaan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Lezcano, L., Ternier, S., Drachsler, H., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013, September). The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App. In iProceedings of MEDICINE 2.0: 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps, Internet/Web 2.0 (pp. 221-222). London, England. Retrieved from http://www.medicine20congre

  7. Readerly and Writerly "Letters from the Park."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Susana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses in depth the film "Cartas del parque" ("Letters from the Park"), the first of six films in the "Amores Dificiles" series. Notes that the film is pervaded by the traditional overdetermination of gender roles. Suggests that an intrusive and authoritative narrator makes of this both a "readerly" and a…

  8. "Physical Review Letters" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, Paul J.; Lynch, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Ask any physicist what the preeminent journal in the field is, and I think the almost unanimous answer will be "Physical Review Letters" ("PRL"). This weekly journal of the American Physical Society publishes high-impact research from all the major subdisciplines of physics. This journal is not the one you would think is the first place a high…

  9. Reply to letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the letter by Dr. Amir Arav I would like to mention the following. The application of the principle of directional solidification to cryopreservation of living cells was, as far as I am aware, not the invention of Dr. Arav. It was first published and patented by Rubinsky (Berkeley,

  10. Varsity letters documenting modern colleges and universities

    CERN Document Server

    Samuels, Helen Willa

    1998-01-01

    A study of the functions of colleges and universities, Varsity Letters is intended to aid those responsible for the documentation of these institutions. Samuels offers specific advice about the records of modern colleges and universities and proposes a method to ensure their adequate documentation. She also offers a method to analyze and plan the preservation of records for any type of institution.

  11. Hester Prynne in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽

    2011-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter is the masterpiece of Nathaniel Hawthorne, one of the great writers in the nineteenth century America. Since it was published in the year of 1850, it has been reread in the circle of literary criticism..In the book, Hawthorne Portrays H

  12. SiD Letter of Intent

    CERN Document Server

    Aihara, H; Oreglia, M.; Berger, E.L.; Guarino, V.; Repond, J.; Weerts, H.; Xia, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Srivastava, A.; Butler, J.M.; Goldstein, Joel; Velthuis, J.; Radeka, V.; Zhu, R.-Y.; Lutz, P.; de Roeck, A.; Elsener, K.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Grefe, C.; Klempt, W.; Linssen, L.; Schlatter, D.; Speckmayer, P.; Thom, J.; Yang, J.; Christian, D.C.; Cihangir, S.; Cooper, W.E.; Demarteau, M.; Fisk, H.E.; Garren, L.A.; Krempetz, K.; Kutschke, R.K.; Lipton, R.; Para, A.; Tschirhart, R.; Wenzel, H.; Yarema, R.; Grunewald, M.; Pankov, A.; U., Gomel State Tech.; Dutta, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Balbuena, J.P.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullan, M.; Christian, G.B.; Faus-Golfe, A.; Fuster, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marinnas, C.; Vos, M.; Duarte, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Jaramillo, R.; Lopez, Virto, A.; Martinez-Eivero, C.; Moya, D.; Ruiz-Mimeno, A.; Vila, I.; Colledani, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu-Guo, C.; Winter, M.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Onoprienko, D.V.; Kim, G.N.; Park, H.; Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.-J.; Cap, S.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Espargiliare, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Gronberg, J.; Walston, S.; Wright, D.; Sawyer, L.; Laloum, M.; Ciobanu, C.; Chauveau, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Andricek, L.; Moser, H.-G.; Cowan, R.f.; Fisher, P.; Yamamoto, R.K.; Kenney, ClMl; Boos, E.E.; Merkin, M.; Chen, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Hedin, D.; Zutshi, V.; Galkin, V.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Ossetski, D.; Saveliev, V.; Kapusta, F.; De Masi, R.; Vrba, V.; Lu, C.; McDonald, K.T.; Smith, A.J.S.; Bortoletto, D.; Coath, R.; Crooks, J.; Damerell, C.; Gibson, M.; Nichols, A.; Stanitzki, M.; Strube, J.; Turchetta, R.; Tyndel, M.; Weber, M.; Worm, S.; Zhang, Z.; Barklow, T.L.; Belymam, A.; Breidenbach, M.; Cassell, R.; Craddock, W.; Deaconu, C.; Dragone, A.; Graf, N.A.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Hewett, J.L.; Jaros, J.A.; Johnson, A.S.; Kim, P.C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Markiewicz, T.; Maruyama, T.; McCormick, J.; Moffeit, K.; Neal, H.A.; Nelson, T.K.; Oriunno, M.; Partridge, R.; Peskin, M.E.; Rizzo, T.G.; Rowson, P.; Su, D.; Woods, M.; Chakrabarti, S.; Dieguez, A.; Garrido, Ll.; Kaminski, J.; Conway, J.S.; Chertok, M.; Gunion, J.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Tripathi, S.M.; Fadeyev, V.; Schumm, B.A.; Oreglia, M.; Gill, J.; Nauenberg, U.; Oleinik, G.; Wagner, S.R.; Ranjan, K.; Shivpuri, R.; Varner, G.S.; Orava, R.; Van Kooten, R.; Bilki, B.; Charles, M.; Kim, T.J.; Mallik, U.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Brau, B.P.; Willocq, S.; Taylor, G.N.; Riles, Keith; Yang, H.-J.; Kriske, R.; Cremaldi, L.; Rahmat, R.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Seidel, S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Wayne, M.; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N.; Strom, D.M.; Torrence, E.; Banda, Y.; Burrows, P.N.; Devetak, E.; Foster, B.; Lastovicka, T.; Li, Y.-M.; Nomerotski, A.; Riera-Babures, J.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Manly, S.; Adeva, B.; Iglesias Escudero, C.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Gao, D.; Jie, W.; Jungfeng, Y.; Li, C.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Wang, Q.; Yi, J.; Yonggang, W.; Zhao, Z.; De, K.; Farbin, A.; Park, S.; Smith, J.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Lou, X.C.; Abe, T.; Aihara, H.; Iwasaki, M.; Lubatti, H.J.; Band, H.R.; Feyzi, F.; Prepost, R.; Karchin, P.E.; Milstene, C.; Baltay, C.; Dhawan, S.; Kwon, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Letter of intent describing SiD (Silicon Detector) for consideration by the International Linear Collider IDAG panel. This detector concept is founded on the use of silicon detectors for vertexing, tracking, and electromagnetic calorimetry. The detector has been cost-optimized as a general-purpose detector for a 500 GeV electron-positron linear collider.

  13. Letter of the Editor-in-chief

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwen Wang; Mathew Sorrentino; Thach Nguyen

    2006-01-01

    @@ Dear Friends and Colleagues, In this letter, I would like to celebrate the second anniversary of the Journal of Geriatric Cardiology (JGC).With the help of all of you, friends and colleagues, readers,editorials consultants, authors and editorial staff, the JGC was able to grow and publish many quality papers from the world.

  14. Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, E.D. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Abelin, T.; Egger, M. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)) (and others)

    1994-11-12

    Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK).

  15. Researches Made on The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王舫

    2011-01-01

    Being the first American native novel,a great number of researches have been made on The Scarlet Letter.This paper collects some popular researches that have been made on this novel and classifies them into five perspectives --- romance,symbolism,Puritanism,feminism and psychoanalysis.

  16. Reply to letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.

    2006-01-01

    In response to the letter by Dr. Amir Arav I would like to mention the following. The application of the principle of directional solidification to cryopreservation of living cells was, as far as I am aware, not the invention of Dr. Arav. It was first published and patented by Rubinsky (Berkeley, CA

  17. An Unknown Letter by Maria Komornicka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Bourkane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents an unpublished letter by Maria Komornicka, which the poet sent in July 1899 to her aunt, Aleksandra Oszacka. The epistolary communication, which contains several pieces of information about the life and activities of the poet living in Warsaw, can be a valuable material for researchers interested in her biography.

  18. 42 CFR 93.202 - Charge letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charge letter. 93.202 Section 93.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON...

  19. The anthrax letters: a medical detective story

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Leonard A

    2003-01-01

    .... Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cole, Leonard A., 1933The anthrax letters : a medical detective story / Leonard A. Cole. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-08881-X - ISBN 0-309-52584-5 (PDF) 1. Bioterrorism- United States. 2. Anthrax- United States. 3. Postal service- United States. 4. Victims of...

  20. The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Ternier, Stefaan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Lezcano, L., Ternier, S., Drachsler, H., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2013, September). The Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App. In iProceedings of MEDICINE 2.0: 6th World Congress on Social Media, Mobile Apps, Internet/Web 2.0 (pp. 221-222). London, England. Retrieved from

  1. Samuel Beckett: Color, Letter, and Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Through a bilingual reading of Beckett's "Mal vu mal dit," the illusion of painted relief for printed letters is created. Colors manifest themselves through the continual process of translation. The French translation adds color to the black and white English text. (DF)

  2. Application of Politeness Strategies in Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雅婷

    2015-01-01

    As is known to all,businesses are very image - conscious. Most of the companies try to conduct themselves decently and politely in their business transactions,among which business letters are major manifestations of politeness. Application of Politeness Strategies is of great significance.

  3. Letters to a Young Education Reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2017-01-01

    In "Letters to a Young Education Reformer," Frederick M. Hess distills knowledge from twenty-five years of working in and around school reform. Inspired by his conversations with young, would-be reformers who are passionate about transforming education, the book offers a window into Hess's thinking about what education reform is and…

  4. Introduction to Literary Criticism: "The Scarlet Letter."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This course seeks to provide high school students the opportunity to sharpen their critical thinking skills and use of language through acquaintance with some ideas of literary criticism. The course features Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter," assuming that the students have just finished reading that American classic novel. The…

  5. An Open Letter to Ninth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Many studies and reports in recent years have argued that there's an important "expectations gap" between the skills students are typically bringing to college and what college teachers think students should be bringing with them to college. This article, presented in the form of an open letter to first-year high school students, is an attempt…

  6. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter W

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 7 of 7 ... African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter W ... treatment and disposal of sewage sludge; environmental pollution ... Water SA is the WRC's accredited scientific journal which contains ... Aims: The aims of the Journal are: To provide a medium for international dissemination of information about ...

  7. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Dear authors and reviewers of articles for Measurement Science and Technology, I would like to thank all those who have published papers with us in 2008, and special thanks go to those of you who have kindly reviewed articles for the journal this year. I would also like to take this opportunity to update you on some of the developments on the journal. This year we see the introduction of a new subject section 'Measurement techniques for bio-medical and life science applications' to facilitate browsing by readers from this community who may be less familiar with Measurement Science and Technology. We anticipate that articles falling within this section will broaden the strengths of the journal to the biological and medical arena by comprising imaging techniques for biology and medicine including tomography, microscopy, ultrasonic imaging and MRI; spectroscopic techniques in biological and medical physics; sensors for measuring biological, biochemical and medical processes and quantities; new instrumentation for measurement in biology and medicine. To highlight this section in the journal we have commissioned a review article from Professor Gerald Urban of Albert Ludwigs Universität Freiburg, on micro- and nanobiosensors which appears as the first article in this issue. This topical review covers the state of the art of microsensors for physical and chemical parameters in medical science, as well as biosensors and microtransducers. I believe it is a valuable addition to the literature and a very useful starting point for researchers. As regular readers will know, Measurement Science and Technology has a long tradition of publishing topical review articles, and this year will be no exception. As well as the article from Professor Urban, in the same issue we have an article from Professor Roy Olsson III of Sandia National Laboratories on microfabricated phononic crystal devices and applications. In future issues readers can look forward to topical reviews from Dr

  8. What Medicare Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Part A covers Medicare Part A hospital insurance covers inpatient hospital care, skilled nursing facility, hospice, lab tests, surgery, ... Medicare Covers Drug Coverage (Part D) Supplements & Other Insurance Claims & ... doctors, providers, hospitals & plans Where can I get covered medical items? ...

  9. Letter to President [Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Assistant Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Back Bay Wilderness area. The letter...

  10. The Effects of Academic Positive Practice on Cursive Letter Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabee, W. Scott

    1988-01-01

    Academic positive practice was used to correct errors of cursive letter writing in three third graders. Following each writing error, students correctly formed each incorrect letter 20 times. Students demonstrated improvement over baseline levels of performance. (Author/DB)

  11. Letter to President [Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Laguna Atascosa Wilderness area. The letter...

  12. 50 CFR 216.257 - Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE... Mexico § 216.257 Letters of Authorization. (a) A Letter of Authorization, unless suspended or...

  13. Letter to President [Cedar Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Assistant Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Cedar Island Wilderness area. The letter...

  14. EDITORIAL: Letter from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Peter

    2006-12-01

    particle image velocimetry; optoelectronic, electronic and optical fibre sensors; and density metrology among others, and next year we will publish a special issue on nanoscale metrology which I'm sure will be of interest to many of you. Remember to set up a free e-mail alert so you can be e-mailed as soon as articles in your field are published! The Editorial Board invites topical review articles and this year several interesting topics were covered by international leaders in their field. For example, Paul Lambeck (Univ. Twente, Netherlands) has written about integrated optical sensors in the chemical domain; Bernd Fellmuth, Christof Gaiser and Joachim Fischer of PTB, Germany have contributed an interesting article on the determination of the Boltzmann constant; Juergen Czarske (TU Dresden, Germany) has published an article on laser Doppler velocimetry; while Adrian Dobroiu, Chiko Otani and Kodo Kawase (RIKEN, Japan) have written about terahertz wave sources and imaging applications. We were also pleased to publish a review by Brian Culshaw (Univ. Strathclyde, UK) on the optical fibre Sagnac interferometer. We hope that these articles and the others published this year will provide a useful overview for our readers, and be helpful to new researchers. In June 2005 we introduced the second phase of our author and referee homepages. Many of you already have your own referee homepages set up, and we have now introduced an authors section where authors can submit their manuscript, access referee reports, collect proofs, and track the progress of their article from submission, through the peer-review process, to decision and publication. Of course we still understand that some people prefer to receive things by e-mail or post so we will do our best to be flexible for both authors and referees. Our author and referee web pages have proved extremely popular, and partly as a result of our innovation in this area, most authors can expect to receive a first decision on their paper

  15. Examination and Comparison of Phrases of Some Old Letters of Ascension (to Heaven and It's Comparison with Shafiee Kadkani's Letter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    کهدویی کهدویی

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human voyage to the world of ultra sense is a matter of discourses which was widely discussed between nations and the various schools of philosophy, language and many people including leaders of religions and thoughts branches confessed doing such voyages and left some literary reports of their mystical and dreamy travel. The oldest and newest of these reports are shown in this paper and them between the voyages that traditional people have reported and the letter of ascension of M.R.SH.KK as ample of a modern man which is available we make some comparisons in different dimensions , dealing with unconscious and interfering of super human in forming their phrases . This survey shows that most of these voyages could have certain occurrences, and could explain them in scientific view and particularly based on Yung's ideas. In evaluating a part of phrases of these voyages it has been shown that the similarities and common points of these ascensions is related to the beliefs, mortification and deliberations that cause these voyages in one side and in the other side is related to the influence of the most formers and the letter voyages; also by comparing the two traditional and modern groups of passengers of the invisible world. Through submitting and explaining their documentary reports, the ideology role of these two groups is described in creating the elements of these phrases and mean while the commitment and mission of human is described based on considering the traditional definition of human as a speaking animal and the definition of moderns as a searching animal in human general ascension , and at the end it is reminded that the modern human is trying to encourage and prepare the collective conscience of human to clear and improve the society through conscious movement and describing manners of painful souls in world of spirits and using the fear strategy. The reason of fear less critic of poets in the last part of the letter of ascension of

  16. Can words be read without abstract letter identities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fischer-Baum

    2014-04-01

    CH’s acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia left him with a profound impairment in processing abstract letter identities. This impairment affected his ability to process strings of letters in a variety of tasks; for example nonword reading, spelling, recognizing orally spelled words. However, while impaired, his single word reading was surprisingly good given his single letter impairment, suggesting an additional route to word meaning from visually-presented familiar words that does not require abstract letter identities.

  17. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  18. Transposed-Letter and Laterality Effects in Lexical Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Fraga, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    Two divided visual field lexical decision experiments were conducted to examine the role of the cerebral hemispheres in transposed-letter similarity effects. In Experiment 1, we created two types of nonwords: nonadjacent transposed-letter nonwords ("TRADEGIA"; the base word was "TRAGEDIA," the Spanish for "TRAGEDY") and two-letter different…

  19. Letter representations in writing: An fMRI adaptation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eDufor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Behavioral and neuropsychological research in reading and spelling has provided evidence for the role of the following types of orthographic representations in letter writing: letter forms, letter case, and abstract letter identities. We report on the results of an fMRI investigation designed to identify the neural substrates of these different representational types. Using a neural adaptation paradigm we examined the neural distribution of inhibition and release from inhibition in a letter-writing task in which, on every trial, participants produced three repetitions of the same letter and a fourth letter that was either identical to (no-change trial or different from the previous three (change trial. Change trials involved a change in the shape, case and/or identity of the letter. After delineating the general letter writing network by identifying areas that exhibited significant neural adaptation effects on no-change trials, we used deconvolution analysis to examine this network for effects of release from inhibition on change trials. In this way we identified regions specifically associated with the representation of letter shape (left SFS and SFG/pre-CG and letter identity (left fusiform gyrus or both (cerebellum, post-central gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. No regions were associated with the representation of letter case. This study showcases an investigational approach that allows for the differentiation of the neurotopography of the representational types that are key to our ability to produce written language.

  20. Return to sender: Constantijn Huygens as a man of letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosseye, L.; Blom, F.; Leerintveld, A.

    2013-01-01

    Return to Sender takes as its starting point Constantijn Huygens’ letters and shows us the author in his different guises: intimus of René Descartes, translator of John Donne, collector of art, writer of flirtatious love letters and the author of a long consolatory letter-poem for an ailing friend w

  1. Covert Reading of Letters in a Case of Global Alexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Chiara; Bencini, Giulia; Meneghello, Francesca; Piron, Lamberto; Semenza, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the case of a global alexic patient with a severe reading deficit affecting words, letters and Arabic numbers, following a left posterior lesion. The patient (VA) could not match spoken letters to their graphic form. A preserved ability to recognize shape and canonical orientation of letters indicates intact access to the…

  2. 48 CFR 52.228-14 - Irrevocable Letter of Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Credit. 52.228-14 Section 52.228-14 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....228-14 Irrevocable Letter of Credit. As prescribed in 28.204-4, insert the following clause: Irrevocable Letter of Credit (DEC 1999) (a) “Irrevocable letter of credit” (ILC), as used in this clause...

  3. 31 CFR 535.416 - Letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Letters of credit. 535.416 Section... § 535.416 Letters of credit. (a) Question. Prior to the effective date, a bank subject to the jurisdiction of the United States has issued or confirmed a documentary letter of credit for a non-Iranian...

  4. Perceptual-Motor Complexity of Printed and Cursive Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenbroek, Ruud G. J.; Van Galen, Gerard P.

    1990-01-01

    Seventy-five Dutch elementary school students wrote letters of a cursive alphabet after presentation of printed and cursive letters. Analysis revealed that spatial ambiguity, allographic variability, contextual ambiguity, and letter frequency are determinants of the time needed by children for perceiving printed and producing corresponding cursive…

  5. 33 CFR 62.43 - Numbers and letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... letters. (a) All solid red and solid green aids are numbered, with red aids bearing even numbers and green... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Numbers and letters. 62.43... to assist in their identification, or to indicate their purpose. Sidemarks may carry letters...

  6. Transposed-Letter and Laterality Effects in Lexical Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Fraga, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    Two divided visual field lexical decision experiments were conducted to examine the role of the cerebral hemispheres in transposed-letter similarity effects. In Experiment 1, we created two types of nonwords: nonadjacent transposed-letter nonwords ("TRADEGIA"; the base word was "TRAGEDIA," the Spanish for "TRAGEDY") and two-letter different…

  7. A Logical Letter-Sound System in Five Phonic Generalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Louis; Yale, Ian

    2011-01-01

    In five phonic generalizations, this article introduces a logical system of letter-sound relationships. Ranging from 91% to 99% phonic transparency, these statements generalize a study of 16,928 words in children's literature. The r-controlled vowels aside, the analysis shows 54 basic transparent letters and letter combinations, 39 transparent…

  8. Parents' Talk about Letters with Their Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Schmidt, John; Decker, Kristina; Robins, Sarah; Levine, Susan C.; Demir, Özlem E.

    2015-01-01

    A literacy-related activity that occurs in children's homes--talk about letters in everyday conversations--was examined using data from 50 children who were visited every 4 months between 14 and 50 months. Parents talked about some letters, including those that are common in English words and the first letter of their children's names, especially…

  9. Computer-generated recall letters for underimmunized children: how cost-effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, T A; Black, S B; Ray, P; Schwalbe, J A; Lewis, E M; Lavetter, A; Morozumi, P A; Shinefield, H R

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of computer-generated recall letters to parents of children overdue for immunizations. This randomized controlled trial included children of two facilities in a regional health maintenance organization. Parents of 20-month-olds who had not yet received a measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunization were identified via a computerized immunization tracking system. One half were mailed personalized letters that included the recommended immunization schedule and a request to call for an appointment; the other half served as a control group. Receipt of the MMR between 20 and 24 months of age was evaluated with the computerized tracking system. A telephone survey was conducted with parents whose children had not received the MMR by 24 months. Decision analysis was used to project the theoretical outcomes and costs of a recall letter policy for other populations. Among 20-month-old children 10% had not received the MMR; 289 families were included in the analysis. Of families who were mailed letters, 54% (82 of 153) received the MMR by 24 months of age, compared with 35% (47 of 136) of those in the control group (P = 0.001). The telephone survey was completed with 110 parents of children who still did not appear on the health plan computer as having received the MMR by 24 months. Fifteen percent said the child had received an immunization at an outside provider, and of the rest 62% said they had not been aware that an immunization was due. In the cost effectiveness analysis it was projected that recall letters would increase the immunization rate for the regional population of approximately 30000 children from 86% to 90% at a total cost of $5031 annually. The cost per additional child appropriately immunized was $4.04. In sensitivity analyses this cost effectiveness ratio varied depending on the baseline population coverage rate as well as the estimated effectiveness of recall letters. Computer-generated letters to recall

  10. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  11. Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Dennis C.

    2002-01-01

    This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

  12. Essay: reflections on Physical Review Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, David

    2008-08-01

    During my tenure as APS Editor-in-Chief Physical Review Letters changed from a journal whose authors were mostly from the U.S. to one whose authors were mostly from abroad. I encouraged authors to publicize their work even before their papers were accepted for publication. And I sought to raise the quality of the papers that were published even higher than before.

  13. An open letter to Magic Johnson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazin, G J

    1992-01-01

    The last installment in this series dealt with post-test counseling of a person whose HIV test was negative. The plan was to provide counseling for an HIV-infected person in this installment. NBA basketball star Magic Johnson's surprise announcement on November 7, 1991, of his infection with HIV has provided an unexpected opportunity to counsel a well-known person through an "open letter."

  14. Culture and subculture in transactional letter writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Okamura, Akiko

    2000-01-01

    with efforts to write such letters by 21 NSE and 23 NNSE non-professionals (British undergraduates and overseas English teachers). The results showed that the non-native professionals by and large perceived the rhetorical demands of the situation similarly to native professionals but were a little less likely...... and language. Thus the teaching approach for writing depends crucially on the status of the learners, and to teach lexical phrases is particularly important for non-natives....

  15. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2000 - 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  16. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  17. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  18. National Land Cover Database 2006: 2005-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 2006 quantifies land cover and land cover change between the years 2001 to 2006 and provides an updated version of NLCD 2001. These products represent the...

  19. National Land Cover Database 2006: 2005-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 2006 quantifies land cover and land cover change between the years 2001 to 2006 and provides an updated version of NLCD 2001. These products represent the first...

  20. National Land Cover Database 2006: 2005-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 2006 quantifies land cover and land cover change between the years 2001 to 2006 and provides an updated version of NLCD 2001. These products represent the first...

  1. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  2. Enhanced National Land Cover Data 1992 (NLCDe 92)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The enhanced National Land Cover Data 1992 ("NLCDe 92") served as the primary source for nationally consistent mapped land cover during the first decade of sampling...

  3. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  4. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  5. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  6. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  7. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  8. LEXICAL PHRASEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH BUSINESS LETTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivoruchko I. S.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of international cooperation has promoted the updating of problems connected with business communication effectiveness. These problems are very crucial, because their solution may predetermine the collaboration success of business partners. The integral part of this success is the efficiency of the exchange of textual information. Nowadays the main information exchange method in modern business relations is business correspondence in English; therefore, its research makes an important contribution to the solution of the pressing problem connected with the achievement of some goals in business. In the article, we analyze both general and specific linguistic features of English business letters, which differ them from texts of other fields of human activity. A special attention is paid to the question of the content and presence degree of lexicological and phraseological units in English business letters. In the end the author comes to the conclusion that business communication is considered effective if it contributes to the mutual understanding of partners with the help of the most optimal means. The analysis of practical material showed that these means could be lexicological and phraseological units. The correct choice of these units helps with the formation of those features of a business letter, which would make it effective

  9. Alternating group covers of the affine line

    CERN Document Server

    Muskat, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    We prove Abhyankar's Inertia Conjecture for the alternating group A_{p+2} on p+2 letters when p = 2 mod 3, by showing that every possible inertia group occurs for a (wildly ramified) A_{p+2}-Galois cover of the projective k-line branched only at infinity where k is an algebraically closed field of characteristic p > 0. More generally, when 1 < s < p and gcd(p-1, s+1)=1, we prove that all but finitely many rational numbers which satisfy the obvious necessary conditions occur as the upper jump in the filtration of higher ramification groups of an A_{p+s}-Galois cover of the projective line branched only at infinity.

  10. Neural correlates of letter reversal in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburne, Liwei King; Eddy, Marianna D; Kalra, Priya; Yee, Debbie; Sinha, Pawan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-01-01

    Children often make letter reversal errors when first learning to read and write, even for letters whose reversed forms do not appear in normal print. However, the brain basis of such letter reversal in children learning to read is unknown. The present study compared the neuroanatomical correlates (via functional magnetic resonance imaging) and the electrophysiological correlates (via event-related potentials or ERPs) of this phenomenon in children, ages 5-12, relative to young adults. When viewing reversed letters relative to typically oriented letters, adults exhibited widespread occipital, parietal, and temporal lobe activations, including activation in the functionally localized visual word form area (VWFA) in left occipito-temporal cortex. Adults exhibited significantly greater activation than children in all of these regions; children only exhibited such activation in a limited frontal region. Similarly, on the P1 and N170 ERP components, adults exhibited significantly greater differences between typical and reversed letters than children, who failed to exhibit significant differences between typical and reversed letters. These findings indicate that adults distinguish typical and reversed letters in the early stages of specialized brain processing of print, but that children do not recognize this distinction during the early stages of processing. Specialized brain processes responsible for early stages of letter perception that distinguish between typical and reversed letters may develop slowly and remain immature even in older children who no longer produce letter reversals in their writing.

  11. Neural correlates of letter reversal in children and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei King Blackburne

    Full Text Available Children often make letter reversal errors when first learning to read and write, even for letters whose reversed forms do not appear in normal print. However, the brain basis of such letter reversal in children learning to read is unknown. The present study compared the neuroanatomical correlates (via functional magnetic resonance imaging and the electrophysiological correlates (via event-related potentials or ERPs of this phenomenon in children, ages 5-12, relative to young adults. When viewing reversed letters relative to typically oriented letters, adults exhibited widespread occipital, parietal, and temporal lobe activations, including activation in the functionally localized visual word form area (VWFA in left occipito-temporal cortex. Adults exhibited significantly greater activation than children in all of these regions; children only exhibited such activation in a limited frontal region. Similarly, on the P1 and N170 ERP components, adults exhibited significantly greater differences between typical and reversed letters than children, who failed to exhibit significant differences between typical and reversed letters. These findings indicate that adults distinguish typical and reversed letters in the early stages of specialized brain processing of print, but that children do not recognize this distinction during the early stages of processing. Specialized brain processes responsible for early stages of letter perception that distinguish between typical and reversed letters may develop slowly and remain immature even in older children who no longer produce letter reversals in their writing.

  12. Gender differences in recommendation letters for postdoctoral fellowships in geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Kuheli; Pfaff, Danielle L.; Bernstein, Ariel F.; Dillard, Joseph S.; Block, Caryn J.

    2016-11-01

    Gender disparities in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics, including the geosciences, are well documented and widely discussed. In the geosciences, despite receiving 40% of doctoral degrees, women hold less than 10% of full professorial positions. A significant leak in the pipeline occurs during postdoctoral years, so biases embedded in postdoctoral processes, such as biases in recommendation letters, may be deterrents to careers in geoscience for women. Here we present an analysis of an international data set of 1,224 recommendation letters, submitted by recommenders from 54 countries, for postdoctoral fellowships in the geosciences over the period 2007-2012. We examine the relationship between applicant gender and two outcomes of interest: letter length and letter tone. Our results reveal that female applicants are only half as likely to receive excellent letters versus good letters compared to male applicants. We also find no evidence that male and female recommenders differ in their likelihood to write stronger letters for male applicants over female applicants. Our analysis also reveals significant regional differences in letter length, with letters from the Americas being significantly longer than any other region, whereas letter tone appears to be distributed equivalently across all world regions. These results suggest that women are significantly less likely to receive excellent recommendation letters than their male counterparts at a critical juncture in their career.

  13. Neural Correlates of Letter Reversal in Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Priya; Yee, Debbie; Sinha, Pawan; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Children often make letter reversal errors when first learning to read and write, even for letters whose reversed forms do not appear in normal print. However, the brain basis of such letter reversal in children learning to read is unknown. The present study compared the neuroanatomical correlates (via functional magnetic resonance imaging) and the electrophysiological correlates (via event-related potentials or ERPs) of this phenomenon in children, ages 5–12, relative to young adults. When viewing reversed letters relative to typically oriented letters, adults exhibited widespread occipital, parietal, and temporal lobe activations, including activation in the functionally localized visual word form area (VWFA) in left occipito-temporal cortex. Adults exhibited significantly greater activation than children in all of these regions; children only exhibited such activation in a limited frontal region. Similarly, on the P1 and N170 ERP components, adults exhibited significantly greater differences between typical and reversed letters than children, who failed to exhibit significant differences between typical and reversed letters. These findings indicate that adults distinguish typical and reversed letters in the early stages of specialized brain processing of print, but that children do not recognize this distinction during the early stages of processing. Specialized brain processes responsible for early stages of letter perception that distinguish between typical and reversed letters may develop slowly and remain immature even in older children who no longer produce letter reversals in their writing. PMID:24859328

  14. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  15. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  16. Suicide for reasons unstated, covering letters and suicide notes for textual/discursive and rhetorical reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro de Melo Catelão

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current research is a study on linguistic forms and argumentative processes in texts written by suicidal people. The corpus was collected from police investigation files in the Brazilian National Archives in Rio de Janeiro (cases between 1890 and 1940. An analytical model was developed by textual and discursive analyses, alternated and complemented by rhetorical aspects. The main aim was to demonstrate that the suicide’s enunciation was foregrounded on more or less stable argumentative trends and aimed at the construction of conditions to justify the act. Analysis showed that the harvested documents fitted in a plan of representations constructed on actions, in two stages, or rather, the choice of voluntary death and the preparation of the message. The latter was not always focused on presenting justifications for the suicidal act. It is the case of the documents listed in current paper, or rather, notes and messages with unstated causes of suicide.

  17. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  18. Letter-by-letter processing in the phonological conversion of multiletter graphemes: searching for sounds in printed pseudowords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peereman, Ronald; Brand, Muriele; Rey, Arnaud

    2006-02-01

    Current models of word reading differ in their descriptions of how print-to-sound conversion is performed. Whereas a parallel procedure is generally assumed, the dual-route cascaded model developed by Coltheart and colleagues (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, and Ziegler, 2001) holds that the nonlexical conversion operates letter by letter, serially from left to right. An interesting aspect of the hypothesized serial procedure is that only the first letter of two-letter graphemes is thought to cause activation of its corresponding phonological code, the second letter of multiletter graphemes being directly merged with the preceding letter to form a complex grapheme. This hypothesis was examined in a task in which participants had to detect target phonemes in visually presented pseudowords. The data suggest that phonological codes associated with all the letters of the multiletter graphemes are activated.

  19. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 11

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  20. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 22

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  1. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  2. 1994 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for selected areas in the Upper...

  3. 1994 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 26

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for selected areas in the Upper...

  4. 1994 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for selected areas in the Upper...

  5. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the...

  6. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Open River 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  7. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Open River 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  8. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  9. Land Cover Trends Geotagged Photography: 1999-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) Land Cover Trends field photography collection is a national-scale, ground-reference dataset which initially served as a...

  10. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  11. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  12. 2000 UMRS Land Cover Land Use--Pool 25

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) is in the process of creating high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper...

  13. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... such as lowpermeability clay soils and geomembranes are required. The avoidance of water input to organic waste may impede the microbial stabilization processes including gas generation. Therefore watertight top covers may be in conflict with the purposes of reactor landfills (see Chapter 10.6). At some sites covers...... sometimes are made to include components for recirculation of landfill leachate (see Section 10.9.2 for more details). The top cover is an important factor in the water management of landfills. Details about water infiltration through top covers and its influence on the hydrology of the landfill is covered...

  14. National Land Cover Database 1992/2001 Retrofit Land Cover Change Product: 1999-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 1992-2001 Retrofit Change Product What is the NLCD 1992/2001 Retrofit Land Cover Change Product? Although one of the guiding principles of the NLCD 2001 design...

  15. The Link Between Incoterms 2000 and Letter of Credit Documentation Requirement and Payment Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bergami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Letters of credit are an important finance instrument for international trade. These instruments are particularly useful in trade where the transactional values and trading risks are high. Essentially the letter of credit is a substitute for a buyer’s risk with that of his bank, as it underwrites the transaction. Exporters experience difficulties in achieving documentary compliance to the bank’s satisfaction and therefore run the risk of not being paid. Compliance is based on the accuracy and form of data content on documents required by the letter of credit. The more voluminous and complex the documentary requirements, the higher the non-compliance risk. This paper explores the link between international delivery terms and documentary requirements of the letter of credit. Preliminary data from an industry survey suggests that exporters are contracting on international delivery terms that may leave them unnecessarily exposed to non-payment risks. Although further investigation is required to determine whether alternate delivery terms would diminish the exporter’s risk, preliminary results indicate that it is possible to reduce payment risk by the strategic use of international delivery terms.

  16. A DIALOGIC ENLIGHTENMENT PERSPECTIVE; APPROACH TO THE OTTOMAN AND EUROPEAN RELATIONS IN PSEUDO-ORIENTAL LETTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Hasan BAKTIR

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly held that pseudo-oriental letters used anOriental mask to comment on contemporary European society andmanners; Eastern contexts, proverbs, customs and culture were thoughtto be supplementary to the central theme. Therefore, the representationof the Ottoman Orient in the letters was taken as of mostly illustrative(Conant, 157-61. However, it is not illuminating to argue that pseudoorientalletters were mainly concerned with the discussion ofcontemporary social and political issues. We can find more thanillusion in the letters in terms of the representation of the OttomanOrient. We will survey the historical process can disclose theinteraction between Europe and the Orient and unravel the consistentspirit which reinforced the negotiation between East and West. Thecritical perspectives in the Turkish Spy and Persian Letters blended thepositive and negative aspects of the two worlds; the pseudo-orientalletters amalgamated the familiar and unfamiliar, ridiculous and seriousfacets of the Eastern and Western cultures. The use of Orientalnarrators worked as a metaphor for the intellectual and culturaltransformation of Eastern and Western perceptions of each other. Thistransformation created a critical narrative tradition where Eastern andWestern values had contact, clashed, and found a way to get rid ofreligious prejudice. Using Bakhtin’s concept of dialogy, the presentpaper aims to discuss how the two continents interanimated each otherby disclosing the serious and absurd aspects of the two cultures.

  17. Letters to Solovine 1906-1955

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2011-01-01

    A provocative collection of letters to his longtime friend and translator that spans Einstein's career and reveals the inner thoughts and daily life of a transformative genius From their early days as tutor and scholar, discussing philosophy over Spartan dinners, to their work together to publish Einstein's books in Europe, in Maurice Solovine Einstein found both an engaged mind and a loyal friend. While Einstein frequently shared his observations on science, politics, philosophy, and religion in his correspondence with Solovine, he was just as likely to express his feelings about everyday l

  18. Resource Letter OSE-1: Observing Solar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Fraknoi, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the available literature, listing selected books, articles, and online resources about scientific, cultural, and practical issues related to observing solar eclipses. It is timely, given that a total solar eclipse will cross the continental United States on August 21, 2017. The next total solar eclipse path crossing the U.S. and Canada will be on April 8, 2024. In 2023, the path of annularity of an annular eclipse will cross Mexico, the United States, and Canada, with partial phases visible throughout those countries.

  19. Algoritmi matematici nelle lettere di Gerbert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.

    The content of Gerbert's "scientific" letters is analyzed in detail, with special emphasis on arithmetical and geometrical issues, such as multiplication and division rules related to the use of abacus, superparticular numbers and evaluation of the area of an equilateral triangle. It is shown that Gerbert's area formula, albeit based on rational fractions, could hardly be conceived without knowledge of Pythagoras' theorem. This fact casts a light also on the astronomical tools created by Gerbert, where the didactical aspect cannot be separated from the accuracy of the demonstrations and of the measurements.

  20. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...... the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... however, top covers may be the only environmental protection measure. In some landfill regulations (for instance the Subtitle D landfills receiving municipal solid waste in the USA) it is required to minimize infiltration into the waste layers. Therefore top covers containing liner components...

  1. ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gómez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition. PMID:23454070

  2. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution and...

  3. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  4. Saturated Domino Coverings

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Andrew; Ryba, Alex

    2011-01-01

    A domino covering of a board is saturated if no domino is redundant. We introduce the concept of a fragment tiling and show that a minimal fragment tiling always corresponds to a maximal saturated domino covering. The size of a minimal fragment tiling is the domination number of the board. We define a class of regular boards and show that for these boards the domination number gives the size of a minimal X-pentomino covering. Natural sequences that count maximal saturated domino coverings of square and rectangular boards are obtained. These include the new sequences A193764, A193765, A193766, A193767, and A193768 of OEIS.

  5. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  6. "Test" is a Four Letter Word

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, G M

    2005-05-03

    For a number of years I had the pleasure of teaching Testing Seminars all over the world and meeting and learning from others in our field. Over a twelve year period, I always asked the following questions to Software Developers, Test Engineers, and Managers who took my two or three day seminar on Software Testing: 'When was the first time you heard the word test'? 'Where were you when you first heard the word test'? 'Who said the word test'? 'How did the word test make you feel'? Most of the thousands of responses were similar to 'It was my third grade teacher at school, and I felt nervous and afraid'. Now there were a few exceptions like 'It was my third grade teacher, and I was happy and excited to show how smart I was'. But by and large, my informal survey found that 'testing' is a word to which most people attach negative meanings, based on its historical context. So why is this important to those of us in the software development business? Because I have found that a preponderance of software developers do not get real excited about hearing that the software they just wrote is going to be 'tested' by the Test Group. Typical reactions I have heard over the years run from: 'I'm sure there is nothing wrong with the software, so go ahead and test it, better you find defects than our customers'. to these extremes: 'There is no need to test my software because there is nothing wrong with it'. 'You are not qualified to test my software because you don't know as much as I do about it'. 'If any Test Engineers come into our office again to test our software we will throw them through the third floor window'. So why is there such a strong negative reaction to testing? It is primitive. It goes back to grade school for many of us. It is a negative word that congers up negative emotions. In other words, 'test' is a four letter word

  7. Writing effective consultation letters: 12 tips for teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keely, Erin; Dojeiji, Suzan; Myers, Kathryn

    2002-11-01

    Written correspondence is the standard mode of communication between healthcare providers. Despite the importance of this skill and increased emphasis on ambulatory care, communication skills and professionalism in training programs, there has been very little written on the teaching and evaluation of consultation letter writing. Consultation letter writing is an essential skill that cannot be learned simply by reading others' letters and should be taught in a formal manner. This article describes the authors' experience in teaching the skill of writing effective consultation letters to residents and describes strategies for evaluating this skill.

  8. 50 CFR 216.256 - Applications for Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND... in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.256 Applications for Letters of Authorization. To incidentally...

  9. Land Cover Trends Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  10. Flat covers of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinzhong

    1996-01-01

    Since the injective envelope and projective cover were defined by Eckmann and Bas in the 1960s, they have had great influence on the development of homological algebra, ring theory and module theory. In the 1980s, Enochs introduced the flat cover and conjectured that every module has such a cover over any ring. This book provides the uniform methods and systematic treatment to study general envelopes and covers with the emphasis on the existence of flat cover. It shows that Enochs' conjecture is true for a large variety of interesting rings, and then presents the applications of the results. Readers with reasonable knowledge in rings and modules will not have difficulty in reading this book. It is suitable as a reference book and textbook for researchers and graduate students who have an interest in this field.

  11. Evaluation of the Current Perspectives on Letters of Recommendation for Residency Applicants among Plastic Surgery Program Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shultz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goals of this project were to evaluate the current perspective on letters of recommendation and to assess the need for, and acceptance of, a more standardized letter of recommendation (LOR. Methods. An eight-question survey was distributed to plastic surgery program directors. A five-point Likert scale was selected as a means of quantifying the participants’ responses to the survey. Results. Twenty-eight of 71 program directors (39.4% completed the survey. The majority of participants felt that current LOR did not offer a realistic way to compare applicants (mean±SD, 2.9±0.8. While most agreed that increasing the objectivity of LOR would be valuable in comparing applicants (mean±SD, 4.1±0.9, the overall average response to whether a more standardized letter format would improve the resident selection process remained only slightly better than neutral (mean±SD, 3.5±1.2. Most of the chairmen supported the notion that familiarity with the author of the LOR strengthened the recommendation (mean±SD, 4.5±0.6. Conclusion. The majority of plastic surgery program directors would like more objectivity in comparing applicants but are ambivalent about a standardized letter of recommendation.

  12. Land-Cover Map for the Island of Maui, Hawaii, circa 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes land cover and vegetation for the island of Maui, Hawaii, circa 2017, hereinafter the 2017 land-cover map. The 2017 land-cover map is a...

  13. Open Letter to the European Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej; Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    2016-01-01

    to the information society. A key component of this acquis is the prohibition of general monitoring obligations to the benefit of providers of intermediary services. It is a means to achieve at least two central objectives: the encouragement of innovation as well as the protection of fundamental rights of all...... Internet users, namely the rights protected by Articles 8 and 11 of the European Convention of Human Rights. Yet, the proposed Copyright Directive, in particular, seems to negatively affect both the domain and effect of Article 15 of the E-commerce Directive. The signatories of this open letter therefore...... urge the European Commission to take into account the human rights dimension of Article 15 of the E-commerce Directive, as made explicit by the Court of the Justice of the European Union, and to make sure its implications are carefully examined across sectors. Authors: Sophie Stalla-Bourdillon Eleonora...

  14. Original Sin in the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙婷

    2012-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter,a representative work of Nathaniel Hawthorne,is a classical novel in American literature of 19th century.It vividly portrays people's life which was greatly influenced by Puritanism and Calvinism.And the author Nathaniel Hawthorne,who lived in that er-a,is also inevitably influenced by these mainstream thoughts.He ex-pressed his black romanticism,black view of human nature and original sin theory in almost each of his work.In his masterpiece,the Scarlet Let-ter,one important theme is original sin.This essay will first analyze where the original sin theory stems from and how it's developed by Hawthorne,and secondly will study how this theory influences the plot and major characters.

  15. Boscovich: scientist and man of letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, E.

    Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich (1711-1781) is known as one of the most important scientists of the second half of XVIII century, but he was active also as a man of letters, especially through an abundant production of poems in Latin verse. We try to interpret these two, apparently antinomic, aspects of his character in the framework of the culture of his epoch, in which science and literary productions were not considered as two separate or opposite fields, but only two different aspects of human knowledge. In particular we review the field of his poetic production in which this fundamental unity of knowledge is most evident, namely his poems with didactic-scientific subjects, which are examples of high-level popularization of the latest progresses in science (in particular astronomy and Newtonian physics) by means of elegant Latin verse.

  16. A Key to the Art of Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    2008-01-01

    The article examines A. Lane's grammar A Key to the Art of Letters and its contexts. Symbolically published at the threshold to the eighteenth century, Lane presents an unusually bold plan to make English a world language. Although Lane's book holds a key position in the development of English...... grammatical theory, there has been no comprehensive study of its innovative methods and radical proposals for a new national curriculum. Its challenge to Latin and French is analyzed in a historical perspective, and the impact of Lane's ideas during the eighteenth century is traced. The article shows...... that Lane is the first to use English as the basis for writing universal grammar, as part of his strategy to promote English as a universal code for learning and science...

  17. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  18. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter H

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 6 of 6 ... Health SA Gesondheid - Journal of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences is an ... Articles cover, among others, aspects of religious studies, philosophy, ... Arts, Philosophy, English Language, Literature in English, History, Music, ...

  19. 14 CFR 136.3 - Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.3 Letters of Authorization. Operators subject to this subpart who have Letters of Authorization may use the...

  20. Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Sexuality Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education" reinforces scriptural and theological commitments to truth-telling in calling for "full and honest education about sexual and reproductive health." This "Open Letter" was published in 2002, at about the midpoint of a decade-long federal government commitment to…

  1. Letter Position Coding Across Modalities: The Case of Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; García-Chamorro, Cristina; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Background The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. Methodology Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. Principal Findings We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. Conclusions The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality) occur at a relatively late, abstract locus. PMID:23071522

  2. Letter position coding across modalities: the case of Braille readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. METHODOLOGY: Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. CONCLUSIONS: The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality occur at a relatively late, abstract locus.

  3. Editorial: acceptance criteria and editorial procedures for Optics Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Andersen, Peter E; Justus, Brian L; Galtarossa, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Optics Letters Editors strive to provide timely reviews and decisions for authors while bringing top quality papers to the optics community. The purpose of this editorial is to explain Optics Letters' acceptance criteria and editorial procedures. Our hope is that greater transparency concerning the decision-making process will increase understanding as well as acceptance of our criteria and procedures.

  4. Analyzing International Letters in a Business Communication Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devet, Bonnie

    1998-01-01

    Shows how students can use persuasive principles of communication (format and writer's purpose) and of classical rhetoric (organization, ethos, pathos, logos, and style) to improve their ability to analyze business letters. Shows how applying these principles to the analysis of business letters from other countries helps students write better and…

  5. 48 CFR 432.406 - Letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letters of credit. 432.406... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 432.406 Letters of credit. The HCA is... of credit. ...

  6. Letters to Our Forebears: Reconnecting Generations through Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Gail Y.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that students writing public letters to their forebears might provide a reminder of how individuals and communities can learn from the experience of their foremothers and forefathers. Includes the author's letter to her grandfather, who was imprisoned in internment camps for Japanese Americans during World War II. (PM)

  7. RESEARCH ON THE LETTER TO THE GALATIANS: 2000-2010

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an overall picture of developments pertaining to the research on the letter. Accordingly, I have ..... that the letter shows that the classical experiences of a democratic city ...... The Psalms in the New Testament (New York/London: T&T Clark), pp.

  8. An Approach to the Humanity of the Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Feng; Wang qingping

    2009-01-01

    "The Scarlet Letter"is Hawthorne's realist representative.In his masterpiece the Scarlet letter.Hawthorne tells us that all human beings are combination of goodness and evil.As human nature changes between goodness and evil,the science mastered by human beings may bring happiness or pains.

  9. Persuasive Elements of 100 Successful Magazine Query Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, Lee

    Building from scholarly works on persuasion and compliance-gaining, a study investigated magazine query letters that attempt to persuade an editor to buy the article offered, examining what message elements make them successful. Forty magazine editors provided copies of 100 recently accepted magazine query letters, which were compared with 50…

  10. 5 CFR 536.404 - Issuance of employee letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PAY RETENTION Appeals and Miscellaneous Provisions § 536.404 Issuance of employee letters. When an employee is entitled to grade and/or pay retention, the employing agency shall give to the employee, with a... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of employee letters. 536.404...

  11. Teaching Braille Letters, Numerals, Punctuation, and Contractions to Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Brittany C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also…

  12. Transhuman Education? Sloterdijk's Reading of Heidegger's "Letter on Humanism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Fiachra

    2017-01-01

    Peter Sloterdijk presented a reading of Heidegger's "Letter on Humanism" at a conference held at Elmau in 1999. Reinterpreting the meaning of humanism in the light of Heidegger's "Letter," Sloterdijk focused his presentation on the need to redefine education as a form of genetic "taming" and proposed what seemed to be…

  13. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.; Murre, J.M.J.; Rouw, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits

  14. Sidebearings analysis of alphabet letters with complex shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Banjanin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining inter-letter space is important part of typeface designing process. The purpose of defining the letter space is to make them visually equally distant from each other within words, sentences and paragraphs creating an even value of grey, without darker or lighter areas. Different approaches for determining letter space were developed in order to facilitate this demanding process. Miguel Sousa (2006 and Walter Tracy (2003 proposes their spacing methods and in paper of De Melo Vargas (2007 and our previous work (Banjanin & Nedeljković, 2014 these methods were tested. The problems occur when defining space around letters a, f, g, s, t, z, and S, for which neither Sousa nor Tracy propose any kind of guidelines (except visual. The aim of this paper is to measure and analyse spacing values for these letters and to see if there is some kind of “formula” or some kind of guidelines which will broaden existing methods in more accurate way. We measured left and right sidebearings of these 7 problematic letters and established additional guidelines for defining letter space of those letters more accurately.

  15. Character Invention in the Letters of Maimie Pinzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, A. Cheree

    1995-01-01

    Presents a case study of autobiographical letters written by a turn-of-the-century prostitute to a Boston matron. Shows how, in creating a narrative of her life, the author of the letters uses several rhetorical strategies to recreate her character to persuade her audience (and herself) that she is worthy of respect. (SR)

  16. Patient information letters on nutrition: development and implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, J.J. van; Drenthen, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1998 the Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) began developing patient information letters (PILs), based on the practice guidelines for family physicians (FPs) (NHG standards). Five nutritional guidance letters have since been developed with the Dutch Nutrition Center. METHODS

  17. Teaching Braille Letters, Numerals, Punctuation, and Contractions to Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Brittany C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also…

  18. Motion Detection, Letter Position Encoding, and Single Word Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, P. L.; Hansen, P. C.

    1998-01-01

    A study involving 48 undergraduates found a link between motion detection and letter-position encoding and a positive relationship, albeit a nonlinear one, between motion detection threshold and the likelihood of making letter errors. This result held when age, IQ, reading age, and phonological awareness were taken into account. (CR)

  19. Editorial: acceptance criteria and editorial procedures for Optics Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Andersen, Peter E.; Justus, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    Optics Letters Editors strive to provide timely reviews and decisions for authors while bringing top quality papers to the optics community. The purpose of this editorial is to explain Optics Letters' acceptance criteria and editorial procedures. Our hope is that greater transparency concerning...

  20. Editorial: acceptance criteria and editorial procedures for Optics Letters.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Andersen, Peter E.; Justus, Brian L.; Galtarossa, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Optics Letters Editors strive to provide timely reviews and decisions for authors while bringing top quality papers to the optics community. The purpose of this editorial is to explain Optics Letters' acceptance criteria and editorial procedures. Our hope is that greater transparency concerning the decision-making process will increase understanding as well as acceptance of our criteria and procedures.

  1. Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Sexuality Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Open Letter to Religious Leaders about Sex Education" reinforces scriptural and theological commitments to truth-telling in calling for "full and honest education about sexual and reproductive health." This "Open Letter" was published in 2002, at about the midpoint of a decade-long federal government commitment to…

  2. [The letters of Hermann Rorschach to his brother].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signer, Rita; Müller, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Hermann Rorschach, brilliant creator of the projective test called after him, worked from the beginning to the middle of 1914 in a sanatorium near Moscow. Recently discovered letters to his brother Paul reveal his motives for abandoning his initial plan to settle in Russia. Apparently the impossibility of scientific work was of great importance. Additional letters complement our knowledge of Rorschach's personality.

  3. 50 CFR 216.106 - Letter of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... citizens, is required to conduct activities pursuant to any regulations established under § 216.105. Requests for Letters of Authorization shall be submitted to the Director, Office of Protected Resources... request. (d) Notice of issuance of all Letters of Authorization will be published in the Federal Register...

  4. Letters to a Young Baller: Exploring Epistolary Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawansky, Megan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of epistolary criticism within the realm of sport studies and aspires to encourage scholars to consider the use of non-traditional sport memorabilia and source materials when telling emotive stories about sport and sport practices. The use of letters and the letter-writing format to tell a personal narrative…

  5. 12 CFR 614.4720 - Letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Code, or the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits, to or on behalf of its customers. In addition, as a matter of sound banking practice, letters of credit shall be issued in... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Letters of credit. 614.4720 Section 614.4720...

  6. Overt use of a tactile-kinesthetic strategy shifts to covert processing in rehabilitation of letter-by-letter reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Carney, Aimee Syms; Glezer, Laurie S; Friedman, Rhonda B

    2010-11-01

    BACKGROUND: Letter-by-letter readers identify each letter of the word they are reading serially in left to right order before recognizing the word. When their letter naming is also impaired, letter-by-letter reading is inaccurate and can render even single word reading very poor. Tactile and/or kinesthetic strategies have been reported to improve reading in these patients, but only under certain conditions or for a limited set of stimuli. AIMS: The primary aim of the current study was to determine whether a tactile/kinesthetic treatment could significantly improve reading specifically under normal reading conditions, i.e. reading untrained words presented in free vision and read without overt use of the strategy. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Three chronic letter-by-letter readers participated in a tactile/kinesthetic treatment aimed at first improving letter naming accuracy (phase 1) and then letter-by-letter reading speed (phase 2). In a multiple case series design, accuracy and speed of reading untrained words without overt use of the trained tactile/kinesthetic strategy was assessed before phase 1, after phase 1 and again after phase 2. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: All three patients significantly improved both their speed and accuracy reading untrained words without overt use of the trained tactile/kinesthetic strategy. All three patients required the additional practice in phase 2 to achieve significant improvement. Treatment did not target sentence level reading, yet two of the three patients became so adept that they could read entire sentences. CONCLUSIONS: This study replicates previous findings on the efficacy of tactile/kinesthetic treatment for letter-by-letter readers with poor letter naming. It further demonstrates that this treatment can alter cognitive processing such that words never specifically trained can be read in free vision without overtly using the trained strategy. The data suggest that an important element in achieving

  7. Science Letters: A new asymmetric watermarking scheme based on a real fractional DCT-I transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new asymmetric watermarking scheme is proposed in this letter. In the proposed scheme, a secret real fractional DCT-I transform and a primitive watermark are employed to generate an asymmetric watermark. The secret watermark for embedding is derived from the primitive watermark, and is embedded in the large fractional DCT-I transformation coefficients of a cover signal. The asymmetric detection procedure is performed using a correlation test. Simulation results showed that the asymmetric detection is reliable, and that the scheme can provide minimum security.

  8. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  9. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  10. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  11. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  12. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  13. Projected 2020 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Projected 2020 land cover was developed to provide one scenario of development in the year 2020. It was used to generate several metrics to compare to 1992 metrics...

  14. Digit and letter alexia in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Rui Pan; Ying Peng; Wei Peng; Yamei Tang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a 24-year-old patient with delayed encephalopathy, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and visual impairment 1 week after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. The results of a visual field assessment, electroencephalography and head magnetic resonance imaging indicated damage to the cerebral cortex. After a 2-week treatment period, the patient had recovered from the visual impairment, but exhibited digit- and letter-reading difficulty. The Chinese aphasia battery and the number and letter battery supplement were conducted. The results revealed that the patient exhibited digit and letter alexia, while the ability to read Chinese characters was preserved. In contrast, the patient exhibited a deficit in Chinese character writing, while number and letter writing remained intact. Following treatment, reading and writing ability was improved and electroencephalographic abnormalities were ameliorated. Overall, our experimental findings demonstrated that delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning was characterized by digit and letter alexia.

  15. Automatic adverse drug events detection using letters to the editor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Srinivasan, Padmini; Polgreen, Philip M

    2012-01-01

    We present and test the intuition that letters to the editor in journals carry early signals of adverse drug events (ADEs). Surprisingly these letters have not yet been exploited for automatic ADE detection unlike for example, clinical records and PubMed. Part of the challenge is that it is not easy to access the full-text of letters (for the most part these do not appear in PubMed). Also letters are likely underrated in comparison with full articles. Besides demonstrating that this intuition holds we contribute techniques for post market drug surveillance. Specifically, we test an automatic approach for ADE detection from letters using off-the-shelf machine learning tools. We also involve natural language processing for feature definitions. Overall we achieve high accuracy in our experiments and our method also works well on a second new test set. Our results encourage us to further pursue this line of research.

  16. Remarks about interaction, genre textual and text planin personal letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Adriana Mamede Galvão

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a discussion concerning interaction, genre and text plan in personal letters from textual and interactional perspectives. The study is based on notions of verbal interaction, genre, and text plan, aiming to describe, analyze and interpret linguistic and textual evidences through personal letters. The research corpus is comprised of a letter written by Luis da Câmara Cascudo, addressed to Mário de Andrade, selected from a set of correspondences gathered into one volume under the title Cascudo and Mário de Andrade, Letters, 1924-1944. This study is carried out using a qualitative approach, focusing on social practices used by interactants to achieve specific goals through letters. Thus, reflections on this object have highlighted it as a form of sociability and involvement among people who use a genre in interactions and construct texts through fixed and occasional plans.

  17. Episodic effects on the visual comparison of letters in words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmurek, H H

    1992-11-01

    In two experiments, subjects compared the identity of either the first letters of displays or all the letters in displays. Words yielded faster decisions than did pseudowords (pronounceable items derived by changing a vowel in a word) only when entire displays were compared. In a training phase run before the comparison task, subjects had written down either the first letters or entire displays. Relative to items that had not appeared in the training phase, prior experience at writing entire displays facilitated same decisions about entire displays and interfered with different decisions about entire displays. Prior experiences did not moderate the processing of first-letter identities. It was concluded that episodic effects arise from the interaction of higher order information underlying lexical encoding. Prelexical processing of letters is not sensitive to episodic effects.

  18. The Contributions of Phonological Awareness and Letter-Name Knowledge to Letter-Sound Acquisition--A Cross-Classified Multilevel Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.; Zhou, Chengfu

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated critical factors in letter-sound acquisition (i.e., letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness) with data from 653 English-speaking kindergartners in the beginning of the year. We examined (a) the contribution of phonological awareness to facilitating letter-sound acquisition from letter names and (b)…

  19. Detecting letters and words in prose passages: a test of alternative theoretical accounts of the missing letter effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Alice F; Cunningham, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    College students searched for either h or the in prose passages in which every h occurred in the test word the. In Experiment 1, passage versions differed in that the critical noun phrases were either the alone (i.e., in citation form as a noun referring to itself) or "the definite article." Many more detection errors occurred for letter than word target items, especially with "the definite article." In Experiment 2, passage versions differed in that a given noun phrase containing the test word the occurred as a subject in one version and an object in the other. Again, many more detection errors occurred when the target item was the letter h than when it was the letter sequence the. Also, with letter but not letter sequence targets, more detection errors occurred for object than subject noun phrases. In Experiment 3, passages were presented either in regular format or with all capital letters. Students made more detection errors with the regular than with the capitals format, many more errors occurred when participants searched for letters than for letter sequences, and the effect of target item was larger with regular than with capitals format. These findings suggest that accounts of detection errors in reading must include the influence of unitization and processing time or attentional allocation.

  20. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  1. Capo Verde, Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  2. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  3. Concurrent cognitive processing and letter sequence transcription deficits in stutterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, W G

    1990-03-01

    Previous research has indicated that men who stutter transcribe rapidly presented sequences of letters more slowly and less accurately than nonstutterer controls. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the transcription deficit is not limited to task conditions that demand concurrent monitoring and responding. This was evidenced by comparable deficits on a successive response condition that required subjects to write letters after the presentation was complete. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that the deficit is not due to a difficulty by stutterers in parsing streams of stimulus information internally. Their performance did not differentially improve when letters were grouped with brief pauses, nor with experience in transcribing preparsed letter sequences. This experiment also demonstrated that the phenomenon is generalizable to women. In related testing, stutterers were slower than controls in writing internally generated sequences of letters, those of the alphabet forwards and backwards, but not in writing the same two letters, A and B, repetitively nor in the cognitively more demanding task of writing numbers backwards by three's. These results parallel those obtained with finger tapping of same versus unique sequences by stutterers and were interpreted as being consistent with the idea that while stutterers are not generally slower motorically than nonstutterers, they experience difficulty when required to organize and carry out tasks with new multiple response transitions. The two experiments have replicated and extended, under different conditions, the earlier findings of a letter sequence transcription deficit in stutterers, but the nature of the interference still remains to be clarified.

  4. Angles of Refraction: The Letters of Mary Delany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Chiavetta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary Delany (1700-1788 is particularly famous for her paper-cuttings or ‘mosaicks’ based on botanical subjects. A very lively woman of fashion, she was close to Queen Charlotte and one of the Bluestocking Ladies. She left a vivid portrait of life and society in eighteenth century England and Ireland in the six volumes of her Autobiography and Letters, edited in 1861 by her descendant Lady Llanover. Her autobiography is made up of 18 letters sent to her most intimate friend, Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Portland. The first letter is dated 1740, but in this, as in the following ones, Mrs. Delany narrates her past life to her friend, starting from the early years of her life, describing her unhappy marriage, financial difficulties as a widow, and family relationships. Along with these ‘autobiographical’ letters, other letters written by her to her sister Ann are introduced, which date to the periods of life Mrs. Delany is dealing with. The aim of this paper is to focus on the textual, linguistic and content differences between the two letter types, and analyse how the identity of Mary Delany is differently constructed and perceived in the explicit autobiographical letters addressed to the Duchess of Portland, and the ones written to her sister. 

  5. Novel Moment Features Extraction for Recognizing Handwritten Arabic Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheith Abandah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Offline recognition of handwritten Arabic text awaits accurate recognition solutions. Most of the Arabic letters have secondary components that are important in recognizing these letters. However these components have large writing variations. We targeted enhancing the feature extraction stage in recognizing handwritten Arabic text. Approach: In this study, we proposed a novel feature extraction approach of handwritten Arabic letters. Pre-segmented letters were first partitioned into main body and secondary components. Then moment features were extracted from the whole letter as well as from the main body and the secondary components. Using multi-objective genetic algorithm, efficient feature subsets were selected. Finally, various feature subsets were evaluated according to their classification error using an SVM classifier. Results: The proposed approach improved the classification error in all cases studied. For example, the improvements of 20-feature subsets of normalized central moments and Zernike moments were 15 and 10%, respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: Extracting and selecting statistical features from handwritten Arabic letters, their main bodies and their secondary components provided feature subsets that give higher recognition accuracies compared to the subsets of the whole letters alone.

  6. PERKEMBANGAN EMBRIO DAN LARVA IKAN LETTER SIX, Paracanthurus hepatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniar Kusumawati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dalam upaya memperkaya populasi ikan letter six (Paracanthurus hepatus di alam yang telah mendekati kepunahan akibat adanya illegal fishing maka dilakukan usaha perbenihan. Kegiatan perbenihan ikan letter six memerlukan informasi awal tentang perkembangan telur dan pemeliharaan larva yang nantinya akan digunakan sebagai acuan dasar dalam menentukan pengembangan teknik pemeliharaan larva ikan letter six yang tepat. Koleksi induk ikan letter six hasil tangkapan di alam dari perairan Maluku dan Papua. Induk letter six dipelihara dalam tangki policarbonat bulat berkapasitas dua ton dengan sistem air mengalir. Selama pemeliharaan, induk letter six mampu memijah secara alami. Durasi perkembangan embrio hingga menetas memerlukan waktu 22 jam 24 menit pada suhu normal air laut 29°C. Penyerapan kuning telur optimum terjadi pada hari kedua dan maksimum terserap habis pada hari ketiga, sedangkan butir minyak terserap habis tepat pada hari ketiga. Korelasi pertumbuhan panjang dan tinggi larva mengikuti hubungan alometrik negatif di mana konstanta pertumbuhan b = 0,6629 (b < 1. Berdasarkan perkembangan larva, umur D-2 (terbentuk bintik mata mulai diberikan pakan alami berupa plankton dan pada D-3 (bukaan mulut mulai diberikan zooplankton yaitu rotifer. Dengan metode pemeliharaan ini, larva ikan letter six mati pada D-25 sehingga perlu adanya perbaikan metode pemeliharaan melalui pendekatan lingkungan maupun pakan.

  7. Parent–Child Conversations About Letters and Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Sarah; Treiman, Rebecca; Rosales, Nicole; Otake, Shoko

    2014-01-01

    Learning about letters, and how they differ from pictures, is one important aspect of a young child’s print awareness. To test the hypothesis that parent speech provides children with information about these differences, we studied parent–child conversations in CHILDES (MacWhinney, 2000). We found that parents talk to their young children about letters, differentiating them from pictures, by 1–2 years of age and that some of these conversational patterns change across the preschool years in ways that emphasize important features of letters, such as their shape. We also found that children talk about letters and pictures in distinct ways, suggesting an implicit understanding of some of the differences between letters and pictures at an early age. Some differences in parent–child conversations about letters were found as a function of socioeconomic status: Lower SES families appeared to focus more on alphabetic order than higher SES families. The general letter knowledge expressed in these conversations suggests that everyday interactions are an important component of the home literacy environment and that they differ, in some respects, as a function of child age and family background. PMID:25525295

  8. [Darwin in the Republic of Letters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    For those accustomed to thinking that the modern cultural dimension arose under the banner of a clash between the so-called "two cultures," the figure of Darwin the "humanist" could reserve numerous surprises. It was above all the well-known paleontologist S.J. Gould who pointed them out. He went so far as to track down, in the Italian cultural roots from Saint Francis to Galileo, an element of continuity between his own Darwinism and our literary tradition that passes through the writing of the masterpieces of the nineteenth-century natural sciences. On the basis of a similar, and also audacious, rereading of the cultural history, the essay proposes to indicate some possible developments of the new dialogue undertaken, beginning with the insertion of the scientist Darwin in the European horizon of the Republic of Letters. There are then indicated some historical-cultural categories that would merit reconsideration: the new figure of intellectual of the twenty-first century, the idea of a science immersed in the historical contingency and in the concrete pleasure of the subject that knows, the role of "sweetness" and of "wonder" also in the most rigorous study, and lastly the need of an in-depth knowledge of the Darwinian writing, not as a curiosity for the educational trend of the era of positivism, but as an indispensable epistemological requisite for a correct understanding of its science.

  9. Reusable pipe flange covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, James Elliott (Simpsonville, SC); Perez, Julieta (Houston, TX)

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  10. African Journals Online: Browse Alphabetically -- letter R

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... Maritime education and training; Maritime technology; Maritime ... media, cultural studies, law, education, leisure science and tourism. ... Articles covering social theory and the history and politics of the hospitality industry are welcome. ... research work in the field of health and related biological sciences.

  11. Adding structure to land cover - using fractional cover to study animal habitat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevanda, Mirjana; Horning, Ned; Reineking, Bjoern; Heurich, Marco; Wegmann, Martin; Mueller, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Linking animal movements to landscape features is critical to identify factors that shape the spatial behaviour of animals. Habitat selection is led by behavioural decisions and is shaped by the environment, therefore the landscape is crucial for the analysis. Land cover classification based on ground survey and remote sensing data sets are an established approach to define landscapes for habitat selection analysis. We investigate an approach for analysing habitat use using continuous land cover information and spatial metrics. This approach uses a continuous representation of the landscape using percentage cover of a chosen land cover type instead of discrete classes. This approach, fractional cover, captures spatial heterogeneity within classes and is therefore capable to provide a more distinct representation of the landscape. The variation in home range sizes is analysed using fractional cover and spatial metrics in conjunction with mixed effect models on red deer position data in the Bohemian Forest, compared over multiple spatio-temporal scales. We analysed forest fractional cover and a texture metric within each home range showing that variance of fractional cover values and texture explain much of variation in home range sizes. The results show a hump-shaped relationship, leading to smaller home ranges when forest fractional cover is very homogeneous or highly heterogeneous, while intermediate stages lead to larger home ranges. The application of continuous land cover information in conjunction with spatial metrics proved to be valuable for the explanation of home-range sizes of red deer.

  12. The effects of feedback and consequences on transitional cursive letter formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trap, J J; Milner-Davis, P; Joseph, S; Cooper, J O

    1978-01-01

    Twelve first-grade students were employed to analyze the effects of (1) Verbal and Visual Feedback, (2) Verbal and Visual Feedback plus immediate rewriting of trained letters with one or more incorrect letter strokes, and (3) Potential Reinforcement on cursive letter strokes. Students practised both a set of trained and a set of untrained letters during each session. Feedback and reinforcement was administered only for trained letter strokes. The percentage of correct trained letter strokes increased during all conditions. Performance on the untrained but practiced and trained letter strokes followed the same general trend in response pattern. No consistent pattern of generalization was demonstrated with untrained and unpracticed letter strokes.

  13. The Social Name-Letter Effect on Online Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kooti, Farshad; Magno, Gabriel; Weber, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    The Name-Letter Effect states that people have a preference for brands, places, and even jobs that start with the same letter as their own first name. So Sam might like Snickers and live in Seattle. We use social network data from Twitter and Google+ to replicate this effect in a new environment. We find limited to no support for the Name-Letter Effect on social networks. We do, however, find a very robust Same-Name Effect where, say, Michaels would be more likely to link to other Michaels th...

  14. David Bohm : causality and chance, letters to three women

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The letters transcribed in this book were written by physicist David Bohm to three close female acquaintances in the period 1950 to 1956. They provide a background to his causal interpretation of quantum mechanics and the Marxist philosophy that inspired his scientific work in quantum theory, probability and statistical mechanics. In his letters, Bohm reveals the ideas that led to his ground breaking book Causality and Chance in Modern Physics. The political arguments as well as the acute personal problems contained in these letters help to give a rounded, human picture of this leading scientist and twentieth century thinker.

  15. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  16. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  17. Covering All Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The day a school opens its doors for the first time, the flooring will be new and untarnished. When the flooring is in such pristine condition, many flooring materials--carpeting, vinyl, terrazzo, wood or some other surface--will look good. But school and university planners who decide what kind of material covers the floors of their facilities…

  18. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  19. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  20. International Large Detector. Letter of intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeck, Holger [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Falkiner High Energy Physics Group; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (AT). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    In the summer of 2007, the GLD concept study group, whose membership was largely based in Asia, and the LDC concept study group, which was mostly based in Europe with a strong north american membership, joined forces to produce a single Letter of Intent for a detector at the International Linear Collider, and formed the ILD concept group. Both the GLD and LDC concepts used the particle flow algorithm for jet reconstruction and a TPC for the central tracker. The basic parameters of the two concepts such as the size of the detector and the strength of the solenoid field, however, were quite different and had to be unified in order to write this letter of intent for ILD. Also, other critical details such as the interaction region design had to be unified. This was a non-trivial task, neither politically nor sociologically. The newly-formed concept study group, the ILD group, created a management team and engaged in intense studies to define the ILD detector concept by scientifically optimising the detector designs. The process has worked remarkably well, and we present here the outcome of this study as well as the large amount of studies that preceded separately by the two older concept groups. The ILD detector concept is now well defined, even though some technology choices are still open. One of the merits of unifying the detector concepts was that it revitalised the studies on physics performance and detector designs. We believe that the level of sophistication of the simulation and physics analyses has reached a high degree of sophistication for a detector group at this stage. This was achieved through collaboration and competition, and is the result of a productive learning process. The unification had also positive effects on the subdetector R and D efforts. Most R and D on detector technologies relevant to the GLD and LDC groups is being performed within the framework of detector R and D collaborations such as LCTPC, SiLC, CALICE, and FCAL which pursue their

  1. Secret letters cast light on Copenhagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, Matin

    2001-11-01

    Letters by Niels Bohr that have been kept secret since his death could explain the mystery of why Werner Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen in 1941. When the author Michael Frayn spent two years writing Copenhagen, he had no idea how successful the play would become. He doubted that audiences would sit through a historical drama about a war-time meeting between Werner Heisenberg - head of Germany's nuclear programme - and his old mentor Niels Bohr in the Nazi-occupied Danish capital in 1941. But Frayn's efforts paid off. Audiences and critics alike have thrilled at the way the award-winning play probes the historical uncertainty that surrounds the encounter. Was Heisenberg fishing for information about the Allies' atomic plans - or was he trying to recruit Bohr for Germany's bomb programme? Did Heisenberg want to suggest that the Germans were close to finishing a bomb so that the Allies would make peace with Hitler? Maybe he was simply seeking approval from Bohr for his own atomic work. There is also a moral debate: did Heisenberg know how to build a bomb, but decided not to - or did he want to build one, but got his calculations wrong? Unfortunately, no-one was there to record or observe the encounter and we cannot know for sure what was said or implied between the two men. All we do know is that the pair dined together and took a short walk - and that the incident damaged Bohr and Heisenberg's friendship forever. To piece together what happened, historians of science have had to rely on Heisenberg's post-war recollections - which have been ambiguous and contradictory - along with scraps of evidence from secondary sources. (U.K.)

  2. Code-switching in letter writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Sobahle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sets out to investigate code switching in letter writing among a small group ofXhosa speaking people. Code switching is found in informal speech and informal writing. It was established from the data that the closer people are, the more code switching there is. Code switching seems to follow a pattern in that it was observed to occur: (a only with certain people (b when talking about certain topics (c when wanting to exclude another person (d when emphasising a point. Code switching also appears to have a 'grammar' of its own. It is not in any way a pidgin. It is clear from the data that code switching does not reflect denial of one's identity. English, being the medium of education for Blacks in South Africa, is therefore bound to be reflected not only in their speech but also in their writing. Die studie het ten doe/ om registeroorskakeling in die skryf van briewe deur 'n klein groepie Xhosasprekendes te ondersoek. Registeroorskakeling word gevind in informele spraak en informele skryfwerk. Daar is uit die data vasgestel dat hoe intiemer mense is hoe meer vind registeroorskakeling plaas. Volgens waarneming blyk dit dat registeroorskakeling 'n patroon volg, want dit het voorgekom: (a net by sekere mense (b wanneer oor sekere onderwerpe gepraat is (c wanneer 'n ander per soon uitgeskakel is (d wanneer 'n mening beklemtoon is. Registeroorskakeling blyk 'n eie grammatika te he. Dit is geensins "pidgin" nie. Dit blyk uit data dat die skrywer se identiteit nie verlore raak tydens registeroorskakeling nie. Omdat Engels die medium van onderrig vir Swartes in Suid-Afrika is, sal dit noodwendig nie net in hulle spraak nie, maar ook in hul skryfwerk gereflekteer word.

  3. Name-letter branding under scrutiny: real products, new algorithms, and the probability of buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    People like letters matching their own first and last name initials more than nonname letters. This name-letter effect has also been found for brands, i.e., people like brands resembling their own name letters (initial or first three). This has been termed name-letter branding effect. In the present study of 199 participants, ages 12 to 79 years, this name-letter branding effect was found for a modified design (1) using real products, (2) concentrating on product names rather than brand names, (3) using five different products for each letter of the Roman alphabet, (4) asking for the buying probability, and (5) using recently introduced algorithms, controlling for individual response tendencies (i.e., liking all letters more or less) and general normative popularity of particular letters (i.e., some letters are generally preferred more than other letters).

  4. [1979 letter regarding wading bird locations in Tennessee

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter discusses the known locations of colonial bird nesting species such as herons, egrets, terns, and bank or cliff swallows. Included are the site...

  5. [Letter of Concurrence : Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge Sport Fishing Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter states that the Illinois Department of Conservation concurs with Meredosia NWR's efforts to establish a public use program on the Refuge.

  6. Resource Letter PE-1: Physics and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonle, John I.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a Resource Letter on air pollution, noise pollution, transportation, and solid waste for the purpose of acquainting college physicists with some of the literature and teaching aids. Included are five bibliographies of which four are annotated. (CC)

  7. Toward a statistical mechanics of four letter words

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Greg J

    2008-01-01

    We consider words as a network of interacting letters, and approximate the probability distribution of states taken on by this network. Despite the intuition that the rules of English spelling are highly combinatorial (and arbitrary), we find that maximum entropy models consistent with pairwise correlations among letters provide a surprisingly good approximation to the full statistics of four letter words, capturing ~92% of the multi-information among letters and even "discovering" real words that were not represented in the data from which the pairwise correlations were estimated. The maximum entropy model defines an energy landscape on the space of possible words, and local minima in this landscape account for nearly two-thirds of words used in written English.

  8. Army Response Letter & Analysis - signed February 5, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    A reply to a letter from Mr. J. Charles Fox, former Administrator for Water requesting to review the proposed decision of the Army Corps of Engineers Sacramento District Department of the Army (DA) permit to Vail Associates.

  9. Sept 2013 NFHL Letter of Map Revision (LOMR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  10. Love letters to the dead: resurrecting an epistolary art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Dorothy A; Graham-Pole, John R

    This article explores the art of letter-writing, specifically to our beloved dead, as a form of autoethnographic research, pedagogy, and care work. As university teachers and qualitative researchers in palliative and end-of-life care, we review the literature and history of epistolary communications with the deceased, as a prelude to writing our own letters. John writes to his long-dead mother and Dorothy to her recently deceased spouse Patrick, each letter followed by a reflective dialogue between us. Through this dialogue, we highlight the potential application of this art, or handcraft, to formal and informal palliative care, and the implications for practice, pedagogy, policy, and research. We propose that such direct, non-mediated, communications can offer a valuable form of healing for bereaved people. The therapeutic potential of letter writing and the abundance of literary and popular culture exemplars of responses from the dead are also largely unexplored in death education and research.

  11. 78 FR 7784 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters AGENCY: Government... Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy...

  12. Consultation letters for medically unexplained physical symptoms in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, Rob; Blankenstein, Annette H.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; Krol, Boudien; Stewart, Roy; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, CM

    2010-01-01

    Background In primary care between 10% and 35% of all visits concern patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). MUPS are associated with high medical consumption, significant disabilities and psychiatricmorbidity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of consultation letters (CLs

  13. 50 CFR 216.259 - Modifications to Letters of Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND... in the Gulf of Mexico § 216.259 Modifications to Letters of Authorization. (a) Except as provided...

  14. Politeness Strategies in Good-news Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕争; 李纳

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the presentation of politeness in good-news business letters at the lexical,syntactic,and discourse levels based on Leech's Politeness Principle and Brown and Levinson's Face-saving Theory.

  15. Parents’ Talk About Letters With Their Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Schmidt, John; Decker, Kristina; Robins, Sarah; Levine, Susan C.; Demir, Özlem Ece

    2015-01-01

    A literacy-related activity that occurs in children's homes—talk about letters in everyday conversations—was examined using data from 50 children who were visited every 4 months between 14 and 50 months. Parents talked about some letters, including those that are common in English words and the first letter of their children's names, especially often. Parents’ focus on the child's initial was especially strong in families of higher socioeconomic status, and the extent to which parents talked about the child's initial during the later sessions of the study was related to the children's kindergarten reading skill. Conversations that included the child's initial were longer than those that did not, and parents presented a variety of information about this letter. PMID:26014495

  16. Letter from Federal Power Commission [Havasu National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Federal Power Commission to the Secretary of the Interior. It confirms that the Federal Power Commission has no plans that...

  17. Congruence between parents' and children's three-letter Holland codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M J

    1994-06-01

    In this study the associations of three-letter Holland codes of 40 parents and their children (20 mothers and daughters, 20 fathers and sons) were analyzed. Implications for school counselors, based on the results, are briefly discussed.

  18. Coral bleaching, hurricane damage, and benthic cover on coral reefs in St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands: A comparison of surveys with the chain transect method and videography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C.S.; Miller, J.

    2001-01-01

    The linear chain transect method and videography were used to quantify the percent cover by corals, macroalgae, gorgonians, other living organisms, and substrate along permanent transects on two fringing reefs off St. John. Both methods were used simultaneously on Lameshur reef in November 1998, and on Newfound reef in March and October 1998. Hurricane Georges passed over St. John in September 1998, and a severe coral bleaching episode began the same month. Both methods gave remarkably similar values for coral cover, while the video method gave consistently higher values for gorgonians and macroalgae. The most dramatic difference was in the quantification of bleaching. At Newfound, the chain method indicated 13.4% (SD = 14.1) of the coral tissues were bleached and the video method, 43.4% (SD = 13.0). Corresponding values at Lameshur were 18.1% (SD = 22.3) and 46.5% (SD = 13.3). Although hurricane damage was conspicuous at Newfound reef, neither method showed significant changes in coral cover or other categories as a result of the storm.

  19. Letter-By-Letter Reading: Natural Recovery and Response to Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Pélagie M.; Magloire, Joël G.; Robey, Randall R.

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation provides a longitudinal study of an individual (RB) with acquired alexia following left posterior cerebral artery stroke. At initial testing, RB exhibited acquired alexia characterized by letter-by-letter (LBL) reading, mild anomic aphasia, and acquired agraphia. Repeated measures of reading accuracy and rate were collected for single words and text over the course of one year, along with probes of naming and spelling abilities. Improvements associated with natural recovery (i.e., without treatment) were documented up to the fourth month post onset, when text reading appeared to be relatively stable. Multiple oral reading (MOR) treatment was initiated at 22 weeks post-stroke, and additional improvements in reading rate and accuracy for text were documented that were greater than those expected on the basis of spontaneous recovery alone. Over the course of one year, reading reaction times for single words improved, and the word-length effect that is the hallmark of LBL reading diminished. RB's response to treatment supports the therapeutic value of MOR treatment to in LBL readers. His residual impairment of reading and spelling one-year post stroke raised the question as to whether further progress was impeded by degraded orthographic knowledge. PMID:16518009

  20. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romke eRouw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days. The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457 of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes and participants who do not (non-synesthetes. We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for A, red for Monday, and white for Sunday. We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences shown by Simner et al (2005. While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups.

  1. On a Field, Sable, the Letter A, Gules——Comments on The Scarlet Letter%On a Field, Sable, the Letter A, Gules--Comments on The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑾

    2007-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter is a moral and psychological novel which focuses on human nature and the effects of sin. This paper is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on the analysis ofa sable field and the second part is about gules letter A. Actually the two parts are the answers to where the sin is and how to achieve redemption. Hawthorne's thoughts,good wishes and artistic characters are fully expressed in it.

  2. Politeness Strategies in English and Chinese Business Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查琳琳

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores similarities and differences in the application of positive and negative politeness strategies to Eng-lish and Chinese business letters and illuminates underlying causes of such similarities and differences. The results indicate that English and Chinese business letters have some common features and great discrepancies in categories and the distribution of posi-tive and negative politeness strategies. It is argued that common situational factors, different cultural backgrounds and different syntactic features result in their similarities and differences.

  3. Singular coverings of toposes

    CERN Document Server

    Bunge, Marta

    2006-01-01

    The self-contained theory of certain singular coverings of toposes called complete spreads, that is presented in this volume, is a field of interest to topologists working in knot theory, as well as to various categorists. It extends the complete spreads in topology due to R. H. Fox (1957) but, unlike the classical theory, it emphasizes an unexpected connection with topos distributions in the sense of F. W. Lawvere (1983). The constructions, though often motivated by classical theories, are sometimes quite different from them. Special classes of distributions and of complete spreads, inspired respectively by functional analysis and topology, are studied. Among the former are the probability distributions; the branched coverings are singled out amongst the latter. This volume may also be used as a textbook for an advanced one-year graduate course introducing topos theory with an emphasis on geometric applications. Throughout the authors emphasize open problems. Several routine proofs are left as exercises, but...

  4. On directed coverings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    In [1], we study coverings in the setting of directed topology. Unfortunately, there is a condition missing in the definition of a directed covering. Some of the results in [1] require this extra condition and in fact it was claimed to follow from the original definition. It is the purpose...... of this note to give the right definition and point out how this affects the statements in that paper. Moreover, we give an example of a dicovering in the sense of [1], which does not satisfy the extra condition. Fortunately, with the extra condition, the subsequent results are now correct. [1] L. Fajstrup......, Dicovering spaces, Homology Homotopy Appl. 5 (2003), no. 2, 1-17....

  5. The effects of alphabet and expertise on letter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Robert W; Wilson, Colin; Rapp, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    Long-standing questions in human perception concern the nature of the visual features that underlie letter recognition and the extent to which the visual processing of letters is affected by differences in alphabets and levels of viewer expertise. We examined these issues in a novel approach using a same-different judgment task on pairs of letters from the Arabic alphabet with 2 participant groups: 1 with no prior exposure to Arabic and 1 with reading proficiency. Hierarchical clustering and linear mixed-effects modeling of reaction times and accuracy provide evidence that both the specific characteristics of the alphabet and observers' previous experience with it affect how letters are perceived and visually processed. The findings of this research further our understanding of the multiple factors that affect letter perception and support the view of a visual system that dynamically adjusts its weighting of visual features as expert readers come to more efficiently and effectively discriminate the letters of the specific alphabet they are viewing. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Covering R-trees

    CERN Document Server

    Berestovskii, V N

    2007-01-01

    We show that every inner metric space X is the metric quotient of a complete R-tree via a free isometric action, which we call the covering R-tree of X. The quotient mapping is a weak submetry (hence, open) and light. In the case of compact 1-dimensional geodesic space X, the free isometric action is via a subgroup of the fundamental group of X. In particular, the Sierpin'ski gasket and carpet, and the Menger sponge all have the same covering R-tree, which is complete and has at each point valency equal to the continuum. This latter R-tree is of particular interest because it is "universal" in at least two senses: First, every R-tree of valency at most the continuum can be isometrically embedded in it. Second, every Peano continuum is the image of it via an open light mapping. We provide a sketch of our previous construction of the uniform universal cover in the special case of inner metric spaces, the properties of which are used in the proof.

  7. Letters to those who Dare Feel: Using Reflective Letter-Writing to Explore the Emotionality of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Pithouse-Morgan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Using reflective letter-writing as a method of generating data, a group of four researchers embarked on a collaborative autoethnographic inquiry into the emotional dimensions of researching social aspects of HIV & AIDS. In this article, we use the medium of a narrative dialogue to represent and re-examine our reflective letter-writing method. The dialogue draws attention to key features of reflective letter-writing as a collaborative autoethnographic research method and, in so doing, highlights and explores the nature, potential significance, and challenges of this method. Our discussion points to the value of a collaborative process of reflective letter-writing as a way for researchers to access and portray emotional aspects of their research experience, to deepen their engagement with these emotional dimensions, and to gain insight into their own and others' lived research experiences.

  8. A linguistic kaleidoscope of the Malay letter; The case of the eighteenth century official letters from the Sultanate of Buton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suryadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Malay letters make up the largest category of documents among the Malay manuscripts preserved at Leiden University Library, the Netherlands. The corpus represents the scope of the territories under Dutch East Indies authority during the colonial era. In fact, they are authentic documents which denote not only political contact between the local kingdoms in the Archipelago (Nusantara with the Dutch East Indies government in Batavia during colonial times but also constitute an important source for the study of the historical development of the Malay language. This essay looks at the language characters of such letters which came from the court of Buton in Southeast Sulawesi. It aims to sketch the linguistic variety of the classical Malay language represented in its eighteenth century letter-writing tradition. Having specific diction and features that confirm local influences, the language of the letters shows distinctiveness in terms of phonology, morphology and syntax.

  9. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-06-01

    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  10. North American Land Cover Characteristics ? 1-Kilometer Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is an Arc/INFO grid map of land cover characteristics for North America, excluding Hawaii, and including the Caribbean and most of Mexico. The nominal...

  11. National Land Cover Database 2001 Version 2: 1985-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Land Cover Database 2001 Version 2 (NLCD 2001 Version 2) is being compiled across all 50 states and Puerto Rico as a cooperative mapping effort of the...

  12. National Land Cover Database 2001 Version 2: 1985-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Land Cover Database 2001 Version 2 (NLCD 2001 Version 2) is being compiled across all 50 states and Puerto Rico as a cooperative mapping effort of the...

  13. Using Incremental Rehearsal to Teach Letter Sounds to English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Wilson, Jennifer; Egan, Andrea; Brandes, Dana; Kunkel, Amy; Peterson, Meredith; McComas, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of incremental rehearsal (IR) on letter sound expression for one kindergarten and one first grade English learner who were below district benchmark for letter sound fluency. A single-subject multiple-baseline design across sets of unknown letter sounds was used to evaluate the effect of IR on letter-sound expression…

  14. Linking the Shapes of Alphabet Letters to Their Sounds: The Case of Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Levin, Iris; Kessler, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Learning the sounds of letters is an important part of learning a writing system. Most previous studies of this process have examined English, focusing on variations in the phonetic iconicity of letter names as a reason why some letter sounds (such as that of b, where the sound is at the beginning of the letter's name) are easier to learn than…

  15. Covered Clause Elimination

    CERN Document Server

    Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

  16. Preventive letter: doubling the return rate after gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Pablo R; Borzone, Gisella R; Berkowitz, Loni; Mertens, Nicolás; Busso, Dolores; Santos, José L; Poblete, José A; Vera, Claudio; Belmar, Cristián; Goldenberg, Denisse; Samith, Bárbara; Acosta, Ana M; Escalona, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    To measure the impact of a "Preventive Letter" designed to encourage the return of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) mothers to follow up visit after delivery, in the context of a worldwide concern about low return rates after delivery of these patients. Mothers with GDM require medical evaluation and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 6 weeks after delivery, in order to: [a] confirm remission of GDM and [b] provide advice on the prevention of type 2 diabetes. In the year 2003 we developed a "Preventive Letter", containing three aspects: [a] current treatment, [b] suggested management during labor, and [c] a stapled laboratory order for OGTT to be performed 6 weeks after delivery. The return rate after delivery was assessed in two groups of GDM mothers: [a] "Without Preventive Letter" (n = 253), and "With Preventive Letter" (n = 215). Both groups, similar with respect to age (33.0 ± 5.4 and 32.3 ± 4.9 years respectively, p = 0.166) and education time (14.9 ± 1.8 and 15.0 ± 1.8 years respectively, p = 0.494), showed a significant difference in the 1-year return rate after delivery, as assessed by the Kaplan-Meier test: 32.0 % for the group "Without Preventive Letter", and 76.0 % for the group "With Preventive Letter" (p return rate after delivery of GDM mothers was 2.4 times higher in the group "With Preventive Letter" than in the group without it. We believe that this low-cost approach could be useful in other institutions caring for pregnant women with diabetes.

  17. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Rouw, Romke

    2012-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words) was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14) = 5.85, p = .030). Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13) = 0.51, p = .05). The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14) = 2.79, p = .014) and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  18. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Colizoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue. In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14 = 5.85, p = .030. Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13 = 0.51, p = .05. The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14 = 2.79, p = .014 and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  19. Phonological awareness and the use of phonological similarity in letter-sound learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Peter F

    2007-11-01

    The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were taught the letter sounds that were paired to these same symbols. Each letter sound corresponded to the first sound of the word that was previously associated with that symbol in the phonological similarity group, whereas such a relation was absent in the other group. In addition, measures of vocabulary, letter knowledge, and phonological awareness were administered. Phonological similarity facilitated letter-sound learning. Individual differences in phonological awareness had a strong effect on letter-sound learning even after current letter knowledge was controlled. Unexpectedly, the effects of phonological awareness and the ability to use phonological similarity on letter-sound learning were found to be independent.

  20. 100-Meter Resolution Land Cover of Hawaii - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains land cover data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The land cover data were derived from...

  1. 100-Meter Resolution Land Cover of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains land cover data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The land cover data were derived from...

  2. THE EFFECTS OF WORD FAMILIARITY AND LETTER STRUCTURE FAMILIARITY ON THE PERCEPTION OF WORDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that familiarity of letter structure (as opposed to familiarity of the word ) would facilitate the...perception of the word . The results showed an interaction between letter structure familiarity and work familiarity such that while letter structure...familiarity facilitated correct identification of the letters of the word , letter structure familiarity resulted in inhibiting the perception of

  3. Modeling the Seasonal Ice Zone from the Air: use of repeat aerial hydrographic surveys to constrain a regional ice-ocean model in an area of rapidly evolving ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, S.; Morison, J.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Seasonal Ice Zone of the Beaufort Sea is the area of ocean north of Alaska over which sea ice melts and reforms annually. It contains the more narrow, near-edge marginal ice zone (MIZ). Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys (SIZRS) measure hydrography along two meridional sections using Air eXpendable CTDs (AXCTDs) and Air eXpendable Current Profilers (AXCPs). These surveys take place aboard U.S. Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness flights of opportunity during each melt season (June-October) starting in 2012. The Marginal Ice Zone Modeling and Assimilation System (MIZMAS) is a high-resolution regional ice-ocean model with daily, three-dimensional output encompassing the SIZRS survey area. Direct comparison of the SIZRS data with MIZMAS output as well as with several regional climatologies can constrain the ice-ocean model and help to explain recent changes in subsurface heat content and salinity. For example, observed freshening relative to climatology has been used as a reference to which MIZMAS surface salinity values can be relaxed. MIZMAS may in turn shed light on the physical mechanisms driving the observed freshening. In addition, use of MIZMAS surface fluxes to drive a one-dimensional mixed layer model gives results close to observations when the model is initialized with SIZRS profiles. Because SIZRS observations range in time from the onset of melt to the onset of Fall freeze-up, the comparison of the one-dimensional model with MIZMAS illustrates the relative roles of local and regional processes in forming near-surface temperature maxima and salinity minima. The SIZRS observations and one-dimensional model are used to constrain MIZMAS estimations of stored subsurface heat while establishing the physical drivers of these temperature and salinity changes.

  4. Stream discharge measurements under ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, K. Michael; Jacobson, Nathan D.

    2000-01-01

    This training presentation shows procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey to measure streamflow when streams are covered by ice. Although 'Ice Measurements' are generally more difficult to make than open-water measurements and are often made under uncomfortable conditions it is very important that ice measurements be made regularly during the winter. This is because a large part of many winter discharge records depend on such measurements.

  5. Extra-large letter spacing improves reading in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Barbiero, Chiara; Facoetti, Andrea; Lonciari, Isabella; Carrozzi, Marco; Montico, Marcella; Bravar, Laura; George, Florence; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2012-07-10

    Although the causes of dyslexia are still debated, all researchers agree that the main challenge is to find ways that allow a child with dyslexia to read more words in less time, because reading more is undisputedly the most efficient intervention for dyslexia. Sophisticated training programs exist, but they typically target the component skills of reading, such as phonological awareness. After the component skills have improved, the main challenge remains (that is, reading deficits must be treated by reading more--a vicious circle for a dyslexic child). Here, we show that a simple manipulation of letter spacing substantially improved text reading performance on the fly (without any training) in a large, unselected sample of Italian and French dyslexic children. Extra-large letter spacing helps reading, because dyslexics are abnormally affected by crowding, a perceptual phenomenon with detrimental effects on letter recognition that is modulated by the spacing between letters. Extra-large letter spacing may help to break the vicious circle by rendering the reading material more easily accessible.

  6. Melanie Klein's letters addressed to Marcelle Spira (1955-1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinodoz, Jean-Michel

    2009-12-01

    Between 1955 and 1960, Melanie Klein wrote some 45 hitherto unpublished letters to Marcelle Spira, the Swiss psychoanalyst living at that time in Geneva. In 2006, after Spira's death, these letters were deposited with the Raymond de Saussure Psychoanalysis Centre in Geneva. They are the only known letters that Klein addressed to her psychoanalyst colleagues. Several topics are mentioned in them: (1) the meetings between the two women in Geneva and London; (2) Spira's contribution to Boulanger's translation into French of The Psychoanalysis of Children, which Klein herself carefully revised; (3) the papers that Klein was at that time working on, including Envy and Gratitude; (4) Spira's own work; (5) the difficulties that Spira, a Kleinian psychoanalyst who trained in Buenos Aires, was encountering in her attempt to be admitted to the Swiss Psychoanalytical Society; and (6) a few items of personal and family news. In addition to the invaluable historical information that these letters provide, they offer us a very moving epistolary self-portrait of Melanie Klein, enabling us to discover her personality in the final years of her life - she died in September 1960, just two months after writing her last letter to Spira.

  7. Are All Letters Really Processed Equally and in Parallel? Further Evidence of a Robust First Letter Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaltritti, Michele; Balota, David A.

    2013-01-01

    This present study examined accuracy and response latency of letter processing as a function of position within a horizontal array. In a series of 4 Experiments, target-strings were briefly (33 ms for Experiment 1 to 3, 83 ms for Experiment 4) displayed and both forward and backward masked. Participants then made a two alternative forced choice. The two alternative responses differed just in one element of the string, and position of mismatch was systematically manipulated. In Experiment 1, words of different lengths (from 3 to 6 letters) were presented in separate blocks. Across different lengths, there was a robust advantage in performance when the alternative response was different for the letter occurring at the first position, compared to when the difference occurred at any other position. Experiment 2 replicated this finding with the same materials used in Experiment 1, but with words of different lengths randomly intermixed within blocks. Experiment 3 provided evidence of the first position advantage with legal nonwords and strings of consonants, but did not provide any first position advantage for non-alphabetic symbols. The lack of a first position advantage for symbols was replicated in Experiment 4, where target-strings were displayed for a longer duration (83 ms). Taken together these results suggest that the first position advantage is a phenomenon that occurs specifically and selectively for letters, independent of lexical constraints. We argue that the results are consistent with models that assume a processing advantage for coding letters in the first position, and are inconsistent with the commonly held assumption in visual word recognition models that letters are equally processed in parallel independent of letter position. PMID:24012723

  8. Forest cover change in the upper Midwestern United States results from both climate and land use change following European settlement: Historical survey and weather records provide robust support for modeling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, S. J.; Williams, J. W.; McLachlan, J. S.; Dawson, A.; Dietze, M.; Paciorek, C. J.; Mladenoff, D. J.; Record, S.; Cogbill, C. V.; Hooten, M.; Ruid, M.; Jackson, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Since European settlement, both climate and human land use have acted on forests in the upper Midwestern United States resulting in changes in forest structure and composition. The extent of these changes has been examined locally and at the state level by examining forest records from the Public Lands Survey System (PLSS), but here we bring together records of changing forest composition with weather records from the mid to late 19th century from the 19th Century Forts and Observer's Database. We are able to assign attribution for taxon range and composition shifts in the region to either land use, climate or both. We see that much of the range contraction in the region seen when comparing Forest Inventory and Analysis data with Public Land Survey System data occurs along the prairie margin, with northern forests showing greater stability in both range and composition suggesting a dominant role for land use in structuring regional vegetation. Modern forests are often less diverse than PLSS forests and the mean minimum dissimilarity between modern and PLSS-era forests is significantly higher than the minimum dissimilarity within either the PLSS-era forests or the modern (FIA) forests, indicating the possiblity that our modern forests have already become 'no-analogue' ecosystems.

  9. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  10. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  11. Arctic survey, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a survey and game patrol conducted to twelve villages in the Arctic from April 24 to May 2 1957. The report covers animals take for income and...

  12. Fall Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Fall Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1963 and covered an area from Hudson Canyon, NY to Nova Scotia, Canada. Throughout the years,...

  13. Covering walks in graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Fujie, Futaba

    2014-01-01

    Covering Walks  in Graphs is aimed at researchers and graduate students in the graph theory community and provides a comprehensive treatment on measures of two well studied graphical properties, namely Hamiltonicity and traversability in graphs. This text looks into the famous Kӧnigsberg Bridge Problem, the Chinese Postman Problem, the Icosian Game and the Traveling Salesman Problem as well as well-known mathematicians who were involved in these problems. The concepts of different spanning walks with examples and present classical results on Hamiltonian numbers and upper Hamiltonian numbers of graphs are described; in some cases, the authors provide proofs of these results to illustrate the beauty and complexity of this area of research. Two new concepts of traceable numbers of graphs and traceable numbers of vertices of a graph which were inspired by and closely related to Hamiltonian numbers are introduced. Results are illustrated on these two concepts and the relationship between traceable concepts and...

  14. Land Use and Land Cover - Montana Land Cover Framework 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This statewide land cover theme is a baseline digital map of Montana's natural and human land cover. The baseline map is adapted from the Northwest ReGAP project...

  15. EDITORIAL: The need and challenge for Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2006-11-01

    fields. To that illustrative list, the number and diversity of emerging areas of investigation have also blossomed—from the economics of biodiversity, to the interface of synthetic biology and agro- and bioenergy crops and systems, to the potential of the nanotechnology/energy interface to become the 'next trillion dollar industry', environment, science, and technology are changing at incredible rates. While many of these areas have, or will have, highly focused journals and publications, a massive void has developed in the linking and dialog around what are the truly seminal advances in environmental science, social science, business, law, and policy. The need for this dialog is vital, and yet it is far too easy to forget in the hectic and information overloaded academic, business, governmental, and non-governmental communities. Everyone recognizes that environmental research and practice today exists within an increasingly interdisciplinary setting. That simple statement, often echoed, but easily forgotten on a day-to-day basis, is the intellectual glue that we must not neglect, and from which will come many of the advances that make understanding the environment so unique. ERL begins publication this month, October 2006, in an intellectual milieu that lacks a journal and a forum for such an environmental discussion and dialog. Until now, there has been no place to access the combination of environmental research breadth and depth that is the goal of ERL. The format of the journal is intended to facilitate such exchanges. ERL will be built around concise, high-impact original research Letters that present important results from across the environmental spectrum. As the first open-access journal to cover the whole of environmental science, our aim for ERL is to offer: Completely free access to original research of the highest quality. The environmental research and action community is diverse, both intellectually and geographically. ERL's open-access publishing model

  16. Detection and identification of crowded mirror-image letters in normal peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L

    2010-02-01

    Performance for discriminating single mirror-image letters in peripheral vision can be as good as that in central vision, provided that letter size is scaled appropriately [Higgins, K. E., Arditi, A., & Knoblauch, K. (1996). Detection and identification of mirror-image letter pairs in central and peripheral vision. Vision Research, 36, 331-337]. In this study, we asked whether or not there is a reduction in performance for discriminating mirror-image letters when the letters are flanked closely by other letters, compared with unflanked (single) letters; and if so, whether or not this effect is greater in peripheral than in central vision. We compared contrast thresholds for detecting and identifying mirror-image letters "b" and "d" for a range of letter separations, at the fovea and 10 degrees eccentricity, for letters that were scaled in size. For comparison, thresholds were also determined for a pair of non-mirror-image letters "o" and "x". Our principal finding is that there is an additional loss in sensitivity for identifying mirror-image letters ("bd"), compared with non-mirror-image letters ("ox"), when the letters are flanked closely by other letters. The effect is greater in peripheral than central vision. An auxiliary experiment comparing thresholds for letters "d" and "q" vs. "b" and "d" shows that the additional loss in sensitivity for identifying crowded mirror-image letters cannot be attributed to the similarity in letter features between the two letters, but instead, is specific to the axis of symmetry. Our results suggest that in the presence of proximal objects, there is a specific loss in sensitivity for processing broad-band left-right mirror images in peripheral vision.

  17. A Novel Handwritten Letter Recognizer Using Enhanced Evolutionary Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Fariborz; Mirzashaeri, Mohsen; Shahamatnia, Ehsan; Faridnia, Saed

    This paper introduces a novel design for handwritten letter recognition by employing a hybrid back-propagation neural network with an enhanced evolutionary algorithm. Feeding the neural network consists of a new approach which is invariant to translation, rotation, and scaling of input letters. Evolutionary algorithm is used for the global search of the search space and the back-propagation algorithm is used for the local search. The results have been computed by implementing this approach for recognizing 26 English capital letters in the handwritings of different people. The computational results show that the neural network reaches very satisfying results with relatively scarce input data and a promising performance improvement in convergence of the hybrid evolutionary back-propagation algorithms is exhibited.

  18. Romanian letter-writing: a cultural-rhetorical perspective (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Iuliana Morcov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at revealing the features of Romanian letter-writing during its stages of formation and consolidation. The structural and the stylistic analysis of letters is carried out with regard to the composition of the documents written in Old Romanian according to the requirements imposed by the Slavonic template and with regard to the rhetorical division of the three styles: the simple style, the middle style and the grand style. The description of the Old Romanian epistolary style is based on a taxonomy inspired by Roman Jakobson’s functional communicative model (1964. Following the six factors identified by Jakobson, letters are classified according to the socio-cultural status and the communicative competence of the addresser and of the addressee and in line with the context, the channel and the linguistic code used to write them.

  19. Letters from ainsworth: contesting the 'organization' of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Sophie; Duschinsky, Robbie

    2013-05-01

    As Main (1999) noted in her obituary for Mary Ainsworth, 'she was interacting weekly by letter and manuscript with her mentor and friend, John Bowlby, and their academic correspondence formed an important part of her, and implicitly our, life.' These letters of Ainsworth to John Bowlby during the 1980s, available in the Wellcome Trust Library in London, contain valuable reflections on the work of her pupils to extend her system of classifying infant behaviour in the Strange Situation Procedure. Mary Main proposed a D classification and interpreted such behaviour as a breakdown in an ABC strategy caused by a conflict between a disposition to approach and flee from the caregiver. Patricia Crittenden extended the subtypes of A and C, using a developmental model of information processing, and observed that they could be used together in A/C combinations. These letters offer insight into Ainsworth's intellectual rationale for encouraging both Main and Crittenden in their conflicting endeavours.

  20. Spatial representations of numbers and letters in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eLonnemann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Different lines of evidence suggest that children’s mental representations of numbers are spatially organized in form of a mental number line. It is, however, still unclear whether a spatial organization is specific for the numerical domain or also applies to other ordinal sequences in children. In the present study, children (n = 129 aged 8-9 years were asked to indicate the midpoint of lines flanked by task-irrelevant digits or letters. We found that the localization of the midpoint was systematically biased towards the larger digit. A similar, but less pronounced, effect was detected for letters with spatial biases towards the letter succeeding in the alphabet. Instead of assuming domain-specific forms of spatial representations, we suggest that ordinal information expressing relations between different items of a sequence might be spatially coded in children, whereby numbers seem to convey this kind of information in the most salient way.

  1. The Archetypes of the Characters in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成程

    2015-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne and his works are deeply influenced by the religion and the Holy Bible.It has many corresponding relationships between the Biblical allusions and the characters,plot and theme in the Scarlet Letter.Hawthorne gave the novel symbolic characters in order to give this symbolism novel a deeper connotation,by borrowing quite a lot of the Biblical allusions.The Scarlet Letter established Hawthorne as the most important 19th century romantic novelist in the United States.This paper attempts to analyze the characteristics and the life experience of the figures in the novel,such as Hester Prynne,Chillingworth,Dimmesdale and Pearl by using the archetypal criticism.The paper also will compare the novel to the Holy Bible so that we canfind the archetypes of the Holy Bible hidden in the Scarlet Letter.

  2. The Archetypes of the Characters in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成程

    2015-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne and his works are deeply influenced by the religion and the Holy Bible.It has many corresponding relationships between the Biblical allusions and the characters,plot and theme in the Scarlet Letter.Hawthorne gave the novel symbolic characters in order to give this symbolism novel a deeper connotation,by borrowing quite a lot of the Biblical allusions.The Scarlet Letter established Hawthorne as the most important 19 th century romantic novelist in the United States.This paper attempts to analyze the characteristics and the life experience of the figures in the novel,such as Hester Prynne,Chillingworth,Dimmesdale and Pearl by using the archetypal criticism.The paper also will compare the novel to the Holy Bible so that we can find the archetypes of the Holy Bible hidden in the Scarlet Letter.

  3. Musical expertise affects neural bases of letter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-02-01

    It is known that early music learning (playing of an instrument) modifies functional brain structure (both white and gray matter) and connectivity, especially callosal transfer, motor control/coordination and auditory processing. We compared visual processing of notes and words in 15 professional musicians and 15 controls by recording their synchronized bioelectrical activity (ERPs) in response to words and notes. We found that musical training in childhood (from age ~8 years) modifies neural mechanisms of word reading, whatever the genetic predisposition, which was unknown. While letter processing was strongly left-lateralized in controls, the fusiform (BA37) and inferior occipital gyri (BA18) were activated in both hemispheres in musicians for both word and music processing. The evidence that the neural mechanism of letter processing differed in musicians and controls (being absolutely bilateral in musicians) suggests that musical expertise modifies the neural mechanisms of letter reading.

  4. Cobertura vegetal do Estado de São Paulo: II - Levantamento por fotointerpretação das áreas cobertas com floresta natural e reflorestamento Vegetal cover of the State of São Paulo: II - Survey of the forested and reforested areas through photointerpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Borgonovi

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o levantamento por fotoínterpretação da cobertura vegetal de floresta natural e reflorestamento no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O trabalho foi feito pelo método estatístico de amostragem sistemática, utilizando-se templetos com sinais indicadores dos pontos a serem examinados. Foram interpretados, para a área do Estado de São Paulo, 915.570 pontos, representando cada um 27,15 ha. A área com floresta natural foi de 3.405.800 ha, e com reflorestamento, de 372.9000 ha, representando respectivamente 13,70% e 1,50% da área total do Estado.The present paper refers to the survey of the vegetal cover characterized as forests and as reforested areas in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. This was obtained directly on mosaics, thourgh photointerpretation, using when necessary the aerial vertical photos from the aerophotogrammetric survey of the State of São Paulo done in 1962. In the characterization of forests, the height and density of the trees were taken into consideration, describing the texture of the type of covers on the photos with sampling of fields. In a similar way this was done for reforested areas, also taking into account the factors of formation of areas covered with trees destined to activities connected with silviculture with uniform characterization in regard to the photographic structure. The work was done by means of a systematic sampling method, using templets indicating points to be examined. For the area of São Paulo, 915,570 points were interpreted, each one representing 27.15 ha. Results obtained were the following; forests 3,405,900 ha and reforested areas 372,900 ha, this corresponding respectively to 13.70 and 1.50% of the total area of the State.

  5. A common left occipito-temporal dysfunction in developmental dyslexia and acquired letter-by-letter reading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Richlan

    Full Text Available We used fMRI to examine functional brain abnormalities of German-speaking dyslexics who suffer from slow effortful reading but not from a reading accuracy problem. Similar to acquired cases of letter-by-letter reading, the developmental cases exhibited an abnormal strong effect of length (i.e., number of letters on response time for words and pseudowords.Corresponding to lesions of left occipito-temporal (OT regions in acquired cases, we found a dysfunction of this region in our developmental cases who failed to exhibit responsiveness of left OT regions to the length of words and pseudowords. This abnormality in the left OT cortex was accompanied by absent responsiveness to increased sublexical reading demands in phonological inferior frontal gyrus (IFG regions. Interestingly, there was no abnormality in the left superior temporal cortex which--corresponding to the onological deficit explanation--is considered to be the prime locus of the reading difficulties of developmental dyslexia cases.The present functional imaging results suggest that developmental dyslexia similar to acquired letter-by-letter reading is due to a primary dysfunction of left OT regions.

  6. Standardized Letter of Recommendation for Otolaryngology Residency Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jonathan N.; Liang, Conan; McFann, Kim; Abaza, Mona M.; Streubel, Sven-Olrik; Prager, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Develop a standardized letter of recommendation (SLOR) for otolaryngology residency application that investigates the qualities desired in residents and letter writer’s experience. Compare this SLOR to narrative letters of recommendation (NLOR). Study Design Prospective SLOR/NLOR Comparison. Methods The SLOR was sent to a NLOR writer for each applicant. The applicant’s NLOR/SLOR pair was blinded and ranked in seven categories by three reviewers. Inter-rater reliability and NLOR/SLOR rankings were compared. Means of cumulative NLOR and SLOR scores were compared to our departmental rank list. Results Thirty-one SLORs (66%) were collected. The SLORs had higher inter-rater reliability for applicant’s qualifications for otolaryngology, global assessment, summary statement, and overall letter ranking. Writer’s background, comparison to contemporaries/predecessors, and letter review ease had higher inter-rater reliability on the NLORs. Mean SLOR rankings were higher for writer’s background (p=0.0007), comparison of applicant to contemporaries/predecessors (p=0.0031), and letter review ease (p<0.0001). Mean SLOR writing time was 4.17±2.18 minutes. Mean ranking time was significantly lower (p<0.0001) for the SLORs (39.24±23.45 seconds) compared to the NLORs (70.95±40.14 seconds). Means of cumulative SLOR scores correlated with our rank list (p=0.004), whereas means of cumulative NLOR scores did not (p=0.18). Means of cumulative NLOR and SLOR scores did not correlate (p=0.26). Conclusions SLORs require little writing time, save reviewing time, and are easier to review compared to NLORs. Our SLOR had higher inter-rater reliability in 4 of 7 categories and was correlated with our rank list. This tool conveys standardized information in an efficient manner. PMID:23172646

  7. A letter signed: the very beginnings of Dalton's atomic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Herbert T

    2010-11-01

    This paper explores the provenance and content of a previously unknown personal letter by John Dalton (1766-1844), which is dated 12 April 1803. It relates to a startling breakthrough in Dalton's research, which pre-dates by five months the earliest date in his laboratory notebook, namely, 6 September 1803. The author acquired the letter about thirty years ago, and now offers it to the public. He makes no attempt to explain how it contributes to--or even changes--our understanding of Dalton, but leaves that privilege to Dalton scholars.

  8. Lapse resistance in the verbal letter reporting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditi, Aries

    2006-04-01

    Lapses, or misreporting errors, can affect accuracy of threshold measurements. Assumptions about lapse rate, especially in untrained observers, have consequently guided the design of at least one clinical psychophysical test. Lapse rate was assessed using a verbal letter identification paradigm like that used in visual acuity and letter contrast sensitivity testing. Subjects occasionally made slip-of-the tongue errors but spontaneously corrected them. Lapse rate (excluding such errors) was 0-3 errors per 1,536 (average rate of 0.0005). In this common clinical paradigm, in which observers set their reporting pace, and where opportunity to amend responses is available, lapse rate is negligible.

  9. Letters of Gold: Enabling Primitive Accumulation through Neoliberal Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Büscher, Bram

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In Capital I, Marx wrote that the history of the separation of the producers from the means of production “is written in the annals of mankind in letters of blood and fire” (Marx, 1976: 875). This ‘so-called primitive accumulation’, or ‘accumulation by dispossession’ in David Harvey’s words, continues unabated. Yet, its framing has changed considerably. Increasingly, capitalists have tried to avoid writing primitive accumulation in ‘letters of blood and fire’. Instead, t...

  10. The medical palimpsest of The Scarlet Letter: an interdisciplinary reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, J

    2005-06-01

    The multiple historical layers of Roger Chillingworth's character have been overlooked in criticism of The Scarlet Letter. By considering the possible influence of Robert Browning's dramatic poem Paracelsus (1835) on Hawthorne's romance (1850), as well as the ways in which overtones of both herbalism and clinical medicine complicate Chillingworth's character, one rediscovers Chillingworth as Hawthorne's audience likely experienced him: as a fictional palimpsest bearing multiple inscriptions of medical history that reveal an interplay between integrity and corruption. Thus, an interdisciplinary reading of The Scarlet Letter challenges the conventional critical assessment of Chillingworth as a satanic or Faustian figure.

  11. Resource Letter: Research-based Assessments in Physics and Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Adrian; Sayre, Eleanor C

    2016-01-01

    This resource letter provides a guide to research-based assessments (RBAs) of physics and astronomy content. These are standardized assessments that were rigorously developed and revised using student ideas and interviews, expert input, and statistical analyses. RBAs have had a major impact on physics and astronomy education reform by providing a universal and convincing measure of student understanding that instructors can use to assess and improve the effectiveness of their teaching. In this resource letter, we present an overview of all content RBAs in physics and astronomy by topic, research validation, instructional level, format, and themes, to help faculty find the best assessment for their course.

  12. On the Elements of Tragedy in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冶静芳

    2014-01-01

    As the masterpiece of Nathaniel Hawthorn’s writing, The Scarlet Letter not only brings him fame forever, but also gives us more about people’s life in Puritan society in 17th. Since this novel is so important and excellent, the thesis mainly focus-es on probing into the theme of elements of tragedy in The Scarlet Letter. According to the whole story, the love tragedy is attrib-uted to four factors: the Puritan beliefs of original sin, the attitude of public on love outside marriage, the personalities of the main characters, and the differences between dream and reality.

  13. An Analysis of the Symbolic Colors in The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Kai-lin

    2016-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorn is the greatest American romantic novelist during the nineteenth century. He is skillful at the using of symbolism in his works, especially in his masterpiece The Scarlet Letter. Hawthorn is a writer with art talent, who uses differ-ent colors to enhance the artistic effects of The scarlet Letter. Colors emerging on the most occasions are used as a mayor form of symbolism to reflect the character’s feelings, personalities and fates. This paper aims to elaborate the usage of colors as a form of symbolism in three parts:the symbolic meaning of red, the symbolic meaning of black, and the symbolic meaning of grey.

  14. Resource Letter SOP-1: Self-Organizing Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Donald T.

    2015-08-01

    This Resource Letter introduces the reader to an area of physics where systems can self-organize to a particular shape or behavior that, while dynamically changing, is surprisingly robust. The self-organization is due to the complex interactions that typically preclude explanation from just the forces among adjacent molecules or objects. How one recognizes such systems and explains their behavior is the topic of this Resource Letter. Some systems exhibit universal behavior that is well documented and understood, but other systems are just now being investigated.

  15. Dear Hacker Letters to the Editor of 2600

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Actual letters written to the leading hackers' magazine. For 25 years, 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has given voice to the hacker community in all its manifestations. This collection of letters to the magazine reveals the thoughts and viewpoints of hackers, both white and black hat, as well as hacker wannabes, technophiles, and people concerned about computer security. Insightful and entertaining, the exchanges illustrate 2600 's vast readership, from teenage rebels, anarchists, and survivalists to law enforcement, consumer advocates, and worried parents.: 2600: The Hacker Quarterly has been the

  16. Effects of ocular transverse chromatic aberration on near foveal letter recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shun-nan; Tai, Yu-chi; Laukkanen, Hannu; Sheedy, James

    2009-11-01

    Transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) smears retinal images of peripheral stimuli. In reading, text information is extracted from both foveal and near fovea, where TCA magnitude is relatively small and variable. The present study investigated whether TCA significantly affects near foveal letter identification. Subjects were briefly presented a string of five letters centered one degree of visual angle to the left or right of fixation. They indicated whether the middle letter was the same as a comparison letter subsequently presented. Letter strings were rendered with a reddish fringe on the left edge of each letter and a bluish fringe on the right edge, consistent with expected left periphery TCA, or with the opposite fringe consistent with expected right periphery TCA. Effect of the color fringing on letter recognition was measured by comparing the response accuracy for fringed and non-fringed stimuli. Effects of lateral interference were examined by manipulating inter-letter spacing and similarity of neighboring letters. Results demonstrated significantly improved response accuracy with the color fringe opposite to the expected TCA, but decreased accuracy when consistent with it. Narrower letter spacing exacerbated the effect of the color fringe, whereas letter similarity did not. Our results suggest that TCA significantly reduces the ability to recognize letters in the near fovea by impeding recognition of individual letters and by enhancing lateral interference between letters.

  17. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children’s emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4–5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name writing; whereas alphabet knowledge, print knowledge, and name writing made positive contributions to letter writing. Both name-writing and letter-writing skills made significant contributions to the prediction of spelling after controlling for age, parental education, print knowledge, phonological awareness, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge; however, only letter-writing abilities made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of spelling when both letter-writing and name-writing skills were considered together. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. Children’s letter-writing skills may be a better indicator of children’s emergent literacy and developing spelling skills than are their name-writing skills at the end of the preschool year. Spelling is a developmentally complex skill beginning in preschool and includes letter writing and blending skills, print knowledge, and letter-name and letter-sound knowledge. PMID:21927537

  18. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  19. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description...

  20. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...