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Sample records for survey columbia south

  1. SURVEY OF COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN STREAMS FOR COLUMBIA PEBBLESNAIL Fluminicola columbiana AND SHORTFACE LANX Fisherola nuttalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D. A.; Frest, T. J.

    1993-05-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington; the lower Salmon River and middle Snake River, Idaho; and possibly in Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon; and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historical range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde, Washington and Oregon; Imnaha and John Day rivers, Oregon; Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River: Columbia pebblesnail to a population in the Hanford Reach plus six other sites that are separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major mbutaries shortface lanx to two populations (in the Hanford Reach and near Bonneville Dam) plus nine other sites that are separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries.

  2. Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Frest, T.J. [Deixis Consultants, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species` historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river`s major tributaries.

  3. Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Frest, T.J. (Deixis Consultants, Seattle, WA (United States))

    1992-08-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries.

  4. 1992: Northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  5. Waterfowl breeding pair survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  6. 1995: Northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  7. Bathymetry from 2013 Interferometric Swath Bathymetry Systems Survey of Columbia River Mouth, Oregon and Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of the USGS Data Release presents bathymetry data for the Columbia River Mouth, Oregon and Washington. The GeoTIFF raster data file is included in...

  8. Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) in southeastern Oregon: A survey of historical localities, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Chistopher A.; Galvan, Stephanie K.; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) occupies a large range in western North America and is comprised of at least three genetic units. Concern exists regarding the status of the Great Basin populations in Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada. We surveyed target and nearby alternate sites on public lands in southeastern Oregon where there was evidence that Columbia spotted frogs were historically present. We found the species at 59.5 percent (25 of 42) of target or nearby alternate sites. They were in 15 of 23 permanent streams and 8 of 13 intermittent streams. Our surveys do not provide evidence of widespread population losses in our sites. Interpretation of status of Columbia spotted frogs in this study is limited by a lack of precision in some of the historical locations and by our inability to determine if locations where only adults were indicated in the historical record once had breeding populations. Our results support the need for continued investigation of these populations.

  9. DCS Survey Submission for Baraboo River in Columbia County, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  10. Scintillator correlation and Columbia River radiation survey, March--April 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConiga, M.W.; Rising, F.L.

    1959-09-15

    The purpose of the work documented herein was to correlate a new sensitive scintillator for the measurement of gamma dose rates from the reactor effluent isotopic spectrum in the Columbia River. Previous scintillation devices lacked the desired sensitivity for estimating these dose rates. A portable scintillation device was calibrated against ionization chambers over essentially full range of dose rates from the reactor effluent spectrum in the Columbia River. A river survey was then made, combining scintillator readings with pulse pencil and portable instrument readings from 1--1/2 miles above the reactors to about 57 miles downstream. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Trends of chlordane and toxaphene in ambient air of Columbia, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidleman, T. F.; Alegria, H.; Ngabe, B.; Green, C.

    A long-term record of chlordane and toxaphene (chlorobornanes, CHBs) measurements in Columbia, South Carolina is presented. Chlordane was used as a termiticide in the city and toxaphene was applied to cotton, soybeans and other crops in the region. Ratios among chlordane compounds in ambient air agreed well with those in technical chlordane when weighted for differences in volatility. Atmospheric concentrations ( Ca, pg m -3) in pre-ban years (1988 for chlordane, 1986 for toxaphene) are compared to those made more recently by normalizing concentrations for the effect of varying ambient temperature. Plots of log C a vs 1/ T suggest that chlordane concentrations at 20°C declined by about 40% between pre-ban years and 1994-1995, but no change is apparent at 5°C. Recent concentrations of CHBs are lower than those measured when toxaphene was in use. Temperature slopes are flatter in post-ban years, possibly because of retarded evaporation of old residues as compared to freshly applied pesticide. The 1994-1995 concentrations of chlordanes and CHBs in Columbia air were several times higher than those found in the Great Lakes region. No distinct trend in CHB levels with air transport direction was noted, suggesting that volatilization from local or regional soils is supplying CHBs to Columbia air.

  12. South African marine pollution survey report 1974-1975

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cloete, CE

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available A national marine pollution survey was initiated in 1974 to determine and assess pollution around the coast of South Africa. Impact area surveys, coastal (including estuarine) reference surveys and oceanic reference surveys were undertaken...

  13. 1988 waterfowl production survey for South Dakota and North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for North and South Dakota during 1988. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  14. Radiological survey of exposed shorelines and islands of the Columbia River between Vernita and the Snake River confluence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sula, M.J.

    1980-04-01

    This document describes a radiological survey which was performed to evaluate the magnitude and distribution of radioactive contamination on the exposed shorelines of the Columbia River along and downstream of the Hanford Site. The area encompassed by the survey includes the low-lying exposed land on both sides of the river from the uppermost point of production reactor discharge into the river at 100-B Area to the confluence of the Snake and Columbia Rivers, almost 60 miles downstream of the starting point. External exposure rate measurements were made at nearly 30,000 locations during the survey - accounting for approximately 60% of the land in the study area. Measurable radioactive contamination, resulting from past Hanford operations was found to be present on the shorelines of the Columbia River along the study area. The absence of short-lived radionuclides in the shore sediments and the presence of contamination several meters above recent maximum river levels indicate that the material was deposited some years ago.

  15. Health Care Workers' Knowledge, Perceptions, and Behaviors Regarding Antineoplastic Drugs: Survey From British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Teschke, Kay; Shen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Although nurses are knowledgeable regarding the risk of exposure to antineoplastic drugs, they often do not adhere with safe work practices. However, the knowledge, perceptions, and behavior of other health care job categories at risk of exposure has yet to be determined. This study aimed to survey a range of health care workers from British Columbia, Canada about their knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding antineoplastic drugs. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to participants querying the degree of contact with antineoplastics, knowledge of risks associated with antineoplastics, perceptions of personal risk, previous training with respect to antineoplastics, and safe work practices. Subjects were recruited from health care facilities in and around Vancouver. Fisher's exact tests were performed to ascertain whether there were differences in responses between job categories. We received responses from 120 participants representing seven different job categories. Pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and nurses were more knowledgeable regarding risks than other job categories examined (statistically significant difference). Although 80% of respondents were not afraid of working with or near antineoplastics, there were concerns about the suitability of current control measures and practices employed by co-workers. Only half of respondents felt confident that they could handle all situations where there was a potential for exposure. Only one of the perception questions, self-perceived risk of exposure to antineoplastic drugs, differed significantly between job categories. Not all respondents always wore gloves when directly handling antineoplastic drugs. Further, hand hygiene was not regularly practiced after glove usage or after being in an area where antineoplastic drugs are handled. The majority of responses to questions related to safe work practices differed significantly between job categories. Our results suggest that knowledge regarding risks

  16. Survey of bats on Columbia National Wildlife Refuge, Washington, December 2011-April 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan C.; Manning, Tom; Barnett, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Bats are diverse and abundant in many ecosystems worldwide. They perform important ecosystem functions, particularly by consuming large quantities of insects (Cleveland and others, 2006; Jones and others, 2009; Kuhn and others, 2011). The importance of bats to biodiversity and to ecosystem integrity has been overlooked in many regions, largely because the challenges of detecting and studying these small, nocturnal mammals have rendered a paucity of information on matters as basic as species distribution and natural history attributes. Recently, concern for bats has arisen in response to recognition of large-scale threats, such as white-nosed syndrome (WNS; Turner and others, 2009; Frick and others, 2010) and mortality at wind energy facilities (Arnett and others, 2008), factors that are causing unprecedented population declines of bats (Boyles and others, 2011). WNS is a fungal disease that has killed more than 1 million cave-hibernating bats in eastern North America since being discovered in New York State in 2006 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012). WNS has spread rapidly from northeastern U.S., and as of August 2012 has been confirmed as far west as eastern Missouri(U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013). Given the rapid spread of WNS, there is concern that the disease may soon affect western bat populations. Hibernating bats are particularly vulnerable to the effects of WNS (Blehert and others, 2009). Refuges in eastern Washington, including the Mid-Columbia River National Wildlife Refuge Complex (MCRNWRC) and Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge, support many potential hibernacula. Sixteen species of bats potentially occur on these refuges, including one federally listed species of concern (Townsend’s big-eared bat [Corynorhinus townsendii]; see table 1 for scientific names of bats), and 12 species that are of conservation concern in Washington and Oregon (table 1). However, little is known about bats on these refuges because few surveys have been

  17. Carbon and Manganese Cycling in the Columbia River's Estuarine Turbidity Maxima in the South Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, S. L.; Kranzler, K.; Tebo, B. M.

    2007-12-01

    The Columbia River represents the largest input (60-90%) of fresh water to the California Current System, and provides a major source of dissolved manganese and nutrients to the coastal waters. Researchers have identified upper Estuarine Turbidity Maxima (ETM(s)) as hot spots for microbial activity, and it is here that extensive manganese cycling is thought to occur. Most probable number counts of microorganisms within the ETM have revealed that the cultivable numbers of manganese-oxidizing bacteria are not statistically significantly different than that of other heterotrophs when grown on defined media with simple carbon sources or low concentrations (0.05%) of casamino acids and were in the range of 103 - 104 cells per mL. Similar numbers of heterotrophs (9.3 X 103 cells/mL) were found using a nutrient-rich complex medium; however, the numbers of manganese-oxidizers were significantly lower (~13 cells/mL). Approximately 100 different manganese-oxidizing bacteria were isolated from different media and are being phylogenetically characterized. Measurements of dissolved, ascorbate-reducible and total Mn by inductively coupled plasma- optical emission spectroscopy revealed that concentrations of Mn are positively correlated with turbidity and thus are higher during an ETM event. In addition, dissolved, total, and ascorbate-reducible Mn were all negatively correlated with salinity, supporting the idea that the manganese originates in the river and is diluted by the seawater originating off the coast. Uptake of 14C-labeled bicarbonate in response to various electron donors (nitrite, ammonium, thiosulfate, or Mn(II)) was stimulated during an ETM event but not before or after, indicating that these electron donors may serve as potential energy sources for carbon fixation. Taken together, our results further demonstrate that ETMs are zones with high microbial activity and that the ETM microbial communities harbor the potential for carbon fixation even in the relatively

  18. California Least Tern breeding survey south San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents the field work conducted by members -of the South Bay Institute for Avian Studies during 1981. The primary purpose of this study was to survey...

  19. Electronic business survey on South African tour operators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Verhoest, P

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents the results of a pilot project on ICT usage by South African SMMEs in the tourism industry. The Electronic Business Survey (EBS) methodology, which was tested for applicability in a developing country, in this case South...

  20. South African Capital Structure Decisions: A Survey of Listed Companies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Wet, Lambert H

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the factors that influence capital structure decisions in South Africa from the perspective of the Chief Financial Officer (CFO). The results of a survey of 33 CFOs of JSE listed companies find that South African CFOs are equally...

  1. Case studies of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power: South Columbia Basin Irrigation District, Pasco, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, L.

    1980-05-01

    The case study concerns two modern human uses of the Columbia River - irrigation aimed at agricultural land reclamation and hydroelectric power. The Grand Coulee Dam has become synonomous with large-scale generation of hydroelectric power providing the Pacific Northwest with some of the least-expensive electricity in the United States. The Columbia Basin Project has created a half-million acres of farmland in Washington out of a spectacular and vast desert. The South Columbia River Basin Irrigation District is seeking to harness the energy present in the water which already runs through its canals, drains, and wasteways. The South District's development strategy is aimed toward reducing the costs its farmers pay for irrigation and raising the capital required to serve the remaining 550,000 acres originally planned as part of the Columbia Basin Project. The economic, institutional, and regulatory problems of harnessing the energy at site PEC 22.7, one of six sites proposed for development, are examined in this case study.

  2. Impact of coal-carrying trains on particulate matter concentrations in South Delta, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaoka, K; McKendry, I; Saxton, J; Cottle, P W

    2017-04-01

    Transport of coal by train through residential neighborhoods in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada may increase the possibility of exposure to particulate matter at different size ranges, with concomitant potential negative health impacts. This pilot study identifies and quantifies train impacts on particulate matter (PM) concentrations at a single location. Field work was conducted during August and September 2014, with the attributes of a subset of passing trains confirmed visually, and the majority of passages identified with audio data. In addition to fixed ground based monitors at distances 15 and 50 m from the train tracks, an horizontally pointing mini-micropulse lidar system was deployed on three days to make backscatter and depolarization measurements in an attempt to identify the zone of influence, and sources, of train-generated PM. Ancillary wind and dust fall data were also utilized. Trains carrying coal are associated with a 5.3 (54%), 4.1 (33%), and 2.6 (17%) μgm(-3) average increase in concentration over a 14 min period compared to the average concentrations over the 10 min prior to and after a train passage ("control" or "background" conditions), for PM3, PM10, and PM20, respectively. In addition, for PM10 and PM20, concentrations during train passages of non-coal-carrying trains were not found to be significantly different from PM concentrations during control conditions. Presence of coal dust particles at the site was confirmed by dust fall measurements. Although enhancements of PM concentrations during 14 min train passages were generally modest, passing coal trains occasionally enhanced concentrations at 50 m from the tracks by ∼100 μgm(-3). Results showed that not every train passage increased PM concentrations, and the effect appears to be highly dependent on wind direction, local meteorology and load related factors. LiDAR imagery suggests that re-mobilization of track-side PM by train-induced turbulence may be a significant

  3. Radiological survey of shoreline vegetation from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1990--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.; Poston, T.M.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    A great deal of interest exists concerning the seepage of radiologically contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River where it borders the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site (Hanford Reach). Areas of particular interest include the 100-N Area, the Old Hanford Townsite, and the 300 Area springs. While the radiological character of the seeps and springs along the Hanford Site shoreline has been studied, less attention has been given to characterizing the radionuclides that may be present in shoreline vegetation. The objective of this study was to characterize radionuclide concentrations in shoreline plants along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River that were usable by humans for food or other purposes. Vegetation in two areas was found to have elevated levels of radionuclides. Those areas were the 100-N Area and the Old Hanford Townsite. There was also some indication of uranium accumulation in milfoil and onions collected from the 300 Area. Tritium was elevated above background in all areas; {sup 60}Co and {sup 9O}Sr were found in highest concentrations in vegetation from the 100-N Area. Technetium-99 was found in 2 of 12 plants collected from the Old Hanford Townsite and 1 of 10 samples collected upstream from the Vernita Bridge. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and isotopes of uranium were just above background in all three areas (100-N Area, Old Hanford Townsite, and 300 Area).

  4. South African marine pollution survey report 1976-1979

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gardner, BD

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available , and the West Coast are presented. Several general studies are also described, including oil spills resulting from the Goel 1 stranding on Robben Island, and the Venpet-Venoii collision, and a survey of chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine fauna of South Africa....

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLES South African national household survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    survey of HIV I AIDS in South Africa and to present the response ... Medical Research Council, Durban. Mark Colvin, MB ... for designing interventions to prevent new infections and to forecast the ... questionnaire contained details of household participation in .... analysis of the data.1012 The data file of drawn EAs contained.

  6. Survey of canine babesiosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Collett

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire, designed to obtain qualitative information on a number of variables concerning canine babesiosis (biliary fever in South Africa, was sent to 510 veterinary practices in late 1993. Of the 157 practices that responded, all were presented with cases of babesiosis and most were situated in Gauteng, the Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. Apart from the Western Cape, a winter-rainfall region, the prevalence of babesiosis cases in dogs was highest in summer. Most of the respondent practices treated between 1000 and 5000 sick dogs that included 100 to 500 babesiosis cases each year. Respondents identified cerebral babesiosis, enterorrhagia, 'red' or haemoconcentrated babesiosis, acute renal failure and pulmonary babesiosis or 'shock lung', amongst others, as the most prevalent forms of complicated ('atypical' babesiosis. Diminazene, imidocarb and trypan blue were the most popular antibabesials. Trypan blue was most often used in shocked patients, whereas diminazene and imidocarb were preferred when there was a high parasitaemia in the absence of shock. At least 19 antibabesial treatment regimens were used in practices. These comprised the use of single doses of antibabesial drugs; split doses with repeat injections, and combined drug variations, some of which are undesirable due to possible sterilisation of Babesia infection or potential toxicity. Side-effects were most commonly associated with imidocarb use. Ninety-six percent of respondents used supportive treatment (e.g. corticosteroids, vitamins and 'liver support' in all cases of babesiosis. The use of blood transfusion as supportive treatment varied according to practice and severity of the case. Most practices never cross-matched blood to be transfused, and transfusion reactions were rare. Diminazene was most frequently incriminated in cases where drug 'resistance' or relapses occurred. Cerebral and 'red' cases resulted in high mortality. Treatment of babesiosis costs the dog

  7. Is worst-case scenario streamflow drought underestimated in British Columbia? A multi-century perspective for the south coast, derived from tree-rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, Bethany; Smith, Dan J.; Meko, David M.

    2016-03-01

    Recent streamflow droughts in south coastal British Columbia have had major socioeconomic and ecological impacts. Increasing drought severity under projected climate change poses serious water management challenges, particularly in the small coastal watersheds that serve as primary water sources for most communities in the region. A 332-year dendrohydrological record of regionalized mean summer streamflow for four watersheds is analyzed to place recent drought magnitudes in a long-term perspective. We present a novel approach for optimizing tree-ring based reconstructions in small watersheds in temperate environments, combining winter snow depth and summer drought sensitive proxies as model predictors. The reconstruction model, estimated by regression of observed flows on Tsuga mertensiana ring-width variables and a tree-ring derived paleorecord of the Palmer Drought Severity Index, explains 64% of the regionalized streamflow variance. The model is particularly accurate at estimating lowest flow events, and provides the strongest annually resolved paleohydrological record in British Columbia. The extended record suggests that since 1658 sixteen natural droughts have occurred that were more extreme than any within the instrumental period. Flow-duration curves show more severe worst-case scenario droughts and a higher probability of those droughts in the long-term reconstruction than in the hydrometric data. Such curves also highlight the value of dendrohydrology for probabilistic drought assessment. Our results suggest current water management strategies based on worst-case scenarios from historical gauge data likely underestimate the potential magnitudes of natural droughts. If the low-flow magnitudes anticipated under climate change co-occur with lowest possible natural flows, streamflow drought severities in small watersheds in south coastal British Columbia could exceed any of those experienced in the past ∼350 years.

  8. Survey of pathogens in hatchery Chinook salmon with different out-migration histories through the Snake and Columbia rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gaest, A L; Dietrich, J P; Thompson, D E; Boylen, D A; Strickland, S A; Collier, T K; Loge, F J; Arkoosh, M R

    2011-06-01

    The operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) has negatively affected threatened and endangered salmonid populations in the Pacific Northwest. Barging Snake River spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha through the FCRPS is one effort to mitigate the effect of the hydrosystem on juvenile salmon out-migration. However, little is known about the occurrence and transmission of infectious agents in barged juvenile salmon relative to juvenile salmon that remain in-river to navigate to the ocean. We conducted a survey of hatchery-reared spring Chinook salmon at various points along their out-migration path as they left their natal hatcheries and either migrated in-river or were barged through the FCRPS. Salmon kidneys were screened by polymerase chain reaction for nine pathogens and one family of water molds. Eight pathogens were detected; the most prevalent were Renibacterium salmoninarum and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Species in the family Saprolegniaceae were also commonly detected. Pathogen prevalence was significantly greater in fish that were barged through the FCRPS than in fish left to out-migrate in-river. These results suggest that the transmission of infectious agents to susceptible juvenile salmon occurs during the barging process. Therefore, management activities that reduce pathogen exposure during barging may increase the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon after they are released.

  9. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This report contains the preliminary findings based on the first phase of an Environmental Survey at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Plant (SRP), located at Aiken, South Carolina. The Survey is being conducted by DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health. The following topics are discussed: general site information; air, soil, surface water and ground water; hydrogeology; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; release of tritium oxides; radioactivity in milk; contamination of ground water and wildlife; pesticide use; and release of radionuclides into seepage basins. 149 refs., 44 figs., 53 tabs.

  10. An aerial radiological survey of Maralinga and EMU, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, W J; Berry, H A; Fritzsche, A E

    1988-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former British nuclear test ranges at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia from May through July 1987. The survey covered an area of approximately 1,550 square kilometers which included the nine major trial sites, where a nuclear yield occurred, and all the minor trial sites, where physics experiments were conducted. Flight lines were flown at an altitude of 30 meters with line spacings of 50, 100, and 200 meters depending on the area and whether man-made contamination was present. Results of the aerial survey were processed for americium-241 (used to determine plutonium contamination), cesium-137, cobalt-60, and uranium-238. The aerial survey also detected the presence of europium-152, a soil activation product, in the immediate vicinity of the major trial ground zeros. Ground measurements were also made at approximately 120 locations using a high-resolution germanium detector to provide supplemental data for the aerial survey. This survey was conducted as part of a series of studies being conducted over a two to three-year timeframe to obtain information from which options and associated costs can be formulated about the decontamination and possible rehabilitation of the former nuclear test sites.

  11. A survey of zoonotic diseases contracted by South African veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gummow

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 88 veterinarians employed at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa, was carried out to investigate the occurrence of zoonotic diseases among South African veterinarians. The survey found that 63.6 % of veterinarians interviewed had suffered from a zoonotic disease. Veterinarians predominantly involved in farm animal practice were 3 times more likely to have contracted a zoonotic disease than those working in other veterinary fields. Fifty-six percent of disease incidents were initially diagnosed by the veterinarians themselves. Fifty-three percent of incidents required treatment by a medical practitioner, but the majority (61 % of incidents did not require absence from work. The incidence density rate for contracting a zoonotic disease was 0.06 per person year of exposure. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis estimated that the probability of having contracted a zoonotic disease was 50 % after 11 years in practice. The risk of contracting a zoonotic disease appeared to be higher early in practice. The mostcommonmodeof transmission was by direct contact. Approximately 46 % of South Africans still live in rural areas and regularly come into close contact with farmanimals. The implications of this in the light of this survey’s results are discussed.

  12. Barriers to rural induced abortion services in Canada: findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy V Norman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC. METHODS: We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85% of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67 of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52 abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30 medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. CONCLUSIONS: Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4% for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians.

  13. Barriers to rural induced abortion services in Canada: findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Wendy V; Soon, Judith A; Maughn, Nanamma; Dressler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85%) of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67) of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52) abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30) medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4%) for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians.

  14. Barriers to Rural Induced Abortion Services in Canada: Findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Wendy V.; Soon, Judith A.; Maughn, Nanamma; Dressler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). Methods We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. Results Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85%) of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67) of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52) abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30) medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. Conclusions Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4%) for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians. PMID:23840578

  15. Gravity survey of the Mt. Toondina impact structure, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1991-06-01

    The Mt. Toondina impact structure is located in northern South Australia, about 45 km south of the town of Oodnadatta. Only the central uplift is exposed. The outcrops at Mt. Toondina reveal a remarkable structural anomaly surrounded by a broad expanse of nearly flat-lying beds of the Bulldog Shale of Early Cretaceous age. A gravity survey was undertaken in 1989 to determine the diameter of the impact structure, define the form of the central uplift, and understand the local crustal structure. Data were collected along two orthogonal lines across the structure. In addition to the profiles, a significant number of measurements were made on and around the central uplift. The 1989 gravity data combined with 1963 gravity data and the seismic reflection data provide an excellent data base to interpret the subsurface structure of the Mt. Toondina feature.

  16. Survey of Artificial Production of Anadromous Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1981-1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, Percy M.

    1985-11-25

    The overall objective of this project is to collect, organize, and summarize data concerning anadromous fish culture stations of the Columbia River system for 1981, 1982, and 1983 and to create a data archive system with a means of making this information available to the public.

  17. Waterfowl production survey for North and South Dakota: July 3-18, 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for North and South Dakota during 1972. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  18. 1990 waterfowl breeding population survey for South Dakota and North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for North and South Dakota during 1990. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  19. Canadian Medical Education Journal Survey evaluations of University of British Columbia residents’ education and attitudes regarding palliative care and physician assisted death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, David; Paul, Sonia; Tang, Tom; Chen, Charlie; Chase, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    Background Little prior research has been conducted regarding resident physicians’ opinions on the subject of Physician Assisted Death (PAD), despite past surveys ascertaining the attitudes of practicing physicians towards PAD in Canada. We solicited British Columbia residents’ opinions on the amount of education they receive about palliative care and physician assisted death, and their attitudes towards the implementation of PAD. Methods We conducted a cross sectional, anonymous online survey with the resident physicians of British Columbia, Canada. Questions included: close-ended questions, graded Likert scale questions, and comments. Results Among the respondents (n=299, response rate 24%), 44% received ≥5 hours of education in palliative care, 40% received between zero and four hours of education, and 16% reported zero hours. Of all respondents, 75% had received no education about PAD and the majority agreed that there should be more education about palliative care (74%) and PAD (85%). Only 35% of residents felt their program provided them with enough education to make an informed decision about PAD, yet 59% would provide a consenting patient with PAD. Half of the respondents believed PAD would ultimately be provided by palliative care physicians. Interpretation Residents desire further education about palliative care and PAD. Training programs should consider conducting a thorough needs assessment and implementing structured education to meet this need. PMID:28344712

  20. A Survey of Coral Reefs in South China Sea Completed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ An investigation of coral reefs in South China Sea has recently completed by CAS scientists at South China Sea Institute of Oceanography (SCSIO) in Guangzhou. The compilation and analysis of the obtained data is now under way.

  1. Health survey of atomic bomb survivors in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arita, Ken-ichi; Iwamori, Hiroshi; Kishi, Akihiro; Koutoku, Michiya.

    1988-05-01

    Health survey was undertaken among Korea survivors exposed to atomic bomb in Japan who now reside in South Korea. Of 232 A-bomb survivors on whom raditation exposure information was available, all were exposed to atomic bomb in Hiroshima. According to the distance from the hypocenter, one (0.4 %) A-bomb survior was exposed at < 1,000 m, 60 (25.9 %) at 1,000 - 2,000 m, 124 (53.4 %) at > 2,000 - 3,000 m, and 43 (18.5 %) at < 3,000 m. In the four remaining, it was unknown. According to age, 14.7 % were in their forties, 33.6 % in their fifties, 32.6 % in their sixties, 16.0 % in their severties, and 3.1 % in their eighties, indicating the tendency for the aging of older persons. Common subjective symptoms were lumbar pain and joint pain, which seemed atributable to osteoarthritis. Other diseases included hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sequelae of cerebral stroke, eczema, and mycosis. (Namekawa, K.).

  2. Proposed South San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Level III preaquisition survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A Level III Contaminant Preaquisition Survey was conducted during 1992 in the south San Diego Bay area to evaluate potential hazards to trustee resources and/or...

  3. E-tourism: a survey of e-business among South African tour operators.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Verhoest, PI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents the results of a pilot project on ICT usage by South African SMMEs in the tourism industry. The Electronic Business Survey (EBS) methodology which was tested for applicability in a developing country, in this case South...

  4. Wages in the food chain in South Sudan: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in South Sudan, conducted between the 1st of June and the 19th of July 2013 in the southern and eastern regions of South Sudan. In total 1,329 persons were interviewed; 71% were men, 29% women and 37% were u

  5. 9th state of logistics survey for South Africa: connecting neighbours - engaging the world

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, N

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The 9th State of Logistics survey for South Africa 2012 delivers a message of action. South Africa must make great strides in addressing critical issues relating to the road freight sector, shifting freight from road to rail and addressing rampant...

  6. Wages in the food chain in South Sudan: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in South Sudan, conducted between the 1st of June and the 19th of July 2013 in the southern and eastern regions of South Sudan. In total 1,329 persons were interviewed; 71% were men, 29% women and 37% were u

  7. Avulsions, channel evolution and floodplain sedimentation rates of the anastomosing upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, B.; Smith, D.G.; Berendsen, H.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Ages of channels of the anastomosing upper Columbia River, south-eastern British Columbia, Canada, were investigated in a cross-valley transect by C-14 dating of subsurface floodplain organic material from beneath levees. The avulsion history within the transect was deduced from these data, and morp

  8. South African National Survey of Arachnida: A checklist of the spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) of the Lekgalameetse Nature Reserve, Limpopo province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Foord, Stefan H.; Anna S. Dippenaar-Schoeman; Rudy Jocqué; Charles R. Haddad; Robin Lyle; Peter Webb

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA) is to document the Arachnida fauna of South Africa. One of the focus areas of SANSA is to survey protected areas to obtain species-specific information, and species distribution patterns for Red Data assessments. Here, we provide the first checklist of the spider species of Lekgalameetse Nature Reserve (LNR) in the Limpopo province of South Africa collected during five surveys between 2009 and 2016 using methods targeting both ...

  9. Professional and personal ethics in translation: A survey of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethics or conduct, and constitutes an articulation of ethical obligations that is .... Text 2 is a section of an article from a South African women's magazine. ... her frustration, which some might regard as unsuited to the idealised image of pregnancy often ..... speaking, 25% English-speaking and the rest cover the range of South ...

  10. Graduate Students Library Satisfaction Survey: Miller F. Whittaker Library, South Carolina State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agingu, Beatrice O.; Johnson, Minnie M.

    This article reports the findings of a library user satisfaction survey of graduate students conducted by the library staff at South Carolina State University. The survey evaluated the effectiveness of the library's programs, resources, and services in meeting the informational needs of graduate students at this institution. The objectives of the…

  11. Magmatic and structural controls on porphyry-style Cu-Au-Mo mineralization at Kemess South, Toodoggone District of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duuring, Paul; Rowins, Stephen M.; McKinley, Bradley S. M.; Dickinson, Jenni M.; Diakow, Larry J.; Kim, Young-Seog; Creaser, Robert A.

    2009-05-01

    Kemess South is the only Cu-Au-Mo mine in the Toodoggone district and a major Cu and Au producer in British Columbia. Porphyry-style Cu-Au-Mo mineralization is mainly hosted by the tabular, SW-plunging, 199.6 ± 0.6-Ma Maple Leaf granodiorite, which intrudes tightly folded, SW-dipping, Permian Asitka Group siltstone and limestone and homogeneous Triassic Takla Group basalt. Southwest-dipping 194.0 ± 0.4-Ma Toodoggone Formation conglomerate, volcaniclastic, and epiclastic rocks overlie the granodiorite and Asitka Group rocks. Minor Cu-Au-Mo mineralization is hosted by the immediate Takla Group basalt country rock, whereas low-tonnage high-grade Cu zones occur beneath a 30-m-thick leached capping in supergene-altered granodiorite and in exotic positions in overlying Toodoggone Formation conglomerate. Granodiorite has an intrusive contact with mineralized and altered Takla Group basalt but displays a sheared contact with unmineralized and less altered Asitka Group siltstone. The North Block fault is a deposit-scale, E-striking, steeply S-dipping normal fault that juxtaposes the granodiorite/basalt ore body against unmineralized Asitka Group rocks. Younger NW- and NE-striking normal-dextral faults cut all rock types, orebodies, and the North Block fault with displacements of up to 100 m and result in the graben-and-horst-style block faulting of the stratigraphy and ore body. Both basalt and granodiorite host comparable vein sequence and alteration histories, with minor variations in hydrothermal mineral assemblages caused by differing protolith chemistry. Early potassic alteration (and associated early-stage Cu ± Au ± Mo mineralization) is partly replaced by phyllic and intermediate argillic alteration associated with main-stage Cu-Au-Mo mineralization. Two main-stage veins have Re-Os molybdenite ages of 201.3 ± 1.2 and 201.1 ± 1.2 Ma. These mineralization ages overlap the 199.6 ± 0.6-Ma U-Pb zircon crystallization age for the Maple Leaf granodiorite. Late

  12. Quartz exposure in agriculture: literature review and South African survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanepoel, A.J.; Rees, D.; Renton, K.; Swanepoel, C.; Kromhout, H.; Gardiner, K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review the published literature on respirable quartz exposure and associated disease in agricultural related settings systematically and to describe personal respirable dust and quartz measurements collected on a sandy soil farm in the Free State province of South Africa. METHODS: The

  13. The Spitzer-South Pole Telescope Deep Field: Survey Design and IRAC Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Ashby, M L N; Brodwin, M; Gonzalez, A H; Martinez, J; Bartlett, J G; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Crawford, T M; Dey, A; Dressler, A; Eisenhardt, P R M; Galametz, A; Jannuzi, B T; Marrone, D P; Mei, S; Muzzin, A; Pacaud, F; Pierre, M; Stern, D; Vieira, J D

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer-South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) is a wide-area survey using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) to cover 94 square degrees of extragalactic sky, making it the largest IRAC survey completed to date outside the Milky Way midplane. The SSDF is centered at 23:30,-55:00, in a region that combines observations spanning a broad wavelength range from numerous facilities. These include millimeter imaging from the South Pole Telescope, far-infrared observations from Herschel/SPIRE, X-ray observations from the XMM XXL survey, near-infrared observations from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey, and radio-wavelength imaging from the Australia Telescope Compact Array, in a panchromatic project designed to address major outstanding questions surrounding galaxy clusters and the baryon budget. Here we describe the Spitzer/IRAC observations of the SSDF, including the survey design, observations, processing, source extraction, and publicly available data products. In particular, we present two band-merged catalogs...

  14. Why Isn't South Africa Growing Faster? Microeconomic Evidence from a Firm Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, George; Habyarimana, James; Kaplan, David; Ramachandran, Vijaya

    2008-01-01

    The investment levels in South Africa have remained relatively low despite an overall picture of economic stability and good governance. This analysis looks at South Africa's investment climate, using data from an Investment Climate Survey (ICS) of over 800 firms conducted by the Department of Trade and Industry and the World Bank. It suggests that exchange rate instability and the cost of crime may be deterrents to investment. But more importantly, labour regulations may be discouraging firm...

  15. Psychological career resources of working adults: A South African survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to explore broad trends regarding how individuals from various age, educational, marital, race and gender groups in the South African organisational context differ in terms of their psychological career resources, as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory. A sample of 2 997 working adults registered as students at a South African higher distance education institution participated in this study. The results indicate significant differences between the various biographical variables and the participants’ psychological career resources. In the context of employment equity, and with more women entering the workplace, this study is expected to contribute important knowledge that will inform career development practices concerned with enhancing employees’ career meta-competencies as an important element of their general employability.

  16. Libraries in South Carolina: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/southcarolina.html Libraries in South Carolina To use the sharing features ... Columbia University of South Carolina School of Medicine Library 6311 Garners Ferry Road Columbia, SC 29208 803- ...

  17. A survey of feline babesiosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Jacobson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa appears to be the only country where feline babesiosis is a significant clinical entity in domestic cats. Little is known about its epidemiology or the clinical challenges facing practitioners. A questionnaire posted to 1760 South African veterinarians was returned by 16 %, representing approximately 40 % of practices. Just over half reported seeing feline babesiosis, with most cases occurring in the coastal areas of the Western Cape, Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces. Overall incidence is highest in summer, but seasonality is less pronounced in non-seasonal and winter rainfall areas. No age, breed or sex predisposition was identified. Weight loss, weakness, anaemia, fever and icterus are common clinical findings. Complications include hepatopathy, renal failure, pulmonary oedema, cerebral signs, immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia and concurrent infections. The antibabesial drug of choice is primaquine phosphate. Response to therapy is generally good, but recurrence and chronic infections were identified as problems. The average mortality rate was 15 %. Approximately 3000 cases are seen annually by the respondents, at an estimated cost of R750 000 to the owners. Feline babesiosis is a significant problem in South Africa, and further investigations of taxonomic status, concurrent infections, chemotherapy, complications and management of refractory cases are warranted.

  18. The Survey of Ermia mangshanensis Resource in South China Tiger Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heping; XIE; Shizhou; LI; Jianrong; WANG; Yuanhui; CHEN; Lianchao; CHEN; Shengqiao; LEI

    2014-01-01

    In 2007,one living Ermia mangshanensis was found in the Shapingpian area at the junction of South China Tiger Nature Reserve in North Guangdong and Hunan Mangshan National Nature Reserve.To learn more about Ermia mangshanensis resource,the researchers in South China Tiger Nature Reserve in North Guangdong and Hunan Mangshan National Nature Reserve conducted field survey of Ermia mangshanensis in the Shapingpian area during the period 2010- 2012.The results show that there is Ermia mangshanensis in the Shapingpian area of South China Tiger Nature Reserve at the elevation of 800- 1200 m,and the population number is estimated at 48- 80.

  19. A survey of oral care practices in South African intensive care units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of oral care practices in South African intensive care units. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Approval to conduct the study was obtained from the Human Research ... may further enhance best practice and ensure that patient outcomes are not ...

  20. Exploratory survey of informal vendor-sold fast food in rural South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploratory survey of informal vendor-sold fast food in rural South Africa. ... to understand access to food better and how this influences food choice in rural ... of the Witwatersrand-Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System ...

  1. Barnes Ice Cap South Dome Trilateration Net Survey Data 1970-1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Barnes Ice Cap data set contains survey measurements of a network of 43 stakes along a 10 km flow line on the northeast flank of the south dome of the Barnes Ice...

  2. The South African wine industry: Insights survey 2013

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blok, T

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available professionals who understand the specific challenges the industry faces. Our aim remains to make a meaningful contribution to the industry with projects like this insights survey, and to work alongside industry leaders to provide advice and seek solutions...-sector, as well as persistent increases in energy costs, it is not surprising to see labour and electricity as the expenses that executives are most concerned about over the next 12 to 36 months. Labour Marketing and sales Bottling and packaging Chemicals...

  3. CEPHEUS SA: a South African survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, F; Schamroth, C; Blom, D; Marx, J; Rajput, M; Haus, M; Hussain, R; Cassim, F; Nortjé, M; Vandehoven, G; Temmerman, A-M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the CEntralised Pan-South African survey on tHE Under-treatment of hypercholeSterolaemia (CEPHEUS SA) was to evaluate the current use and efficacy of lipidlowering drugs (LLDs), and to identify possible patient and physician characteristics associated with failure, if any, to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets. The survey was conducted in 69 study centres in South Africa and recruited consecutive consenting patients who had been prescribed LLDs for at least three months. One visit was scheduled for data collection, including fasting plasma lipid and glucose levels. Physicians and patients completed questionnaires regarding their knowledge, awareness and perceptions of hypercholesterolaemia and the treatment thereof. Of the 3 001 patients recruited, 2 996 were included in the final analyses. The mean age was 59.4 years, and 47.5% were female. Only 60.5 and 52.3% of patients on LLDs for at least three months achieved the LDL-C target recommended by the NCEP ATP III/2004 updated NCEP ATP III and the Fourth JETF/South African guidelines, respectively. Being male, older than 40 years, falling into the lower-risk categories, compliance with the medication regimen, and patient knowledge that the LDL-C goal had been reached, were associated with the highest probability of attaining LDL-C goals. The results of this survey highlight the sub-optimal lipid control achieved in many South African patients taking lipid-lowering therapy.

  4. 40 CFR 81.108 - Columbia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.108 Columbia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Columbia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (South Carolina) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Columbia Intrastate Air...

  5. SPT-GMOS: A Gemini/GMOS-South Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxy Clusters in the SPT-SZ Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bayliss, M B; Stubbs, C W; Allen, S W; Applegate, D E; Ashby, M L N; Bautz, M; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Bocquet, S; Brodwin, M; Capasso, R; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chiu, I; Cho, H-M; Clocchiatti, A; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Desai, S; Dietrich, J P; Dobbs, M A; Doucouliagos, A N; Foley, R J; Forman, W R; Garmire, G P; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Gupta, N; Halverson, N W; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Hoekstra, H; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hou, Z; Hrubes, J D; Huang, N; Jones, C; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; von der Linden, A; Luong-Van, D; Mantz, A; Marrone, D P; McDonald, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L M; Mohr, J J; Murray, S S; Padin, S; Pryke, C; Rapetti, D; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Saro, A; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Schrabback, T; Shirokoff, E; Song, J; Spieler, H G; Stalder, B; Stanford, S A; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K T; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vikhlinin, A; Williamson, R; Zenteno, A

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of SPT-GMOS, a spectroscopic survey with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South. The targets of SPT-GMOS are galaxy clusters identified in the SPT-SZ survey, a millimeter-wave survey of 2500 squ. deg. of the southern sky using the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Multi-object spectroscopic observations of 62 SPT-selected galaxy clusters were performed between January 2011 and December 2015, yielding spectra with radial velocity measurements for 2595 sources. We identify 2243 of these sources as galaxies, and 352 as stars. Of the galaxies, we identify 1579 as members of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters. The primary goal of these observations was to obtain spectra of cluster member galaxies to estimate cluster redshifts and velocity dispersions. We describe the full spectroscopic dataset and resulting data products, including galaxy redshifts, cluster redshifts and velocity dispersions, and measurements of several well-known spectral indices for each galaxy: the equivalent width, W,...

  6. Synoptic surveys of major reservoirs in South Carolina, 1988--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A.

    1992-03-01

    Comprehensive synoptic surveys of ten South Carolina airs (L Lake, Savannah River Site (SRS), Par Pond, SRS, Pond B, SRS, Lake Moultrie, Lake Marion, Lake Murray, Lake Monticello, Lake Robinson, Lake Richard B. Russell, and Lake Greenwood) were performed to characterize and compare these basins with regard to water quality, trophic status, and community structure during September 1988 and September 1989. All of the reservoirs were mesoeutrophic to eutrophic having significantly greater productivity rates than oligotrophic ecosystems. This report presents and discusses the results of these surveys.

  7. Regional Sediment Budget of the Columbia River Littoral Cell, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijsman, Maarten C.; Sherwood, C.R.; Gibbs, A.E.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Kaminsky, G.M.; Ruggiero, P.; Franklin, J.

    2002-01-01

    Summary -- In this Open-File Report we present calculations of changes in bathymetric and topographic volumes for the Grays Harbor, Willapa Bay, and Columbia River entrances and the adjacent coasts of North Beach, Grayland Plains, Long Beach, and Clatsop Plains for four intervals: pre-jetty - 1920s (Interval 1), 1920s - 1950s (Interval 2), 1950s - 1990s (Interval 3), and 1920s 1990s (Interval 4). This analysis is part of the Southwest Washington Coastal Erosion Study (SWCES), the goals of which are to understand and predict the morphologic behavior of the Columbia River littoral cell on a management scale of tens of kilometers and decades. We obtain topographic Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data from a joint project by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (DOE) and bathymetric data from the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), USGS, and the DOE. Shoreline data are digitized from T-Sheets and aerial photographs from the USC&GS and National Ocean Service (NOS). Instead of uncritically adjusting each survey to NAVD88, a common vertical land-based datum, we adjust some surveys to produce optimal results according to the following criteria. First, we minimize offsets in overlapping surveys within the same era, and second, we minimize bathymetric changes (relative to the 1990s) in deep water, where we assume minimal change has taken place. We grid bathymetric and topographic datasets using kriging and triangulation algorithms, calculate bathymetric-change surfaces for each interval, and calculate volume changes within polygons that are overlaid on the bathymetric-change surfaces. We find similar morphologic changes near the entrances to Grays Harbor and the Columbia River following jetty construction between 1898 and 1916 at the Grays Harbor entrance and between 1885 and

  8. Intention to switch to smokeless tobacco use among South African smokers: results from the 2007 South African Social Attitudes Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan A Ayo-Yusuf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some smokeless tobacco products (SLT have been shown to be associated with only a fraction of the risks of cigarettes. This study assessed South African smokers' interest in switching to a hypothetical reduced harm SLT product. METHODS: The 2007 South African Social Attitudes Survey was analysed for 678 exclusive cigarette smokers. Respondents were asked about their perceptions about relative harm of snuff compared to cigarettes, and their interest in switching to snuff if informed it was 99% less harmful than cigarettes. RESULTS: About 49.7% of exclusive cigarette smokers believed that snuff was equally as harmful as cigarettes; 12.9% thought snuff was more harmful; 5.7% thought snuff was less harmful; while 31.8% did not know if there was a difference in harm between snuff and cigarettes. Approximately 24.2% of exclusive cigarette smokers indicated interest in switching to snuff, with significantly greater interest observed among those exposed to 100% smoke-free work environment. Interest in switching was highest (34.7% among smokers who believed a priori that using snuff was more harmful than cigarettes, and lowest (14.5% among those who did not know if there was a difference in harm. In a multi-variable adjusted logistic regression model, this latter group remained less likely to be interested in harm reduction switching (adjusted odds ratio = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19-0.91. CONCLUSION: About a quarter of smokers indicated interest in harm reduction switching to snuff. SLT products have a potential role in reducing the harm from smoking in South Africa, but only if they are not used to circumvent smoke-free laws that have been associated with reduced smoking.

  9. The SuperCosmos South Galactic Cap multi-colour/epoch digitised survey - Online!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambly, N.; Read, M.

    We describe the first release of data from the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey programme, the South Galactic Cap survey. This consists of a 3 colour (BRI), one colour (R) at 2 epochs, digital sky survey based on high Galactic latitude (|b|>60o) Schmidt survey plates covering ~5000 square degrees - it is the first digitised sky survey to include both colours and proper motions. Positions are tied to the International Co-ordinate Reference Frame via the Tycho-ACT catalogue and are externally accurate to ~0.3 arcsec; proper motions (also zero-pointed on the extragalactic frame) are typically accurate to ~10 mas yr-1. Photometry in BRI is accurate to ~0.2m and is tied to external CCD zeropoints with field-to-field zeropoint errors minimised using field overlap regions. We describe a simple database interrogation example and show the results. Finally, we describe the future plans for expanding the survey to cover the full southern sky. For full details access the survey homepage on http://www-wfau.roe.ac.uk/sss/.

  10. A survey of antimicrobial usage in animals in South Africa with specific reference to food animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz van Vuuren

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to set a benchmark for a monitoring and surveillance programme on the volumes of antimicrobials available and consumed by animals for the benefit of animal health in South Africa. This survey was collated from data available from 2002 to 2004. The authorised antimicrobials available in South Africa were firstly reviewed. The majority of available antimicrobials were registered under the Stock Remedies Act 36 1947. Secondly, volumes of antimicrobials consumed were then surveyed and it was found that the majority of consumed antimicrobials were from the macrolide and pleuromutilin classes, followed by the tetracycline class, the sulphonamide class and lastly the penicillin class.Results showed that 68.5% of the antimicrobials surveyed were administered as in-feed medications. 17.5% of the total volume of antimicrobials utilised were parenteral antimicrobials, whereas antimicrobials for water medication constituted 12% of the total and ’other‘ dosage forms, for example the topical and aural dosage forms, constituted 1.5% of the total. Intramammary antimicrobials represented 0.04% of the total. The surveillance systems for veterinary antimicrobials used by other countries were scrutinised and compared. It was concluded that a combination of the surveillance systems applied by Australia and the United Kingdom is the best model (with modifications to apply to the animal health industry in South Africa. Such a surveillance system, of the volumes of veterinary antimicrobials consumed, should ideally be implemented in conjunction with a veterinary antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programme. This will generate meaningful data that will contribute to the rational administration of antimicrobials in order to preserve the efficacy of the existing antimicrobials in South Africa.

  11. SPT-GMOS: A Gemini/GMOS-South Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxy Clusters in the SPT-SZ Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, M. B.; Ruel, J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Allen, S. W.; Applegate, D. E.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Capasso, R.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H.-M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Doucouliagos, A. N.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; Garmire, G. P.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Gupta, N.; Halverson, N. W.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; von der Linden, A.; Luong-Van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L. M.; Mohr, J. J.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Rapetti, D.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schrabback, T.; Shirokoff, E.; Song, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Stanford, S. A.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zenteno, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of SPT-GMOS, a spectroscopic survey with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South. The targets of SPT-GMOS are galaxy clusters identified in the SPT-SZ survey, a millimeter-wave survey of 2500 deg2 of the southern sky using the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Multi-object spectroscopic observations of 62 SPT-selected galaxy clusters were performed between 2011 January and 2015 December, yielding spectra with radial velocity measurements for 2595 sources. We identify 2243 of these sources as galaxies, and 352 as stars. Of the galaxies, we identify 1579 as members of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters. The primary goal of these observations was to obtain spectra of cluster member galaxies to estimate cluster redshifts and velocity dispersions. We describe the full spectroscopic data set and resulting data products, including galaxy redshifts, cluster redshifts, and velocity dispersions, and measurements of several well-known spectral indices for each galaxy: the equivalent width, W, of [O ii] λλ3727, 3729 and H-δ, and the 4000 Å break strength, D4000. We use the spectral indices to classify galaxies by spectral type (i.e., passive, post-starburst, star-forming), and we match the spectra against photometric catalogs to characterize spectroscopically observed cluster members as a function of brightness (relative to m ⋆). Finally, we report several new measurements of redshifts for ten bright, strongly lensed background galaxies in the cores of eight galaxy clusters. Combining the SPT-GMOS data set with previous spectroscopic follow-up of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters results in spectroscopic measurements for >100 clusters, or ˜20% of the full SPT-SZ sample.

  12. South Galactic Cap u-band Sky Survey (SCUSS): Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Hu; Jiang, Zhaoji; Peng, Xiyan; Fan, Dongwei; Fan, Xiaohui; Fan, Zhou; He, Boliang; Jing, Yipeng; Lesser, Michael; Li, Cheng; Ma, Jun; Nie, Jundan; Shen, Shiyin; Wang, Jiali; Wu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhou, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    The SCUSS is a deep $u$-band imaging survey in the south Galactic cap using the 2.3m Bok telescope. The survey observations were completed in the end of 2013, covering an area of about 5000 square degrees. We release the data in the region with an area of about 4000 deg$^2$ that is mostly covered by the Sloan digital sky survey. The data products contain calibrated single-epoch images, stacked images, photometric catalogs, and a catalog of star proper motions derived by Peng et al, 2015. The median seeing and magnitude limit ($5\\sigma$) are about 2".0 and 23.2 mag, respectively. There are about 8 million objects having measurements of absolute proper motions. All the data and related documentations can be accessed through the SCUSS data release website of \\url{http://batc.bao.ac.cn/Uband/data.html}.

  13. South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA: Solifugae (sun-spiders of the national parks and reserves of South Africa (Arachnida, Solifugae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Dippenaar-Schoeman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA inventories are underway to determine the diversity of the South African Arachnida fauna (Dippenaar- Schoeman & Craemer 2000. Several SANSA projects are in progress, including inventories of the arachnid faunas of protected areas. One such project is an inventory of the Solifugae (sun spiders from protected areas. Meaningful conservation can not take place if the species involved are not known.

  14. South Galactic Cap u-band Sky Survey (SCUSS): Data Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Hu; Zhou, Xu; Wu, Zhenyu; Ma, Jun; Fan, Xiaohui; Fan, Zhou; He, Boliang; Jing, Yipeng; Lesser, Michael; Li, Cheng; Nie, Jundan; Shen, Shiyin; Wang, Jiali; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhou, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    The South Galactic Cap u-band Sky Survey (SCUSS) is a deep u-band imaging survey in the Southern Galactic Cap, using the 90Prime wide-field imager on the 2.3m Bok telescope at Kitt Peak. The survey observations started in 2010 and ended in 2013. The final survey area is about 5000 deg2 with a median 5-sigma point source limiting magnitude of about 23.2. This paper describes the survey data reduction process, which includes basic imaging processing, astrometric and photometric calibrations, image stacking, and photometric measurements. Survey photometry is performed on objects detected both on SCUSS u-band images and in the SDSS database. Automatic, aperture, point-spread function (PSF), and model magnitudes are measured on stacked images. Co-added aperture, PSF, and model magnitudes are derived from measurements on single-epoch images. We also present comparisons of the SCUSS photometric catalog with those of the SDSS and CFHTLS.

  15. A Survey Study of Institutional Review Board Thought Processes in the United States and South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Kyung Jung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the last several decades, South Korea has rapidly adopted Western customs and practices. Yet, cultural differences between South Korea and the United States exist. The purpose ofthis study was to identify and characterize potential cultural differences in the Korean and US institutional review board (IRB approach to certain topics.Methods: A qualitative analysis of a 9-item survey, describing 4 research study case scenarios, sent to IRB members from the United States and South Korea. The case scenarios involved the followingissues: (1 the need for consent for retrospective chart review when research subjects receive their care after the study is conceived; (2 child assent; (3 individual versus population benefit; and (4 exception from informed consent in emergency resuscitation research. The free-text responses were analyzed and abstracted for recurrent themes.Results: Twenty-three of the 45 survey recipients completed the survey, for an overall response rate of 51%. The themes that emerged were as follows: (1 the importance of parental authority among Korean participants versus the importance of child autonomy and child assent among US participants; (2 the recognition of the rights of a proxy or surrogate who can represent an individual’s values by all participants; and (3 the importance of the community, expressed by the Korean respondents, versus individualism, expressed by US respondents.Conclusion: Whereas US participants appear to emphasize the importance of the individual and the autonomy of a child, the Korean respondents stressed the importance of parental authority andbenefiting the community, above and beyond that of the individual person. However, there was substantial overlap in the themes expressed by respondents from both countries.

  16. Radio Observations of the Hubble Deep Field South region: I. Survey Description and Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, R P; Jackson, C A; Boyle, B J; Ekers, R D; Mitchell, D A; Sault, R J; Wieringa, M H; Williams, R E; Hopkins, A M; Higdon, J; Norris, Ray P.; Huynh, Minh T.; Jackson, Carole A.; Boyle, Brian J.; Ekers, Ronald. D.; Mitchell, Daniel A.; Sault, Robert J.; Wieringa, Mark H.; Williams, Robert E.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Higdon, James

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the first of a series describing the results of the Australia Telescope Hubble Deep Field South (ATHDFS) radio survey. The survey was conducted at four wavelengths - 20, 11, 6, and 3 cm, over a 4-year period, and achieves an rms sensitivity of about 10 microJy at each wavelength. We describe the observations and data reduction processes, and present data on radio sources close to the centre of the HDF-S. We discuss in detail the properties of a subset of these sources. The sources include both starburst galaxies and galaxies powered by an active galactic nucleus, and range in redshift from 0.1 to 2.2. Some of them are characterised by unusually high radio-to-optical luminosities, presumably caused by dust extinction.

  17. Teaching from Data -- Climate Labs at Columbia and Barnard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S.; Hays, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1995 Columbia and Barnard have offered Earth's Environmental Systems: Climate to undergraduate environmental majors. Both lecture and laboratory resources are available on line. In collaboration with Lamont- Doherty Earth Observatory, the twelve labs engage students in exploring global databases to learn about earth processes. Evaluations of the course as well as exit surveys of senior majors, indicate that the laboratories help students learn how to extract meaning from data and to better understand the research experience. Using classical data such as the Mauna Loa carbon dioxide concentrations, the Vostok record, the atmospheric Earth Radiation Budget Experience, and the Levitus World Ocean Atlas, the laboratories are designed with both structured exercises and open-ended questions. For example, the "Modern Atmospheric CO2 Record" lab has students compare the Mauna Loa data with records from the South Pole and Barrow, and then examine seasonal variations in global primary productivity to understand seasonal and interhemispheric differences. This information is then set in the context of projections from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Development of the Earth Environmental Systems sequence (Climate, Solid Earth, and Life) was supported by NSF and Columbia to establish a firm foundation for environmental majors. The Climate course is taught both fall and spring semesters by a team of professors. Challenges over the years include consistently augmenting the computer-based labs with hands-on elements, and student difficulty in writing lab reports when the lab is open-ended.

  18. ESO Imaging Survey. Deep Public Survey Multi-Color Optical Data for the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Arnouts, S; Benoist, C; Groenewegen, M A T; Costa, L; Schirmer, M; Mignani, R P; Slijkhuis, R; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hook, R; Madejsky, R; Rité, C; Wicenec, A

    2001-01-01

    (short) This paper presents multi-passband optical data obtained from observations of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), located at alpha ~ 3h 32m, delta ~ -27d 48m. The observations were conducted at the ESO/MPG 2.2m telescope at La Silla using the 8kx8k Wide-Field Imager (WFI). This data set, taken over a period of one year, represents the first field to be completed by the ongoing Deep Public Survey (DPS) being carried out by the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) project. This paper describes the optical observations, the techniques employed for un-supervised pipeline processing and the general characteristics of the final data set. The paper includes data taken in six different filters U'UBVRI. The data cover an area of about 0.25 square degrees reaching 5 sigma limiting magnitudes of U'_AB=26.0, U_AB=25.7, B_AB=26.4$, V_AB=25.4, R_AB=25.5 and I_AB= 24.7 mag, as measured within a 2xFWHM aperture. The optical data covers the area of ~ 0.1 square degrees for which moderately deep observations in two near-infrared...

  19. Ca. 1.5 Ga mafic magmatism in South China during the break-up of the supercontinent Nuna/Columbia: The Zhuqing Fe-Ti-V oxide ore-bearing mafic intrusions in western Yangtze Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong-Peng; Zhu, Wei-Guang; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Zhong, Hong; Bai, Zhong-Jie; He, De-Feng; Chen, Cai-Jie; Cao, Chong-Yong

    2013-05-01

    Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) zircon and baddeleyite U-Pb ages, elemental, and Nd isotopic data are reported for the Zhuqing Fe-Ti-V oxide ore-bearing mafic intrusions in western Yangtze Block, South China. The mafic intrusions are dated at 1494 ± 6 Ma (zircon U-Pb), 1486 ± 3 Ma (baddeleyite U-Pb) and 1490 ± 4 Ma (baddeleyite U-Pb). The intrusions are dominantly gabbros that experienced variable degrees of alteration. All the studied rocks are high-Ti and alkaline in composition, and exhibit light rare earth element enrichment and "humped" incompatible trace-element patterns with no obvious Nb-Ta depletion, similar to intraplate alkali basaltic rocks in continental flood basalt (CFB) and ocean island basalt (OIB) provinces. Negative ɛNd(T) values (- 0.97 to - 3.58) and fractionation of the HREE of these rocks indicate that they were derived from a time-integrated, slightly enriched asthenospheric mantle source with minor crustal contamination. Like other Fe-Ti oxide mineralized rocks in plume-related layered intrusions or large igneous provinces around the world, the Zhuqing gabbros likely occurred in an intraplate setting. The ~ 1.5 Ga mafic magmatism was likely part of the global 1.6-1.2 Ga anorogenic magmatism related to the break-up of the supercontinent Nuna/Columbia, suggesting that the Yangtze Block may have been a component of the supercontinent.

  20. Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Columbia National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan documents and prioritizes inventory and monitoring surveys and research currently conducted, and proposed to be conducted, at the Columbia National...

  1. Columbia River Basin Daily MACA-VIC Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains daily downscaled meteorological and hydrological projections for the Columbia Basin in the United States at 1/16-deg resolution utilizing 9...

  2. "Ghost river": The Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Gayton, D.

    2001-01-01

    Metadata only record This perspective piece examines the history and geography of the Columbia River and some current ecosystem management issues related to hydroelectric development on the river. Once the greatest salmon producer in the word, the Columbia has, according to the author, become a "ghost river," with its salmon runs reduced to remnants, and its ecological integrity hanging in the balance. The author suggests that British Columbians have much to lose, both biologically and cul...

  3. South Galactic Cap u-band Sky Survey (SCUSS): Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Fan, Zhou; He, Bo-Liang; Jiang, Lin-Hua; Jiang, Zhao-Ji; Jing, Yi-Peng; Lesser, Michael; Ma, Jun; Nie, Jun-Dan; Shen, Shi-Yin; Wang, Jia-Li; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Zhou, Zhi-Min; Zou, Hu

    2016-04-01

    The South Galactic Cap u-band Sky Survey (SCUSS) was established in 2009 in order to provide a photometric input catalog for target selection of the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) project. SCUSS is an international cooperative project between National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Steward Observatory at the University of Arizona, using the 90 inch (2.3m) Bok telescope on Kitt Peak. The telescope is equipped with a prime focus camera that is composed of a mosaic of four 4096 × 4096 CCDs and has a field of view of about 1 deg2. From 2009 to 2013, SCUSS performed a sky survey of an approximately 5000 deg2 field of the South Galactic Cap in u band, including the Galactic anticenter area and the SDSS-IV extended imaging area. The limiting magnitude of SCUSS is deeper than 23 mag (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5). In this paper, we briefly describe the goals of this project, method of observations and data reduction, and we also introduce current and potential scientific activities related to the SCUSS project.

  4. Ultradeep IRAC Imaging Over The HUDF And GOODS-South: Survey Design And Imaging Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Labbe, I; Illingworth, G D; van Dokkum, P G; Bouwens, R J; Franx, M; Carollo, C M; Trenti, M; Holden, B; Smit, R; Gonzalez, V; Magee, D; Stiavelli, M; Stefanon, M

    2015-01-01

    The IRAC ultradeep field (IUDF) and IRAC Legacy over GOODS (IGOODS) programs are two ultradeep imaging surveys at 3.6{\\mu}m and 4.5{\\mu}m with the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). The primary aim is to directly detect the infrared light of reionization epoch galaxies at z > 7 and to constrain their stellar populations. The observations cover the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), including the two HUDF parallel fields, and the CANDELS/GOODS-South, and are combined with archival data from all previous deep programs into one ultradeep dataset. The resulting imaging reaches unprecedented coverage in IRAC 3.6{\\mu}m and 4.5{\\mu}m ranging from > 50 hour over 150 arcmin^2, > 100 hour over 60 sq arcmin2, to 200 hour over 5 - 10 arcmin$^2$. This paper presents the survey description, data reduction, and public release of reduced mosaics on the same astrometric system as the CANDELS/GOODS-South WFC3 data. To facilitate prior-based WFC3+IRAC photometry, we introduce a new method to create high signal-to-noise PSFs fro...

  5. Hand anthropometry survey of rural farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Okey Francis

    2016-04-01

    The importance of hand anthropometry as it relates to design of hand tools particularly for farm workers have been established; however, anthropometric data for this group of agricultural workers have continued to remain scarce. A survey of hand anthropometry relevant in design of agricultural hand tools was carried out on 200 male and 100 female adult farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria. Comparison of the male and female data obtained showed that male dimensions were higher than that recorded for the females. The hand anthropometric data of the male and female farm workers were compared with that of other populations but no clear distinction was observed. It was however clear that the following hand dimensions, 2nd Joint to root digit 3 and width at tip digit 3 recorded for Nigerian farm workers were highest and lowest, respectively, compared to other populations. Practitioner Summary: Hand anthropometric data relevant in design of hand tools have continued to remain scarce particularly for farm workers. Hand anthropometry survey of farm workers carried out in south-eastern Nigeria revealed higher dimensions for males than females; however, no clear distinction was observed in comparison with other populations.

  6. TB/HIV risk factors identified from a General Household Survey of South Africa in 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appunni, Sathiya Susuman; Blignaut, Renette; Lougue, Siaka

    2014-01-01

    The level of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB) as well as the co-infection TB/HIV in South Africa is among the highest in the world. TB is curable while HIV is not, yet the combination of both is a growing feature in the world. This study examined TB and HIV affecting people living in South Africa. Analyses have been undertaken based on data from the General Household Survey of South Africa in 2006. The study focused on respondents aged 15-49 years, corresponding to a total of 55,384 people composed of 25,859 males and 29,525 females. Among this population, 5935 people suffered from illness/injury, including 2469 (41.6%) males and 3466 (58.4%) females. Weighted multivariate logistic regression is performed on TB and/or HIV in association with the province, background characteristics of the target population, and selected socioeconomic and demographic variables included in the survey. In this study we focus on variables of health status and whether subjects suffered from TB and/or HIV. Findings of this investigation show that TB is the second most common cause of illness in the provinces of KwaZulu-Natal (KN) (9.1%), North West (5.4%) and Limpopo (4.2%). People who are married have a 50% lower risk compared to those currently not married to suffer from TB and/or HIV. Those with living spouses have a 5% lower risk to suffer from TB and/or HIV than those whose partners are not alive. This study concluded that rapid action is needed to curb the spread of TB and/or HIV to produce a healthy population. Therefore, follow-up care and special preventative measures are urgently needed in provinces with higher reported rates of TB and/or HIV such as KN.

  7. ULTRADEEP IRAC IMAGING OVER THE HUDF AND GOODS-SOUTH: SURVEY DESIGN AND IMAGING DATA RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbé, I.; Bouwens, R. J.; Franx, M.; Stefanon, M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Oesch, P. A. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics Department, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Illingworth, G. D.; Holden, B.; Magee, D. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dokkum, P. G. van [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Carollo, C. M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Trenti, M. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Smit, R. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); González, V. [University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Stiavelli, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The IRAC ultradeep field and IRAC Legacy over GOODS programs are two ultradeep imaging surveys at 3.6 and 4.5 μm with the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). The primary aim is to directly detect the infrared light of reionization epoch galaxies at z > 7 and to constrain their stellar populations. The observations cover the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), including the two HUDF parallel fields, and the CANDELS/GOODS-South, and are combined with archival data from all previous deep programs into one ultradeep data set. The resulting imaging reaches unprecedented coverage in IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm ranging from >50 hr over 150 arcmin{sup 2}, >100 hr over 60 sq arcmin{sup 2}, to ∼200 hr over 5–10 arcmin{sup 2}. This paper presents the survey description, data reduction, and public release of reduced mosaics on the same astrometric system as the CANDELS/GOODS-South Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) data. To facilitate prior-based WFC3+IRAC photometry, we introduce a new method to create high signal-to-noise PSFs from the IRAC data and reconstruct the complex spatial variation due to survey geometry. The PSF maps are included in the release, as are registered maps of subsets of the data to enable reliability and variability studies. Simulations show that the noise in the ultradeep IRAC images decreases approximately as the square root of integration time over the range 20–200 hr, well below the classical confusion limit, reaching 1σ point-source sensitivities as faint as 15 nJy (28.5 AB) at 3.6 μm and 18 nJy (28.3 AB) at 4.5 μm. The value of such ultradeep IRAC data is illustrated by direct detections of z = 7–8 galaxies as faint as H{sub AB} = 28.

  8. The state of South African internships: A national survey against HPCSA guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, Summy; Trollip, Eudiet; Parkinson, Fran

    2015-09-21

    Medical internship is designed to bridge the gap between the theoretical knowledge learned as a student and the skills required as a competent medical practitioner. In South Africa (SA) it is a 2-year structured programme incorporating experience in key domains of medicine selected by the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA). HPCSA guidelines state that the clinical experience should include teaching, supervision and competency in selected logbook procedures. After concerns were raised over some accredited intern facilities, we investigated whether these guidelines were being met for interns across SA. An electronic survey was sent to 150 SA doctors who had completed their internship between 2010 and 2013. The questions covered supervision, workload and rest, teaching and perception of patient safety. All responses were anonymous and there was opportunity to comment at the end of each question. The respondents (n=90) included graduates from all eight SA medical schools. Supervision was ranked as the aspect of internship that respondents would change the most, with 33.0% performing an interventional procedure for the first time without supervision and 25.6% experiencing an adverse event where senior help was not available. More than half the interns had an entire shift supervised by a medical officer with less than 3 years' clinical training in that specialty. This survey identified deficiencies of supervision as directed by the HPCSA. It also highlighted difficulties with workload and teaching opportunities. A significant proportion of interns did not feel that patients were safe under their care. A national annual HPCSA survey would highlight hospitals where closer investigation may be required.

  9. Generational Differences in Fast Food Intake Among South-Asian Americans: Results From a Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Patti; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Banta, Jim E.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between generational status and fast food consumption among South-Asian Americans. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011. After adjusting for control variables, South-Asian Americans of the third generation or more had a fast food intake rate per week 2.22 times greater than first generation South-Asian Americans. Public health practitioners must focus on ways to improve dietary outcomes among this fast-growing ethnic population in the United States. PMID:25474383

  10. Restaurant industry preparedness against intentional food contamination: results of a South Carolina survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Kanwat, C P; Smith, Lillian U; Li, Yi-Jhen; Sros, Lekhena; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    Food safety and food defense are both responsibilities of public health agencies. Food safety practices within restaurants are regulated by state and local public health laws based on the US Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code. However, little is known about preemptive practices against intentional food-borne outbreaks within restaurants. The researchers administered a survey to a 50 percent random sample of South Carolina's restaurants, a state that relies heavily on tourism and the restaurant industry for its economic well-being. The survey received a response rate of 15 percent. The food defense practice items fall under three functional categories: employee management and training practices; vendor and delivery-related practices; and physical facilities and operational security practices. This study presents the results, classified by geographic region. Findings indicate some key areas of vulnerability that need attention to protect the public from mass food outbreaks due to intentional contamination. Of concern, there is much variation in practices by geographic region. On the basis of the survey, recommendations are made to improve restaurant preparedness against food-borne outbreaks from terrorism and malevolent contamination.

  11. Preliminary survey on the impact of Schmallenberg virus on sheep flocks in South of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegerman, C; Martinelle, L; Dal Pozzo, F; Kirschvink, N

    2014-10-01

    Between late February and May 2012, a preliminary anonym survey was conducted among sheep farmers in south of Belgium in order to contribute to future estimations of the economic losses caused by Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Based on clinical signs consistent with SBV infection, this survey involved 13 meat sheep flocks considered as positive flocks with subsequent SBV detection by RT-qPCR [SBV-positive flocks (PF); total of 961 animals], and 13 meat sheep flocks considered as negative flocks (NF; total of 331 animals). These preliminary results indicated several significant characteristics that were more present in PF than in NF. These include an increased rate of abortions (6.7% in PF versus 3.2% in NF), of lambs born at term but presenting malformations (10.1% in PF versus 2.0% in NF) and of dystocia (10.1% in PF versus 3.4% in NF). Lamb mortality during the first week of life was reported more frequently in PF (8 of 13 PF, 61.5%) than in NF (1 of 13 NF, 7.7%). In PF, the observed prolificacy rate was 2-fold lower (93%) than expected (186%). The implementation of a survey at larger scale, including a high number of breeders, is necessary to allow a more detailed analysis of the SBV impact in the sheep sector.

  12. The Columbia Social Essayists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert J. Bergesen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wallerstein came of age intellectually at Columbia University, where he was an undergraduate, graduate student and faculty member for a quarter of a century (1947-1971. While we often think of his work on African politics and his concern with third world development as precur-sors to world-system theory, a large part of his intellectual biography was shaped by those Columbia years. They mark the high point of a triple hegemony of university, city, and nation, as at this time Columbia was the leading university in the leading city of the hegemonic nation. It was a time before the 1960s when the New Left and Berkeley would challenge the centrality of New York and Columbia as undisputed centers of American social thought and it was before what would be called the policy intellectuals would emerge in Washington DC in the 1970s/80s. It was also a time before the great in?ux of federal money in the 1960s which spurred social research and lifted other universities to prominence. It was a time of what I will call The Columbia Social Essayists, referring to scholar/intellectuals such as C. Wright Mills, Daniel Bell, Lionel Trilling, Richard Hofstadter and Meyer Schapiro.

  13. Grab Sample Locations & Surficial Sediment Texture collected by the U.S. Geological Survey 1999-2003 offshore of the Grand Strand, South Carolina region (GRABS, Point shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline...

  14. Grab Sample Locations & Surficial Sediment Texture collected by the U.S. Geological Survey 1999-2003 offshore of the Grand Strand, South Carolina region (GRABS, Point shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium, began a study to investigate processes affecting shoreline...

  15. Eating Habits of Malaysian Children: Findings of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age.

  16. Database Survey of Anti-Inflammatory Plants in South America: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leônia Maria Batista

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex event linked to tissue damage whether by bacteria, physical trauma, chemical, heat or any other phenomenon. This physiological response is coordinated largely by a variety of chemical mediators that are released from the epithelium, the immunocytes and nerves of the lamina propria. However, if the factor that triggers the inflammation persists, the inflammation can become relentless, leading to an intensification of the lesion. The present work is a literature survey of plant extracts from the South American continent that have been reported to show anti-inflammatory activity. This review refers to 63 bacterial families of which the following stood out: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae and Celastraceae, with their countries, parts used, types of extract used, model bioassays, organisms tested and their activity.

  17. CARMA LARGE AREA STAR FORMATION SURVEY: OBSERVATIONAL ANALYSIS OF FILAMENTS IN THE SERPENS SOUTH MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-López, M.; Looney, L.; Lee, K.; Segura-Cox, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Arce, H. G.; Plunkett, A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Mundy, L. G.; Storm, S.; Teuben, P. J.; Pound, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Isella, A.; Kauffmann, J. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tobin, J. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Rosolowsky, E. [Departments of Physics and Statistics, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Kwon, W. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747-AD Groningen (Netherlands); Ostriker, E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Tassis, K. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-710 03 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Shirley, Y. L., E-mail: manferna@gmail.com [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present the N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1 → 0) map of the Serpens South molecular cloud obtained as part of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey. The observations cover 250 arcmin{sup 2} and fully sample structures from 3000 AU to 3 pc with a velocity resolution of 0.16 km s{sup –1}, and they can be used to constrain the origin and evolution of molecular cloud filaments. The spatial distribution of the N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission is characterized by long filaments that resemble those observed in the dust continuum emission by Herschel. However, the gas filaments are typically narrower such that, in some cases, two or three quasi-parallel N{sub 2}H{sup +} filaments comprise a single observed dust continuum filament. The difference between the dust and gas filament widths casts doubt on Herschel ability to resolve the Serpens South filaments. Some molecular filaments show velocity gradients along their major axis, and two are characterized by a steep velocity gradient in the direction perpendicular to the filament axis. The observed velocity gradient along one of these filaments was previously postulated as evidence for mass infall toward the central cluster, but these kind of gradients can be interpreted as projection of large-scale turbulence.

  18. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: Observational Analysis of Filaments in the Serpens South Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-López, M; Looney, L; Mundy, L G; Storm, S; Teuben, P J; Lee, K; Segura-Cox, D; Isella, A; Tobin, J J; Rosolowsky, E; Plunkett, A; Kwon, W; Kauffmann, J; Ostriker, E; Tassis, K; Shirley, Y L; Pound, M

    2014-01-01

    We present the N2H+(J=1-0) map of the Serpens South molecular cloud obtained as part of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy). The observations cover 250 square arcminutes and fully sample structures from 3000 AU to 3 pc with a velocity resolution of 0.16 km/s, and they can be used to constrain the origin and evolution of molecular cloud filaments. The spatial distribution of the N2H+ emission is characterized by long filaments that resemble those observed in the dust continuum emission by Herschel. However, the gas filaments are typically narrower such that, in some cases, two or three quasi-parallel N2H+ filaments comprise a single observed dust continuum filament. The difference between the dust and gas filament widths casts doubt on Herschel ability to resolve the Serpens South filaments. Some molecular filaments show velocity gradients along their major axis, and two are characterized by a steep velocity gradient in the direction perpendicular to the filament axis. The observed velocity gra...

  19. Current practice in regional anaesthesia in South America: An online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvetto, M A; Carmona, J; Vásquez, M I; Salgueiro, C; Crostón, J; Sosa, R; Folle, V; Altermatt, F R

    2017-01-01

    A survey was conducted in order to obtain a profile of the practice of regional anesthesia in South America, and determine the limitations of its use. After institutional ethics committee approval, a link to an online questionnaire was sent by e-mail to anaesthesiologists in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, and Uruguay. The questionnaire was processed anonymously. A total of 1,260 completed questionnaires were received. The results showed that 97.6% of the anaesthesiologists that responded used regional anaesthesia in clinical practice, 66.9% performed peripheral nerve block (PNB) regularly, 21.6% used continuous PNB techniques, and 4.6% used stimulating catheters. The primary source of training was residency programs. As regards PNB, the most common performed were interscalene (52.3%), axillary (45.1%), femoral (43.2%), and ankle block (43%). As regards the localisation technique employed, 16% used paraesthesia, 44.2% used a peripheral nerve stimulator, and 18.1% ultrasound guidance. Regional anaesthesia and PNB are commonly used among South American anaesthesiologists. Considering that each country has its own profile for use, this profile should guide training in clinical practice, especially in residency programs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Spickett

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.

  1. A survey of consumer attitude towards nutrition and health statements on food labels in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm D. Riley

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: For many decades, Australia has required a Nutrient Information Panel to be included on food packaging, usually on the back of products. Recently, two regulated, voluntary systems were introduced for use on food packaging in Australia: the Health Star Rating system and nutrient content and health claims. Nonetheless, the scope and potential for these new initiatives to achieve their purpose is partly depdendant on their perception by consumers. This report describes the results of a population based survey of South Australian adults about how various elements of food labels are used to inform their purchase decisions. Methods: A survey was conducted using a random stratified sampling technique in people aged 15 years and older in the Australian state of South Australia. All surveys were administered face-to-face to 3005 people between September 2015 and December 2015. Data was weighted by the inverse of the individual’s probability of selection, as well as the response rate in metropolitan and country regions and then reweighted to benchmarks from the June 2014 Estimated Resident Population calculated by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Results: The response rate for the survey was 57.3%. Most respondents to the survey rated their own dietary intake as ‘healthy’ (61.5% or ‘extremely healthy’ (9.1%. Aside from price, country of origin was nominated as the most important information on the food label of a food bought for the first time (by 35.0%, followed by the ingredient list (21.6% and claims about nutrition (20.9%. The response to this question was markedly different by age group, with almost half (48.3% of those aged 55 years or over considering that country of origin was the most important information to look for. For the youngest age group (15-34 yrs, 28.4% considered the ingredient list was the most important information, 26.5% considered claims about nutrition to be most important, and 22.2% considered country of

  2. Construction and validation of the South African version of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Käthe; Loxton, Helene; Kagee, Ashraf; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2012-09-01

    The Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (Ollendick, 1983) is an 80-item self-report instrument that has been used internationally to asses the number of fears and general level of fearfulness among children. Despite its widespread use, this instrument has not been adapted to the South African context. The present study addressed this gap by means of a 2-phase investigation aimed at developing a South African version of the instrument. In Phase 1, semistructured interviews were conducted with 40 children (7 to 13 years of age). Qualitative data obtained from these interviews were used to construct additional items for inclusion in the South African Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised. The modified scale, consisting of 97 items, was then administered to a sample of 646 children between the ages of 7 and 13 years. Further psychometric considerations resulted in the final version of the scale consisting of 74 items with high internal consistency (α=.97). The factor structure was explored by means of principal component analysis with varimax rotation and a 5-factor solution was found to provide the best conceptual fit. The factors identified were as follows: Fear of Death and Danger; Fear of the Unknown; Fear of Small Animals and Minor Threats to Self; Large Animal Fears; and Situational Fears. Differences between the South African version and the original Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised are noted and implications for the study of fear in South Africa and other countries are discussed.

  3. A State-Wide Survey of South Australian Secondary Schools to Determine the Current Emphasis on Ergonomics and Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Janet; Penman, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the pattern of teaching of healthy computing skills to high school students in South Australia. A survey approach was used to collect data, specifically to determine the emphasis placed by schools on ergonomics that relate to computer use. Participating schools were recruited through the Department for Education and Child…

  4. The Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic survey (SIMES) in the South Ecliptic Pole field

    CERN Document Server

    Baronchelli, I; Rodighiero, G; Franceschini, A; Capak, P L; Mei, S; Vaccari, M; Marchetti, L; Hibon, P; Sedgwick, C; Pearson, C; Serjeant, S; Menèndez-Delmestre, K; Salvato, M; Malkan, M; Teplitz, H I; Hayes, M; Colbert, J; Papovich, C; Devlin, M; Kovacs, A; Scott, K S; Surace, J; Kirkpatrick, J D; Atek, H; Urrutia, T; Scoville, N Z; Takeuchi, T T

    2016-01-01

    We present the Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic survey (SIMES) in the South Ecliptic Pole (SEP) field. The large area covered (7.7 deg$^2$), together with one of the lowest Galactic cirrus emissions in the entire sky and a very extensive coverage by Spitzer, Herschel, Akari, and GALEX, make the SIMES field ideal for extragalactic studies. The elongated geometry of the SIMES area ($\\approx$4:1), allowing for a significant cosmic variance reduction, further improves the quality of statistical studies in this field. Here we present the reduction and photometric measurements of the Spitzer/IRAC data. The survey reaches a depth of 1.93 and 1.75 $\\mu$Jy (1$\\sigma$) at 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m, respectively. We discuss the multiwavelength IRAC--based catalog, completed with optical, mid-- and far--IR observations. We detect 341,000 sources with F$_{3.6\\mu m} \\geq 3\\sigma$. Of these, 10% have an associated 24 $\\mu$m counterpart, while 2.7% have an associated SPIRE source. We release the catalog through the NASA/IPAC Infrare...

  5. The Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic Survey (SIMES) in the South Ecliptic Pole Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronchelli, I.; Scarlata, C.; Rodighiero, G.; Franceschini, A.; Capak, P. L.; Mei, S.; Vaccari, M.; Marchetti, L.; Hibon, P.; Sedgwick, C.; Pearson, C.; Serjeant, S.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Salvato, M.; Malkan, M.; Teplitz, H. I.; Hayes, M.; Colbert, J.; Papovich, C.; Devlin, M.; Kovacs, A.; Scott, K. S.; Surace, J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Atek, H.; Urrutia, T.; Scoville, N. Z.; Takeuchi, T. T.

    2016-03-01

    We present the Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS Extragalactic survey (SIMES) in the South Ecliptic Pole field. The large area covered (7.7 deg2), together with one of the lowest Galactic cirrus emissions in the entire sky and a very extensive coverage by Spitzer, Herschel, Akari, and GALEX, make the SIMES field ideal for extragalactic studies. The elongated geometry of the SIMES area (≈4:1), allowing for significant cosmic variance reduction, further improves the quality of statistical studies in this field. Here we present the reduction and photometric measurements of the Spitzer/IRAC data. The survey reaches depths of 1.93 and 1.75 μJy (1σ) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively. We discuss the multiwavelength IRAC-based catalog, completed with optical, mid-, and far-IR observations. We detect 341,000 sources with {F}3.6μ {{m}}≥slant 3σ . Of these, 10% have an associated 24 μm counterpart, while 2.7% have an associated SPIRE source. We release the catalog through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive. Two scientific applications of these IRAC data are presented in this paper. First, we compute integral number counts at 3.6 μm. Second, we use the [3.6]-[4.5] color index to identify galaxy clusters at z > 1.3. We select 27 clusters in the full area, a result consistent with previous studies at similar depth.

  6. ESO Imaging Survey. Hubble Deep Field South Optical-Infrared Observations, Data Reduction and Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Da Costa, L N; Rengelink, R B; Zaggia, S R; Benoist, C; Erben, T; Wicenec, A; Scodeggio, M; Olsen, L F; Guarnieri, M D; Deul, E; D'Odorico, S; Hook, R N; Moorwood, A F M; Slijkhuis, R

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents ground-based data obtained from deep optical and infrared observations of the HST Hubble Deep Field South (HDF-S) field carried out at the ESO 3.5 New Technology Telescope (NTT). These data were taken as part of the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) program, a public survey coordinated by ESO and member states, in preparation for the first year of operation of the VLT. Deep CCD images are available for five optical passbands, reaching 2 sigma limiting magnitudes of U_AB~27.0, B_AB~26.5, V_AB~26, R_AB~26, I_AB~25, covering a region of ~25 square arcmin, which includes the HST WPFC2 field. The infrared observations cover a total area of ~42 square arcmin and include both the HST WFPC2 and STIS fields. The observations of the WFPC2 region were conducted in JHKs passbands, reaching J_AB~25, and H_AB and K_AB~24.0. Due to time constraints, the adjacent field, covering the STIS field, has been observed only in R, I and JHKs, while no observations were conducted covering the NIC3 field. This paper describ...

  7. A survey of brassica vegetable smallholder farmers in the Gauteng and Limpopo provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Mandiriza-Mukwirimba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was taken to investigate the types of brassica vegetables mostly grown by smallholder farmers in two provinces of South Africa. Thirty-one smallholder vegetable farmers in the Gauteng province and Waterberg district in the Limpopo province were surveyed. In addition, the study also sought to establish the common diseases, the management strategies used and problems encountered by the farmers. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with closed and open–ended questions. The results indicated that the smallholder farmers mostly grew cabbage (93.6% as their main brassica crop followed by rape (41.2%. Thirty percent of farmers could not identify or name the predominant disease/s encountered in their fields. Major diseases encountered by farmers surveyed were an unknown disease/s (33.3%, black rot (26.7%, Alternaria leaf spot (6.7% and white rust (6.7%. Smallholder farmers have inadequate technical information available especially relating to crop diseases, their identification and control. Farmers encountered challenges with black rot disease especially on cabbage, rape and kale and the disease was a problem during winter and summer. Generally, the smallholder farmers used crop rotation (74.2% as a major practice to manage the diseases experienced. They rotated their brassica vegetables with other crops/vegetables like tomatoes, onions, beetroots and maize. Most of the farmers interviewed (61.3% did not use chemicals to control diseases, whereas 38.7% of them used chemicals. This was mostly because they lacked information and knowledge, high costs associated with use of chemical fungicides and some were shifting towards organic farming. From the study it was noted that there was a need for technical support to improve farmers’ knowledge on disease identification and control within the surveyed areas.

  8. Response to an Online Version of a PRAMS-like Survey in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Teresa; Beare, Tianna; Minett, Maggie; Koepp, Kriston; Wey, Howard; Specker, Bonny

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Increasing response rates for research surveys is challenging, especially in minority populations. A unique minority group in South Dakota is the American Indian (AI) representing about 9 % of the state's population and 15 % of the births. The purpose of this study was to determine race differences among White, AI, and Other Races (OR) in contact, participation, and response rates in the South Dakota Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (SDPRAMS). We determined response rates of an online version and evaluated demographic characteristics associated with online response. Methods The SDPRAMS was sent to 1814 mothers randomly sampled from 2014 birth certificate files. Results The weighted response rate was 71.3 %, and varied significantly among the three races: 79.1 % for White race, 48.6 % for AI race, and 60.6 % for OR (p online than AI and OR (35, 25 and 26 %, respectively; p = 0.001); no difference between AI and OR. Online responders were more likely to be married, educated beyond high school and having annual incomes ≥$25,000 (p ≤ 0.01 for all), but only education (p online respondents used a smartphone to respond (p = 0.01). Conclusions Response rates differed among races. An online version of the PRAMS is a viable method of response to offer participants. Response to the online version via smartphone may increase response from minority populations, emphasizing the importance of mobile friendly formats.

  9. A Survey of the quality of nursing care in several health districts in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidoo Joanne R

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is currently focusing strongly on human resource development. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the quality of nursing service and care in three health districts in the KwaZulu Natal Province. To identify deficiencies which could be addressed by education and training, it might be useful to measure the quality of care given by nurses. Methods From March to August 2002 a survey was done in six hospitals and six clinics in three health districts of the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. Five different aspects of care was evaluated; hand-over from one nursing shift to another, implementation of universal precautions, patient satisfaction, nursing records, management of chronic illnesses. All these aspects were evaluated using checklists based on record reviews or direct observation, except for patient satisfaction, which was evaluated by questionnaires. Results The average scores on the different aspects varied from 11% (for nursing records to 73% (for management of chronic diseases. Specific problems became evident. In one district three out of four hand-overs between shifts of nurses scored less than 50%. In all three districts the use of protective gear scored low (43%. While the average score for management of chronic illnesses were high at 73%, the blood pressures of only 23% was within the target range, and the blood sugar of only 38% of patients were controlled. Patient satisfaction averaged 72% across the three districts. Conclusion The quality of care measurements identified specific training needs, but other management strategies are probably also indicated.

  10. A Measurement of the Correlation of Galaxy Surveys with CMB Lensing Convergence Maps from the South Pole Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Bleem, L E; Holder, G P; Aird, K A; Armstrong, R; Ashby, M L N; Becker, M R; Benson, B A; Biesiadzinski, T; Brodwin, M; Busha, M T; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H M; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Desai, S; Dobbs, M A; Doré, O; Dudley, J; Geach, J E; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Halverson, N W; Harrington, N; High, F W; Holden, B P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Joy, M; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Marrone, D P; Martinez-Manso, J; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Natoli, T; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Stalder, B; Stanford, S A; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Stern, D; Story, K; Vallinotto, A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Wechsler, R H; Williamson, R; Zahn, O

    2012-01-01

    We compare cosmic microwave background lensing convergence maps derived from South Pole Telescope (SPT) data with galaxy survey data from the Blanco Cosmology Survey, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and a new large Spitzer/IRAC field designed to overlap with the SPT survey. Using optical and infrared catalogs covering between 17 and 68 square degrees of sky, we detect correlation between the SPT convergence maps and each of the galaxy density maps at >4 sigma, with zero cross-correlation robustly ruled out in all cases. The amplitude and shape of the cross-power spectra are in good agreement with theoretical expectations and the measured galaxy bias is consistent with previous work. The detections reported here utilize a small fraction of the full 2500 square degree SPT survey data and serve as both a proof of principle of the technique and an illustration of the potential of this emerging cosmological probe.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey Program on the South Florida Ecosystem; proceedings of South Florida Restoration Science Forum, May 17-19, 1999, Boca Raton, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerould, Sarah; Higer, Aaron

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the forum is to highlight the powerful connection between science and management decisions in restoration efforts. The public's investment in science is paying off in support of better management decisions and restoration of imperiled south Florida Ecosystems, including the internationally recognized, globally significant Everglades. The forum affords a unique opportunity for elected officials and other policy- and decision makers, along with the general public, to see--under one roof--highlights of the most significant restoration science and management efforts underway. The forum promotes the link between science and management. Scientists and decisionmakers will come together to discuss the needs of each in order to ensure that plans for restoration are based in science and are the most cost effective and highest quality possible. Continued vigilance over south Florida ecosystems is essential to prevent further harm and to restore them. Representatives from numerous federal, state, local, and nongovernmental entities are organizing the forum for the Science Coordination Team of the South Florida Ecosystem Working Group. The U.S. Geological Survey and the South Florida Water Management District are the primary hosts of the forum.

  12. Listening to the Experts: A Report on the 2004 South Carolina Working Conditions Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Under the leadership of State Superintendent of Education Inez Tenenbaum, with the support of the South Carolina Department of Education's Division of Teaching Quality (DTQ) and the South Carolina Center for Educator Recruitment, Retention and Advancement (CERRA), South Carolina became only the second state in the nation to study teacher…

  13. The VLA Survey of the Chandra Deep Field South. IV. Source Population

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, P; Tozzi, P; Kellermann, K I; Fomalont, E B; Miller, N; Rosati, P; Shaver, P

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of 256 radio sources from our deep (flux density limit of 42 microJy at the field centre at 1.4 GHz) Chandra Deep Field South 1.4 and 5 GHz VLA survey. The radio population is studied by using a wealth of multi-wavelength information in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. The availability of redshifts for ~ 80% of the sources in our complete sample allows us to derive reliable luminosity estimates for the majority of the objects. X-ray data, including upper limits, for all our sources turn out to be a key factor in establishing the nature of faint radio sources. Due to the faint optical levels probed by this study, we have uncovered a population of distant Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) systematically missing from many previous studies of sub-millijansky radio source identifications. We find that, while the well-known flattening of the radio number counts below 1 mJy is mostly due to star forming galaxies, these sources and AGN make up an approximately equal fraction of the sub-m...

  14. An experimental aeromagnetic survey in the Volturno valley area (South-Eastern Latium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caneva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A helicopter-borne experimental aeromagnetic survey, covering an area of 200 km2, was performed in the Volturno valley area north of the Roccamonfina volcano and south of Venafro in November 1994. Although severe logistical, instrumental and meteorological conditions significantly reduced the planned coverage, the processed magnetic image still shows a remarkable improvement in the description of the geological and structural features of the area in comparison with previous regional aeromagnetic data. A multi-directional shaded relief anomaly map displays two moderately positive NW magnetic bands associated with lavas, pyroclastics and dykes of the Roccamonfina volcanic district together with N-S, NNE-SSW and NE-SW lineations. A comparative magnetic-geologic map allows correlation with known Pleistocene faults and reveals the existence, especially in the area between Sesto Campano and Presenzano, of a larger presence of high susceptibility dykes than seen in the outcrop, which is dominated by non-magnetic carbonatic rocks. We interpret the curvilinear and intricate pattern of magnetic lineaments as suggestive of an extensional setting along the main NW structures with previous strike slip components and of tectonic activity along a N-S fabric; the latter has no superficial evidence and has also been used for magma upwelling. Overall, this local scale investigation shows both the utility and the need for further efforts in high resolution aeromagnetics in Italy both for geological and environmental purposes similar to those successfully carried out in many other countries throughout the world.

  15. Neonatal tetanus mortality survey, north and south Omo administrative regions, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, W

    1993-04-01

    Neonatal tetanus (NNT) is the second most frequent cause of infant mortality among the six vaccine preventable infections in developing countries. However, lack of reliable data has largely obscured the importance of the problem in these countries. A community based NNT mortality survey was conducted, using cluster sample method developed by WHO/EPI, in August 1989 in North and South Omo, Ethiopia. The study found 14 neonatal tetanus deaths among 2100 live births which occurred from 15 July 1988 to 15 July 1989, giving NNT mortality rate of 6.7/1000 LB (live births) and an estimated incidence rate of 8.4/1000 LB, accounting for 40% of all neonatal deaths. Male newborns were 2.5 times more commonly affected than females. Cutting of umbilical cord with unsterile instrument, home delivery attended by untrained TBAs, and lack of adequate tetanus TT immunization were found to be associated with increased incidence of NNT. Acceleration and promotion of TT immunization of all women of child bearing age and training of TBAs in proper obstetric care, coupled with continuous supportive supervision, is recommended in order to successfully execute the NNT elimination initiative undertaken by the Ministry of Health.

  16. Nationwide survey on the natural radionuclides in industrial raw minerals in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, B.U. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Guseong-dong 19, Yuseong-gu, 305-338 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hafadai@kins.re.kr; Koh, S.M. [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Gajeong-dong 30, Yuseong-gu, 305-350 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.J.; Seo, J.S. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Guseong-dong 19, Yuseong-gu, 305-338 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Y.Y. [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Gajeong-dong 30, Yuseong-gu, 305-350 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Row, J.W.; Lee, D.M. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Guseong-dong 19, Yuseong-gu, 305-338 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    A Nationwide survey on the natural radioactivity in industrial raw mineral commodities (17 kinds of domestic and 18 kinds of imported) that are representative minerals used in production and consumption in South Korea was conducted. The target industrial minerals can be categorized into two groups. The first group covers non-metallic and metallic raw minerals with low levels of radioactivity such as clay, silica sand, carbonates, bituminous and anthracite coal, iron ores, ilmenite, rutile, and phosphate ore. The other group comprises minerals with high levels of radioactivity including zircon and monazite. One hundred and sixty-four domestic and imported samples were analysed by {gamma}-ray spectroscopy using an HPGe detector. The {sup 40}K content ranges from <0.00131 to 2.69 Bq g{sup -1}, and {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th range over <0.0006 to 0.630 and <0.0008 to 0.474 Bq g{sup -1}, respectively. There was no anthropogenic radioactive signal in any of the samples.

  17. Care of patients with Huntington's disease in South America: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Oliveira Horta Maciel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a rare neurodegenerative disease with a multitude of symptoms, which requires access to specialized multidisciplinary care for adequate management. The aim of this study was to survey the characteristics of care in various HD centers in South America (SA. Methods A questionnaire was sent to 24 centers involved in the care for HD patients in SA. Results Of the total 24 centers, 19 (79.2% are academic units. The majority of centers (62.5% are general movement disorders clinics. Multidisciplinary care is available in 19 (79.2% centers and in 20 (83.3% care is provided free of charge. Genetic testing and counseling are available in 25 and 66.6% of centers, respectively. The majority of centers (83.3% have no institutional support for end-stage care. Conclusions Although HD centers in SA are committed to providing multidisciplinary care, access to genetic counseling and end-stage care are lacking in most centers.

  18. Care of patients with Huntington's disease in South America: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Ricardo Oliveira Horta; Cardoso, Francisco Eduardo Costa; Chaná-Cuevas, Pedro; Cosentino, Carlos; Fernández, William; Rieder, Carlos R M; Serrano-Dueñas, Marcos; Weiser, Roberto

    2013-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare neurodegenerative disease with a multitude of symptoms, which requires access to specialized multidisciplinary care for adequate management. The aim of this study was to survey the characteristics of care in various HD centers in South America (SA). Methods A questionnaire was sent to 24 centers involved in the care for HD patients in SA. Results Of the total 24 centers, 19 (79.2%) are academic units. The majority of centers (62.5%) are general movement disorders clinics. Multidisciplinary care is available in 19 (79.2%) centers and in 20 (83.3%) care is provided free of charge. Genetic testing and counseling are available in 25 and 66.6% of centers, respectively. The majority of centers (83.3%) have no institutional support for end-stage care. Conclusions Although HD centers in SA are committed to providing multidisciplinary care, access to genetic counseling and end-stage care are lacking in most centers.

  19. Survey on public awareness, attitudes, and barriers for herpes zoster vaccination in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae Un; Cheong, Hee Jin; Song, Joon Young; Noh, Ji Yun; Kim, Woo Joo

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to assess current public awareness of herpes zoster (HZ) and its vaccine, determine the factors that influence people's intention regarding HZ vaccination, and investigate the barriers for vaccination by changing decisions with sequential questions regarding knowledge, cost, and physician's recommendation in the Department of Infectious Diseases, Korea University Guro Hospital, in South Korea, between August 23 and September 15 of 2013. Among 603 subjects who completed the survey, 85.7% and 43.6% subjects were aware of HZ and HZ vaccination, respectively. Women, younger age group, those with higher income or higher education levels were more likely to be aware of HZ. Overall, 85.8% of subjects aware of HZ were willing to be vaccinated or vaccinate their parents. The main obstacles for the increased acceptance toward vaccination were the high cost and low perceived risk, which decreased acceptance to 60.2%. However, physician's recommendation reversed 69.5% of the refusal to accept HZ vaccine. These results indicate that expanding public education and physician's recommendations are important factors aimed at increasing HZ vaccine coverage rate.

  20. Diseases of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) in South Africa: a 20-year retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, L; Nesbit, J W; Meltzer, D G; Colly, L P; Bolton, L; Kriek, N P

    1999-09-01

    As part of an ongoing study to determine the basis for high prevalences of veno-occlusive disease, glomerulosclerosis, and chronic lymphoplasmacytic gastritis in cheetahs, a retrospective pathology survey of captive cheetahs in the Republic of South Africa (RSA) was conducted. The RSA population was selected because its genetic composition and captive management were similar to those of the cheetah population in U.S. zoos, in which these diseases are common. For this study, archived pathology materials at the University of Pretoria Faculty of Veterinary Sciences in Onderstepoort and the Faculty of Veterinary Science, MEDUNSA, from 69 cheetahs that died between 1975 and 1995 were reviewed, and prevalences of common lesions were compared with those in the U.S. population. Gastritis associated with Helicobacter-like organisms was the most prevalent disease, accounting for close to 40% of the mortalities, including several cheetahs cheetahs. RSA cheetahs also had adrenal cortical hyperplasia, cardiac fibrosis, lymphocytic depletion of the spleen, systemic amyloidosis, and splenic myelolipomas. The presence in the captive RSA cheetah population of the same unusual diseases that are common in U.S. cheetahs suggests a species predilection to develop these diseases in captivity.

  1. Eating disorder behaviors are increasing: findings from two sequential community surveys in South Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipa J Hay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an increase in the prevalence of eating disorders is inconsistent. Our aim was to determine change in the population point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors over a 10-year period. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eating disorder behaviors were assessed in consecutive general population surveys of men and women conducted in 1995 (n = 3001, 72% respondents and 2005 (n = 3047, 63.1% respondents. Participants were randomly sampled from households in rural and metropolitan South Australia. There was a significant (all p<0.01 and over two-fold increase in the prevalence of binge eating, purging (self-induced vomiting and/or laxative or diuretic misuse and strict dieting or fasting for weight or shape control among both genders. The most common diagnosis in 2005 was either binge eating disorder or other "eating disorders not otherwise specified" (EDNOS; n = 119, 4.2%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this population sample the point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors increased over the past decade. Cases of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, as currently defined, remain uncommon.

  2. Selected First Results from the 7 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, W. Niel; Chandra Deep Field-South Team

    2017-01-01

    The exposure on the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) has recently been increased to 7 Ms, making it the most sensitive extragalactic X-ray survey by a wide margin. About 1050 X-ray sources have been detected, primarily distant active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and starburst/normal galaxies. The unmatched deep multiwavelength coverage for these sources allows superb follow-up investigations; e.g., 98.4% of the X-ray sources have multiwavelength counterparts, and 97.8% have spectroscopic/photometric redshifts. I will briefly describe the source catalog for the 7 Ms CDF-S and some exciting first science results. The latter will likely include (1) constraints on SMBH growth in the first galaxies as revealed by direct detection and stacking; (2) long-term variability studies of the AGNs producing most of cosmic accretion power; (3) AGN/galaxy interactions as investigated via the host properties of X-ray AGNs; and (4) measurements of the evolving X-ray binary populations of normal and starburst galaxies.

  3. Serological Survey of Porcine circovirus-2 in Captive Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) from Registered Farms of South and South-east Regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, C N; Martins, N R S; Freitas, T R P; Lobato, Z I P

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to survey captive wild boars for antibodies against Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) in registered farms. Serum samples (n = 1305) were collected from 90-day-old wild boars from 118 farms of the Brazilian South-east region, including the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, and South region, including the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. All herds (100%) presented reactive animals, in varying numbers and from low-to-high antibody titres, with the occurrence ranging from 82 to 89%. Considering farms, the average prevalence was of 84.9% (P < 0.05) and ranged from 54.1 to 94.95%. Regarding the geographic regions studied, the prevalence was of 100%, with PCV2 antibodies detected in wild boars of all regions. This study provides the first evidence of PCV2 antibodies in captive wild boars in Brazil.

  4. A Cultural Resource Survey of the East Shore of Lake Oahe, South Dakota. Volume 1. Covering Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    limited evidence of several small debris scatters, none of which were investigated (Roetzel and Woolworth 1978). One of these sites (39CA15) is...flake fragments were recorded during a reconnaissance of the southern shore of Pollock Bay (Roetzel and Woolworth 1978). In 1979, more extensive remains...K.A., and N.L. Woolworth 1978 The archeological and historical survey and report on a proposed project near Pollock and Herried, South Dakota

  5. General practitioners' use and experiences of palliative care services: a survey in south east England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higginson Irene J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of the General Practitioner (GP is central to community palliative care. Good liaison between the different professionals involved in a patient's care is extremely important in palliative care patients. In cases where GPs have previously been dissatisfied with palliative services, this may be seen as a barrier to referral when caring for other patients. The aim of this survey is to investigate the use and previous experiences of GPs of two palliative care services, with particular emphasis on barriers to referral and to explore issues surrounding the GP's role in caring for palliative patients. Methods Design: Descriptive postal survey of use and experience of palliative care services with particular emphasis on barriers to referral. Setting: One Primary Care Trust (PCT, south London, England, population 298,500. Subjects: 180 GPs in the PCT, which is served by two hospice services (A&B. Results An overall questionnaire response rate of 77% (138 was obtained, with 69% (124 used in analysis. Over 90% of GPs were satisfied with the palliative care services over the preceding two years. Two areas of possible improvement emerged; communication and prescribing practices. GPs identified some patients that they had not referred, most commonly when patients or carers were reluctant to accept help, or when other support was deemed sufficient. Over half of the GPs felt there were areas where improvement could be made; with clarification of the rules and responsibilities of the multi disciplinary team being the most common. The majority of GPs were working, and want to work with, the specialist services as part of an extended team. However, a greater number of GPs want to hand over care to the specialist services than are currently doing so. Conclusion A large number of GPs were happy with the service provision of the palliative care services in this area. They suggested that 3 out of 4 terminally ill patients needed specialist

  6. Elevation Control Points to reinterpret the base of aquifer contours after airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  7. Base control points of the aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  8. Area of aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  9. Base Control Points enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  10. Base of aquifer contours model enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  11. Base of aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  12. Vocabulary used by ethno-linguistically diverse South African toddlers: A parent report using the Language Development Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurellia Shamaleni Gonasillan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary aim of this study was to ascertain the relevance of the vocabulary of the Language Development Survey (LDS for typically developing South African toddlers who attend ethno-linguistically diverse early childhood development centres.Rationale: The need for exploration of the expressive vocabulary of this population stems from the diverse linguistic contexts to which toddlers are exposed on a day-to-day basis in South Africa. Many parents prefer English as the language of learning and teaching for their child. As a result, toddlers interact with ethno-linguistically diverse peers from a young age, usually within their early childhood development centres.Method: An adapted version of the LDS was presented to 40 middle-class parents in Mpumalanga. Vocabulary commonly used by toddlers was determined and a comparison of parent responses made between the present study and the original American-based survey.Results: Results revealed that nouns were used most often by toddlers, in keeping with research on vocabulary acquisition. Significant correlations between the two groups were evident in 12 of the 14 categories. Parents reported that nouns, verbs, adjectives and words from other word classes were used similarly by toddlers, despite differences in their linguistic exposure.Conclusions: These findings suggest that the LDS is a valuable clinical screening tool for speech-language therapists who deliver services to toddlers within the South African context.

  13. Mexican waterfowl survey 1974, west coast of Baja California and the mainland south to Culiacan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This survey is an extension of Annual Midwinter Survey of waterfowl conducted in the United States and southern Canada. By embracing only selected regions of Mexico...

  14. 8th Annual State of Logistics™ Survey for South Africa 2011

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available , to that of recognising logistics as a creator of value. Secondly, South Africans need to recognise that the logistics profession offers immense opportunities for talented people across multiple spectra of society. Logistics execution, like controlling transport...

  15. Fourth annual state of logistics survey for South Africa 2007: logistics for regional growth and development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available worldwide. While South Africa is ranked a comforting 24th out of 150 countries, the high internal – or domestic – logistics costs remain the biggest concern for industry in our country. If South Africa wants to compete in the global market place... is 100% owned by Imperial Holdings and is home to 70 operating companies. In sub-Saharan Africa, operations are segmented into three key divisions, namely Transport and Warehousing, Consumer Products and Specialised Freight. Imperial Logistics has...

  16. Notes on a remotely operated vehicle survey to describe reef ichthyofauna and habitats – Agulhas Bank, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mapula S. Makwela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite their ecological and economic importance, reef habitats on the central Agulhas Bank, off the southern tip of Africa, remain poorly studied. The ichthyofauna of these habitats cannot be surveyed using trawl gear.Objective: Preliminary assessment of the use of a remotely operated vehicle (ROV to investigate the ichthyofauna associated with deep reef habitats on the central Agulhas Bank.Method: Underwater visual surveys were carried out during ROV dives (maximum duration 60 minutes; area covered approximately 800 m2; maximum dive depth 100 m.Results & discussion: The number of detected fish species (36 compares well with that reported from fishing surveys and commercial fisher data. Most (68% fishes appeared to be undisturbed by the ROV. Species saturation was reached after a maximum of 135 minutes survey time, but species numbers increased and saturation times shortened (34 minutes minimum with the introduction of bait.Conclusion:  ROV surveys may represent a non-extractive alternative to assess demersal ichthyofaunal diversity in relation to habitat structure and benthic cover on temperate reefs around South Africa.

  17. A Survey of Compact Star Clusters in the South-West Field of the M31 Disk. Structural Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Sableviciute, I; Kodaira, K; Narbutis, D; Stonkute, R; Bridzius, A

    2006-01-01

    We present structural parameters for 51 compact star clusters from the survey of star clusters conducted in the South-West field of the M31 disk by Kodaira et al. (2004). Structural parameters of the clusters were derived by fitting the 2-D King and EFF (Elson, Fall and Freeman 1987) models to the V-band cluster images. Structural parameters derived for two M31 clusters, which are in common with the study based on the HST data (Barmby et al. 2002), are consistent with earlier determination. The M31 star cluster structural parameters in general are compatible with the corresponding Milky Way galaxy and Magellanic Clouds cluster parameters.

  18. A Survey of Star Clusters in the M31 South-West Field. UBVRI Photometry and Multi-Band Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Narbutis, D; Kodaira, K; Bridzius, A; Stonkute, R

    2008-01-01

    A new survey of star clusters in the South-West field of the M31 disk based on the high resolution Subaru Suprime-Cam observations is presented. The UBVRI aperture CCD photometry catalog of 285 objects (V < 20.5; 169 of them identified for the first time) is provided. Each object is supplemented with multi-band color maps presented in the electronic edition of the Astrophysical Journal Supplement. Seventy seven star cluster candidates from the catalog are located in the Hubble Space Telescope archive frames.

  19. Hail Columbia: Fairchild Center, Columbia University, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progressive Architecture, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The design of the Sherman Fairchild Center for the Life Sciences at Columbia University emphasizes the lightness necessitated by the building's placement on an existing five-story podium structure. (Author/MLF)

  20. Hail Columbia: Fairchild Center, Columbia University, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progressive Architecture, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The design of the Sherman Fairchild Center for the Life Sciences at Columbia University emphasizes the lightness necessitated by the building's placement on an existing five-story podium structure. (Author/MLF)

  1. Columbia waters treaty Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set will contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels fishing in Columbian waters. Because the soak time for these fisheries...

  2. Status Review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, J.F.; Kuletz, K.J.; Burger, A.E.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Friesen, V.L.; Birt, T.P.; Arimitsu, M.L.; Drew, G.S.; Harding, A.M.A.; Bixler, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    central population is limited and it requires additional study. Compiling available abundance information, we estimated that in the recent past, Marbled Murrelets in Alaska numbered on the order of 1 million birds. We were unable to generate a similar estimate for historical population size in British Columbia. Using trend information from at-sea surveys spanning a wide geographic range in Alaska, murrelet numbers declined significantly at five of eight trend sites at annual rates of -5.4 to -12.7 percent since the early 1990s. Applying these rates of decline to the historical population estimate, the current murrelet population in Alaska is projected to be on the order of 270,000 birds. This represents an overall population decline of about 70 percent during the past 25 years. In British Columbia, available trend data indicate that murrelet populations there have experienced similar declines. We updated a recent (2002) population estimate for British Columbia, concluding that there are now between 54,000 and 92,000 murrelets in British Columbia. The rates of decline we observed are within, but at the high end of, a range of rates expected by chance. Given that declines were estimated for sites over essentially the entire northern range of the species, there is cause for concern about the species? status. In their marine habitats, Marbled Murrelets overlap with salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) gillnetting operations in British Columbia and in Alaska (especially in Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska), and annual bycatch mortality is likely in the low thousands per year, although bycatch rates are difficult to measure. The species? inshore distribution coincides with high levels of vessel traffic and makes them especially vulnerable to both chronic oil pollution and to catastrophic spills (e.g., the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill [EVOS] in south-central Alaska, which is estimated to have killed 12,000 to 15,000 murrelets). In their forested nesting habitats, Marbled Murrelets

  3. Vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data from the mouth of the Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Spatial surveys of water column currents were performed between June 14 and 16, 2013, in the mouth of the Columbia River, Oregon and Washington. These data were...

  4. 2010 US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Portland District Columbia River Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Columbia River Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) survey project was a collaborative effort to develop detailed high density LiDAR terrain data for the US Army...

  5. 2010 US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Portland District Columbia River Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Columbia River Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) survey project was a collaborative effort to develop detailed high density LiDAR terrain data for the US Army...

  6. Mid-Columbia - Invasive Species Mapping and Management with Volunteers 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mid-Columbia River National Wildlife Refuge Complex proposed to survey, map, and ultimately control invasive species on Toppenish National Wildlife Refuge and...

  7. Serological survey of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Namibian and South African kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros and eland (Taurotragus oryx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence P. Scott

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is a pestivirus that affects members of the order Artiodactyla, including members of the subfamily Bovinae. Little is known about the seroprevalence of BVDV in southern Africa, especially the prevalence in wild ruminant populations such as kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros. A handful of random surveys suggested that seroprevalence ranged between 6% and 70% in southern African wild ruminants. The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of BVDV amongst kudu and eland (Taurotragus oryx from Namibia and South Africa. A BVDV-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed on 50 serum samples from kudu and eland from South Africa and Namibia. The seroprevalence of BVDV in South African kudu was 71%, identical to that in Namibian kudu. The seroprevalence in Namibian eland was 40%. The kudu and cattle farming (free ranging regions in Namibia predominantly overlap in the central regions, ensuring ample opportunity for cross-species transmission of BVDV. It is therefore important to determine the true prevalence of BVDV in southern Africa in both domesticated and wild animals. In addition, a potential link between BVDV incidence and a devastating rabies epidemic in Namibian kudu was proposed and such a notion could be supported or discredited by comparative prevalence data.

  8. Missing medical records: an obstacle to archival survey-research in a rural community in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wegner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Keeping good quality medical records is an essential yet oftenneglected part of a health-care practitioner’s workload. In South Africa, by lawall health care facilities are required to retain medical records for a minimum ofsix years after the cessation of a patient’s treatment. In an archival survey thatwas attempted in a rural community in South Africa, only 39% of the recordsthat were requested were located. The procedure that was followed in order toobtain the records to be included in the survey is briefly described in this paper,highlighting the challenges experienced in four district hospitals in this community.The phenomenon has serious implications not only for the quality of healthcare,incidence of iatrogenic injuries and the future of the health-care practitioner’s career, but it also impacts on the ability to conductresearch to inform practice. An aspect that is not often considered is the impact of poor record keeping on the research and teachingcomponent of the broader medical profession.

  9. The Rates and Spatial Patterns of Annual Riverbank Erosion Revealed Through Terrestrial Laser Scanner Surveys of the South River, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, M. A.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Between 2006 and 2008 A.D., we completed annual surveys of two mercury-contaminated eroding banks, one forested and the other grass covered, along the gravel-bed, bedrock South River in Virginia. Gridded digital terrain models with a resolution of 0.05 m were created from bank topography data collected using a terrestrial laser scanner. The forested bank retreated nearly 1 m around two leaning trees, while elsewhere the extent of bank retreat was negligible. On the grassy bank, retreat was controlled by the creation of small overhanging clumps of turf at the top of the bank, their occasional failure, and the ultimate removal of failed debris from the bank toe. Partial autocorrelation analysis of vertically integrated bank retreat demonstrates that bank profile erosion is virtually uncorrelated at horizontal distances greater than about 1 m on both banks, a length scale of approximately 1/2 the bank height. This extensive streamwise variability suggests that widely spaced profile data cannot adequately represent bank erosion at these sites. Additional analysis of our comprehensive spatial data also indicates that traditional bank profile surveys with any spacing greater than 1 m would result in measurement errors exceeding 10%, an important conclusion for assessing annual rates of mercury loading into the South River from bank erosion. Our results suggest that 3-dimensional gridded bare-earth models of bank topography may be required to accurately measure annual bank retreat in similar river systems.

  10. African South of the Sahara: An Objective Test for Secondary Schools. A World Regions Perception Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Designed by Project Africa of Carnegie-Mellon University, these two test instruments have been used to discover what selected American secondary school students know or believe about Africa and other regions of the world. The first instrument, a 30-minute objective test, "Africa South of the Sahara," is comprised of 60 multiple-choice…

  11. Folly Beach, South Carolina. Survey Report on Beach Erosion Control and Hurricane Protection. Appendixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    IF QRC u R E S ~RE FAGEPAIF’D Imt ErEXISTING Sos’,REACH EROSION So, CONTROL STRUCTURES 0r~ 2 JIMMM MII~ FOLLY REACH SOUTH CAROLINA FIGURE C-7 best...adult stages of some invertebrate species such as jellyfish. 2.23 The nekton group consists of animals which are strong swimmers . Fish are the principal

  12. A National Benchmarking Survey of Student Counselling Centres/Units in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilliers, C. D.; Pretorius, K.; van der Westhuizen, L. R.

    2010-01-01

    Students experience various challenges during their studies, such as personal problems, academic difficulties and mental health problems. Therefore, student counselling centres/units play a valuable role in providing support systems for students in need. The most frequent problems South African students experience are relationship problems and…

  13. A Survey of Communication/Journalism Education in South Asian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanilam, John V.

    In South Asia (the land mass that includes Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the island nation Sri Lanka), college-level programs in journalism and communication, which can help developing nations to promote social change and to improve societal living standards, have not progressed with media growth. The reasons for…

  14. Analysis of the Herschel/Hexos Spectral Survey Toward Orion South: A Massive Protostellar Envelope with Strong External Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahani, K.; Plume, R.; Bergin, E. A.; Tolls, V.; Phillips, T. G.; Caux, E.; Cabrit, S.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Johnstone, D.; Lis, D. C.; Pagani, L.; Menten, K. M.; Müller, H. S. P.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V.; Pearson, J. C.; van der Tak, F. F. S.

    2016-11-01

    We present results from a comprehensive submillimeter spectral survey toward the source Orion South, based on data obtained with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory, covering the frequency range of 480 to 1900 GHz. We detect 685 spectral lines with signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) > 3σ, originating from 52 different molecular and atomic species. We model each of the detected species assuming conditions of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium. This analysis provides an estimate of the physical conditions of Orion South (column density, temperature, source size, and V LSR). We find evidence for three different cloud components: a cool (T ex ˜ 20-40 K), spatially extended (>60″), and quiescent (ΔV FWHM ˜ 4 km s-1) component; a warmer (T ex ˜ 80-100 K), less spatially extended (˜30″), and dynamic (ΔV FWHM ˜ 8 km s-1) component, which is likely affected by embedded outflows; and a kinematically distinct region (T ex > 100 K; V LSR ˜ 8 km s-1), dominated by emission from species that trace ultraviolet irradiation, likely at the surface of the cloud. We find little evidence for the existence of a chemically distinct “hot-core” component, likely due to the small filling factor of the hot core or hot cores within the Herschel beam. We find that the chemical composition of the gas in the cooler, quiescent component of Orion South more closely resembles that of the quiescent ridge in Orion-KL. The gas in the warmer, dynamic component, however, more closely resembles that of the Compact Ridge and Plateau regions of Orion-KL, suggesting that higher temperatures and shocks also have an influence on the overall chemistry of Orion South.

  15. Managerial competencies of hospital managers in South Africa: a survey of managers in the public and private sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillay Rubin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa has large public and private sectors and there is a common perception that public sector hospitals are inefficient and ineffective while the privately owned and managed hospitals provide superior care and are more sustainable. The underlying assumption is that there is a potential gap in management capacity between the two sectors. This study aims to ascertain the skills and competency levels of hospital managers in South Africa and to determine whether there are any significant differences in competency levels between managers in the different sectors. Methods A survey using a self administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in South Africa. Respondents were asked to rate their proficiency with seven key functions that they perform. These included delivery of health care, planning, organizing, leading, controlling, legal and ethical, and self-management. Ratings were based on a five point Likert scale ranging from very low skill level to very high skill level. Results The results show that managers in the private sector perceived themselves to be significantly more competent than their public sector colleagues in most of the management facets. Public sector managers were also more likely than their private sector colleagues to report that they required further development and training. Conclusion The findings confirm our supposition that there is a lack of management capacity within the public sector in South Africa and that there is a significant gap between private and public sectors. It provides evidence that there is a great need for further development of managers, especially those in the public sector. The onus is therefore on administrators and those responsible for management education and training to identify managers in need of development and to make available training that is contextually relevant in terms of design and delivery.

  16. Managerial competencies of hospital managers in South Africa: a survey of managers in the public and private sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Rubin

    2008-01-01

    Background South Africa has large public and private sectors and there is a common perception that public sector hospitals are inefficient and ineffective while the privately owned and managed hospitals provide superior care and are more sustainable. The underlying assumption is that there is a potential gap in management capacity between the two sectors. This study aims to ascertain the skills and competency levels of hospital managers in South Africa and to determine whether there are any significant differences in competency levels between managers in the different sectors. Methods A survey using a self administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in South Africa. Respondents were asked to rate their proficiency with seven key functions that they perform. These included delivery of health care, planning, organizing, leading, controlling, legal and ethical, and self-management. Ratings were based on a five point Likert scale ranging from very low skill level to very high skill level. Results The results show that managers in the private sector perceived themselves to be significantly more competent than their public sector colleagues in most of the management facets. Public sector managers were also more likely than their private sector colleagues to report that they required further development and training. Conclusion The findings confirm our supposition that there is a lack of management capacity within the public sector in South Africa and that there is a significant gap between private and public sectors. It provides evidence that there is a great need for further development of managers, especially those in the public sector. The onus is therefore on administrators and those responsible for management education and training to identify managers in need of development and to make available training that is contextually relevant in terms of design and delivery. PMID:18257936

  17. A national survey of home-based care kits for palliative HIV/AIDS care in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabude, Z A; Beksinska, M E; Ramkissoon, A; Wood, S; Folsom, M

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess home-based care (HBC) kits and programs in South Africa to evaluate the feasibility of scaling up kit production and distribution. South African HBC organizations received structured questionnaires; key informant interviews and a literature review were completed to assess systems for production, distribution and supply of HBC kits. Meetings with stakeholders were held in two Provinces to share and analyze the study findings. The study team distributed questionnaires to 466 organizations and conducted interviews with representatives from 45 organizations, the Provincial Department of Health (DoH) and manufacturers of kits. All identifiable HBC organizations in South Africa were included in the survey. As a result 215 HBC organizations returned questionnaires; including non-governmental organizations (56%), community-based organizations (32%) and organizations affiliated with government health departments. Two types of kits were available: a home kit and a professional kit. The demand for HBC kits exceeded availability, kit contents and availability varied considerably and the supply chain was irregular. Kit production and distribution systems were fragmented. Replenishment of kit items was problematic. End-users are mostly caregivers who have not received adequate training on their use. The study shows that substantial work has been done by HBC organizations in South Africa to respond to the need for palliative care supplies within resource constraints. The growing demand for kits exceeds the supply. There is a need to improve the supply chain management of HBC kits, strengthen referral systems and links between community-based organizations and government departments, expand training opportunities for care givers, and develop monitoring and evaluation systems.

  18. The nature of riverbank erosion along the South River, Virginia revealed through terrestrial laser-scanner surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, M. A.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    We surveyed 23 eroding banks along the South River, Virginia between 2006 and 2008 CE using a terrestrial laser scanner. At 6 sites with varying bank vegetation, soil type, and geomorphic settings, a total of 11 repeat surveys were completed to document rates and spatial patterns of contemporary bank erosion. Time intervals between surveys ranged from 89 days to 421 days. Our survey data, averaging 15,000 points per square meter, were manually and mathematically filtered to remove non-bank elements and converted into 0.05 m x 0.05 m gridded models. Comparison of our data-dense, mathematically filtered models indicates that the streamwise spatial extent of significant erosion varied from 0% to about 80% of the surveyed bank area. Annualized maximum rates of localized bank erosion varied from 0 to about 2.4 m/yr, the latter of which greatly exceeds estimated rates from historical aerial photographs. Comparison of our LIDAR-derived erosion rates, with those from field observations, identified the geologic setting (i.e. bank material type) as the most important control on the extent of bank erosion and suggests that large trees can reduce erosion rates. Model comparisons indicate that maximum erosion along the forested banks focused around leaning trees, while elsewhere the extent of bank retreat was negligible. On grassy banks, retreat was controlled by the creation of small overhanging clumps of turf at the top of the bank, their occasional failure, and the ultimate removal of failed debris from the bank toe. Partial autocorrelation analysis of vertically integrated bank retreat at two eroding banks demonstrates that bank profile erosion is virtually uncorrelated at horizontal distances greater than about 1 m, a length scale of approximately half the bank height. This extensive streamwise variability suggests that widely spaced profile data cannot adequately represent bank erosion at these sites. Additional analysis of our comprehensive spatial data also indicates

  19. The Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC): Survey Design and Deep Public UBVRIz' Images and Catalogs of the Extended Hubble Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Gawiser, E; Herrera, D H; Maza, J; Castander, F J; Infante, L; Lira, P; Quadri, R; Toner, R; Treister, E; Urry, C M; Altmann, M; Assef, R; Christlein, D; Coppi, P S; Duran, M F; Franx, M; Galaz, G; Huerta, L; Liu, C; López, S; Méndez, R; Moore, D C; Rubio, M; Ruiz, M T; Toft, S; Yi, S K

    2006-01-01

    We present UBVRIz' optical images of the 0.32 square degree Extended Hubble Deep Field South. This is one of four fields comprising the MUSYC survey, which is optimized for the study of galaxies at z=3, AGN demographics, and Galactic structure. We calculate corrected aperture photometry and its uncertainties and find through tests that these provide a significant improvement upon standard techniques. Our photometric catalog of 62968 objects is complete to a total magnitude of R_AB=25. We select z=3 Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates from their UVR colors and find a sky surface density of 1.4/sq. arcmin and an angular correlation function w(theta) = 2.3+-1.0 theta^{-0.8}. (Abridged)

  20. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahraoui, A; El-Hilaly, J; Israili, Z H; Lyoussi, B

    2007-03-01

    This survey was undertaken in the Errachidia province in south-eastern Morocco in order to inventory the main medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Four hundred individuals who knew about and/or had used the medicinal plants for the indicated diseases, including some herbal healers, were interviewed throughout different regions of the province. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common name of the plant, its ecological distribution, the part of the plant and the preparation used and the therapeutic indication. Extensive investigations have brought to light 64 medicinal plants belonging to 33 families; of these, 45 are used for diabetes, 36 for hypertension, and 18 for both diseases. Of these plants, 34% grow in the wild, 44% are cultivated, and 22% are not indigenous to the area and are brought from other parts of Morocco or from outside the country. The survey shows that 78% of the patients regularly use these medicinal plants. In this region, the most frequently used plants to treat diabetes include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Artemisia herba-alba, Carum carvi, Lepidium sativum, Nigella sativa, Olea europaea, Peganum harmala, Phoenix dactylifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Zygophyllum gaetulum, and those to treat hypertension include Ajuga iva, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Carum carvi, Nigella sativa, Olea europea, Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, Peganum harmala, and Phoenix dactylifera. The local people recognize the toxic plants and are very careful in using such plants, which are Citrullus colocynthis, Datura stramonium, Nerium oleander, Nigella sativa, Peganum harmala and Zygophyllum gaetulum. Our survey shows that traditional medicine in the south-eastern Moroccan population has not only survived but has thrived in the transcultural environment and intermixture of many ethnic traditions and

  1. Suicide and related health risk behaviours among school learners in South Africa: results from the 2002 and 2008 national youth risk behaviour surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Shilubane, Hilda N; Ruiter, Robert AC; van den Borne, Bart; Sewpaul, Ronel; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S

    2013-01-01

    Background Attempted and completed suicide constitute a major public health problem among young people world-wide, including South Africa (SA). Suicide attempt and completed suicide increase during the adolescent period. One in 5 adolescents considers attempting suicide, but statistics are frequently unreliable. Methods Data for this study were derived from the 2002 and 2008 South African Youth Risk Behaviour Surveys (YRBS). The study population comprised grades 8, 9, 10 and 11 students in go...

  2. Fifth annual state of logistics survey for South Africa: logistics value and cost drivers from a macro and micro-economic perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available in vehicle damage and costs, vehicle operating costs, pavement damage and costs, damage to transported cargo, environmental damage and costs, and increases in congestion and decreases in safety. A limited case study indicated that trucks travelling... STATE OF LOGISTICS SURVEY FOR SOUTH AFRICA 2008 BULK MINING Most bulk mining in South Africa is transported by rail, mostly on world-class ‘export machines’, i.e. the coal line between Mpumalanga...

  3. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Survey at South Bank, American Samoa in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Survey at South Bank, American Samoa in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  5. Statewide Scent Station Survey for South Carolina Furbearers Annual Report 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1984, a statewide scent station survey was initiated in SC to provide an index to the relative abundance of terrestrial furbearing animals. This report is from...

  6. Baseline Survey for an Impact Evaluation of the Greenbelt Transformation Initiative in South Sudan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This data set is derived from a 2013 household baseline survey in the country's Greenbelt region as part of an impact evaluation of the Food, Agribusiness, and Rural...

  7. A survey of locally endemic mollusca of Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a culmination of field, laboratory, and bibliographic work begun in August, 1974. The project as originally contracted called for a survey of Utah and...

  8. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Hydrogeomorphic Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  9. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Geomorphic Catena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  10. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Ecosystem Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith Marcoe

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  11. Taxonomic status of the Columbia duskysnail (Truncatelloidea, Amnicolidae, Colligyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ping Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Undescribed freshwater snails (Amnicolidae: Colligyrus from the Mount Hood region (northwestern United States identified as a new species (commonly known as the Columbia duskysnail in grey literature have been provided federal protection under the “survey and manage” provisions of the Northwest Forest Plan and have been placed on conservation watch lists. However, there are no published studies of the identity of these snails aside from a molecular phylogenetic analysis which delineated a close relationship between the single sampled population and C. greggi, which is distributed more than 750 km to the east of the Mount Hood area. Here we examine the taxonomic status of the Columbia duskysnail based on additional molecular sampling of mitochondrial DNA sequences (COI and morphological evidence. We found that the Columbia duskysnail is not a monophyletic group and forms a strongly supported clade with C. greggi. The COI divergence between these broadly disjunct groups (2.1% was somewhat larger than that within C. greggi (1.0% but considerably less than that among the three currently recognized species of Colligyrus (8.7–12.1%. Additionally we found that the Columbia duskysnail and C. greggi cannot be consistently differentiated by previously reported diagnostic characters (size and shape of shell spire, pigmentation of body and penis and are closely similar in other aspects of morphology. Based on these results we conclude that the Columbia duskysnail is conspecific with C. greggi.

  12. Cultural Resource Survey, Government Townsites Study, Fort Peck, Montana, Pickstown, South Dakota, Riverdale, North Dakota,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    individuals like Eugene O’Neill (NHL) near Danville, CA, and Ernest Hemingway (NHL), at Key West, FL, to the study of author William Hervey Allen in South...Set: 1817-1899 (New York and Paris : Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1977); John H. Martin, List of Documents Concerning the Negotiation of...Documents in the Congressional Serial Set: 1817-1899. New York and Paris : Clearwater Publishing Company, 1977. Keppler, Charles J., ed. Indian

  13. Sampling and analytical techniques for an interim survey in the South Carolina lowcountry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard L. Welch; Robert A. Cathey

    1976-01-01

    Remeasurement of 675 permanent sample locations in the South Carolina Lowcountry using modified sampling techniques showed that net growth of pine for the 6 years 1968-1974 was 637.0 million cubic feet while removals were slightly over 390.6 million cubic feet. In 1974, there were 1,533.5 million cubic feet of pine in the area with that portion in sawtimber size...

  14. Second annual state of logistics survey for South Africa: Defining research priorities for developmental logistics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available by Trade and Industry South Africa in 2001 highlighted specific supply-chain challenges from different perspectives. Some of these challenges are listed below: Industry overview Base chemicals (ethylene and other petrochemical building blocks, ammonia... role players involved. Similar innovation with respect to the utilisation of rail could in future result from joint operational planning with Spoornet. All final products in the chlorine industry are hazardous and the key challenge for the chlorine...

  15. A preliminary survey of primitive crops cultivated in the northern Transvaal of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    T. H. Arnold; K. J. Musil

    1983-01-01

    The different tribal economies of South Africa rely extensively on a number of primitive crop taxa which are cultivated as a primary food source. The most important of these include  Sorghum bicolor,  Pennisetum americanum, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Vigna unguiculata, Voandzeia subterranea and  Hibiscus esculentus. Morphological variation within these and a number of less important crops is discussed. The frequency with which each crop is grown and preference ratings allotted to...

  16. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandile J. Mchiza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  17. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mchiza, Zandile J; Steyn, Nelia P; Hill, Jillian; Kruger, Annamarie; Schönfeldt, Hettie; Nel, Johanna; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2015-09-23

    One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  18. Bent-Tailed Radio Sources in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey of the Chandra Deep Field-South

    CERN Document Server

    Dehghan, Siamak; Franzen, Thomas M O; Norris, Ray P; Miller, Neal A

    2015-01-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS), supplemented with the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS). Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 bent-tailed sources, four diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (one relic, two halos, and one unclassified object), and a further seven complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range $10^{22} \\leq$ $\\textrm{P}_{1.4 \\textrm{ GHz}} \\leq 10^{26}$ W Hz$^{-1}$, redshifts up to 2 and linear extents from tens of kpc up to about one Mpc. This is the first systematic study of such sources down to such low powers and high redshifts and demonstrates the complementary nature of searches in deep, limited area surveys as compared to shallower, large surveys. Of the sources presented here one is the most distant bent-tailed source yet detected at a redshift of 2.1688. Two of the sources are found to be as...

  19. Behavioral and musical characteristics of the children who are exposed to child maltreatment and poverty in South Korea: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinah; Kim, Kwanghyuk

    2014-06-01

    A preliminary survey was conducted on primary school aged children (N=302) between seven to twelve years of age, who attend the local Community Child Centers (CCC) in the economically deprived areas of Jeollabukdo in South Korea for the purpose of identifying the children who have been exposed to on-going child maltreatment and poverty, and their needs. Both standardized and non-standardized self-report types of surveys were carried out and completed by both the children and the teachers of the CCC. As would be expected, emotional and behavioral problems are more pronounced by the children who are exposed to child maltreatment and poverty compared to the children who were not exposed to these adversities, or who were not poor. The more severely abused children in terms of frequency and co-occurrence of different abuses appear to display more behavioral problems than less severely abused children. Teachers reported that the children who were able to play a musical instrument and had arts therapy experiences appear to have less behavioral problems, particularly delinquent and aggressive behavior in comparison to the children who did not have such ability and experiences. Through the survey, it was possible to identify the children in need of therapeutic intervention and discover clinically relevant information. Clinical implications will be discussed further.

  20. Variations in breast tangent radiotherapy: a survey of practice in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veness, M.J.; Delaney, G.; Berry, M. [Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, NSW (Australia). Department of Radiation Oncology

    1999-08-01

    The breast is a complex anatomical structure where achieving a homogeneous dose distribution with radiation treatment is difficult. Despite obvious similarities in the approach to such treatment (using tangents) there is variation in the process of simulation, planning and treatment between radiation oncologists. Previous Australasian studies in the treatment of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin`s disease highlighted considerable variation in many areas of treatment. As part of a multicentre breast phantom study involving 10 radiation oncology departments throughout New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), a 22-question survey was distributed. The aim of the survey was to assess the extent of variation in the approach to the simulation, planning and treatment of early breast cancer using tangents. Responses from 10 different radiation oncology departments revealed variation in most areas of the survey. There is no reason to assume similar variations do not occur Australasia wide. Studies involving overseas radiation oncologists also reveal a wide variation in treating early breast cancer. The consequences of such variations remain unclear. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 15 refs., 1 tab.

  1. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: Initial Results and Catalog from the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, J R; Aird, J; Alexander, D M; Civano, F M; Hickox, R C; Lansbury, G B; Ajello, M; Assef, R; Ballantyne, D R; Balokovic, M; Bauer, F E; Brandt, W N; Boggs, S E; Brightman, M; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Craig, W W; Elvis, M; Forster, K; Gandhi, P; Grefenstette, B W; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Koss, M; LaMassa, S M; Luo, B; Madsen, K K; Puccetti, S; Saez, C; Stern, D; Treister, E; Urry, C M; Wik, D R; Zappacosta, L; Zhang, W

    2015-01-01

    We present initial results and the source catalog from the NuSTAR survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (hereafter, ECDFS) - currently the deepest contiguous component of the NuSTAR extragalactic survey program. The survey covers the full ~30 arcmin x 30 arcmin area of this field to a maximum depth of ~360 ks (~220 ks when corrected for vignetting at 3-24 keV), reaching sensitivity limits of ~1.3 x 10^-14 erg/cm2/s (3-8 keV), ~3.4 x 10^-14 erg/cm2/s (8-24 keV) and ~3.0 x 10^-14 erg/cm2/s (3-24 keV). Fifty four (54) sources are detected over the full field, although five of these are found to lie below our significance threshold once contaminating flux from neighboring (i.e., blended) sources is taken into account. Of the remaining 49 that are significant, 19 are detected in the 8-24 keV band. The 8-24 keV to 3-8 keV band ratios of the twelve sources that are detected in both bands span the range 0.39-1.7, corresponding to a photon index range of Gamma ~ 0.5-2.3, with a median photon index of 1.70 +/...

  2. An ALMA survey of submillimetre galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: High resolution 870um source counts

    CERN Document Server

    Karim, Alexander; Hodge, Jackie; Smail, Ian; Walter, Fabian; Biggs, Andy; Simpson, James; Danielson, Alice; Alexander, David; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Coppin, Kristen; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Edge, Alastair; Greve, Thomas; Ivison, Rob; Knudsen, Kirsten; Menten, Karl; Schinnerer, Eva; Wardlow, Julie; Weiß, Axel; van der Werf, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We report the first counts of faint submillimetre galaxies (SMG) in the 870-um band derived from arcsecond resolution observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). We have used ALMA to map a sample of 122 870-um-selected submillimetre sources drawn from the (0.5x0.5)deg^2 LABOCA Extended Chandra Deep Field South Submillimetre Survey (LESS). These ALMA maps have an average depth of sigma(870um)~0.4mJy, some ~3x deeper than the original LABOCA survey and critically the angular resolution is more than an order of magnitude higher, FWHM of ~1.5" compared to ~19" for the LABOCA discovery map. This combination of sensitivity and resolution allows us to precisely pin-point the SMGs contributing to the submillimetre sources from the LABOCA map, free from the effects of confusion. We show that our ALMA-derived SMG counts broadly agree with the submillimetre source counts from previous, lower-resolution single-dish surveys, demonstrating that the bulk of the submillimetre sources are not caused by blendi...

  3. Prevalence of trachoma in unity state, South Sudan: results from a large-scale population-based survey and potential implications for further surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansy Edwards

    Full Text Available Large parts of South Sudan are thought to be trachoma-endemic but baseline data are limited. This study aimed to estimate prevalence for planning trachoma interventions in Unity State, to identify risk factors and to investigate the effect of different sampling approaches on study conclusions.The survey area was defined as one domain of eight counties in Unity State. Across the area, 40 clusters (villages were randomly selected proportional to the county population size in a population-based prevalence survey. The simplified grading scheme was used to classify clinical signs of trachoma. The unadjusted prevalence of trachoma inflammation-follicular (TF in children aged 1-9 years was 70.5% (95% CI: 68.6-72.3. After adjusting for age, sex, county and clustering of cases at household and village level the prevalence was 71.0% (95% CI: 69.9-72.1. The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT in adults was 15.1% (95% CI: 13.4-17.0 and 13.5% (95% CI: 12.0-15.1 before and after adjustment, respectively. We estimate that 700,000 people (the entire population of Unity State require antibiotic treatment and approximately 54,178 people require TT surgery. Risk factor analyses confirmed child-level associations with TF and highlighted that older adults living in poverty are at higher risk of TT. Conditional simulations, testing the alternatives of sampling 20 or 60 villages over the same area, indicated that sampling of only 20 villages would have provided an acceptable level of precision for state-level prevalence estimation to inform intervention decisions in this hyperendemic setting.Trachoma poses an enormous burden on the population of Unity State. Comprehensive control is urgently required to avoid preventable blindness and should be initiated across the state now. In other parts of South Sudan suspected to be highly trachoma endemic, counties should be combined into larger survey areas to generate the baseline data required to initiate interventions.

  4. 6th Annual state of logistics survey for South Africa 2009

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittman, H

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available issues are raised and elaborated on in this survey, for example, the cost of bad roads and humanitarian logistics. We believe that �ndings from studies published in the sixth State of Logistics™ survey will, as in the past, be referenced in numerous.... And this is critical – right now. THE COST OF BAD ROADS TO THE ECONOMY Deteriorating road quality can potentially have many negative effects on the vehicle maintenance costs of a company, which in turn can translate into increased logistics costs and may eventually...

  5. A preliminary survey of primitive crops cultivated in the northern Transvaal of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Arnold

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The different tribal economies of South Africa rely extensively on a number of primitive crop taxa which are cultivated as a primary food source. The most important of these include  Sorghum bicolor,  Pennisetum americanum, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Vigna unguiculata, Voandzeia subterranea and  Hibiscus esculentus. Morphological variation within these and a number of less important crops is discussed. The frequency with which each crop is grown and preference ratings allotted to them by individual tribal families are compared between the three major ethnic regions of the northern Transvaal. Factors which determine preferences are also discussed and suggestions made relating to germ plasm conservation.

  6. A preliminary survey of primitive crops cultivated in the northern Transvaal of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Arnold

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The different tribal economies of South Africa rely extensively on a number of primitive crop taxa which are cultivated as a primary food source. The most important of these include  Sorghum bicolor,  Pennisetum americanum, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Vigna unguiculata, Voandzeia subterranea and  Hibiscus esculentus. Morphological variation within these and a number of less important crops is discussed. The frequency with which each crop is grown and preference ratings allotted to them by individual tribal families are compared between the three major ethnic regions of the northern Transvaal. Factors which determine preferences are also discussed and suggestions made relating to germ plasm conservation.

  7. Predictors of job satisfaction among individuals with disabilities: An analysis of South Korea's National Survey of employment for the disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yujeong; Seo, Dong Gi; Park, Jaekook; Bettini, Elizabeth; Smith, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the influences of personal, vocational, and job environment related factors that are associated with job satisfaction of individuals with disabilities in South Korea. Data for wage-based working employees from a nationwide survey were obtained, which resulted in a total number of 417 participants. The six hypotheses and mediation effects of personal and work related environmental factors were tested using the structural equation modeling drawn from existing research evidence. Results revealed that (a) life satisfaction and job related environments directly influenced job satisfaction; (b) the relationship between personal experience and job satisfaction was mediated by life satisfaction for both mild/moderate and severe/profound disabilities group; and (c) the mediating role of job environment between vocational preparedness and job satisfaction was only observed for individuals with mild/moderate disabilities. Summary of findings and implications for future research and practices are discussed.

  8. Masculinities and condom use patterns among young rural South Africa men: a cross-sectional baseline survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Notions of ideal manhood in South Africa are potentially prescriptive of male sexuality thus accounting for the behaviors which may lead to men being at greater HIV risk. We tested the hypothesis that gender and relationship constructs are associated with condom use among young men living in rural South Africa. Methods 1219 men aged 15–26 years completed a cross-sectional baseline survey from an IsiXhosa questionnaire asking about sexual behaviour and relationships. Univariate and bivariate analyses described condom use patterns and explanatory variables, and multinomial regression modeling assessed the factors associated with inconsistent versus consistent and non-condom use. Results 47.7% of men never used condoms, when 36.9% were inconsistent and 15.4% were consistent with any partner in the past year. Condom use patterns differed in association with gender relations attitudes: never users were significantly more conservative than inconsistent or consistent users. Three gender positions emerged indicating that inconsistent users were most physically/sexually violent and sexually risky; never users had more conservative gender attitudes but were less violent and sexually risky; and consistent users were less conservative, less violent and sexually risky with notably fewer sexual partners than inconsistent users. Conclusions The confluence of conservative gender attitudes, perpetration of violence against women and sexual risk taking distinguished inconsistent condom users as the most risky compared to never condom users, and rendered inconsistent use one of the basic negative attributes of dominant masculinities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This finding is important for the design of HIV prevention and gender equity interventions and emphasizes the need for a wider roll-out of interventions that promote progressive and healthy masculine practices in the country.

  9. Analysis of the Herschel/HEXOS Spectral Survey Towards Orion South: A massive protostellar envelope with strong external irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tahani, K; Bergin, E A; Tolls, V; Phillips, T G; Caux, E; Cabrit, S; Goicoechea, J R; Goldsmith, P F; Johnstone, D; Lis, D C; Pagani, L; Menten, K M; Muller, H S P; Ossenkopf-Okada, V; Pearson, J C; van der Tak, F F S

    2016-01-01

    We present results from a comprehensive submillimeter spectral survey toward the source Orion South, based on data obtained with the HIFI instrument aboard the \\textit{Herschel Space Observatory}, covering the frequency range 480 to 1900 GHz. We detect 685 spectral lines with S/N $>$ 3$\\sigma$, originating from 52 different molecular and atomic species. We model each of the detected species assuming conditions of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium. This analysis provides an estimate of the physical conditions of Orion South (column density, temperature, source size, \\& V$_{LSR}$). We find evidence for three different cloud components: a cool (T$_{ex} \\sim 20-40$ K), spatially extended ($> 60"$), and quiescent ($\\Delta V_{FWHM} \\sim 4$ km s $^{-1}$) component; a warmer (T$_{ex} \\sim 80-100$ K), less spatially extended ($\\sim 30"$), and dynamic ($\\Delta V_{FWHM} \\sim 8$ km s $^{-1}$) component, which is likely affected by embedded outflows; and a kinematically distinct region (T$_{ex}$ $>$ 100 K; V$_{LSR}$ $\\s...

  10. Healthier central England or North–South divide? Analysis of national survey data on smoking and high-risk drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Angus, Colin; Kaner, Eileen; Michie, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This paper compares patterns of smoking and high-risk alcohol use across regions in England, and assesses the impact on these of adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Design Population survey of 53 922 adults in England aged 16+ taking part in the Alcohol and Smoking Toolkit Studies. Measures Participants answered questions regarding their socioeconomic status (SES), gender, age, ethnicity, Government Office Region, smoking status and completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). High-risk drinkers were defined as those with a score of 8 or more (7 or more for women) on the AUDIT. Results In unadjusted analyses, relative to the South West, those in the North of England were more likely to smoke, while those from the East of England, South East and London were less likely. After adjustment for sociodemographics, smoking prevalence was no higher in North East (RR 0.97, p>0.05), North West (RR 0.98, p>0.05) or Yorkshire and the Humber (RR 1.03, p>0.05) but was less common in the East and West Midlands (RR 0.86, p0.05) Conclusions In adjusted analyses, smoking and high-risk drinking appear less common in ‘central England’ than in the rest of the country. Regional differences in smoking, but not those in high-risk drinking, appear to be explained to some extent by sociodemographic disparities. PMID:28249851

  11. The South Australian Allied Health Workforce survey: helping to fill the evidence gap in primary health workforce planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Deirdre; Smith, Tony; Newbury, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of detailed evidence about the allied health workforce to inform proposed health care reforms. The South Australian Allied Health Workforce (SAAHW) survey collected data about the demographic characteristics, employment, education and recruitment and retention of allied health professionals in South Australia. The SAAHW questionnaire was widely distributed and 1539 responses were received. The average age of the sample was 40 years; males were significantly older than females, the latter making up 82% of respondents. Three-quarters of the sample worked in the city; 60% worked full time and the remainder in part-time, casual or locum positions. 'Work-life balance' was the most common attraction to respondents' current jobs and 'Better career prospects' the most common reason for intending to leave. Practice in a rural location was influenced by rural background and rural experience during training. A greater proportion of Generation Y (1982-2000) respondents intended to leave within 2 years than Generation X (1961-81) or Baby Boomers (1943-60). Most respondents were satisfied with their job, although some reported lack of recognition of their knowledge and skills. Systematic, robust allied health workforce data are required for integrated and sustainable primary health care delivery.

  12. South China Sea Tectonics and Magnetics: Constraints from IODP Expedition 349 and Deep-tow Magnetic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Li, C. F.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Zhao, X.; Liu, Q.; Xu, X.; Sun, Z.; Zhu, J.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest low-latitude marginal sea in the world. Its formation and evolution are linked to the complex continental-oceanic tectonic interaction of the Eurasian, Pacific, and Indo-Australian plates. Despite its relatively small size and short history, the SCS has undergone nearly a complete Wilson cycle from continental break-up to seafloor spreading to subduction. In January-March 2014, Expedition 349 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) drilled five sites in the deep basin of the SCS. Three sites (U1431, U1433, and U1434) cored into oceanic basement near the fossil spreading center on the East and Southwest Subbasins, whereas Sites U1432 and U1435 are located near the northern continent/ocean boundary of the East Subbasin. Shipboard biostratigraphy based on microfossils preserved in sediment directly above or within basement suggests that the preliminary cessation age of spreading in both the East and Southwest Subbasins is around early Miocene (16-20 Ma); however, post-cruise radiometric dating is being conducted to directly date the basement basalt in these subbasins. Prior to the IODP drilling, high-resolution near-seafloor magnetic surveys were conducted in 2012 and 2013 in the SCS with survey lines passing near the five IODP drilling sites. The deep-tow surveys revealed detailed patterns of the SCS magnetic anomalies with amplitude and spatial resolutions several times better than that of traditional sea surface measurements. Preliminary results reveal several episodes of magnetic reversal events that were not recognized by sea surface measurements. Together the IODP drilling and deep-tow magnetic surveys provide critical constraints for investigating the processes of seafloor spreading in the SCS and evolution of a mid-ocean ridge from active spreading to termination.

  13. Survey on Non-Timber Forest Products in Bauchi South Senatorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires, ... A total of 300 Questionnaires were randomly administered in the study local government areas. All data collected from the survey areas were subjected to simple descriptive ... By Country · List All Titles · Open Access Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  14. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Mariana; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Tavares, Maurício; de Amorim, Derek Blaese; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Giongo, Adriana; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis). Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5) were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals. PMID:26986573

  15. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kluge

    Full Text Available The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis. Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5 were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals.

  16. The dams of the Columbia river; Staustufen des Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueb, L.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Columbia river and its tributaries in the north-western part of the USA form one of the largest river systems of the world. Its development was started during the economic crisis of the thirties with the construction of the Bonneville, Rock Island, and Grand Coulee dams. Another eight dams were realized between the fifties and the beginning of the seventies. As a terraced lake system the Columbia yields more than 90 terawatt hours of electric power annually and provides irrigation to 200 000 hectares of cultivated land. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Columbia und seine Nebenfluesse im Nordwesten der USA bilden eines der groessten Flusssysteme der Welt. Seine Erschliessung begann waehrend der Wirtschaftskrise der dreissiger Jahre mit dem Bau der Talsperren Bonneville, Rock Island und Grand Coulee. Weitere acht Staustufen wurden von den fuenfziger Jahren bis Anfang der siebziger Jahre verwirklicht. Als Treppe von Seen liefert der Columbia jaehlich ueber 90 TWh elektrische Energie und ermoeglicht die Bewaesserung von 200 000 Hektar Kulturland. (orig.)

  17. Alcohol Use and Transactional Sex among Women in South Africa: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Magni

    Full Text Available Transactional sex is a risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol use may increase the risk of transactional sex. No nationally-representative studies have examined the relationship between multiple dimensions of alcohol use and transactional sex in women in South Africa. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between alcohol dependence, binge drinking and frequency of drinking in the past month and transactional sex in adult women in South Africa.A cross-sectional study using multi-stage, cluster sampling collected data from a nationally representative sample of 5,969 women aged 16-55 years in 2012. The analysis conducted for this paper was restricted to women reporting sexual activity in the past 12 months (n = 3,594. Transactional sex was defined as having received money/gifts in exchange for sex with any sex partner in the past year. Alcohol use measures included: alcohol dependence (≥2 positive responses to the CAGE questionnaire; binge drinking (≥4 drinks for women on one occasion; and drinking frequency in the previous month. Logistic regression models were built to test the hypotheses that each dimension of alcohol use was associated with transactional sex.About 6.3% (n = 225 of sexually active women reported transactional sex. Almost a third (30.6% of sexually active women had ever drunk alcohol, and 19.2% were current (past month drinkers. Among lifetime drinkers, 28.0% were alcohol dependent and 56.6% were binge drinkers. Alcohol dependent women were twice as likely to report transactional sex (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-4.3, p<0.05 than those not alcohol dependent. Binge drinkers were 3.1 times more likely to have had transactional sex (95% CI 1.5-6.6, p<0.01 than non-binge drinkers. There was no significant relationship between frequency of drinking in the past month and transactional sex.Alcohol dependency and binge drinking are significantly associated with transactional sex in South African women. HIV prevention programmes

  18. Local content requirements and the impact on the South African renewable energy sector: A survey-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ettmayr

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Economies aim to grow over time, which usually implies the need for increased energy availability. Governments can use their procurement of energy to increase benefits in their economies via certain policy tools. One such tool is local content requirements (LCRs, where the purchase of goods prescribes that a certain value has to be sourced locally. The argument for this tool is that spending is localised and manufacturing, as well as job creation, can be stimulated because industry will need to establish in the host economy. However, this practice is distortionary in effect and does not create a fair playing ground for global trade. Furthermore, if the local content definition is weak, or open to manipulation, the goals of such a policy may not be achieved at all. Aim: The objective of this study was to determine how LCRs would ultimately impact on the overall procurement programme. Setting: This study took place as South Africa commenced with large scale development of the renewable energy sector. This was largely achieved via the State run Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP. Method: This study utilised opinion-based surveys to look into the LCRs of South Africa’s REIPPPP and measure the impact of this policy on the renewable energy sector in general. The mixed method approach was utilised to analyse qualitative and quantitative data and this was then triangulated with an international peer group to arrive at certain conclusions. The Delphi Technique was then employed to achieve population consensus on the findings. Results and conclusion: It was found that, in order to implement a policy such as local content without any negative welfare effects, the host economy had to show certain pre-existing conditions. Because South Africa does not hold all supportive pre-conditions, the impact and effect of LCRs have not been optimal, and it has not been found to be a sustainable mechanism to

  19. 2015 South Carolina PV soft cost and workforce development Part I. Initial survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, Thomas B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    The South Carolina solar industry has surged over the past two years, largely due to the implementation of Act 236, and continues to grow at a rapid pace. At the beginning of 2014, there was little more than 3MW total spread across the state, but by the end of 2021, that state solar industry will have grown to over 300MW across all sectors. Prior to this study, there has been little publically available information on the solar industry in SC and throughout the Southeastern US. This makes SC a key case study of an emerging market, enabling the development of regional best practices in order to decrease associated costs and increase deployment.

  20. South Baltic representative coastal field surveys, including monitoring at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Schönhofer, Jan; Szmytkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    The paper contains a brief description of selected investigations carried out in the south Baltic coastal zone, with the particular focus on the history and recent activities conducted at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (CRS Lubiatowo), Poland. These activities comprise field investigations of nearshore hydrodynamic, lithodynamic, and morphodynamic processes. The study area is a sandy multi-bar shore with a mild slope, much exposed to the impact of waves approaching from NW-NE sector. The shore has a dissipative character which means that the wave energy is subject to gradual dissipation in the nearshore zone and only a small part of this energy is reflected by the shore. Due to the big wind fetch in N-NNE direction, the location of CRS Lubiatowo is favourable to registration of the maximum values of parameters of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes which occur in the Baltic during extreme storms.

  1. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in South Korea: a nationally representative survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Sup Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence that discriminatory experiences can harm health. However, previous research has mainly focused on the health effects of racial discrimination in U.S. or European countries although there is pervasive discrimination by gender, age, education and other factors in Asian countries. METHODS: We analyzed the data from the 7th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study to investigate the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in South Korea. Perceived discriminatory experiences were measured in eight situations through a modified Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. In each of eight situations, the lifetime prevalence of perceived discriminatory experience was compared between men and women and the main causes of those experiences were identified separately by gender. After adjusting for potential confounders, we examined the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in each of eight social situations and also checked the association using the number of situations of perceived discriminatory experiences. RESULTS: For both men and women, education level and age were the main sources of work-related perceived discriminatory experiences. Gender was one of the main causes among women across eight situations and more than 90% of women reported their gender as a main cause of discriminatory experience in getting higher education and at home. Discriminatory experiences in four situations were positively associated with poor self-rated health. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health for those exposed to one, two, three or four or more social situations of perceived discrimination were respectively 1.06 (95% CI : 0.87-1.29, 1.15 (95% CI : 0.96-1.55, 1.59 (95% CI : 1.19-2.14, and 1.78 (95% CI :1.26-2.51. CONCLUSION: There is consistent association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health across eight

  2. Assessment of epidemic projections using recent HIV survey data in South Africa: a validation analysis of ten mathematical models of HIV epidemiology in the antiretroviral therapy era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaton, J.W.; Bacaer, N.; Bershteyn, A.; Cambiano, V.; Cori, A.; Dorrington, R.E.; Fraser, C.; Gopalappa, C.; Hontelez, J.A.; Johnson, L.F.; Klein, D.J.; Phillips, A.N.; Pretorius, C.; Stover, J.; Rehle, T.M.; Hallett, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mathematical models are widely used to simulate the effects of interventions to control HIV and to project future epidemiological trends and resource needs. We aimed to validate past model projections against data from a large household survey done in South Africa in 2012. METHODS: We co

  3. Assessment of epidemic projections using recent HIV survey data in South Africa: a validation analysis of ten mathematical models of HIV epidemiology in the antiretroviral therapy era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaton, J.W.; Bacaer, N.; Bershteyn, A.; Cambiano, V.; Cori, A.; Dorrington, R.E.; Fraser, C.; Gopalappa, C.; Hontelez, J.A.; Johnson, L.F.; Klein, D.J.; Phillips, A.N.; Pretorius, C.; Stover, J.; Rehle, T.M.; Hallett, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mathematical models are widely used to simulate the effects of interventions to control HIV and to project future epidemiological trends and resource needs. We aimed to validate past model projections against data from a large household survey done in South Africa in 2012. METHODS: We

  4. Assessment of epidemic projections using recent HIV survey data in South Africa: a validation analysis of ten mathematical models of HIV epidemiology in the antiretroviral therapy era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaton, J.W.; Bacaer, N.; Bershteyn, A.; Cambiano, V.; Cori, A.; Dorrington, R.E.; Fraser, C.; Gopalappa, C.; Hontelez, J.A.; Johnson, L.F.; Klein, D.J.; Phillips, A.N.; Pretorius, C.; Stover, J.; Rehle, T.M.; Hallett, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mathematical models are widely used to simulate the effects of interventions to control HIV and to project future epidemiological trends and resource needs. We aimed to validate past model projections against data from a large household survey done in South Africa in 2012. METHODS: We co

  5. A submillimetre galaxy at z=4.76 in the LABOCA survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Coppin, Kristen; Alexander, David M; Weiss, Axel; Walter, Fabian; Swinbank, Mark; Greve, Thomas; Kovacs, Attila; De Breuck, Carlos; Dickinson, Mark; Ibar, Edo; Ivison, Rob; Reddy, Naveen; Spinrad, Hyron; Stern, Daniel; Brandt, Niel; Chapman, Scott; Dannerbauer, Helmut; van Dokkum, Pieter; Dunlop, James; Frayer, David; Gawiser, Eric; Geach, James; Huynh, Minh; Knudsen, Kirsten; Koekemoer, Anton; Lehmer, Bret; Menten, Karl; Papovich, Casey; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva; Wardlow, Julie; van der Werf, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We report on the identification of the highest redshift submm-selected source currently known: LESSJ033229.4-275619. This source was detected in the Large Apex BOlometer CAmera (LABOCA) Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) Submillimetre Survey (LESS), a sensitive 870-um survey (~1.2-mJy rms) of the full 30'x30' ECDFS with the LABOCA camera on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope. The submm emission is identified with a radio counterpart for which optical spectroscopy provides a redshift of z=4.76. We show that the bolometric emission is dominated by a starburst with a star formation rate of ~1000 Msun/yr, although we also identify a moderate luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) in this galaxy. Thus it has characteristics similar to those of z~2 submm galaxies (SMGs), with a mix of starburst and obscured AGN signatures. This demonstrates that ultraluminous starburst activity is not just restricted to the hosts of the most luminous (and hence rare) QSOs at z~5, but was also occurring in l...

  6. Survey of blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae annoyance levels and abundance along the Vaal and Orange Rivers, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel J. de Beer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae are pests in the livestock and labour-intensive farming systems along the major rivers in South Africa. Since 1995, blackflies have been controlled in the Orange River with the larvicide Bacillus thuringienses var. israelensis (Bti. During 2006–2007, the views of livestock farmers concerning blackfly annoyance were determined by means of questionnaires. The results of the questionnaires were substantiated by seasonal abundance surveys of the sub-adult stages of blackflies, conducted in 2007 at 13 sites in the Orange River and 11 sites in the Vaal River. More than half (52% of the 39 participating farmers along the Orange River and 79% of the 52 participating farmers along the Vaal River stated that they experienced severe blackfly problems. The majority of farmers were unaware of the availability of products that could be used to protect their animals against blackfly attacks and were willing to be involved in blackfly research. High numbers of blackfly sub-adult stages found in both rivers supported the high annoyance levels reported by the respondents. Simulium chutteri, Simulium damnosum s.l., Simulium hargreavesi, Simulium adersi and Simulium alcocki were identified at Christiana and Delportshoop on the Vaal River, whilst S. chutteri, S. damnosum s.l., S. adersi, S. alcocki and Simulium gariepense were identified at Marksdrift and Ses Bridge on the Orange River. Despite the extensive control of blackflies, farmers still experience problems and this contention is supported by surveys conducted along the rivers.

  7. A survey of the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa for the presence of cyst nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoetze, Rinus; Swart, Antoinette

    2014-12-09

    A survey was performed to detect the presence of cyst nematodes in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Soil was collected in the rhizosphere of the dominant plant species within blocks of indigenous vegetation and cysts were extracted from them. A total of 81 blocks of indigenous vegetation were sampled as described. Cysts were detected in 7 of these samples, representing 6 different vegetation types. One set of primers was used to amplify the ITS regions from these cysts, including the 5.8S ribosomal gene, as well as short parts of the 18S and 28S ribosomal genes. ITS-rDNA sequences from the indigenous isolates were aligned with selected sequences of other species from the Heteroderidae. Phylogenetic analyses to resolve the relationships between indigenous isolates and selected representatives of the Heteroderidae were conducted using the Maximum Parsimony method. The consensus tree resulting from alignment of the circumfenestrate cysts revealed that isolates SK18, WK1 and WK26 are included in a clade of Globodera species that parasitise non-solanaceous plants, forming a monophyletic group with G. millefolii, G. artemisiae, and an unidentified Globodera sp. from Portugal. In a tree resulting from the alignment of the Heterodera spp., isolates OK14 and WK2 are included in the Afenestrata group, forming a monophyletic group with H. orientalis.This survey unearthed at least four potentially new species of cyst nematodes, which may prove invaluable for the study of the evolution and biogeography of the group.

  8. Qualitative Interpretation Of Aerogravity And Aeromagnetic Survey Data Over The South Western Part Of The Volta River Basin Of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hinson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study area South western part of Volta River Basin of Ghana covering an area of 8570 km2 which is one-eleventh the area of the Volta River basin of Ghana has been subjected to numerous academic research works but geophysical survey works because of virtual perceptive reasons. It is now believed to overly mineral-rich geological structures hence the use of magnetic and gravity survey methods to bring out these mineral-rich geological structures.Geographically it study area is located at the south western part of the Voltaian basin at latitudes 07o 00 N and 08o 00 N and longitudes 02o 00 W and 01o 00 W respectively. Airborne gravity and magnetic survey methods were employed in the data collection. The field data correction and error reduction were applied to the two raw data on the field after which Geosoft Oasis Montaj 7.01 Encom Profile Analysis P.A 11 and 13 Model Vision 12 and ArcGIS 10.0 were used to process enhance e.g. reduce to pole at low latitude first vertical derivative etc. model the reduced and corrected airborne magnetic data and also to produce maps from them data. Low-to-moderate-to-high gravity and magnetic anomalies were obtained in the complete Bouguer anomaly CBA and total magnetic intensity TMI reduced to pole at low latitude with many of these anomalies trending NE-SW by which the Birimian Metasediments and Metavolcanics can be said to be part of the causative structures of these anomalies with cross-cut NW-SE faults. From the quantitative point of view the intrusive granitic bodies of the study area have a mean depth location of 1.7 km while the isolated anomaly is located at a depth of 1.4 km computed from Euler deconvolution. The NE-SW trending anomalies show the trend direction of their causative structures which are the basement rocks and the basinal intrusive bodies.

  9. CANDIDATE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES AT z > 1.3 IDENTIFIED IN THE SPITZER SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE DEEP FIELD SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettura, A.; Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-234, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Martinez-Manso, J.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Mei, S. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, Meudon Cedex (France); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Stanford, S. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bartlett, J. G. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2014-12-20

    We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.3 selected from the 94 deg{sup 2} Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Boötes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three 1.4 < z ≤ 1.75 X-ray detected clusters in the Boötes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE, and XMM-Newton. This rich data set will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters presented here, and enable a systematic study of the most distant clusters on an unprecedented scale. We measure the angular correlation function of our sample and find that these candidates show strong clustering. Employing the COSMOS/UltraVista photometric catalog in order to infer the redshift distribution of our cluster selection, we find that these clusters have a comoving number density n{sub c}=(0.7{sub −0.6}{sup +6.3})×10{sup −7} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup −3} and a spatial clustering correlation scale length r {sub 0} = (32 ± 7) h {sup –1} Mpc. Assuming our sample is comprised of dark matter halos above a characteristic minimum mass, M {sub min}, we derive that at z = 1.5 these clusters reside in halos larger than M{sub min}=1.5{sub −0.7}{sup +0.9}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}. We find that the mean mass of our cluster sample is equal to M{sub mean}=1.9{sub −0.8}{sup +1.0}×10{sup 14} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}; thus, our sample contains the progenitors of

  10. Bedrock morphology and structure, upper Santa Cruz Basin, south-central Arizona, with transient electromagnetic survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultman, Mark W.; Page, William R.

    2016-10-31

    susceptibilities of rocks found in the study area, and estimated natural remanent magnetic intensities and directions, reasonable geologic models can be built. This indicates that the depth to bedrock map is reason-able and geologically possible.Finally, CDTs derived from the 1998 Santa Cruz Basin transient electromagnetic survey were used to help identify basin structure and some physical properties of the basin fill in the study area. The CDTs also helped to confirm depth to bedrock estimates in the Santa Cruz Basin, in particular a region of elevated bedrock in the area of Potrero Canyon, and a deep basin in the location of the Arizona State Highway 82 microbasin. The CDTs identified many concealed faults in the study area and possibly indicate deep water-saturated clay-rich sediments in the west-central portion of the study area. These sediments grade to more sand-rich saturated sediments to the south with relatively thick, possibly unsaturated, sediments at the surface. Also, the CDTs may indicate deep saturated clay-rich sediments in the Highway 82 microbasin and in the Mount Benedict horst block from Proto Canyon south to the international border.

  11. Dam safety in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, H.M.; Round, R.P.D.

    1978-01-01

    Many dams in British Columbia were built before 1900, and a comprehensive inspection and surveillance program has been developed. The background and implementation of this program are described. Topics discussed include program responsibilities, classification of dams, organization, the dam safety program, and coordination with other agencies. (PMA)

  12. A compilation of field surveys on gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from contrasting environmental settings in Europe, South America, South Africa and China: separating fads from facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Pablo; Oyarzun, Roberto; Kotnik, Joze; Esbrí, José María; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Horvat, Milena; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; Llanos, Willians; Vaselli, Orlando; Nisi, Barbara; Mashyanov, Nikolay; Ryzov, Vladimir; Spiric, Zdravko; Panichev, Nikolay; McCrindle, Rob; Feng, Xinbin; Fu, Xuewu; Lillo, Javier; Loredo, Jorge; García, María Eugenia; Alfonso, Pura; Villegas, Karla; Palacios, Silvia; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Contreras, Felicia; Adams, Melitón; Ribeiro-Guevara, Sergio; Niecenski, Luise Felipe; Giammanco, Salvatore; Huremović, Jasna

    2014-08-01

    Mercury is transported globally in the atmosphere mostly in gaseous elemental form (GEM, [Formula: see text]), but still few worldwide studies taking into account different and contrasted environmental settings are available in a single publication. This work presents and discusses data from Argentina, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Finland, Italy, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Slovenia and Venezuela. We classified the information in four groups: (1) mining districts where this contaminant poses or has posed a risk for human populations and/or ecosystems; (2) cities, where the concentration of atmospheric mercury could be higher than normal due to the burning of fossil fuels and industrial activities; (3) areas with natural emissions from volcanoes; and (4) pristine areas where no anthropogenic influence was apparent. All the surveys were performed using portable LUMEX RA-915 series atomic absorption spectrometers. The results for cities fall within a low GEM concentration range that rarely exceeds 30 ng m(-3), that is, 6.6 times lower than the restrictive ATSDR threshold (200 ng m(-3)) for chronic exposure to this pollutant. We also observed this behavior in the former mercury mining districts, where few data were above 200 ng m(-3). We noted that high concentrations of GEM are localized phenomena that fade away in short distances. However, this does not imply that they do not pose a risk for those working in close proximity to the source. This is the case of the artisanal gold miners that heat the Au-Hg amalgam to vaporize mercury. In this respect, while GEM can be truly regarded as a hazard, because of possible physical-chemical transformations into other species, it is only under these localized conditions, implying exposure to high GEM concentrations, which it becomes a direct risk for humans.

  13. Optimizing Partner Notification Programs for Men Who Have Sex with Men: Factorial Survey Results from South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta L Wang

    Full Text Available Syphilis is prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM in China. Syphilis partner notification (PN programs targeting MSM has been considered as one of effective strategies to prevention and control of the infection in the population. We examined willingness and preferences for PN among MSM to measure feasibility and optimize uptake.Participation in a syphilis PN program was measured using a factorial survey from both the perspective of the index patient and the partner. Respondents were recruited from April-July 2011 using convenience sampling at two sites-a MSM sexually transmitted disease (STD clinic and a MSM community based organization (CBO. Respondents first evaluated three factorial survey vignettes to measure probability of participation and then an anonymous sociodemographic questionnaire. A two-level mixed linear model was fitted for the factorial survey analysis.In 372 respondents with mean age (± SD 28.5 (± 6.0 years, most were single (82.0% and closeted gays (66.7%. The Internet was the most frequent place to search for sex. Few (31.2% had legal names for casual partners, but most had instant messenger (86.5% and mobile phone numbers (77.7%. The mean probability of participation in a syphilis PN program was 64.5% (± 32.4% for index patients and 63.7% (± 32.6% for partners. Referral of the partner to a private clinic or MSM CBO for follow-up decreased participation compared to the local Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC or public STD clinic.Enhanced PN services may be feasible among MSM in South China. Internet and mobile phone PN may contact partners untraceable by traditional PN. Referral of partners to the local CDC or public STD clinic may maximize PN participation.

  14. Fiscal 1994 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Investigation on the trend of coal demand in Central and South American countries; 1994 nendo kaigaitan kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Chunanbei shokoku ni okeru sekitan jukyu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Focusing on the present status and future of coal demand in Central/South American countries and the coal trade between Central/South American countries and the U.S., the paper described the present status and future of coal demand there and the effects on Japan. Export of Colombian coal will amount to approximately 30-35 million tons in 2000. Venezuelan coal 10-20 million tons. The U.S. imported good-quality general coal low in sulfur content, 3.08 tons from Columbia and 1.39 tons from Venezuela. Coal export from the U.S. to Central/South America was mostly of raw material coal, 5 million tons in 1993 and 5.39 million tons in 1994. General coal was 180,000 tons. The U.S. has no plans of increasing US coal export to Central/South America. But it is safely predicted that Columbia and Venezuela will increase coal export to Europe in the future. It will bring about decrease in export of US coal to Europe, which connects with increasing pressure for the coal trade amount of Japan. 21 figs., 47 tabs.

  15. The Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: 7 Ms Source Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, B; Xue, Y Q; Lehmer, B; Alexander, D M; Bauer, F E; Vito, F; Yang, G; Basu-Zych, A R; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Gu, Q -S; Hornschemeier, A E; Koekemoer, A; Liu, T; Mainieri, V; Paolillo, M; Ranalli, P; Rosati, P; Schneider, D P; Shemmer, O; Smail, I; Sun, M; Tozzi, P; Vignali, C; Wang, J -X

    2016-01-01

    We present X-ray source catalogs for the $\\approx7$ Ms exposure of the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S), which covers a total area of 484.2 arcmin$^2$. Utilizing WAVDETECT for initial source detection and ACIS Extract for photometric extraction and significance assessment, we create a main source catalog containing 1008 sources that are detected in up to three X-ray bands: 0.5-7.0 keV, 0.5-2.0 keV, and 2-7 keV. A supplementary source catalog is also provided including 47 lower-significance sources that have bright ($K_s\\le23$) near-infrared counterparts. We identify multiwavelength counterparts for 992 (98.4%) of the main-catalog sources, and we collect redshifts for 986 of these sources, including 653 spectroscopic redshifts and 333 photometric redshifts. Based on the X-ray and multiwavelength properties, we identify 711 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the main-catalog sources. Compared to the previous $\\approx4$ Ms CDF-S catalogs, 291 of the main-catalog sources are new detections. We have achieved unpre...

  16. Issues related to diagnosing oral lichen planus among oral pathologists in South India: A pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanketh, D Sharathkumar; Srinivasan, Samuel Raj; Patil, Shankargouda; Ranganathan, Kannan

    2016-10-26

    In the present study, we simulated clinical scenarios by explicitly describing the history and clinical and histological features of hypothetical patients presenting with oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesion, and epithelial dysplasia in a self-designed questionnaire. By doing so, we aimed to elicit a diagnosis from oral pathologists and trainees, analyze their responses, appraise issues, and propose solutions regarding the diagnosis of OLP. The questionnaire was distributed to 100 oral pathologists and trainees in South India. Six questions were designed to assess awareness of the diagnostic aspects of OLP. Ten questions were hypothetical clinical scenarios (HCS) devised to evaluate respondents' knowledge of diagnostic guidelines and the criteria used by the respondents to render a diagnosis. There were 60 of 100 responses to the questionnaire. More than half the respondents were aware of the World Health Organization and modified guidelines of OLP. We observed considerable variations in diagnoses for the HCS. Our study illustrates the ambiguity in rendering an accurate diagnosis, despite adequate guidelines. Based on the responses for the HCS, we hypothesized that changes in the distribution (unilateral or bilateral) and clinical characteristic of OLP, and habits of patients, have a significant bearing on the clinical and final diagnoses of the lesion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. ESO Imaging Survey. The Stellar Catalogue in the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Groenewegen, M A T; Hatziminaoglou, E; Benoist, C; Olsen, L F; Costa, L; Arnouts, S; Madejsky, R; Mignani, R P; Rité, C; Sikkema, G; Slijkhuis, R; Vandame, B

    2002-01-01

    (abridged) Stellar catalogues in five passbands (UBVRI) over an area of approximately 0.3 deg^2, comprising about 1200 objects, and in seven passbands (UBVRIJK) over approximately 0.1 deg^2, comprising about 400 objects, in the direction of the Chandra Deep Field South are presented. The 90% completeness level of the number counts is reached at approximately U = 23.8, B = 24.0, V = 23.5, R = 23.0, I = 21.0, J = 20.5, K = 19.0. A scheme is presented to select point sources from these catalogues, by combining the SExtractor parameter CLASS_STAR from all available passbands. Probable QSOs and unresolved galaxies are identified by using the previously developed \\chi^2-technique (Hatziminaoglou et al 2002), that fits the overall spectral energy distributions to template spectra and determines the best fitting template. The observed number counts, colour-magnitude diagrams, colour-colour diagrams and colour distributions are presented and, to judge the quality of the data, compared to simulations based on the predi...

  18. Status Review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, J.F.; Kuletz, K.J.; Burger, A.E.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Friesen, V.L.; Birt, T.P.; Arimitsu, M.L.; Drew, G.S.; Harding, A.M.A.; Bixler, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    central population is limited and it requires additional study. Compiling available abundance information, we estimated that in the recent past, Marbled Murrelets in Alaska numbered on the order of 1 million birds. We were unable to generate a similar estimate for historical population size in British Columbia. Using trend information from at-sea surveys spanning a wide geographic range in Alaska, murrelet numbers declined significantly at five of eight trend sites at annual rates of -5.4 to -12.7 percent since the early 1990s. Applying these rates of decline to the historical population estimate, the current murrelet population in Alaska is projected to be on the order of 270,000 birds. This represents an overall population decline of about 70 percent during the past 25 years. In British Columbia, available trend data indicate that murrelet populations there have experienced similar declines. We updated a recent (2002) population estimate for British Columbia, concluding that there are now between 54,000 and 92,000 murrelets in British Columbia. The rates of decline we observed are within, but at the high end of, a range of rates expected by chance. Given that declines were estimated for sites over essentially the entire northern range of the species, there is cause for concern about the species? status. In their marine habitats, Marbled Murrelets overlap with salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) gillnetting operations in British Columbia and in Alaska (especially in Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska), and annual bycatch mortality is likely in the low thousands per year, although bycatch rates are difficult to measure. The species? inshore distribution coincides with high levels of vessel traffic and makes them especially vulnerable to both chronic oil pollution and to catastrophic spills (e.g., the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill [EVOS] in south-central Alaska, which is estimated to have killed 12,000 to 15,000 murrelets). In their forested nesting habitats, Marbled Murrelets

  19. Contraception use and pregnancy among 15–24 year old South African women: a nationally representative cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoe Sophie

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent reproductive health has not continued to receive the attention it deserves since the start of the HIV epidemic. In South Africa, high numbers of adolescent women report pregnancies that are unwanted and yet few have accessed available termination of pregnancy services. Enabling contraception use is vital for meeting the goals of HIV prevention. Methods A nationally representative survey of South African 15–24 year olds was undertaken. Participants completed a questionnaire on sexual behaviour and provided an oral fluid sample for HIV testing. Analysis of the data was restricted to women (n = 6217, particularly those who reported being sexual active in the last 12 months (n = 3618 and was conducted using svy methods in the program STATA 8.0 to take account of sampling methods. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to explore factors associated with contraceptive use. Results Two thirds of all women reported having ever been sexually active and among these 87% were sexually active in the past 12 months. Among women who reported currently being sexually active, 52.2% reported using contraceptives. There was evidence of association between contraceptive use and being employed or a student (vs unemployed; fewer sex partners; type of last sex partner; having talked to last partner about condom use and having ever been pregnant. Conclusion Specific emphasis must be placed on encouraging young women to use contraceptive methods that offer protection against pregnancy and STIs/HIV. Our consistent finding of a relationship between discussing condom use with partners and condom use indicates the importance of involvement of male partners in women's contraceptive decisions.

  20. A survey of the domiciliary situation of urban and rural patients of a palliative care unit in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramu Kandasamy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A demographic study was conducted to understand the social status of the urban and rural patients attending a palliative care unit in South India. Methods: Fifty rural and 50 urban patients attending the palliative care outpatient clinic of the Christian Medical College and Hospital, South India were prospectively surveyed using a structured interview and home visits. Parameters studied included age, gender, marital status, education, occupation, religion, caste, housing, economic status, diagnosis, distance to the nearest health resource personnel and hospitals. Results: Occupation, religion, caste, housing, electricity, toilet and accessibility to health care were found to be significantly different between urban and rural patients. Seventy percent of the patients were below 60 years of age. The majority were unskilled laborers or housewives. One-third had never been to school and only 3% had been educated beyond high school. Half the patients slept on the floor, 50% of the dwellings had only one or two rooms and did not have toilets or running water. Ninety-five percent had electricity. The economic status of the patients correlated significantly with age, occupation and facilities in the house such as number of rooms, availability of beds, toilets and water supply. Women and older patients were significantly less likely to have completed school education. Women were less likely to be the main decision-makers and more likely to be the main caregivers. Conclusion: Economic status was a strong predictor of the various facilities available to the patient. A significant proportion of this population lived in deprived circumstances. A knowledge and understanding of the social conditions of the palliative care patients helps provide better-tailored care.

  1. PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF RODENTS IN TWO TRANSMIGRATION SCHEMES IN SOUTH SUMATRA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Boo Liat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini merupakan sebagian dari survey biomedis yang dilakukan di daerah transmigrasi Baturaja-Martapura (Sumatera Selatan dan Mulyorejo, Way Abung III Lampung pada bulan September dan Oktober 1977. Tikus2 liar ditangkap dan dipelajari untuk mengetahui peranannya sebagai penyebar penyakit. R.r. diardii merupakan spesies yang lebih banyak ditemukan didaerah perumahan dikedua daerah transmigrasi tersebut. Hasil pemeriksaan parasitologis menunjukkan bahwa pengerahan spesies ini tidak terbatas didaerah perumahan saja. Diladang sekitar perumahan dikedua daerah tersebut R. tiomanicus lebih banyak ditemukan dari pada R. exulans dan R. argentiventer. Kertas kerja ini menyimpulkan bahwa dengan adanya hoepes dan vektor yang tepat di daerah-daerah tersebut ada kemungkinan akan timbulnya penyakit demam semak (scrub typhus dan mungkin juga eosinophilic meningo encephalitis dikalangan para transmigrasi, selain penyakit arbovirus yang lain.

  2. PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF TRACHOMA IN 11 SELECTED VILLAGES IN SOUTH OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Modabber

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available A small clinical and serological survey to determine the prevalence and severity of trachoma was conducted in 11 Iranian villages located in the Dezful and Kazerun Areas. No evidence of severe active disease or severe squeal was found among the 389 individuals examined. Seventy-seven per cent of those examined were more than 12 years of age. The prevalence of active trachoma by clinical examination was 31% (120/389 for all subjects examined. Normal eyes were observed in 40% (156/389. The occurrence of antibody to Chlamydia in eye secretions tested by immunofluorescence was infrequent. Only 6% (9/146 were positive and only 8% (5/61 were from active trachoma cases. These findings suggest that severe trachoma cases. These findings suggest that severe trachoma is rare in the population which was studied.

  3. A Survey on Ectoparasite Infestations in Companion Dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran

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    AR Alborzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in referred companion dogs to veterinary hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, from 2009 to 2010.Methods: A total of 126 dogs were sampled for ectoparasites and examined by parasitological methods. The studied animals were grouped based on the age (3 years, sex, breed and regionResults: Thirty six out of 126 referred dogs (28.57% were positive for external ectoparasites. The most common ectoparasites were Heterodoxus spinigera, which were recorded on 11 dogs (8.73%. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Sarcoptes scabiei, Otodectes cynotis, Xenopsylla cheopis, Cetenocephalides canis, Cetenocephalides felis, Hip­pobosca sp. and myiasis (L3 of Lucilia sp. were identified on 9 (7.14%, 7 (5.56%, 6 (4.76%, 3 (2.38%, 3 (2.38%, 2 (1.59%, 2 (1.59% and one (0.79% of the studied dogs respectively. Mixed infestation with two species of ectoparasites was recorded on 8 (6.35%. Prevalence was higher in male dogs (35.82%; 24 out of 67 than females (20.34%; 12 out of 59, age above 3 years (31.81%; 7 out of 22 and in the season of winter (30.95%; 13 out of 42, but the difference was not significant regarding to host gender, age and season (P>0.05.Conclusion: Apparently this is the first study conducted in companion dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran. Our results indicated that lice and ticks were the most common ectoparasites in dogs of this area. The zoonotic nature of some ectoparasites can be regard as a public health alert

  4. Determinants of Obesity and Associated Population Attributability, South Africa: Empirical Evidence from a National Panel Survey, 2008-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benn Sartorius

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor for emerging non-communicable diseases (NCDS in middle income countries including South Africa (SA. Understanding the multiple and complex determinants of obesity and their true population attributable impact is critical for informing and developing effective prevention efforts using scientific based evidence. This study identified contextualised high impact factors associated with obesity in South Africa.Analysis of three national cross sectional (repeated panel surveys, using a multilevel logistic regression and population attributable fraction estimation allowed for identification of contextualised high impact factors associated with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2 among adults (15 years+.Obesity prevalence increased significantly from 23.5% in 2008 to 27.2% in 2012, with a significantly (p-value<0.001 higher prevalence among females (37.9% in 2012 compared to males (13.3% in 2012. Living in formal urban areas, white ethnicity, being married, not exercising and/or in higher socio-economic category were significantly associated with male obesity. Females living in formal or informal urban areas, higher crime areas, African/White ethnicity, married, not exercising, in a higher socio-economic category and/or living in households with proportionate higher spending on food (and unhealthy food options were significantly more likely to be obese. The identified determinants appeared to account for 75% and 43% of male and female obesity respectively. White males had the highest relative gain in obesity from 2008 to 2012.The rising prevalence of obesity in South Africa is significant and over the past 5 years the rising prevalence of Type-2 diabetes has mirrored this pattern, especially among females. Targeting young adolescent girls should be a priority. Addressing determinants of obesity will involve a multifaceted strategy and requires at individual and population levels. With rising costs in the private and public sector to

  5. Verification survey report of the south waste tank farm training/test tower and hazardous waste storage lockers at the West Valley demonstration project, West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Phyllis C.

    2012-08-29

    A team from ORAU's Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program performed verification survey activities on the South Test Tower and four Hazardous Waste Storage Lockers. Scan data collected by ORAU determined that both the alpha and alpha-plus-beta activity was representative of radiological background conditions. The count rate distribution showed no outliers that would be indicative of alpha or alpha-plus-beta count rates in excess of background. It is the opinion of ORAU that independent verification data collected support the site?s conclusions that the South Tower and Lockers sufficiently meet the site criteria for release to recycle and reuse.

  6. CREEK Project's Internal Creek Habitat Survey for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: January 1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  7. High resolution seismic survey, Pen Branch Fault, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkman, E. (Emerald Exploration Consultants, Inc., Austin, TX (United States))

    1991-04-01

    An investigation of the Pen Branch Fault at the Savannah River Site by a series of short, high resolution seismic reflection lines was conducted. The purpose was to acquire, process, and interpret 19.9 miles of data, optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata, in sufficient density such that processing performed in the conventional stepwise approach, followed by detailed interpretation, would define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the fault leading to definition of the location of the fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. The depth of optimization for the last two lines was modified to the 300 ft of geologic strata immediately above basement. Three older seismic surveys, other geophysical data, and associated borehole and geologic data were reviewed. The equipment and the acquisition, processing, and interpretation procedures are discussed in the report. The report includes a detailed line by line description and discussion of the interpretation. Figures include reference maps, contour displays of the stacking and interval velocities, diagrammatic references sketches of the interpreted layering and sedimentary features, index sketches, and specific color prints made on the workstation during the course of the interpretation. A volume of manuals on seismic devices and related equipment is included.

  8. High resolution seismic survey, Pen Branch Fault, Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkman, E. [Emerald Exploration Consultants, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1991-04-01

    An investigation of the Pen Branch Fault at the Savannah River Site by a series of short, high resolution seismic reflection lines was conducted. The purpose was to acquire, process, and interpret 19.9 miles of data, optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata, in sufficient density such that processing performed in the conventional stepwise approach, followed by detailed interpretation, would define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the fault leading to definition of the location of the fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. The depth of optimization for the last two lines was modified to the 300 ft of geologic strata immediately above basement. Three older seismic surveys, other geophysical data, and associated borehole and geologic data were reviewed. The equipment and the acquisition, processing, and interpretation procedures are discussed in the report. The report includes a detailed line by line description and discussion of the interpretation. Figures include reference maps, contour displays of the stacking and interval velocities, diagrammatic references sketches of the interpreted layering and sedimentary features, index sketches, and specific color prints made on the workstation during the course of the interpretation. A volume of manuals on seismic devices and related equipment is included.

  9. Health literacy and barriers to health information seeking: A nationwide survey in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seok Hee; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2016-11-01

    To identify the level of health literacy and barriers to information seeking and to explore the predictors of health literacy. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. A total of 1000 Korean adults were recruited through proportional quota sampling. Health literacy, barriers to health information seeking, sociodemographics, and health-related characteristics were surveyed. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were performed for data analysis. About 61% of participants were classified as inadequately health literate. "No health fairs/activities near home" was the most frequently reported barrier. Older age, lower education, living in the capital city, barriers regarding how to get information and access to expensive books and magazines were predictors of inadequate health literacy. Strategies for improving health literacy and reducing barriers to health information seeking should be designed. Education on how to access health-related information with easily accessible sources either free or inexpensive could be a way to help adults with limited health literacy. Health care professionals should assess clients' health literacy levels, particularly amongst those who are older or have less education. They should provide clients with information on how to access credible and readily available sources of health-related information, considering their health literacy level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Galaxy Populations in the 26 most massive Galaxy Clusters in the South Pole Telescope SZE Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Zenteno, A; Desai, S; Stalder, B; Saro, A; Dietrich, J P; Bayliss, M; Bocquet, S; Chiu, I; Gonzalez, A H; Gangkofner, C; Gupta, N; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; McDonald, M; Reichardt, C; Rest, A

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the optical properties of the 26 most massive galaxy clusters selected within the SPT-SZ 2500 deg$^2$ survey. This Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect selected sample spans a redshift range of 0.10 < z < 1.13. We measure the galaxy radial profile, the luminosity function (LF), and the halo occupation number (HON) using optical data with a typical depth of $m^*$ + 2. The stacked radial profiles are consistent with a NFW profile with a concentration of $2.84^{+0.40}_{-0.37}$ for the red sequence (RS) and $2.36^{+0.38}_{-0.35}$ for the total population. Stacking the data in multiple redshift bins shows a hint of redshift evolution in the concentration when both the total population is used, and when only RS galaxies are used (at 2.1$\\sigma$ and 2.8$\\sigma$, respectively). The stacked LF shows a faint end slope $\\alpha = -1.06^{+0.04}_{-0.03}$ for the total and $\\alpha = -0.80^{+0.04}_{-0.03}$ for the RS population. The redshift evolution of $m^*$ is found to be consistent with a passively evolv...

  11. Surface-sediment grain-size data from the mouth of the Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the USGS data release presents sediment grain-size data from samples collected from the mouth of the Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, in 2013....

  12. NEUROEPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY FOR EPILEPSY AND KNOWLEDGE ABOUT NEUROCYSTICIERCOSIS AT SIDWADWENI LOCATION, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega E

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine the prevalence of epilepsy and to screening knowledge about neurocysiticercosis (NCC and HIV/AIDS in adult population of one South Africa rural community. Setting: Sidwadweni community, at 30 km away from Umtata (Capital of the former Transkei. Design: A two-stage design study was used. The first stage involved screening of the general population on door-to-door basis by interviewing peoples living in 100 household selected by block-randomisation procedure using an internationally validated questionnaire for detecting epilepsy and knowledge about some associated diseases. The second stage consisted of a neurological assessment of the peoples who screened positive. Results: A total of adults were screened. The prevalence of active epilepsy among adult population was 3.6/1000, and 4.7/1000 in children. Most of epileptic patients were not under regular anti-epileptic treatment, 87% of the total population had not idea about NCC, but only 10% did not know the cause of AIDS. Conclusions: The prevalence of epilepsy is not very high compared with a similar community but a poor utilization of anti-epileptic treatment is cause for concern. Traditional belief’s roots on this community are considerably deep. HIV/AIDS awareness campaign for Sidwadweni is functional, and a similar campaign for prevention of NCC should be performed while permanent solutions are implemented. RESUMEN: ENCUESTA NEUROEPIDEMIOLOGICA SOBRE EPILEPSIA Y EL CONOCIMIENTO DE LA NEUROCISTICIERCOSIS EN SIDWADWENI, ÁFRICA DEL SUR Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de epilepsia y los conocimientos generales que tiene la poblacion sobre neurocisticercosis y SIDA en la población adulta de una comunidad rural en Sudáfrica, Lugar: Comunidad de Sidwadweni situada a 30 kms de Umtata, la antigua capital del Transkei. Provincia de Easten Cape, Sudáfrica. Diseño: Se realizo el estudio en dos etapas, la primera consistio en una encuesta realizada puerta a puerta en 100

  13. STELLAR MASSES FROM THE CANDELS SURVEY: THE GOODS-SOUTH AND UDS FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, P.; Fontana, A.; Castellano, M.; Grazian, A.; Amorin, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Roma (Italy); Ferguson, H. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mobasher, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Barro, G. [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Finkelstein, S. L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hsu, L. T.; Salvato, M.; Wuyts, S.; Galametz, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Lee, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Lee, S.-K. [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pforr, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, 950 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Wiklind, T. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Almaini, O. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Cooper, M. C. [Center for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Weiner, B., E-mail: paola.santini@oa-roma.inaf.it [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others

    2015-03-10

    We present the public release of the stellar mass catalogs for the GOODS-S and UDS fields obtained using some of the deepest near-IR images available, achieved as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey project. We combine the effort from 10 different teams, who computed the stellar masses using the same photometry and the same redshifts. Each team adopted their preferred fitting code, assumptions, priors, and parameter grid. The combination of results using the same underlying stellar isochrones reduces the systematics associated with the fitting code and other choices. Thanks to the availability of different estimates, we can test the effect of some specific parameters and assumptions on the stellar mass estimate. The choice of the stellar isochrone library turns out to have the largest effect on the galaxy stellar mass estimates, resulting in the largest distributions around the median value (with a semi interquartile range larger than 0.1 dex). On the other hand, for most galaxies, the stellar mass estimates are relatively insensitive to the different parameterizations of the star formation history. The inclusion of nebular emission in the model spectra does not have a significant impact for the majority of galaxies (less than a factor of 2 for ∼80% of the sample). Nevertheless, the stellar mass for the subsample of young galaxies (age <100 Myr), especially in particular redshift ranges (e.g., 2.2 < z < 2.4, 3.2 < z < 3.6, and 5.5 < z < 6.5), can be seriously overestimated (by up to a factor of 10 for <20 Myr sources) if nebular contribution is ignored.

  14. Library Resources in the Mid-Hudson Valley: Columbia, Dutchess, Greene, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Sullivan, Ulster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Felix; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to "survey the library resources in the eight Mid-Hudson Counties of Columbia, Dutchess, Greene, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Sullivan, and Ulster in order to develop a plan of service in which assets would be shared, resources developed, and services extended." Survey data were collected by six questionnaires;…

  15. Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Malaria by Sidama People of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Asnake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, malaria control has been complicated due to resistance of the parasite to the current drugs. Thus, new drugs are required against drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Historically, many of the present antimalarial drugs were discovered from plants. This study was, therefore, conducted to document antimalarial plants utilized by Sidama people of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out from September 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected through semistructured interview and field and market observations. Relative frequency of citation (RFC was calculated and preference ranking exercises were conducted to estimate the importance of the reported medicinal plants in Boricha District. A total of 42 antimalarial plants belonging to 27 families were recorded in the study area. Leaf was the dominant plant part (59.0% used in the preparation of remedies and oral (97.4% was the major route of administration. Ajuga integrifolia scored the highest RFC value (0.80. The results of this study revealed the existence of rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the study area to treat malaria. Thus, an attempt should be made to conserve and evaluate the claimed antimalarial medicinal plants with priority given to those that scored the highest RFC values.

  16. THE VERY LARGE ARRAY 1.4 GHz SURVEY OF THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: SECOND DATA RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Neal A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bonzini, Margherita; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Padovani, Paolo; Rosati, Piero [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Fomalont, Edward B.; Kellermann, Kenneth I. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Tozzi, Paolo; Vattakunnel, Shaji, E-mail: nmiller@astro.umd.edu [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    Deep radio observations at 1.4 GHz for the Extended Chandra Deep Field South were performed in 2007 June through September and presented in a first data release. The survey was made using six separate pointings of the Very Large Array with over 40 hr of observation per pointing. In the current paper, we improve on the data reduction to produce a second data release (DR2) mosaic image. This DR2 image covers an area of about a third of a square degree, reaches a best rms sensitivity of 6 {mu}Jy, and has a typical sensitivity of 7.4 {mu}Jy per 2.''8 by 1.''6 beam. We also present a more comprehensive catalog, including sources down to peak flux densities of five or more times the local rms noise along with information on source sizes and relevant pointing data. We discuss in some detail the consideration of whether sources are resolved under the complication of a radio image created as a mosaic of separate pointings each suffering some degree of bandwidth smearing, and the accurate evaluation of the flux densities of such sources. Finally, the radio morphologies and optical/near-IR counterpart identifications are used to identify 17 likely multiple-component sources and arrive at a catalog of 883 radio sources, which is roughly double the number of sources contained in the first data release.

  17. Findings of the wetland survey of the David Witherspoon, Inc., 1630 Site, South Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR Environmental, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    In accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Regulations surveys for wetland presence or absence were conducted in September 1996 on the DWI-1630 site (Witherspoon Landfill) located in South Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee. The DWI-1630 site includes a closed, capped landfill area, areas of past disturbance adjacent to the capped area, and patches of hardwood forest. Wetlands were identified on the landfill cap and in a small bottomland that was formerly used for a retention pond in the southwest corner of the DWI-1630 site. The wetlands identified on the cap are man-induced, atypical situation wetlands. These areas have hydrophytic vegetation and wetland hydrology, but the soils do not have hydric characteristics. Wetland development appears to be due to a combination of the grading or subsidence of the clay landfill cap, the low permeability of the clay fill soil, and the absence of surface drainage outlets from the depressions. These atypical situation wetland areas may not be considered by the US Army Corps of Engineers or the State of Tennessee to be jurisdictional wetlands. The wetland in the former retention pond area has hydrophytic vegetation, wetland hydrology, and hydric soils and is a jurisdictional wetland.

  18. The VLA 1.4GHz Survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: Second Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, N A; Fomalont, E B; Kellermann, K I; Mainieri, V; Padovani, P; Rosati, P; Tozzi, P; Vattakunnel, S

    2013-01-01

    Deep radio observations at 1.4GHz for the Extended Chandra Deep Field South were performed in June through September of 2007 and presented in a first data release (Miller et al. 2008). The survey was made using six separate pointings of the Very Large Array (VLA) with over 40 hours of observation per pointing. In the current paper, we improve on the data reduction to produce a second data release (DR2) mosaic image. This DR2 image covers an area of about a third of a square degree and reaches a best rms sensitivity of 6 uJy and has a typical sensitivity of 7.4 uJy per 2.8" by 1.6" beam. We also present a more comprehensive catalog, including sources down to peak flux densities of five or more times the local rms noise along with information on source sizes and relevant pointing data. We discuss in some detail the consideration of whether sources are resolved under the complication of a radio image created as a mosaic of separate pointings each suffering some degree of bandwidth smearing, and the accurate eval...

  19. Malaria survey and malaria control detachments in the South-West Pacific Area in World War 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Denton W

    2009-01-01

    Malaria among troops in the South-West Pacific Area (SWPA) in World War 2 affected the military effort to the degree that special units were formed to combat it. These malaria survey detachments (MSDs) and malaria control detachments (MCDs) were self-contained and so could move quickly to wherever their services were needed. In SWPA by 25 September 1944 there were 32 MSDs and 65 MCDs. Tables of organization called for 11 enlisted men in MSDs and MCDs, two officers in MSDs and one in MCDs. Detachments served throughout the SWPA. Detailed records of the 31st MSD show that in addition to antimalarial efforts it worked at control of scrub typhus, dengue and venereal disease, at reduction of rat populations and in experimental work involving DDT and schistosomiasis. Specific locations of the 31st MSD were New Guinea (3 sites), Morotai, Leyte, Mindoro, Okinawa and Japan. The detachment served overseas for 21 months. Experience in combating malaria in SWPA in World War 2 points to the need for better and continuous training of both medical and line officers in malaria prevention and control.

  20. The black hole - bulge mass relation of Active Galactic Nuclei in the Extended Chandra Deep Field - South Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, Malte

    2012-01-01

    We present results from a study to determine whether relations, established in the local Universe, between the mass of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies are in place at higher redshifts. We establish a well-constructed sample of 18 X-ray-selected, broad-line Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South - Survey with 0.5 < z < 1.2. This redshift range is chosen to ensure that HST imaging is available with at least two filters that bracket the 4000 Angstrom break thus providing reliable stellar mass estimates of the host galaxy by accounting for both young and old stellar populations. We compute single-epoch, virial black hole masses from optical spectra using the broad MgII emission line. For essentially all galaxies in our sample, their total stellar mass content agrees remarkably well, given their BH masses, with local relations of inactive galaxies and active SMBHs. We further decompose the total stellar mass into bulge and disk components separately wit...

  1. An LC-MS/MS based survey of contaminants of emerging concern in drinking water in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan Odendaal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Advances in many analytical techniques allow the detection of compounds in water at very low concentrations (ng/L, which has facilitated the identification of many compounds in drinking water that went previously undetected. Some of these compounds are contaminants of emerging concern (CECs, which is broadly defined as any chemical or microorganism that is not currently being routinely monitored but has recently been identified as being present in the environment, and that may pose health or ecological risks. CECs can include pharmaceuticals, personal health care products and pesticides. Some CECs can act as endocrine disruptors, interfering with the normal functioning of the human endocrine system, potentially influencing foetal and child development. Although the level of many of these compounds are orders of magnitude below known acute toxicity levels, the health impact of long term exposure at low levels is mostly unknown. In this study, we present the results of a national survey over four seasons of potential CECs in the drinking water of major South African cities. The contaminants most often detected were the related herbicides atrazine and terbuthylazine, and the anticonvulsant and mood-stabilising drug, carbamazepine. The levels of these CECs were well below maximum levels proposed by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. However, the range of CECs detected in drinking water, and seasonal and geographic variability in CECs levels, warrant a more frequent screening programme.

  2. A survey of digital radiography practice in four South African teaching hospitals: an illuminative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyathi, T; Chirwa, TF; van der Merwe, DG

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess radiographer familiarity and preferences with digital radiography in four teaching hospitals and thereafter make recommendations in line with the migration from screen film to digital radiography. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was designed to collect data from either qualified or student radiographers from four teaching hospitals. From the four teaching hospitals, there were a total of 205 potential respondents. Among other things, responses regarding experiences and preferences with digital radiography, quality control procedures, patient dose, advantages and disadvantages of digital radiography were sought. The information collected was based on self-reporting by the participants. The study is exploratory in nature and descriptive statistics were generated from the collected data using Microsoft Excel 2007 and StatsDirect software. Results: Sixty-three out of 205 (31%) radiographers from all the four radiology centers responded to the circulated questionnaire. Only 15% (8) of the qualified radiographers had 4 or more years of experience with digital radiography compared to 68% (36) for the same amount of experience with screen-film radiography. Sixty-one percent (38) of the participants had been exposed to digital radiography during their lectures while at university. A small proportion, 16% (10) of the respondents underwent formal training in quality control procedures on the digital X-ray units they were using. Slightly more than half (55%) of the participants felt it was easier for them to retake an image in digital radiography than in screen film radiography. Conclusion: The results of this survey showed that the participants are familiar with digital radiography and have embraced this relatively new technology as shown by the fact that they can identify both its advantages and disadvantages as applied to clinical practice. However, there are minimal quality control procedures specific to digital

  3. Painted Bunting Breeding Bird Survey trends associated with landscape changes in Georgia and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Landscape changes during the first 3 decades of the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) may account for the Painted Bunting's declining population trend. In the southeastern U.S., it is estimated that this bunting has declined 3.5 % per year since 1966. I collected landscape data centered on identical 5-stop areas (n = 33, 306 ha each) of the BBS during early (1960s - 1970s) and late decades (1980s - 1990s). Peak 30-yr counts for Painted Buntings were found at the center of the 5-stop areas. I used stepwise multiple regression analysis to model the mean number of Painted Buntings (in the area during 3 yr, dependent variable) associated with landscape metrics (independent variables). During the early decades the average amount of edge on developed land (p = 0.10), average patch size of agriculture land (p = 0.01), average size of shrub-scrub and young forest (p = 0.09), and average amount of edge for emergent wetlands (p = 0.03) explained 40% of the variation in Painted Buntings counts. In the late decades average amount of edge on developed land (p = 0.04) and average amount of edge on emergent wetlands (p = 0.005) explained 35% of the variation in Painted Bunting counts. Large losses of agricultural land (proportion = 0.177 to 0.094), which was developed or converted to intensively managed pin plantations, may have reduced potential bunting breeding habitat. Shrub-scrub and young forest habitat was constant (proportion = 0.136 to 0.134) but did not affect mean counts of buntings in the late decades. Protected emergent wetlands remained constnat also from the early to late decades (proportion = 0.056 to 0.06) and may provide habitat to maintain a smaller Painted Bunting population. At this time, it's unclear how develped land, which is increasing (proportion = 0.036 to 0.088), may be affecting the Painted Bunting population in GS and SC.

  4. A survey of women seeking termination of pregnancy in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, P L; Frommer, M S; Weisberg, E

    1995-10-16

    The directors of 11 family planning clinics agreed to participate in a 6-week survey in late 1992. Clinic staff were asked to complete a questionnaire that covered demographic information, gestation, parity, previous termination, and intention to submit a Medicare claim for the procedure. The response rate was 94%. A total of 2406 questionnaires were received and 2249 were left for analysis. 59% of the respondents were from the Sydney metropolitan area. Women in their 20s accounted for 54% of all terminations and teenagers accounted for 17%. 1256 (56%) of the women were single and, of these, 875 women (70%) were under the age of 25. 735 women (33%) were married, 100 women (4%) were divorced, and 148 women (7%) were separated. With regard to educational status, 1099 women (49%) had a university, college, or technical education and 1105 women (49%) had reached high school. 53% of women had reached levels beyond high school. 1491 women stated a religious preference. The most common religions were: Protestant (811 women or 36%), Catholic (579 women or 26%), and Eastern religions (69 women or 3%). 1295 women (58%) were having their first pregnancy termination. Overall, 919 women (41%) had had one or more abortions and 587 women aged 25-39 (54%) had had a previous abortion. Women in the 35-39 year age group were most likely to have had a previous abortion (115 women; 60%). The most frequently listed factor for abortion given by 60% was financial concerns. Younger women were more likely to cite youth, career, single parenthood, and changes in life style as the reasons for terminating their pregnancy. Women over 30 were more likely to cite completed family. 123 respondents cited additional factors: child spacing, being too old, and a pregnancy too early in the relationship. 2117 women (95%) had a Medicare card, of whom 83% intended to claim a refund for the termination. 116 women (11%) in the 15-24 year age group and 92 women (8%) over 25 years of age reported that they

  5. Joint orientation measurements in Western Alberta and British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. SCHEIDEGGER

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Joint orientations were measured in the mountains of Western Alberta
    and British Columbia. These were then evaluated statistically according
    to the standard method of Kohlbeck and Scheidegger. If the bisectrices
    of the preferred joint orientations are interpreted as principal directions
    of the neotectonic stress field, the maximum compression in the latter
    is found to be from NE-SW (in the South to NNE-SSW (in the North.
    This agrees well with data regarding the neotectonic intraplate stresses
    observed from oil-well break-out data.

  6. Factors which influence the consumption of street foods and fast foods in South Africa-a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyn Nelia P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about street food and fast food consumption patterns in South Africa despite this being a large sector of the national economy in terms of employment provided and sales of food. The objective of this study was to determine the use of street foods and fast foods purchased by South Africans living in different provinces and geographic areas. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Structured interview-administered questionnaires in 11 official languages were conducted at the participants' homes. A nationally representative sample (n = 3287 was drawn from all ethnic groups, and provinces including participants 16 years and older. Logistic regression was done to evaluate factors impacting on fast food consumption. Results Frequent (2 ≥ times/week street food consumption ranged from 1.8% in Northern Cape to 20.6% in Limpopo; frequent (2 ≥ times/week fast food consumption ranged between 1.5% in North West Province to 14.7% in Gauteng. The highest intake of street food was in the medium socio-economic category (14.7% while the highest intake of fast foods was in the high socio-economic category (13.2%. Overall, fruit was the most commonly purchased street food by all ethnic groups over the previous week although this practice was highest in black participants (35.8%. Purchases of soft drinks ranged from 4.8% in whites to 16.4% in blacks and savoury snacks from 2.3% to 14.5% in whites and blacks, respectively. Consumption of fast foods and street foods were influenced by a number of socio-demographic factors including ownership of major home appliances. Frequent fast food consumers had a significantly higher dietary diversity score (4.69; p Conclusions A large percentage of the population purchase street foods and fast foods. This is of some concern when one notes the high prevalence of soft drink consumption in terms of its association with obesity and non-communicable diseases. These findings need

  7. A web-based survey of horse owners' perceptions and network analysis of horse movements relating to African horse sickness distribution in Namibia and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, Danica; Piketh, Stuart; van Hamburg, Huib

    2016-06-01

    Africa horse sickness (AHS) is the most lethal infectious non-contagious horse disease and has accordingly been declared notifiable by the World Organisation for Animal Health. AHS is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and causes considerable losses to the equestrian industry. The effect of diseases in livestock on socio-economic factors is well researched, but the effect of anthropogenic factors on the distribution of a disease is poorly understood. The purpose of the study was to assess Namibian and South African horse owners' perceptions and the effect of horse movement on AHS distribution. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect information from horse owners in Namibia and South Africa. To that end 'Fluid survey' was used for survey development. The survey was launched on Facebook and the link shared to horse related focus groups in Namibia and South Africa. A total of 508 responses were collected during the survey period. Of the 417 completed questionnaires received, 22% were from Namibia and 78% from South Africa. The participants comprised of 71% social and 29% professional riders. The most popular precautionary measures used, in addition to vaccination, were chemical repellents (64%) and stabling of horses during dusk and dawn (59%). A network analysis was performed in Gephi 0.8.2.B to illustrate the movement of horses between countries and districts/provinces. Network analysis results indicate that areas with the highest movement of horses corresponded to the areas with a high occurrence of AHS. Although 93% of the participants were aware that AHS is a notifiable and controlled disease, the process and efficiency of reporting is mostly unknown. With this snapshot of horse owners' perceptions and the effect of horse movement on the distribution of AHS, it is clear that a more holistic approach is needed. To that end, all environmental and social factors must be taken into account in effective management strategies.

  8. Caribou in British Columbia: A 1996 status report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Heard

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus in British Columbia are classified into mountain, northern and boreal ecotypes based on behavioural and ecological characteristics. We recognized 12 mountain caribou herds, 27 northern caribou herds, and an area occupied by low density boreal caribou dispersed in the boreal forests of the northeast portion of the province. Abundance estimates were usually based on attempts at total counts made from the air. Trends were based on repeated population estimates or the difference between recruitment and mortality rates for each herd. In 1996 there were approximately 18 000 caribou in British Columbia; 2300 mountain and 15 600 northern and boreal. These estimates suggest a slight increase in the numbers of both ecotypes over the last 18 years. Fifteen percent of the herds were reportedly increasing, 10% were decreasing, 31% were stable, but for 44% of the herds the trend was unknown. Historically caribou were found throughout 8 of the 14 biogeoclimatic zones in B.C. Caribou are now rarely found in the Sub-Boreal Spruce zone, likely due to increased predation from wolves that increased in response to increasing moose numbers. Ranges of several herds in the Engelmann Spruce — Subalpine Fir and Alpine Tundra zones of south-eastern British Columbia are also reduced relative to historic conditions, probably because of habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, predation and hunting. Forest harvesting represents the greatest threat to caribou habitat and current research focuses on the mitigation of forest harvesting impacts.

  9. Columbia River Component Data Evaluation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.S. Cearlock

    2006-08-02

    The purpose of the Columbia River Component Data Compilation and Evaluation task was to compile, review, and evaluate existing information for constituents that may have been released to the Columbia River due to Hanford Site operations. Through this effort an extensive compilation of information pertaining to Hanford Site-related contaminants released to the Columbia River has been completed for almost 965 km of the river.

  10. Update of Columbia River flow and temperature data measured at Priest Rapids Dam and Vernita Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, G.; Newbill, C.A.

    1983-09-01

    Columbia River temperatures and flow rates are collected daily at Priest Rapids Dam and Vernita Bridge. These data are necessary for assessing trends or changes in river conditions downstream of Priest Rapids Dam. In order to analyze this data, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a computerized data base using existing US Geological Survey flow and temperature records at Priest Rapids Dam and Vernita Bridge. Daily-averaged temperature and daily flow information on the Columbia River just downstream of Priest Rapids Dam and upstream of river mile 380 were collected and stored in a data base. A newly developed computer model, COLSTAT (Columbia River Statistical Update), used the data base to statistically analyze temperature and flow conditions by computing the frequency of occurrence and duration of selected temperatures and flow rates for the Columbia River. Information regarding the data base is presented, as well as, a description of the COLSTAT model.

  11. 77 FR 74781 - Safety Zones; Columbia Grain and United Grain Corporation Facilities; Columbia and Willamette Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Columbia Grain and United Grain.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing temporary safety zones around the Columbia Grain facility on the Willamette River in Portland, OR, and the United Grain Corporation facility on the Columbia River in...

  12. Survey of reefs based on Landsat 8 operational land imager (OLI) images in the Nansha Islands, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yuewei; LIU Yongxue; LI Manchun; ZHOU Minxi; YANG Yuhao

    2016-01-01

    A detailed survey of the reefs in the Nansha Islands’ sea that are of strategic importance is conducive to their future development. In this study, a total of 50 Landsat 8 operational land imager (OLI) images were used to analyze the geological features and spectral characteristics of the Nansha reefs. The exposed islands/sandbanks, reef flats and sub-tidal reefs were identified with the near-infrared band, the red and green bands, and the blue band, respectively. Based on the relationships among various characteristics and bands illustrated in the OLI images, the maximum between-cluster variance threshold algorithm (OTSU method) and the mathematical morphology were employed to extract characteristic parameters of the spatial geometry of the reefs from top to bottom, which were subsequently operated by a series of post-processing methods such as vectorization, simplification and topological analysis. Among the 132 standalone reefs and 16 atolls that are identified in the study, four reefs have yet to be named in the Standard Names of Various Islands in the South China Sea and the website Nansha Islands Online (http://www.nansha.org/). Another 24 ones are exposed to the atmosphere even during high tides. Taiping Island with an area of 0.57 km2 represents the largest exposed geological feature. This study demonstrated the applicability of medium-resolution satellite images to derive the coral reef information effectively and thus provided information for the related departments that are responsible to manage the coast. An improved resolution of multispectral bands with the panchromatic band in higher spatial resolution (15 m for OLI image) is expected to provide an optimum satellite based approach to map marine habitats.

  13. Dealing with bioethical dilemmas: A survey and analysis of responses from ministers in the Reformed Churches in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena (Leentie C. de Lange

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advancements in Bioethics have been rapid and incremental, leaving little time for Christian ethicists to reflect or develop a coherent methodological approach. To assess the situation in the Reformed Churches in South Africa (RCSA, a bioethical questionnaire was developed and administered during the synod in 2009. Three practical questions served as point of departure, viz. which bioethical issues confronted ministers in their work environment, which value judgement trends are evident when counselling members of their congregations and what theoretical frameworks or resources do they call upon when reflecting on these difficult situations? The survey consisted of 19 questions with several subquestions that sought demographic information to determine the population and information about bioethical issues confronting them, methodological strategies they apply and how they think they can contribute to the resolution of any such bioethical dilemmas. The results were tabulated and it was concluded that recent advancements in biotechnology cannot be ignored or dealt with in a piecemeal fashion any longer, either by the RCSA or its ministers. The need for clarity and analysis of the principles underlying those theories that guide or should guide their decision-making and pastoral care in dealing with bioethical dilemmas was emphasised. The findings highlighted the need for appropriate courses in Bioethics to be taught during initial theological training, as well as the need to keep the debate alive by offering workshops, seminars and short courses for practicing ministers to enhance awareness and allay fears and uncertainties in this very dynamic and morally challenging field of human and scientific endeavour.

  14. A survey on the beliefs and knowledge of gout management in new medical graduates; New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Matthew; Riordan, John

    2017-05-25

    To assess the beliefs and knowledge of gout management in new medical graduates. A survey on gout management was sent to new medical graduates during their orientation week, New South Wales, Australia. Of 15 hospital networks, 11 agreed to participate. From these, 168 graduates responded (23.7% response rate). Most (81.1%) felt that gout was a serious disease, 51.2% answered that they had been taught adequately to manage acute gout, only 37.2% for chronic gout. In an acute gout flare, 63.4% answered they would continue urate lowering therapy and 67.2% were aware of first-line pharmacological management options; 28% answered the correct dosing regimen for colchicine. Chronic management was answered poorly. Only 42.0% stated they would titrate allopurinol dosing to a target urate level; 23.5% would check the urate level monthly. More than half, 56.8%, were aware that medical prophylaxis is indicated when initiating urate lowering therapy. Of this subgroup, 46.7% (25.9% overall) knew that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine were recommended and 28.4% (15.4% overall) answered the correct timeframe of use. Close to one-third (35.0%), were aware of febuxostat, probenecid and benzbromarone as second-line urate lowering therapy. The findings of this study suggest that new graduates' knowledge of gout management, especially chronic management, is suboptimal. Many felt their teaching on gout management inadequate; this is a potential target for intervention. Up to date university education which covers chronic management may lead to better clinical outcomes for this burdensome disease. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. A KAP STUDY AND SURVEY OF EATING HABITS AMONG MEDICAL FACULTY AT MEDICAL COLLEGE IN SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colonel Jai Prakash (Retd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition intervention is a component of first step therapy for many common diseases including Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity and its role in health promotion, disease-prevention & treatment of chronic diseases is well recognized. Rationale: Nutrition knowledge plays an important role in public health and also interfaces significantly and relevantly with every field of medicine. However physicians’ knowledge on this issue is not very satisfactory. Objective: The objective of present study was to assess nutritional knowledge, attitude and practices pertaining to eating habits among medical faculty of a medical college of South India and also their feedback on present medical curriculum at MBBS level dealing with dietary issues. Material & Methods : It was a cross-sectional study conducted among almost all faculty members (150 participated in the study voluntarily. Faculty members were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire about KAP and dietary habits through multiple-choice questions based on balanced diet, containing a variety of food in quantities and proportion, derived from green leafy vegetables, fresh fruits, milk, curd, egg, pulse, rice and cereals. Results: Nutritional knowledge was 70 % (mean score of correct answers, 78% scored 60-80% marks & 20% scored less than 60% and majority (79.4% of them have healthy eating habits. 40% faculty members were over weight (BMI 23-24.9 and 40% were obese (BMI >25. Most of the members replied that the medical curriculum was inadequate or just adequate in dealing with the dietary issues; 68.6% of them were of the opinion that comprehensive nutrition curriculum is needed; 66% suggested a separate nutrition department. Conclusion: A total 150 members participated in the survey voluntarily. Their nutritional knowledge was found to be 70 % and majority (70.4% of them have healthy eating habit. Most of the members replied that the medical curriculum is

  16. Galaxy populations in the 26 most massive galaxy clusters in the South Pole Telescope SPT-SZ survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenteno, A.; Mohr, J. J.; Desai, S.; Stalder, B.; Saro, A.; Dietrich, J. P.; Bayliss, M.; Bocquet, S.; Chiu, I.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Gangkofner, C.; Gupta, N.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; McDonald, M.; Reichardt, C.; Rest, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present a study of the optical properties of the 26 most massive galaxy clusters within the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SPT-SZ) 2500 deg2 survey spanning the redshift range 0.10 Frenk-White profile of concentration 2.84^{+0.40}_{-0.37} for the red sequence (RS) and 2.36^{+0.38}_{-0.35} for the total population. Stacking the data in multiple redshift bins shows slight redshift evolution in the concentration when both the total population is used, and when only RS galaxies are used (at 2.1σ and 2.8σ, respectively). The stacked LF shows a faint end slope α = -1.06^{+0.04}_{-0.03} for the total and α = -0.80^{+0.04}_{-0.03} for the RS population. The redshift evolution of m* is consistent with a passively evolving composite stellar population (CSP) model. Adopting the CSP model predictions, we explore the redshift evolution of the Schechter parameters α and φ*. We find α for the total population to be consistent with no evolution (0.3σ), and mildly significant evidence of evolution for the red galaxies (1.1-2.1σ). The data show that the density φ*/E2(z) decreases with redshift, in tension with the self-similar expectation at a 2.4σ level for the total population. The measured HON-mass relation has a lower normalization than previous low redshift studies. Finally, our data support HON redshift evolution at a 2.1σ level, with clusters at higher redshift containing fewer galaxies than their low-z counterparts.

  17. Emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a border area at south-east of Iran: an epidemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fazaeli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL has been recently emerged in new foci, posing a public health problem. Increasing cases of CL have been reported during recent years from a border area between Iran and Pakistan, a previously non-endemic area. The present study was designed for epidemiological and parasitological characterization of the disease for the first time in this area.Methods: A total of 3100 individuals from the city of Mirjaveh and its four rural districts were randomly selected and surveyed from March 2005 to February 2006. Microscopic examination, in vitro culture, mouse inoculations and species-specific kDNA-PCR assay were carried out for Leishmania detection and species identification. Results: CL was endemic in an important rural district of Mirjaveh, presenting active lesions and scars in 6.6 and 9.5%, respectively. The highest rates of both active lesions and scars were found in the age group of 10 years or under with significant differences (p 0.05. The most affected location was upper limb, 39.2% of ulcers and 41.7% of scars. Inoculation of the clinical isolates on Balb/c mice, led to the development of ulcers in the animals, implying that the causative parasite is Leishmania major. The PCR amplification also generated amplicons specific to L. major.Conclusion: It can be concluded that Mirjaveh is an endemic region of cutaneous leishmaniasis as a new focus due to the recent emergence in this border area of south-east of Iran with a major contribution of L. major, as the causative parasite species.

  18. A Survey on Use of Rapid Tests and Tuberculosis Diagnostic Practices by Primary Health Care Providers in South Africa: Implications for the Development of New Point-of-Care Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davids, Malika; Dheda, Keertan; Pant Pai, Nitika; Cogill, Dolphina; Pai, Madhukar; Engel, Nora

    2015-01-01

    .... In this cross-sectional survey study, 400 primary healthcare providers in two cities in South Africa were interviewed on their use of rapid tests in general, and tuberculosis diagnostic practices...

  19. A Survey on Use of Rapid Tests and Tuberculosis Diagnostic Practices by Primary Health Care Providers in South Africa: Implications for the Development of New Point-of-Care Tests: e0141453

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malika Davids; Keertan Dheda; Nitika Pant Pai; Dolphina Cogill; Madhukar Pai; Nora Engel

    2015-01-01

    .... Methods In this cross-sectional survey study, 400 primary healthcare providers in two cities in South Africa were interviewed on their use of rapid tests in general, and tuberculosis diagnostic...

  20. Orphanhood and Completion of Compulsory School Education among Young People in South Africa: Findings from a National Representative Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; Rees, Helen; MacPhail, Catherine; Pettifor, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    We examined the association of orphanhood and completion of compulsory school education among young people in South Africa. In South Africa, school attendance is compulsory through grade 9, which should be completed before age 16. However, family and social factors such as orphanhood and poverty can hinder educational attainment. Participants were…

  1. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  2. First Results from the 7 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: A Good Hard Look at Growing Supermassive Black Holes in the Distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, William; Chandra Deep Fields Team

    2017-01-01

    Sensitive cosmic X-ray surveys with the Chandra, XMM-Newton, and now NuSTAR observatories have revolutionized our ability to find and study distant active galactic nuclei (AGNs), the main sites of supermassive black hole growth in the Universe. I will describe some recent discoveries about the demographics, physics, and ecology of distant AGNs coming from the deepest Chandra survey to date, the 7 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South. Some specific topics covered will include (1) robust X-ray spectral and variability characterization of the AGNs producing most of cosmic accretion power; (2) the demographics of AGNs in the first galaxies as revealed by direct detection and stacking; and (3) AGN/galaxy interactions as investigated via the host properties of X-ray AGNs. I will also briefly describe other remarkable discoveries coming from this survey; e.g., measurements of the evolving X-ray binary populations of normal and starburst galaxies.

  3. Integrated Curriculum Programs in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Julie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses British Columbia's integrated curriculum programs (ICPs). In this province of sea and mountains, outdoor adventures figure prominently in its ICPs--with a healthy dose of environmental and sustainability education mixed in. The author presents five examples from British Columbia's ICPs: (1) Earthquest Outdoor…

  4. Historical changes in the Columbia River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Jay, David A.; Bradford Harvey, R.; Hamilton, Peter; Simenstad, Charles A.

    Historical changes in the hydrology, sedimentology, and physical oceanography of the Columbia River Estuary have been evaluated with a combination of statistical, cartographic, and numerical-modelling techniques. Comparison of data digitized from US Coast and Geodetic Survey bathymetric surveys conducted in the periods 1867-1875, 1926-1937, and 1949-1958 reveals that large changes in the morphology of the estuary have been caused by navigational improvements (jetties, dredged channels, and pile dikes) and by the diking and filling of much of the wetland area. Lesser changes are attributable to natural shoaling and erosion. There has been roughly a 15% decrease in tidal prism and a net accumulation of about 68 × 10 6m 3 of sediment in the estuary. Large volumes of sediment have been eroded from the entrance region and deposited on the continental shelf and in the balance of the estuary, contributing to formation of new land. The bathymetric data indicate that, ignoring erosion at the entrance, 370 to 485 × 10 6m 3 of sediment has been deposited in the estuary since 1868 at an average rate of about 0.5 cm y -1, roughly 5 times the rate at which sea level has fallen locally since the turn of the century. Riverflow data indicate that the seasonal flow cycle of the Columbia River has been significantly altered by regulation and diversion of water for irrigation. The greatest changes have occurred in the last thirty years. Flow variability over periods greater than a month has been significantly damped and the net discharge has been slightly reduced. These changes in riverflow are too recent to be reflected in the available in the available bathymetric data. Results from a laterally averaged, multiple-channel, two-dimensional numerical flow model (described in HAMILTON, 1990) suggest that the changes in morphology and riverflow have reduced mixing, increased stratification, altered the response to fortnightly (neap-spring) changes in tidal forcing, and decreased the

  5. Language spoken at home and the association between ethnicity and doctor-patient communication in primary care: analysis of survey data for South Asian and White British patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Kara; Abel, Gary; Burt, Jenni

    2016-03-03

    To investigate if language spoken at home mediates the relationship between ethnicity and doctor-patient communication for South Asian and White British patients. We conducted secondary analysis of patient experience survey data collected from 5870 patients across 25 English general practices. Mixed effect linear regression estimated the difference in composite general practitioner-patient communication scores between White British and South Asian patients, controlling for practice, patient demographics and patient language. There was strong evidence of an association between doctor-patient communication scores and ethnicity. South Asian patients reported scores averaging 3.0 percentage points lower (scale of 0-100) than White British patients (95% CI -4.9 to -1.1, p=0.002). This difference reduced to 1.4 points (95% CI -3.1 to 0.4) after accounting for speaking a non-English language at home; respondents who spoke a non-English language at home reported lower scores than English-speakers (adjusted difference 3.3 points, 95% CI -6.4 to -0.2). South Asian patients rate communication lower than White British patients within the same practices and with similar demographics. Our analysis further shows that this disparity is largely mediated by language. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Psychosis, Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Health Service Use in South Australia: Findings from the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun eSweeney

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The association between mental illness and poor physical health and socioeconomic outcomes has been well established. In the twenty-first century, the challenge of how mental illnesses such as psychosis are managed in the provision of public health services remains complex. Developing effective clinical mental health support and interventions for individuals requires a coordinated and robust mental health system supported by social as well as health policy that places a priority on addressing socioeconomic disadvantage in mental health cohorts. This paper thus examines the complex relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage, family/social supports, physical health and health service utilisation in a community sample of 402 participants diagnosed with psychosis. The paper utilises quantitative data collected from the 2010 Survey of High Impact Psychosis research project conducted in a socioeconomically disadvantaged region of Adelaide, South Australia. Participants (42% female provided information about socio-economic status, education, employment, physical health, contact with family and friends, and health service utilisation. The paper highlights that socio-economic disadvantage is related to increased self-reported use of emergency departments, decreased use of general practitioners for mental health reasons, higher body mass index, less family contact and less social support. In particular, the paper explores the multifaceted relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health confronting individuals with psychosis, highlighting the complex link between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health. It emphasizes that mental health service usage for those with higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage differs from those experiencing lower levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. The paper also stresses that the development of health policy and practice that seeks to redress the socioeconomic and health inequalities created by

  7. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Nurses in Ibadan, South-west Nigeria: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Adewale L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders represent a significant occupational problem among nurses; however, data on musculoskeletal health of nurses in Sub-Sahara Africa are sparse. This study sought to determine the lifetime, 12-months period and point prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs; the associated job risk factors and the coping strategies toward reducing the risk among nurses from selected hospitals in Ibadan, South-west Nigeria Methods A previously validated self administered questionnaire which sought information on demographics, prevalence and pattern of WMSDs, associated job risk factors and coping strategies was employed as the survey instrument. A total of 160 questionnaires were distributed to nurses in the different hospitals but 128 questionnaires were returned yielding an 80% response rate. 10 of the returned questionnaires were excluded because of incomplete data. Results Eighty-four point four percent of the nurses have had WMSDs once or more in their occupational lives. The 12-months period and point prevalence rate of WMSDs at any body region was 78% and 66.1% respectively. WMSDs occurred mostly in low back (44.1%, neck (28.0%, and knees (22.4%. 30.3% treated themselves or had visited other health practitioners for care. Nurses with > 20 years of clinical experience are about 4 times more likely to develop WMSDs (OR 3.81; CI 1.08-13.4 than those with 11-20 years experience. Working in the same positions for long periods (55.1%, lifting or transferring dependent patients (50.8% and treating an excessive number of patients in one day (44.9% were the most perceived job risk factors for WMSDs. Getting help in handling heavy patients (50.4%, modification of nursing procedures in order to avoid re-injury (45.4%, and modifying patient's/nurse position (40.3% were the top three coping strategies. Conclusions A high proportion of Nigerian nurses reported WMSDs at some body site in their occupational

  8. A questionnaire survey exploring healthcare professionals' attitudes towards teamwork and safety in acute care areas in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Chan Woong; Lee, Sang Jin; Oh, Je Hyeok; Lee, Dong Hoon; Lim, Tae Ho; Choi, Hyuk Joong; Chung, Hyun Soo; Ryu, Ji Yeong; Jang, Hye Young; Choi, Yoon Hee; Kim, Su Jin; Jung, Jin Hee

    2015-07-24

    Although human factors are important in terms of patient safety, there have been very few reports on the attitudes of healthcare professionals working in acute care settings in South Korea. In the present study, we investigated the attitudes of such professionals, their cultures and their management systems. A questionnaire survey with 65 items covering nine themes affecting patient safety. Nine themes were compared via a three-or-more-way analysis of variance, with interaction, followed by multiple comparisons among several groups. Intensive care units, emergency departments and surgical units of nine urban hospitals. 592 nurses and 160 physicians. None. Mean scores using a five-point scale and combined response scores for each of the nine themes. The mean score for information-sharing was the highest (3.78±0.49) and that for confidence/assertion was the lowest (2.97±0.34). The mean scores for teamwork, error management, work value, organisational climate, leadership, stress and fatigue level, and error/procedural compliance were intermediate. Physicians showed lower scores in leadership and higher scores in information-sharing than nurses. Respondents with 24 months or less of a clinical career showed higher scores in leadership, stress and fatigue, and error scores and lower scores in work value than more experienced respondents. Our results suggest that medical personnel in Korea are relatively reluctant to disclose error or assert their different opinions with others. Many did not adequately recognise the negative effects of fatigue and stress, attributed errors to personal incompetence, and error-management systems were inadequate. Discrepancies in leadership and information-sharing were evident between professional groups, and leadership, stress, fatigue level, work value and error scores varied with the length of work experience. These can be used as baseline data to establish training programmes for patient safety in Korea. Published by the BMJ

  9. Gas geochemical survey of long dormant Ciomadul volcano (South Harghita Mts., Romania): constraints on the flux and origin of fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Boglárka-Mercedesz; Ionescu, Artur; Harangi, Szabolcs; Palcsu, László; Etiope, Giuseppe; Baciu, Cǎlin

    2016-04-01

    The Ciomadul, located in the South Harghita Mountains (Eastern Carpathians, Romania) is the youngest volcano built by the Neogene volcanism in the Carpathian-Pannonian Region. The volcanic activity was characterized by an initial extrusive lava dome building period from about 200 ka to 100 ka followed by a more explosive eruption stage from 57 to 32 ka. Although the volcano seems to be inactive, several features (e.g. geophysical anomalies in the crust; fast remobilization of near solidus long lasting crystal mush prior to the past eruptions) suggest that melt-bearing magmatic body could still exist beneath the Ciomadul. This is supported by the abundance of dry gas emanations (CO2, CH4, H2S), CO2 rich mineral water springs and bubbling pools. The long-term observation of seemingly inactive, dormant volcanoes has become important in the past years (Ontake volcano-Japan, Colli Albani volcano-Italy). Gas-geochemical survey and monitoring (noble gases, isotopic composition of carbon species, flux measurements) of such volcanoes is an adequate tool in detecting changes in their volcanic plumbing system. Starting from 2015 we commenced a gas-monitoring study to constrain the origin of fluids at Ciomadul by measuring the flux of two gas-species and collecting the gas-phase from several mofettes and mineral water springs. A total of 46 sites have been surveyed, including 29 gas emanations (mofettes and bubbling pools), 3 drilled wells, 11 springs and 3 surface water sites. We provide the first complex CO2 and CH4 flux measurements in the area considering mofettes and bubbling pools. The CO2 flux values range between 10 and 264 kg/day while the CH4 flux has a range between 125 and 4723 g/day. Estimates of total CO2 and CH4 output into the atmosphere are ~229 and ~1.3 t/year, respectively. These values are consistent with other geothermal systems in Europe. The chemical composition of samples indicate CO2 content of up to 96.77%, CH4 content up to 1.42% and He content up to

  10. Serologic survey for antibodies to canine parvovirus and influenza virus in wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Se-Yeoun; Seo, Hye-Suk; Kang, Min; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Sera from 102 wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were screened for antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV) and influenza A virus (IAV) in South Korea. Sixteen samples were antibody positive for CPV and all samples were negative for IAV antibodies.

  11. The crustal structure of continental shelf in northern South China Sea: revealed by joint onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinghe; Sun, Jinlong; Xia, Shaohong; Wan, Kuiyuan; Xu, Huilong

    2017-04-01

    Known as a significant region for studying tectonic relationship between South China block and South China Sea (SCS) block and evolution of rifted basin in continental margin, the continental shelf of northern SCS not only preserved the information about intensive tectonic deformation and magmatism generated by the west Pacific subducted to Eurasian Plate in late Mesozoic, but also recorded the process from continental margin rifting to seafloor spreading of SCS in Cenozoic for the same mechanical property. To investigate crustal structure of continental shelf in northern SCS, a wide-angle onshore-offshore seismic experiment and a coincident multi-channel seismic (MCS) profile were carried out across the onshore-offshore transitional zone in northern SCS, 2010. A total of 14 stations consisted of ocean bottom seismometers, portable and permanent land stations were deployed during the survey. The two-dimensional precise crustal structure model of central continental shelf in northern SCS was constructed from onshore to offshore. The model reveals that South China block is a typical continental crust with a 30-32 km Moho depth, and a localized high-velocity anomaly in middle-lower crust under land area near Hong Kong was imaged, which may reflect magma underplating caused by subduction of paleo-Pacific plate in late Mesozoic. The Littoral Fault Zone (LFZ) lies 12 km south of Dangan Island with a width of 18-20 km low-velocity fracture zone from surface to Moho discontinuity. The shelf zone south of LFZ was consisted of a differential thinning upper and lower continental crust, which indicate stretch thinning of passive continent margin during the Cenozoic spreading of the SCS. All these results appear to further confirm that the northern margin of SCS experienced a transition from active margin to passive one during late Mesozoic and Cenozoic.

  12. Biology and Conservation of the Common Murre in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia: Vol. 1, Natural History and Population Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuwal, David Allen; Carter, Harry R.; Zimmerman, Tara S.; Orthmeyer, Dennis L.

    2001-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Over the past 30 years, the common murre (Uria aalge californica) has been recognized as a prominent indicator of marine conservation issues in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, especially regarding oil pollution, certain fisheries, and human disturbance. To assist the effective management of the common murre and the marine environments in which they live, this summary of available information on the biology and regional status of the common murre has been sponsored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Division of Migratory Bird Management). In Volume 1 (Chapter 1), the natural history of the common murre is summarized, drawing heavily on breeding studies from the South Farallon Islands, California, plus a host of detailed breeding studies from the North Atlantic Ocean. Population trends of the common murre are summarized in Volume 1 (Chapter 2), focusing on changes in whole-colony counts determined from aerial photographs between the late 1970s and 1995 in California, Oregon and Washington. Historical data and human impacts to murre colonies since the early nineteenth century are also summarized. Volume 2 will summarize population threats, conservation, and management. Information presented in Volume 1 has been obtained and recorded by a large number of researchers and natural historians over two centuries. From the 1960s to 1995, most work in California, Oregon, and Washington was sponsored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Minerals Management Service, and California Department of Fish and Game. Important breeding biology studies were conducted at the South Farallon Islands (Farallon National Wildlife Refuge) by the Point Reyes Bird Observatory, in coordination with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge). Colony surveys in California were conducted mainly by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge), U.S. Geological Survey (Western

  13. Perceived challenges and opportunities arising from integration of mental health into primary care: a cross-sectional survey of primary health care workers in south-west Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abera, Mubarek; Tesfaye, Markos; Belachew, Tefera; Hanlon, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background: The WHO's mental health Gap Action Programme seeks to narrow the treatment gap for mental disorders by advocating integration of mental health into primary health care (PHC). This study aimed to assess the challenges and opportunities of this approach from the perspective of PHC workers in a sub-Saharan African country.Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional survey of 151 PHC workers was conducted from 1(st) to 30(th) November 2011 in Jimma zone, south-west Ethiopia. A structure...

  14. Landslide-generated tsunami geomorphology at Chehalis Lake, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N. J.; McKillop, R.; Clague, J. J.; Lawrence, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The 2007 Chehalis Lake tsunami in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia is one of the most comprehensively described landslide-generated tsunamis in the world. We use field observations and remotely sensed data collected during the two years following the tsunami to characterize its geomorphic impact and propose a suite of geomorphic features characteristic of tsunamis generated by subaerial landslides. On December 4, 2007, a highly fragmented 3 Mm3 rockslide entered the north end of Chehalis Lake and generated a tsunami that drastically altered much of the shore of the 8.5-km-long lake, with local run-up exceeding 35 m. The tsunami continued as a surge down lower Chehalis River, at the south end of the lake. We characterized geomorphic features produced by the tsunami by collecting multi-scale data, starting immediately after the event. Data included reconnaissance helicopter and ground observations, low-altitude aerial digital photography and aerial LiDAR survey, detailed GPS-controlled field traverses, and an underwater survey using side-scan sonar and swath bathymetric sounding. The impact of the tsunami was greatest on low-gradient shores and the shoreline nearest the landslide. Erosional features include wave-cut scarps, soil erosion, and complete removal of forest, leaving sharp trimlines. Debris transported by the tsunami stripped bark from standing trees, left impact marks on them, and embedded gravel in them. Depositional features include imbricated cobbles and boulders, ripples in sand and gravel, pebble lags, rip-up clasts of glaciolacustrine silt, and trash lines of woody debris in forest at and near the limit of tsunami run-up. Similar features have been reported at sites of landslide-triggered tsunamis, notably in Alaska, Chile, Norway, and elsewhere in Canada. We grouped geomorphic features at Chehalis Lake on the basis of their areal distribution and their inferred formative energy. The geomorphic groups form a continuum, reflecting

  15. Modeled Combined Extent of All Columbia River Basalt Units (CRB_extent4xconnections)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile was created as a boundary for the Columbia River Basalt extent and a buffered version was used to clip the geomodel unit grids. As part of a U.S....

  16. Breathe Fresh Morning:China-Columbia Business Breakfast Meeting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On February 16, the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) and the National Business Association of Columbia (ANDI) jointly hosted the China-Columbia Business Breakfast Meeting in Bogota, capital city of Columbia. Chinese Vice Presi-dent Xi Jinping who was on an official visit to Columbia and Columbian Vice President Francisco Santos attended the event.

  17. South GPS Applications in Fitting SurveyArea Quasi-geoid%南方GPS在拟合测区似大地水准面中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卿元

    2012-01-01

    Using the function of South GPSPro ver4.0 applications in fitting survey area Quasi-geoid leveling data and GPS survey date, and combined with practical examples,the paper demonstrates the feasibility of solving elevation of GPS point with GPS elevation constrained adjustment.%通过具体的工程实例,利用南方GPSPro ver 4.0软件自动拟合测区似大地水准面的功能,采用测区补测的水准测量资料和GPS测量资料进行验算,论证GPS网高程约束平差求解待定GPS点高程的可行性。

  18. Comparison of the Carbon System Parameters at the Global CO2 Survey Crossover Locations in the North and South Pacific Ocean, 1990-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feely, Richard A [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Lamb, Marilyn F. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Greeley, Dana J. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Wanninkhof, Rik [NOAA, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML)

    1999-10-01

    As a collaborative program to measure global ocean carbon inventories and provide estimates of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (C02) uptake by the oceans. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy have sponsored the collection of ocean carbon measurements as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment and Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study cruises. The cruises discussed here occurred in the North and South Pacific from 1990 through 1996. The carbon parameters from these 30 crossover locations have been compared to ensure that a consistent global data set emerges from the survey cruises. !'he results indicate that for dissolved inorganic carbon. fugacity of C02• and pH. the a~:,rreements at most crossover locations are well within the design specifications for the global CO) survey: whereas. in the case of total alkaliniry. the agreement between crossover locations is not as close.

  19. Identification of massive sulphide targets using the galvanic source EM signal from a sub-audio magnetic survey at the Far South project, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Daniel; Wallace, Yvonne; Peters, Bill

    2016-07-01

    The Far South project is located 5 km south along strike from the Deep South mine, where gold mineralisation is commonly associated with semi-massive pyrrhotite and pyrite. Data from a sub-audio magnetic (SAM) survey, set up in galvanic configuration, were acquired over the project principally to map stratigraphy and structure using the on-time magnetometric conductivity (MMC) and total magnetic intensity (TMI) responses. The off-time galvanic source electromagnetic (GSEM) data were subsequently extracted from the raw data and four late-time anomalous responses were identified. Two of these responses are strong late-time anomalies up to 350 m in strike length, clearly visible in the 60 ms time gate, and the remaining two are weaker mid-time, subtler and less diagnostic responses. Modelling of the GSEM responses was attempted using conventional electromagnetic (EM) modelling techniques, where certain assumptions had to be made for the survey geometry and current path. The assumed current path has an effect on the coupling of the inducing current with the target, so in order to validate the assumptions and GSEM modelling results, follow-up moving-loop and fixed-loop electromagnetic (MLEM and FLEM) surveys were required. These surveys confirmed well-defined conductive responses over all four follow-up areas. Modelling of the GSEM data over the two strongest anomalies is in good agreement with modelling of the MLEM/FLEM data. Modelling at a third target showed some similarity to results obtained by modelling the follow-up EM survey data, and one target was not defined clearly enough in the GSEM data to allow modelling and had to be modelled solely on the follow-up FLEM data. The results of these efforts confirm the ability to identify and produce a reasonably useful model of strong conductive targets from SAM GSEM data, indicating that the rapid acquisition SAM system is an effective tool for quick reconnaissance in sulphide exploration. Subsequent drilling identified

  20. Columbia River ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...

  1. Columbia River ESI: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), rare plant species [Water howellia (Howelia aquatilis) and Columbia...

  2. Libraries in British Columbia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/britishcolumbia.html Libraries in British Columbia To use the sharing features ... George University Hospital of Northern BC Northern Health Library Services / ILL Learning & Development Centre 1475 Edmonton Street ...

  3. Columbia River ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Columbia River. Vector lines in this data set represent locations of...

  4. Columbia River ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Wildlife Refuges, National Forests, and State Parks for the Columbia River area. Vector polygons in this data set...

  5. Columbia River ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for clams, oysters, crabs, and other invertebrate species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this data...

  6. Columbia River ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for bird nesting sites in the Columbia River area. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  7. Community attitudes and social distance towards the mentally ill in South Sudan: a survey from a post-conflict setting with no mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayazi, Touraj; Lien, Lars; Eide, Arne; Shadar, Elizabeth Joseph Shadar; Hauff, Edvard

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates attitudes and social distance towards the mentally ill in a post-conflict, low-income country. A cross-sectional community survey (n = 1,200) was conducted in South Sudan. Associations between various sociodemographic variables and attitudes toward/social distance from the mentally ill were investigated. The regression analysis showed that lower levels of education were positively associated with social distance, and Christian or Muslim beliefs, compared with traditional beliefs, were negatively associated with social distance. Familiarity with mental illness or psychological distress was not significantly associated with social distance. Participants who endorsed community-oriented attitudes (rather than hospital/drug-oriented attitudes) about health care for the mentally ill were more likely show a decreased social distance. Participants who believed that the mentally ill were dangerous had higher scores on the social distance scale. A high level of stigma towards the mentally ill exists in South Sudan, especially in the rural areas. Alongside efforts to build up mental health services in South Sudan, the existing stigma needs to be addressed. Information regarding the role of the community both in preventing mental illnesses and in service delivery should be prioritised.

  8. Columbia River Component Data Gap Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2007-10-23

    This Data Gap Analysis report documents the results of a study conducted by Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) to compile and reivew the currently available surface water and sediment data for the Columbia River near and downstream of the Hanford Site. This Data Gap Analysis study was conducted to review the adequacy of the existing surface water and sediment data set from the Columbia River, with specific reference to the use of the data in future site characterization and screening level risk assessments.

  9. Triatominae survey (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in the south-central region of the state of Bahia, Brazil between 2008 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Vagner José; de Oliveira, Jader; Rimoldi, Aline; Filho, Júlio C R Ferreira; de Araújo, Renato Freitas; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2015-05-01

    Triatomine surveillance in rural areas, artificial ecotypes, and natural ecotopes of the cities of Caturama, Ibipitanga, Macaúbas, and Seabra in the south-central region of the Brazilian state of Bahia was carried out between 2008 and 2013. Natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in the specimens collected to monitor vectors of Chagas disease. A total of 1,357 specimens were collected, and four species were identified: Triatoma sordida (83%), Triatoma lenti (16.4%), Triatoma pseudomaculata (0.5%), and Panstrongylus geniculatus (0.1%). Triatoma sordida was found in four cities, only 0.7% in intradomiciliary environments. Triatoma lenti was found only in Macaúbas; 8.5% were found in intradomiciliary environments, 88.3% in peridomiciliary environments, and 3.1% in sylvatic environments. Natural infection by T. cruzi was 0.5% for T. sordida and 3.1% T. lenti. All of these cases were found in peridomiciliary environments of Macaúbas. As the results show, triatomines were found in intradomiciliary environments in three cities that were surveyed in the south-central region of the state of Bahia. Thus, an epidemiologic survey should be performed to avoid the risk of transmission to the population.

  10. Social space, social class and Bourdieu: health inequalities in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    This article adopts Pierre Bourdieu's cultural-structuralist approach to conceptualizing and identifying social classes in social space and seeks to identify health effects of class in one Canadian province. Utilizing data from an original questionnaire survey of randomly selected adults from 25 communities in British Columbia, social (class) groupings defined by cultural tastes and dispositions, lifestyle practices, social background, educational capital, economic capital, social capital and occupational categories are presented in visual mappings of social space constructed by use of exploratory multiple correspondence analysis techniques. Indicators of physical and mental health are then situated within this social space, enabling speculations pertaining to health effects of social class in British Columbia.

  11. The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey VLT/FORS2 spectroscopy in the GOODS-South Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanzella, E; Cristiani, S; Dickinson, M; Kuntschner, H; Moustakas, LA; Nonino, M; Rosati, P; Stern, D; Cesarsky, C; Ettori, S; Ferguson, HC; Fosbury, RAE; Giavalisco, M; Haase, J; Renzini, A; Rettura, A; Serra, P

    2005-01-01

    We present the first results of the ESO/ GOODS program of spectroscopy of faint galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South ( CDF- S). 399 spectra of 303 unique targets have been obtained in service mode with the FORS2 spectrograph at the ESO/ VLT, providing 234 redshift determinations ( the median of

  12. Life "Inside the Shell" A Needs Survey of Spinal Cord-Injured Wheelchair Users in a Black South African Township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Jacklyn

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes experiences of 88 Black spinal cord-injured and wheelchair bound adults living in Soweto, South Africa. Discrimination in the areas of income, education, housing, transport, social attitudes, family life, and social participation are reported by the respondents. (DB)

  13. The Development of a Survey Instrument on South Dakota's School District Leadership Climate as Related to Deming's Fourteen Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Lawrence W. O.; And Others

    Development of an instrument to measure baseline levels of applied Total Quality Management (TQM) practices in South Dakota before the introduction and dissemination of TQM theory to the state's educational leaders is described. Using the interpretation of Deming's 14 points that was developed by J. J. Bonstigl, a 115-item initial item pool was…

  14. Assessing household wealth in health studies in developing countries: a comparison of participatory wealth ranking and survey techniques from rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hargreaves James R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate tools for assessing household wealth are essential for many health studies in developing countries. Household survey and participatory wealth ranking (PWR are two approaches to generate data for this purpose. Methods A household survey and PWR were conducted among eight villages in rural South Africa. We developed three indicators of household wealth using the data. One indicator used PWR data only, one used principal components analysis to combine data from the survey, while the final indicator used survey data combined in a manner informed by the PWR. We assessed internal consistency of the indices and assessed their level of agreement in ranking household wealth. Results Food security, asset ownership, housing quality and employment were important indicators of household wealth. PWR, consisting of three independent rankings of 9671 households, showed a high level of internal consistency (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.81, 95% CI 0.79–0.82. Data on 1429 households were available from all three techniques. There was moderate agreement in ranking households into wealth tertiles between the two indicators based on survey data (spearman rho = 0.69, kappa = 0.43, but only limited agreement between these techniques and the PWR data (spearman rho = 0.38 and 0.31, kappa = 0.20 and 0.17. Conclusion Both PWR and household survey can provide a rapid assessment of household wealth. Each technique had strengths and weaknesses. Reasons for differences might include data inaccuracies or limitations in the methods by which information was weighted. Alternatively, the techniques may measure different things. More research is needed to increase the validity of measures of socioeconomic position used in health studies in developing countries.

  15. Late Pleistocene and Holocene-Age Columbia River Sediments and Bedforms: Hanford Reach Area, Washington - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.R. Fecht, T.E. Marceau

    2006-03-28

    This report presents the results of a geologic study conducted on the lower slopes of the Columbia River Valley in south-central Washington. The study was designed to investigate glaciofluvial and fluvial sediments and bedforms that are present in the river valley and formed subsequent to Pleistocene large-scale cataclysmic flooding of the region.

  16. A Survey of Butterflies at South Border Region in Hengduan Mountains%横断山南部边缘地区蝶类调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓合黎; 李爱民; 吴立伟

    2011-01-01

    横断山南部边缘地区调查获得蝶类258种,隶属于10科,128属.其中蛱蝶最多,为65种;其次是灰蝶和弄蝶,分别是51种和50种,这3科蝴蝶占总数约2/3(166/258).优势种12个(4.7%)、常见种91个(35.3%)、少见种43个(16.7%)、罕见种112个(43.3%);个体数分布的规律接近对数级数法则.仅3个横断山特有种符合本调查区域处于边缘的性质,东洋种占总数的79.1%,说明了本地区蝴蝶东洋区的基本属性.%On the basis of survey, the paper reports 258 species of the butterflies, belonging to 10 families and 128 genera at south border region in Hengduan Mountains.65 species of them are Nymphs, which is maximum, second is 51 species of Blues, third is 50 species of Skippers, the butterflies of this three families are nearly two thirds of the total at south border region in Hengduan Mountains.The faunistic composition of butterflies is made up by 3 specialized species, 204 Oriental species, 15 Palaearctic species, 13 species wide species and other 60 species, it shows the basic Oriental and its property of border region at south border region in Hengduan Mountains.The patterns of butterfly species abundance and distribution at south border region in Hengduan Mountaines approached a logarithmic progression distribution, favoring a niche pre-emption hypothesis.

  17. Multimode solar-heating system--Columbia, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes failure of six-mode pyramidal-optics system to reduce winter energy savings. Over 12 month period, control problems, energy dissipation, and high operating-energy requirements undermined system efficiency. Energy savings were maximal when system in direct space-heating or hot-water preheating mode. In least efficient mode, heat pumps alternatively mingled storage or collector energy, and space heating was provided by electric heat strip.

  18. Solar energy system economic evaluation for Wormser Columbia, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System is not economically beneficial under the assumed economic conditions at the sites considered. Economic benefits from this system depend on decreasing the initial investment and the continued increase in the cost of conventional energy. Decreasing the cost depends on favorable tax treatment and continuing development of solar energy technology. Fuel cost would have to increase drastically while the cost of the system would have to remain constant or decrease for the system to become economically feasible.

  19. Filling the gaps in SARDs research: collection and linkage of administrative health data and self-reported survey data for a general population-based cohort of individuals with and without diagnoses of systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease (SARDs) from British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Natalie; Reimer, Kathryn; Famouri, Ali; Marra, Carlo A; Aviña-Zubieta, J Antonio

    2017-06-21

    Systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) are a group of debilitating autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and related disorders. Assessing the healthcare and economic burden of SARDs has been challenging: while administrative databases can be used to determine healthcare utilisation and costs with minimal selection and recall bias, other health, sociodemographic and economic data have typically been sourced from highly selected, clinic-based cohorts. To address these gaps, we are collecting self-reported survey data from a general population-based cohort of individuals with and without SARDs and linking it to their longitudinal administrative health data. Using administrative data from the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada, we established a population-based cohort of all BC adults receiving care for SARDs during 1996-2010 (n=20 729) and non-SARD individuals randomly selected from the general population. BC Ministry of Health granted us contact information for 12 000 SARD and non-SARD individuals, who were recruited to complete the surveys by mail or online. Four hundred individuals were initially invited to participate, with 135 (34%) consenting and 127 (94%) submitting the first survey (72% completed online). Sixty-three (49.6%) reported ≥1 SARD diagnosis. The non-SARDs group (n=64) was 92% female with mean age 57.0±11.6 years. The SARDs group (n=63) was 94% female with mean age 56.5±13.1 years. Forty-eight per cent of those with SARDs were current-or-former smokers (mean 10.6±16.2 pack-years), and 33% were overweight or obese (mean body mass index of 24.4±5.3). Health and productivity data collected from the surveys will be linked to participants' administrative health data from the years 1990-2013, allowing us to determine the healthcare and lost productivity costs of SARDs, and assess the impact of patient-reported variables on utilisation, costs, disability and clinical outcomes. Findings will be disseminated

  20. Cataclysms and controversy -- aspects of the geomorphology of the Columbia River Gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jim; Burns, Scott; Madin, Ian; Dorsey, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Landslides and floods of lava and water tremendously affected the Columbia River during its long history of transecting the Cascade Volcanic Arc. This field trip touches on aspects of the resulting geology of the scenic Columbia River Gorge, including the river-blocking Bonneville landslide of ~550 years ago and the great late- Pleistocene Missoula floods. Not only did these events create great landscapes, but they inspired great geologists. Mid-nineteenth century observations of the Columbia River and Pacific Northwest by James Dwight Dana and John Strong Newberry helped germinate the “school of fluvial” erosion later expanded upon by the southwestern United States topographic and geologic surveys. Later work on features related to the Missoula floods framed the career of J Harlen Bretz in one of the great geologic controversies of the twentieth century.

  1. MODFLOW-2000 model scenarios simulating proposed groundwater pumpage near Monocks Corner, South Carolina: U.S. Geological Survey data release

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — An existing three-dimensional model (MODFLOW-2000) by Petkewich and Campbell was modified to simulate potential changes in groundwater-level conditions caused by...

  2. Columbia River impact evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    As a result of past practices, four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980. To accomplish the timely cleanup of the past-practice units, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), was signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). To support the Tri-Party Agreement, milestones were adopted. These milestones represent the actions needed to ensure acceptable progress toward Hanford Site compliance with CERCLA, RCRA, and the Washington State Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976. This report was prepared to fulfill the requirement of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-30-02, which requires a plan to determine cumulative health and environmental impacts to the Columbia River. This plan supplements the CERCLA remedial investigations/feasibility studies (RI/FS) and RCRA facility investigations/corrective measures studies (RFI/CMSs) that will be undertaken in the 100 Area. To support the plan development process, existing information was reviewed and a preliminary impact evaluation based on this information was performed. The purpose of the preliminary impact evaluation was to assess the adequacy of existing data and proposed data collection activities. Based on the results of the evaluation, a plan is proposed to collect additional data or make changes to existing or proposed data collection activities.

  3. A Survey of Compact Star Clusters in the South-West Field of the M31 Disk. UBVRI Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Narbutis, D; Kodaira, K; Sableviciute, I; Stonkute, R; Bridzius, A

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of UBVRI broad-band aperture CCD photometry of 51 compact star clusters located in the South-West part of the M31 disk. The mean rms errors of all measured star cluster colors are less than 0.02 mag. In color vs. color diagrams the star clusters show significantly tighter sequences when compared with the photometric data from the compiled catalog of the M31 star clusters published by Galleti et al. (2004).

  4. STD and HIV screening in general practice: a survey related to termination of pregnancy in south Thames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R L; Maguire, H C; Kurtz, Z

    1998-01-01

    It has been recommended that screening for sexually transmitted disease (STDs) be carried out at the time of termination of pregnancy to allow prevention of post-abortion infection. Screening offers the opportunity to treat an infected woman and prevent serious complications following the termination procedure. Our findings indicate that general practitioners (GPs) in South Thames did not routinely carry out screening and few realized it took place at referral centres. PMID:9624755

  5. Transitioning Towards Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit eAnand

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The millennium development goals are now replaced by seventeen sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS -2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010, included in the study. It resulted in inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011, Congo Republic (2013-14, Cote d'Ivoire (2011-12, Ethiopia (2011, Gambia (2013, Mali (2012-13, Mozambique (2011, Namibia (2013, Nepal (2011, Niger (2012, Nigeria (2013, Pakistan (2012-13, Sierra Leone (2013, Uganda (2011 and Zambia (2013. The Scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio of child mortality and health outcomes using DHS surveys. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian Countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and Household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were not

  6. Magnetic resonance sounding survey data collected in the North Platte, Twin Platte, and South Platte Natural Resource Districts, Western Nebraska, Fall 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Mason A.; Bloss, Benjamin R.; Irons, Trevor P.; Cannia, James C.; Abraham, Jared D.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data and associated survey descriptions from a series of magnetic resonance soundings (MRS, also known as surface nuclear magnetic resonance) that was conducted during October and November of 2012 in areas of western Nebraska as part of a cooperative hydrologic study by the North Platte Natural Resource District (NRD), South Platte NRD, Twin Platte NRD, the Nebraska Environmental Trust, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The objective of the study was to delineate the base-of-aquifer and refine the understanding of the hydrologic properties in the aquifer system. The MRS technique non-invasively measures water content in the subsurface, which makes it a useful tool for hydrologic investigations in the near surface (up to depths of approximately 150 meters). In total, 14 MRS production-level soundings were acquired by the USGS over an area of approximately 10,600 square kilometers. The data are presented here in digital format, along with acquisition information, survey and site descriptions, and metadata.

  7. Molecular monitoring of African swine fever virus using surveys targeted at adult Ornithodoros ticks : a re-evaluation of Mkuze Game Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Arnot

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mkuze Game Reserve (MGR, in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa is an African swine fever virus (ASF controlled area. In a survey conducted in 1978, ASF prevalence in warthogs and Ornithodoros ticks in MGR was determined to be 2 % and 0.06 %, respectively. These values, acknowledged as being unusually low compared to other East and southern African ASF-positive sylvatic-cycle host populations, have not been assessed since. The availability of a sensitive PCR-based virus detection method, developed specifically for the sylvatic tampan host, prompted a re-evaluation of ASF virus (ASFV prevalence in MGR ticks. Of the 98 warthog burrows inspected for Ornithodoros presence, 59 (60.2 % were found to contain tampans and tick sampling was significantly male-biased. Whilst gender sampling-bias is not unusual, the 27 % increase in infestation rate of warthog burrows since the 1978 survey is noteworthy as it anticipates a concomitant increase in ASFV prevalence, particularly in light of the high proportion (75 % of adult ticks sampled. However, despite DNA integrity being confirmed by internal control amplification of the host 16S gene, PCR screening failed to detect ASFV. These results suggest that ASFV has either disappeared from MGR or if present, is localized, occurring at exceptionally low levels. Further extensive surveys are required to establish the ASFV status of sylvatic hosts in this controlled area.

  8. Geology and Volcanology of Kima'Kho Mountain, Northern British Columbia: A Pleistocene Glaciovolcanic Edifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, M.; Porritt, L. A.; Edwards, B. R.; Russell, K.

    2014-12-01

    Kima'Kho Mountain is a 1.8 Ma (40Ar/39Ar of 1.82 +/- 40 ka) Pleistocene an alkali-olivine basaltic tuya situated in northern British Columbia. The volcanic edifice rises 460 m from its base and comprises a central vent, dominated by lapilli-tuff and minor pillow lava and dykes; and a surrounding plateau underlain by a sequence of dipping beds of basaltic tuff-breccia and capped by a series of flat-lying, subaerial lava flows. We present a 1:10,000 geological map for Kima'Kho Mountain building on the preliminary work of Ryane et al. (2010). We use the volcanic stratigraphy to explore the implications of three unique features. (1) The central cone comprises massive to crudely-bedded lapilli tuffs containing abundant armoured lapilli - cores of highly-vesicular pyroclasts coated with blocky to cuspate vitric ash. These units suggest an explosive origin from within an ice-enclosed lake, and deposited by wet, dilute pyroclastic surge events. (2) The entire stratigraphic sequence hosts at least two "passage zones" (cf. Jones, 1969); the presence and geometry of these passage zones constrain ice thicknersses at the time of eruption and inform on the englacial lake dynamics. (3) Lastly, our field-based stratigraphic relationships are at odds with the classic tuya model (i.e. an effusive onset to the eruption, forming pillow basalts, followed by explosive activity). Our field mapping suggests an alternative model of tuya architecture, involving a highly-energetic, sustained explosive onset creating a tephra cone that become emergent followed by effusive eruption to create lavas and a subaqueous lava-fed delta. Jones, J. G. Intraglacial volcanoes of the Laugarvatn region, south-west Iceland-I. Geological Society of London Quarterly Journal 124, 197-211 (1969). Ryane, C., Edwards, B. R. & Russell, J. K. The volcanic stratigraphy of Kima'Kho Mountain: A Pleistocene tuya, northwestern British Columbia. Geological Survey of Canada, Current Research 2011-104, 12p, doi:10

  9. Concepts for diamond exploration in "on/off craton" areas—British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandl, George J.

    2004-09-01

    The tectonic setting of British Columbia (BC) differs from classic diamond-bearing intracratonic regions such as the Northwest Territories and South Africa. Nevertheless, several diamond occurrences have been reported in BC. It is also known that parts of the province are underlain by Proterozoic and possibly Archean basement. Because the continents of today are composites of fragments of ancient continents, it is possible that some of the regions underlain by old crystalline basement in eastern British Columbia were associated with a deep crustal keel. The keel may have predated the break-up of the early Neoproterozoic supercontinent called Rodinia and was preserved possibly until the Triassic. Some of these old continental fragments may have been displaced relative to their position of origin and dissociated from their keel, or the keel may have since been destroyed. Such fragments represent favourable exploration grounds in terms of the "Diamondiferous Mantle Root" model (DMR model) if they were intersected by kimberlites or lamproites prior to displacement or destruction of their underlying deep keel. Therefore, extrapolation of fragments of the diamond-bearing Precambrian basement from the Northwest Territories or Alberta to BC provides a sufficient reason for initiating reconnaissance indicator mineral surveys. The "Eclogite Subduction Zone" model (ES model) predicts formation of diamonds at lower pressure (i.e., depth) than required by the DMR model in convergent tectonic settings. Although not proven, this model is supported by thermal modeling of cold subduction zones and recent discoveries of diamonds in areas characterized by convergent tectonic settings. If the ES model is correct, then the parts of BC with a geological history similar to today's "cold" subduction zones, such as Honshu (Japan), or to continental collision zones, such as Kokchetav massif (Kazakhstan) and the Dabie-Sulu Terrane (east central China), may be diamondiferous. The terranes

  10. A Survey of Pediatric CT Protocols and Radiation Doses in South Korean Hospitals to Optimize the Radiation Dose for Pediatric CT Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Yang, Dong Hyun; Cho, Young Ah; Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Jin Seong; Koo, Hyun Jung

    2015-12-01

    Children are at greater risk of radiation exposure than adults because the rapidly dividing cells of children tend to be more radiosensitive and they have a longer expected life time in which to develop potential radiation injury. Some studies have surveyed computed tomography (CT) radiation doses and several studies have established diagnostic reference levels according to patient age or body size; however, no survey of CT radiation doses with a large number of patients has yet been carried out in South Korea. The aim of the present study was to investigate the radiation dose in pediatric CT examinations performed throughout South Korea. From 512 CT (222 brain CT, 105 chest CT, and 185 abdominopelvic CT) scans that were referred to our tertiary hospital, a dose report sheet was available for retrospective analysis of CT scan protocols and dose, including the volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), effective dose, and size-specific dose estimates (SSDE). At 55.2%, multiphase CT was the most frequently performed protocol for abdominopelvic CT. Tube current modulation was applied most often in abdominopelvic CT and chest CT, accounting for 70.1% and 62.7%, respectively. Regarding the CT dose, the interquartile ranges of the CTDIvol were 11.1 to 22.5 (newborns), 16.6 to 39.1 (≤1 year), 14.6 to 41.7 (2-5 years), 23.5 to 44.1 (6-10 years), and 31.4 to 55.3 (≤15 years) for brain CT; 1.3 to 5.7 (≤1 year), 3.9 to 6.8 (2-5 years), 3.9 to 9.3 (6-10 years), and 7.7 to 13.8 (≤15 years) for chest CT; and 4.0 to 7.5 (≤1 year), 4.2 to 8.9 (2-5 years), 5.7 to 12.4 (6-10 years), and 7.6 to 16.6 (≤15 years) for abdominopelvic CT. The SSDE and CTDIvol were well correlated for patients CT in South Korea. The CTDIvol, DLP, and effective dose were generally lower than in German and UK surveys, except in certain age groups.

  11. A Survey of the Perception of the Services of Micro Finance Institutions by the Female Service Users in Benin City, South-South, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Osas Ugiagbe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the perceptions of the services of the micro finance Institutions by the women service users, and how the services of micro Institutions affect businesses of the beneficiaries of the micro credit loans. The research design for the study was the survey method. The instruments of data collection were structured questionnaires and in-depth interview. A total of 450 questionnaires were administered to the female participants, and senior management personnel of the micro credit institutions were interviewed. The cluster and simple random sampling were used to select the participants for the study. The leaders of registered unions were the informants.  The result reveals that the poor services and attitude of officials of micro finance institutions and other problems like the regressive tax regimes, harsh economic climate and patriarchy are negatively affecting the business ventures of the loan beneficiaries and by implication the goals of poverty reduction via micro credit scheme . The women beneficiaries are groaning under the burden of loan repayment and meeting other obligations as mothers and wives. This study is applicable in the context of social policy development at this time when social services delivery is not only poor but at dismal level. The need for gender sensitive and social development becomes imperative. It is critical to social work practice in the context of advocacy, empowerment programs, facilitating and initiating service delivery and Community organizing by social workers that will enhance the war against Poverty and other social impediments against women empowerment in Nigeria.  Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  12. South America Geologic Map (geo6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. The geologic map of South America was digitized so that we could use...

  13. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  14. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  15. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  16. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  17. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  18. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  19. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  20. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  1. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  2. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  3. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  4. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  5. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  6. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  7. State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — The State Library Agency Survey (SLAA) provides descriptive data about state library agencies for all fifty states and the District of Columbia. A state library...

  8. Enterprises need interventions beyond energy: policy recommendations for government from small energy surveys in rural South Afirca and Botswana

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosomane, L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available % Music system 4% Public phones 9% Radio4% Wash machine 2% Others 1% Figure 7 Electricity usage in electrified areas in South Africa... for their businesses and households. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Br aa i Co ok in g Co ok in g Li gh tin g Co ok in g W el di n g re pa irs Fr id ge Li gh tin g O pe ra tin g ph on e Tr an sp or t W ood Paraffin LPG Candles...

  9. Do Customers Flee From HIV? A Survey of HIV Stigma and Its Potential Economic Consequences on Small Businesses in Tshwane (Pretoria), South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Wei; Szrek, Helena; Leite, Rui; Ramlagan, Shandir; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    HIV stigma and discrimination affect care-seeking behavior and may also affect entrepreneurial activity. We interview 2382 individuals in Pretoria, South Africa, and show that respondents believe that businesses with known HIV+ workers may lose up to half of their customers, although the impact depends on the type of business. Survey respondents' fear of getting HIV from consuming everyday products sold by the business-despite a real infection risk of zero-was a major factor driving perceived decline in customers, especially among food businesses. Respondents' perceptions of the decline in overall life satisfaction when one gets sick from HIV and the respondent's dislike of people with HIV were also important predictors of potential customer exit. We suggest policy mechanisms that could improve the earnings potential of HIV+ workers: reducing public health scare tactics that exacerbate irrational fear of HIV infection risk and enriching public health education about HIV and ARVs to improve perceptions about people with HIV.

  10. Integrated magnetic, gravity, and GPR surveys to locate the probable source of hydrocarbon contamination in Sharm El-Sheikh area, south Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Mona; Rashed, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Sharm El-Sheikh waters were suddenly hit by hydrocarbon spills which created a serious threat to the prosperous tourism industry in and around the city. Analysis of soil samples, water samples, and seabed samples collected in and around the contaminated bay area showed anomalous levels of hydrocarbons. An integrated geophysical investigation, using magnetic, gravity, and ground penetrating radar geophysical tools, was conducted in the headland overlooking the contaminated bay in order to delineate the possible subsurface source of contamination. The results of the geophysical investigations revealed three underground manmade reinforced concrete tanks and a complicated network of buried steel pipes in addition to other unidentified buried objects. The depths and dimensions of the discovered objects were determined. Geophysical investigations also revealed the presence of a north-south oblique slip fault running through the eastern part of the studied area. Excavations, conducted later on, confirmed the presence of one of the tanks delineated by the geophysical surveys.

  11. Mental Health Inequalities in Adolescents Growing Up in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Cross-Sectional Survey, SHaW Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das-Munshi, Jayati; Lund, Crick; Mathews, Catherine; Clark, Charlotte; Rothon, Catherine; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    South Africa is one of the most 'unequal' societies in the world. Despite apartheid ending more than 20 years ago, material inequalities remain interwoven with ethnic/racial inequalities. There is limited research on the prevalence/predictors of common mental disorders (CMD) among young people. Adolescence is a unique time-point during which intervention may lead to improved mental health and reduced social problems later. The study objective was to assess mental health disparities in a representative sample of adolescents growing up in South Africa. Cross-sectional associations of race/ethnicity and material disadvantage with CMD and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were assessed in a stratified random sample representative of school-attendees, aged 14-15 years, in a large metropolitan area of Cape Town. Validated instruments assessed mental disorders; these included: Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (PTSD); Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (depression); Zung self-rated anxiety scale (anxiety). Self-ascribed ethnicity was determined using procedures similar to the South African census and previous national surveys. Response rate was 88% (1034 of 1169 individuals). Adolescents experienced a high prevalence of depression (41%), anxiety (16%) and PTSD (21%). A gradient between material disadvantage and CMD/ PTSD was evident across all ethnic/racial groups. Respondents self-identifying as 'black' or 'coloured' were disadvantaged across most indicators. After adjusting for confounders, relative to white children, relative risk (RR) of CMD in black children was 2.27 (95% CI:1.24, 4.15) and for PTSD was RR: 2.21 (95% CI:1.73, 2.83). Relative risk of CMD was elevated in children self-identifying as 'coloured' (RR: 1.73, 95% CI:1.11, 2.70). Putative mediators (violence, racially motivated bullying, social support, self-esteem) partially accounted for differences in CMD and fully for PTSD. Adolescent mental health inequalities in Cape Town are associated with

  12. Decline of radionuclides in Columbia River biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Watson, D.G.; Scott, A.J.; Gurtisen, J.M.

    1980-03-01

    In January 1971, the last of nine plutonium production reactors using direct discharge of once-through cooling waters into the Columbia River was closed. Sampling was initiated at three stations on the Columbia River to document the decline of the radionuclide body burdens in the biota of the Columbia River ecosystem. The data show that in a river-reservoir complex, the measurable body burden of fission-produced radionuclides decreased to essentially undetectable levels within 18 to 24 mo after cessation of discharge of once-through cooling water into the river. On the basis of data from the free-flowing station, we believe that this decrease would be even more rapid in an unimpounded river.

  13. The 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North Survey and the 250 ks Extended Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: Improved Point-Source Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Y Q; Brandt, W N; Alexander, D M; Bauer, F E; Lehmer, B D; Yang, G

    2016-01-01

    We present improved point-source catalogs for the 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North (CDF-N) and the 250 ks Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S), implementing a number of recent improvements in Chandra source-cataloging methodology. For the CDF-N/E-CDF-S, we provide a main catalog that contains 683/1003 X-ray sources detected with wavdetect at a false-positive probability threshold of $10^{-5}$ that also satisfy a binomial-probability source-selection criterion of $P<0.004$/$P<0.002$. Such an approach maximizes the number of reliable sources detected: a total of 196/275 main-catalog sources are new compared to the Alexander et al. (2003) CDF-N/Lehmer et al. (2005) E-CDF-S main catalogs. We also provide CDF-N/E-CDF-S supplementary catalogs that consist of 72/56 sources detected at the same wavdetect threshold and having $P$ of $0.004-0.1$/$0.002-0.1$ and $K_s\\le22.9/K_s\\le22.3$ mag counterparts. For all $\\approx1800$ CDF-N and E-CDF-S sources, including the $\\approx500$ newly detected ones (these being...

  14. A decline in new HIV infections in South Africa: estimating HIV incidence from three national HIV surveys in 2002, 2005 and 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M Rehle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Three national HIV household surveys were conducted in South Africa, in 2002, 2005 and 2008. A novelty of the 2008 survey was the addition of serological testing to ascertain antiretroviral treatment (ART use. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a validated mathematical method to estimate the rate of new HIV infections (HIV incidence in South Africa using nationally representative HIV prevalence data collected in 2002, 2005 and 2008. The observed HIV prevalence levels in 2008 were adjusted for the effect of antiretroviral treatment on survival. The estimated "excess" HIV prevalence due to ART in 2008 was highest among women 25 years and older and among men 30 years and older. In the period 2002-2005, the HIV incidence rate among men and women aged 15-49 years was estimated to be 2.0 new infections each year per 100 susceptible individuals (/100pyar (uncertainty range: 1.2-3.0/100pyar. The highest incidence rate was among 15-24 year-old women, at 5.5/100pyar (4.5-6.5. In the period 2005-2008, incidence among men and women aged 15-49 was estimated to be 1.3/100 (0.6-2.5/100pyar, although the change from 2002-2005 was not statistically significant. However, the incidence rate among young women aged 15-24 declined by 60% in the same period, to 2.2/100pyar, and this change was statistically significant. There is evidence from the surveys of significant increases in condom use and awareness of HIV status, especially among youth. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis demonstrates how serial measures of HIV prevalence obtained in population-based surveys can be used to estimate national HIV incidence rates. We also show the need to determine the impact of ART on observed HIV prevalence levels. The estimation of HIV incidence and ART exposure is crucial to disentangle the concurrent impact of prevention and treatment programs on HIV prevalence.

  15. Survey of farmer knowledge and attitudes to endemic disease management in South Australia, with a focus on bovine viral diarrhoea (bovine pestivirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, S R; Anderson, M L; Reichel, M P

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to establish the attitudes of South Australian cattle farmers towards endemic animal disease prevention and control, with a particular focus on the awareness of and attitudes towards bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD). This cross-sectional postal survey involved mailing a questionnaire to all South Australian cattle owners with 35 or more head of cattle. Worms and lice were the most common animal disease concerns. Less than half of responding farmers were adequately vaccinating their herds against clostridial diseases, but 53.0% stated that they utilised quarantine procedures. Less than 20% of respondents had actively taken part in BVD educational opportunities, or had vaccinated or tested their herd for BVD; less than 20% of respondents were actively involved in any systematic control of Johne's disease. Overall, farmers' actual knowledge of BVD was lower than their perceived understanding, although their interest in BVD and its control was high. Disease prevention measures such as vaccination, quarantine and participation in systematic control schemes were used by a minority of respondents. The results suggest that respondents acknowledge BVD as an important and relevant disease, despite many believing it was not a problem in their herd. Interest in BVD appears to be high and it is likely that an education program would be well received. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. Symptom screening rules to identify active pulmonary tuberculosis: Findings from the Zambian South African Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS Reduction (ZAMSTAR) trial prevalence surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassens, M. M.; Floyd, S.; Ayles, H.; Beyers, N.

    2017-01-01

    Background High tuberculosis (TB) burden countries should consider systematic screening among adults in the general population. We identified symptom screening rules to be used in addition to cough ≥2 weeks, in a context where X-ray screening is not feasible, aiming to increase the sensitivity of screening while achieving a specificity of ≥85%. Methods We used 2010 Zambia South Africa Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS Reduction (ZAMSTAR) survey data: a South African (SA) training dataset, a SA testing dataset for internal validation and a Zambian dataset for external validation. Regression analyses investigated relationships between symptoms or combinations of symptoms and active disease. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for candidate rules. Results Among all participants, the sensitivity of using only cough ≥2 weeks as a screening rule was less than 25% in both SA and Zambia. The addition of any three of six TB symptoms (cough <2 weeks, night sweats, weight loss, fever, chest pain, shortness of breath), or 2 or more of cough <2 weeks, night sweats, and weight loss, increased the sensitivity to ~38%, while reducing specificity from ~95% to ~85% in SA and ~97% to ~92% in Zambia. Among HIV-negative adults, findings were similar in SA, whereas in Zambia the increase in sensitivity was relatively small (15% to 22%). Conclusion High TB burden countries should investigate cost-effective strategies for systematic screening: one such strategy could be to use our rule in addition to cough ≥2 weeks. PMID:28257424

  17. Missouri River bed elevations at pipeline crossing near Yankton, South Dakota surveyed during 2011 flood on July, 20

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A RESON SeaBat™ 7125 multibeam echosounder in conjunction with an Applanix Position Orientation Solution for Marine Vessels (POS MV™) WaveMaster system motion...

  18. Governance, marketing and innovations in Beninese pineapple supply chains : a survey of smallholder farmers in South Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arinloye, D.D.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to identify an innovative approach that could overcome market quality and price information asymmetry issues in pineapple supply chain in Benin. Two case studies were conducted in Benin and Ghana, with an in-depth survey of 219 farmers in Benin. The study mapped the su

  19. Management in Implementation of Government Sponsored Projects in Kenya: A Survey OF Fish Ponds Projects in Gatundu South District- Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gitonga Nganga

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of the study was to assess the influence of scope management as a tool in project management in implementation of government funded projects to establish if such projects apply the PMBOK® (2000 recommended techniques of defining scope, planning for the scope and change control mechanisms in place as such projects progress. The study focused on fish ponds projects in Gatundu south District in Kenya which were under Economic Stimulus Program, a government initiative to address issues of food sustainability, unemployment and overall economic growth of the economy. The study was motivated by the observation that the projects were initiated as pilot projects in 140 constituencies which were later to be rolled out in other constituencies in the country. However some of the projects didn’t achieve their intended objectives. The study targeted the 200 fish pond projects Gatundu south District where a sample of 20 fish pond projects were identified and formed the sample. The respondents for the study were the fish pond owners. Questionnaires were prepared and hand delivered to the respondents to assist in data collection which was later analyzed through descriptive statistics and presented with frequency tables.

  20. Consequences of infertility in developing countries: results of a questionnaire and interview survey in the South of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhu Nguyen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explores the psychological, socio-cultural and economic consequences of infertility on couples' life. The purpose of this research is to improve knowledge about the potentially serious implications of infertility in the South of Vietnam. Methods This study included 118 infertile couples who filled in questionnaires and 28 men and women who were interviewed. Results Data of the questionnaire show men and women do not differ in their responses and attitudes towards infertility. Almost one-third of the participants require psychological support. Interviewees experience secrecy, social pressure and economic hardship. Conclusion Offspring are very important to Vietnamese couples. Their future depends on children. Family plays an important role in the experiences of the infertile couple. Economic consequences are a particular distressing factor. There is a need for psychological counselling in the treatment of infertile couples in the South of Vietnam. It should be realised that in developing countries, despite overpopulation, unwanted childlessness is an important social and economical burden that needs attention.

  1. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-04-01

    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  2. Prevalence and Factors Associated with the Use of Eye Care Services in South Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Seok; Heo, Hwan; Ye, Byeong Jin; Suh, Young-Woo; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Park, Shin Hae; Lim, Key Hwan; Lee, Sung Jin; Park, Song Hee

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the factors and prevalence of eye care service utilization in the South Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional, population-based study included data from 22,550 Koreans aged ≥5 years who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. For people aged 5 to 11 years (young children), information was based on self-reports of contact with eye care service in the past year; for people aged ≥12 years (older population), the information was based on the self-reported lifetime contact with eye care service. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of the complex sample survey data were performed. Results The prevalence of eye care service use in young children during the past year was 61.1% (95% confidence interval, 58.1%–64.1%), while that in the older population during their lifetime was 73.5%. Subjects aged 7 to 11 years were more likely to have had an eye examination in the past year than subjects aged 5 to 6 years (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% confidence interval, 2.37–6.19). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that higher monthly household income, being a National Health Insurance holder, and having private health insurance were related to more frequent use of eye care services in young children. For the older population and women, those living in an urban area and those with a best-corrected visual acuity less than 20 / 40 in the worse-seeing eye were more likely to have had an eye examination during their lifetime. Low education level was associated with low lifetime use of eye care services in the older population. Conclusions There are sociodemographic disparities with use of eye care services in South Korea. This population-based study provides information that is useful for determining different intervention programs based on sociodemographic disparities to promote eye care service utilization in South Korea. PMID:28243025

  3. Transitioning toward Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ankit; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals are now replaced by 17 sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation, and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information are explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS)-2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010 was included in the study. It resulted in the inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011), Congo Republic (2013-2014), Cote d'Ivoire (2011-2012), Ethiopia (2011), Gambia (2013), Mali (2012-2013), Mozambique (2011), Namibia (2013), Nepal (2011), Niger (2012), Nigeria (2013), Pakistan (2012-2013), Sierra Leone (2013), Uganda (2011), and Zambia (2013). The scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio) of child mortality and health outcomes using DHSs. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were

  4. Multiresource analysis and information system concepts for incorporating LANDSAT and GIS technology into large area forest surveys. [South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, P. G.

    1981-01-01

    A method of relating different classifications at each stage of a multistage, multiresource inventory using remotely sensed imagery is discussed. A class transformation matrix allowing the conversion of a set of proportions at one stage, to a set of proportions at the subsequent stage through use of a linear model, is described. The technique was tested by applying it to Kershaw County, South Carolina. Unsupervised LANDSAT spectral classifications were correlated with interpretations of land use aerial photography, the correlations employed to estimate land use classifications using the linear model, and the land use proportions used to stratify current annual increment (CAI) field plot data to obtain a total CAI for the county. The estimate differed by 1% from the published figure for land use. Potential sediment loss and a variety of land use classifications were also obtained.

  5. Prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors in a rural population in South-Western Uganda: a community based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gershim Asiki

    Full Text Available The burden of dyslipidaemia is rising in many low income countries. However, there are few data on the prevalence of, or risk factors for, dyslipidaemia in Africa.In 2011, we used the WHO Stepwise approach to collect cardiovascular risk data within a general population cohort in rural south-western Uganda. Dyslipidaemia was defined by high total cholesterol (TC ≥ 5.2 mmol/L or low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 6% (men aOR=3.00, 95%CI=1.37-6.59; women aOR=2.74, 95%CI=1.77-4.27. The odds of high TC was also higher among married men, and women with higher education or high BMI.Low HDL-C prevalence in this relatively young rural population is high whereas high TC prevalence is low. The consequences of dyslipidaemia in African populations remain unclear and prospective follow-up is required.

  6. Folk herbal medicine: a survey on the paniya tribes of mundakunnu village of the nilgiri hills, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, P N Arul

    2005-07-01

    The present paper represents the results of an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Mundakunnu village of Gudalur taluk, Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu, India. It has been observed that the plant species are used to various ailments of analgesic, antidiarrhoeal, piles, antidiabetic, gynecological problems, vermifuge, antidandruff, venereal diseases, bone fracture and as vegetables. A total of 52 plants species belonging to 51 genera (33 dicot & 6 monocot) have been discussed.

  7. Third annual state of logistics survey for South Africa 2006: Implementing logistics strategies in a developing economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available in the global market place. In addition, those within the second economy who require focused assistance, specifically from a logistics and supply chain management point of view, cannot be ignored. The CSIR (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research..., and market and economic research. We would like to thank the following organisation for participating in the survey: And a special thanks to our sponsor ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? Report edited by Isabel Meyer, Ilse Hobbs and Mario...

  8. SURVEY FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN THE SOUTH AMERICAN FUR SEAL (ARCTOCEPHALUS AUSTRALIS) POPULATION AT PUNTA SAN JUAN, PERU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Gwen; Adkesson, Michael J; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Cárdenas-Alayza, Susana; Majluf, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    The Peruvian population of the South American fur seal ( Arctocephalus australis ) is a distinct evolutionarily significant unit that is endangered. One of the largest rookeries for this species in Peru is located within the Punta San Juan marine protected area (15°22'S, 75°12'W). To better understand the current health status of this population, exposure to 10 pinniped pathogens was evaluated in adult female fur seals (n=29) via serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques in November 2010. The results suggest this population is naïve to canine and phocine distemper viruses (serum neutralization test), five Leptospira interrogans serovars (microscopic agglutination test), and Brucella canis (card test). Indirect fluorescent antibody testing for Toxoplasma gondii , Neospora caninum , and Sarcocystis neurona was also uniformly negative. PCR testing of nasal swabs using previously described Mycoplasma spp. primers was positive in 37.9% (11/29) of samples. One animal was positive via card test for Brucella abortus , whereas 53.7% (15/28) were positive or suspect using a marine Brucella competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody to phocine herpesvirus-1 (PHV-1) was identified in 85.7% (24/28) of the sampled population by serum neutralization testing. Overall, exposure to Mycoplasma spp., Brucella spp., and PHV-1 was observed, but results demonstrated low to no exposure to many key pinniped pathogens. The expansion of human populations, agriculture, and industry along the Peruvian coast may lead to increased pathogen exposure from human, domestic, and wild animal sources. The naïve nature of this key population of South American fur seals raises concerns about potential risk for disease outbreaks.

  9. Follow-up survey of the prevalence, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and treatment of Spirocerca lupi in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Lobetti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirocercosis is an important disease in South Africa. The object of this study was to determine if there had been a change in the prevalence, clinical manifestations and treatment of Spirocerca lupi over a 14-year period. A questionnaire was sent to 577 veterinary practices throughout South Africa in 2012. Of responders, 76% indicated that S. lupi occurred in their area, whilst 24% indicated that it did not; 84% considered S. lupi not to be a new phenomenon, whereas 16% considered it to be new. Monthly or seasonal distribution of the disease was not reported, and 76% of responders reported it to occur in no specific breed of dog, whereas 24% reported a breed risk, most considering large breeds to be at greater risk. No specific age or sex was identified as at higher risk. Common owner complaints were vomiting, weight loss, cough, or regurgitation. Reported clinical findings tended to mirror the clinical signs reported by owners. Most common diagnostic methods used were radiology, endoscopy, faecal flotation, and post mortem examination. Forty-four percent did not report seeing asymptomatic cases, 40% reported asymptomatic cases and 16% did not know. Associated complications were reported by 85% of responders, and included oesophageal neoplasia, hypertrophic osteopathy and acute haemothorax. Four different drugs were used as therapy: doramectin, ivermectin, milbemycin and Advocate®, with 9% of the responders using a combination of these four; 85% considered treatment to be effective and 15% ineffective. Treatment was considered more effective if the disease was diagnosed early and there were no complications. Two important conclusions were that more cases are being seen and that efficacy of therapy has increased, with a decrease in the mortality rate.

  10. Changes in trust and the use of Korean medicine in South Korea: a comparison of surveys in 2011 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soohyun; Heo, Shinhee; Kim, Dongjun; Kang, Seunghyun; Woo, Jong-Min

    2017-09-16

    Korean medicine (KM) has been widely used in Korea. This study aimed to assess the general perceptions of KM, to investigate the patterns of its usage in 2014, and to compare the results with those of an earlier survey from 2011. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1000 Korean people. The questionnaire included items regarding trust in KM, reasons for distrust of KM, and visit frequency to KM clinics. This study used methods consistent with those of a 2011 survey to examine changes in attitudes over 3 years. Despite high rates of trust in KM, the visit frequency decreased from 69.3% in 2011 to 63.2% in 2014. Usage among young adults (in their 20s and 30s) was significantly reduced compared to all other age groups. The KM modality most commonly used by participants was acupuncture, whereas the use of moxibustion and cupping therapies has decreased since 2011. Men and women were most likely to distrust KM due to a "lack of scientific evidence" (59.3%) and "suspicion of KM safety" (47.4%), respectively. The findings suggested that KM use and trust in KM were slightly lower in 2014 than in 2011. The decreases were most notable among individuals in their 30s and in the use of moxibustion in KM therapy. This study aimed to produce practical insights by reviewing patterns of KM use and perceptions over time. Additional surveys must be considered to produce a more in-depth analysis.

  11. A survey of cavity-nesting bees and wasps in loblolly pine stands of the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, S.; Hanula, J., L.

    2004-03-10

    Horn, Scott, and James L. Hanula. 2004. A survey of cavity-nesting bees and wasps in loblolly pine stands of the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina. 39(3): 464-469. Abstract: In recent years concern over widespread losses in biodiversity has grown to include a possible decline of many native pollinators, primarily bees. Factors such as habitat fragmentation, agricultural practices, use of pesticides, the introduction of invasive species, or changes in land use may negatively impact these vital organisims. Most reported studies show that human impacts on pollinators are overwhelmingly negative. Reductions in pollinator populations may profoundly impact plant population dynamics and ecosystem function. Little baseline data exists on the diversity and relative abundance of bees and wasps in southern forests. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, effective method of surveying cavity-nesting bees and wasps and to determine species diversity in mature forests of loblolly pine, the most widely planted tree species in the southern United States.

  12. An ALMA Survey of Submillimeter Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: The AGN Fraction and X-ray Properties of Submillimeter Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, S X; Luo, B; Smail, I; Alexander, D M; Danielson, A L R; Hodge, J A; Karim, A; Lehmer, B D; Simpson, J M; Swinbank, A M; Walter, F; Wardlow, J L; Xue, Y Q; Chapman, S C; Coppin, K E K; Dannerbauer, H; De Breuck, C; Menten, K M; van der Werf, P

    2013-01-01

    The large gas and dust reservoirs of submm galaxies (SMGs) could potentially provide ample fuel to trigger an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), but previous studies of the AGN fraction in SMGs have been controversial largely due to the inhomogeneity and limited angular resolution of the available submillimeter surveys. Here we set improved constraints on the AGN fraction and X-ray properties of the SMGs with ALMA and Chandra observations in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S). This study is the first among similar works to have unambiguously identified the X-ray counterparts of SMGs; this is accomplished using the fully submm-identified, statistically reliable SMG catalog with 99 SMGs from the ALMA LABOCA E-CDF-S Submillimeter Survey (ALESS). We found 10 X-ray sources associated with SMGs (median redshift z = 2.3), of which 8 were identified as AGNs using several techniques that enable cross-checking. The other 2 X-ray detected SMGs have levels of X-ray emission that can be plausibly explained by the...

  13. High prevalence of hepatitis C associated with familial history of hepatitis in a small town of south Brazil: efficiency of the rapid test for epidemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Pontes Ivantes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV in Tamboara, a small community in the northwest area from Paraná State, south of Brazil with a high rate of accumulated detection for HCV. Eight hundred and sixteen residents (17.87% from all the population, independently of the age and time living in Tamboara were included in this study by an epidemiologic questionnaire and by testing for anti-HCV. The rapid immuno-chromatographic test was applied for detection of HCV antibodies. The anti-HCV prevalence by rapid test was 4.28%. The median age for positive and negative test was 60.49 ± 14.14 and 41.67 ± 20.25, respectively (p < 0.001. By multivariate analysis, only familial history of hepatitis (p = 0.001; OR = 6.41; CI 95% = 2.08-19.78 and age (p = 0.007; OR 1.06;95% CI = 1.02-1.10 showed statistical significance for positive anti-HCV. The rapid test sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 92.7% respectively, with an accuracy of 95.8% (95% CI = 91-100. These findings demonstrated a high prevalence of anti-HCV in Tamboara. The familial history of hepatitis was a significant risk factor to the infection and HCV rapid test showed to be accurate and feasible for epidemiological survey

  14. Reconnaissance survey of site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabak, M.A.; Beck, M.L.; Gillam, C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the archaeological investigation of Site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center in Aiken County on the United States Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Pedestrian and subsurface survey techniques were used to investigate the 1,403-acre project area. Survey resulted in the discovery of 23 previously unrecorded sites and 11 occurrences; six previously recorded sites were also investigated. These sites consist of six prehistoric sites, nine historic sites, and 14 sites with both prehistoric and historic components. Sites locations and project area boundaries are provided on a facsimile of a USGS 7.5 topographic map. The prehistoric components consist of very small, low-density lithic and ceramic scatters; most contain less than 10 artifacts. Six of the prehistoric components are of unknown cultural affiliation, the remaining prehistoric sites were occupied predominately in the Woodland period. The historic sites are dominated by postbellum/modem home places of tenant and yeoman farmers but four historic sites were locations of antebellum house sites (38AK136, 38AK613, 38AK660, and 38AK674). The historic sites also include an African-American school (38AK677).

  15. Survey of knowledge and perception on the access to evidence-based practice and clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowther Caroline A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based practice (EBP can provide appropriate care for women and their babies; however implementation of EBP requires health professionals to have access to knowledge, the ability to interpret health care information and then strategies to apply care. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge of evidence-based practice, information seeking practices, perceptions and potential enablers and barriers to clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia. Methods Questionnaires about IT access for health information and evidence-based practice were administered during August to December 2005 to health care professionals working at the nine hospitals participating in the South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing countries (SEA-ORCHID project in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and The Philippines. Results The survey was completed by 660 staff from six health professional groups. Overall, easy IT access for health care information was available to 46% of participants. However, over a fifth reported no IT access was available and over half of nurses and midwives never used IT health information. Evidence-based practice had been heard of by 58% but the majority did not understand the concept. The most frequent sites accessed were Google and PubMed. The Cochrane Library had been heard of by 47% of whom 51% had access although the majority did not use it or used it less than monthly. Only 27% had heard of the WHO Reproductive Health Library and 35% had been involved in a clinical practice change and were able to identify enablers and barriers to change. Only a third of participants had been actively involved in practice change with wide variation between the countries. Willingness to participate in professional development workshops on evidence-based practice was high. Conclusion This survey has identified the need to improve IT access to health care

  16. New Views of East Antarctica- from Columbia to Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Forsberg, R.; Aitken, A.; Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bell, R. E.; Finn, C.; Martos, Y. M.; Armadillo, E.; Jacobs, J.; Ebbing, J.; Eagles, G.; Jokat, W.; Jordan, T. A.; Ruppel, A.; Läufer, A.; Dalziel, I. W. D.

    2015-12-01

    East Antarctica is a keystone in the Gondwana, Rodinia and the Columbia supercontinents. Recent aerogeophysical research, augmented by satellite magnetic, gravity and seismological data is unveiling the crustal architecture of the continent. This is helping comprehend the impact of supercontinental processes such as subduction, accretion, rifting and intraplate tectonics on its evolution. A mosaic of Precambrian basement provinces is apparent in interior East Antarctica (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature). A major suture separates the Archean-Neoproterozoic Ruker Province from an inferred Grenvillian-age orogenic Gamburtsev Province with remarkably thick crust (up to 60 km thick) and thick lithosphere (over 200 km thick). The age of the suturing and its linkages with supercontinental assembly is debated with both Rodinia and Gondwana candidates being proposed. Further east, magnetic highs delineate a Paleo to Mesoproterozoic Nimrod-South Pole igneous province (Goodge and Finn, 2010 JGR) that flanks a composite Mawson Continent- including the Gawler Craton of South Australia (Aitken et al., 2014 GRL). An over 1,900 km long magnetic and gravity lineament is imaged along the western flank of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin and is interpreted here as a major Paleoproterozoic suture zone linked to the collision of Laurentia and East Antarctica within Columbia. The proposed suture played a pivotal role helping localise Neoproterozoic Rodinia rifted margin evolution and forming a backstop for the Ross-Delamerian cycle of Gondwana amalgamation. Aeromagnetic and gravity imaging help determine the extent of a Keweenawan-age (ca 1.1 Ga) large igneous province in the Coats Land Block -isotopically tied with the Mid-Continent Rift System of Laurentia (Loewy et al., 2011 Geology). Imprints of Grenvillian magmatic arc accretion link together the Namaqua-Natal and Maud belts in South Africa and Dronning Maud Land within Rodinia. The aeromagnetically distinct Southeast Dronning Maud

  17. Indians of British Columbia (An Historical Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    An historical review is presented of the 6 major groups of Indians of the coastal region of British Columbia: the Coast Salish, Nootka, Kwakiutl, Bella Coola, Tsimshian, and Haida. Characteristics of each tribe are contrasted in the following 7 sections of the review: (1) Introduction--the life style, sociocultural factors, and unique…

  18. Involvement in and Views on Social Responsibility of Gauteng Members of the South African Society of Physiotherapy: A Cross-sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mostert-Wentzel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available How do physiotherapists in Gauteng Province,who are members of the South African Society of Physiotherapy(SASP, view social responsibility?A cross-sectional survey was conducted after ethics approval.All 1 098 Gauteng members of the SASP were invited via a thirdpartye-mail to reach the a priori minimum sample size of 97. Theweb-based questionnaire was developed from literature, an earlierSASP survey and a position paper of the American Physical TherapyAssociation (APTA. Five experts validated the instrument.The Likert scale scores indicating agreement with indicatorsof social responsibility were totalled to form a composite socialresponsibility score. The chi-square test for independence was used to determine associations between the categorisedcomposite social responsibility score and categorical variables. Mean difference of continuous variables betweenthe categorised core for two groups were tested using the two-sample t-test. All variables with a P-value less than0.05 were included in the logistic regression analysis to investigate predictors of the necessity of social responsibility.The survey was completed by 163 participants. Of the sample, 96.9% viewed social responsibility as important.Subjects agreed most with “advocating for the health needs of society” (74,2% and the least with “political activism”(6.1%. Compulsory community service positively influenced 74.6%.Most physiotherapists in the study viewed social responsibility as important and were involved in volunteering.There is scope to broaden the understanding among physiotherapists of what social responsibility entails.

  19. Intestinal parasites of raccoons (Procyon lotor) from southwest British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, H L; Leighton, B J; Stephen, C

    2000-01-01

    This is the first extensive survey of metazoan parasites (particularly of the roundworm Baylisascaris procyonis) from the intestines of raccoons in British Columbia. The sample collected in 1997-1998 consisted of 82 raccoons that had been sick or had been killed accidentally by automobiles. Fifteen parasite taxa were found: 3 nematodes, 9 digenetic trematodes, 2 acanthocephalans and 1 cestode. Ten of these parasites constitute new host records for raccoons, including 4 digenetic trematodes that have been reported in marine birds and mammals on the Pacific Coast of North America. Baylisascaris procyonis infected 61% of the raccoons with a mean intensity of 27. The high rate of infection indicates a large potential for environmental contamination and, thus, human and animal exposure to infectious eggs. Prevention of larva migrans is discussed, particularly for people in contact with raccoons in wildlife rehabilitation centers. PMID:10805249

  20. Assessing Pacific Lamprey Status in the Columbia River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Mary L.; Close, David A.

    2003-06-01

    In the Columbia River drainage, salmonid-based monitoring programs have historically been used to assess status of both adult and juvenile Pacific lamprey. We compared adult lamprey counts at hydropower dams to recent radiotelemetry results and found that the counts underestimated losses between some dams and overestimated passage times through reservoirs. Count data were not correlated with trap captures of adults conducted in the same area and at the same time, likely due to lamprey-specific behaviors that result in inaccurate counts. We recommend maintenance of traditional count protocols, but emphasize the need for continued research to develop an accurate correction factor to apply to these data. Existing salmonid-based sampling for juvenile lamprey is inadequate and we highlight the need for standardized larval lamprey monitoring that provides both abundance and size distributions. Our electrofishing survey for juvenile lamprey indicated that this technique provides critical information on lamprey recruitment and is feasible over large spatial scales.

  1. Mid Columbia sturgeon incubation and rearing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric; Blubaugh, J

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results from the second year of a three-year investigation on the effects of different thermal regimes on incubation and rearing early life stages of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. The Columbia River has been significantly altered by the construction of dams resulting in annual flows and water temperatures that differ from historical levels. White sturgeon have been demonstrated to spawn in two very distinct sections of the Columbia River in British Columbia, Canada, which are both located immediately downstream of hydropower facilities. The thermal regimes differ substantially between these two areas. The general approach of this study was to incubate and rear white sturgeon early life stages under two thermal regimes; one mimicking the current, cool water regime of the Columbia River downstream from Revelstoke Dam, and one mimicking a warmer regime similar to conditions found on the Columbia River at the international border. Second-year results suggest that thermal regimes during incubation influence rate of egg development and size at hatch. Eggs incubated under the warm thermal regime hatched sooner than those incubated under the cool thermal regime. Mean length of free embryos at hatch was significantly different between thermal regimes with free embryos from the warm thermal regime being longer at hatch. However, free embryos from the cool thermal regime had a significantly higher mean weight at hatch. This is in contrast with results obtained during 2009. The rearing trials revealed that growth of fish reared in the cool thermal regime was substantially less than growth of fish reared in the warm thermal regime. The magnitude of mortality was greatest in the warm thermal regime prior to initiation of exogenous feeding, but chronic low levels of mortality in the cool thermal regime were higher throughout the period. The starvation trials showed that the fish in the warm thermal regime exhausted their yolk reserves faster

  2. Columbia Glacier stake location, mass balance, glacier surface altitude, and ice radar data, 1978 measurement year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L.R.; Trabant, D.C.; March, Rod; Haeberli, Wilfried

    1979-01-01

    A 1 year data-collection program on Columbia Glacier, Alaska has produced a data set consisting of near-surface ice kinematics, mass balance, and altitude change at 57 points and 34 ice radar soundings. These data presented in two tables, are part of the basic data required for glacier dynamic analysis, computer models, and predictions of the number and size of icebergs which Columbia Glacier will calve into shipping lanes of eastern Prince William Sound. A metric, sea-level coordinate system was developed for use in surveying throughout the basin. Its use is explained and monument coordinates listed. A series of seven integrated programs for calculators were used in both the field and office to reduce the surveying data. These programs are thoroughly documented and explained in the report. (Kosco-USGS)

  3. Effects of the Tobacco Products Control Amendment Act of 1999 on restaurant revenues in South Africa--a survey approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walbeek, Corné; Blecher, Evan; van Graan, Madalet

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the impact of the restrictions on smoking in indoor public places on the financial situation of the hospitality industry. A telephone survey was undertaken of 1011 restaurants, selected by searching public-access Internet databases. Fifty per cent of surveyed restaurants spent an average of R67 000 (median of R25 000) to comply with the clean indoor air legislation. The capital cost for the remaining 50% of restaurants was zero. The impact on restaurant revenues was limited: 59% of restaurants reported no change in revenue, 22% an increase and 19% a decrease as a result of the legislation. Franchised restaurants experienced a net gain in revenue (34% reporting an increase, 16% reporting a decrease, and 50% reporting no change), although on average they incurred more costs to comply with the legislation than independent restaurants. On average, independent restaurants reported a decrease in their revenues as a result of the legislation (21% reporting a decrease, 13% reporting an increase, and 66% reporting no change). Ninety-two per cent of respondents believed that their restaurants complied with the legislation. The new smoking policies have been well accepted by nonsmokers (nearly 100%) and smokers (87%) alike. Despite the hospitality and tobacco industries' claim that the law restricting smoking in restaurants would have very detrimental financial consequences, the retrospective evidence does not support this.

  4. Aerial surveys conducted along the Garden Route coastline, South Africa, to determine patterns in shore fishing effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kyle S. Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastal environments provide a wide range of leisure opportunities, including recreational fishing. Understanding spatial and temporal fishing patterns is important in ensuring wise management and sustainable use. To provide information on shore angler effort and distribution, randomised aerial surveys of the Garden Route coast between the eastern border of the Tsitsikamma Marine Protected Area and the Kaaimans River mouth in the west were undertaken between December 2008 and November 2009. A total of 15 flights were conducted, with six flights taking place over weekends, two on public holidays and the balance on normal week days. Angler effort was not uniformly distributed along the coastline, and spatial analysis highlighted coastal areas both inside and outside marine protected areas that had increased angler effort. In general, fishing effort was highest around more densely populated areas and concentrated in areas with easy access. Although angler counts were highly variable, the seasonality of shore angling effort showed a slight increase during autumn and winter and angling effort was significantly higher on weekends.Conservation implications: Data obtained during these surveys can assist management with future conservation planning exercises, whilst also guiding daily law enforcement patrols to maximise angler encounters.

  5. Serological survey for antibodies reactive with Ehrlichia canis and E. chaffeensis in dogs from the Bloemfontein area, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-M Pretorius

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 161 dogs in the Bloemfontein area in South Africa were tested for the presence of antibodies reactive with Ehrlichia canis and E. chaffeensis by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Overall, 68 (42 % of the dogs had significant antibody titres (>1/64 against E. canis and 61 (38 % had significant titres (>1/64 against E. chaffeensis. Seven (11 % dogs had higher titres to E. chaffeensis than E. canis (1/2048 and 1/1024 (2 dogs; 1/1024 and 1/512 (2 dogs; 1/2048 and 1/512; 1/512 and 1/256 and 1/512 and <1/64, respectively. The remaining seropositive dogs had equal (n=26; 42 % or 2- (n=17; 25 %, 3- (n=13; 2% or 4-fold (n= 5; 7 % higher titres against E. canis. Dogs from economically depressed, high-density suburbs (60/112; 48 % had significantly higher prevalences of antibodies against E. canis than those from more affluent, low-density suburbs (8/49; 14 % (c2 19.38, p < 0.001. Higher titres to E. chaffeensis than E. canis were found in dogs from affluent, low-density suburbs (3/49 and in dogs from economically depressed, high-density suburbs (4/112.

  6. The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey - VLT/FORS2 Spectroscopy in the GOODS-South Field

    CERN Document Server

    Vanzella, E; Dickinson, M; Kuntschner, H; Moustakas, L A; Nonino, M; Rosati, P; Stern, D; Césarsky, C J; Ettori, S; Ferguson, H C; Fosbury, R A E; Giavalisco, M; Haase, J; Renzini, A; Rettura, A; Serra, P

    2004-01-01

    We present the first results of the ESO/GOODS program of spectroscopy of faint galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S). 399 spectra of 303 unique targets have been obtained in service mode with the FORS2 spectrograph at the ESO/VLT, providing 234 redshift determinations (the median of the redshift distribution is at 1.04). The typical redshift uncertainty is estimated to be sig(z) ~ 0.001. Galaxies have been color selected in a way that the resulting redshift distribution typically spans from z=0.5 to 2. The reduced spectra and the derived redshifts are released to the community through the ESO web page http://www.eso.org/science/goods/ Large scale structure is clearly detected at z ~ 0.67, 0.73, 1.10 and 1.61. Three Lyman-break galaxies have also been included as targets and are confirmed to have redshifts z=4.800, 4.882 and 5.828. In a few cases, we observe clear [OII]3727 rotation curves, even at the relatively low resolution (R = 860) of the present observations. Assuming that the observed veloci...

  7. The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey VLT/FORS2 Spectroscopy in the GOODS-South Field: Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Vanzella, E; Dickinson, M; Kuntschner, H; Nonino, M; Rettura, A; Rosati, P; Vernet, J; Césarsky, C J; Ferguson, H C; Fosbury, R A E; Giavalisco, M; Haase, J; Moustakas, L A; Popesso, P; Renzini, A; Stern, D; Team, the GOODS

    2006-01-01

    We present the second campaign of the ESO/GOODS program of spectroscopy of faint galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S). Objects were selected as candidates for VLT/FORS2 observations primarily based on the expectation that the detection and measurement of their spectral features would benefit from the high throughput and spectral resolution of FORS2. The reliability of the redshift estimates is assessed using diagnostic diagrams and comparing the results with public data. 807 spectra of 652 individual targets have been obtained in service mode with the FORS2 spectrograph at the ESO/VLT, providing 501 redshift determinations. The typical redshift uncertainty is estimated to be sigma_z ~ 0.0009. Galaxies have been color selected in a way that the resulting redshift distribution typically spans two redshift domains: from z=0.5 to 2 and z=3.5 to 6.2. In particular, 94 B435-,V606-,i775-"dropout" Lyman break galaxies have been observed, yielding redshifts for 64 objects in the interval 3.4

  8. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) Survey on Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Selected Schools in Vhembe District, Limpopo, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibiya, Jerry E.; Gumbo, Jabulani Ray

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of learners on issues related to water, sanitation and hygiene in selected schools in Vhembe District, South Africa. The methodology relied on a questionnaire, an inspection of sanitary facilities and discussion with the school authorities. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. The study revealed that the level of knowledge about waterborne diseases was relatively high (76.7 ± 1.75%), but knowledge on transmission routes was inadequate. The majority of the respondents had no knowledge when it comes to water-based diseases and their prevention (78.4 ± 1.71%).The attitude and practice on hygiene was also found to be high (91.40 ± 1.16%). Some schools from the urban area had proper handwashing facilities, but there was no soap available. The borehole water quality for rural schools appeared clear, but the microbial quality was unknown. The water supply and sanitation facilities were inadequate in rural schools, with no handwashing areas and no sanitary bins for girls. Some schools had toilets with broken doors which did not offer privacy. The only water tap, located at the centre of the school premises, was not enough for the whole school community. PMID:23736657

  9. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP Survey on Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Selected Schools in Vhembe District, Limpopo, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabulani Ray Gumbo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of learners on issues related to water, sanitation and hygiene in selected schools in Vhembe District, South Africa. The methodology relied on a questionnaire, an inspection of sanitary facilities and discussion with the school authorities. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. The study revealed that the level of knowledge about waterborne diseases was relatively high (76.7 ± 1.75%, but knowledge on transmission routes was inadequate. The majority of the respondents had no knowledge when it comes to water-based diseases and their prevention (78.4 ± 1.71%.The attitude and practice on hygiene was also found to be high (91.40 ± 1.16%. Some schools from the urban area had proper handwashing facilities, but there was no soap available. The borehole water quality for rural schools appeared clear, but the microbial quality was unknown. The water supply and sanitation facilities were inadequate in rural schools, with no handwashing areas and no sanitary bins for girls. Some schools had toilets with broken doors which did not offer privacy. The only water tap, located at the centre of the school premises, was not enough for the whole school community.

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) survey on water, sanitation and hygiene in selected schools in Vhembe District, Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibiya, Jerry E; Gumbo, Jabulani Ray

    2013-06-04

    This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of learners on issues related to water, sanitation and hygiene in selected schools in Vhembe District, South Africa. The methodology relied on a questionnaire, an inspection of sanitary facilities and discussion with the school authorities. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. The study revealed that the level of knowledge about waterborne diseases was relatively high (76.7 ± 1.75%), but knowledge on transmission routes was inadequate. The majority of the respondents had no knowledge when it comes to water-based diseases and their prevention (78.4 ± 1.71%).The attitude and practice on hygiene was also found to be high (91.40 ± 1.16%). Some schools from the urban area had proper handwashing facilities, but there was no soap available. The borehole water quality for rural schools appeared clear, but the microbial quality was unknown. The water supply and sanitation facilities were inadequate in rural schools, with no handwashing areas and no sanitary bins for girls. Some schools had toilets with broken doors which did not offer privacy. The only water tap, located at the centre of the school premises, was not enough for the whole school community.

  11. The ATLAS 5.5 GHz Survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: The Second Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Huynh, M T; Hopkins, A M; Norris, R P; Seymour, N

    2015-01-01

    We present a new image of the 5.5 GHz radio emission from the extended Chandra Deep Field South. Deep radio observations at 5.5 GHz were obtained in 2010 and presented in the first data release. A further 76 hours of integration has since been obtained, nearly doubling the integration time. This paper presents a new analysis of all the data. The new image reaches 8.6 microJy rms, an improvement of about 40% in sensitivity. We present a new catalogue of 5.5 GHz sources, identifying 212 source components, roughly 50% more than were detected in the first data release. Source counts derived from this sample are consistent with those reported in the literature for S_{5.5GHz} > 0.1 mJy but significantly lower than published values in the lowest flux density bins (S_{5.5GHz} 0.5 mJy, consistent with the flattening of the spectral index observed in 5 GHz sub-mJy samples. The median spectral index of the whole sample is \\alpha_{med} = -0.58, indicating that these observations may be starting to probe the star forming...

  12. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by ethnic people in West and South district of Tripura, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saikat Sen; Raja Chakraborty; Biplab De; N Devanna

    2011-01-01

    An ethno-medicinal investigation was conducted to highlights the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants being used by the tribe in West and South district of Tripura. This paper provides information about the different uses of plants used in their primary health care system. Tripura is a small north-eastern state of India and also a part of both Himalayan and Indo-Burma biodiversity region. It is a goldmine of me- dicinal plants and use of different plants in tribal traditional heath care systems has long history. Nineteen different tribes in Tripura, depend on natural resources at a great extent. This paper documented 113 medicinal plant species from 56 families along with their botanical name, local name, family name, habit, medicinal parts used, and traditional usage of application. The dominant families are Euphorbiaceae (7 species), Apo- cynaceae (6 species), Fabaceae and Rubiaceae (5 species each), Caes- alpiniaceae, Asteraceae, Liliaceae and Verbenaceae (4 species each), Combretaceae, Labiatae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (3 species each). Tribes of Tripura have rich traditional knowledge on plant based medicine. Different parts of the plants in crude form/plant ex- tracts/decoctions/infusion or pastes are employed in diverse veterinary and human diseases by the tribe's of Tripura in daily life.

  13. A Survey of Bright (Y_AB<27.0) z~7 Galaxies in GOODS-South

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkins, Stephen M; Ellis, Richard S; Stark, Daniel; Stanway, Elizabeth R; Chiu, Kuenley; Lorenzoni, Silvio; Jarvis, Matt J

    2009-01-01

    We analyse recently acquired near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the GOODS-South field to search for star forming galaxies at z~7.0. By comparing WFC 3 0.98 micron Y-band images with ACS z-band (0.85 micron) images, we identify objects with colours consistent with Lyman break galaxies at z~6.4-7.4. This new data covers an area five times larger than that previously reported in the WFC3 imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, and affords a valuable constraint on the bright end of the luminosity function. Using additional imaging of the region in the ACS B, V and i-bands from GOODS v2.0 and the WFC3 J-band we attempt to remove any low-redshift interlopers. Our selection criteria yields 6 candidates brighter than Y_AB = 27.0, of which all except one are detected in the ACS z-band imaging and are thus unlikely to be transients. Assuming all 6 candidates are at z~7 this implies a surface density of objects brighter than Y_AB = 27.0 of 0.30\\pm0.12 arcmin-2, a value significantly smaller than the predict...

  14. An ALMA Survey of Submillimetre Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: The Far-Infrared Properties of SMGs

    CERN Document Server

    Swinbank, Mark; Smail, Ian; Harrison, Chris; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Walter, Fabian; Alexander, Dave; Brandt, Niel; de Breuck, Carlos; da Cunha, Elizabete; Chapman, Scott; Coppin, Kristen; Danielson, Alice; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Decarli, Roberto; Greve, Thomas; Ivison, Rob; Knudsen, Kirsten; Lagos, Claudia; Schinnerer, Eva; Thomson, Alasdair; Wardlow, Julie; Weiss, Axel; van der Werf, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We exploit ALMA 870um (345GHz) observations of submillimetre sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South to investigate the far-infrared properties of high-redshift submillimetre galaxies (SMGs). Using the precisely located 870um ALMA positions of 99 SMGs, together with 24um and radio imaging of this field, we deblend the Herschel/SPIRE imaging of this region to extract their far-infrared fluxes and colours. The median photometric redshifts for ALMA LESS (ALESS) SMGs which are detected in at least two SPIRE bands increases with wavelength of the peak in their SEDs, with z=2.3+/-0.2, 2.5+/-0.3 and 3.5+/-0.5 for the 250, 350 and 500-um peakers respectively. We find that 34 ALESS SMGs do not have a >3-sigma counterpart at 250, 350 or 500-um. These galaxies have a median photometric redshift of z=3.3+/-0.5, which is higher than the full ALESS SMG sample; z=2.5+/-0.2. Using the photometric redshifts together with the 250-870um photometry, we estimate the far-infrared luminosities and characteristic dust tempe...

  15. The LABOCA survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: Two modes of star formation in AGN hosts?

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, D; Rafferty, D; Shao, L; Hasinger, G; Weiss, A; Walter, F; Smail, I; Alexander, D M; Brandt, W N; Chapman, S; Coppin, K; Schreiber, N M Forster; Gawiser, E; Genzel, R; Greve, T R; Ivison, R J; Koekemoer, A M; Kurczynski, P; Menten, K M; Nordon, R; Popesso, P; Schinnerer, E; Silverman, J D; Wardlow, J; Xue, Y Q

    2010-01-01

    We study the co-existence of star formation and AGN activity in X-ray selected AGN by analyzing stacked 870um submm emission from a deep and wide map of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, obtained with LABOCA at the APEX telescope. The total X-ray sample of 895 sources with median redshift z~1 is detected at a mean submm flux of 0.49+-0.04mJy, corresponding to a typical star formation rate around 30Msun/yr for a T=35K, beta=1.5 greybody far-infrared SED. The good S/N permits stacking analyses for subgroups. We observe a trend of star formation rate increasing with redshift. An increase of star formation rate with AGN luminosity is indicated at the highest L_2-10>~1E44erg/s luminosities only. Increasing trends with X-ray obscuration as expected in some AGN evolutionary scenarios are not observed for the bulk of the X-ray AGN sample but may be present for the highest intrinsic luminosity objects. This suggests a transition between two modes in the coexistence of AGN activity and star formation. For the bulk...

  16. Environmental footprints of British Columbia wood pellets from a simplified life cycle analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pa, Ann; Craven, Jill S.; Xiaotao T. Bi; Melin, Staffan; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Environmental footprints of wood pellets produced in British Columbia (BC) of Canada are to be estimated based on industry surveys and published emission factor data. Method: The streamlined life cycle analysis starts from raw material acquisition and ends at port Rotterdam in Europe for exported pellets or North Vancouver port for domestically used pellets. The raw materials used for pellet production are dry and wet sawmill residues, and allocations are based on dry mass....

  17. A survey of a population of anaesthesiologists from South India regarding practices for rapid sequence intubation in patients with head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyen Parida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Evidence and utility of the individual steps of the rapid sequence induction and tracheal intubation protocols have been debated, especially in the setting of traumatic brain injury. The purpose of this survey was to determine preferences in the current approach to rapid sequence intubation ( RSI in head injury patients among a population of anaesthesiologists from South India. Methods: A questionnaire was E-mailed to all the members of the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists′ South Zone Chapter to ascertain their preferences, experience and comfort level with regard to their use of rapid sequence intubation techniques in adult patients with head injury. Participants were requested to indicate their practices for RSI technique for a head-injured patient upon arrival at the Emergency Medical Services department of their hospital. Results: The total response rate was 56.9% (530/932. Of the total respondents, 35% of the clinicians used cricoid pressure routinely, most respondents (68% stated that they pre-oxygenate the patients for about 3 min prior to RSI, thiopentone (61% and propofol (34% were commonly used prior to intubation. Rocuronium was the muscle relaxant of choice for RSI among the majority (44%, compared to succinylcholine (39%. Statistical analyses were performed after the initial entry onto a spreadsheet. Data were summarised descriptively using frequency distribution. Conclusion: In a rapid sequence intubation situation, the practice differed significantly among anaesthesiologists. Owing to disagreements and paucity of evidence-based data regarding the standards of RSI, it is apparent that RSI practice still has considerable variability in clinical practice.

  18. The prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in South Korea: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Gui Hyeong

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in the adult Korean population of South Korea. METHODS Data were analyzed from 9,193 participants who were 40 years of age or older from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), conducted from 2009 to 2010. Standardized slit-lamp examinations were performed by study ophthalmologists to examine the anterior segment for evidence of pterygium. Pterygium was graded clinically as T1 (atrophic), T2 (intermediate), or T3 (opaque). Every participant underwent ocular and systemic examinations, as well as interviewer-administered questionnaires. Any evidence of pterygium and observed association between the risk factors were recorded. RESULTS The mean age of the subjects was 55.7 (±0.2) years. Of the 9,193 eligible subjects, 935 had pterygium in at least one eye. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and sex, pterygium was significantly associated with rural vs. urban residence (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 2.0), lower level of education (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 3.1 to 6.6), low income (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.8), smoking (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0), and more hours of sun exposure (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.8). After adjusting for all variables, the prevalence of pterygium was significantly associated with age, sex, residence, education level, and smoking. CONCLUSIONS This is a nationwide epidemiologic study in South Korea to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for pterygium. The overall prevalence of pterygium was 8.8% among Koreans aged 40 years or older. Older age, male gender, rural residence, lower level of education, and non-smoking were associated with the development of pterygium. PMID:27156345

  19. Attack rate and household secondary attack rate of acute conjunctivitis during an outbreak in South India: A community-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkur, Pruthu; Reddy, Mahendra M; Naik, Bijaya Nanda; Subitha, L; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge on epidemiology of the disease in the contemporary world will help to develop appropriate strategies to curtail the transmission during an outbreak. This study was carried out during an outbreak of conjunctivitis in selected areas of Puducherry, South India, to assess the attack rate of conjunctivitis, identify factors associated with developing conjunctivitis and calculate household secondary attack rate (HSAR) of conjunctivitis and its correlates. Methodology: During December 2014, a community-based survey was conducted in a selected urban and rural area in Puducherry, South India. Simple random sampling was used to select primary sampling units and systematic sampling to select households. All individuals in the selected households were studied. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on sociodemographic characteristics, conjunctivitis during September-November, 2014, and number of household contacts who developed conjunctivitis within 7 days of index case. The attack rate and HSAR of conjunctivitis was expressed as percentage. Multivariate logistic regression was used to find factors independently associated with developing conjunctivitis and also 100% HSAR. Results: Of 3193 study participants from 772 households, 509 (15.9%, 95% confidence interval 14.7-17.2%) had an attack of conjunctivitis during the reference period. Of the 772 households, 218 (28.2%) had at least one case of conjunctivitis. Of 218 households, 33 (15.1%) households had 100% HSAR. Lower age, not being unemployed, low socioeconomic status, and residing in rural area were independently associated with developing conjunctivitis. Index case being male and living in a household with ≥5 members were independently associated with 100% HSAR. Conclusion: In the outbreak under study, more than one-fourth of households had at least one case of conjunctivitis and about one in every six individuals had an attack of conjunctivitis. PMID:27221677

  20. Factors associated with different types of birth attendants for home deliveries: an analysis of the cross-sectional 2010 South Sudan household survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugo, Ngatho S.; Agho, Kingsley E.; Zwi, Anthony B.; Dibley, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In South Sudan, birth deliveries attended by unskilled birth attendants put the mothers and their newborns at increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with delivery by unskilled birth attendants or by unassisted delivery. Design We examined data for 2,767 (weighted total) women aged 15–49 years who delivered at home 2 years prior to the South Sudan Household Health Survey 2010. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with delivery by unskilled birth attendants or by unassisted delivery. Results The prevalence of delivery by unskilled birth attendants was 19% [95% confidence interval (CI) 17.0, 20.5], by skilled birth attendants (SBAs) was 45% (95% CI 42.4, 47.0), and by unassisted delivery was 36% (95% CI 34.2, 38.6). After adjusting for potential confounders, the following factors were associated with the increased odds for unassisted delivery or delivery by an unskilled birth attendant: mothers with no schooling, who did not attend antenatal care (ANC) during pregnancy, who had lower quality of ANC services, from poor households, or who had no prior knowledge about obstetric danger signs. Conclusions We found that non-utilization of maternal health care services, such as ANC, was significantly associated with unattended birth delivery or delivery by unskilled health providers. The increased uptake of SBAs at delivery will require easier access to ANC services, health promotion on the importance and benefits of SBAs for delivery, targeting both mothers and their families, and the training and deployment of more SBAs across the country. PMID:27473675

  1. Factors associated with different types of birth attendants for home deliveries: an analysis of the cross-sectional 2010 South Sudan household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngatho S. Mugo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Sudan, birth deliveries attended by unskilled birth attendants put the mothers and their newborns at increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with delivery by unskilled birth attendants or by unassisted delivery. Design: We examined data for 2,767 (weighted total women aged 15–49 years who delivered at home 2 years prior to the South Sudan Household Health Survey 2010. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with delivery by unskilled birth attendants or by unassisted delivery. Results: The prevalence of delivery by unskilled birth attendants was 19% [95% confidence interval (CI 17.0, 20.5], by skilled birth attendants (SBAs was 45% (95% CI 42.4, 47.0, and by unassisted delivery was 36% (95% CI 34.2, 38.6. After adjusting for potential confounders, the following factors were associated with the increased odds for unassisted delivery or delivery by an unskilled birth attendant: mothers with no schooling, who did not attend antenatal care (ANC during pregnancy, who had lower quality of ANC services, from poor households, or who had no prior knowledge about obstetric danger signs. Conclusions: We found that non-utilization of maternal health care services, such as ANC, was significantly associated with unattended birth delivery or delivery by unskilled health providers. The increased uptake of SBAs at delivery will require easier access to ANC services, health promotion on the importance and benefits of SBAs for delivery, targeting both mothers and their families, and the training and deployment of more SBAs across the country.

  2. Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey -- GOODS-South Field, Non-SNe-Searched Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Sandra

    2011-10-01

    The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey {CANDELS}is designed to document the ?rst third of galactic evolution from z =8 to 1.5 via deep imaging of more than 250,000 galaxies with WFC3/IRand ACS. It will also find the first Type Ia SNe beyond z > 1.5 andestablish their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Fivepremier multi-wavelength sky regions selected from the SpitzerExtragalactic Deep Survey {SEDS} provide complementary IRAC imagingdata down to 26.5 AB mag, a unique resource for stellar masses at allredshifts. The use of ?ve widely separated ?elds mitigates cosmicvariance and yields statistically robust and complete samples ofgalaxies down to 10^9 solar masses out to z 8.The program merges two originally separate MCT proposals. The Faberprogram incorporates a ?Wide? imaging survey in three separate fieldsto 2 orbit depth over 0.2 sq. degrees, plus a ?Deep? imaging surveyto 12 orbit depth in the two GOODS regions over 0.04 sq. degrees.When combined with ultra-deep imaging from the Hubble Ultradeep Fieldprogram {GO 11563}, the result is a three-tiered strategy that ef?cientlysamples both bright/rare and faint/common extragalactic objects. TheFerguson program adds an extensive high-redshift Type Ia SNe search,plus ultraviolet "daytime" UVIS exposures in GOODS-N to exploit theCVZ opportunity in that field.This program, GO 12064, is part of the Wide mosaic survey, which has thefollowing field centers and sizes: Field ID RA{2000} Dec{2000} WFC3 Dim. PA on sky UDS 02 17 38 -05 12 02 4x11 270 COSMOS 10 00 31 +02 24 00 4x11 180 EGS 14 19 31 +52 54 10 3x15 41 Science highlights from the Wide program: * Underlying structural properties of galaxies as revealed by WFC3-IR images sensitive to older stars {beyond the 4000-A break} and less affected by dust than ACS. A key redshift is z 2, where star-formation peaks, QSOs are most abundant, and where restframe B-band is still accessible to WFC3. Sample questions include: - Structure in young vs. old

  3. Combining floristic and growth form composition in a gradient- directed vegetation survey of Matjiesrivier Nature Reserve, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Lechmere-Oertel

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The floristically complex vegetation of Matjiesrivier Nature Reserve (MNR. which spans the ecotone between the Fynbos and Succulent Karoo Biomes in the eastern Cederberg Mountains, Western Cape, was surveyed using a gradient-directed transect (gradsect. The gradsect was aligned with a topo-ciimatic aridity gradient across MNR. The vegetation was classified using TWINSPAN. based on a combination of floristic and growth form characteristics, and an understanding of the main ecological gradients controlling vegetation distribution. The final classification described seven robust and eco­logically meaningful communities that represented a trade-off between statistical rigour and practicality for management. The seven communities were mapped using a geographical information system (GIS.

  4. Intensive archaeological survey of the proposed Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, D.K.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1993-11-01

    The project area for the proposed Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility on the Savannah River Site includes a six-acre tract along Fourmile Branch and 18 mi of trunk line corridors. Archaeological investigations of the six-acre parcel resulted in the discovery of one small prehistoric site designated 38AK465. This cultural resource does not have the potential to add significantly to archaeological knowledge of human occupation in the region. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) therefore recommends that 38AK465 is not eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and further recommends a determination of no effect. Archaeological survey along the trunk line corridors implicated previously recorded sites 38AK92, 38AK145, 38AK415, 38AK417, 38AK419, and 38AK436. Past disturbance from construction had severely disturbed 38AK92 and no archaeological evidence of 38AK145, 38AK419, and 38AK436 was recovered during survey. Lacking further evidence for the existence of these sites, the SRARP recommends that 38AK92, 38AK145, 38AK419, and 38AK436 are not eligible for nomination to the NRHP and thus warrant a determination of no effect. Two of these sites, 38Ak415 and 38AK417, required further investigation to evaluate their archaeological significance. Both of the sites have the potential to yield significant data on the prehistoric period occupation of the Aiken Plateau and the SRARP recommends that they are eligible for nomination to the NRHP. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program recommends that adverse effects to sites 38AK415 and 38AK417 from proposed construction can be mitigated through avoidance.

  5. Mental Health Inequalities in Adolescents Growing Up in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Cross-Sectional Survey, SHaW Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayati Das-Munshi

    Full Text Available South Africa is one of the most 'unequal' societies in the world. Despite apartheid ending more than 20 years ago, material inequalities remain interwoven with ethnic/racial inequalities. There is limited research on the prevalence/predictors of common mental disorders (CMD among young people. Adolescence is a unique time-point during which intervention may lead to improved mental health and reduced social problems later. The study objective was to assess mental health disparities in a representative sample of adolescents growing up in South Africa.Cross-sectional associations of race/ethnicity and material disadvantage with CMD and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD were assessed in a stratified random sample representative of school-attendees, aged 14-15 years, in a large metropolitan area of Cape Town. Validated instruments assessed mental disorders; these included: Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (PTSD; Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (depression; Zung self-rated anxiety scale (anxiety. Self-ascribed ethnicity was determined using procedures similar to the South African census and previous national surveys.Response rate was 88% (1034 of 1169 individuals. Adolescents experienced a high prevalence of depression (41%, anxiety (16% and PTSD (21%. A gradient between material disadvantage and CMD/ PTSD was evident across all ethnic/racial groups. Respondents self-identifying as 'black' or 'coloured' were disadvantaged across most indicators. After adjusting for confounders, relative to white children, relative risk (RR of CMD in black children was 2.27 (95% CI:1.24, 4.15 and for PTSD was RR: 2.21 (95% CI:1.73, 2.83. Relative risk of CMD was elevated in children self-identifying as 'coloured' (RR: 1.73, 95% CI:1.11, 2.70. Putative mediators (violence, racially motivated bullying, social support, self-esteem partially accounted for differences in CMD and fully for PTSD.Adolescent mental health inequalities in Cape Town are associated with

  6. Myiasis in pet animals in British Columbia: The potential of forensic entomology for determining duration of possible neglect

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Results of a survey of veterinarians in British Columbia included 25 past cases of myiasis and 10 active cases. Most respondents received at least 5 to 10 cases per year, with some as high as 30 per year. This study revealed some advantages and disadvantages of using forensic entomology in living animals.

  7. Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of tobacco use in four countries of the World Health Organization: South-East Asia region: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Palipudi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco use is a leading cause of deaths and Disability Adjusted Life Years lost worldwide, particularly in South-East Asia. Health risks associated with exclusive use of one form of tobacco alone has a different health risk profile when compared to dual use. In order to tease out specific profiles of mutually exclusive categories of tobacco use, we carried out this analysis. Methods: The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS data was used to describe the profiles of three mutually exclusive tobacco use categories ("Current smoking only," "Current smokeless tobacco [SLT] use only," and "Dual use" in four World Health Organization South-East Asia Region countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Thailand. GATS was a nationally representative household-based survey that used a stratified multistage cluster sampling design proportional to population size. Prevalence of different forms of usage were described as proportions. Logistics regression analyses was performed to calculate odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses were weighted, accounted for the complex sampling design and conducted using SPSS version 18. Results: The prevalence of different forms of tobacco use varied across countries. Current tobacco use ranged from 27.2% in Thailand to 43.3% in Bangladesh. Exclusively smoking was more common in Indonesia (34.0% and Thailand (23.4% and less common in Bangladesh (16.1% and India (8.7%. Exclusively using SLT was more common in Bangladesh (20.3% and India (20.6% and less common on Indonesia (0.9% and Thailand (3.5%. Dual use of smoking and SLT was found in Bangladesh (6.8% and India (5.3%, but was negligible in Indonesia (0.8 and Thailand (0.4%. Gender, age, education and wealth had significant effects on the OR for most forms of tobacco use across all four countries with the exceptions of SLT use in Indonesia and dual use in both Indonesia and Thailand. In general, the different forms of tobacco use

  8. AN ALMA SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: NEAR-INFRARED MORPHOLOGIES AND STELLAR SIZES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Simpson, J. M.; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Edge, A. C. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Biggs, A. D.; Ivison, R. J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); Coppin, K. E. K. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Dannerbauer, H. [Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Wien, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Karim, A. [Argelander-Institute for Astronomy, Bonn University, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Schinnerer, E.; Walter, F. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Wardlow, J. L. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); and others

    2015-02-01

    We analyze Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/H {sub 160}-band observations of a sample of 48 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array detected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South field, to study their stellar morphologies and sizes. We detect 79% ± 17% of the SMGs in the H {sub 160}-band imaging with a median sensitivity of 27.8 mag, and most (80%) of the nondetections are SMGs with 870 μm fluxes of S {sub 870} < 3 mJy. With a surface brightness limit of μ {sub H} ∼ 26 mag arcsec{sup –2}, we find that 82% ± 9% of the H {sub 160}-band-detected SMGs at z = 1-3 appear to have disturbed morphologies, meaning they are visually classified as either irregulars or interacting systems, or both. By determining a Sérsic fit to the H {sub 160} surface brightness profiles, we derive a median Sérsic index of n = 1.2 ± 0.3 and a median half-light radius of r{sub e} = 4.4{sub −0.5}{sup +1.1} kpc for our SMGs at z = 1-3. We also find significant displacements between the positions of the H {sub 160} component and 870 μm emission in these systems, suggesting that the dusty starburst regions and less-obscured stellar distribution are not colocated. We find significant differences in the sizes and the Sérsic index between our z = 2-3 SMGs and z ∼ 2 quiescent galaxies, suggesting that a major transformation of the stellar light profile is needed in the quenching processes if SMGs are progenitors of the red-and-dead z ∼ 2 galaxies. Given the short-lived nature of SMGs, we postulate that the majority of the z = 2-3 SMGs with S {sub 870} ≳ 2 mJy are early/mid-stage major mergers.

  9. Exploring infant feeding practices: cross-sectional surveys of South Western Sydney, Singapore, and Ho Chi Minh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Timothy Yong Qun; Ung, Andrew; Qian, Shelley; Nguyen, Jessie Thanh; An, Yvonne; Mudgil, Poonam; Whitehall, John

    2017-06-13

    Infant feeding practices are known to influence the child's long-term health. Studies have associated obesity and other diseases with reduced breastfeeding and early introduction of high calorie beverages (HCBs). The rising prevalence of obesity is already a problem in most developed countries, especially Australia, but cultural differences are influential. Our aim is to examine and compare infant feeding practices and educational levels of respondents through questionnaires in three culturally different sites: Campbelltown (South Western Sydney), Australia, Singapore and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (HCMC). Consenting parents and carers (aged ≥18 years old) of at least one child (≤6 years old) were recruited from paediatric clinics in Campbelltown, Singapore and HCMC. Participants completed an infant feeding practices questionnaire regarding breastfeeding, beverage and solid initiation in addition to the parent's ethnicity, age, and educational level. Data was analysed quantitatively using SPSS. Two hundred eighty-three participants were recruited across the three sites, HCMC (n = 84), Campbelltown (n = 108), and Singapore (n = 91). 237 (82.6%) children were breastfed but in all only 100 (60.2%) were exclusively breastfed for five months or more. There was a statistical difference in rates of breast feeding between each region. HCMC (n = 18, 21.4%) had the lowest, followed by Campbelltown (n = 35, 32.4%), and then Singapore (n = 47, 51.7%). There was also a difference in rates of introduction of HCBs by 3 years of age, with those in HCMC (n = 71, 84.5%) were higher than Campbelltown (n = 71, 65.8%) and Singapore (n = 48, 52.8%). The educational level of respondents was lower in Vietnam where only 46.4% (n = 39) had completed post-secondary education, compared to 75.0% (n = 81) in Campbelltown and 75.8% (n = 69) in Singapore. Rates of breast feeding were inversely correlated with rates of introduction of HCB and positively related to

  10. A point-prevalence survey of public hospital inpatients with palliative care needs in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, L; Raubenheimer, P J

    2014-02-01

    To assess the need for palliative care among inpatients occupying acute beds in the public sector hospitals of the Cape Town Metropole. A cross-sectional, contemporaneous, point-prevalence study was performed at 11 public sector hospitals in the Cape Town Metropole using a standardised palliative care identification tool. Data were collected on the socio-demographic characteristics, diagnoses, and prior and current care planning of patients. The case notes of 1 443 hospital inpatients were surveyed, and 16.6% were found to have an active life-limiting disease. The mean age of the group was 56 years. The diagnoses were cancer in 50.8%, organ failure in 32.5%, and HIV/tuberculosis in 9.6%. The greatest burden of disease was in the general medical wards, to which an overall 54.8% of patients meeting the requirements for palliative care were admitted. This study provides evidence for the need for palliative care services in public sector hospitals and in the health system as a whole. The young age of patients and the high prevalences of end-stage renal failure and HIV are unique, and the burden in the general medical wards suggests a focus for initial inpatient programmes.

  11. The Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field Survey: Linking galaxies and halos at z=1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Manso, Jesus; Ashby, Matthew L N; Stanford, S A; Brodwin, Mark; Holder, Gilbert P; Stern, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the clustering of high-redshift galaxies in the recently completed 94 deg$^2$ Spitzer-SPT Deep Field survey. Applying flux and color cuts to the mid-infrared photometry efficiently selects galaxies at $z\\sim1.5$ in the stellar mass range $10^{10}-10^{11}M_\\odot$, making this sample the largest used so far to study such a distant population. We measure the angular correlation function in different flux-limited samples at scales $>6^{\\prime \\prime}$ (corresponding to physical distances $>0.05$ Mpc) and thereby map the one- and two-halo contributions to the clustering. We fit halo occupation distributions and determine how the central galaxy's stellar mass and satellite occupation depend on the halo mass. We measure a prominent peak in the stellar-to-halo mass ratio at a halo mass of $\\log(M_{\\rm halo} / M_\\odot) = 12.44\\pm0.08$, 4.5 times higher than the $z=0$ value. This supports the idea of an evolving mass threshold above which star formation is quenched. We estimate the large-scale...

  12. Prevalence of pain in patients with HIV/AIDS: A cross-sectional survey in a South Indian state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoba N Nair

    2009-01-01

    Secondary - To assess the type, site, severity, management of pain and impact of pain on quality of life in these patients. Design: Multicentre cross-sectional survey (This paper is a pilot study. Settings: ART centre at St. John′s Medical College Hospital, Bangalore and Snehadan, A supportive and care centre for HIV/ AIDS patients at Bangalore. Materials and Methods: Data sheet, Brief pain inventory and Short - Form McGill pain questionnaire. Subjects: This is an ongoing study and the pilot study includes 140 HIV/AIDS patients in different stages of the disease. Results: About 66.7% (28/42 in-patients and 24.5% (24/98 out-patients complained of pain. Of the 52 patients who reported pain, 32% (14/52 reported neuropathic pain and 68% (38/52 reported noci-ceptive pain. Headache was most common followed by pain in the soles of feet and low back. Only 26.9% (17/52 received any form of analgesic. Pain severity significantly affects the quality of life. Conclusions: Pain is a common and debilitating symptom of HIV/AIDS. It is however, under-estimated and under treated.

  13. Cluster Mass Calibration at High Redshift: HST Weak Lensing Analysis of 13 Distant Galaxy Clusters from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrabback, T.; et al.

    2016-11-11

    We present an HST/ACS weak gravitational lensing analysis of 13 massive high-redshift (z_median=0.88) galaxy clusters discovered in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey. This study is part of a larger campaign that aims to robustly calibrate mass-observable scaling relations over a wide range in redshift to enable improved cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster sample. We introduce new strategies to ensure that systematics in the lensing analysis do not degrade constraints on cluster scaling relations significantly. First, we efficiently remove cluster members from the source sample by selecting very blue galaxies in V-I colour. Our estimate of the source redshift distribution is based on CANDELS data, where we carefully mimic the source selection criteria of the cluster fields. We apply a statistical correction for systematic photometric redshift errors as derived from Hubble Ultra Deep Field data and verified through spatial cross-correlations. We account for the impact of lensing magnification on the source redshift distribution, finding that this is particularly relevant for shallower surveys. Finally, we account for biases in the mass modelling caused by miscentring and uncertainties in the mass-concentration relation using simulations. In combination with temperature estimates from Chandra we constrain the normalisation of the mass-temperature scaling relation ln(E(z) M_500c/10^14 M_sun)=A+1.5 ln(kT/7.2keV) to A=1.81^{+0.24}_{-0.14}(stat.) +/- 0.09(sys.), consistent with self-similar redshift evolution when compared to lower redshift samples. Additionally, the lensing data constrain the average concentration of the clusters to c_200c=5.6^{+3.7}_{-1.8}.

  14. l681np.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-6-81-NP in Off British Columbia and Washington, Northern Pacific from 05/31/1981 to 06/07/1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry, gravity, and magnetic data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-6-81-NP in Off British Columbia and...

  15. 3 Columbia U. students win Goldwater Fellowship

    CERN Multimedia

    Zaragovia, V

    2003-01-01

    "Noah Burns, Kiril Datchev, and Lawrence David, are the University of Columbia's three recipients of the Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship. This is an award of $7,500 given annually to cover expenses such as tuition, fees, books and room and board, to about 300 individuals nationwide. The scholarship aims to encourage outstanding students to pursue careers in mathematics, the natural sciences or engineering" (1 page).

  16. Columbia River flow-time calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, J.K.

    1962-07-01

    An appraisal of available data on flow times in the Columbia River between the reactor areas and Pasco was made to permit extrapolation of the flow-time curves to lower river flow rates. Comparisons were made between data collected by the US Corps of Engineers and environmental monitoring data and with the previously developed equation for flow times. New equations were developed to fit curves over the range (4 to 40) x 10/sup 4/CFS.

  17. Columbia County Habitat for Humanity Passive Townhomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    Columbia County Habitat for Humanity (CCHH) (New York, Climate Zone 5A) built a pair of townhomes to Passive House Institute U.S. (PHIUS+ 2015) criteria to explore approaches for achieving Passive House performance (specifically with respect to exterior wall, space-conditioning, and ventilation strategies) within the labor and budget context inherent in a Habitat for Humanity project. CCHH’s goal is to eventually develop a cost-justified Passive House prototype design for future projects.

  18. American shad in the Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J.H.; Hinrichsen, R.A.; Gadomski, D.M.; Feil, D.H.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima from the Hudson River, New York, were introduced into the Sacramento River, California, in 1871 and were first observed in the Columbia River in 1876. American shad returns to the Columbia River increased greatly between 1960 and 1990, and recently 2-4 million adults have been counted per year at Bonneville Dam, Oregon and Washington State (river kilometer 235). The total return of American shad is likely much higher than this dam count. Returning adults migrate as far as 600 km up the Columbia and Snake rivers, passing as many as eight large hydroelectric dams. Spawning occurs primarily in the lower river and in several large reservoirs. A small sample found returning adults were 2-6 years old and about one-third of adults were repeat spawners. Larval American shad are abundant in plankton and in the nearshore zone. Juvenile American shad occur throughout the water column during night, but school near the bottom or inshore during day. Juveniles consume a variety of zooplankton, but cyclopoid copepods were 86% of the diet by mass. Juveniles emigrate from the river from August through December. Annual exploitation of American shad by commercial and recreational fisheries combined is near 9% of the total count at Bonneville Dam. The success of American shad in the Columbia River is likely related to successful passage at dams, good spawning and rearing habitats, and low exploitation. The role of American shad within the aquatic community is poorly understood. We speculate that juveniles could alter the zooplankton community and may supplement the diet of resident predators. Data, however, are lacking or sparse in some areas, and more information is needed on the role of larval and juvenile American shad in the food web, factors limiting adult returns, ocean distribution of adults, and interactions between American shad and endangered or threatened salmonids throughout the river. ?? 2003 by the American Fisheries Society.

  19. Groundwater status and trends for the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Snyder, Daniel T.; Haynes, Jonathan V.; Waibel, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Well information and groundwater-level measurements for the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, were compiled from data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey and seven other organizations. From the full set of about 60,000 wells and 450,000 water-level measurements a subset of 761 wells within the aquifers of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) then was used to develop a simple linear groundwater-level trend map for 1968–2009. The mean of the trends was a decline of 1.9 feet per year (ft/yr), with 72 percent of the water levels in wells declining. Rates of declines greater than 1.0 ft/yr were measured in 50 percent of wells, declines greater than 2.0 ft/yr in 38 percent of wells, declines greater than 4.0 ft/yr in 29 percent of wells, and declines greater than 8.0 ft/yr in 4 percent of wells. Water-level data were used to identify groups of wells with similar hydraulic heads and temporal trends to delineate areas of overall similar groundwater conditions. Discontinuities in hydraulic head between well groups were used to help infer the presence of barriers to groundwater flow such as changes in lithology or the occurrence of folds and faults. In areas without flow barriers, dissimilarities in response of well groups over time resulted from the formation of groundwater mounds caused by recharge from irrigation or regions of decline caused by pumping. The areas of focus for this analysis included the Umatilla area, Oregon, and the Palouse Slope/eastern Yakima Fold Belt in the Columbia Basin Ground Water Management Area (GWMA) consisting of Adams, Franklin, Grant, and Lincoln Counties, Washington. In the Umatilla area, water levels from 286 wells were used to identify multiple areas of high hydraulic gradient that indicate vertical and horizontal barriers to groundwater flow. These barriers divide the groundwater-flow system into several compartments with varying degrees of interconnection. Horizontal flow barriers commonly

  20. Phase 1 archaeological investigation, cultural resources survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana districts, south shore of Maui, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkelens, C. [International Archaeological Research Inst., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This report details the archaeological investigation of a 200 foot wide sample corridor extending approximately 9 miles along the southern portion of Maui within the present districts of Hana and Makawao. The survey team documented a total of 51 archaeological sites encompassing 233 surface features. Archaeological sites are abundant throughout the region and only become scarce where vegetation has been bulldozed for ranching activities. At the sea-land transition points for the underwater transmission cable, both Ahihi Bay and Huakini Bay are subjected to seasonal erosion and redeposition of their boulder shorelines. The corridor at the Ahihi Bay transition point runs through the Maonakala Village Complex which is an archaeological site on the State Register of Historic Places within a State Natural Area Reserve. Numerous other potentially significant archaeological sites lie within the project corridor. It is likely that rerouting of the corridor in an attempt to avoid known sites would result in other undocumented sites located outside the sample corridor being impacted. Given the distribution of archaeological sites, there is no alternative route that can be suggested that is likely to avoid encountering sites. Twelve charcoal samples were obtained for potential taxon identification and radiocarbon analysis. Four of these samples were subsequently submitted for dating and species identification. Bird bones from various locations within a lava tube were collected for identification. Sediment samples for subsequent pollen analysis were obtained from within two lava tubes. With these three sources of information it is hoped that paleoenvironmental data can be recovered that will enable a better understanding of the setting for Hawaiian habitation of the area.

  1. A phytosociology survey and vegetation description of inselbergs in the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Brand

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available No previous scientific surveys have been conducted on inselbergs in the Drakensberg. The aim of this study was to collect specimens, identify, describe and name the vegetation clusters and assess biogeographical connections with other Afromontane regions. A total of 103 relevés where sampled from six inselbergs. The plant sampling was carried out according to the Braun-Blanquet method with the plant and environmental data entered in TURBOVEG and exported as a Cornell Condensed format file (CC! into Juice. Classification was completed using TWINSPAN (Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (modified, resulting in 4 major communities, 11 communities, 13 sub-communities and 18 variants. Ordination (indirect was carried out using CANOCO (version 4.5 to investigate the relationship between species. The four major communities identified are Rhodohypoxis rubella (wetland grass and forblands, Scirpus ficinioides – Crassula peploides (sheet rock grass and forblands, Pentaschistis exserta (high-altitude alpine grassland, previously undescribed, and Merxmuellera drakensbergensis – Helichrysum trilineatum (high-altitude alpine fynbos grassland, described in other vegetation and floristic studies. Four habitats were identified, namely wetlands, sheet rock shallow soil, highaltitude alpine grassland and deep soil high-altitude fynbos grasslands. Substrate and moisture availability appeared to be the defining micro-climatic conditions determining the different vegetation clusters whilst altitude is the overriding environmental factor influencing all vegetation.Conservation implications: Rising temperatures as a result of carbon dioxide increase is predicted to drastically decrease the number of endemic and near-endemic montane species, whilst altering the composition of vegetation units which comprise the alpine vegetation.

  2. Tobacco Use Among Students Aged 13-15 Years in South Korea: The 2013 Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonjung; Lee, Jihye; Kashiwabara, Mina

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We examined the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke among middle-school students in Korea using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in 2013. Methods The GYTS in Korea was conducted between July and August 2013 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data were collected using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of middle-school students aged 13-15 years in sampled classrooms. Results The GYTS in Korea was completed by 4235 students aged 13-15 years in 43 middle schools. Approximately one in five of the students (17.8%) reported that they had tried cigarettes in the past, while 5.2% reported currently being cigarette smokers. Current cigarette smoking was higher in boys (7.5%) than in girls (2.6%). Of the students, 29.7% had been exposed to secondhand smoke at home, 47.4% inside enclosed public places, and 53.9% in outdoor public places. Of the current cigarette smokers, 25.7% bought their cigarettes from a store despite a law prohibiting this. Additionally, 58.0% of students noticed point-of-sale tobacco advertisements or promotions, 66.8% of current cigarette smokers wanted to stop smoking, and 70.9% of students had been taught about the dangers of tobacco use in school. Conclusions These findings provide an opportunity to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive tobacco control policy. The results suggest that youth have relatively easy access to cigarettes and are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke in public places, as well as to point-of-sale tobacco advertisements and promotions. Strict enforcement of the ban on tobacco sales to youth, expanding smoke-free areas, and advertising bans are needed to reduce tobacco use among youth. PMID:28173685

  3. Geomorphological survey and remote sensing analysis: a multidisciplinary approach to reconstruct triggering factors of a DSGSD in Maso Corto (South Tyrol, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Gabriele; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Piccin, Gianluca; Chinellato, Giulia; Iasio, Christian; Mosna, David; Morelli, Corrado

    2015-04-01

    In the Alpine regions, it is essential and urgent to define an improved and specific set of monitoring methods for the evolution of instability phenomena in order to avoid the closure of the installations because of the occurrence of natural calamities and to ensure the safety of citizens. In this context the SloMove Project aims at consolidate know-how of the ordinary monitoring applications of surface movements, evaluate their pros and cons and optimize the expected technical procedures of investigation. Within the SloMove project, an experimental composite monitoring has been carried out in the touristic site of Maso Corto (South Tyrol, Italy). Structural-Geomorphological Survey, GPS measurements and Time series analysis of SAR Interferometry data have been integrated. The purposes of this experiment are: 1) to reconstruct the geomorphological dynamics and their state of activity; 2) to provide considerations on the role of permafrost as an influential factor for landslide activity. Structural-Geomorphological survey highlighted control of structural asset of the outcropping lithologies on geomorphological markers, such as trenches, counterscarps, outcropping sliding surfaces. The area is characterized by metamorphic rocks, affected by foliation oriented between N350 and N30. Moreover, joints due to frost thaw activity are common in the shallow portions and the presence of two sets of tectonics fractures (N45, 45°-60° and N360, sub-vertical) has been recognized. In order to evaluate the state of permafrost, rock glaciers in the area have been investigated. SAR interferometry data have been processed by TRE® through the SqueeSAR™ analysis using Radarsat and Envisat images acquired during a period between 2003 and 2009. GPS surveys were carried out through the technique of Rapid-Static Relative Positioning during the summer months of 2012 and 2013. Data shows that an area of 2km2, north of Maso Corto, is affected by a Deep Seated Gravitational Slide

  4. Vocal behavior of Crested Guineafowl (Guttera edouardi) based on visual and sound playback surveys in the Umhlanga Lagoon Nature Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johann H.van Niekerk

    2015-01-01

    Background:General y speaking, playbacks were often ineffective to determine the group sizes of birds since mainly males from leks responded. This limitation has not been tested properly for flocking birds such as Crested Guineafowl (Guttera edouardi) with the view to use it as a counting method. The aims of the study reported in this paper were (1) to describe the cal s of Crested Guineafowl in a social context;(2) to interpret cal s in an evolutionary context;and (3) to demonstrate that playbacks can be used to locate and count Crested Guineafowl in smal isolated forests. Methods:The vocal behavior of Crested Guineafowl was observed during a survey conducted in the Umhlanga Lagoon Nature Reserve (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) from November 2010 to June 2012. Transect line observations and sound playback methods were used. Results:The behavioral context and structure of cal s were described. The eight cal s described for Crested Guineafowl were produced mainly to unite flock members in the dense understory, where visibility was poor, and to repel intruders. When not disturbed, Crested Guineafowl were quiet and only made soft contact calls. Conclusions:The high rate of call back and the fact that flocks invariably approach the source of the call en masse, shows that field researchers are able to assess the population size of Crested Guineafowl with sound playbacks along a transect. The value of playbacks as a conservation tool is assessed.

  5. Trichinellosis survey in the wild boar from the Toledo mountains in south-western Spain (2007-2008): molecular characterization of Trichinella isolates by ISSR-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, R N; Nogal-Ruiz, J J; Manzano-Lorenzo, R; Díaz, J M Arroyo; López, G Pérez; Ruano, F J Sánchez; Casas, A Ramiro; Bascón, C Crespo; Bolás-Fernández, F; Martínez-Fernández, A R

    2009-06-01

    In Spain, trichinellosis represents a public health problem, with an average of five outbreaks per year, wild boar meat being the main source of infection. A trichinellosis survey (2007-2008 hunting campaign) was carried out on wild boars in the Toledo Mountains (south-western Spain, EU) in the context of a surveillance programme on wildlife diseases. A total of 2216 wild boars from different locations of the region were examined. The examination was carried out by veterinarians in the local abattoir (Matadero Municipal de Toledo). The positive samples were sent to the Department of Parasitology (Facultad de Farmacia, UCM) for experimental isolation and specific identification by inter-simple sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR). Using this technique we identified 17 isolates as Trichinella spiralis with an electrophoretic profile indistinguishable from the T. spiralis reference strain (ISS48). We confirmed that ISSR-PCR is a robust technique for the molecular identification of Trichinella isolates. According to our results, the prevalence of T. spiralis in wild boars from the Toledo Mountains (>800 m above sea level) during the hunting season was approximately 0.77%. The prevalence of T. spiralis (100% of our observations) is a good example of the persistence of this species in sylvatic conditions (coming from the domestic cycle), if a good wild host is abundant. Our observations confirm the major prevalence of T. spiralis over T. britovi in this region, as well as the risk to human health represented by the consumption of uninspected wild boar meat.

  6. Does smoking initiation in adolescence increase risk for depression across the lifespan? Evidence from the South korean national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunhee; Romer, Daniel; Lim, Sungwon

    2013-01-01

    The association between smoking and depression has been well stated in the literature. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still unclear. Recent research using an animal model suggests that even low-level nicotine exposure during adolescence has long-lasting effects on the development of depression. This study aims to examine the association between smoking initiation and depression analyzing secondary data. A sample that is representative of the South Korean adult population was selected from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey collected from 2007 to 2009 (N = 18,406). Regardless of life stage of smoking initiation, smokers had greater risk for depression in adulthood than nonsmokers after adjusting for demographics and other depression-related covariates. The results indicate that, with regard to risk for depression, it is important to prevent smoking initiation at any life stage. Successful implementation of smoking prevention strategies should lead to enhanced mental (i.e., reduced risk for depression) as well as physical health of adults in the long run.

  7. Cluster Mass Calibration at High Redshift: HST Weak Lensing Analysis of 13 Distant Galaxy Clusters from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Schrabback, T; Dietrich, J P; Hoekstra, H; Bocquet, S; Gonzalez, A H; von der Linden, A; McDonald, M; Morrison, C B; Raihan, S F; Allen, S W; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Chiu, I; Desai, S; Foley, R J; de Haan, T; High, F W; Hilbert, S; Mantz, A B; Massey, R; Mohr, J; Reichardt, C L; Saro, A; Simon, P; Stern, C; Stubbs, C W; Zenteno, A

    2016-01-01

    We present an HST/ACS weak gravitational lensing analysis of 13 massive high-redshift (z_median=0.88) galaxy clusters discovered in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey. This study is part of a larger campaign that aims to robustly calibrate mass-observable scaling relations over a wide range in redshift to enable improved cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster sample. We introduce new strategies to ensure that systematics in the lensing analysis do not degrade constraints on cluster scaling relations significantly. First, we efficiently remove cluster members from the source sample by selecting very blue galaxies in V-I colour. Our estimate of the source redshift distribution is based on CANDELS data, where we carefully mimic the source selection criteria of the cluster fields. We apply a statistical correction for systematic photometric redshift errors as derived from Hubble Ultra Deep Field data and verified through spatial cross-correlations. We account for the impact of lensing...

  8. A Public, K-Selected, Optical-to-Near-Infrared Catalog of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) from the MUltiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC)

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Edward N; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Quadri, Ryan F; Gawiser, Eric; Bell, Eric F; Barrientos, L Felipe; Blanc, Guillermo A; Castander, Francisco J; Damen, Maaike; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Hall, Patrick B; Herrera, David; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Lira, Paulina; Maza, José; Rudnick, Gregory; Treister, Ezequiel; Urry, C Megan; Willis, Jon P; Wuyts, Stijn

    2009-01-01

    We present a new K-selected, optical-to-near-infrared photometric catalog of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), making it publicly available to the astronomical community. The dataset is founded on publicly available imaging, supplemented by original zJK imaging data obtained as part of the MUltiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). The final photometric catalog consists of photometry derived from nine band U-K imaging covering the full 0.5x0.5 sq. deg. of the ECDFS, plus H band data for approximately 80% of the field. The 5sigma flux limit for point-sources is K = 22.0 (AB). This is also the nominal completeness and reliability limit of the catalog: the empirical completeness for 21.75 < K < 22.00 is 85+%. We have verified the quality of the catalog through both internal consistency checks, and comparisons to other existing and publicly available catalogs. As well as the photometric catalog, we also present catalogs of photometric redshifts and restframe photometry derived from the ten b...

  9. A retrospective survey of the safety of trivalent influenza vaccine among adults working in healthcare settings in south metropolitan Perth, Western Australia, in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Suzanne P

    2012-04-05

    In Australia, annual vaccination with trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) is recommended for healthcare providers. Each year, an influenza vaccination program is run in south metropolitan area hospitals in Perth, Western Australia. In 2010, a survey to examine side effects following vaccination and subsequent significant respiratory illnesses during the influenza season was undertaken. A total of 2245 individuals vaccinated in the area-wide hospital vaccination program responded, representing 50% of consenting recipients. Data linkage was performed to ascertain additional information such as brand details. Side effects within 48 h of receipt of the influenza vaccine were reported by 387 (17.2%). Only 30 respondents (1.3%) had to seek health advice following a side effect temporally related to influenza vaccination and 10 (0.4%) required treatment. Recipients who received Fluvax®(364, 18.0%; CSL Biotherapies) were more likely to report side effects than those who received another brand (23, 10.2%; OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.24-3.03, P=0.004). The difference in the side effect profiles was largely confined to systemic effects. Most respondents (1621, 72.2%) did not require time off work for a respiratory illness during the subsequent influenza season. Overall, the influenza vaccine was demonstrated to be safe among this large sample of predominantly healthcare workers. A higher rate of adverse events, albeit primarily mild, was reported among recipients of Fluvax® in 2010.

  10. The application of large volume airgun sources to the onshore-offshore seismic surveys: implication of the experimental results in northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU XueLin; CHEN Yong; ZHU RiXiang; XU HuiLong; SHI XiaoBin; YE ChunMing; ZHAO MingHui; XIA ShaoHong

    2007-01-01

    Onshore-offshore seismic experiments were carried out for the first time in northern South China Sea using large volume airgun sources at sea and seismic stations on land. The experimental results indicate that seismic signals from the new airgun array of R/V Shiyan 2 can be detected as far as 255 km. The signal effective area reaches nearly 50000 km2, which covers Hong Kong and Pearl River Delta. Compared with the old airgun array, the signal amplitude, propagation distance and effective area of the new airgun array have been increased notably, which demonstrates that the upgrade of the airgun source was successful. Comparisons with previous experimental results in other regions show that the shooting effect of the new airgun array is similar to those best airgun sources in the world. Especially, it is a new breakthrough in using the permanent seismic stations onshore to record long distance airgun signals offshore, which has great significance to the realization of the "seismic radar" concept and the 3D seismic surveys of crustal structure in coastal areas.

  11. An ALMA survey of Sub-millimetre Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: Detection of [C II] at z=4.4

    CERN Document Server

    Swinbank, Mark; Smail, Ian; Hodge, Jackie; Walter, Fabian; Bertoldi, Frank; Biggs, Andy; De Breuck, Carlos; Chapman, Scott; Coppin, Kristen; Cox, Pierre; Danielson, Alice; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Ivison, Rob; Greve, Thomas; Knudsen, Kirsten; Menten, Karl; Simpson, James; Schinnerer, Eva; Wardlow, Julie; Weiss, Axel; van der Werf, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We present ALMA 870-um (345GHz) observations of two sub-millimetre galaxies (SMGs) drawn from an ALMA study of the 126 sub-millimeter sources from the LABOCA Extended Chandra Deep Field South Survey (LESS). The ALMA data identify the counterparts to these previously unidentified sub-millimeter sources and serendipitously detect bright emission lines in their spectra which we show are most likely to be [C II]157.74um emission yielding redshifts of z=4.42 and z=4.44. This blind detection rate within the 7.5-GHz bandpass of ALMA is consistent with the previously derived photometric redshift distribution of SMGs and suggests a modest, but not dominant (4. We find that the ratio of L_CII/L_FIR in these SMGs is much higher than seen for similarly far-infrared-luminous galaxies at z~0, which is attributed to the more extended gas reservoirs in these high-redshift ULIRGs. Indeed, in one system we show that the [C II] emission shows hints of extended emission on >3kpc scales. Finally, we use the volume probed by our A...

  12. Towards Development of OER Derived Custom-Built Open Textbooks: A Baseline Survey of University Teachers at the University of the South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Prasad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Textbook prices have soared over the years, with several studies revealing many university students are finding it difficult to afford textbooks. Fortunately, two innovations – open educational resources (OER and open textbooks – hold the potential to increase textbook affordability. Experts, though, have stated the obvious: that students can save money through open textbooks only if teachers are willing to develop and use them. Considering both the high price of textbooks and the benefits offered by OER and open textbooks, the aim of this study was to assess the University of the South Pacific (USP teachers’ willingness towards development of custom-built OER derived open textbooks for their courses with a focus on providing a foundation for strategies to promote open textbook development at USP. This paper reports the findings of an online survey of 39 USP teachers. The results show that 17 teachers were willing to develop OER derived custom-built open textbooks for their courses. Besides this, there are findings relating to six important areas: teachers’ motivation to develop open textbooks; the frequency of more than one prescribed textbook per course; teachers’ awareness of the costs of the prescribed textbooks; the average cost of prescribed textbooks in a course; teachers’ awareness and utilization of OER and open textbooks; and teachers’ perceived barriers to using OER and types of challenges they encounter while using OER. These findings have been discussed in relation to research studies on OER and open textbooks.

  13. Intensive archaeological survey of the F/H Surface Enhancement Project Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassaman, K.E.; Gillam, J.C.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve archaeological sites and four artifact occurrences were located by intensive survey of two tracts of land for the F and H Surface Enhancement Project on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Fieldwork in the 480-acre project area included surface reconnaissance of 3.6 linear kilometers of transects, 140 shovel tests along 4.2 linear kilometers of transects, an additional 162 shovel tests at sites and occurrences, and the excavation of six l {times} 2 m test units. All but one of the sites contained artifacts of the prehistoric era; the twelfth site consists of the remains of a twentieth-century home place. The historic site and six of the prehistoric sites consist of limited and/or disturbed contexts of archaeological deposits that have little research potential and are therefore considered ineligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The remaining five sites have sufficient content and integrity to yield information important to ongoing investigations into upland site use. These sites (38AK146, 38AK535, 38AK539, 38AK541, and 38AK543) are thus deemed eligible for nomination to the NRHP and the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) recommends that they be preserved through avoidance or data recovery.

  14. Mid-Columbia Coho Salmon Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State) Department of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation

    1999-01-01

    Before the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) decides whether to fund a program to reintroduce coho salmon to mid-Columbia River basin tributaries, research is needed to determine the ecological risks and biological feasibility of such an effort. Since the early 1900s, the native stock of coho has been decimated in the tributaries of the middle reach of the Columbia River. The four Columbia River Treaty Tribes identified coho reintroduction in the mid-Columbia as a priority in the Tribal Restoration Plan. It is a comprehensive plan put forward by the Tribes to restore the Columbia River fisheries. In 1996, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) recommended the tribal mid-Columbia reintroduction project for funding by BPA. It was identified as one of fifteen high-priority supplementation projects for the Columbia River basin, and was incorporated into the NPPC`s Fish and Wildlife Program. The release of coho from lower Columbia hatcheries into mid-Columbia tributaries is also recognized in the Columbia River Fish Management Plan.

  15. Distribution and relative abundance of humpback whales in relation to environmental variables in coastal British Columbia and adjacent waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Ford, John K. B.; Trites, Andrew W.

    2012-03-01

    Humpback whales are common in feeding areas off British Columbia (BC) from spring to fall, and are widely distributed along the coast. Climate change and the increase in population size of North Pacific humpback whales may lead to increased anthropogenic impact and require a better understanding of species-habitat relationships. We investigated the distribution and relative abundance of humpback whales in relation to environmental variables and processes in BC waters using GIS and generalized additive models (GAMs). Six non-systematic cetacean surveys were conducted between 2004 and 2006. Whale encounter rates and environmental variables (oceanographic and remote sensing data) were recorded along transects divided into 4 km segments. A combined 3-year model and individual year models (two surveys each) were fitted with the mgcv R package. Model selection was based primarily on GCV scores. The explained deviance of our models ranged from 39% for the 3-year model to 76% for the 2004 model. Humpback whales were strongly associated with latitude and bathymetric features, including depth, slope and distance to the 100-m isobath. Distance to sea-surface-temperature fronts and salinity (climatology) were also constantly selected by the models. The shapes of smooth functions estimated for variables based on chlorophyll concentration or net primary productivity with different temporal resolutions and time lags were not consistent, even though higher numbers of whales seemed to be associated with higher primary productivity for some models. These and other selected explanatory variables may reflect areas of higher biological productivity that favor top predators. Our study confirms the presence of at least three important regions for humpback whales along the BC coast: south Dixon Entrance, middle and southwestern Hecate Strait and the area between La Perouse Bank and the southern edge of Juan de Fuca Canyon.

  16. Phase I Archaeological Investigation Cultural Resources Survey, Hawaii Geothermal Project, Makawao and Hana Districts, South Shore of Maui, Hawaii (DRAFT )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkelens, Conrad

    1994-03-01

    . Charcoal, molluscan and fish remains, basalt tools, and other artifacts were recovered. This material, while providing an extremely small sample, will greatly enhance our understanding of the use of the area. Recommendations regarding the need for further investigation and the preservation of sites within the project corridor are suggested. All sites within the project corridor must be considered potentially significant at this juncture. Further archaeological investigation consisting of a full inventory survey will be required prior to a final assessment of significance for each site and the development of a mitigation plan for sites likely to be impacted by the Hawaii Geothermal Project.

  17. Knowledge, attitude and practice about malaria in south-western Saudi Arabia: A household-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Sami; Al-Surimi, Khaled; Ali, Anna; Shubily, Hussam M; Al Walaan, Nisreen; Househ, Mowafa; El-Metwally, Ashraf

    2017-02-21

    This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) concerning malaria and malaria prevention among rural populations residing in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This was a household-based cross-sectional survey, using structured questionnaire that was developed and distributed among households selected randomly from 19 villages (clusters) located in a southwestern region of Saudi Arabia, north of the border with Yemen. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 20. A majority of respondents (98.4%) reported that they had heard about malaria, but only 21.7% reported that they had sufficient information about the disease. Surprisingly, the most popular source of information was the internet and social media (proportion responding positively in parenthesis) (25.5%), followed by family (21.7%), while information from health facilities contributed only 12.4%. A majority of respondents were aware that malaria is a communicable (89.1%) and deadly (70%) disease; however, only 30.2% of the respondents responded that malaria is a treatable disease. Almost all of the aware respondents (97.5%) were inclined to seek treatment from health facilities, and 63.2% preferred to seek treatment within 24h of presenting with symptoms. Regarding personal precautions, the most common practice adopted by respondents was indoor residual spraying IRS (47.3%), followed by anti-mosquito spraying (29.8%), mosquito bed nets (13.2%) and combined anti-mosquito sprays and nets on windows (4.7%). This KAP study did not show any statistically significant differences in KAP due to age; however the practices of preventive measures against malaria differed significantly by nationality (Saudi versus non-Saudi). We conclude that most populations living in the villages have an acceptable level of knowledge and awareness about malaria and seek timely treatment. However, the positive attitudes and practices in relation to personal protection and prevention

  18. Ground-Water Flow, 2004-07, and Water Quality, 1992-2007, in McBaine Bottoms, Columbia, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda Joyce; Richards, Joseph M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Columbia, Missouri, and the Missouri Department of Conservation, collected ground-water quality data, surface-water quality data, and water-level data in McBaine Bottoms, southwest of Columbia. McBaine Bottoms, adjacent to the Missouri River, is the location of the municipal-supply well field for the city of Columbia, the city of Columbia wastewater-treatment wetlands, and the Missouri Department of Conservation Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area. This report describes the ground-water flow and water quality of McBaine Bottoms and provides information to better understand the interaction between treated effluent from the wetlands used on the Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area and the water in the alluvial aquifer that is pumped from the city of Columbia municipal-supply well field. Changes in major chemical constituent concentrations have been detected at several sampling sites between pre- and post-effluent application data. Analysis of post-effluent data indicates substantial changes in calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate concentrations in ground water. These changes became apparent shortly after the beginning of the operation of the wastewater-treatment wetland in 1994 and the formation of the Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area, which uses the treated effluent as a water source for the management of migratory water fowl. The changes have continued throughout the 15 years of sample collection. The concentrations of these major chemical constituents are on the mixing continuum between pre-effluent ground water as one end member and the treated wastewater effluent as the other end member. For monitoring wells that had changes in major chemical constituent concentrations, the relative percentage of treated effluent in the ground water, assuming chloride is conservative, ranged from 6 to 88 percent. Twenty-two monitoring wells throughout McBaine Bottoms have been affected by effluent based on chloride

  19. Spawning and abundance of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1948--1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.D.; Watson, D.G.

    1990-03-01

    The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River provides the only major spawning habitat for the upriver bright (URB) race of fall chinook salmon in the mainstem Columbia River. Hanford Site biologists have conducted aerial surveys of spawning salmon in the Hanford Reach since 1948. This report summarizes data on fall chinook salmon spawning in the Hanford Reach and presents a discussion of factors that may affect population trends. Most data are limited to fisheries agency reports and other working documents. Fisheries management practices in the Columbia River system have changed rapidly over the last decade, particularly under requirements of the Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980. New information has been generated and included in this report. 75 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. The CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project (hereafter referred to as the Columbia River Project). This is a follow-on project, funded by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC), to the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Columbia River Protection Project. The work scope consists of a number of CHPRC funded, related projects that are managed under a master project (project number 55109). All contract releases associated with the Fluor Hanford Columbia River Project (Fluor Hanford, Inc. Contract 27647) and the CHPRC Columbia River Project (Contract 36402) will be collected under this master project. Each project within the master project is authorized by a CHPRC contract release that contains the project-specific statement of work. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Columbia River Project staff.

  1. A survey of nuclear-related agreements and possibilities for nuclear cooperation in South Asia: Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAJEN,GAURAV

    2000-04-01

    Several existing nuclear-related agreements already require India and Pakistan, as members, to share information. The agreements are bilateral, regional, and international. Greater nuclear transparency between India and Pakistan could be promoted by first understanding the information flows required by existing agreements. This understanding is an essential step for developing projects that can incrementally advance the sensitivity of the information being shared. This paper provides a survey of existing nuclear-related agreements involving India and Pakistan, and suggests future confidence-building projects using the frameworks provided by these agreements. The Bilateral Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Facilities is discussed as a basis for creating further agreements on restricting the use and deployment of nuclear weapons. The author suggests options for enhancing the value of the list of nuclear facilities exchanged annually as a part of this agreement. The International Atomic Energy Agency's regional cooperation agreement among countries in the Asia-Pacific region is an opportunity for greater subregional nuclear cooperation in South Asia. Linking the regional agreement with South Asian environmental cooperation and marine pollution protection efforts could provide a framework for projects involving Indian and Pakistani coastal nuclear facilities. Programs of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations that use nuclear techniques to increase food and crop production and optimize water management in arid areas also provide similar opportunities for nuclear cooperation. Other frameworks for nuclear cooperation originate from international conventions related to nuclear safety, transportation of nuclear wastes, worker protection against ionizing radiation, and the nondeployment of nuclear weapons in certain areas. The information shared by existing frameworks includes: laws and regulations

  2. Population estimates for the Toiyabe population of the Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), 2004–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Mellison, Chad; Galvan, Stephanie K.

    2013-01-01

    The Toiyabe population of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris, hereafter "Toiyabe frogs") is a geographically isolated population located in central Nevada (fig. 1). The Toiyabe population is part of the Great Basin Distinct Population Segment of Columbia spotted frogs, and is a candidate for listing under the Endangered Species Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011). The cluster of breeding sites in central Nevada represents the southernmost extremity of the Columbia spotted frogs' known range (Funk and others, 2008). Toiyabe frogs are known to occur in seven drainages in Nye County, Nevada: Reese River, Cow Canyon Creek, Ledbetter Canyon Creek, Cloverdale Creek, Stewart Creek, Illinois Creek, and Indian Valley Creek. Most of the Toiyabe frog population resides in the Reese River, Indian Valley Creek, and Cloverdale Creek drainages (fig. 1; Nevada Department of Wildlife, 2003). Approximately 90 percent of the Toiyabe frogs' habitat is on public land. Most of the public land habitat (95 percent) is managed by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), while the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) manages the remainder. Additional Toiyabe frog habitat is under Yomba Shoshone Tribal management and in private ownership (Nevada Department of Wildlife, 2003). The BLM, USFS, Nevada Department of Wildlife (NDOW), Nevada Natural Heritage Program (NNHP), Nye County, and U.S Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) have monitored the Toiyabe population since 2004 using mark and recapture surveys (Nevada Department of Wildlife, 2004). The USFWS contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to produce population estimates using these data.

  3. SURVEY OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND REFERENCE WORKS ON ASIA, AFRICA, LATIN AMERICA, RUSSIA, AND EAST EUROPE--AND COMPILATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES ON EAST ASIA, SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA FOR UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES. INTERIM REPORT, PHASE ONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOREHOUSE, WARD

    THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT IS TO ASSIST UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES IN STRENGTHENING THEIR RESOURCES ON AREAS OUTSIDE THE PERIMETER OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION USUALLY GIVEN LITTLE ATTENTION BY AMERICAN COLLEGES, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON EAST AND SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA. UNDER THE PROJECT'S FIRST PHASE, A PANEL OF LIBRARY ADVISERS WAS…

  4. Description of the Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study (CBWES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Larry K.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Nelson, Danny A.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this Technical Report is to provide background information about the Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study (CBWES). This study, which was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Wind and Water Power Program, was conducted from 16 November 2010 through 21 March 2012 at a field site in northeastern Oregon. The primary goal of the study was to provide profiles of wind speed and wind direction over the depth of the boundary layer in an operating wind farm located in an area of complex terrain. Measurements from propeller and vane anemometers mounted on a 62 m tall tower, Doppler Sodar, and Radar Wind Profiler were combined into a single data product to provide the best estimate of the winds above the site during the first part of CBWES. An additional goal of the study was to provide measurements of Turbulence Kinetic Energy (TKE) near the surface. To address this specific goal, sonic anemometers were mounted at two heights on the 62 m tower on 23 April 2011. Prior to the deployment of the sonic anemometers on the tall tower, a single sonic anemometer was deployed on a short tower 3.1 m tall that was located just to the south of the radar wind profiler. Data from the radar wind profiler, as well as the wind profile data product are available from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Data Archive (http://www.arm.gov/data/campaigns). Data from the sonic anemometers are available from the authors.

  5. The Columbia River plume as cross-shelf exporter and along-coast barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, N. S.; MacCready, P.; Hickey, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    An intensive Lagrangian particle-tracking analysis of the July 2004 upwelling period was conducted in a hindcast model of the US Pacific Northwest coast, in order to determine the effect of the Columbia River plume on the fate of upwelled water. The model, implemented using Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), includes variable wind and atmospheric forcing, variable Columbia river flow, realistic boundary conditions from Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM), and 10 tidal constituents. Model skill has been demonstrated in detail elsewhere [MacCready, P., Banas, N.S., Hickey, B.M., Dever, E.P., Liu, Y., 2008. A model study of tide- and wind-induced mixing in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Continental Shelf Research, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2008.03.015]. Particles were released in the Columbia estuary, along the Washington coastal wall, and along the model's northern boundary at 48°N. Particles were tracked in three dimensions, using both velocities from ROMS and a vertical random displacement representing turbulent mixing. When 25 h of upwelling flow is looped and particles tracked for 12 d, their trajectories highlight a field of transient eddies and recirculations on scales from 5 to 50 km both north and south of the Columbia. Not all of these features are caused by plume dynamics, but the presence of the plume increases the entrainment of inner-shelf water into them. The cumulative effect of the plume's interaction with these transient features is to increase cross-shelf dispersion: 25% more water is transported laterally past the 100 m isobath when river and estuarine effects are included than when they are omitted. This cross-shelf dispersion also disrupts the southward transport of water along the inner shelf that occurs in the model when the Columbia River is omitted. This second effect—increased retention of upwelled water on the Washington shelf—may be partly responsible for the regional-scale alongcoast gradient in chlorophyll biomass

  6. 25-hydroxy-vitamin D demography and the risk of vitamin D insufficiency in the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Nguyen, Bao Khanh Le; Sandjaja; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Hong, Truong Nguyen; Ernawati, Fitrah; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2016-01-01

    The South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) were conducted in 2010/2011 in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam in country representative samples totalling 16,744 children aged 0.5 to 12 years. Information on socio-demographic and behavioural variables was collected using questionnaires and anthropometric variables were measured. In a sub-sample of 2016 children, serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) was determined. Data were analysed using SPSS complex sample with weight factors to report population representative data. Children were categorized as deficient (=75 nmol/L). In Malaysia and Thailand, urban children had lower 25(OH)D than rural children. In all countries, except Vietnam, boys had higher 25(OH)D levels and older children had lower 25(OH)D. Regional differences after correcting for age, sex and area of residence were seen in all countries. In Thailand and Malaysia, 25(OH)D status was associated with religion. The percentage of children with adequate 25(OH)D (>=75 nmol/L) ranged from as low as 5% (Indonesia) to 20% (Vietnam). Vitamin D insufficiency (countries. Logistic regression showed that girls, urban area, region within the country and religion significantly increased the odds for being vitamin D insufficient. The high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in the (sub) tropical SEANUTS countries suggests a need for tailored approach to successfully combat this problem. Promoting active outdoor livestyle with safe sunlight exposure along with food-based strategies to improve vitamin D intake can be feasible options.

  7. X-Ray Spectral Analyses of AGNs from the 7Ms Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: The Distribution, Variability, and Evolutions of AGN Obscuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Teng; Tozzi, Paolo; Wang, Jun-Xian; Brandt, William N.; Vignali, Cristian; Xue, Yongquan; Schneider, Donald P.; Comastri, Andrea; Yang, Guang; Bauer, Franz E.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Luo, Bin; Gilli, Roberto; Wang, Q. Daniel; Giavalisco, Mauro; Ji, Zhiyuan; Alexander, David M.; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Shemmer, Ohad; Koekemoer, Anton; Risaliti, Guido

    2017-09-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the brightest active galactic nuclei (AGNs) identified in the 7Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey over a time span of 16 years. Using a model of an intrinsically absorbed power-law plus reflection, with possible soft excess and narrow Fe Kα line, we perform a systematic X-ray spectral analysis, both on the total 7Ms exposure and in four different periods with lengths of 2–21 months. With this approach, we not only present the power-law slopes, column densities {N}{{H}}, observed fluxes, and absorption-corrected 2–10 keV luminosities L X for our sample of AGNs, but also identify significant spectral variabilities among them on timescales of years. We find that the {N}{{H}} variabilities can be ascribed to two different types of mechanisms, either flux-driven or flux-independent. We also find that the correlation between the narrow Fe line EW and {N}{{H}} can be well explained by the continuum suppression with increasing {N}{{H}}. Accounting for the sample incompleteness and bias, we measure the intrinsic distribution of {N}{{H}} for the CDF-S AGN population and present reselected subsamples that are complete with respect to {N}{{H}}. The {N}{{H}}-complete subsamples enable us to decouple the dependences of {N}{{H}} on L X and on redshift. Combining our data with those from C-COSMOS, we confirm the anticorrelation between the average {N}{{H}} and L X of AGN, and find a significant increase of the AGN-obscured fraction with redshift at any luminosity. The obscured fraction can be described as {f}{obscured}≈ 0.42 {(1+z)}0.60.

  8. Seeking informal and formal help for mental health problems in the community: a secondary analysis from a psychiatric morbidity survey in South London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, June; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Aschan, Lisa; Henderson, Max J; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew

    2014-10-08

    BackgroundOnly 30-35% of people with mental health problems seek help from professionals. Informal help, usually from friends, family and religious leaders, is often sought but is under-researched. This study aimed to contrast patterns of informal and formal help-seeking using data from a community psychiatric morbidity survey (n=1692) (South East London Community Health (SELCOH) Study).MethodsPatterns of help-seeking were analysed by clinical, sociodemographic and socioeconomic indicators. Factors associated with informal and formal help-seeking were investigated using logistic regression. Cross-tabulations examined informal help-seeking patterns from different sources.Results`Cases¿ (n = 386) were participants who had scores of ¿ 12 on the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), indicating a common mental disorder. Of these, 40.1% had sought formal help, (of whom three-quarters (29%) had also sought informal help), 33.6% had sought informal help only and only 26.3% had sought no help. When controlling for non-clinical variables, severity, depression, suicidal ideas, functioning and longstanding illnesses were associated with formal rather than informal help-seeking. Age and ethnic group influenced sources of informal help used. Younger people most frequently sought informal help only whereas older people tended to seek help from their family. There were ethnic group differences in whether help was sought from friends, family or religious leaders.ConclusionsThis study has shown how frequently informal help is used, whether in conjunction with formal help or not. Among the `cases¿, over 60% had sought informal help, whether on its own or together with formal help. Severity was associated with formal help-seeking. Patterns of informal help use have been found. The use and effectiveness of informal help merit urgent research.

  9. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Denver; Gibson, Diana; Johnson, Quinton

    2016-12-24

    The aim of this study was to identify and document medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa. One hundred and twelve (112) respondents were interviewed between August 2014 and September 2015 through semi-structured surveys to gather data on the percentage of people who had been diagnosed with High Blood Pressure and/or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and to determine the frequency of medicinal plant and allopathic medicine use. Twelve (12) key respondents were subsequently selected, using a non-probability snowball sampling method. They were interviewed in-depth concerning their plant practices and assisted with plant collection. Twenty-four plant (24) species belonging to 15 families were identified for the management of High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The most frequently reported families were Asteraceae (20.8%), Lamiaceae (16.67%), Crassulaceae (8.33%) and Aizoaceae (8.33%). The remaining (45.54%) were evenly split over eleven families- Fabaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Capparaceae, Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Apocynaceae, Rutaceae, Asphodelaceae and Thymelaeaceae. The most commonly used plant species overall was Lessertia frutescens (96.55%). The most frequently used plant parts included leaves (57.63%) roots/bulbs (15.25%) and stems (11.86%), mostly prepared as infusions or decoctions for oral administration. Medicinal plants are widely used by High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus sufferers. They employ diverse plant species to manage both conditions. In addition, some sufferers often use prescribed allopathic medication, as well as medicinal plants, but at different intervals. Despite high usage the plants identified are not currently threatened (Red Data list status: least concern). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Columbia River Mainstem Facilities, 1984 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howerton, Jack; Hwang, Diana

    1984-11-01

    This report reviews the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation programs at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Each hydropower facility report is abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  11. 78 FR 45957 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Columbia University, Department of Anthropology, New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ..., Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, telephone (212) 854-4977, email roth@columbia.edu . SUPPLEMENTARY... York, NY 10027, telephone (212) 854-4977, email roth@columbia.edu , by August 29, 2013. After that...

  12. 76 FR 6525 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The... Aircraft Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (previously...

  13. South America Province Boundaries, 1999 (prv6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. South America was divided into 107 geologic provinces as background...

  14. The Rights of the Child and "The Good of the Learners": A Comparative Ethnographical Survey on the Abolition of Corporal Punishment in South African Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payet, Jean-Paul; Franchi, Vije

    2008-01-01

    In contemporary South Africa, the abolition of corporal punishment symbolizes a break with the previous schooling system. A qualitative study in four formerly segregated schools south of Johannesburg showcases different realities and discourses on corporal punishment. The practices vary from its total abolition to its continued maintenance. Most…

  15. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal Clinical Nutrition is published by the South African ... a cross sectional survey using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) screening tool ... Poor complementary feeding practices among young children in Cameroon ...

  16. Closely Watched Tenure Case at Columbia University Is Still Unsettled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin; Byrne, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an unsettled tenure case at Columbia University. The high-profile and controversial tenure bid of Joseph A. Massad, a Palestinian-American professor of Arab politics, was turned down by Columbia University's provost, Alan Brinkley. Mr. Massad's case follows closely on two other high-profile tenure bids affected by the…

  17. Closely Watched Tenure Case at Columbia University Is Still Unsettled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin; Byrne, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an unsettled tenure case at Columbia University. The high-profile and controversial tenure bid of Joseph A. Massad, a Palestinian-American professor of Arab politics, was turned down by Columbia University's provost, Alan Brinkley. Mr. Massad's case follows closely on two other high-profile tenure bids affected by the…

  18. The Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project: scientific assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains digital versions (PDF) of the major scientific documents prepared for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). "A Framework for Ecosystem Management in the Interior Columbia Basin and Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins" describes a general planning model for ecosystem management. The "Highlighted...

  19. Hydrogeology of the Schodack-Kinderhook Area, Renssealaer and Columbia Counties, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    Two glaciodeltaic outwash terraces in southern Rensselaer and northern Columbia Counties, known locally as the Schodack and Kinderhook terraces, consist of ice-contact and outwash sand and gravel and together form a regional, unconfined, stratified-drift aquifer with a combined area of 18.75 square miles. The hydrogeology of these aquifers is summarized on four maps at 1:24,000 scale, that depict (1) locations of wells and test holes, (2) surficial geology, (3) altitude of the water table, and (4) altitude of the bedrock surface.Both terraces are associated with a thin and probably discontinuous confined aquifer consisting of beds of glaciofluvial sand and gravel derived from the outwash deltas that form the two terraces. The confined aquifer is overlain by thick deposits of lacustrine silt and clay. Consultants? estimates of average hydraulic conductivity, based on aquifer tests conducted at four test wells screened in thicker sections of the confined aquifer, range from 430 to 2,360 ft/d (feet per day), with a mean of 1,150 ft/d. The mean estimate of hydraulic conductivity derived from specific-capacity data from 16 test wells screened in confined and unconfined sections of the aquifer is 640 ft/d.Reported yields for domestic wells completed in unconfined sections of the Schodack and Kinderhook terrace aquifers average 16.1 and 18.3 gal/min (gallons per minute), respectively, and reported yields of domestic wells completed in hydraulically confined sections of these terraces average 15.3 and 12.8 gal/ min, respectively. Yields from public-supply wells screened in the confined sections of the Schodack Terrace aquifer range from 50 to 1,050 gal/min and average 305 gal/min. Average annual recharge to the Schodack Terrace aquifer and adjacent upland till deposits, as estimated in a 1960 U.S. Geological Survey study, were 16.3 and 7.1 inches per square mile, respectively. Bedrock that underlies the study area has been highly modified by tectonic activity, differential

  20. The General Public’s Awareness of Early Symptoms of and Emergency Responses to Acute Myocardial Infarction and Related Factors in South Korea: A National Public Telephone Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Sook Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prompt treatment affects prognosis and survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI onset. This study evaluated the awareness of early symptoms of AMI and knowledge of appropriate responses on symptom occurrence, along with related factors. Methods: Participants’ knowledge of the early symptoms of and responses to AMI onset were investigated using a random digit dialing survey. We included 9600 residents of 16 metropolitan cities and provinces in Korea. Results: The proportions of respondents who were aware of early symptoms of AMI ranged from 32.9% (arm or shoulder pain to 79.1% (chest pain and discomfort. Of the respondents, 67.0% would call an ambulance if someone showed signs of AMI, 88.7% knew ≥1 symptom, 10.9% knew all five symptoms, and 3.1% had excellent knowledge (correct identification of all five AMI symptoms, not answering “Yes” to the trap question, and correctly identifying calling an ambulance as the appropriate response when someone is exhibiting AMI symptoms. The odds ratio (OR for having excellent knowledge was significantly higher for those who graduated college or higher (OR 3.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–10.76 than for those with less than a primary school education, as well as for subjects with AMI advertisement exposure (OR 1.49; 95% CI, 1.10–2.02 and with knowledge of AMI (OR 1.63; 95% CI, 1.16–2.27. The 60- to 79-year-old group had significantly lower OR for excellent knowledge than the 20- to 39-year-old group (OR 0.53; 95% CI, 0.28–0.99. Conclusions: Awareness of AMI symptoms and the appropriate action to take after symptom onset in South Korea was poor. Therefore, educational and promotional strategies to increase the overall awareness in the general public, especially in the elderly and those with low education levels, are needed.

  1. The 7 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: Cosmic Black-Hole Growth is Mainly Linked to Host-Galaxy Stellar Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, W. Niel; Yang, Guang; Chen, Chien-Ting; Vito, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    The Chandra exposure on the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) has recently been increased to 7 Ms, allowing unmatched X-ray and multiwavelength characterization of cosmic black-hole growth in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have used these data to investigate the dependence of black-hole accretion rate (BHAR) on host-galaxy star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass (M*) at z = 0.5-2. Our sample consists of 18,000 galaxies with SFR and M* measurements, and we use sample-mean BHAR for these galaxies to approximate their long-term average BHAR. Our sample-mean BHARs are derived from the CDF-S observations via both direct spectral analysis and stacking. The average BHAR is correlated positively with both SFR and M*, and the BHAR-SFR and BHAR-M* relations can both be described acceptably by linear models with a slope of unity. However, according to partial-correlation analyses, BHAR is correlated more strongly with M* than SFR. This result indicates that M* is the primary host-galaxy property related to black-hole growth, and the well-known BHAR-SFR relation is largely a secondary effect due to the "star-forming main sequence". Among our sources, massive galaxies have significantly higher BHAR/SFR ratios than less-massive galaxies, indicating the former have higher black-hole fueling efficiency and/or higher SMBH occupation fraction than the latter; e.g., the deeper potential wells in higher mass galaxies may promote black-hole accretion and counteract AGN/supernova feedback. Our results can naturally explain the observed proportionality between MBH and M* for local giant ellipticals, and suggest their MBH/M* ratios are higher than those of local star-forming galaxies. Finally, prospects for extending this work will be discussed; e.g., by further investigating the redshift evolution of the primary BHAR-M* relation and measuring this relation for even higher values of M*, above ~ 1011 solar masses, using wide-field X-ray surveys.

  2. Results of the Four Square Mile waterfowl populations survey in the Prairie Pothole Joint Venture area of North Dakota, South Dakota and northeast Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the Four Square Mile Survey in the Prairie Pothole Joint Venture from 1989-2006. Information presented in this report is a summary of the survey results...

  3. Evaluating audio computer assisted self-interviews in urban south African communities: evidence for good suitability and reduced social desirability bias of a cross-sectional survey on sexual behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beauclair Roxanne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient HIV prevention requires accurate identification of individuals with risky sexual behaviour. However, self-reported data from sexual behaviour surveys are prone to social desirability bias (SDB. Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing (ACASI has been suggested as an alternative to face-to-face interviewing (FTFI, because it may promote interview privacy and reduce SDB. However, little is known about the suitability and accuracy of ACASI in urban communities with high HIV prevalence in South Africa. To test this, we conducted a sexual behaviour survey in Cape Town, South Africa, using ACASI methods. Methods Participants (n = 878 answered questions about their sexual relationships on a touch screen computer in a private mobile office. We included questions at the end of the ACASI survey that were used to assess participants’ perceived ease of use, privacy, and truthfulness. Univariate logistic regression models, supported by multivariate models, were applied to identify groups of people who had adverse interviewing experiences. Further, we constructed male–female ratios of self-reported sexual behaviours as indicators of SDB. We used these indicators to compare SDB in our survey and in recent FTFI-based Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs from Lesotho, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. Results Most participants found our methods easy to use (85.9%, perceived privacy (96.3% and preferred ACASI to other modes of inquiry (82.5% when reporting on sexual behaviours. Unemployed participants and those in the 40–70 year old age group were the least likely to find our methods easy to use (OR 0.69; 95% CI: 0.47–1.01 and OR 0.37; 95% CI: 0.23–0.58, respectively. In our survey, the male–female ratio for reporting >2 sexual partners in the past year, a concurrent relationship in the past year, and > 2 sexual partners in a lifetime was 3.4, 2.6, and 1.2, respectively— far lower than the ratios observed in the Demographic

  4. Chelonians trading monitoring during seismic survey in North Fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) and South Capixaba (Espirito Santo); Monitoramento de encalhe de quelonios marinhos durante levantamento de dados sismicos na costa norte fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) e sul capixaba (Espirito Santo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, Thays P.C.; Carloni, Giuliano G.; Erber, Claudia; Sabino, Carla M. [Ecologus Engenharia Consultiva, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Uller, George A. [CGGVeritas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this research is to present the results of the marine chelonians stranding monitoring developed during and after the seismic survey in the north area of Rio de Janeiro and south of Espirito Santo. The monitoring lasted six months, reaching 200 km of beaches, from the Rio de Janeiro North up to the Espirito Santo South coasts. It was conducted by 34 monitors, who covered predefined beach sections daily, registering the stranded animals. At the end of the project, 159 chelonians stranded were registered. The species Chelonia mydas was prevailing in number and distribution. This species make use of this beach area to food. Lepidochelys olivacea was the second species in geographic distribution and number of registers. The other species identified were Caretta caretta and Eretmochelys imbricata. There was only one reproductive register, of Caretta caretta species. (author)

  5. Cetaceans trading monitoring during seismic survey in North Fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) and South Capixaba (Espirito Santo) coasts; Monitoramento de encalhe de cetaceos durante levantamento de dados sismicos na costa norte fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) e sul capixaba (Espirito Santo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, Thays P.C.; Carloni, Giuliano G.; Erber, Claudia; Sabino, Carla M. [Ecologus Engenharia Consultiva, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Uller, George A. [CGGVeritas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this research is to present the results of the cetaceans stranding monitoring developed during and after the seismic survey in the north area of Rio de Janeiro and south of Espirito Santo. The monitoring lasted six months, reaching 200 km of beaches, from the Rio de Janeiro North up to the Espirito Santo South coasts. It was conducted by 34 monitors, who covered predefined beach sections daily, registering the stranded animals. At the end of the project, 15 cetaceans stranded were registered. The species Sotalia guianensis was prevailing in number and distribution. Megaptera novaeangliae was the second specie in geographic distribution and number of registers. The other species identified were Tursiops truncatus and Peponocephala electra. (author)

  6. Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in littoral areas of Chief Joseph Reservoir, Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Dena M.; Venditti, David A.; Robinson, T. Craig; Beeman, John W.; Maule, Alec G.

    2004-01-01

    We surveyed fish assemblages in littoral areas of Chief Joseph Reservoir of the upper Columbia River to aid in understanding this ecosystem. Fish distributions and abundances were examined during April-July 1999 in relation to environmental conditions in the reservoir. We also compared the fish assemblages in Chief Joseph reservoir in 1999 to a past study conducted during 1974-1975, and to assemblages in other areas of the Columbia River. During 67 hr of electrofishing and 78 beach seine hauls in Chief Joseph Reservoir, 7460 fishes representing 8 families were collected. The majority of the catch was native – northern pikeminnow; redside shiners; longnose, bridgelip, and largescale suckers; and sculpins. The most abundant introduced species was walleye, and one species, rainbow trout, was mostly of net-pen origin. Larger sizes of suckers and northern pikeminnow were most abundant in the upper reservoir, likely due to upstream spawning migrations. The lower reservoir contained greater abundances of smaller fishes, and this area had lower flows, smaller substrates, and more complex shorelines that offered these fishes refugia. Only adult suckers displayed significant differences in abundances related to substrate. The relative abundances of species appeared to have changed since the 1970s, when the dominant fishes were northern pikeminnow, peamouth, largescale suckers, and walleye. Fish assemblage differences between Chief Joseph Reservoir and lower Columbia River reservoirs were also evident due to the morphology of the reservoir, its more northerly location, and the lack of fish passage facilities at Chief Joseph Dam. Our study is one of the few descriptions of fishes in the upper Columbia Rivers.

  7. Summer habitat use by Columbia River redband trout in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bennett, David H.

    2001-01-01

    The reported decline in the abundance, distribution, and genetic diversity of Columbia River redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri (a rainbow trout subspecies) has prompted fisheries managers to investigate their habitat requirements, identify critical habitat, and develop effective conservation and recovery programs. We analyzed the microhabitat, mesohabitat, and macrohabitat use and distribution of Columbia River redband trout by means of snorkel surveys in two watersheds in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana and Idaho, during the summers of 1997 and 1998. Juvenile (36–125 mm total length, TL) and adult (>=126 mm TL) fish preferred deep microhabitats (>=0.4 m) with low to moderate velocities (<=0.5 m/s) adjacent to the thalweg. Conversely, age-0 (<=35 mm) fish selected slow water (<=0.1 m/s) and shallow depths (<=0.2 m) located in lateral areas of the channel. Age-0, juvenile, and adult fish strongly selected pool mesohabitats and avoided riffles; juveniles and adults generally used runs in proportion to their availability. At the macrohabitat scale, density of Columbia River redband trout (35 mm) was positively related to the abundance of pools and negatively related to stream gradient. The pool: riffle ratio, gradient, and stream size combined accounted for 80% of the variation in density among 23 stream reaches in five streams. Our results demonstrate that low-gradient, medium-elevation reaches with an abundance of complex pools are critical areas for the production of Columbia River redband trout. These data will be useful in assessing the impacts of land-use practices on the remaining populations and may assist with habitat restoration or enhancement efforts.

  8. Columbia River flow-time calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, J.K.

    1958-11-21

    Re-appraisal of the available data on flow times of the Columbia River between the reactor areas and Pasco was undertaken to permit extrapolation of the flow-time curves to lower river flow rates. Comparisons were made between data collected by the US Corps of Engineers and Regional Monitoring and with the equation for calculation of flow times developed by H.T. Norton. Extrapolation of the Regional Monitoring float study data to a flow of 3 {times} 10{sup 5} gallons per second was accomplished by comparison with the slope of the curve obtained from the US Corps of Engineers data; the latter covered flow times from 100-F Area to Pasco over a range of 3.4 {times} 10{sup 5} gps to 3.7 {times} 10{sup 6} gps. The revised flow-time curves are illustrated in Figures 1 through 6.

  9. Code Generation in the Columbia Esterel Compiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zeng

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The synchronous language Esterel provides deterministic concurrency by adopting a semantics in which threads march in step with a global clock and communicate in a very disciplined way. Its expressive power comes at a cost, however: it is a difficult language to compile into machine code for standard von Neumann processors. The open-source Columbia Esterel Compiler is a research vehicle for experimenting with new code generation techniques for the language. Providing a front-end and a fairly generic concurrent intermediate representation, a variety of back-ends have been developed. We present three of the most mature ones, which are based on program dependence graphs, dynamic lists, and a virtual machine. After describing the very different algorithms used in each of these techniques, we present experimental results that compares twenty-four benchmarks generated by eight different compilation techniques running on seven different processors.

  10. Snake and Columbia Rivers Sediment Sampling Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q; Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Clark, D.R. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The disposal of dredged material in water is defined as a discharge under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and must be evaluated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR 230. Because contaminant loads in the dredged sediment or resuspended sediment may affect water quality or contaminant loading, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Walla Walla District, has requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to collect and chemically analyze sediment samples from areas that may be dredged near the Port Authority piers on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Sediment samples were also collected at River Mile (RM) stations along the Snake River that may undergo resuspension of sediment as a result of the drawdown. Chemical analysis included grain size, total organic carbon, total volatile solids, ammonia, phosphorus, sulfides, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 21 congeners of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

  11. 100 Area Columbia River sediment sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-08

    Forty-four sediment samples were collected from 28 locations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to assess the presence of metals and man-made radionuclides in the near shore and shoreline settings of the Hanford Site. Three locations were sampled upriver of the Hanford Site plutonium production reactors. Twenty-two locations were sampled near the reactors. Three locations were sampled downstream of the reactors near the Hanford Townsite. Sediment was collected from depths of 0 to 6 in. and between 12 to 24 in. below the surface. Samples containing concentrations of metals exceeding the 95 % upper threshold limit values (DOE-RL 1993b) are considered contaminated. Contamination by arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc was found. Man-made radionuclides occur in all samples except four collected opposite the Hanford Townsite. Man-made radionuclide concentrations were generally less than 1 pCi/g.

  12. Snake and Columbia Rivers Sediment Sampling Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M. R.; Word, J. Q.; Barrows, E. S.; Mayhew, H. L.; Clark, D. R. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The disposal of dredged material in water is defined as a discharge under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and must be evaluated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR 230. Because contaminant loads in the dredged sediment or resuspended sediment may affect water quality or contaminant loading, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Walla Walla District, has requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to collect and chemically analyze sediment samples from areas that may be dredged near the Port Authority piers on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Sediment samples were also collected at River Mile (RM) stations along the Snake River that may undergo resuspension of sediment as a result of the drawdown. Chemical analysis included grain size, total organic carbon, total volatile solids, ammonia, phosphorus, sulfides, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 21 congeners of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

  13. Population Ecology of Caribou in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Seip

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and geographic range of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou decreased in many areas of British Columbia during the 1900's. Recent studies have found that predation during the summer is the major cause of mortality and current population declines. Increased moose {Alecs alces populations may be related to past and current caribou declines by sustaining greater numbers of wolves (Canis lupus. Mortality rates were greater in areas where caribou calved in forested habitats, in close proximity to predators and moose. Caribou populations which had calving sites in alpine areas, islands, and rugged mountains experienced lower mortality and were generally stable or increasing. A predator-induced population decline in one area appeared to stabilize at low caribou densities, suggesting that the wolf predation rate may be density dependent.

  14. Prevalence of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Among Adults--23 States and the District of Columbia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Xu, Fang; Town, Machell; Blanck, Heidi M

    2016-02-26

    The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that the daily intake of calories from added sugars not exceed 10% of total calories. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are significant sources of added sugars in the diet of U.S. adults and account for approximately one third of added sugar consumption. Among adults, frequent (i.e., at least once a day) SSB intake is associated with adverse health consequences, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. According to the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), an in-person and phone follow-up survey, 50.6% of U.S. adults consumed at least one SSB on a given day. In addition, SSB intake varies by geographical regions: the prevalence of daily SSB intake was higher among U.S. adults living in the Northeast (68.4%) and South (66.7%) than among persons living in the Midwest (58.8%). In 2013, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a telephone survey, revised the SSB two-item optional module to retain the first question on regular soda and expand the second question to include more types of SSBs than just fruit drinks. Using 2013 BRFSS data, self-reported SSB (i.e., regular soda, fruit drinks, sweet tea, and sports or energy drinks) intake among adults (aged ≥18 years) was assessed in 23 states and the District of Columbia (DC). The overall age-adjusted prevalence of SSB intake ≥1 time per day was 30.1% and ranged from 18.0% in Vermont to 47.5% in Mississippi. Overall, at least once daily SSB intake was most prevalent among adults aged 18-24 years (43.3%), men (34.1%), non-Hispanic blacks (blacks) (39.9%), unemployed adults (34.4%), and persons with less than a high school education (42.4%). States can use the data for program evaluation and monitoring trends, and information on disparities in SSB consumption could be used to create targeted intervention efforts to reduce SSB consumption.

  15. RADICALIZATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS: THE PRINCIPALS' PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Mitchell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay summarizes a larger study into radicalization in secondary schools (Grades 8-12 in the Province of British Columbia, Canada, from the perspective of school principals and vice-principals (PVPs. In addition to determining the extent of radicalization, the study further explored the extent to which PVPs felt they were prepared to cope with radicalization in a school environment, and obtained their assessment of the training and resources available to help them deal with this phenomenon. Quantitative and qualitative data was acquired using a survey as well as interviews with PVPs. Research participants reported an unexpectedly low level of engagement by students in radical, extremist, or violent extremist behaviour during the 2014-2015 school year. Only 3% of PVPs surveyed believed that extremist or violent extremist behaviours had increased in their own schools during the previous three-year period, while 6.6% believed it had actually declined somewhat—or even substantially—during this timeframe. There was wide variance in the levels of confidence exhibited by PVPs in their capacity to deal with incidents of extreme or violently extreme behaviours, but most stated that they would welcome additional training on dealing with potential incidents. Only half of the interview participants claimed that the procedures and protocols in place to deal with incidents involving extremist behaviours were adequate. A consistently low level of radicalization was apparent in school environments where some factors that otherwise might trigger student radicalization were identified, explored, and resolved in a supportive and open minded manner by school staff.

  16. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, D. Matthew; Burns, Erick R.; Morgan, David S.; Vaccaro, John J.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow was constructed for the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System (CPRAS), Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, to evaluate and test the conceptual model of the system and to evaluate groundwater availability. The model described in this report can be used as a tool by water-resource managers and other stakeholders to quantitatively evaluate proposed alternative management strategies and assess the long‑term availability of groundwater. The numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the CPRAS was completed with support from the Groundwater Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Groundwater.

  17. Observations and Numerical Modeling of the 2012 Haida Gwaii Tsunami off the Coast of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Isaac V.; Cherniawsky, Josef Y.; Thomson, Richard E.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Krassovski, Maxim V.

    2015-03-01

    A major ( M w 7.7) earthquake occurred on October 28, 2012 along the Queen Charlotte Fault Zone off the west coast of Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands). The earthquake was the second strongest instrumentally recorded earthquake in Canadian history and generated the largest local tsunami ever recorded on the coast of British Columbia. A field survey on the Pacific side of Haida Gwaii revealed maximum runup heights of up to 7.6 m at sites sheltered from storm waves and 13 m in a small inlet that is less sheltered from storms (L eonard and B ednarski 2014). The tsunami was recorded by tide gauges along the coast of British Columbia, by open-ocean bottom pressure sensors of the NEPTUNE facility at Ocean Networks Canada's cabled observatory located seaward of southwestern Vancouver Island, and by several DART stations located in the northeast Pacific. The tsunami observations, in combination with rigorous numerical modeling, enabled us to determine the physical properties of this event and to correct the location of the tsunami source with respect to the initial geophysical estimates. The initial model results were used to specify sites of particular interest for post-tsunami field surveys on the coast of Moresby Island (Haida Gwaii), while field survey observations (L eonard and B ednarski 2014) were used, in turn, to verify the numerical simulations based on the corrected source region.

  18. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

  19. Boussinesq Modeling of the 1975 Kitimat, British Columbia Landslide Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, T.; Watts, P.; Fullarton, M.; Grilli, S. T.; Kirby, J. T.

    2003-12-01

    Mass failures near the head of Kitimat fjord in British Columbia produced water waves that caused severe destruction of waterfront facilities. We revisit this event with the latest numerical models in order to better understand the geological and tsunamigenic processes involved. Mass failure began around low tide near Moon Bay, possibly on account of construction activities taking place there. Retrogressive failure along the fjord floor proceeded over the next several minutes, until it reached the steep fjord head just underneath the Kitimat River. A mass on the steep slope then failed during a single event that is best characterized as an underwater slide in glacial sediments, resulting in an observed depression of the water within the middle of the fjord. This slide was much larger in volume than the initial mass failure, and consequently much more tsunamigenic. The Kitimat event presents many processes that appear to apply to tsunamis in fjords elsewhere. We examine the larger slide volume and linear dimensions based on the available bathymetry. The slide scar is relatively well discerned and extends along the entire slope, in what can be termed a typical fashion. We reproduce tsunami generation of the larger slide with TOPICS and simulate tsunami propagation and inundation with the Boussinesq model FUNWAVE. Our simulation results reproduce the tsunami runup observations, as well as the regions of damage incurred along the shoreline. We also reproduce far-field wave amplitude observations from fishing boats located further south. The agreement between the modeling results and observations suggests that landslide tsunamis in fjords are becoming well-studied events that can yield consistent processes and that can be accurately modeled.

  20. North-South America Network of Magnetically Conjugate All-Sky Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-02

    sites selected are taking data (in Massachusetts, Columbia, Peru, Argentina and Antarctica), and two remain to be installed (North Carolina and South...for Space Physics at Boston University. Five of the sites selected are taking data (in Massachusetts, Columbia, Peru, Argentina and Antarctica), and...number of instruments had to be deployed in other countries, all of the US Export Control rules and documentation had to be addressed. BU provided

  1. Columbia - Invasive Species Detection from Remote and Groundbased Mapping

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Columbia NWR has a number of invasive plants that have gone untreated due to lack of staff for detection and mapping. Volunteers can be used to map some areas where...

  2. 2009 Oregon Parks and Recreation Department Lidar: Columbia River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set represents the lidar elevations along the Columbia River corridor in Oregon, including portions of the following counties: Gilliam, Hood River,...

  3. Environmental contaminants in aquatic resources from the Columbia River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Columbia River is an important resource for fish and wildlife, and a number of National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) were established along the river to protect...

  4. Mid-Columbia - Yellow-flag Iris Eradication 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project as described was to attempt to eradicate yellow-flag iris from Toppenish, McNary and Columbia National Wildlife Refuges using chemical and, where...

  5. Mid-Columbia - Eradication of Yellow-flag Iris 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project as described was to attempt to eradicate yellow-flag iris from Toppenish, McNary and Columbia National Wildlife Refuges using chemical and, where...

  6. Columbia River ESI: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea lions and harbor seals in Columbia River. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  7. Columbia River ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for beavers, otters, nutria, mink, muskrats, and Columbian white-tailed deer in the Columbia River area....

  8. Columbia River ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Steller sea lions, harbor seals, and California sea lions in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...

  9. LCREP growth rates - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  10. LCREP chemistry and lipids - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  11. LCREP catch records - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  12. LCREP genetic stock ID - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  13. LCREP prey data - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  14. Libraries in District of Columbia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/districtofcolumbia.html Libraries in District of Columbia To use the sharing ... 476-3195 http://www.childrensnational.org Find another library If you need help finding a consumer health ...

  15. 2009 Oregon Parks and Recreation Department Lidar: Columbia River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set represents the lidar elevations along the Columbia River corridor in Oregon, including portions of the following counties: Gilliam, Hood River,...

  16. Mid-Columbia - Control and Eradication of Saltcedar

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project as described was to remove all saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) from selected areas of McNary and Columbia Refuges and the Hanford Reach National Monument, and...

  17. Columbia River ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Columbia...

  18. Columbia River ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector points and lines representing human-use resource data for Columbia River. In the data set, vector points represent aquaculture sites,...

  19. Columbia River ESI: REPTILES (Reptile and Amphibian Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for western pond turtles and western painted turtles in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this data set...

  20. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  1. Columbia National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Columbia NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  2. British Columbia 3 arc-second Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...

  3. Capacity building: a framework for strengthening stewardship in British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sherlock, C; Webber-Lampa, K

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the current status of capacity building in the stewardship sector in British Columbia in order to identify gaps and recommend next steps...

  4. Columbia River ESI: NWI (National Wetlands Inventory - Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the wetlands of Columbia River classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification...

  5. CHaMP metrics - Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of CHaMP is to generate and implement a standard set of fish habitat monitoring (status and trend) methods in up to 26 watersheds across the Columbia River...

  6. Coastal upwelling supplies oxygen-depleted water to the Columbia River estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Curtis Roegner

    Full Text Available Low dissolved oxygen (DO is a common feature of many estuarine and shallow-water environments, and is often attributed to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment from terrestrial-fluvial pathways. However, recent events in the U.S. Pacific Northwest have highlighted that wind-forced upwelling can cause naturally occurring low DO water to move onto the continental shelf, leading to mortalities of benthic fish and invertebrates. Coastal estuaries in the Pacific Northwest are strongly linked to ocean forcings, and here we report observations on the spatial and temporal patterns of oxygen concentration in the Columbia River estuary. Hydrographic measurements were made from transect (spatial survey or anchor station (temporal survey deployments over a variety of wind stresses and tidal states during the upwelling seasons of 2006 through 2008. During this period, biologically stressful levels of dissolved oxygen were observed to enter the Columbia River estuary from oceanic sources, with minimum values close to the hypoxic threshold of 2.0 mg L(-1. Riverine water was consistently normoxic. Upwelling wind stress controlled the timing and magnitude of low DO events, while tidal-modulated estuarine circulation patterns influenced the spatial extent and duration of exposure to low DO water. Strong upwelling during neap tides produced the largest impact on the estuary. The observed oxygen concentrations likely had deleterious behavioral and physiological consequences for migrating juvenile salmon and benthic crabs. Based on a wind-forced supply mechanism, low DO events are probably common to the Columbia River and other regional estuaries and if conditions on the shelf deteriorate further, as observations and models predict, Pacific Northwest estuarine habitats could experience a decrease in environmental quality.

  7. Cretaceous Apparent Polar Wander Relative to the Major Cratons and Displacement Estimates of Baja British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    When paleogeographic interpretations derived from independent observations conflict, the methods and results from each discipline come under careful scrutiny, as illustrated by the Baja British Columbia controversy. Cretaceous paleomagnetic data from a large region of the Canadian Cordillera render paleopoles which are far-sided with respect to cratonic North American poles, suggesting this region, designated Baja British Columbia, translated northward during Late Cretaceous - Paleogene time. Criticism of this interpretation based on other geological reasoning prompted me to perform new reviews of Cretaceous to Eocene paleomagnetic results from the Cordillera and from the major cratons of the globe. The global review follows the method of Besse and Courtillot (1991; 2002). One difference between our methods is that I compiled paleomagnetic results from highly studied rock units to single results to balance data weightings spatially and temporally, thus reducing the number of individual results. For the period 160 to 40 Ma, 51 poles were included compared to 92 poles by Besse and Courtillot (2002). Differences between apparent polar wander paths in their and my analyses are never significant at 95% confidence, however mean pole positions differ by up to 500 km, which is important for paleogeographic analysis. The global distribution of sampling localities and the tight clustering of the paleomagnetic poles after plate reconstruction provide invaluable confirmation of plate tectonically derived Euler rotations, the reliability of paleomagnetic remanence directions, and the geocentric dipole geometry of the geomagnetic field. My Cordilleran review shows that paleolatitudes derived from plutons and remagnetized rocks are significantly more scattered than those derived from bedded rocks. Using bedded rocks only, the paleomagnetic record shows that Baja British Columbia sat 2100 ± 500 km south of its present position with respect to cratonic North America during the

  8. Disability management: The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia experience

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) is a Crown Corporation created by the Provincial Government in 1974 to provide compulsory auto insurance. It is a common-law or tort system with 'add-on' no-fault provisions (medical/rehabilitation and disability benefits). ICBC insures 2 million British Columbia (BC) residents and pays out over $2 billion (Cdn.) in claims annually. One billion of this is for injury claims. Currently, one percent of these claims are catastrophic losses (paraple...

  9. Foreign students, visitors and immigration to British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin, R

    1993-01-01

    "This report has provided a brief outline of business immigration to Canada and to British Columbia from several source countries in the Asian Pacific Rim. The importance of business immigration to Canada in general, and British Columbia in particular, is [examined].... Even with the limited data currently available, this brief study indicates a very high statistical relationship between business immigration and other less formal and less permanent movements of people such as student flows and visitors." excerpt

  10. Availability and estimates of veterinary antimicrobial use in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The amount of antimicrobial use is a significant selection pressure that alters the frequency of antimicrobial resistance. This paper summarizes attempts to estimate the weight of antimicrobial purchases in British Columbia for use in animals. The data reported here do not capture all sources of veterinary antimicrobial use in British Columbia. This paper highlights how information deficits on veterinary drug use complicate the development of an evidence-based policy framework for combating a...

  11. Gender and ethnic differences in the control of hyperlipidaemia and other vascular risk factors: insights from the CEntralised Pan-South African survey on tHE Under-treatment of hypercholeSterolaemia (CEPHEUS SA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapeport, Naomi; Schamroth, Colin Leslie; Blom, Dirk Jacobus

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the CEntralised Pan-South African survey on tHE Under-treatment of hypercholeSterolaemia (CEPHEUS SA) was to evaluate the current use and efficacy of lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs) in urban patients of different ethnicity with hyperlipidaemia, and to identify possible patient characteristics associated with failure to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets. There is little published data on LDL-C attainment from developing countries. The survey was conducted in 69 study centres in South Africa and recruited consecutive patients who had been prescribed LLDs for at least three months with no dose adjustment for six weeks. All patients provided written consent. One visit was scheduled for data collection, including fasting lipid and glucose, and HbA1c levels. Of the 3 001 patients recruited, 2 996 were included in the final analyses; 1 385 subjects were of Caucasian origin (818 male), 510 of African ancestry (168 male), 481 of mixed ancestry (222 male) and 620 of Asian origin (364 male). Only 60.5% of patients on LLDs for at least three months achieved the LDL-C targets recommended by the NCEP ATP III/2004 updated NCEP ATP III guidelines and 52.3% the fourth JETF/South African guidelines. African females were on average younger than females of other ethnic origins, and had the lowest smoking rates but the highest prevalence of obesity, hypertension, the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus (DM), with the worst glycaemic control. Although women were less likely than men to reach goal [OR 0.65 (CI 0.54-0.77), p < 0.001 for NCEP ATP III guidelines and OR 0.76 (CI 0.64-0.91), p < 0.003 for fourth JETF guidelines], women of African ancestry were just as likely not to reach goal as their Caucasian counterparts. The results of this survey highlight the sub-optimal lipid control achieved in many South African patients, and profile important gender and ethnic differences. Control of cardiovascular disease risk factors across gender and ethnic

  12. 27 CFR 9.74 - Columbia Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... following the township line between T. 21 N. and T. 22 N. for approximately 7.1 miles (from the west shore... southeast in a straight line for approximately 4.7 miles to the source of Rocky Ford Creek near a fish hatchery; (32) Then south following Rocky Ford Creek and Moses Lake to U.S. Interstate 90 southwest of...

  13. FY 1997 report on the survey of potential impacts of enlarging ASEAN on political and economic systems in South East Asia; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (ASEAN kakudai no Higashi Asia no seiji keizai chitsujo eno eikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report surveys potential impacts of ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) on inter-ASEAN affairs and its external relations when ASEAN will enlarge its members to include all nations in South East Asia, and thus fully represent the region. For this purpose, the survey was conducted on Vietnam, Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia, which joined in 1995, from the viewpoint of their economic and political system, and their relations with other member countries. The nature of ASEAN has gradually transformed, in which all the countries in the region have increased and internal economic issues have been tackled. It has an aim to stimulate inter-ASEAN trade and induce foreign direct investment into ASEAN as a whole by reducing import duties on intra-ASEAN trade. Underlying in these, new development is a concern about growing economic and military power of China. ASEAN solidarity will work an leverage against China should change toward worse, and ASEAN will function as a regional stabilization factor. ASEAN is needed for the stability of both in economic and political order in East Asia. Japan has to further promote its cooperation with ASEAN to help its solidarity as an association. 24 refs., 21 figs., 25 tabs.

  14. Archives and Manuscripts, Libraries, and Librarianship in the South and Central Pacific: Survey and a Bibliography of English-Language Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Robert

    Two hundred eighty-three sources are included in this bibliography dealing with libraries, archives, and librarianship in the islands of the South and Central Pacific. Twenty-six island nations are covered, with brief narrative summaries of the library situation given in some cases: (1) American Samoa, (2) Belau, (3) Cook Islands, (4) Easter…

  15. Sustainable energy policies for British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackney, T.; Dauncey, G.; Goodeve, D.; Fisher, Z.; Maxwell, B.; McDonald, M.; Mott, C.; Sundberg, P.; Thiessen, J.; Varnos, G.

    2005-04-01

    The BC Sustainable Energy Association (BCSEA) aims to achieve a sustainable energy future for British Columbia. Their policies currently focus on areas where the greatest potential exists to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Recommendations were grouped into the following 9 sections: (1) greenhouse gas emissions reduction; (2) fuel and transportation; (3) fossil fuel production; (4) electricity; (5) buildings, equipment and appliances; (6) urban planning; (7) landfill gas; (8) hydrogen; and (9) jobs and training. A carbon sales taxes on all fuels and mandatory fuel efficiency labelling was recommended as well as support for the replacement of fossil fuel with biodiesel and a sustainable electricity program. A mixture of levies, incentives and regulatory measures to discourage waste was recommended, as well as an investment in efficiency and the setting of best practices regulatory standards concerning buildings, equipment and appliances. A province-wide transportation planning framework with a focus on liveable, walkable communities and urban containment was advised, as well as regulations for municipalities to capture and reduce emissions from the decay of solid waste in landfill sites. A commitment by the government to support hydrogen and fuel cell demonstration projects that use sustainably produced hydrogen was also recommended, as well as a sustainable energy transition task force to develop training and education programs and work with business in the sustainable energy sector. 104 refs.

  16. Columbia County Habitat for Humanity Passive Townhomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [The Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Alaigh, Kunal [The Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Dadia, Devanshi [The Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-03-18

    Columbia County (New York) Habitat for Humanity built a pair of townhomes to Passive House criteria with the purpose of exploring approaches for achieving Passive House performance and to eventually develop a prototype design for future projects. The project utilized a 2x6 frame wall with a structural insulated panel curtain wall and a ventilated attic over a sealed OSB ceiling air barrier. Mechanical systems include a single head, wall mounted ductless mini-split heat pump in each unit and a heat recovery ventilator. Costs were $26,000 per unit higher for Passive House construction compared with the same home built to ENERGY STAR version 3 specifications, representing about 18% of total construction cost. This report discusses the cost components, energy modeling results and lessons from construction. Two alternative ventilation systems are analyzed: a central system; and, a point-source system with small through-wall units distributed throughout the house. The report includes a design and cost analysis of these two approaches.

  17. Differentiation of three common deep-water hermit crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura, Parapaguridae from the South African demersal abundance surveys, including the description of a new species of Paragiopagurus Lemaitre, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannes Landschoff

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep-water hermit crabs of the family Parapaguridae can be abundant (up to 20 kg or 1000 hermit crab individuals per haul in the trawl bycatch collected during South African demersal abundance research surveys. Until recently, only two parapagurid species had been recognized in the bycatch; Parapagurus bouvieri Stebbing, 1910, and Sympagurus dimorphus (Studer, 1883. Detailed examination of numerous samples of parapagurid specimens from research surveys revealed the existence of a third, undescribed species previously confounded with S. dimorphus, but in fact belonging to a different genus. This new species, Paragiopagurus atkinsonae sp. n. is the 25th in the genus Paragiopagurus Lemaitre, 1996, and has been found only in a small region on the West Coast shelf of South Africa, at depths of 199–277 m. The species is herein fully described and illustrated, including colour images, µCT scans of selected body parts, and CO1 barcode data. The new species is morphologically most similar to P. ventilatus Lemaitre, 2004, a species associated with hydrothermal vents, but differs in armature of the fourth antennal segment (armed with a spine on the dorsolateral distal angle vs. unarmed in P. ventilatus; setation of the antennal flagella (nearly naked vs. with dense setae in P. ventilatus; plumose setation on the third maxillipeds and basal segments of chelipeds (absent vs. present in P. ventilatus; number of rows of scales on the propodal rasp of pereopod 4 (two or three rows vs. one row in P. ventilatus; and degree of telson asymmetry (weakly asymmetrical vs. strongly asymmetrical in P. ventilatus. Paragiopagurus atkinsonae sp. n. is superficially similar to S. dimorphus, with males of the two species showing the same extreme degree of sexual dimorphism on the right cheliped, general light orange colouration, and frequent use of colonial zoanthid carcinoecia for pleonal protection. To aid in future identifications and to facilitate data gathering

  18. Physicochemical Characteristics of the Hyporheic Zone Affect Redd Site Selection of Chum and Fall Chinook Salmon, Columbia River.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R.

    2001-10-01

    Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) may historically have been the most abundant species of Columbia River salmon, contributing as much as 50% of the total biomass of all salmon in the Pacific Ocean prior to the 1940's (Neave 1961). By the 1950's, however, run sizes to the Columbia River dropped dramatically and in 1999 the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Columbia River chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA; NMFS 1999). Habitat degradation, water diversions, harvest, and artificial propagation are the major human-induced factors that have contributed to the species decline (NMFS 1998). Columbia River chum salmon spawn exclusively in the lower river below Bonneville Dam, including an area near Ives Island. The Ives Island chum salmon are part of the Columbia River evolutionary significant unit (ESU) for this species, and are included in the ESA listing. In addition to chum salmon, fall chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) also spawn at Ives Island. Spawning surveys conducted at Ives Island over the last several years show that chum and fall chinook salmon spawned in clusters in different locations (US Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpublished data). The presence of redd clusters suggested that fish were selecting specific habitat features within the study area (Geist and Dauble 1998). Understanding the specific features of these spawning areas is needed to quantify the amount of habitat available to each species so that minimum flows can be set to protect fish and maintain high quality habitat.

  19. Columbia Plateau Ecoregion: Chapter 22 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.

    2012-01-01

    Located in eastern Washington and northern Oregon, the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion is characterized by sagebrush steppe and grasslands with extensive areas of dryland farming and irrigated agriculture. The ecoregion, which is approximately 90,059 km2 (34,772 mi2), is surrounded on all sides by mountainous ecoregions: to the west, the North Cascades Ecoregion and the Eastern Cascades Slopes and Foothills Ecoregion (and to the west of it, the Cascades Ecoregion); to the south, the Blue Mountains Ecoregion; and to the east, the Northern Rockies Ecoregion (fig. 1) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). The climate is Mediterranean, with cool wet winters and hot dry summers.

  20. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Hydrogeomorphic Reach

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these...