WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey bright source

  1. High brightness electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    High energy physics accelerators and free electron lasers put increased demands on the electron beam sources. This paper describes the present research on attaining intense bright electron beams using photoinjectors. Recent results from the experimental programs will be given. The performance advantages and difficulties presently faced by researchers will be discussed, and the following topics will be covered. Progress has been made in photocathode materials, both in lifetime and quantum efficiency. Cesium telluride has demonstrated significantly longer lifetimes than cesium antimonide at 10{sup {minus}8} torr. However, the laser system is more difficult because cesium telluride requires quadrupled YLF instead of the doubled YLF required for cesium antimonide. The difficulty in using photoinjectors is primarily the drive laser, in particular the amplitude stability. Finally, emittance measurements of photoinjector systems can be complicated by the non-thermal nature of the electron beam. An example of the difficulty in measuring beam emittance is given.

  2. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Bright Source List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Roger F.; Marshall, Herman L.; Antia, Behram; Christian, Carol A.; Dobson, Carl A.; Finley, David S.; Fruscione, Antonella; Girouard, Forrest R.; Hawkins, Isabel; Jelinsky, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Initial results from the analysis of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky survey (58-740 A) and deep survey (67-364 A) are presented through the EUVE Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL contains 356 confirmed extreme ultraviolet (EUV) point sources with supporting information, including positions, observed EUV count rates, and the identification of possible optical counterparts. One-hundred twenty-six sources have been detected longward of 200 A.

  3. The XMM-SSC survey of hard-spectrum XMM-Newton sources - I. Optically bright sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, M. J.; Lehmann, I.; Boller, Th.; Watson, M. G.; Dwelly, T.; Hess, S.; Matute, I.; Loaring, N. S.; Rosen, S.; Ziaeepour, H.; Schwope, A.; Lamer, G.; Carrera, F. J.; Tedds, J.; Della Ceca, R.; Severgnini, P.; McMahon, R. G.; Yuan, W.

    2007-07-01

    We present optical and X-ray data for a sample of serendipitous XMM-Newton sources that are selected to have 0.5-2 versus 2-4.5 keV X-ray hardness ratios which are harder than the X-ray background. The sources have 2-4.5 keV X-ray flux >=10-14 erg cm-2 s-1, and in this paper we examine a subsample of 42 optically bright (r 1044 erg s-1, and two of these sources have optical spectra which are dominated by narrow emission lines, that is, are type 2 QSOs. Only a small fraction of the sources (7/42) show broad optical emission lines, and all of these have NH 100 times the Galactic gas-to-dust ratio are rare in AGN absorbers (at most a few per cent of the population), and may be restricted to broad absorption line QSOs. Seven objects appear to have an additional soft X-ray component in addition to the heavily absorbed power law; all seven are narrow emission-line objects with z 4 per cent of broad-line AGN (BLAGN) have ionized absorbers that attenuate their soft X-ray flux by >50 per cent. In at least one of the X-ray-absorbed BLAGN in our sample the X-ray spectrum requires an ionized absorber, consistent with this picture.

  4. The Bright SHARC Survey: The Cluster Catalog

    OpenAIRE

    Romer, A. K; Nichol, R. C.; Holden, B. P.; Ulmer, M. P.; Pildis, R. A.; Merrelli, A. J.; Adami, C.; Burke, D. J.; Collins, C. A.; Metevier, A. J.; Kron, R. G.; Commons, K.

    1999-01-01

    We present the Bright SHARC (Serendipitous High-Redshift Archival ROSAT Cluster) Survey, which is an objective search for serendipitously detected extended X-ray sources in 460 deep ROSAT PSPC pointings. The Bright SHARC Survey covers an area of 178.6 deg2 and has yielded 374 extended sources. We discuss the X-ray data reduction, the candidate selection and present results from our on-going optical follow-up campaign. The optical follow-up concentrates on the brightest 94 of the 374 extended ...

  5. The XMM deep survey in the CDF-S. X. X-ray variability of bright sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falocco, S.; Paolillo, M.; Comastri, A.; Carrera, F. J.; Ranalli, P.; Iwasawa, K.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.

    2017-12-01

    Aims: We aim to study the variability properties of bright hard X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the redshift range between 0.3 and 1.6 detected in the Chandra Deep Field South (XMM-CDFS) by a long ( 3 Ms) XMM observation. Methods: Taking advantage of the good count statistics in the XMM CDFS, we search for flux and spectral variability using the hardness ratio (HR) techniques. We also investigate the spectral variability of different spectral components (photon index of the power law, column density of the local absorber, and reflection intensity). The spectra were merged in six epochs (defined as adjacent observations) and in high and low flux states to understand whether the flux transitions are accompanied by spectral changes. Results: The flux variability is significant in all the sources investigated. The HRs in general are not as variable as the fluxes, in line with previous results on deep fields. Only one source displays a variable HR, anti-correlated with the flux (source 337). The spectral analysis in the available epochs confirms the steeper when brighter trend consistent with Comptonisation models only in this source at 99% confidence level. Finding this trend in one out of seven unabsorbed sources is consistent, within the statistical limits, with the 15% of unabsorbed AGN in previous deep surveys. No significant variability in the column densities, nor in the Compton reflection component, has been detected across the epochs considered. The high and low states display in general different normalisations but consistent spectral properties. Conclusions: X-ray flux fluctuations are ubiquitous in AGN, though in some cases the data quality does not allow for their detection. In general, the significant flux variations are not associated with spectral variability: photon index and column densities are not significantly variable in nine out of the ten AGN over long timescales (from three to six and a half years). Photon index variability is

  6. The Bright SHARC Survey: The Cluster Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, A. K.; Nichol, R. C.; Holden, B. P.; Ulmer, M. P.; Pildis, R. A.; Merrelli, A. J.; Adami, C.; Burke, D. J.; Collins, C. A.; Metevier, A. J.; Kron, R. G.; Commons, K.

    2000-02-01

    We present the Bright SHARC (Serendipitous High-Redshift Archival ROSAT Cluster) Survey, which is an objective search for serendipitously detected extended X-ray sources in 460 deep ROSAT PSPC pointings. The Bright SHARC Survey covers an area of 178.6 deg2 and has yielded 374 extended sources. We discuss the X-ray data reduction, the candidate selection and present results from our on-going optical follow-up campaign. The optical follow-up concentrates on the brightest 94 of the 374 extended sources and is now 97% complete. We have identified 37 clusters of galaxies, for which we present redshifts and luminosities. The clusters span a redshift range of 0.0696Bright SHARC clusters have not been listed in any previously published catalog. We also report the discovery of three candidate ``fossil groups'' of the kind proposed by Ponman et al. Based on data taken at the European Southern Observatory, Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Canada-France-Hawaii, and Apache Point Observatory.

  7. Increasing the brightness of light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ling

    2006-11-16

    In this work the principle of light recycling is applied to artificial light sources in order to achieve brightness enhancement. Firstly, the feasibilities of increasing the brightness of light sources via light recycling are examined theoretically, based on the fundamental laws of thermodynamics including Kirchhoff's law on radiation, Planck's law, Lambert-Beer's law, the etendue conservation and the brightness theorem. From an experimental viewpoint, the radiation properties of three different kinds of light sources including short-arc lamps, incandescent lamps and LEDs characterized by their light-generating mechanisms are investigated. These three types of sources are used in light recycling experiments, for the purpose of 1. validating the intrinsic light recycling effect in light sources, e. g. the intrinsic light recycling effect in incandescent lamps stemming from the coiled filament structure. 2. acquiring the required parameters for establishing physical models, e.g. the emissivity/absorptivity of the short-arc lamps, the intrinsic reflectivity and the external quantum efficiency of LEDs. 3. laying the foundations for designing optics aimed at brightness enhancement according to the characteristics of the sources and applications. Based on the fundamental laws and experiments, two physical models for simulating the radiance distribution of light sources are established, one for thermal filament lamps, the other for luminescent sources, LEDs. As validation of the theoretical and experimental investigation of the light recycling effect, an optical device, the Carambola, is designed for achieving deterministic and multiple light recycling. The Carambola has the function of a concentrator. In order to achieve the maximum possible brightness enhancement with the Carambola, several combinations of sources and Carambolas are modelled in ray-tracing simulations. Sources with different light-emitting mechanisms and different radiation properties

  8. Tunable High Brightness Semiconductor Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    AlSb ), GaSb, indium arsenide (InAs)) provide advantageous performance enhancements to higher efficiency gain mediums in ∼3 µm sources. Unfortunately...in te ns ity (a .u .) Θ (mrad) experimental simulated Figure 7. Example of HR-XRD Ω-2Θ rocking curves. This data represents AlSb /GaSb superlattices...separated by pump absorbing Al0.25Ga0.75Sb barriers. An AlSb confinement layer on each side of the active region ensures carrier confinement in the

  9. Very-High-Brightness Picosecond Electron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluem, H.

    2003-01-01

    Bright, RF photocathode electron guns are the source of choice for most high-performance research accelerator applications. Some of these applications are pushing the performance boundaries of the present state-of-the-art guns. Advanced Energy Systems is developing a novel photocathode RF gun that shows excellent promise for extending gun performance. Initial gun simulations with only a short booster accelerator easily break the benchmark emittance of one micron for 1 nC of bunch charge. The pulse length in these simulations is less than 2 ps. It is expected that with more detailed optimization studies, the performance can be further improved. The performance details of the gun will be presented. In addition, we will discuss the present design concept along with the status of the project

  10. VLA observations of the Palomar bright quasar survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, D.B.; Schmidt, M.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have optically surveyed some 10000 square degrees of the northern sky to search for bright quasars. Their final sample contains about 100 quasars. The B magnitudes of the sample range from 13.1 to 16.5, with most in the range 15.0-16.2. The redshifts range from 0.03 to over 2, considerably concentrated toward smaller values (median of 0.18). They observed 94 of these quasars with the partially complete VLA in November/December 1979, and detected radio emission from 27 of them, or 29%, to a limit of 1-2 mJy. It is concluded that bright quasars are definitely more likely to be detectable radio sources. (Auth.)

  11. ECR Ion Source for a High-Brightness Cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, Justin; McIntyre, Peter; Assadi, Saeed

    2011-10-01

    New technology is being developed for high-brightness, high-current cyclotrons with performance benefits for accelerator-driven subcritical fission power, medical isotope production, and proton beam cancer therapy. This paper describes the design for a 65 kV electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source that will provide high-brightness beam for injection into the cyclotron. The ion source is modeled closely upon the one that is used at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Modifications are being made to provide enhanced brightness and compatibility for higher-current operation.

  12. The First release of the AKARI-FIS Bright Source Catalogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamamura, I.; Makiuti, S.; Ikeda, N.; Fukuda, Y.; Yamauchi, C.; Hasegawa, S.; Nakagawa, T.; Narumi, H.; Baba, H.; Takagi, T.; Jeong, W.-S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, H. M.; Savage, R.; Rahman, N.; Thomson, M.; Oliver, S.; Figueredo, E.; Serjeant, S.; White, G. J.; Pearson, C. P.; Wang, L.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Kester, Dominicus; van der Wolk, G.; Barthel, P.; Salama, A.; Alfageme, C.; García-Lario, P.; Stephenson, C.; Cohen, M.; Mueller, T. G.

    2009-01-01

    The infrared astronomy satellite AKARI has made all-sky surveys at six wavelength bands (9, 18 μm with the Infrared Camera (IRC), 65, 90, 140, and 160 μm with the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS)). The first version of the FIS Bright Source Catalogue (β-1) has been provided to the AKARI science team for

  13. Progress in extremely high brightness LED-based light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelen, Christoph; Antonis, Piet; de Boer, Dick; Koole, Rolf; Kadijk, Simon; Li, Yun; Vanbroekhoven, Vincent; Van De Voorde, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Although the maximum brightness of LEDs has been increasing continuously during the past decade, their luminance is still far from what is required for multiple applications that still rely on the high brightness of discharge lamps. In particular for high brightness applications with limited étendue, e.g. front projection, only very modest luminance values in the beam can be achieved with LEDs compared to systems based on discharge lamps or lasers. With dedicated architectures, phosphor-converted green LEDs for projection may achieve luminance values up to 200-300 Mnit. In this paper we report on the progress made in the development of light engines based on an elongated luminescent concentrator pumped by blue LEDs. This concept has recently been introduced to the market as ColorSpark High Lumen Density LED technology. These sources outperform the maximum brightness of LEDs by multiple factors. In LED front projection, green LEDs are the main limiting factor. With our green modules, we now have achieved peak luminance values of 2 Gnit, enabling LED-based projection systems with over 4000 ANSI lm. Extension of this concept to yellow and red light sources is presented. The light source efficiency has been increased considerably, reaching 45-60 lm/W for green under practical application conditions. The module architecture, beam shaping, and performance characteristics are reviewed, as well as system aspects. The performance increase, spectral range extensions, beam-shaping flexibility, and cost reductions realized with the new module architecture enable a breakthrough in LED-based projection systems and in a wide variety of other high brightness applications.

  14. Flux and brightness calculations for various synchrotron radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.M.; Hulbert, S.L.

    1991-11-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) storage rings are powerful scientific and technological tools. The first generation of storage rings in the US., e.g., SURF (Washington, D.C.), Tantalus (Wisconsin), SSRL (Stanford), and CHESS (Cornell), revolutionized VUV, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray science. The second (present) generation of storage rings, e.g. the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings and Aladdin (Wisconsin), have sustained the revolution by providing higher stored currents and up to a factor of ten smaller electron beam sizes than the first generation sources. This has made possible a large number of experiments that could not performed using first generation sources. In addition, the NSLS XRAY ring design optimizes the performance of wigglers (high field periodic magnetic insertion devices). The third generation storage rings, e.g. ALS (Berkeley) and APS (Argonne), are being designed to optimize the performance of undulators (low field periodic magnetic insertion devices). These extremely high brightness sources will further revolutionize x-ray science by providing diffraction-limited x-ray beams. The output of undulators and wigglers is distinct from that of bending magnets in magnitude, spectral shape, and in spatial and angular size. Using published equations, we have developed computer programs to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness output bending magnets and selected wigglers and undulators of the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings, the Advanced Light Source (ALS), and the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Following is a summary of the equations used, the graphs and data produced, and the computer codes written. These codes, written in the C programming language, can be used to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness curves for bending magnets and insertion devices on any storage ring.

  15. Flux and brightness calculations for various synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.M.; Hulbert, S.L.

    1991-11-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) storage rings are powerful scientific and technological tools. The first generation of storage rings in the US., e.g., SURF (Washington, D.C.), Tantalus (Wisconsin), SSRL (Stanford), and CHESS (Cornell), revolutionized VUV, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray science. The second (present) generation of storage rings, e.g. the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings and Aladdin (Wisconsin), have sustained the revolution by providing higher stored currents and up to a factor of ten smaller electron beam sizes than the first generation sources. This has made possible a large number of experiments that could not performed using first generation sources. In addition, the NSLS XRAY ring design optimizes the performance of wigglers (high field periodic magnetic insertion devices). The third generation storage rings, e.g. ALS (Berkeley) and APS (Argonne), are being designed to optimize the performance of undulators (low field periodic magnetic insertion devices). These extremely high brightness sources will further revolutionize x-ray science by providing diffraction-limited x-ray beams. The output of undulators and wigglers is distinct from that of bending magnets in magnitude, spectral shape, and in spatial and angular size. Using published equations, we have developed computer programs to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness output bending magnets and selected wigglers and undulators of the NSLS VUV and XRAY rings, the Advanced Light Source (ALS), and the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Following is a summary of the equations used, the graphs and data produced, and the computer codes written. These codes, written in the C programming language, can be used to calculate the flux, central intensity, and brightness curves for bending magnets and insertion devices on any storage ring

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Bright SHARC survey cluster catalog (Romer+, 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, A. K.; Nichol, R. C.; Holden, B. P.; Ulmer, M. P.; Pildis, R. A.; Merrelli, A. J.; Adami, C.; Burke, D. J.; Collins, C. A.; Metevier, A. J.; Kron, R. G.; Commons, K.

    2000-05-01

    We present the Bright SHARC (Serendipitous High-Redshift Archival ROSAT Cluster) Survey, which is an objective search for serendipitously detected extended X-ray sources in 460 deep ROSAT PSPC pointings. The Bright SHARC Survey covers an area of 178.6 deg2 and has yielded 374 extended sources. We discuss the X-ray data reduction, the candidate selection and present results from our on-going optical follow-up campaign. The optical follow-up concentrates on the brightest 94 of the 374 extended sources and is now 97% complete. We have identified 37 clusters of galaxies, for which we present redshifts and luminosities. The clusters span a redshift range of 0.0696Bright SHARC clusters have not been listed in any previously published catalog. We also report the discovery of three candidate "fossil groups" of the kind proposed by Ponman et al. (1994Natur.369..462P) (8 data files).

  17. THE UV-BRIGHT QUASAR SURVEY (UVQS): DR1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, TalaWanda R.; Tumlinson, Jason [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Prochaska, J. Xavier; Tejos, Nicolas [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Worseck, Gabor; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Schmidt, Tobias [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69115 Heidelberg (Germany); Shen, Yue [Department of Astronomy and National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We present the first data release (DR1) from our UV-bright Quasar Survey for new z  ∼ 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) across the sky. Using simple GALEX UV and WISE near-IR color selection criteria, we generated a list of 1450 primary candidates with FUV < 18.5 mag. We obtained discovery spectra, primarily on 3 m-class telescopes, for 1040 of these candidates and confirmed 86% as AGNs, with redshifts generally at z  > 0.5. Including a small set of observed secondary candidates, we report the discovery of 217 AGNs with FUV < 18 mag that previously had no reported spectroscopic redshift. These are excellent potential targets for UV spectroscopy before the end of the Hubble Space Telescope mission. The main data products are publicly available through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes.

  18. VLA observations of objects in the Palomar Bright Quasar Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, K.I.; Sramek, R.; Schmidt, M.; Shaffer, D.B.; Green, R.

    1989-01-01

    Results on the VLA observations (with 18 arcsec resolution) of all 114 objects from the Palomar Bright Quasar Survey (BQS) are presented, and the relation between the radio luminosity and optical luminosity is discussed. It was found that most of the BQS quasars are radio quiet and have a radio flux density close to that of the optical flux density; however, 15-20 percent of the quasars are radio loud and are much brighter at radio than at optical wavelengths. The radio luminosity function was derived. It is shown that the radio emission from high-red-shift (z greater than 0.5) quasars is dominated by compact components; most quasars with R above 100 have small red shifts. 39 refs

  19. High Brightness Neutron Source for Radiography. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, J.T.; Piestrup, Melvin A.; Gary, Charles K.; Harris, Jack L.; Williams, David J.; Jones, Glenn E.; Vainionpaa, J.H.; Fuller, Michael J.; Rothbart, George H.; Kwan, J.W.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Gough, R.A.; Reijonen, Jani; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-01-01

    This research and development program was designed to improve nondestructive evaluation of large mechanical objects by providing both fast and thermal neutron sources for radiography. Neutron radiography permits inspection inside objects that x-rays cannot penetrate and permits imaging of corrosion and cracks in low-density materials. Discovering of fatigue cracks and corrosion in piping without the necessity of insulation removal is possible. Neutron radiography sources can provide for the nondestructive testing interests of commercial and military aircraft, public utilities and petrochemical organizations. Three neutron prototype neutron generators were designed and fabricated based on original research done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The research and development of these generators was successfully continued by LBNL and Adelphi Technology Inc. under this STTR. The original design goals of high neutron yield and generator robustness have been achieved, using new technology developed under this grant. In one prototype generator, the fast neutron yield and brightness was roughly 10 times larger than previously marketed neutron generators using the same deuterium-deuterium reaction. In another generator, we integrate a moderator with a fast neutron source, resulting in a high brightness thermal neutron generator. The moderator acts as both conventional moderator and mechanical and electrical support structure for the generator and effectively mimics a nuclear reactor. In addition to the new prototype generators, an entirely new plasma ion source for neutron production was developed. First developed by LBNL, this source uses a spiral antenna to more efficiently couple the RF radiation into the plasma, reducing the required gas pressure so that the generator head can be completely sealed, permitting the possible use of tritium gas. This also permits the generator to use the deuterium-tritium reaction to produce 14-MeV neutrons with increases

  20. Testing sky brightness models against radial dependency: A dense two dimensional survey around the city of Madrid, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, J.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Ocaña, F.; Pila-Díez, B.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Pascual, S.; Tapia, C.; Gallego, J.; Fernández, A.; Nievas, M.

    2016-09-01

    We present a study of the night sky brightness around the extended metropolitan area of Madrid using Sky Quality Meter (SQM) photometers. The map is the first to cover the spatial distribution of the sky brightness in the centre of the Iberian peninsula. These surveys are necessary to test the light pollution models that predict night sky brightness as a function of the location and brightness of the sources of light pollution and the scattering of light in the atmosphere. We describe the data-retrieval methodology, which includes an automated procedure to measure from a moving vehicle in order to speed up the data collection, providing a denser and wider survey than previous works with similar time frames. We compare the night sky brightness map to the nocturnal radiance measured from space by the DMSP satellite. We find that (i) a single source model is not enough to explain the radial evolution of the night sky brightness, despite the predominance of Madrid in size and population and (ii) that the orography of the region should be taken into account when deriving geo-specific models from general first-principles models. We show the tight relationship between these two luminance measures. This finding sets up an alternative roadmap to extended studies over the globe that will not require the local deployment of photometers or trained personnel.

  1. The bright-star masks for the HSC-SSP survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupon, Jean; Czakon, Nicole; Bosch, James; Komiyama, Yutaka; Medezinski, Elinor; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Oguri, Masamune

    2018-01-01

    We present the procedure to build and validate the bright-star masks for the Hyper-Suprime-Cam Strategic Subaru Proposal (HSC-SSP) survey. To identify and mask the saturated stars in the full HSC-SSP footprint, we rely on the Gaia and Tycho-2 star catalogues. We first assemble a pure star catalogue down to GGaia Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We perform visual inspection on the early data from the S16A internal release of HSC-SSP, finding that our star catalogue is 99.2% pure down to GGaia < 18. Second, we build the mask regions in an automated way using stacked detected source measurements around bright stars binned per GGaia magnitude. Finally, we validate those masks by visual inspection and comparison with the literature of galaxy number counts and angular two-point correlation functions. This version (Arcturus) supersedes the previous version (Sirius) used in the S16A internal and DR1 public releases. We publicly release the full masks and tools to flag objects in the entire footprint of the planned HSC-SSP observations at "ftp://obsftp.unige.ch/pub/coupon/brightStarMasks/HSC-SSP/".

  2. Fermi Large Area Telescope Bright Gamma-ray Source List

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Ajello, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /ASDC, Frascati /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Pavia U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /NASA, Goddard; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the {gamma}-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than {approx}10{sigma}) {gamma}-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) {gamma}-ray sources in the early mission data.

  3. XID II: STATISTICAL CROSS-ASSOCIATION OF ROSAT BRIGHT SOURCE CATALOG X-RAY SOURCES WITH 2MASS POINT SOURCE CATALOG NEAR-INFRARED SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haakonsen, Christian Bernt; Rutledge, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    The 18,806 ROSAT All Sky Survey Bright Source Catalog (RASS/BSC) X-ray sources are quantitatively cross-associated with near-infrared (NIR) sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog (2MASS/PSC). An association catalog is presented, listing the most likely counterpart for each RASS/BSC source, the probability P id that the NIR source and X-ray source are uniquely associated, and the probability P no-id that none of the 2MASS/PSC sources are associated with the X-ray source. The catalog includes 3853 high quality (P id >0.98) X-ray-NIR matches, 2280 medium quality (0.98 ≥ P id >0.9) matches, and 4153 low quality (0.9 ≥ P id >0.5) matches. Of the high quality matches, 1418 are associations that are not listed in the SIMBAD database, and for which no high quality match with a USNO-A2 optical source was presented for the RASS/BSC source in previous work. The present work offers a significant number of new associations with RASS/BSC objects that will require optical/NIR spectroscopy for classification. For example, of the 6133 P id >0.9 2MASS/PSC counterparts presented in the association catalog, 2411 have no classification listed in the SIMBAD database. These 2MASS/PSC sources will likely include scientifically useful examples of known source classes of X-ray emitters (white dwarfs, coronally active stars, active galactic nuclei), but may also contain previously unknown source classes. It is determined that all coronally active stars in the RASS/BSC should have a counterpart in the 2MASS/PSC, and that the unique association of these RASS/BSC sources with their NIR counterparts thus is confusion limited.

  4. Physics and technology of high brightness sources-The future (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulipanov, G.N.; Mezentsev, N.A.; Skrinsky, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    Various trends in the development of high brightness synchrotron radiation sources are reported. The ways of increasing the brightness whose choice is governed by the compromise between users, machine, and economic requirements, are discussed. The experimental and technological possibilities of new families of storage rings that are being designed and constructed in different countries are compared. The physical and technical problems associated with the creation of such storage rings are treated

  5. The IAC Stripe 82 Legacy Project: a wide-area survey for faint surface brightness astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliri, Jürgen; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    We present new deep co-adds of data taken within Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), especially stacked to reach the faintest surface brightness limits of this data set. Stripe 82 covers 275 ° ^2 within -50° ≤ RA ≤ +60° and -1.25° ≤ Dec. ≤ +1.25°. We discuss the steps of our reduction which puts special emphasis on preserving the characteristics of the background (sky + diffuse light) in the input images using a non-aggressive sky subtraction strategy. Our reduction reaches a limit of ˜28.5 mag arcsec-2 (3σ, 10 × 10 arcsec2) in the r band. The effective surface brightness limit (50 per cent completeness for exponential light distribution) lies at ˜ 25.5 mag arcsec-2. For point sources, we reach 50 per cent completeness limits (3σ level) of (24.2, 25.2, 24.7, 24.3, 23.0) mag in (u, g, r, I, z). This is between 1.7 and 2.0 mag deeper than the single-epoch SDSS releases. The co-adds show point spread functions (PSFs) with median full width at half-maximum values ranging from 1 arcsec in I and z to 1.3 arcsec in the u band. The imaging data are made publicly available at http://www.iac.es/proyecto/stripe82. The release includes deep co-adds and representations of the PSF for each field. Additionally, we provide object catalogues with stars and galaxies confidently separated until g ˜ 23 mag. The IAC Stripe 82 co-adds offer a rather unique possibility to study the low surface brightness Universe, exemplified by the discovery of stellar streams around NGC 0426 and NGC 0936. We also discuss further science cases like stellar haloes and disc truncations, low surface brightness galaxies, the intracluster light in galaxy clusters and the diffuse emission of Galactic dust known as Galactic Cirrus.

  6. Development of ion sources: Towards high brightness for proton beam writing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Nannan; Santhana Raman, P.; Xu, Xinxin; Tan, Huei Ming; Khursheed, Anjam; Kan, Jeroen A. van

    2015-01-01

    An Ion Source Test Bench (ISTB) has been designed and commissioned to facilitate the measurement of ion beam reduced brightness (B r ) obtained from different ion sources. Preliminary B r measurements were carried out, with RF ion source, in the ISTB for He ions. Meanwhile we have also fabricated and tested a novel ion source called electron impact gas ion source, whose reduced brightness is expected to reach up to 10 7 pA/μm 2 mrad 2 MeV. Initial ion-current measurements from such electron impact gas ion source (tested inside an environmental SEM) has yielded about 300 pA of Ar ions. The areal ion current density from this electron impact gas ion source is found to be at least 380 times higher than the existing RF ion source. This novel ion source is promising for application in proton beam writing lithography with feature sizes smaller than 10 nm

  7. Characterization of TRIUMF dc H- ion sources for enhanced brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y. S.; Cojocaru, G.; Yuan, D.; McDonald, M.; Jayamanna, K.; Kim, G. H.; Dutto, G.

    2006-03-01

    At TRIUMF, H- ion sources have been characterized on a teststand to improve the understanding of their performance. Measured beam characteristics such as current, emittance, and e /H- ratio were correlated with source conditions as a function of relevant plasma parameters. Plasma densities, temperatures, and plasma potentials were measured with a Langmuir probe and correlated with beam properties for different confining magnetic fields and different values of arc power and gas pressure. The mechanism of beam extraction was studied by correlating plasma potential profiles with the corresponding plasma electrode bias voltages obtained from optimizing ion source outputs. Experiments with collar biasing and noble gas mixing were unsuccessful because of undesirable plasma potential profiles.

  8. High-brightness water-window electron-impact liquid-jet microfocus source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoglund, P.; Lundstroem, U.; Vogt, U.; Hertz, H. M.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate stable high-brightness operation of an electron-impact water-jet-anode soft x-ray source. A 30 kV, 7.8 W electron beam is focused onto a 20 μm diameter jet resulting in water-window oxygen line emission at 525 eV/2.36 nm with a brightness of 3.0x10 9 ph/(sxμm 2 xsrxline). Monte Carlo-based modeling shows good quantitative agreement with the experiments. The source has potential to increase the x-ray power and brightness by another 1-2 orders of magnitude and fluid-dynamical jet instabilities is determined to be the most important limiting factor. The source properties make it an attractive alternative for table-top x-ray microscopy.

  9. THE BRIGHTEST OF REIONIZING GALAXIES SURVEY: CONSTRAINTS ON THE BRIGHT END OF THE z ∼ 8 LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, L. D.; Stiavelli, M.; Pirzkal, N.; Trenti, M.; Oesch, P. A.; Treu, T.; Bouwens, R. J.; Shull, J. M.; Holwerda, B. W.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of 33 Lyman-break galaxy candidates at z ∼ 8 detected in Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging as part of the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) pure-parallel survey. The ongoing BoRG survey currently has the largest area (274 arcmin 2 ) with Y 098 (or Y 105 ), J 125 , and H 160 band coverage needed to search for z ∼ 8 galaxies, about three times the current CANDELS area, and slightly larger than what will be the final CANDELS wide component with Y 105 data (required to select z ∼ 8 sources). Our sample of 33 relatively bright Y 098 -dropout galaxies have J 125 -band magnitudes between 25.5 and 27.4 mag. This is the largest sample of bright (J 125 ∼ * (L/L * ) α e -( L /L * ) , without evidence for an excess of sources at the bright end. At 68% confidence, for h = 0.7 we derive φ * = (4.3 +3.5 –2.1 ) × 10 –4 Mpc –3 , M * = –20.26 +0.29 –0.34 , and a very steep faint-end slope α = –1.98 +0.23 –0.22 . While the best-fit parameters still have a strong degeneracy, especially between φ * and M * , our improved coverage at the bright end has reduced the uncertainty of the faint-end power-law slope at z ∼ 8 compared to the best previous determination at ±0.4. With a future expansion of the BoRG survey, combined with planned ultradeep WFC3/IR observations, it will be possible to further reduce this uncertainty and clearly demonstrate the steepening of the faint-end slope compared to measurements at lower redshift, thereby confirming the key role played by small galaxies in the reionization of the universe.

  10. High Brightness Electron Gun for X-Ray Source

    CERN Document Server

    Ohsawa, Satoshi; Ikeda, Mitsuo; Kanno, K; Sugimura, Takashi; Tawada, Masafumi

    2005-01-01

    A new electron-gun system is under development in order to increase X-ray from a rotating target. In commercial X-ray sources electron beams usually hit targets at the outer part. Owing to deformation by centrifugal force, there has been a limit on electron beam intensities. In order to overcome this difficulty, we adopted a new injection system which strikes inside of a ring-shape projection on a rotating target. It has an advantage in that heated-up points have supports back side against centrifugal force. This merit allows us to raise electron beam to give stronger X-rays.

  11. Brightness enhancement of plasma ion source by utilizing anode spot for nano applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon-Jae [Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Man-Jin [Research Institute of Nano Manufacturing System, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae Won [Nanobio Fusion Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Anode spots are known as additional discharges on positively biased electrode immersed in plasmas. The anode spot plasma ion source (ASPIS) has been investigated as a high brightness ion source for nano applications such as focused ion beam (FIB) and nano medium energy ion scattering (nano-MEIS). The generation of anode spot is found to enhance brightness of ion beam since the anode spot increases plasma density near the extraction aperture. Brightness of the ASPIS has been estimated from measurement of emittance for total ion beam extracted through sub-mm aperture. The ASPIS is installed to the FIB system. Currents and diameters of the focused beams with/without anode spot are measured and compared. As the anode spot is turned on, the enhancement of beam current is observed at fixed diameter of the focused ion beam. Consequently, the brightness of the focused ion beam is enhanced as well. For argon ion beam, the maximum normalized brightness of 12 300 A/m{sup 2} SrV is acquired. The ASPIS is applied to nano-MEIS as well. The ASPIS is found to increase the beam current density and the power efficiency of the ion source for nano-MEIS. From the present study, it is shown that the ASPIS can enhance the performance of devices for nano applications.

  12. Brightness enhancement of plasma ion source by utilizing anode spot for nano applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, Yoon-Jae; Park, Man-Jin; Moon, Dae Won

    2012-01-01

    Anode spots are known as additional discharges on positively biased electrode immersed in plasmas. The anode spot plasma ion source (ASPIS) has been investigated as a high brightness ion source for nano applications such as focused ion beam (FIB) and nano medium energy ion scattering (nano-MEIS). The generation of anode spot is found to enhance brightness of ion beam since the anode spot increases plasma density near the extraction aperture. Brightness of the ASPIS has been estimated from measurement of emittance for total ion beam extracted through sub-mm aperture. The ASPIS is installed to the FIB system. Currents and diameters of the focused beams with/without anode spot are measured and compared. As the anode spot is turned on, the enhancement of beam current is observed at fixed diameter of the focused ion beam. Consequently, the brightness of the focused ion beam is enhanced as well. For argon ion beam, the maximum normalized brightness of 12 300 A/m 2 SrV is acquired. The ASPIS is applied to nano-MEIS as well. The ASPIS is found to increase the beam current density and the power efficiency of the ion source for nano-MEIS. From the present study, it is shown that the ASPIS can enhance the performance of devices for nano applications.

  13. The optics, emittance, and brightness of the reflected beam sputter source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, N.R.

    1983-01-01

    The emittance of the reflected beam sputter source is shown to be low, and the brightness high. However, the emittance is very variable. The internal optical behaviour of the source has been found to be complex, and to depend strongly on space charge. This adversely affects the stability of the negative ion beam, and causes the variability seen in the emittance. The source, and hence the beam, lacks symmetry, and this lack adversely affects its matching properties and stability. (orig.)

  14. A high-resolution spectroscopy survey of beta Cephei pulsations in bright stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telting, J.H.; Schrijvers, C.; Ilyin, I.V.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Ridder, J. de; Aerts, C.C.; Henrichs, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of absorption line-profile variations in early-B type near-main-sequence stars without emission lines. We have surveyed a total of 171 bright stars using the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOTSA), William Herschel Telescope (ING) and Coud�uxiliary Telescope (ESO). Our sample contains

  15. A high-resolution spectroscopy survey of β Cephei pulsations in bright stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telting, J.H.; Schrijvers, C.; Ilyin, I.V.; Uytterhoeven, K.; De Ridder, J.; Aerts, C.; Henrichs, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of absorption line-profile variations in early-B type near-main-sequence stars without emission lines. We have surveyed a total of 171 bright stars using the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOTSA), William Herschel Telescope (ING) and Coudé Auxiliary Telescope (ESO). Our sample contains

  16. A high-resolution spectroscopy survey of ? Cephei pulsations in bright stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telting, J.H.; Schrijvers, C.; Ilyin, I.V.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Ridder, J. de; Aerts, C.C.; Henrichs, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of absorption line-profile variations in early-B type near-main-sequence stars without emission lines. We have surveyed a total of 171 bright stars using the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOTSA), William Herschel Telescope (ING) and Coud�uxiliary Telescope (ESO). Our sample contains

  17. Source brightness fluctuation correction of solar absorption fourier transform mid infrared spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ridder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The precision and accuracy of trace gas observations using solar absorption Fourier Transform infrared spectrometry depend on the stability of the light source. Fluctuations in the source brightness, however, cannot always be avoided. Current correction schemes, which calculate a corrected interferogram as the ratio of the raw DC interferogram and a smoothed DC interferogram, are applicable only to near infrared measurements. Spectra in the mid infrared spectral region below 2000 cm−1 are generally considered uncorrectable, if they are measured with a MCT detector. Such measurements introduce an unknown offset to MCT interferograms, which prevents the established source brightness fluctuation correction. This problem can be overcome by a determination of the offset using the modulation efficiency of the instrument. With known modulation efficiency the offset can be calculated, and the source brightness correction can be performed on the basis of offset-corrected interferograms. We present a source brightness fluctuation correction method which performs the smoothing of the raw DC interferogram in the interferogram domain by an application of a running mean instead of high-pass filtering the corresponding spectrum after Fourier transformation of the raw DC interferogram. This smoothing can be performed with the onboard software of commercial instruments. The improvement of MCT spectra and subsequent ozone profile and total column retrievals is demonstrated. Application to InSb interferograms in the near infrared spectral region proves the equivalence with the established correction scheme.

  18. Silicon nanowire based high brightness, pulsed relativistic electron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Sarkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that silicon nanowire arrays efficiently emit relativistic electron pulses under irradiation by a high-intensity, femtosecond, and near-infrared laser (∼1018 W/cm2, 25 fs, 800 nm. The nanowire array yields fluxes and charge per bunch that are 40 times higher than those emitted by an optically flat surface, in the energy range of 0.2–0.5 MeV. The flux and charge yields for the nanowires are observed to be directional in nature unlike that for planar silicon. Particle-in-cell simulations establish that such large emission is caused by the enhancement of the local electric fields around a nanowire, which consequently leads to an enhanced absorption of laser energy. We show that the high-intensity contrast (ratio of picosecond pedestal to femtosecond peak of the laser pulse (10−9 is crucial to this large yield. We extend the notion of surface local-field enhancement, normally invoked in low-order nonlinear optical processes like second harmonic generation, optical limiting, etc., to ultrahigh laser intensities. These electron pulses, expectedly femtosecond in duration, have potential application in imaging, material modification, ultrafast dynamics, terahertz generation, and fast ion sources.

  19. Millimeter-wave spectra and variability of bright, compact radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Observations at 2.7 mm and at 1.5 cm were used to study the millimeter spectra and variability of 176 bright, compact radio sources. More than 20 percent of the flat-spectrum sources, but none of the steep-spectrum sources, were seen to vary at 1.5 cm by at least 30 percent over ten months. This is consistent with the hypothesis that flat-spectrum sources are compact and possibly beamed, while steep-spectrum sources are not. These data can also be used to choose sources for VLBI observations and for calibration of millimeter-wave observations.

  20. The SDSS view of the Palomar-Green bright quasar survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jester, Sebastian; Schneider, Donald P.; Richards, Gordon T.; Green, Richard F.; Schmidt, Maarten; Hall, Patrick B.; Strauss, Michael A.; Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Stoughton, Chris; Gunn, James E.; Brinkmann, Jon; Kent, Stephen M.; Smith, J.Allyn; Tucker, Douglas, L.; Yanny, Brian; /Fermilab /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /Princeton U.

    2005-02-01

    The author investigates the extent to which the Palomar-Green (PG) Bright Quasar Survey (BQS) is complete and representative of the general quasar population by comparing with imaging and spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A comparison of SDSS and PG photometry of both stars and quasars reveals the need to apply a color and magnitude recalibration to the PG data. Using the SDSS photometric catalog, they define the PG's parent sample of objects that are not main-sequence stars and simulate the selection of objects from this parent sample using the PG photometric criteria and errors. This simulation shows that the effective U-B cut in the PG survey is U-B < -0.71, implying a color-related incompleteness. As the color distribution of bright quasars peaks near U-B = -0.7 and the 2-{sigma} error in U-B is comparable to the full width of the color distribution of quasars, the color incompleteness of the BQS is approximately 50% and essentially random with respect to U-B color for z < 0.5. There is however, a bias against bright quasars at 0.5 < z < 1, which is induced by the color-redshift relation of quasars (although quasars at z > 0.5 are inherently rare in bright surveys in any case). They find no evidence for any other systematic incompleteness when comparing the distributions in color, redshift, and FIRST radio properties of the BQS and a BQS-like subsample of the SDSS quasar sample. However, the application of a bright magnitude limit biases the BQS toward the inclusion of objects which are blue in g-i, in particular compared to the full range of g-i colors found among the i-band limited SDSS quasars, and even at i-band magnitudes comparable to those of the BQS objects.

  1. High Brightness, Laser-Driven X-ray Source for Nanoscale Metrology and Femtosecond Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siders, C W; Crane, J K; Semenov, V; Betts, S; Kozioziemski, B; Wharton, K; Wilks, S; Barbee, T; Stuart, B; Kim, D E; An, J; Barty, C

    2007-02-26

    This project developed and demonstrated a new, bright, ultrafast x-ray source based upon laser-driven K-alpha generation, which can produce an x-ray flux 10 to 100 times greater than current microfocus x-ray tubes. The short-pulse (sub-picosecond) duration of this x-ray source also makes it ideal for observing time-resolved dynamics of atomic motion in solids and thin films.

  2. A 5-GHz survey of bright southern elliptical and SO galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.; Wall, J.V.

    1977-01-01

    The Parkes 64-m telescope has been used in a 5.0 GHz survey of 181 Southern E and SO galaxies from the Reference catalogue of bright galaxies. Of the 39 detections above the nominal limit of 12 mJy, 15 are new, several have radio spectra indicating membership in the active class, and two have shown intensity variations at centimetre wavelengths. The results of this survey combined with results from earlier surveys of lower sensitivity suggest that only about 40 per cent of the E/SO galaxies in the Reference catalogue have Ssub(5GHz)>1 mJy. (author)

  3. Micro-fresnel structures for microscopy of laser generated bright x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglio, N.M.; Shavers, D.C.; Flanders, D.C.; Smith, H.I.

    1979-01-01

    A brief parametric survey of the x-ray characteristics of a gold micro-disk irradiated at 3 x 10 14 watt/cm 2 by a 1 nsec Nd-glass laser pulse has been provided as an example of a laser generated bright x-ray source. It was shown that a simple phenomenological model of the laser generated x-ray source as a microscopic equilibrium plasma radiating as a blackbody for a finite time determined by its hydrodynamic disassembly and radiation losses, serves to provide an adequate approximation to the x-ray characteristics of such sources. The current state of x-ray microscopy within the LLL laser fusion program was briefly reviewed. Kirpatrick--Baez grazing incidence reflection x-ray microscopes are being used to provide 3 to 5 μm resolution, broadband images (ΔE/E approx. 0.3) over a spectral range from .6 keV to 3.5 keV. Zone Plate Coded Imaging is used to provide 5 to 10 μm resolution, broadband (ΔE/E approx. 0.5) images over a spectral range from 3 keV to 50 keV. Efficient x-ray lensing elements with anticipated submicron resolution are being developed for narrowband (ΔE/E approx. 10 -2 ) imaging applications over a spectral range .1 keV to 8 keV. The x-ray lens design is that of a transmission blazed Fresnel phase plate. Micro--Fresnel zone plates with 3200 A minimum linewidth have been fabricated and preliminary resolution tests begun. The first resolution test pattern, having minimum linewidth of 2.5 μm, was imaged in lambda = 8.34 A light with no difficulty. Newer test patterns with submicron minimum line are being prepared for the next stage of resolution testing. An off-axis Fresnel zone plate with 1600 A minimum linewidth is presently being fabricated for use as an imaging spectrometer in order to provide spatially separated, chromatically distinct images of characteristic line emissions from laser fusion targets

  4. Young massive stars in the ISOGAL survey. II. The catalogue of bright YSO candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felli, M.; Testi, L.; Schuller, F.; Omont, A.

    2002-09-01

    The 7 and 15 mu m observations of selected fields in the Galactic Plane obtained with ISOCAM during the ISOGAL program offer a unique possibility to search for previously unknown YSOs, undetected by IRAS because of lower sensitivity or confusion problems. In a previous paper (Felli et al. \\cite{FCTOS00}) we established criteria of general validity to select YSOs from the much larger population of Post Main Sequence (Post-MS) stars present in the ISOGAL fields by comparing radio and IR observations of five fields located at l ~ +45deg. The selection was based primarily on the position of the point sources in the [15]-[7]-[15] diagram, which involves only ISOGAL data and allows to find possible YSOs using the survey data alone. In the present work we revise the adopted criteria by comparing radio-identified UC HII regions and ISOGAL observations over a much larger region. The main indications of the previous analysis are confirmed, but the criteria for selecting YSO candidates had to be revised to select only bright objects, in order to limit the contamination of the sample by Post-MS stars. The revised criteria ([15]le4 .5, [7]-[15]ge1 .8) are then used to extract YSO candidates from the ISOGAL Point Source Catalogue in preparation. We select a total of 715 YSO candidates, corresponding to ~ 2% of the sources with good detections at 7 and 15 mu m. The results are presented in a table form that provides an unique input list of small diameter, le 6 arcsec, Galactic YSO candidates. The global properties of the sample of YSO candidates are briefly discussed. This is paper No. 11 in a refereed journal based on data from the ISOGAL project. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA. Table 3 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http

  5. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, J. J.; Wilson, T. M. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Schwarzkopf, A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); zeroK NanoTech, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878 (United States); Twedt, K. A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga{sup +} liquid metal ion source. In this review, we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future.

  6. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J. J.; Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Twedt, K. A.; Schwarzkopf, A.; Wilson, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga+ liquid metal ion source. In this review we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future. PMID:27239245

  7. Nist Microwave Blackbody: The Design, Testing, and Verification of a Conical Brightness Temperature Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtz, Derek Anderson

    Microwave radiometers allow remote sensing of earth and atmospheric temperatures from space, anytime, anywhere, through clouds, and in the dark. Data from microwave radiometers are high-impact operational inputs to weather forecasts, and are used to provide a vast array of climate data products including land and sea surface temperatures, soil moisture, ocean salinity, cloud precipitation and moisture height profiles, and even wind speed and direction, to name a few. Space-borne microwave radiometers have a major weakness when it comes to long-term climate trends due to their lack of traceability. Because there is no standard, or absolute reference, for microwave brightness temperature, nationally or internationally, individual instruments must each rely on their own internal calibration source to set an absolute reference to the fundamental unit of Kelvin. This causes each subsequent instrument to have a calibration offset and there is no 'true' reference. The work introduced in this thesis addresses this vacancy by proposing and introducing a NIST microwave brightness temperature source that may act as the primary reference. The NIST standard will allow pre-launch calibration of radiometers across a broad range of remote sensing pertinent frequencies between 18 GHz and 220 GHz. The blackbody will be capable of reaching temperatures ranging between liquid nitrogen boiling at approximately 77 K and warm-target temperature of 350 K. The brightness temperature of the source has associated standard uncertainty ranging as a function of frequency between 0.084 K and 0.111 K. The standard can be transferred to the calibration source in the instrument, providing traceability of all subsequent measurements back to the primary standard. The development of the NIST standard source involved predicting and measuring its brightness temperature, and minimizing the associated uncertainty of this quantity. Uniform and constant physical temperature along with well characterized and

  8. Efficient, High Brightness Sources of Polarized Neutrons and Photons and Their Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, James E.

    2000-05-18

    There are many applications that could benefit from an easily accessible source of monochromatic, high brightness, polarized gammas and neutrons. A compact and comparatively inexpensive system is discussed based on a low-energy, electron storage ring with undulators that is expected to provide 10{sup 11} epithermal n/s and 10{sup 15} {gamma}/s. This method could provide a more efficient, cleaner way to produce epithermal neutrons than conventional means. Technical innovations that make it feasible are described together with some fundamental and practical applications that also take advantage of developments in the field of high power lasers.

  9. Providing Bright-Hard X-ray Beams from a Lower Energy Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, David

    2002-04-01

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) there had been an increasing demand for more high brightness harder X-ray sources in the 7 to 40 KeV range. In response to that demand, the ALS storage ring was modified in August 2001. Three 1.3 Tesla normal conducting bending magnets were removed and replaced with three 5 Tesla superconducting magnets (Superbends). The radiation produced by these Superbends is an order of magnitude higher in photon brightness and flux at 12 keV than the 1.3 Tesla bends, making them excellent sources of harder x-rays for protein crystallography and other harder x-ray applications. At the same time the Superbends do not compromise the performance of the facility in the UV and Soft X-ray regions of the spectrum. The Superbends will eventually feed 12 new x-ray beam lines greatly enhancing the facility's capacity in the hard x-ray region. The Superbend project is the biggest upgrade to the ALS storage ring since the ring was commissioned in 1993. In this paper we present, a history of the project, details of the magnet, installation, commissioning, and resulting performance of the ALS with Superbends.

  10. High-brightness electron guns for linac-based light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Most proposed linac-based light sources, such as single-pass free-electron lasers and energy-recovery-linacs, require very high-brightness electron beams in order to achieve their design performance. These beam requirements must be achieved not on an occasional basis, but rather must be met by every bunch produced by the source over extended periods of time. It is widely assumed that the beam source will be a photocathode electron gun; the selection of accelerator technique (e.g., dc or rf) for the gun is more dependent on the application.The current state of the art of electron beam production is adequate but not ideal for the first generation of linac-based light sources, such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free-electron laser (X-FEL). For the next generation of linac-based light sources, an order of magnitude reduction in the transverse electron beam emittance is required to significantly reduce the cost of the facility. This is beyond the present state of the art, given the other beam properties that must be maintained. The requirements for current and future linac-based light source beam sources are presented here, along with a review of the present state of the art. A discussion of potential paths towards meeting future needs is presented at the conclusion.

  11. SOURCE-PLANE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE BRIGHT LENSED GALAXY RCSGA 032727-132609

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, Keren; Gladders, Michael D.; Wuyts, Eva; Bayliss, Matthew B. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rigby, Jane R. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Koester, Benjamin P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Barrientos, L. Felipe, E-mail: kerens@kicp.uchicago.edu [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2012-02-20

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging data of RCSGA 032727-132609, a bright lensed galaxy at z = 1.7 that is magnified and stretched by the lensing cluster RCS2 032727-132623. Using this new high-resolution imaging, we modify our previous lens model (which was based on ground-based data) to fully understand the lensing geometry, and use it to reconstruct the lensed galaxy in the source plane. This giant arc represents a unique opportunity to peer into 100 pc scale structures in a high-redshift galaxy. This new source reconstruction will be crucial for a future analysis of the spatially resolved rest-UV and rest-optical spectra of the brightest parts of the arc.

  12. Prospects for X-ray absorption with the super-bright light sources of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, D

    2001-03-01

    The immense growth in applications of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been enabled by the widespread availability of intense tunable X-rays from synchrotron radiation sources. Recently, new concepts have been proposed for fourth-generation light sources, such as the SASE (self-amplified stimulated emission) X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) being pursued at Hamburg (TESLA) and Stanford (LCLS), and the recirculator ring (MARS) at Novosibirsk. These sources offer expected gains of many orders of magnitude in instantaneous brilliance, which will unlock opportunities for qualitatively different science. Examples of new or greatly expanded techniques in XAS could include Raman X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), pump-probe experiments, time-resolved XAFS and small-spot X-ray spectromicroscopy, although the limited tunability of the sources might not allow conventional XAFS measurements. Multi-photon X-ray absorption could become a new field of study. There should not be a collective stampede to these new sources, however, and it is likely that storage rings will continue to be necessary for most XAFS applications. The extreme brightness of these future light sources will present difficult challenges in instrumentation, especially detectors and sample containment. Practitioners will also have to exercise caution, because the intensity of the beam will surely destroy many samples and in some cases there will be so many photons absorbed per atom that XAFS will be impossible.

  13. Heat sources for bright-rimmed molecular clouds: CO observations of NGC 7822

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Dickinson, D.F.; Lada, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of the 2.6 mm carbon monoxide line in the bright rim NGC 7822 reveal that the peak excitation and column density of the molecule lie in a ridge ahead of the ionization front. Several possibilities for the excitation of this ridge are discussed. Cosmic rays are shown to provide an excellent heat source for Bok globules, but they can account for only approx.20% of the required heating in NGC 7822. Direct shock or compressional heating of the gas could be adequate only if the pressure inside the cloud is much larger than the thermal pressure. If, in fact, this internal pressure is determined by the source of line broadening (e.g., magnetic fields or turbulence), then shock or compressional heating could be important, and pressure equilibrium may exist between the neutral cloud and the bright rim. Heating by warm grains or by the photoelectric effect is also considered, but such mechanisms are probably not important if the only source of radiation is external to the cloud. This is primarily a result of the low cloud density (approx.10 3 cm -3 ) inferred from our observations. The extent to which unknown embedded stars may provide the required gaseous heating cannot be estimated from our observations of NGC 7822.An interesting and new heat source is suggested which may have important applications to bright-rimmed clouds or to any other predominantly neutral clouds that may have undergone some recent compression. We suggest that the heat input to neutral gas due to the relaxation of internal magnetic fields will be greatly enhanced during cloud compression (with or without a shock). We show that the power input to the gas will increase more with increasing density than will the cooling rate. As a result, cloud compression can lead to an increase in the gas temperature for a period lasting several million years, which is the decay time of the compressed field. The observed ridge in NGC 7822 may be due to stimulated release of internal magnetic energy

  14. The Catalog of Positions of Optically Bright Extragalactic Radio Sources OBRS-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, L.

    2011-01-01

    It is expected that the European Space Agency mission Gaia will make it possible to determine coordinates in the optical domain of more than 500,000 quasars. In 2006, a radio astrometry project was launched with the overall goal of making comparisons between coordinate systems derived from future space-born astrometry instruments and the coordinate system constructed from analysis of global very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) more robust. Investigation of the rotation, zonal errors, and non-alignment of the radio and optical positions caused by both radio and optical structures is needed to validate both techniques. In order to support these studies, the densification of the list of compact extragalactic objects that are bright in both radio and optical ranges is desirable. A set of 105 objects from the list of 398 compact extragalactic radio sources with decl. > -10deg was observed with the Very Long Baseline Array and European VLBI Network (EVN) with the primary goal of producing images with milliarcsecond resolution. These sources are brighter than 18 mag in the V band, and they were previously detected by the EVN. In this paper, coordinates of observed sources have been derived with milliarcsecond accuracies from analysis of these VLBI observations using an absolute astrometry method. The catalog of positions for 105 target sources is presented. The accuracies of source coordinates are in the range of 0.3.7 mas, with a median of 1.1 mas.

  15. The Bright SHARC Survey: The Selection Function and Its Impact on the Cluster X-Ray Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, C.; Ulmer, M. P.; Romer, A. K.; Nichol, R. C.; Holden, B. P.; Pildis, R. A.

    2000-12-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive set of simulations designed to quantify the selection function of the Bright SHARC survey for distant clusters. The statistical significance of the simulations relied on the creation of many thousands of artificial clusters with redshifts and luminosities in the range 0.250.8), elliptical clusters are significantly easier to detect than spherical ones in the Bright SHARC survey. We show also that all the tested parameters have only a small influence on the computed luminosity of the clusters (``recovered luminosity'' in the text) except the presence of a strong cooling flow. We conclude that the CXLF presented by Nichol et al. in 1999 is robust (under the assumption of standard parameters), but stress the importance of cluster follow-up, by Chandra and XMM, in order to better constrain the morphology of the distant clusters found in the Bright SHARC and other surveys.

  16. First Results from the Herschel and ALMA Spectroscopic Surveys of the SMC: The Relationship between [C II]-bright Gas and CO-bright Gas at Low Metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Katherine E.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Wolfire, Mark; Warren, Steven R.; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Croxall, Kevin; Pellegrini, Eric; Smith, John-David; Rubio, Monica; Indebetouw, Remy; Israel, Frank P.; Meixner, Margaret; Roman-Duval, Julia; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Muller, Erik; Verdugo, Celia; Zinnecker, Hans; Okada, Yoko

    2018-02-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) provides the only laboratory to study the structure of molecular gas at high resolution and low metallicity. We present results from the Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of the SMC (HS3), which mapped the key far-IR cooling lines [C II], [O I], [N II], and [O III] in five star-forming regions, and new ALMA 7 m array maps of {}12{CO} and {}13{CO} (2-1) with coverage overlapping four of the five HS3 regions. We detect [C II] and [O I] throughout all of the regions mapped. The data allow us to compare the structure of the molecular clouds and surrounding photodissociation regions using {}13{CO}, {}12{CO}, [C II], and [O I] emission at ≲ 10\\prime\\prime (value at high {A}V in the centers of the clouds and fall to ∼ 1/5{--}1/10× the Milky Way value in the outskirts, indicating the presence of translucent molecular gas not traced by bright {}12{CO} emission. We estimate the amount of molecular gas traced by bright [C II] emission at low {A}V and bright {}12{CO} emission at high {A}V. We find that most of the molecular gas is at low {A}V and traced by bright [C II] emission, but that faint {}12{CO} emission appears to extend to where we estimate that the {{{H}}}2-to-H I transition occurs. By converting our {{{H}}}2 gas estimates to a CO-to-{{{H}}}2 conversion factor (X CO), we show that X CO is primarily a function of {A}V, consistent with simulations and models of low-metallicity molecular clouds. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  17. Bright X-ray source from a laser-driven micro-plasma-waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Longqing

    2016-01-01

    Bright tunable x-ray sources have a number of applications in basic science, medicine and industry. The most powerful sources are synchrotrons, where relativistic electrons are circling in giant storage rings. In parallel, compact laser-plasma x-ray sources are being developed. Owing to the rapid progress in laser technology, very high-contrast femtosecond laser pulses of relativistic intensities become available. These pulses allow for interaction with micro-structured solid-density plasma without destroying the structure by parasitic pre-pulses. The high-contrast laser pulses as well as the manufacturing of materials at micro- and nano-scales open a new realm of possibilities for laser interaction with photonic materials at the relativistic intensities. Here we demonstrate, via numerical simulations, that when coupling with a readily available 1.8 Joule laser, a micro-plasma-waveguide (MPW) may serve as a novel compact x-ray source. Electrons are extracted from the walls by the laser field and form a dense ...

  18. Brookhaven Lab physicists Edward Beebe and Alexander Pikin win 'Brightness Award' for achievement in ion source physics and technology

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Edward Beebe and Alexander Pikin, physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, have been awarded the Ion Source Prize, known as the "Brightness Award," which recognizes and encourages innovative and significant recent achievements in the fields of ion source physics and technology" (1 page).

  19. A bright single-photon source based on a photonic trumpet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Malik, Nitin S.; Bleuse, Joël

    Fiber-like photonic nanowires, which are optical waveguides made of a high refractive index material n, have recently emerged as non-resonant systems providing an efficient spontaneous emission (SE) control. When they embed a quantum emitter like a quantum dot (QD), they find application to the r......Fiber-like photonic nanowires, which are optical waveguides made of a high refractive index material n, have recently emerged as non-resonant systems providing an efficient spontaneous emission (SE) control. When they embed a quantum emitter like a quantum dot (QD), they find application...... to the realization of bright sources of quantum light and, reversibly, provide an efficient interface between propagating photons and the QD. For a wire diameter ∼ λ/n (λ is the operation wavelength), the fraction of QD SE coupled to the fundamental guided mode exceeds 90%. The collection of the photons can...... be brought close to unity with a proper engineering of the wire ends. In particular, a tapering of the top wire end is necessary to achieve a directive far-field emission pattern [1]. Recently, we have realized a single-photon source featuring a needle-like taper. The source efficiency, though record...

  20. Enhancing the brightness of electrically driven single-photon sources using color centers in silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramtsov, Igor A.; Vyshnevyy, Andrey A.; Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Practical applications of quantum information technologies exploiting the quantum nature of light require efficient and bright true single-photon sources which operate under ambient conditions. Currently, point defects in the crystal lattice of diamond known as color centers have taken the lead in the race for the most promising quantum system for practical non-classical light sources. This work is focused on a different quantum optoelectronic material, namely a color center in silicon carbide, and reveals the physics behind the process of single-photon emission from color centers in SiC under electrical pumping. We show that color centers in silicon carbide can be far superior to any other quantum light emitter under electrical control at room temperature. Using a comprehensive theoretical approach and rigorous numerical simulations, we demonstrate that at room temperature, the photon emission rate from a p-i-n silicon carbide single-photon emitting diode can exceed 5 Gcounts/s, which is higher than what can be achieved with electrically driven color centers in diamond or epitaxial quantum dots. These findings lay the foundation for the development of practical photonic quantum devices which can be produced in a well-developed CMOS compatible process flow.

  1. Bright galactic x-ray binary sources: temporal and spectral studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrtilek, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    The author carried out a detailed analysis of the time-dependent X-ray spectra of five bright binary sources: Cygnus X-2, GX9 + 9, 1820-30 (a globular cluster burst source), Serpens X-1 (also a burster), and Hercules X-1. For Hercules X-1, an unusual, possibly periodic (approx.108 minute) spiking phenomenon was detected during the pre-eclipse and anomalous dip states. Spectra fits suggest a constant intrinsic source spectrum (a flat power law of photon index ..cap alpha.. = 0.93) from 1-20 keV, plus an absorber of varying covering fraction: approx.0% in the high state, approx.50% during the spikes, and approx.90% during the low state. Broadband spectra of the remaining systems are well fitted by either a single thermal bremsstrahlung model with temperatures of approx.4-14 keV or two-component blackbody spectra with temperatures of approx.0.6 keV and approx.2.0 keV. The hard and soft blackbody components imply, respectively, emitting regions of 2-10 km radius (perhaps originating on the neutron star surface) and 15-90 km radius (possibly associated with a surrounding accretion disk). For Cygnus X-2, the x-ray light curve appears to be correlated with the 0.843-day optical period, implying a partial eclipse of the x-ray source. During the high states there are irregular dips of up to 30% in intensity that last for 300-700 seconds.

  2. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Color-Selected Sample of the SDSS Fall Equatorial Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Osmer, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    We present mass functions of distant actively accreting supermassive black holes residing in luminous quasars discovered in the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Fall Equatorial Stripe of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The quasars cover a wide range of redshifts (0...... functions at similar redshifts based on the SDSS Data Release 3 quasar catalog presented by Vestergaard et al. We see clear evidence of cosmic downsizing in the comoving space density distribution of active black holes in the LBQS sample alone. In forthcoming papers, further analysis, comparison......, and discussion of these mass functions will be made with other existing black hole mass functions, notably that based on the SDSS DR3 quasar catalog. We present the relationships used to estimate the black hole mass based on the MgII emission line; the relations are calibrated to the Hbeta and CIV relations...

  3. CHARACTERIZING THE POPULATION OF BRIGHT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, K. E.; Sloan, G. C.; Wood, P. R.; Jones, O. C.; Egan, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) selected from the Point Source Catalog of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). We concentrate on the dust properties of the oxygen-rich evolved stars. The dust composition has smaller contributions from alumina compared to the Galaxy. This difference may arise from the lower metallicity in the SMC, but it could be a selection effect, as the SMC sample includes more stars that are brighter and thus more massive. The distribution of the SMC stars along the silicate sequence looks more like the Galactic sample of red supergiants than asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs). While many of the SMC stars are definitively on the AGB, several also show evidence of hot bottom burning. Three of the supergiants show PAH emission at 11.3 μ m. Two other sources show mixed chemistry, with both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich spectral features. One, MSX SMC 134, may be the first confirmed silicate/carbon star in the SMC. The other, MSX SMC 049, is a candidate post-AGB star. MSX SMC 145, previously considered a candidate OH/IR star, is actually an AGB star with a background galaxy at z  = 0.16 along the same line of sight. We consider the overall characteristics of all the MSX sources, the most infrared-bright objects in the SMC, in light of the higher sensitivity and resolution of Spitzer , and compare them with the object types expected from the original selection criteria. This population represents what will be seen in more distant galaxies by the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ). Color–color diagrams generated from the IRS spectra and the mid-infrared filters on JWST show how one can separate evolved stars from young stellar objects (YSOs) and distinguish among different classes of YSOs.

  4. CHARACTERIZING THE POPULATION OF BRIGHT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, K. E. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Wood, P. R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek ACT 2611 (Australia); Jones, O. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Egan, M. P., E-mail: kathleen.kraemer@bc.edu, E-mail: sloan@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: wood@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: michael.p.egan@nga.mil [National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, 7500 GEOINT Drive, Springfield, VA 22150 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) selected from the Point Source Catalog of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). We concentrate on the dust properties of the oxygen-rich evolved stars. The dust composition has smaller contributions from alumina compared to the Galaxy. This difference may arise from the lower metallicity in the SMC, but it could be a selection effect, as the SMC sample includes more stars that are brighter and thus more massive. The distribution of the SMC stars along the silicate sequence looks more like the Galactic sample of red supergiants than asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs). While many of the SMC stars are definitively on the AGB, several also show evidence of hot bottom burning. Three of the supergiants show PAH emission at 11.3 μ m. Two other sources show mixed chemistry, with both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich spectral features. One, MSX SMC 134, may be the first confirmed silicate/carbon star in the SMC. The other, MSX SMC 049, is a candidate post-AGB star. MSX SMC 145, previously considered a candidate OH/IR star, is actually an AGB star with a background galaxy at z  = 0.16 along the same line of sight. We consider the overall characteristics of all the MSX sources, the most infrared-bright objects in the SMC, in light of the higher sensitivity and resolution of Spitzer , and compare them with the object types expected from the original selection criteria. This population represents what will be seen in more distant galaxies by the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ). Color–color diagrams generated from the IRS spectra and the mid-infrared filters on JWST show how one can separate evolved stars from young stellar objects (YSOs) and distinguish among different classes of YSOs.

  5. The Bright SHARC Survey: The X-Ray Cluster Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, R. C.; Romer, A. K.; Holden, B. P.; Ulmer, M. P.; Pildis, R. A.; Adami, C.; Merrelli, A. J.; Burke, D. J.; Collins, C. A.

    1999-08-01

    We present here initial results on the X-ray cluster luminosity function (XCLF) from the Bright Serendipitous High-Redshift Archival Cluster (SHARC) sample of distant X-ray clusters of galaxies. This sample is 97% complete in its optical identifications and contains 12 X-ray-luminous clusters in the redshift range 0.35×1044 ergs s-1, we find evidence for a deficit of clusters compared to that expected from a nonevolving XCLF. We detect only one such cluster in the redshift range 0.35×1044 ergs s-1 cluster, while we would expect 7.6 such clusters based on the local XCLF (De Grandi et al.). The statistical significance of the deficit in this joint survey increases to 99.5%. These results remain preliminary because of incompletenesses in the optical follow-up and uncertainties in the local XCLF. Based on data obtained at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, European Southern Observatory, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, and Apache Point Observatory.

  6. High Brightness Electron Guns for Next-Generation Light Sources and Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Bluem; M.D. Cole; J. Rathke; T. Schultheiss; A.M.M. Todd; I. Ben-Zvi; T. Srinivasan-Rao; P. Colestock; D.C. Nguyen; R.L. Wood; L. Young; D. Janssen; J. Lewellen; G. Neil; H.L. Phillips; J.P. Preble

    2004-01-01

    Advanced Energy Systems continues to develop advanced electron gun and injector concepts. Several of these projects have been previously described, but the progress and status of each will be updated. The project closest to completion is an all superconducting RF (SRF) gun, being developed in collaboration with the Brookhaven National Laboratory, that uses the niobium of the cavity wall itself as the photocathode material. This gun has been fabricated and will shortly be tested with beam. The cavity string for a closely-coupled DC gun and SRF cavity injector that is expected to provide beam quality sufficient for proposed ERL light sources and FELs will be assembled at the Jefferson Laboratory later this year. We are also collaboration with Los Alamos on a prototype CW normal-conducting RF gun with similar performance, that will undergo thermal testing in late 2004. Another CW SRF gun project that uses a high quantum efficiency photocathode, similar to the FZ-Rossendorf approach, has just begun. Finally, we will present the RF design and cold test results for a fully axisymmetric, ultra-high-brightness x-band RF gun

  7. FERMI/LARGE AREA TELESCOPE BRIGHT GAMMA-RAY SOURCE LIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Battelino, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Band, D. L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bignami, G. F.; Bonamente, E.

    2009-01-01

    Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the γ-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than ∼10σ) γ-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) γ-ray sources in the early mission data.

  8. Land Streamer Surveying Using Multiple Sources

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmoud, Sherif

    2014-12-11

    Various examples are provided for land streamer seismic surveying using multiple sources. In one example, among others, a method includes disposing a land streamer in-line with first and second shot sources. The first shot source is at a first source location adjacent to a proximal end of the land streamer and the second shot source is at a second source location separated by a fixed length corresponding to a length of the land streamer. Shot gathers can be obtained when the shot sources are fired. In another example, a system includes a land streamer including a plurality of receivers, a first shot source located adjacent to the proximal end of the land streamer, and a second shot source located in-line with the land streamer and the first shot source. The second shot source is separated from the first shot source by a fixed overall length corresponding to the land streamer.

  9. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). XVIII. Measurement and Calibration of Surface Brightness Fluctuation Distances for Bright Galaxies in Virgo (and Beyond)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiello, Michele; Blakeslee, John P.; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Roediger, Joel C.; Raimondo, Gabriella; Peng, Eric W.; Gwyn, Stephen; Durrell, Patrick R.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles

    2018-04-01

    We describe a program to measure surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) distances to galaxies observed in the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), a photometric imaging survey covering 104 deg2 of the Virgo cluster in the u*, g, i, and z bandpasses with the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope. We describe the selection of the sample galaxies, the procedures for measuring the apparent i-band SBF magnitude {\\overline{m}}i, and the calibration of the absolute Mibar as a function of observed stellar population properties. The multiband NGVS data set provides multiple options for calibrating the SBF distances, and we explore various calibrations involving individual color indices as well as combinations of two different colors. Within the color range of the present sample, the two-color calibrations do not significantly improve the scatter with respect to wide-baseline, single-color calibrations involving u*. We adopt the ({u}* -z) calibration as a reference for the present galaxy sample, with an observed scatter of 0.11 mag. For a few cases that lack good u* photometry, we use an alternative relation based on a combination of (g-i) and (g-z) colors, with only a slightly larger observed scatter of 0.12 mag. The agreement of our measurements with the best existing distance estimates provides confidence that our measurements are accurate. We present a preliminary catalog of distances for 89 galaxies brighter than B T ≈ 13.0 mag within the survey footprint, including members of the background M and W Clouds at roughly twice the distance of the main body of the Virgo cluster. The extension of the present work to fainter and bluer galaxies is in progress.

  10. The Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey (ELQS) in SDSS and the high-z bright-end Quasar Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Jan-Torge; Fan, Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Studies of the most luminous quasars at high redshift directly probe the evolution of the most massive black holes in the early Universe and their connection to massive galaxy formation. Unfortunately, extremely luminous quasars at high redshift are very rare objects. Only wide area surveys have a chance to constrain their population. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) nd the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) have so far provided the most widely adopted measurements of the type I quasar luminosity function (QLF) at z>3. However, a careful re-examination of the SDSS quasar sample revealed that the SDSS quasar selection is in fact missing a significant fraction of $z~3$ quasars at the brightest end.We have identified the purely optical color selection of SDSS, where quasars at these redshifts are strongly contaminated by late-type dwarfs, and the spectroscopic incompleteness of the SDSS footprint as the main reasons. Therefore we have designed the Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey (ELQS), based on a novel near-infrared JKW2 color cut using WISE AllWISE and 2MASS all-sky photometry, to yield high completeness for very bright (i footprint, to obtain a well-defined and complete quasar sample for an accurate measurement of the bright-end quasar luminosity function (QLF) at 2.8<= z<=5.0. So far the ELQS has identified 75 bright new quasars in this redshift range and observations of the fall sky will continue until the end of the year. At the AAS winter meeting we will present the full spectroscopic results of the survey, including a re-estimation and extension of the high-z QLF toward higher luminosities.

  11. The Bright Sharc Survey Selection Function and its Impact on the Cluster X-ray Luminosity Function: Cosmological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Christophe; Ulmer, M.; Romer, K.; Nichol, R.; Holden, B.; Pildis, R.

    We present the results of a comprehensive set of simulations designed to quantify the selection function of the Bright SHARC survey (Romer et al. 2000a) for distant clusters. The statistical significance of the simulations relied on the creation of thousands of artificial clusters with redshifts and luminosities in the range 0.25brightness profiles (i.e the Navarro, Frenk & White 1997, NFW, model); and cooling flows, influence the selection function in the Bright SHARC survey. For our standard set we adopted the parameters used during the derivation of the Bright SHARC Cluster X-ray Luminosity Function (CXLF, Nichol et al. 1999, N99), i.e. Ω0=1, ΩΛ=0 and an isothermal β model with β=0.67, rc=250 kpc and e=0.15. We found that certain parameters have a dramatic effect on our ability to detect clusters, e.g. the presence of a NFW profile or a strong cooling flow profile, or the value of rc and β. Other parameters had very little effect, e.g. the cluster ellipticity. We show also that all the tested parameters have only a small influence on the computed luminosity of the clusters (recovered luminosity in the text) except the presence of a strong cooling flow. We stress the importance of cluster follow-up, by Chandra and XMM, in order to better constrain the morphology of the distant clusters found in the Bright SHARC and other surveys.

  12. Space charge and wake field analysis for a high brightness electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the formalism used, and some simulation results for transverse and longitudinal motion of a bunch of particles moving through a cavity (e.g., the Brookhaven National Laboratory high brightness photocathode gun), including effects of the accelerating field, space charge forces (e.g., arising from the interaction of the cavity surface and the self field of the bunch). 3 refs., 12 figs

  13. Maximum current density and beam brightness achievable by laser-driven electron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippetto, D.; Musumeci, P.; Zolotorev, M.; Stupakov, G.

    2014-02-01

    This paper discusses the extension to different electron beam aspect ratio of the Child-Langmuir law for the maximum achievable current density in electron guns. Using a simple model, we derive quantitative formulas in good agreement with simulation codes. The new scaling laws for the peak current density of temporally long and transversely narrow initial beam distributions can be used to estimate the maximum beam brightness and suggest new paths for injector optimization.

  14. Maximum current density and beam brightness achievable by laser-driven electron sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Filippetto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extension to different electron beam aspect ratio of the Child-Langmuir law for the maximum achievable current density in electron guns. Using a simple model, we derive quantitative formulas in good agreement with simulation codes. The new scaling laws for the peak current density of temporally long and transversely narrow initial beam distributions can be used to estimate the maximum beam brightness and suggest new paths for injector optimization.

  15. High Brightness X-Ray Source for Directed Energy and Holographic Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-31

    profound and unexpected influence on man’s spiritual perception of his world. The light microscope opened up an unseen universe, not only of strange plant ...Ionization of Atoms,’ Science 22W, 1345 (1985). 4. W. 8. Mori, C. Joshl, J. M. Dawson, 0. W. Forslund, and J. M. Kindel, ’ Evolution of Self- Focusing of...in 7 29 order to make the reference wave and object wave brightness comparable. Visible in the image is the cuticle of the Ascaris as well as

  16. The SPARC project: a high-brightness electron beam source at LNF to drive a SASE-FEL experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesini, D.; Bertolucci, S.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Castellano, M.; Clozza, A.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Esposito, A.; Ferrario, M.; Fusco, V.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Incurvati, M.; Laurelli, P.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Migliorati, M.; Milardi, C.; Palumbo, L.; Pellegrino, L.; Preger, M.; Raimondi, P.; Ricci, R.; Sanelli, C.; Sgamma, F.; Spataro, B.; Serio, M.; Stecchi, A.; Stella, A.; Tazzioli, F.; Vaccarezza, C.; Vescovi, M.; Vicario, C.; Zobov, M.; Acerbi, E.; Alessandria, F.; Barni, D.; Bellomo, G.; Boscolo, I.; Broggi, F.; Cialdi, S.; DeMartinis, C.; Giove, D.; Maroli, C.; Petrillo, V.; Rome', M.; Serafini, L.; Chiadroni, E.; Felici, G.; Levi, D.; Mastrucci, M.; Mattioli, M.; Medici, G.; Petrarca, G.S.; Catani, L.; Cianchi, A.; D'Angelo, A.; Di Salvo, R.; Fantini, A.; Moricciani, D.; Schaerf, C.; Bartolini, R.; Ciocci, F.; Dattoli, G.; Doria, A.; Flora, F.; Gallerano, G.P.; Giannessi, L.; Giovenale, E.; Messina, G.; Mezi, L.; Ottaviani, P.L.; Picardi, L.; Quattromini, M.; Renieri, A.; Ronsivalle, C.; Avaldi, L.; Carbone, C.; Cricenti, A.; Pifferi, A.; Perfetti, P.; Prosperi, T.; Albertini, V. Rossi; Quaresima, C.; Zema, N.

    2003-01-01

    The Project Sorgente Pulsata e Amplificata di Radiazione Coerente (SPARC), proposed by a collaboration among ENEA-INFN-CNR-Universita' di Tor Vergata-INFM-ST, was recently approved by the Italian Government and will be built at LNF. The aim of the project is to promote an R and D activity oriented to the development of a coherent ultra-brilliant X-ray source in Italy. This collaboration has identified a program founded on two main issues: the generation of ultra-high peak brightness electron beams and of resonant higher harmonics in the SASE-FEL process, as presented in this paper

  17. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of Four Bright Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources in the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/4039)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. M.; Zezas, A.; Fabbiano, G.; Schweizer, F.

    2004-07-01

    We report the results of spectral fits to four bright ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/4039) observed for 41 ks with XMM-Newton. Although emission regions are not resolved as well as in prior Chandra observations, at least four ULXs (X-11, X-16, X-37, and X-44 in the Zezas and Fabbiano scheme) are sufficiently bright and well separated with XMM-Newton that reliable extractions and spectral analyses are possible. We find that the single-component multicolor disk blackbody models cannot describe any of the spectra. Sources X-11 and X-16 are acceptably fitted with simple power-law models. A thermal bremsstrahlung model provides a better fit to the spectrum of X-44. Including a disk blackbody component to the spectrum of X-37 improves the fit and reveals an apparently cool disk (kT=0.13+/-0.02 keV). This would suggest a parallel to cool disks recently found in other very luminous ULXs, which may contain intermediate-mass black holes; however, the complex diffuse emission of the Antennae demands that this finding be regarded cautiously.

  18. Northern dwarf and low surface brightness galaxies. II - The Green Bank neutral hydrogen survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen E.; Thuan, Trinh X.; Mangum, Jeffrey G.; Miller, John

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports neutral hydrogen observations of a large sample of dwarf and other low surface brightness galaxies. A detailed discussion and error analysis of the observations are presented, and spectra are displayed for 329 galaxies detected for the first time, or detected with substantially better signal-to-noise ratios than achieved previously. The positions on the sky of 667 galaxies meeting the present selection criteria north of delta = 38 deg are shown. The distribution of the redshifts of galaxies detected at Green Bank is illustrated. The Green Bank detections tapered off strongly below the median H I flux of 3.7 Jy km/s detected at Arecibo: only 12 percent of the Green Bank sample was detected with smaller fluxes.

  19. Conceptual design of a high-brightness linac for soft X-ray SASE-FEL source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesini, D.; Bertolucci, S.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Castellano, M.; Clozza, A.; Pirro, G.D.G. Di; Drago, A.; Esposito, A.; Ferrario, M.; Fusco, V.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Incurvati, M.; Laurelli, P.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Migliorati, M.; Milardi, C.; Palumbo, L.; Pellegrino, L.; Preger, M.; Raimondi, P.; Ricci, R.; Sanelli, C.; Sgamma, F.; Spataro, B.; Serio, M.; Stecchi, A.; Stella, A.; Tazzioli, F.; Vaccarezza, C.; Vescovi, M.; Vicario, C.; Zobov, M.; Acerbi, E.; Alessandria, F.; Barni, D.; Bellomo, G.; Birattari, C.; Bonardi, M.; Boscolo, I.; Bosotti, A.; Broggi, F.; Cialdi, S.; DeMartinis, C.; Giove, D.; Maroli, C.; Michelato, P.; Monaco, L.; Pagani, C.; Petrillo, V.; Pierini, P.; Serafini, L.; Sertore, D.; Volpini, G.; Chiadroni, E.; Felici, G.; Levi, D.; Mastrucci, M.; Mattioli, M.; Medici, G.; Petrarca, G.S.; Catani, L.; Cianchi, A.; D'Angelo, A.; Salvo, R.D.R. Di; Fantini, A.; Moricciani, D.; Schaerf, C.; Bartolini, R.; Ciocci, F.; Dattoli, G.; Doria, A.; Flora, F.; Gallerano, G.P.; Giannessi, L.; Giovenale, E.; Messina, G.; Mezi, L.; Ottaviani, P.L.; Picardi, L.; Quattromini, M.; Renieri, A.; Ronsivalle, C.; Avaldi, L.; Carbone, C.; Cricenti, A.; Pifferi, A.; Perfetti, P.; Prosperi, T.; Albertini, V.R.V. Rossi; Quaresima, C.; Zema, N.

    2003-01-01

    FELs based on SASE are believed to be powerful tools to explore the frontiers of basic sciences, from physics to chemistry to biology. Intense R and D programs have started in the USA and Europe in order to understand the SASE physics and to prove the feasibility of these sources. The allocation of considerable resources in the Italian National Research Plan (PNR) brought about the formation of a CNR-ENEA-INFN-University of Roma 'Tor Vergata' study group. A conceptual design study has been developed and possible schemes for linac sources have been investigated, leading to the SPARX proposal. We report in this paper the results of a preliminary start to end simulation concerning one option we are considering based on an S-band normal conducting linac with high-brightness photoinjector integrated in an RF compressor

  20. Temporary blinding from bright light sources as a significant impact on occupational safety and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidenbach, Hans-Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Low power laser and high-brightness LEDs (HB-LEDs) have been applied in specially developed and computer assisted test setups in order to determine the duration and progression of colours in afterimages, the disturbance of visual acuity as well as the impairment of colour and contrast vision. Interrelationships between wavelength, exposure duration, optical power and energy have been investigated. Afterimage durations up to 300 seconds were found if the fovea of the human retina is irradiated from a laser beam at less than 30 μW, whereas lower values are valid in the Parafoveal region and in the periphery. The visual acuity was strongly reduced during about 30 % of the afterimage time. The time-dependent progression of the afterimage colours was determined for 4 different dominant wavelengths of HB-LEDs, i.e. 455 nm, 530 nm, 590 nm and 625 nm, in the power range between 0.05 m W and 0.5 m W for exposure durations between 0.5 s and 5 s. The flight of colours obtained with 5 test persons is given as 8-bit RGB-values and illustrated as a function of the applied optical energy in the CIE chromaticity diagram together with the respective total afterimage durations. The colour contrast capability was investigated for 3 volunteers with specially developed test charts in 7 colours, namely without and after glare from 4 coloured high-brightness LEDs. Each subject completed 56 time-consuming tests since adequate adaptation was necessary between the respective tests. Glare increases the identification times about 14 s and 16 s and even stronger impairment is observable especially at low colour contrast. Tests with 40 subjects and 4 different pseudoisochromatic colour plates have shown that colour vision was impaired for periods between 27 s and 186 s depending on the applied colour plate and respective LED colour. Such relatively long lasting visual disturbances could be of particular concern connected with performing safety critical operations such as working with machines

  1. The optical spectra of 24 mu m galaxies in the cosmos field. I. Spitzer MIPS bright sources in the zCOSMOS-bright 10k catalog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caputi, K. I.; Lilly, S. J.; Aussel, H.; Sanders, D.; Frayer, D.; Le Fevre, O.; Renzini, A.; Zamorani, G.; Scodeggio, M.; Contini, T.; Scoville, N.; Carollo, C. M.; Hasinger, G.; Iovino, A.; Le Brun, V.; Le Floc'h, E.; Maier, C.; Mainieri, V.; Mignoli, M.; Salvato, M.; Schiminovich, D.; Silverman, J.; Surace, J.; Tasca, L.; Abbas, U.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bottini, D.; Capak, P.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Halliday, C.; Ilbert, O.; Kampczyk, P.; Kartaltepe, J.; Kneib, J. -P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Lamareille, F.; Leauthaud, A.; Le Borgne, J. F.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H.; Meneux, B.; Oesch, P.; Pello, R.; Perez-Montero, E.; Porciani, C.; Ricciardelli, E.; Scaramella, R.; Scarlata, C.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Walcher, J.; Zamojski, M.; Zucca, E.

    2008-01-01

    We study zCOSMOS-bright optical spectra for 609 Spitzer MIPS 24 mu m-selected galaxies with S-24 (mu m) > 0: 30 mJy and I <22.5 (AB mag) over 1.5 deg(2) of the COSMOS field. From emission-line diagnostics we find the following: (1) SFRs derived from the observed H alpha lambda 6563 and H beta lambda

  2. Design of a high brightness ion source for the Basic Technology Accelerator (BTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    1992-03-01

    An ion source has been designed and fabricated for a 10 MeV, 10 mA, CW proton accelerator called Basic Technology Accelerator (BTA). The ion source consists of a multicusp plasma generator and a two-stage extractor, and is expected to produce a 100 keV, 120 mA H + ion beam with a normalized emittance of as low as 0.5 πmm.mrad. Guiding principles of the design are presented together with calculations on magnetic configuration, proton yield, plasma production, beam optics, and gas efficiency of the ion source. (author)

  3. The emittances and brightnesses of high-intensity negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; McConnell, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The emittances of high-intensity ion beams extracted from cesium sputter negative ion sources equipped with cylindrical and ellipsoidal solid tungsten and spiral-wound tantalum (General Ionex Corporation, Model 860), and cesium surface ionizers have been measured for several ion species, including 12 C - , 28 Si - , 58 Ni - , and 197 Au - . While certain sets of data from the ellipsoidal and cylindrical geometry ionizer sources suggest a moderate growth in emittance with increasing negative ion beam intensity I over the range of intensities investigated (5 ≤ 1 ≤ 60 μA) of perhaps 20%, not all data exhibit this dependence, especially those from the Model 860 source. As well, no evidence of an emittance dependence on ion mass of a monotonic nature was found. The emittances of ion beams at the 80% intensity level from the Model 860 source are found to be higher on the average by factors of 1.8 and 1.7, respectively, than those from sources equipped with ellipsoidal and cylindrical geometry cesium surface ionizers

  4. Bright quantum dot single photon source based on a low Q defect cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter; Forchel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The quasi-planar single photon source presented in this paper shows an extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or lithography steps as well as a high purity with a g2(0) value of 0.023.......The quasi-planar single photon source presented in this paper shows an extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or lithography steps as well as a high purity with a g2(0) value of 0.023....

  5. Bright single photon source based on self-aligned quantum dot–cavity systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Sebastian; Gold, Peter; Forchel, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    We report on a quasi-planar quantum-dot-based single-photon source that shows an unprecedented high extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or post-growth nanofabrication. This very high efficiency originates from the coupling of the photons emitted by a quantum...

  6. Source brightness and useful beam current of carbon nanotubes and other very small emitters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.; Bezuijen, M.; Barth, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    The potential application of carbon nanotubes as electron sources in electron microscopes is analyzed. The resolution and probe current that can be obtained from a carbon nanotube emitter in a low-voltage scanning electron microscope are calculated and compared to the state of the art using Schottky

  7. Bright high-repetition-rate source of narrowband extreme-ultraviolet harmonics beyond 22 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, He [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Xu, Yiming [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Ulonska, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Robinson, Joseph S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Ranitovic, Predrag [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Kaindl, Robert A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division

    2015-06-11

    Novel table-top sources of extreme-ultraviolet light based on high-harmonic generation yield unique insight into the fundamental properties of molecules, nanomaterials or correlated solids, and enable advanced applications in imaging or metrology. Extending high-harmonic generation to high repetition rates portends great experimental benefits, yet efficient extreme-ultraviolet conversion of correspondingly weak driving pulses is challenging. In this article, we demonstrate a highly-efficient source of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses at 50-kHz repetition rate, utilizing the ultraviolet second-harmonic focused tightly into Kr gas. In this cascaded scheme, a photon flux beyond ≈3 × 1013 s-1 is generated at 22.3 eV, with 5 × 10-5 conversion efficiency that surpasses similar harmonics directly driven by the fundamental by two orders-of-magnitude. The enhancement arises from both wavelength scaling of the atomic dipole and improved spatio-temporal phase matching, confirmed by simulations. Finally, spectral isolation of a single 72-meV-wide harmonic renders this bright, 50-kHz extreme-ultraviolet source a powerful tool for ultrafast photoemission, nanoscale imaging and other applications.

  8. Bright high-repetition-rate source of narrowband extreme-ultraviolet harmonics beyond 22 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Xu, Yiming; Ulonska, Stefan; Robinson, Joseph S.; Ranitovic, Predrag; Kaindl, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Novel table-top sources of extreme-ultraviolet light based on high-harmonic generation yield unique insight into the fundamental properties of molecules, nanomaterials or correlated solids, and enable advanced applications in imaging or metrology. Extending high-harmonic generation to high repetition rates portends great experimental benefits, yet efficient extreme-ultraviolet conversion of correspondingly weak driving pulses is challenging. Here, we demonstrate a highly-efficient source of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses at 50-kHz repetition rate, utilizing the ultraviolet second-harmonic focused tightly into Kr gas. In this cascaded scheme, a photon flux beyond ≈3 × 1013 s−1 is generated at 22.3 eV, with 5 × 10−5 conversion efficiency that surpasses similar harmonics directly driven by the fundamental by two orders-of-magnitude. The enhancement arises from both wavelength scaling of the atomic dipole and improved spatio-temporal phase matching, confirmed by simulations. Spectral isolation of a single 72-meV-wide harmonic renders this bright, 50-kHz extreme-ultraviolet source a powerful tool for ultrafast photoemission, nanoscale imaging and other applications. PMID:26067922

  9. Single Quantum Dot with Microlens and 3D-Printed Micro-objective as Integrated Bright Single-Photon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Sarah; Schlehahn, Alexander; Thoma, Alexander; Srocka, Nicole; Gissibl, Timo; Ristok, Simon; Thiele, Simon; Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Strittmatter, André; Heindel, Tobias; Rodt, Sven; Herkommer, Alois; Giessen, Harald; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2017-06-21

    Integrated single-photon sources with high photon-extraction efficiency are key building blocks for applications in the field of quantum communications. We report on a bright single-photon source realized by on-chip integration of a deterministic quantum dot microlens with a 3D-printed multilens micro-objective. The device concept benefits from a sophisticated combination of in situ 3D electron-beam lithography to realize the quantum dot microlens and 3D femtosecond direct laser writing for creation of the micro-objective. In this way, we obtain a high-quality quantum device with broadband photon-extraction efficiency of (40 ± 4)% and high suppression of multiphoton emission events with g (2) (τ = 0) < 0.02. Our results highlight the opportunities that arise from tailoring the optical properties of quantum emitters using integrated optics with high potential for the further development of plug-and-play fiber-coupled single-photon sources.

  10. Bright x-ray stainless steel K-shell source development at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, M. J.; Fournier, K. B.; Colvin, J. D.; Barrios, M. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Hohenberger, M.; Moody, J.; Patterson, J. R.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Regan, S. P.

    2015-06-01

    High x-ray conversion efficiency (XRCE) K-shell sources are being developed for high energy density experiments for use as backlighters and for the testing of materials exposed to high x-ray fluxes and fluences. Recently, sources with high XRCE in the K-shell x-ray energy range of iron and nickel were investigated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The x-ray conversion efficiency in the 5-9 keV spectral range was determined to be 6.8% ± 0.3%. These targets were 4.1 mm diameter, 4 mm tall hollow epoxy tubes having a 50 μm thick wall supporting a tube of 3 to 3.5 μm thick stainless steel. The NIF laser deposited ˜460 kJ of 3ω light into the target in a 140 TW, 3.3 ns square pulse. The absolute x-ray emission of the source was measured by two calibrated Dante x-ray spectrometers. Time resolved images filtered for the Fe K-shell were recorded to follow the heating of the target. Time integrated high-resolution spectra were recorded in the K-shell range.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope faint object spectrograph Quasar Absorption System Snapshot Survey (AbSnap). 1: Astrometric optical positions and finding charts of 269 bright QSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, David V.; Osmer, Samantha J.; Blades, J. Chris; Tytler, David; Cottrell, Lance; Fan, Xiao-Ming; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.

    1994-01-01

    We present finding charts and optical positions accurate to less than 1 arcsec for 269 bright (V less than or = 18.5) Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs). These objects were selected as candidates for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Quasar Absorption System Snapshot Survey (AbSnap), a program designed to use the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) to obtain short exposure ultraviolet (UV) spectra of bright QSOs. Many quasars were included because of their proximity to bright, low redshift galaxies and positions of these QSOs are measured accurately for the first time. Data were obtained using the digitized sky survey produced by the Space Telescope Science Institute's Guide Stars Selection System Astrometric Support Program.

  12. Using the Bright Ultrahard XMM-Newton survey to define an IR selection of luminous AGN based on WISE colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Carrera, F. J.; Blain, A.; Watson, M. G.; Barcons, X.; Braito, V.; Severgnini, P.; Donley, J. L.; Stern, D.

    2012-11-01

    We present a highly complete and reliable mid-infrared (MIR) colour selection of luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates using the 3.4, 4.6 and 12 μm bands of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) survey. The MIR colour wedge was defined using the wide-angle Bright Ultrahard XMM-Newton survey (BUXS), one of the largest complete flux-limited samples of bright (f4.5-10 keV >6×10-14 erg s-1 cm -2) 'ultrahard' (4.5-10 keV) X-ray-selected AGN to date. The BUXS includes 258 objects detected over a total sky area of 44.43 deg2 of which 251 are spectroscopically identified and classified, with 145 being type 1 AGN and 106 type 2 AGN. Our technique is designed to select objects with red MIR power-law spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in the three shortest bands of WISE and properly accounts for the errors in the photometry and deviations of the MIR SEDs from a pure power-law. The completeness of the MIR selection is a strong function of luminosity. At L2-10 keV >1044 erg s-1, where the AGN is expected to dominate the MIR emission, 97.1-4.8+2.2 and 76.5-18.4+13.3 per cent of the BUXS type 1 and type 2 AGN, respectively, meet the selection. Our technique shows one of the highest reliability and efficiency of detection of the X-ray-selected luminous AGN population with WISE amongst those in the literature. In the area covered by BUXS our selection identifies 2755 AGN candidates detected with signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 in the three shorter wavelength bands of WISE with 38.5 per cent having a detection at 2-10 keV X-ray energies. We also analysed the possibility of including the 22 μm WISE band to select AGN candidates, but neither the completeness nor the reliability of the selection improves. This is likely due to both the significantly shallower depth at 22 μm compared with the first three bands of WISE and star formation contributing to the 22 μm emission at the WISE 22 μm sensitivity.

  13. An investigation of the optics of an accelerating column for use with a high brightness ion source and a proton microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, R. A.; Legge, G. J. F.

    1993-04-01

    The accelerating column of a 5U Pelletron accelerator is analysed in this paper. This accelerator provides the primary beam for the Melbourne Scanning Proton Microprobe. The finite element method is used to calculate the electrostatic field in the accelerator column, and optical properties are extracted from ray tracing. Gaussian properties are presented which specify object location for the column to produce an exit plane focus for five and three accelerating elements. Column acceptance is discussed and found to match emittance for all practical configurations. Chromatic and spherical aberrations are calculated for the column for a range of image distances and for five and three accelerating elements. The optical combination of the column with an ion source lens and a high brightness ion source is discussed. The contribution of the column is found to be principally dependent on the magnification and accelerating voltage of the lens. Where very low currents are required from the accelerator, beam brightness is limited by chromatic aberration, and for very low divergences by diffraction. At such currents the high brightness phase space "core" of the beam may be degraded by chromatic aberration in the accelerating column if the ion source lens magnification is low, or the lens acceleration is particularly high. Where high currents are required (for example above 100 pA), beam divergence angles are higher, and the brightness is no longer chromatically or diffraction limited. Under these circumstances, accelerating column aberrations will not degrade beam brightness.

  14. A XMM-Newton Observation of Nova LMC 1995, a Bright Supersoft X-ray Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Marina; Hartmann, Wouter; Still, Martin; Greiner, Jochen

    2003-01-01

    Nova LMC 1995, previously detected during 1995-1998 with ROSAT, was observed again as a luminous supersoft X-ray source with XMM-Newton in December of 2000. This nova offers the possibility to observe the spectrum of a hot white dwarf, burning hydrogen in a shell and not obscured by a wind or by nebular emission like in other supersoft X-ray sources. Notwithstanding uncertainties in the calibration of the EPIC instruments at energy E0.6 keV, and an upper limit Fx,hard = 10 sup-14 erg s sup-l cm sup-2 to the X-ray flux above this energy. The background corrected count rate measured by the EPIC instruments was variable on time scales of minutes and hours, but without the flares or sudden obscuration observed for other novae. The power spectrum shows a peak at 5.25 hours, possibly due to a modulation with the orbital period. We also briefly discuss the scenarios in which this nova may become a type Ia supernova progenitor.

  15. Ultrahigh-brightness, spectrally-flat, short-wave infrared supercontinuum source for long-range atmospheric applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Zhu, Rongzhen; Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Tian; Chen, Shengping; Hou, Jing

    2016-09-05

    Fiber based supercontinuum (SC) sources with output spectra covering the infrared atmospheric window are very useful in long-range atmospheric applications. It is proven that silica fibers can support the generation of broadband SC sources ranging from the visible to the short-wave infrared region. In this paper, we present the generation of an ultrahigh-brightness spectrally-flat 2-2.5 μm SC source in a cladding pumped thulium-doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) numerically and experimentally. The underlying physical mechanisms behind the SC generation process are investigated firstly with a numerical model which includes the fiber gain and loss, the dispersive and nonlinear effects. Simulation results show that abundant soliton pulses are generated in the TDFA, and they are shifted towards the long wavelength side very quickly with the nonlinearity of Raman soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS), and eventually the Raman SSFS process is halted due to the silica fiber's infrared loss. A spectrally-flat 2-2.5 μm SC source could be generated as the result of the spectral superposition of these abundant soliton pulses. These simulation results correspond qualitatively well to the following experimental results. Then, in the experiment, a cladding pumped large-mode-area TDFA is built for pursuing a high-power 2-2.5 μm SC source. By enhancing the pump strength, the output SC spectrum broadens to the long wavelength side gradually. At the highest pump power, the obtained SC source has a maximum average power of 203.4 W with a power conversion efficiency of 38.7%. It has a 3 dB spectral bandwidth of 545 nm ranging from 1990 to 2535 nm, indicating a power spectral density in excess of 370 mW/nm. Meanwhile, the output SC source has a good beam profile. This SC source, to the best of our knowledge, is the brightest spectrally-flat 2-2.5 μm light source ever reported. It will be highly desirable in a lot of long-range atmospheric applications, such as broad-spectrum LIDAR, free

  16. High brightness laser source based on polarization coupling of two diode lasers with asymmetric feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thestrup, B.; Chi, M.; Sass, B.

    2003-01-01

    200 mum broad area laser diode applied with a specially designed feedback circuit. When operating at two times threshold, 50% of the freely running system output power is obtained in a single beam with an M-2 beam quality factor of 1.6+/-0.1, whereas the M-2 values of the two freely running diode......In this letter, we show that polarization coupling and asymmetric diode-laser feedback can be used to combine two diode-laser beams with low spatial coherence into a single beam with high spatial coherence. The coupled laser source is based on two similar laser systems each consisting of a 1 mumx...... lasers are 29+/-1 and 34+/-1, respectively. (C) 2003 American Institute of Physics....

  17. X-ray-bright optically faint active galactic nuclei in the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam wide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Yuichi; Suganuma, Makoto; Akiyama, Masayuki; Greene, Jenny E.; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Nagao, Tohru; Noda, Hirofumi; Toba, Yoshiki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Takuji

    2018-01-01

    We construct a sample of X-ray-bright optically faint active galactic nuclei by combining Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam, XMM-Newton, and infrared source catalogs. Fifty-three X-ray sources satisfying i-band magnitude fainter than 23.5 mag and X-ray counts with the EPIC-PN detector larger than 70 are selected from 9.1 deg2, and their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and X-ray spectra are analyzed. Forty-four objects with an X-ray to i-band flux ratio FX/Fi > 10 are classified as extreme X-ray-to-optical flux sources. Spectral energy distributions of 48 among 53 are represented by templates of type 2 AGNs or star-forming galaxies and show the optical signature of stellar emission from host galaxies in the source rest frame. Infrared/optical SEDs indicate a significant contribution of emission from dust to the infrared fluxes, and that the central AGN is dust obscured. The photometric redshifts determined from the SEDs are in the range of 0.6-2.5. The X-ray spectra are fitted by an absorbed power-law model, and the intrinsic absorption column densities are modest (best-fit log NH = 20.5-23.5 cm-2 in most cases). The absorption-corrected X-ray luminosities are in the range of 6 × 1042-2 × 1045 erg s-1. Twenty objects are classified as type 2 quasars based on X-ray luminsosity and NH. The optical faintness is explained by a combination of redshifts (mostly z > 1.0), strong dust extinction, and in part a large ratio of dust/gas.

  18. LAT Bright Source List

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a successor to EGRET, with greatly improved sensitivity, resolution, and energy range. This...

  19. Intrinsic brightness temperatures of blazar jets at 15 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovatta Talvikki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to deconvolve light curves of blazars into individual flares, including proper estimation of the fit errors. We use the method to fit 15GHzlight curves obtained within the OVRO 40-m blazar monitoring program where a large number of AGN have been monitored since 2008 in support of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope mission. The time scales obtained from the fitted models are used to calculate the variability brightness temperature of the sources. Additionally, we have calculated brightness temperatures of a sample of these objects using Very Long Baseline Array data from the MOJAVE survey. Combining these two data sets enables us to study the intrinsic brightness temperature distribution in these blazars at 15 GHz. Our preliminary results indicate that the mean intrinsic brightness temperature in a sample of 14 sources is near the equipartition brightness temperature of ~ 1011K.

  20. Adoption of open source digital library software packages: a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Jose, Sanjo

    2007-01-01

    Open source digital library packages are gaining popularity nowadays. To build a digital library under economical conditions open source software is preferable. This paper tries to identify the extent of adoption of open source digital library software packages in various organizations through an online survey. It lays down the findings from the survey.

  1. First Results from the $Herschel$ and ALMA Spectroscopic Surveys of the SMC: The Relationship Between [CII]-bright Gas and CO-bright Gas at Low Metallicity

    OpenAIRE

    Jameson, Katherine E.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Wolfire, Mark; Warren, Steven R.; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Croxall, Kevin; Pellegrini, Eric; Smith, John-David; Rubio, Monica; Indebetouw, Remy; Israel, Frank P.; Meixner, Margaret; Roman-Duval, Julia; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Muller, Erik

    2018-01-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) provides the only laboratory to study the structure of molecular gas at high resolution and low metallicity. We present results from the Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of the SMC (HS$^{3}$), which mapped the key far-IR cooling lines [CII], [OI], [NII], and [OIII] in five star-forming regions, and new ALMA 7m-array maps of $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO $(2-1)$ with coverage overlapping four of the five HS$^{3}$ regions. We detect [CII] and [OI] throughout all of the r...

  2. Mid infra-red hyper-spectral imaging with bright super continuum source and fast acousto-optic tuneable filter for cytological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farries, Mark; Ward, Jon; Valle, Stefano; Stephens, Gary; Moselund, Peter; Van der Zanden, Koen; Napier, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Mid-IR imaging spectroscopy has the potential to offer an effective tool for early cancer diagnosis. Current development of bright super-continuum sources, narrow band acousto-optic tunable filters and fast cameras have made feasible a system that can be used for fast diagnosis of cancer in vivo at point of care. The performance of a proto system that has been developed under the Minerva project is described. (paper)

  3. DGSAT: Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Amateur Telescopes. II. A catalogue of isolated nearby edge-on disk galaxies and the discovery of new low surface brightness systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, C.; Javanmardi, B.; Martínez-Delgado, D.; Kroupa, P.; Teuwen, K.

    2017-07-01

    The connection between the bulge mass or bulge luminosity in disk galaxies and the number, spatial and phase space distribution of associated dwarf galaxies is a discriminator between cosmological simulations related to galaxy formation in cold dark matter and generalised gravity models. Here, a nearby sample of isolated Milky Way-class edge-on galaxies is introduced, to facilitate observational campaigns to detect the associated families of dwarf galaxies at low surface brightness. Three galaxy pairs with at least one of the targets being edge-on are also introduced. Approximately 60% of the catalogued isolated galaxies contain bulges of different size, while the remaining objects appear to be bulgeless. Deep images of NGC 3669 (small bulge, with NGC 3625 at the edge of the image) and NGC 7814 (prominent bulge), obtained with a 0.4 m aperture, are also presented, resulting in the discovery of two new dwarf galaxy candidates, NGC 3669-DGSAT-3 and NGC 7814-DGSAT-7. Eleven additional low surface brightness galaxies are identified, previously notified with low quality measurement flags in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Integrated magnitudes, surface brightnesses, effective radii, Sersic indices, axis ratios, and projected distances to their putative major hosts are displayed. At least one of the galaxies, NGC 3625-DGSAT-4, belongs with a surface brightness of μr ≈ 26 mag arcsec-2 and effective radius >1.5 kpc to the class of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs). NGC 3669-DGSAT-3, the galaxy with the lowest surface brightness in our sample, may also be an UDG.

  4. A survey of open source tools for business intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    The industrial use of open source Business Intelligence (BI) tools is not yet common. It is therefore of interest to explore which possibilities are available for open source BI and compare the tools. In this survey paper, we consider the capabilities of a number of open source tools for BI...

  5. Error sources in the retrieval of aerosol information over bright surfaces from satellite measurements in the oxygen A band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Swadhin; de Graaf, Martin; Sneep, Maarten; de Haan, Johan F.; Stammes, Piet; Sanders, Abram F. J.; Tuinder, Olaf; Pepijn Veefkind, J.; Levelt, Pieternel F.

    2018-01-01

    Retrieving aerosol optical thickness and aerosol layer height over a bright surface from measured top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectrum in the oxygen A band is known to be challenging, often resulting in large errors. In certain atmospheric conditions and viewing geometries, a loss of sensitivity to aerosol optical thickness has been reported in the literature. This loss of sensitivity has been attributed to a phenomenon known as critical surface albedo regime, which is a range of surface albedos for which the top-of-atmosphere reflectance has minimal sensitivity to aerosol optical thickness. This paper extends the concept of critical surface albedo for aerosol layer height retrievals in the oxygen A band, and discusses its implications. The underlying physics are introduced by analysing the top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectrum as a sum of atmospheric path contribution and surface contribution, obtained using a radiative transfer model. Furthermore, error analysis of an aerosol layer height retrieval algorithm is conducted over dark and bright surfaces to show the dependence on surface reflectance. The analysis shows that the derivative with respect to aerosol layer height of the atmospheric path contribution to the top-of-atmosphere reflectance is opposite in sign to that of the surface contribution - an increase in surface brightness results in a decrease in information content. In the case of aerosol optical thickness, these derivatives are anti-correlated, leading to large retrieval errors in high surface albedo regimes. The consequence of this anti-correlation is demonstrated with measured spectra in the oxygen A band from the GOME-2 instrument on board the Metop-A satellite over the 2010 Russian wildfires incident.

  6. Survey, alignment, and beam stability at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, G.F.

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes survey and alignment at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories Advanced Light Source (ALS) accelerators from 1993 to 1997. The ALS is a third generation light source requiring magnet alignment to within 150 microns. To accomplish this, a network of monuments was established and maintained. Monthly elevation surveys show the movement of the floor over time. Inclinometers have recently been employed to give real time information about magnet, vacuum tank and magnet girder motion in the ALS storage ring

  7. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-27

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are

  8. The NuSTAR  Extragalactic Surveys: X-Ray Spectroscopic Analysis of the Bright Hard-band Selected Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, L.; Comastri, A.; Civano, F.; Puccetti, S.; Fiore, F.; Aird, J.; Del Moro, A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Lanzuisi, G.; Goulding, A.; Mullaney, J. R.; Stern, D.; Ajello, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Farrah, D.; Harrison, F. A.; Gandhi, P.; Lanz, L.; Masini, A.; Marchesi, S.; Ricci, C.; Treister, E.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the spectral analysis of a sample of 63 active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected above a limiting flux of S(8{--}24 {keV})=7× {10}-14 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2 in the multi-tiered NuSTAR extragalactic survey program. The sources span a redshift range z=0{--}2.1 (median =0.58). The spectral analysis is performed over the broad 0.5–24 keV energy range, combining NuSTAR with Chandra and/or XMM-Newton data and employing empirical and physically motivated models. This constitutes the largest sample of AGN selected at > 10 {keV} to be homogeneously spectrally analyzed at these flux levels. We study the distribution of spectral parameters such as photon index, column density ({N}{{H}}), reflection parameter ({\\boldsymbol{R}}), and 10–40 keV luminosity ({L}{{X}}). Heavily obscured ({log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]≥slant 23) and Compton-thick (CT; {log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]≥slant 24) AGN constitute ∼25% (15–17 sources) and ∼2–3% (1–2 sources) of the sample, respectively. The observed {N}{{H}} distribution agrees fairly well with predictions of cosmic X-ray background population-synthesis models (CXBPSM). We estimate the intrinsic fraction of AGN as a function of {N}{{H}}, accounting for the bias against obscured AGN in a flux-selected sample. The fraction of CT AGN relative to {log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]=20{--}24 AGN is poorly constrained, formally in the range 2–56% (90% upper limit of 66%). We derived a fraction (f abs) of obscured AGN ({log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]=22{--}24) as a function of {L}{{X}} in agreement with CXBPSM and previous z< 1 X-ray determinations. Furthermore, f abs at z=0.1{--}0.5 and {log}({L}{{x}}/{erg} {{{s}}}-1)≈ 43.6{--}44.3 agrees with observational measurements/trends obtained over larger redshift intervals. We report a significant anti-correlation of R with {L}{{X}} (confirmed by our companion paper on stacked spectra) with considerable scatter around the median R values.

  9. A Survey of Open Source Tools for Business Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2009-01-01

    The industrial use of open source Business Intelligence (BI) tools is becoming more common, but is still not as widespread as for other types of software. It is therefore of interest to explore which possibilities are available for open source BI and compare the tools. In this survey paper, we...

  10. The DES Bright Arcs Survey: Hundreds of Candidate Strongly Lensed Galaxy Systems from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification and Year 1 Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H. T.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lindgren, K. A.; Nord, B.; Gaitsch, H.; Gaitsch, S.; Lin, H.; Allam, S.; Odden, C.; Pellico, A.; Tucker, D. L.; Kuropatkin, N.; Soares-Santos, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Collett, T. E. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Furlanetto, C.; Nightingale, J. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Gill, M. S. S. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); More, A. [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Costa, L. N. da; Neto, A. Fausti, E-mail: diehl@fnal.gov [Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia—LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ—20921-400 (Brazil); Collaboration: DES Collaboration; and others

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of searches for strong gravitational lens systems in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification and Year 1 observations. The Science Verification data span approximately 250 sq. deg. with a median i -band limiting magnitude for extended objects (10 σ ) of 23.0. The Year 1 data span approximately 2000 sq. deg. and have an i -band limiting magnitude for extended objects (10 σ ) of 22.9. As these data sets are both wide and deep, they are particularly useful for identifying strong gravitational lens candidates. Potential strong gravitational lens candidate systems were initially identified based on a color and magnitude selection in the DES object catalogs or because the system is at the location of a previously identified galaxy cluster. Cutout images of potential candidates were then visually scanned using an object viewer and numerically ranked according to whether or not we judged them to be likely strong gravitational lens systems. Having scanned nearly 400,000 cutouts, we present 374 candidate strong lens systems, of which 348 are identified for the first time. We provide the R.A. and decl., the magnitudes and photometric properties of the lens and source objects, and the distance (radius) of the source(s) from the lens center for each system.

  11. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Extragalactic Sources at 148 GHz in the 2008 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriage, T. A.; Juin, J. B.; Lin, Y. T.; Marsden, D.; Nolta, M. R.; Partridge, B.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We report on extragalactic sources detected in a 455 square-degree map of the southern sky made with data at a frequency of 148 GHz from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope 2008 observing season. We provide a catalog of 157 sources with flux densities spanning two orders of magnitude: from 15 mJy to 1500 mJy. Comparison to other catalogs shows that 98% of the ACT detections correspond to sources detected at lower radio frequencies. Three of the sources appear to be associated with the brightest cluster galaxies of low redshift X-ray selected galaxy clusters. Estimates of the radio to mm-wave spectral indices and differential counts of the sources further bolster the hypothesis that they are nearly all radio sources, and that their emission is not dominated by re-emission from warm dust. In a bright (> 50 mJy) 148 GHz-selected sample with complete cross-identifications from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz survey, we observe an average steepening of the spectra between .5, 20, and 148 GHz with median spectral indices of alp[ha (sub 5-20) = -0.07 +/- 0.06, alpha (sub 20-148) -0.39 +/- 0.04, and alpha (sub 5-148) = -0.20 +/- 0.03. When the measured spectral indices are taken into account, the 148 GHz differential source counts are consistent with previous measurements at 30 GHz in the context of a source count model dominated by radio sources. Extrapolating with an appropriately rescaled model for the radio source counts, the Poisson contribution to the spatial power spectrum from synchrotron-dominated sources with flux density less than 20 mJy is C(sup Sync) = (2.8 +/- 0.3) x 1O (exp-6) micro K(exp 2).

  12. Variability Properties of Four Million Sources in the TESS Input Catalog Observed with the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkers, Ryan J.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua; Somers, Garrett; Kafka, Stella; Stevens, Daniel J.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Siverd, Robert J.; Lund, Michael B.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; James, David; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2018-01-01

    The Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) has been surveying more than 70% of the celestial sphere for nearly a decade. While the primary science goal of the survey is the discovery of transiting, large-radii planets around bright host stars, the survey has collected more than 106 images, with a typical cadence between 10–30 minutes, for more than four million sources with apparent visual magnitudes in the approximate range 7TESS Input catalog and the AAVSO Variable Star Index to precipitate the follow-up and classification of each source. The catalog is maintained as a living database on the Filtergraph visualization portal at the URL https://filtergraph.com/kelt_vars.

  13. The nature of solar brightness variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A. I.; Solanki, S. K.; Krivova, N. A.; Cameron, R. H.; Yeo, K. L.; Schmutz, W. K.

    2017-09-01

    Determining the sources of solar brightness variations1,2, often referred to as solar noise3, is important because solar noise limits the detection of solar oscillations3, is one of the drivers of the Earth's climate system4,5 and is a prototype of stellar variability6,7—an important limiting factor for the detection of extrasolar planets. Here, we model the magnetic contribution to solar brightness variability using high-cadence8,9 observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Spectral And Total Irradiance REconstruction (SATIRE)10,11 model. The brightness variations caused by the constantly evolving cellular granulation pattern on the solar surface were computed with the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS)/University of Chicago Radiative Magnetohydrodynamics (MURaM)12 code. We found that the surface magnetic field and granulation can together precisely explain solar noise (that is, solar variability excluding oscillations) on timescales from minutes to decades, accounting for all timescales that have so far been resolved or covered by irradiance measurements. We demonstrate that no other sources of variability are required to explain the data. Recent measurements of Sun-like stars by the COnvection ROtation and planetary Transits (CoRoT)13 and Kepler14 missions uncovered brightness variations similar to that of the Sun, but with a much wider variety of patterns15. Our finding that solar brightness variations can be replicated in detail with just two well-known sources will greatly simplify future modelling of existing CoRoT and Kepler as well as anticipated Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite16 and PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO)17 data.

  14. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. II. DATA DESCRIPTION AND SOURCE CATALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Derek; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Hoyos, Carlos; Balcells, Marc; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Jogee, Shardha; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ∼50% of the core high-density region in Coma. Observations were performed for 25 fields that extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (∼1.75 Mpc or 1 0 ) with a total coverage area of 274 arcmin 2 . The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the southwest region of the cluster. In this paper, we present reprocessed images and SEXTRACTOR source catalogs for our survey fields, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for ∼73,000 unique objects; approximately one-half of our detections are brighter than the 10σ point-source detection limit at F814W = 25.8 mag (AB). The slight majority of objects (60%) are unresolved or only marginally resolved by ACS. We estimate that Coma members are 5%-10% of all source detections, which consist of a large population of unresolved compact sources (primarily globular clusters but also ultra-compact dwarf galaxies) and a wide variety of extended galaxies from a cD galaxy to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The red sequence of Coma member galaxies has a color-magnitude relation with a constant slope and dispersion over 9 mag (-21 F814W < -13). The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in 2008 August. The images and catalogs described

  15. The Pressure Sources Beneath Unzen Volcano Inferred From Geodesic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Y.; Matsushima, T.; Shimizu, H.

    2004-12-01

    Unzen Volcano, which is located on Shimabara Peninsula, west Kyushu Island, Japan, erupted from 1990 to 1995. The ground deformations caused by volcanic activity were observed by several methods, such as Leveling survey, GPS and Tilt meters. In particular, it turned out from leveling data that the west coast area of Shimabara Peninsula sank about 8 cm since eruption had started. Joint Research Team of the national Universities suggested in 1992 that the model which has three pressure sources, could explain the ground deformation data in those days. But this model couldn_ft explain the leveling data which was observed after the eruption had stopped. In order to explain this latest leveling data, we had to add the fourth deeper pressure source beneath the Chidiwa Bay, confronted in the west seashore of the Shimabara peninsula (Matsushima et al., 2003; Kohno et al., 2003). In this study, we re-consider the source model beneath Unzen Volcano, using 1991-2001 and 2004 Leveling data along the northern flank of Unzen Volcano and the western coast of Shimabara peninsula. Also we use GPS data monitored by Kyushu University and Geographical Survey Institute. In calculation, both vertical and horizontal displacement was calculated applying the point source model (e.g. Mogi, 1958), and we get the best-fit source parameters. Parameters of the pressure sources are the location and the volume changes of pressure sources. Through the model calculation, the half-infinite surface was made for every height of each observation point, and geographical feature was reproduced in approximation. Analysis showed that after 1995 shallower source had started to deflate, on the other hand, two deeper sources still had kept expanding caused by intrusion of magma. After 1999, three shallower sources had begun to contract, and the only deepest (a depth of 15 km) source had expanded. But it is inferred from the 2004 Leveling that the deepest source turned to contract since 2001, and the all

  16. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1983-01-01

    Correlations between optical surface brightness and the radio properties of spiral galaxies are investigated. It is found that galaxies with high surface brightness are more likely to be strong continuum radio sources and that galaxies with low surface brightness have high 21-cm line emission. (author)

  17. DISCOVERY OF MOLECULAR GAS AROUND HD 131835 IN AN APEX MOLECULAR LINE SURVEY OF BRIGHT DEBRIS DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moór, A.; Ábrahám, P.; Kóspál, Á.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Kiss, Cs. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Henning, Th.; Balog, Z. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Juhász, A. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3, OHA (United Kingdom); Pascucci, I. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Vavrek, R. [Herschel Science Centre, ESA/ESAC, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28691, Madrid (Spain); Curé, M. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso (Chile); Csengeri, T.; Güsten, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Grady, C., E-mail: moor@konkoly.hu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    Debris disks are considered to be gas-poor, but recent observations revealed molecular or atomic gas in several 10–40 Myr old systems. We used the APEX and IRAM 30 m radio telescopes to search for CO gas in 20 bright debris disks. In one case, around the 16 Myr old A-type star HD 131835, we discovered a new gas-bearing debris disk, where the CO 3–2 transition was successfully detected. No other individual system exhibited a measurable CO signal. Our Herschel Space Observatory far-infrared images of HD 131835 marginally resolved the disk at both 70 and 100 μm, with a characteristic radius of ∼170 AU. While in stellar properties HD 131835 resembles β Pic, its dust disk properties are similar to those of the most massive young debris disks. With the detection of gas in HD 131835 the number of known debris disks with CO content has increased to four, all of them encircling young (≤40 Myr) A-type stars. Based on statistics within 125 pc, we suggest that the presence of a detectable amount of gas in the most massive debris disks around young A-type stars is a common phenomenon. Our current data cannot conclude on the origin of gas in HD 131835. If the gas is secondary, arising from the disruption of planetesimals, then HD 131835 is a comparably young, and in terms of its disk, more massive analog of the β Pic system. However, it is also possible that this system, similar to HD 21997, possesses a hybrid disk, where the gas material is predominantly primordial, while the dust grains are mostly derived from planetesimals.

  18. Reconstruction analysis of the IRAS Point Source Catalog Redshift Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narayanan, VK; Weinberg, DH; Branchini, E; Frenk, CS; Maddox, S; Oliver, S; Rowan-Robinson, M; Saunders, W

    We present the results of reconstruction analysis of the galaxy distribution in a spherical region of radius 50 h(-1) Mpc centered on the Local Group, as mapped by the IRAS Point Source Catalog Redshift Survey (PSCz). We reconstruct this galaxy distribution using 15 different models for structure

  19. Survey of tritiated oil sources and handling practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    Tritium interactions with oil sources (primarily associated with pumps) in tritium-handling facilities can lead to the incorporation of tritium in the oil and the production of tritiated hydrocarbons. This results in a source of radiological hazard and the need for special handling considerations during maintenance, decontamination, decommissioning and waste packaging and storage. The results of a general survey of tritiated-oil sources and their associated characteristics, handling practices, analysis techniques and waste treatment/storage methods are summarized here. Information was obtained from various tritium-handling laboratories, fusion devices, and CANDU plants. 38 refs., 1 fig

  20. Understanding Bright 13 keV Kr K-shell X-ray Sources at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, M. J.; Colvin, J. D.; Kemp, G. E.; Fournier, K. B.; Scott, H.; Patel, M.; Barrios, Widmann; Widmann, K.

    2015-11-01

    High x-ray conversion efficiency (CE) K-shell Kr sources are being investigated for High Energy Density experiments. These sources are 4.1 mm in diameter 4.4 mm tall hollow epoxy tubes having a 40 μm thick wall holding either 1.2 or 1.5 atm of Kr gas. The CE of K-shell Kr is dependent upon the peak electron temperature in the radiating plasma. In the NIF experiments, the available energy heats the source to Te = 6-7 keV, well below the temperature of Te ~25 keV needed to optimize the Kr CE. The CE is a steep function of the peak electron temperature. A spatially averaged electron temperature can be estimated from measured He(α) and Ly(α) line ratios. Some disagreement has been observed in the simulated and measured line ratios for some of these K-shell sources. Disagreements have been observed between the simulated and measured line ratios for some of these K-shell sources. To help understand this issue, Kr gas pipes have been shot with 3 ω light at ?750 kJ at ~210, ~140 TW and ~120 TW power levels with 3.7, 5.2 and 6.7 ns pulses, respectively. The power and pulse length scaling of the measured CE and K-shell line ratios and their comparison to simulations will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspic

  1. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; Den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of a HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially-completed survey still covers approximately 50% of the core high density region in Coma. Observations were performed for twenty-five fields with a total coverage area of 274 aremin(sup 2), and extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (approximately 1.75 Mpe or 1 deg). The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the south-west region of the cluster. In this paper we present SEXTRACTOR source catalogs generated from the processed images, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for 76,000 objects that consist of roughly equal numbers of extended galaxies and unresolved objects. Approximately two-thirds of all detections are brighter than F814W=26.5 mag (AB), which corresponds to the 10sigma, point-source detection limit. We estimate that Coma members are 5-10% of the source detections, including a large population of compact objects (primarily GCs, but also cEs and UCDs), and a wide variety of extended galaxies from cD galaxies to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in August 2008. The images and catalogs described in this study relate to our second data release.

  2. An ASCA Survey of GeV Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M. S. E.; Romani, R. W.; Kawai, N.

    1999-04-01

    We present an ASCA survey of GeV selected EGRET sources with E>1 GeV gamma -ray photon flux >5.0 x 10(-8) cm(-2) s(-1) . A combination of archival and new data covers ~ 75% of the sky contained within the 95% confidence position contours of these sources, and additional data obtained during the current observing cycle will increase this coverage to ~ 90%. We start with flat-fielded 2-10 keV images from the GIS data, and fit power-law spectra to potential counterparts. SIS, ROSAT, and Einstein data are used to confirm source detections and extend survey coverage. We then use the X-ray sources to identify radio counterparts in continuum survey data. Of the 26 GeV sources above our flux threshhold (Lamb and Macomb, 1997), 3 of the 4 at high galactic latitudes (bga 10(deg) ) are known blazars, while 5 of the low latitude sources are young pulsars. Of the remaining sources, 5 are plausibly associated with known young pulsars and/or plerionic SNR, one is at the Galactic center, and one may be associated with LSI+61 303. We focus here on the remaining 11 sources. By comparison with the known radio and X-ray properties of blazars and pulsars, we can identify potential members of these source classes, and potential new classes of gamma -ray emitters. We also estimate source luminosities using distances inferred from nearby tracers of star formation (Yadigaroglu and Romani, 1997). Data from several fields are consistent with these sources being synchrotron nebulae surrounding radio-quiet `Geminga-like' pulsars. These data provide incentives for further searches for pulsations at high energies and in the radio. In other fields identification is more problematic. We compare our results to models of the relative beaming fractions inferred from the radio and gamma -ray ray pulse shapes. The fraction of `pulsar candidate' detections is shown to provide useful constraints on pulsar luminosity evolution and beaming statistics.

  3. Ultra-bright GeV photon source via controlled electromagnetic cascades in laser-dipole waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonoskov, Arkady; Bashinov, Alexey; Efimenko, Evgeny; Muraviev, Alexander; Kim, Arkady; Ilderton, Anton; Bastrakov, Sergey; Meyerov, Iosif; Marklund, Mattias; Sergeev, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    The prospect of achieving conditions for triggering strong-field QED phenomena at upcoming large-scale laser facilities raises a number of intriguing questions. What kind of new effects and interaction regimes can be accessed by basic QED phenomena? What are the minimal (optimal) requirements to trigger these effects and enter these regimes? How can we, from this, gain new fundamental knowledge or create important applications? The talk will concern the prospects of producing high fluxes of GeV photons by triggering a special type of self-sustaining cascade in the field of several colliding laser pulses that form a dipole wave. Apart from reaching the highest field strength for a given total power of laser pulses, the dipole wave enables anomalous radiative trapping that favors pair production and high-energy photon generation. An extensive theoretical analysis and 3D QED-PIC simulations indicate that the concept is feasible at upcoming large-scale laser facilities of 10 PW level and can provide an extraordinary intense source of GeV photons for novel experimental studies in nuclear and quark-nuclear physics.

  4. The Galex Time Domain Survey. I. Selection And Classification of Over a Thousand Ultraviolet Variable Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezari, S.; Martin, D. C.; Forster, K.; Neill, J. D.; Huber, M.; Heckman, T.; Bianchi, L.; Morrissey, P.; Neff, S. G.; Seibert, M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present the selection and classification of over a thousand ultraviolet (UV) variable sources discovered in approximately 40 deg(exp 2) of GALEX Time Domain Survey (TDS) NUV images observed with a cadence of 2 days and a baseline of observations of approximately 3 years. The GALEX TDS fields were designed to be in spatial and temporal coordination with the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey, which provides deep optical imaging and simultaneous optical transient detections via image differencing. We characterize the GALEX photometric errors empirically as a function of mean magnitude, and select sources that vary at the 5 sigma level in at least one epoch. We measure the statistical properties of the UV variability, including the structure function on timescales of days and years. We report classifications for the GALEX TDS sample using a combination of optical host colors and morphology, UV light curve characteristics, and matches to archival X-ray, and spectroscopy catalogs. We classify 62% of the sources as active galaxies (358 quasars and 305 active galactic nuclei), and 10% as variable stars (including 37 RR Lyrae, 53 M dwarf flare stars, and 2 cataclysmic variables). We detect a large-amplitude tail in the UV variability distribution for M-dwarf flare stars and RR Lyrae, reaching up to absolute value(?m) = 4.6 mag and 2.9 mag, respectively. The mean amplitude of the structure function for quasars on year timescales is five times larger than observed at optical wavelengths. The remaining unclassified sources include UV-bright extragalactic transients, two of which have been spectroscopically confirmed to be a young core-collapse supernova and a flare from the tidal disruption of a star by dormant supermassive black hole. We calculate a surface density for variable sources in the UV with NUV less than 23 mag and absolute value(?m) greater than 0.2 mag of approximately 8.0, 7.7, and 1.8 deg(exp -2) for quasars, active galactic nuclei, and RR Lyrae stars

  5. The DES Bright Arcs Survey: Hundreds of Candidate Strongly Lensed Galaxy Systems from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification and Year 1 Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H. T.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lindgren, K. A.; Nord, B.; Gaitsch, H.; Gaitsch, S.; Lin, H.; Allam, S.; Collett, T. E.; Furlanetto, C.; Gill, M. S. S.; More, A.; Nightingale, J.; Odden, C.; Pellico, A.; Tucker, D. L.; Costa, L. N. da; Neto, A. Fausti; Kuropatkin, N.; Soares-Santos, M.; Welch, B.; Zhang, Y.; Frieman, J. A.; Abdalla, F. B.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Evrard, A. E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Nugent, P.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of our searches for strong gravitational lens systems in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verication and Year 1 observations. The Science Verication data spans approximately 250 sq. deg. with median i

  6. An Hα Imaging Survey of the Low-surface-brightness Galaxies Selected from the Fall Sky Region of the 40% ALFALFA H I Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Feng-Jie; Wu, Hong; Du, Wei; Zhu, Yi-Nan; Lam, Man-I.; Zhou, Zhi-Min; He, Min; Jin, Jun-Jie; Cao, Tian-Wen; Zhao, Pin-Song; Yang, Fan; Wu, Chao-Jian; Li, Hong-Bin; Ren, Juan-Juan

    2018-03-01

    We present the observed Hα flux and derived star formation rates (SFRs) for a fall sample of low-surface-brightness galaxies (LSBGs). The sample is selected from the fall sky region of the 40% ALFALFA H I Survey–SDSS DR7 photometric data, and all the Hα images were obtained using the 2.16 m telescope, operated by the National Astronomy Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A total of 111 LSBGs were observed and Hα flux was measured in 92 of them. Though almost all the LSBGs in our sample are H I-rich, their SFRs, derived from the extinction and filter-transmission-corrected Hα flux, are less than 1 M ⊙ yr‑1. LSBGs and star-forming galaxies have similar H I surface densities, but LSBGs have much lower SFRs and SFR surface densities than star-forming galaxies. Our results show that LSBGs deviate from the Kennicutt–Schmidt law significantly, which indicates that they have low star formation efficiency. The SFRs of LSBGs are close to average SFRs in Hubble time and support previous arguments that most of the LSBGs are stable systems and they tend to seldom contain strong interactions or major mergers in their star formation histories.

  7. DETERMINING QUASAR BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTIONS FROM THEIR BROAD EMISSION LINES: APPLICATION TO THE BRIGHT QUASAR SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Fan Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian approach to estimating quasar black hole mass functions (BHMF) using the broad emission lines to estimate black hole mass. We show how using the broad-line mass estimates in combination with statistical techniques developed for luminosity function estimation (e.g., the 1/V a correction) leads to statistically biased results. We derive the likelihood function for the BHMF based on the broad-line mass estimates, and derive the posterior distribution for the BHMF, given the observed data. We develop our statistical approach for a flexible model where the BHMF is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian functions. Statistical inference is performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, and we describe a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to perform the MCMC. The MCMC simulates random draws from the probability distribution of the BHMF parameters, given the data, and we use a simulated data set to show how these random draws may be used to estimate the probability distribution for the BHMF. In addition, we show how the MCMC output may be used to estimate the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF, such as the peak in the space density of quasars. Our method has the advantage that it is able to constrain the BHMF even beyond the survey detection limits at the adopted confidence level, accounts for measurement errors and the intrinsic uncertainty in broad-line mass estimates, and provides a natural way of estimating the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF. We conclude by using our method to estimate the local active BHMF using the z BH ∼> 10 8 M sun . Our analysis implies that at a given M BH , z < 0.5 broad-line quasars have a typical Eddington ratio of ∼0.4 and a dispersion in Eddington ratio of ∼<0.5 dex.

  8. The Fornax Deep Survey with VST. III. Low surface brightness dwarfs and ultra diffuse galaxies in the center of the Fornax cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhola, Aku; Peletier, Reynier; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Lisker, Thorsten; Iodice, Enrichetta; Capaccioli, Massimo; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Valentijn, Edwin; Mieske, Steffen; Hilker, Michael; Wittmann, Carolin; Van de Venn, Glenn; Grado, Aniello; Spavone, Marilena; Cantiello, Michele; Napolitano, Nicola; Paolillo, Maurizio; Falcón-Barroso, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Context. Studies of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies in nearby clusters have revealed a sub-population of extremely diffuse galaxies with central surface brightness of μ0,g' > 24 mag arcsec-2, total luminosity Mg' fainter than -16 mag and effective radius between 1.5 kpc 23 mag arcsec-2. We

  9. Coherent Bremsstrahlung effect observed during STEM analysis of dopant distribution in silicon devices using large area silicon drift EDX detectors and high brightness electron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantel, R

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, during dopant analysis of silicon devices, we have observed a phenomenon generally neglected in EDX analysis: the coherent Bremsstrahlung (CB). We discussed the reason why and came to the conclusion that the analytical TEM used for these experiments presents a configuration and performances, which makes this equipment very sensitive to the CB effect. This is due to large collection solid angle and high counting rate of the four silicon drift EDX detectors (SDD), a high brightness electron source providing large probe current and moreover a geometry favorable to on axis crystal observations. We analyzed silicon devices containing Si [110] and Si [100] crystal areas at different energies (80-120-200keV). We also observed relaxed SiGe (27 and 40at% of Ge). The CB effect, whose intensity is maximum near zone axis beam alignment, manifests as characteristic broad peaks present in the X-ray spectrum background. The peak energies are predicted by a simple formula deduced for the CB models found in the literature and that we present simply. We evaluate also the CB peak intensities and discuss the importance of this effect on the detection and quantification traces of impurities. The CB peaks also give information on the analyzed crystal structure (measurement of the periodicity along the zone axis) and allow, in every particular experiment or system, to determine the median take off angle of the EDX detectors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. New science catalogs of UV sources from the GALEX sky surveys, matched to optical-IR surveys. Related science tools, models, and first results on the characterization of evolved Galactic stellar populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Luciana; Shiao, Bernie; Thilker, David; Barr, Robert; Girardi, Leo

    2018-01-01

    GUVcat is a new, expanded and improved catalog of Ultraviolet (UV) sources from the GALEX surveys (Bianchi et al. 2017, ApJ Suppl, 230, 24; arXiv:1704.05903). It contains 83million unique sources measured in FUV and NUV (duplicate measurements and rim artifacts removed) at AIS depth (about FUV colors to classify sources by astrophysical class, and to characterize classes of stellar sources to which UV data are uniquely sensitive, such as hot white dwarfs (WD), including elusive types of binaries. We compared the content of Galactic sources with Milky Way models, computed with different prescriptions. We also matched GUVcat with the first Gaia source and Gaia TGAS releases, which add precise position and G-band photometry for the bright sources, and direct distance measurements for a few very bright sources. GALEX spectra are also available and included in the analysis. Follow-up observations with HST are ongoing for an exploratory subsample.The source catalogs and related tools are available from the uvsky web site http://dolomiti.pha.jhu.edu/uvsky/#GUVcat . GUVcat_AIS is also available from MAST casjobs and soon from Vizier. A useful tool for calculating the effective area coverage of GUVcat, and of the matched catalogs, in user-chosen regions of the sky, is also available at the above url.Acknowledgements: Partial support for this work was provided by NASA grants: NNX16AF40G, NNX14AF88G, HST-GO-14119.001

  11. Developing a bright 17 keV x-ray source for probing high-energy-density states of matter at high spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, R.; Braun, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, 94551 (United States); Hohenberger, M.; Regan, S. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    A set of experiments were performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to develop and optimize a bright, 17 keV x-ray backlighter probe using laser-irradiated Nb foils. High-resolution one-dimensional imaging was achieved using a 15 μm wide slit in a Ta substrate to aperture the Nb He{sub α} x-rays onto an open-aperture, time integrated camera. To optimize the x-ray source for imaging applications, the effect of laser pulse shape and spatial profile on the target was investigated. Two laser pulse shapes were used—a “prepulse” shape that included a 3 ns, low-intensity laser foot preceding the high-energy 2 ns square main laser drive, and a pulse without the laser foot. The laser spatial profile was varied by the use of continuous phase plates (CPPs) on a pair of shots compared to beams at best focus, without CPPs. A comprehensive set of common diagnostics allowed for a direct comparison of imaging resolution, total x-ray conversion efficiency, and x-ray spectrum between shots. The use of CPPs was seen to reduce the high-energy tail of the x-ray spectrum, whereas the laser pulse shape had little effect on the high-energy tail. The measured imaging resolution was comparably high for all combinations of laser parameters, but a higher x-ray flux was achieved without phase plates. This increased flux was the result of smaller laser spot sizes, which allowed us to arrange the laser focal spots from multiple beams and produce an x-ray source which was more localized behind the slit aperture. Our experiments are a first demonstration of point-projection geometry imaging at NIF at the energies (>10 keV) necessary for imaging denser, higher-Z targets than have previously been investigated.

  12. Developing a bright 17 keV x-ray source for probing high-energy-density states of matter at high spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, R.; Braun, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Remington, B. A.; Hohenberger, M.; Regan, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    A set of experiments were performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to develop and optimize a bright, 17 keV x-ray backlighter probe using laser-irradiated Nb foils. High-resolution one-dimensional imaging was achieved using a 15 μm wide slit in a Ta substrate to aperture the Nb He α x-rays onto an open-aperture, time integrated camera. To optimize the x-ray source for imaging applications, the effect of laser pulse shape and spatial profile on the target was investigated. Two laser pulse shapes were used—a “prepulse” shape that included a 3 ns, low-intensity laser foot preceding the high-energy 2 ns square main laser drive, and a pulse without the laser foot. The laser spatial profile was varied by the use of continuous phase plates (CPPs) on a pair of shots compared to beams at best focus, without CPPs. A comprehensive set of common diagnostics allowed for a direct comparison of imaging resolution, total x-ray conversion efficiency, and x-ray spectrum between shots. The use of CPPs was seen to reduce the high-energy tail of the x-ray spectrum, whereas the laser pulse shape had little effect on the high-energy tail. The measured imaging resolution was comparably high for all combinations of laser parameters, but a higher x-ray flux was achieved without phase plates. This increased flux was the result of smaller laser spot sizes, which allowed us to arrange the laser focal spots from multiple beams and produce an x-ray source which was more localized behind the slit aperture. Our experiments are a first demonstration of point-projection geometry imaging at NIF at the energies (>10 keV) necessary for imaging denser, higher-Z targets than have previously been investigated

  13. Developing a bright 17 keV x-ray source for probing high-energy-density states of matter at high spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, R.; Braun, D. G.; Hohenberger, M.; Landen, O. L.; Regan, S. P.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Remington, B. A.

    2015-04-01

    A set of experiments were performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to develop and optimize a bright, 17 keV x-ray backlighter probe using laser-irradiated Nb foils. High-resolution one-dimensional imaging was achieved using a 15 μm wide slit in a Ta substrate to aperture the Nb Heα x-rays onto an open-aperture, time integrated camera. To optimize the x-ray source for imaging applications, the effect of laser pulse shape and spatial profile on the target was investigated. Two laser pulse shapes were used—a "prepulse" shape that included a 3 ns, low-intensity laser foot preceding the high-energy 2 ns square main laser drive, and a pulse without the laser foot. The laser spatial profile was varied by the use of continuous phase plates (CPPs) on a pair of shots compared to beams at best focus, without CPPs. A comprehensive set of common diagnostics allowed for a direct comparison of imaging resolution, total x-ray conversion efficiency, and x-ray spectrum between shots. The use of CPPs was seen to reduce the high-energy tail of the x-ray spectrum, whereas the laser pulse shape had little effect on the high-energy tail. The measured imaging resolution was comparably high for all combinations of laser parameters, but a higher x-ray flux was achieved without phase plates. This increased flux was the result of smaller laser spot sizes, which allowed us to arrange the laser focal spots from multiple beams and produce an x-ray source which was more localized behind the slit aperture. Our experiments are a first demonstration of point-projection geometry imaging at NIF at the energies (>10 keV) necessary for imaging denser, higher-Z targets than have previously been investigated.

  14. 10 CFR 35.404 - Surveys after source implant and removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surveys after source implant and removal. 35.404 Section... § 35.404 Surveys after source implant and removal. (a) Immediately after implanting sources in a... sources that have not been implanted. (b) Immediately after removing the last temporary implant source...

  15. Sources of bias in a dietary survey of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, C; Jonsson, I; Conner, M T; Lissner, L

    1998-09-01

    To compare non-responders and responders to a dietary survey with respect to demographic variables and intention to choose selected breakfast foods, and to examine if there was any systematic change in number of food items reported during a 7 d recording period. Cross-sectional survey. Mölndal, Sweden. All pupils in 5th, 7th and 9th grades in the municipality were asked to complete a questionnaire during school hours. All those present (n = 1584, 92% of total) answered questions about lifestyle factors and about intentions, attitudes and beliefs concerning high-fibre bread and milk with varying fat content. All subjects in the initial sample were asked to fill in a 7 d record of food consumed. Acceptable food records were completed by 69% of the initial participants. Subjects not completing the food record differed significantly from participants with respect to demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors. Dropout was more common among those who reported not usually eating breakfast and among those intending to drink whole milk for breakfast. A decline in reported food items during the recording period was also observed. Two sources of bias were observed here, one indicating significant differences between non-participants and participants, the other suggesting the presence of a time-dependent trend in number of recorded foods. It is likely such biases are present in other dietary surveys involving schoolchildren, and should be taken into consideration in the design, analysis and interpretation of such studies.

  16. Finding X-ray counterparts for unidentified sources in the 105 months BAT survey - 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, J. B.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Masetti, N.; Ubertini, P.

    2018-02-01

    We provide X-ray counterparts for the unidentified Swift/BAT sources listed in the 105 month catalogue (Oh et al. 2018, ApJS in press). These associations were found by cross-correlating the list of U1,U2 and U3 sources with the ROSAT Bright (RASSBSC, Voges et al. 1999, A & A, 349, 389) and the XMM-Newton Slew (XMMSlew, Saxton et al. 2008, A & A, 480, 611) catalogues.

  17. Finding X-ray counterparts for unidentified sources in the 105 months BAT survey - 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, J. B.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Masetti, N.; Ubertini, P.

    2018-02-01

    We provide X-ray counterparts for unidentified Swift/BAT sources in the 105 month catalogue (Oh et al. 2018, ApJS in press). They were found by cross-correlating the list of U1,U2 and U3 sources with the ROSAT Bright (RASSBSC, Voges et al. 1999, A & A, 349, 389) and XMM-Newton Slew (XMMSlew, Saxton et al. 2008, A & A, 480, 611) catalogues and optically identified as reported in Atel #11340.

  18. A Survey of Open Source Tools for Business Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    The industrial use of open source Business Intelligence (BI) tools is becoming more common, but is still not as widespread as for other types of software.  It is therefore of interest to explore which possibilities are available for open source BI and compare the tools. In this survey paper, we c......The industrial use of open source Business Intelligence (BI) tools is becoming more common, but is still not as widespread as for other types of software.  It is therefore of interest to explore which possibilities...... are available for open source BI and compare the tools. In this survey paper, we consider the capabilities of a number of open source tools for BI. In the paper, we consider a number of Extract‐Transform‐Load (ETL) tools, database management systems (DBMSs), On‐Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) servers, and OLAP clients. We find that, unlike the situation a few years ago, there now...... exist mature and powerful tools in all these categories. However, the functionality still falls somewhat short of that found in commercial tools....

  19. SEDS: THE SPITZER EXTENDED DEEP SURVEY. SURVEY DESIGN, PHOTOMETRY, AND DEEP IRAC SOURCE COUNTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Hernquist, L.; Hora, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Arendt, R. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Barmby, P. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Barro, G.; Faber, S.; Guhathakurta, P. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bouwens, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Cattaneo, A. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Croton, D. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218 Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Dave, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dunlop, J. S. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Egami, E. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Finlator, K. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, CK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Grogin, N. A., E-mail: mashby@cfa.harvard.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2013-05-20

    The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) is a very deep infrared survey within five well-known extragalactic science fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. SEDS covers a total area of 1.46 deg{sup 2} to a depth of 26 AB mag (3{sigma}) in both of the warm Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. Because of its uniform depth of coverage in so many widely-separated fields, SEDS is subject to roughly 25% smaller errors due to cosmic variance than a single-field survey of the same size. SEDS was designed to detect and characterize galaxies from intermediate to high redshifts (z = 2-7) with a built-in means of assessing the impact of cosmic variance on the individual fields. Because the full SEDS depth was accumulated in at least three separate visits to each field, typically with six-month intervals between visits, SEDS also furnishes an opportunity to assess the infrared variability of faint objects. This paper describes the SEDS survey design, processing, and publicly-available data products. Deep IRAC counts for the more than 300,000 galaxies detected by SEDS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. Discrete IRAC sources contribute 5.6 {+-} 1.0 and 4.4 {+-} 0.8 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m to the diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB). IRAC sources cannot contribute more than half of the total CIB flux estimated from DIRBE data. Barring an unexpected error in the DIRBE flux estimates, half the CIB flux must therefore come from a diffuse component.

  20. Observations and diagnostics in high brightness beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianchi, A., E-mail: alessandro.cianchi@roma2.infn.it [University of Rome Tor Vergata and INFN-Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Anania, M.P.; Bisesto, F.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V. [INFN-LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    The brightness is a figure of merit largely used in the light sources, like FEL (Free Electron Lasers), but it is also fundamental in several other applications, as for instance Compton backscattering sources, beam driven plasma accelerators and THz sources. Advanced diagnostics are essential tools in the development of high brightness beams. 6D electron beam diagnostics will be reviewed with emphasis on emittance measurement.

  1. Estimation of the space density of low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briggs, FH

    1997-01-01

    The space density of low surface brightness and tiny gas-rich dwarf galaxies are estimated for two recent catalogs: the Arecibo Survey of Northern Dwarf and Low Surface Brightness Galaxies and the Catalog of Low Surface Brightness Galaxies, List II. The goals are (1) to evaluate the additions to the

  2. An Open-Source Galaxy Redshift Survey Simulator for next-generation Large Scale Structure Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijak, Uros

    Galaxy redshift surveys produce three-dimensional maps of the galaxy distribution. On large scales these maps trace the underlying matter fluctuations in a relatively simple manner, so that the properties of the primordial fluctuations along with the overall expansion history and growth of perturbations can be extracted. The BAO standard ruler method to measure the expansion history of the universe using galaxy redshift surveys is thought to be robust to observational artifacts and understood theoretically with high precision. These same surveys can offer a host of additional information, including a measurement of the growth rate of large scale structure through redshift space distortions, the possibility of measuring the sum of neutrino masses, tighter constraints on the expansion history through the Alcock-Paczynski effect, and constraints on the scale-dependence and non-Gaussianity of the primordial fluctuations. Extracting this broadband clustering information hinges on both our ability to minimize and subtract observational systematics to the observed galaxy power spectrum, and our ability to model the broadband behavior of the observed galaxy power spectrum with exquisite precision. Rapid development on both fronts is required to capitalize on WFIRST's data set. We propose to develop an open-source computational toolbox that will propel development in both areas by connecting large scale structure modeling and instrument and survey modeling with the statistical inference process. We will use the proposed simulator to both tailor perturbation theory and fully non-linear models of the broadband clustering of WFIRST galaxies and discover novel observables in the non-linear regime that are robust to observational systematics and able to distinguish between a wide range of spatial and dynamic biasing models for the WFIRST galaxy redshift survey sources. We have demonstrated the utility of this approach in a pilot study of the SDSS-III BOSS galaxies, in which we

  3. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. I. Survey description, data reduction, and source detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Roland; Conseil, Simon; Mary, David; Brinchmann, Jarle; Shepherd, Martin; Akhlaghi, Mohammad; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Piqueras, Laure; Wisotzki, Lutz; Lagattuta, David; Epinat, Benoit; Guerou, Adrien; Inami, Hanae; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Courbot, Jean Baptiste; Contini, Thierry; Richard, Johan; Maseda, Michael; Bouwens, Rychard; Bouché, Nicolas; Kollatschny, Wolfram; Schaye, Joop; Marino, Raffaella Anna; Pello, Roser; Herenz, Christian; Guiderdoni, Bruno; Carollo, Marcella

    2017-11-01

    We present the MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Survey, a mosaic of nine MUSE fields covering 90% of the entire HUDF region with a 10-h deep exposure time, plus a deeper 31-h exposure in a single 1.15 arcmin2 field. The improved observing strategy and advanced data reduction results in datacubes with sub-arcsecond spatial resolution (0.̋65 at 7000 Å) and accurate astrometry (0.̋07 rms). We compare the broadband photometric properties of the datacubes to HST photometry, finding a good agreement in zeropoint up to mAB = 28 but with an increasing scatter for faint objects. We have investigated the noise properties and developed an empirical way to account for the impact of the correlation introduced by the 3D drizzle interpolation. The achieved 3σ emission line detection limit for a point source is 1.5 and 3.1 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2 for the single ultra-deep datacube and the mosaic, respectively. We extracted 6288 sources using an optimal extraction scheme that takes the published HST source locations as prior. In parallel, we performed a blind search of emission line galaxies using an original method based on advanced test statistics and filter matching. The blind search results in 1251 emission line galaxy candidates in the mosaic and 306 in the ultradeep datacube, including 72 sources without HST counterparts (mAB > 31). In addition 88 sources missed in the HST catalog but with clear HST counterparts were identified. This data set is the deepest spectroscopic survey ever performed. In just over 100 h of integration time, it provides nearly an order of magnitude more spectroscopic redshifts compared to the data that has been accumulated on the UDF over the past decade. The depth and high quality of these datacubes enables new and detailed studies of the physical properties of the galaxy population and their environments over a large redshift range. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programs 094.A-0289(B), 095.A-0010(A

  4. Burkina Faso - BRIGHT II

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Millennium Challenge Corporation hired Mathematica Policy Research to conduct an independent evaluation of the BRIGHT II program. The three main research questions...

  5. Galaxy Selection and the Surface Brightness Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, Stacy S.; Bothun, Gregory D.; Schombert, James M.

    1995-08-01

    Optical surveys for galaxies are biased against the inclusion of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. Disney [Nature, 263,573(1976)] suggested that the constancy of disk central surface brightness noticed by Freeman [ApJ, 160,811(1970)] was not a physical result, but instead was an artifact of sample selection. Since LSB galaxies do exist, the pertinent and still controversial issue is if these newly discovered galaxies constitute a significant percentage of the general galaxy population. In this paper, we address this issue by determining the space density of galaxies as a function of disk central surface brightness. Using the physically reasonable assumption (which is motivated by the data) that central surface brightness is independent of disk scale length, we arrive at a distribution which is roughly flat (i.e., approximately equal numbers of galaxies at each surface brightness) faintwards of the Freeman (1970) value. Brightwards of this, we find a sharp decline in the distribution which is analogous to the turn down in the luminosity function at L^*^. An intrinsically sharply peaked "Freeman law" distribution can be completely ruled out, and no Gaussian distribution can fit the data. Low surface brightness galaxies (those with central surface brightness fainter than 22 B mag arcsec^-2^) comprise >~ 1/2 the general galaxy population, so a representative sample of galaxies at z = 0 does not really exist at present since past surveys have been insensitive to this component of the general galaxy population.

  6. THE ACS FORNAX CLUSTER SURVEY. IV. DEPROJECTION OF THE SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO AND FORNAX CLUSTERS: INVESTIGATING THE 'CORE/POWER-LAW DICHOTOMY'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, Lisa; Ferrarese, Laura; Cote, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Chen, Chin-Wei; Jordan, Andres; Infante, Leopoldo; Peng, Eric; Mei, Simona; Tonry, John L.; West, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Although early observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pointed to a sharp dichotomy among early-type galaxies in terms of the logarithmic slope γ' of their central surface brightness profiles, several studies in the past few years have called this finding into question. In particular, recent imaging surveys of 143 early-type galaxies belonging to the Virgo and Fornax Clusters using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board HST have not found a dichotomy in γ', but instead a systematic progression from central luminosity deficit to excess relative to the inward extrapolation of the best-fitting global Sersic model. Given that earlier studies also found that the dichotomy persisted when analyzing the deprojected density profile slopes, we investigate the distribution of the three-dimensional luminosity density profiles of the ACS Virgo and Fornax Cluster Survey galaxies. Having fitted the surface brightness profiles with modified Sersic models, we then deproject the galaxies using an Abel integral and measure the inner slopes γ 3D of the resulting luminosity density profiles at various fractions of the effective radius R e . We find no evidence of a dichotomy, but rather, a continuous variation in the central luminosity profiles as a function of galaxy magnitude. We introduce a parameter, Δ 3D , that measures the central deviation of the deprojected luminosity profiles from the global Sersic fit, showing that this parameter varies smoothly and systematically along the luminosity function.

  7. The ultraviolet, optical, and infrared properties of Sloan Digital Sky Survey sources detected by GALEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agueros, MA; Ivezic, Z; Covey, KR; Obric, M; Hao, L; Walkowicz, LM; West, AA; Vanden Berk, DE; Lupton, RH; Knapp, GR; Gunn, JE; Richards, GT; Bochanski, J; Brooks, A; Claire, M; Haggard, D; Kaib, N; Kimball, A; Gogarten, SM; Seth, A; Solontoi, M

    We discuss the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared properties of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) sources detected by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ( GALEX) as part of its All-sky Imaging Survey Early Release Observations. Virtually all (> 99%) the GALEX sources in the overlap region are detected

  8. 10 CFR 35.2404 - Records of surveys after source implant and removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of surveys after source implant and removal. 35.2404 Section 35.2404 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2404 Records of surveys after source implant and removal. A licensee shall maintain a record of...

  9. High-brightness electron injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators and synchrotron light sources require pulse trains of high peak brightness and, in some applications, high-average power. Recent developments in the technology of photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for electron-linac injector applications offer promising advances over conventional electron injectors. Reduced emittance growth in high peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by using high field strengths and by linearizing the radial component of the cavity electric field at the expense of lower shunt impedance

  10. Time-resolved brightness measurements by streaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Joshua S.; Speirs, Rory W.; McCulloch, Andrew J.; Scholten, Robert E.

    2018-03-01

    Brightness is a key figure of merit for charged particle beams, and time-resolved brightness measurements can elucidate the processes involved in beam creation and manipulation. Here we report on a simple, robust, and widely applicable method for the measurement of beam brightness with temporal resolution by streaking one-dimensional pepperpots, and demonstrate the technique to characterize electron bunches produced from a cold-atom electron source. We demonstrate brightness measurements with 145 ps temporal resolution and a minimum resolvable emittance of 40 nm rad. This technique provides an efficient method of exploring source parameters and will prove useful for examining the efficacy of techniques to counter space-charge expansion, a critical hurdle to achieving single-shot imaging of atomic scale targets.

  11. The ASAS-SN bright supernova catalogue - III. 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holoien, T. W. -S.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2017-01-01

    This catalogue summarizes information for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) and all other bright (m(peak)d......This catalogue summarizes information for all supernovae discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) and all other bright (m(peak)d...

  12. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Survey of Source-Separation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Source-separation is a solid waste management strategy which aids recycling. This concept is relatively new in Nigeria. The study therefore documented the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Source-separation among workers such as Non- Academic Staff and Business Operators at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

  13. Global Sourcing : An international survey among 7 multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    G.J. Verra

    1998-01-01

    In todays marketplace serious changes are taking place. These changes encompass developments such as lowering trade barriers and globalisation of products, and with regard to organisations it encompasses the globalisation of production, R&D and sales. Now, also sourcing is becoming more international. This holds both for smaller companies and for larger companies. The reasons why sourcing becomes more international are diverse.

  14. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... announcement by Bill Gates of his $50 million investment in the Dementia Discovery Fund. A charitable act ... under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of the United States.Copyright 2017 BrightFocus ...

  15. Conservation of an ion beam brightness. Study of a non brightness disturbing lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, P.

    1966-11-01

    Experimental studies of ion sources prove that large initial brightnesses can be obtained by using the plasma expansion principle. However these brightnesses are usually spoiled by the beam focusing and accelerating systems. A high intensity focusing set up is first theoretically studied, then numerically determined by use of a 7094 IBM computer. Aberrations have been minimized. It has then been possible to construct a set up conserving the source initial brightness. For a 100 mA beam the focusing voltage is 150 kV, the beam study has been done for 350 keV beam final energy. Given is a discussion of results. (author) [fr

  16. A Survey Of Top 10 Open Source Learning Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R. Elabnody

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Open Source LMSs are fully flexible and customizable so they can be designed in line with your schoolorganizations brand image. Open Source LMSs can also be converted to social learning platforms. You can create an online community through your LMS. This paper describes the most important features in learning management systems LMS that are critical to compare and contrast depend on your system requirements. Also represents a multiple LMS providers that are designed to use in university environment.

  17. Alternate data sources for soil surveys on rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Emil H.; Klingebiel, A.A.; Moore, D.G.; Fosnight, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Soil information is an essential theme in a digital information base for land management and resource monitoring, but public land management agencies seldom have detailed soil maps available for all of the area under their administration. Most of these agencies conduct soil surveys on a scheduled basis, but escalating costs and declining budgets are reducing the number of surveys that can be scheduled. Digital elevation and satellite spectral data are available or are obtainable for all areas in the continental United States and may be used as an aid to produce soils data. A study was conducted in the Grass Creek Resource Area in north-central Wyoming to assess the utility of incorporating digital elevation and Landsat data into an information base for soil survey and to evaluate the usefulness of these data as an input to an order-three soil survey. Slope-interval maps were produced from digital elevation data and topographic maps of three 7.5-minute quadrangle areas. These slope-interval maps were then overlaid on orthophotoquadrangles and used to produce photo-interpreted physiographic maps. These physiographic maps were digitized into a data base and used with Landsat multispectral scanner data to produce tabular summaries that describe each map polygon in terms of physiographic unit, slope, aspect, elevation, area, and spectral values. A good

  18. Final Report on DTRA Basic Research Project #BRCALL08-Per3-C-2-0006 'High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with New Laser Targets'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colvin, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    This project had two major goals. Final Goal: obtain spectrally resolved, absolutely calibrated x-ray emission data from uniquely uniform mm-scale near-critical-density high-Z plasmas not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) to benchmark modern detailed atomic physics models. Scientific significance: advance understanding of non-LTE atomic physics. Intermediate Goal: develop new nano-fabrication techniques to make suitable laser targets that form the required highly uniform non-LTE plasmas when illuminated by high-intensity laser light. Scientific significance: advance understanding of nano-science. The new knowledge will allow us to make x-ray sources that are bright at the photon energies of most interest for testing radiation hardening technologies, the spectral energy range where current x-ray sources are weak. All project goals were met.

  19. Final Report on DTRA Basic Research Project #BRCALL08-Per3-C-2-0006 "High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with New Laser Targets"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colvin, Jeffrey D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This project had two major goals. Final Goal: obtain spectrally resolved, absolutely calibrated x-ray emission data from uniquely uniform mm-scale near-critical-density high-Z plasmas not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) to benchmark modern detailed atomic physics models. Scientific significance: advance understanding of non-LTE atomic physics. Intermediate Goal: develop new nano-fabrication techniques to make suitable laser targets that form the required highly uniform non-LTE plasmas when illuminated by high-intensity laser light. Scientific significance: advance understanding of nano-science. The new knowledge will allow us to make x-ray sources that are bright at the photon energies of most interest for testing radiation hardening technologies, the spectral energy range where current x-ray sources are weak. All project goals were met.

  20. Energy-Based Acoustic Source Localization Methods: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Meng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy-based source localization is an important problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, which has been studied actively in the literature. Numerous localization algorithms, e.g., maximum likelihood estimation (MLE and nonlinear-least-squares (NLS methods, have been reported. In the literature, there are relevant review papers for localization in WSNs, e.g., for distance-based localization. However, not much work related to energy-based source localization is covered in the existing review papers. Energy-based methods are proposed and specially designed for a WSN due to its limited sensor capabilities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive review of these different algorithms for energy-based single and multiple source localization problems, their merits and demerits and to point out possible future research directions.

  1. Galactic Sources Detected in the NuSTAR Serendipitous Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsick, John A.; Clavel, Maïca; Chiu, Jeng-Lun [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Lansbury, George B.; Aird, James [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Rahoui, Farid [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fornasini, Francesca M.; Hong, JaeSub; Grindlay, Jonathan E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Alexander, David M. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bodaghee, Arash [Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061 (United States); Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Harrison, Fiona A. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Krivonos, Roman A. [Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya Str. 84/32, 117997, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) provides an improvement in sensitivity at energies above 10 keV by two orders of magnitude over non-focusing satellites, making it possible to probe deeper into the Galaxy and universe. Lansbury and collaborators recently completed a catalog of 497 sources serendipitously detected in the 3–24 keV band using 13 deg{sup 2} of NuSTAR coverage. Here, we report on an optical and X-ray study of 16 Galactic sources in the catalog. We identify 8 of them as stars (but some or all could have binary companions), and use information from Gaia to report distances and X-ray luminosities for 3 of them. There are 4 CVs or CV candidates, and we argue that NuSTAR J233426–2343.9 is a relatively strong CV candidate based partly on an X-ray spectrum from XMM-Newton . NuSTAR J092418–3142.2, which is the brightest serendipitous source in the Lansbury catalog, and NuSTAR J073959–3147.8 are low-mass X-ray binary candidates, but it is also possible that these 2 sources are CVs. One of the sources is a known high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB), and NuSTAR J105008–5958.8 is a new HMXB candidate that has strong Balmer emission lines in its optical spectrum and a hard X-ray spectrum. We discuss the implications of finding these HMXBs for the surface density (log N –log S ) and luminosity function of Galactic HMXBs. We conclude that with the large fraction of unclassified sources in the Galactic plane detected by NuSTAR in the 8–24 keV band, there could be a significant population of low-luminosity HMXBs.

  2. The Chandra Deep Field-South Survey: 7 Ms Source Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Lehmer, B.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Vito, F.; Yang, G.; Basu-Zych, A. R.; Comastri, A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present X-ray source catalogs for the approx. 7 Ms exposure of the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S), which covers a total area of 484.2 arcmin2. Utilizing WAVDETECT for initial source detection and ACIS Extract for photometric extraction and significance assessment, we create a main source catalog containing 1008 sources that are detected in up to three X-ray bands: 0.5-7.0 keV, 0.5-2.0 keV, and 2-7 keV. A supplementary source catalog is also provided, including 47 lower-significance sources that have bright (Ks catalog sources, and we collect redshifts for 986 of these sources, including 653 spectroscopic redshifts and 333 photometric redshifts. Based on the X-ray and multiwavelength properties, we identify 711 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the main-catalog sources. Compared to the previous approx. 4 Ms CDF-S catalogs, 291 of the main-catalog sources are new detections. We have achieved unprecedented X-ray sensitivity with average flux limits over the central approx. 1 arcmin2 region of 1.9 x 10(exp -17), 6.4 x 10(exp -18), and 2.7 x 10(exp -17) erg/sq cm/s in the three X-ray bands, respectively. We provide cumulative number-count measurements observing, for the first time, that normal galaxies start to dominate the X-ray source population at the faintest 0.5-2.0 keV flux levels. The highest X-ray source density reaches approx. 50,500/sq deg, and 47% +/- 4 of these sources are AGNs (approx. 23,900/sq deg).

  3. The XMM-Newton Serendipitous Ultraviolet Source Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, M.; Brindle, C.; Yershov, V.; Ziaeepour, H.; Page, M.; Breeveld, A.; Benson, K.; Rosen, S.; Talavera, A.

    2009-07-01

    Virtual Observatory functionality has been used extensively to determine the properties and test the accuracy of the XMM-Newton serendipitous ultraviolet source sample against objects within the Sloan optical and GALEX UV data archives. We report on the successes and perceived limitations of this process.

  4. Obscured AGN at z ~ 1 from the zCOSMOS-Bright Survey. I. Selection and optical properties of a [Ne v]-selected sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignoli, M.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Lamareille, F.; Nair, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovač, K.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pellò, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez Montero, E.; Presotto, V.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; McCracken, H. J.; Moresco, M.; Welikala, N.

    2013-08-01

    Aims: The application of multi-wavelength selection techniques is essential for obtaining a complete and unbiased census of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We present here a method for selecting z ~ 1 obscured AGN from optical spectroscopic surveys. Methods: A sample of 94 narrow-line AGN with 0.65 X-ray emission, and optical line-flux ratios. Finally, a previously developed diagnostic, based on the X-ray-to-[Ne v] luminosity ratio, was exploited to search for the more heavily obscured AGN. Results: We found that [Ne v]-selected narrow-line AGN have Seyfert 2-like optical spectra, although their emission line ratios are diluted by a star-forming component. The ACS morphologies and stellar component in the optical spectra indicate a preference for our type 2 AGN to be hosted in early-type spirals with stellar masses greater than 109.5 - 10 M⊙, on average higher than those of the galaxy parent sample. The fraction of galaxies hosting [Ne v]-selected obscured AGN increases with the stellar mass, reaching a maximum of about 3% at ≈2 × 1011 M⊙. A comparison with other selection techniques at z ~ 1, namely the line-ratio diagnostics and X-ray detections, shows that the detection of the [Ne v] λ3426 line is an effective method for selecting AGN in the optical band, in particular the most heavily obscured ones, but cannot provide a complete census of type 2 AGN by itself. Finally, the high fraction of [Ne v]-selected type 2 AGN not detected in medium-deep (≈100-200 ks) Chandra observations (67%) is suggestive of the inclusion of Compton-thick (i.e., with NH > 1024 cm-2) sources in our sample. The presence of a population of heavily obscured AGN is corroborated by the X-ray-to-[Ne v] ratio; we estimated, by means of an X-ray stacking technique and simulations, that the Compton-thick fraction in our sample of type 2 AGN is 43 ± 4% (statistical errors only), which agrees well with standard assumptions by XRB synthesis models.

  5. Lamp spectrum and spatial brightness at photopic levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotios, Steve; Atli, Deniz; Cheal, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Light sources are available in a variety of spectral power distributions (SPDs) and this affects spatial brightness in a manner not predicted by quantities such as illuminance. Tuning light source SPD to better match the sensitivity of visual perception may allow the same spatial brightness but a...

  6. GeoEasy an open source project for surveying calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Siki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the GeoEasy program started in 1997. Twenty years later in 2017 it became free software under GPL license, version 3.0.0 is freely available for everybody. The core development of GeoEasy is made on Linux operating system, using Tcl/Tk script language, thanks to the Tcl/Tk ports to other operating systems, the program can be run on Linux, Windows, Android and OSX machines. Objectives of the development are to create user friendly graphical user interface (GUI for surveying calculations in a modular structure with flexible, open connections to other programs. Both educational and professional usages are supported.

  7. Survey on the Performance of Source Localization Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, José Manuel; Robles, Guillermo; Martínez-Tarifa, Juan Manuel; Stewart, Brian G

    2017-11-18

    The localization of emitters using an array of sensors or antennas is a prevalent issue approached in several applications. There exist different techniques for source localization, which can be classified into multilateration, received signal strength (RSS) and proximity methods. The performance of multilateration techniques relies on measured time variables: the time of flight (ToF) of the emission from the emitter to the sensor, the time differences of arrival (TDoA) of the emission between sensors and the pseudo-time of flight (pToF) of the emission to the sensors. The multilateration algorithms presented and compared in this paper can be classified as iterative and non-iterative methods. Both standard least squares (SLS) and hyperbolic least squares (HLS) are iterative and based on the Newton-Raphson technique to solve the non-linear equation system. The metaheuristic technique particle swarm optimization (PSO) used for source localisation is also studied. This optimization technique estimates the source position as the optimum of an objective function based on HLS and is also iterative in nature. Three non-iterative algorithms, namely the hyperbolic positioning algorithms (HPA), the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and Bancroft algorithm, are also presented. A non-iterative combined algorithm, MLE-HLS, based on MLE and HLS, is further proposed in this paper. The performance of all algorithms is analysed and compared in terms of accuracy in the localization of the position of the emitter and in terms of computational time. The analysis is also undertaken with three different sensor layouts since the positions of the sensors affect the localization; several source positions are also evaluated to make the comparison more robust. The analysis is carried out using theoretical time differences, as well as including errors due to the effect of digital sampling of the time variables. It is shown that the most balanced algorithm, yielding better results than the

  8. AGN classification for X-ray sources in the 105 month Swift/BAT survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetti, N.; Bassani, L.; Palazzi, E.; Malizia, A.; Stephen, J. B.; Ubertini, P.

    2018-03-01

    We here provide classifications for 8 hard X-ray sources listed as 'unknown AGN' in the 105 month Swift/BAT all-sky survey catalogue (Oh et al. 2018, ApJS, 235, 4). The corresponding optical spectra were extracted from the 6dF Galaxy Survey (Jones et al. 2009, MNRAS, 399, 683).

  9. The European large area ISO survey - III. 90-mu m extragalactic source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    2000-01-01

    We present results and source counts at 90 mum extracted from the preliminary analysis of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). The survey covered about 12 deg(2) of the sky in four main areas and was carried out with the ISOPHOT instrument onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). The ...

  10. State survey of silviculture nonpoint source programs: a comparison of the 2000 northeastern and national results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Gordon W. Stuart

    2002-01-01

    The National Association of State Foresters conducts surveys of silviculture nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control programs to measure progress and identify needs. The 2000 survey results are summarized here for the nation and for the 20-state northeastern region. Current emphasis of NPS pollution programs is on education, training, and monitoring. Educational...

  11. ASASSN-18fb: Discovery of a Bright Candidate Microlensing Event Located Away from the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, K. Z.; Dong, Subo; Chen, P.; Prieto, J. L.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J. V.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Stritzinger, M.

    2018-03-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN, Shappee et al. 2014), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" telescope in CTIO, Chile, we detect a new transient source, most likely a bright microlensing event, located near the Galactic plane, but more than 60 degrees away from the Galactic center Object RA (J2000) DEC (J2000) Gal l (deg) Gal b (deg) Disc.

  12. High Brightness OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC; Kondakova, Marina [OLEDWorks LLC; Boroson, Michael [OLEDWorks LLC; Hamer, John [OLEDWorks LLC

    2016-05-25

    In this work we describe the technology developments behind our current and future generations of high brightness OLED lighting panels. We have developed white and amber OLEDs with excellent performance based on the stacking approach. Current products achieve 40-60 lm/W, while future developments focus on achieving 80 lm/W or higher.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: FIR data of IR-bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) (Toba+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Y.; Nagao, T.; Wang, W.-H.; Matsuhara, H.; Akiyama, M.; Goto, T.; Koyama, Y.; Ohyama, Y.; Yamamura, I.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the star-forming activity of a sample of infrared (IR)-bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) that show an extreme red color in the optical and IR regime, (i-[22])AB>7.0. Combining an IR-bright DOG sample with the flux at 22μm>3.8mJy discovered by Toba & Nagao (2016ApJ...820...46T) with the IRAS faint source catalog version 2 and AKARI far-IR (FIR) all-sky survey bright source catalog version 2, we selected 109 DOGs with FIR data. For a subsample of seven IR-bright DOGs with spectroscopic redshifts (0.07DOGs and (2) the contribution of the active galactic nucleus to IR luminosity increases with IR luminosity. By comparing the stellar mass and SFR relation for our DOG sample and the literature, we found that most of the IR-bright DOGs lie significantly above the main sequence of star-forming galaxies at similar redshift, indicating that the majority of IRAS- or AKARI-detected IR-bright DOGs are starburst galaxies. (1 data file).

  14. Survey of sources of manpower supply for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The following is a report of a survey designed to determine sources of manpower supply available to the Nuclear Power Industry. The survey is part of a larger research effort which is also designed to investigate occupational employment and training in the Nuclear Power Industry and competing sources of demand for technically qualified manpower. The results of those other studies have been published separately and are available upon request. This report includes a brief discussion of the background of the study, the research methods employed, the results obtained, and some implications of those findings. The appendices contain copies of the questionnaires used in the survey as well as some additional related data

  15. The WIRED Survey. I. A Bright IR Excess Due to Dust Around the Heavily Polluted White Dwarf Galex J193156.8+011745

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debes, John H.; Hoard, D. W.; Kilic, Mukremin; Wachter, Stefanie; Leisawitz, David T.; Cohen, Martin; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Griffith, Roger L.

    2011-01-01

    With the launch of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a new era of detecting planetary debris around white dwarfs (WDs) has begun with the WISE InfraRed Excesses around Degenerates (WIRED) Survey. The WIRED survey will be sensitive to substellar objects and dusty debris around WDs out to distances exceeding 100 pc, well beyond the completeness level of local WDs and covering a large fraction of known WDs detected with the SDSS DR4 WD catalog. In this paper, we report an initial result of the WIRED survey, the detection of the heavily polluted hydrogen WD (spectral type DAZ) GALEX Jl93156.S-KlI1745 at 3.35 and 4.6/Lm. We find that the excess is consistent with either a narrow dusty ring with an inner radius of 29 RWD. outer radius of 40 RWD, and a face-on inclination, or a disk with an inclination of 70 , an inner radius of 23 RWD. and an outer radius of 80 RWD. We also report initial optical spectroscopic monitoring of several metal lines present in the photosphere and find no variability in the line strengths or radial velocities of the lines. We rule out all but planetary mass companions to GALEXl931 out to 0.5 AU.

  16. Obscured AGN at z similar to 1 from the zCOSMOS-Bright Survey : I. Selection and optical properties of a [Ne v]-selected sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mignoli, M.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Lamareille, F.; Nair, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J. -P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Le Borgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Montero, E. Perez; Presotto, V.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; McCracken, H. J.; Moresco, M.; Welikala, N.

    Aims. The application of multi-wavelength selection techniques is essential for obtaining a complete and unbiased census of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We present here a method for selecting z similar to 1 obscured AGN from optical spectroscopic surveys. Methods. A sample of 94 narrow-line AGN

  17. Low surface brightness spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation presents an observational overview of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) spiral galaxies. The sample galaxies were chosen to have low surface brightness disks and indications of spiral structure visible on the Palomar Sky Survey. They are of sufficient angular size (diameter > 2.5 arcmin), to allow detailed surface photometry using Mayall 4-m prime focus plates. The major findings of this dissertation are: (1) The average disk central surface brightness of the LSB galaxies is 22.88 magnitude/arcsec 2 in the B passband. (2) From broadband color measurements of the old stellar population, we infer a low average stellar metallicity, on the order of 1/5 solar. (3) The spectra and optical colors of the HII regions in the LSB galaxies indicate a lack of hot ionizing stars compared to HII regions in other late-type galaxies. (4) The average surface mass density, measured within the radius containing half the total mass, is less than half that of a sample of normal late-type spirals. (5) The average LSB galaxy neutral hydrogen mass to blue luminosity ratio is about 0.6, significantly higher than in a sample of normal late-type galaxies. (6) We find no conclusive evidence of an abnormal mass-to-light ratio in the LSB galaxies. (7) Some of the LSB galaxies exhibit well-developed density wave patterns. (8) A very crude calculation shows the lower metallicity of the LSB galaxies compared with normal late-type spirals might be explained simply by the deficiency of massive stars in the LSB galaxies

  18. Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies: Evolution in Isolation M. Das

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    galaxies: ISM—galaxies: spiral—cosmology: dark matter. 1. Introduction. Giant Low Surface Brightness (GLSB) galaxies are some of the largest spiral galax- ies in our nearby universe. However, for decades these galaxies remained undetected in galaxy surveys. This is because their optically dim stellar disks have a bright-.

  19. Source finding, parametrization, and classification for the extragalactic Effelsberg-Bonn H i Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flöer, L.; Winkel, B.; Kerp, J.

    2014-09-01

    Context. Source extraction for large-scale H i surveys currently involves large amounts of manual labor. For data volumes expected from future H i surveys with upcoming facilities, this approach is not feasible any longer. Aims: We describe the implementation of a fully automated source finding, parametrization, and classification pipeline for the Effelsberg-Bonn H i Survey (EBHIS). With future radio astronomical facilities in mind, we want to explore the feasibility of a completely automated approach to source extraction for large-scale H i surveys. Methods: Source finding is implemented using wavelet denoising methods, which previous studies show to be a powerful tool, especially in the presence of data defects. For parametrization, we automate baseline fitting, mask optimization, and other tasks based on well-established algorithms, currently used interactively. For the classification of candidates, we implement an artificial neural network, which is trained on a candidate set comprised of false positives from real data and simulated sources. Using simulated data, we perform a thorough analysis of the algorithms implemented. Results: We compare the results from our simulations to the parametrization accuracy of the H i Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS) survey. Even though HIPASS is more sensitive than EBHIS in its current state, the parametrization accuracy and classification reliability match or surpass the manual approach used for HIPASS data.

  20. The European large area ISO survey - III. 90-mu m extragalactic source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    2000-01-01

    We present results and source counts at 90 mum extracted from the preliminary analysis of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). The survey covered about 12 deg(2) of the sky in four main areas and was carried out with the ISOPHOT instrument onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). The ...... or small groups of galaxies, suggesting that the sample may include a significant fraction of luminous infrared galaxies. The source counts extracted from a reliable subset of the detected sources are in agreement with strongly evolving models of the starburst galaxy population....

  1. The liner brightness temperature measurement by two channel optical pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, M. I.; Dudin, S. V.; Ushnurtsev, A. E.; Mintsev, V. B.

    2018-01-01

    Measurability of liner inner surface brightness temperature by two channel optical pyrometer is shown. Liner is compressed by detonation products in large-scale experiment. Absolute radiant intensity values were obtained by measuring optical system channel calibration involving tungsten and xenon radiation sources. Three ways of surface brightness temperature measurement are presented at wavelengths of 620 and 850 nm. Using the developed procedure copper and steel liners behavior (brightness temperature, average speed) under compression by detonation products are evaluated.

  2. A tuneable ultra-compact high-power, ultra-short pulsed, bright gamma-ray source based on bremsstrahlung radiation from laser-plasma accelerated electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiccia, S.; Wiggins, S. M.; Shanks, R. P.; Islam, M. R.; Vieux, G.; Issac, R. C.; Brunetti, E.; Ersfeld, B.; Welsh, G. H.; Anania, M. P.; Jaroszynski, D. A. [University of Strathclyde, Physics Department, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow, G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Maneuski, D.; Shea, V. O. [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Lemos, N. R. C.; Bendoyro, R. A.; Dias, J. M. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Rajeev, P. P.; Foster, P. [Central Laser Facility, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bourgeois, N.; Ibbotson, T. P. A. [Oxford University, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-03-15

    The laser driven plasma wakefield accelerator is a very compact source of high energy electrons. When the quasi-monoenergetic beam from these accelerators passes through dense material, high energy bremsstrahlung photons are emitted in a collimated beam with high flux. We show how a source based on this emission process can produce more than 10{sup 9} photons per pulse with a mean energy of 10 MeV. We present experimental results that show the feasibility of this method of producing high energy photons and compare the experimental results with GEANT4 Montecarlo simulations, which also give the scaling required to evaluate its suitability as method to produce radioisotopes via photo-nuclear reactions or for imaging applications.

  3. Automated detection of extended sources in radio maps: progress from the SCORPIO survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggi, S.; Ingallinera, A.; Leto, P.; Cavallaro, F.; Bufano, F.; Schillirò, F.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Buemi, C. S.; Norris, R. P.

    2016-08-01

    Automated source extraction and parametrization represents a crucial challenge for the next-generation radio interferometer surveys, such as those performed with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its precursors. In this paper, we present a new algorithm, called CAESAR (Compact And Extended Source Automated Recognition), to detect and parametrize extended sources in radio interferometric maps. It is based on a pre-filtering stage, allowing image denoising, compact source suppression and enhancement of diffuse emission, followed by an adaptive superpixel clustering stage for final source segmentation. A parametrization stage provides source flux information and a wide range of morphology estimators for post-processing analysis. We developed CAESAR in a modular software library, also including different methods for local background estimation and image filtering, along with alternative algorithms for both compact and diffuse source extraction. The method was applied to real radio continuum data collected at the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) within the SCORPIO project, a pathfinder of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU) survey at the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). The source reconstruction capabilities were studied over different test fields in the presence of compact sources, imaging artefacts and diffuse emission from the Galactic plane and compared with existing algorithms. When compared to a human-driven analysis, the designed algorithm was found capable of detecting known target sources and regions of diffuse emission, outperforming alternative approaches over the considered fields.

  4. Characterizing Walk Trips in communities by Using Data from 2009 National Household Travel Survey, American Community Survey, and Other Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Reuscher, Tim [Macrosys; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Murakami, Elaine [FHWA USDOT

    2013-01-01

    Non-motorized travel (i.e. walking and bicycling) are of increasing interest to the transportation profession, especially in context with energy consumption, reducing vehicular congestion, urban development patterns, and promotion of healthier life styles. This research project aimed to identify factors impacting the amount of travel for both walk and bike trips at the Census block group or tract level, using several public and private data sources. The key survey of travel behavior is the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) which had over 87,000 walk trips for persons 16 and over, and over 6000 bike trips for persons 16 and over. The NHTS, in conjunction with the Census Bureau s American Community Survey, street density measures using Census Bureau TIGER, WalkScore , Nielsen Claritas employment estimates, and several other sources were used for this study. Stepwise Logistic Regression modeling techniques as well as Discriminant Analysis were applied using the integrated data set. While the models performed reasonably well for walk trips, travel by bike was abandoned due to sparseness of data. This paper discusses data sources utilized and modeling processes conducted under this study. It also presents a summary of findings and addresses data challenges and lesson-learned from this research effort.

  5. A new sample of faint Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum radio sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, IAG; Schilizzi, RT; de Bruyn, AG; Miley, GK; Rengelink, RB; Rottgering, HJ

    The Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS) has been used to select a sample of Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) radio sources at flux densities one to two orders of magnitude lower than bright GPS sources investigated in earlier studies. Sources with inverted spectra at frequencies above 325 MHz have

  6. Interaction between two adjacent grounded sources in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haigen; Lin, Jun; Liu, Changsheng; Kang, Lili; Li, Gang; Zeng, Xinsen

    2016-03-01

    Multi-source and multi-frequency emission method can make full use of the valuable and short flight time in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic (FSAEM) exploration, which has potential to investigate the deep earth structure in complex terrain region. Because several sources are adjacent in multi-source emission method, the interaction of different sources should be considered carefully. An equivalent circuit model of dual-source is established in this paper to assess the interaction between two individual sources, where the parameters are given with the typical values based on the practical instrument system and its application. By simulating the output current of two sources in different cases, the influence from the adjacent source is observed clearly. The current waveforms show that the mutual resistance causes the fluctuation and drift in another source and that the mutual inductance causes transient peaks. A field test with dual-source was conducted to certify the existence of interaction between adjacent sources. The simulation of output current also shows that current errors at low frequency are mainly caused by the mutual resistance while those at high frequency are mainly due to the mutual inductance. Increasing the distance between neighboring sources is a proposed measure to reduce the emission signal errors with designed ones. The feasible distance is discussed in the end. This study gives a useful guidance to lay multi sources to meet the requirement of measurement accuracy in FSAEM survey.

  7. Contingent valuation method applied to survey on personal preferences on choice of electric power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Reiko; Nakagome, Yoshihiro

    2004-01-01

    A Survey was conducted on personal preferences regarding their choice of electric power source to verify the applicability of Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) to such analysis. The survey was carried out on local and urban inhabitants in two steps, first by mail and thereafter by direct interview. A choice of four typical forms of power source was presented: nuclear, coal, hydro and green power; and the question was asked whether the respondent would be willing to pay additional charge for specifying their preferable power source. The mail survey indicated more than half of the respondents hold some willingness to pay either for disuse of nuclear power or expansion of green power. The interview survey revealed various complex motives lying behind their answers. Consequently, it was found that their preference is significantly correlated to their personal image or knowledge of power sources, their thinking or attitude toward energy conservation, their sense of consumption and their private view of life. It is concluded that CVM is pertinently applicable to quantitative analysis of individual opinions, particularly in terms of their motivation to participate in national energy issues. A number of modifications, however, should be required to be brought to the survey design in order to ensure smooth application in practice. (author)

  8. Investigating Multiple Household Water Sources and Uses with a Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan C. MacDonald

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of multiple sources in household water management is considered overly complicated and time consuming using paper and pen interviewing (PAPI. We assess the advantages of computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI in Pacific Island Countries (PICs. We adapted an existing PAPI survey on multiple water sources and expanded it to incorporate location of water use and the impacts of extreme weather events using SurveyCTO on Android tablets. We then compared the efficiency and accuracy of data collection using the PAPI version (n = 44 with the CAPI version (n = 291, including interview duration, error rate and trends in interview duration with enumerator experience. CAPI surveys facilitated high-quality data collection and were an average of 15.2 min faster than PAPI. CAPI survey duration decreased by 0.55% per survey delivered (p < 0.0001, whilst embedded skip patterns and answer lists lowered data entry error rates, relative to PAPI (p < 0.0001. Large-scale household surveys commonly used in global monitoring and evaluation do not differentiate multiple water sources and uses. CAPI equips water researchers with a quick and reliable tool to address these knowledge gaps and advance our understanding of development research priorities.

  9. A Survey of Open-Source UAV Flight Controllers and Flight Simulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Skriver, Martin; Terkildsen, Kristian Husum

    2018-01-01

    The current disruptive innovation in civilian drone (UAV applications has led to an increased need for research and development in UAV technology. The key challenges currently being addressed are related to UAV platform properties such as functionality, reliability, fault tolerance, and endurance......-source drone platform elements that can be used for research and development. The survey covers open-source hardware, software, and simulation drone platforms and compares their main features....

  10. Characterization of Various Survey Meters by Car-borne Survey in Java Island as Basis Data for Searching Orphan Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yus Rusdian Akhmad

    2004-01-01

    Recently, an international collaboration in securing and managing radioactive sources, particularly orphan sources, is established. For developing countries such as Indonesia which possesses relatively inadequate resources, an effective approach in dealing with the problem is crucial. In order to deal with this situation, an activity was performed including: 1) assessment of available technical means, 2) car-borne survey during the dry and rainy seasons to identify the impact of Rn daughter washout on the interpretation of search results, 3) search for anomalies in the radioactive exposure map of the Java island, and 4) investigation of anomalies found, using more sophisticated instrument, to detect and secure orphan and illicit radioactive sources. The performance of four selected instruments in a car-borne survey which covers a large area in western part of Java was evaluated. Data series of moving background were divided into two measurement groups; control group and test group. These data series were arranged in, order to determine the value of alarm level. For this purpose, statistic procedures relying on Mann-Whitney U test and a simple moving average test (Moving Background) were applied. Among the four selected survey meters, the most convenient detection system for implementing the activity is Exploranium GR-130. There was little concern on the effect of Rn-daughters washouts on the proposed methods, provided that the operator could recognise the transition period between the clear and rainy weather as it could give rise to false alarm. The Moving Background method was generally superior to Mann-Whitney U test for detecting anomalous radiation level. During the survey, an anomaly in steel industrial area was detected. Using portable gamma spectrometers, it was concluded that the anomaly was generated from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Analyses upon survey data in the big cities showed anomalies due to concrete structures, especially

  11. Large Bright Ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    3 February 2004 Wind is the chief agent of change on Mars today. Wind blows dust and it can move coarser sediment such as sand and silt. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows bright ripples or small dunes on the floors of troughs northeast of Isidis Planitia near 31.1oN, 244.6oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  12. A daytime measurement of the lunar contribution to the night sky brightness in LSST's ugrizy bands-initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Michael; Stubbs, Christopher; Claver, Chuck

    2016-06-01

    We report measurements from which we determine the spatial structure of the lunar contribution to night sky brightness, taken at the LSST site on Cerro Pachon in Chile. We use an array of six photodiodes with filters that approximate the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope's u, g, r, i, z, and y bands. We use the sun as a proxy for the moon, and measure sky brightness as a function of zenith angle of the point on sky, zenith angle of the sun, and angular distance between the sun and the point on sky. We make a correction for the difference between the illumination spectrum of the sun and the moon. Since scattered sunlight totally dominates the daytime sky brightness, this technique allows us to cleanly determine the contribution to the (cloudless) night sky from backscattered moonlight, without contamination from other sources of night sky brightness. We estimate our uncertainty in the relative lunar night sky brightness vs. zenith and lunar angle to be between 0.3-0.7 mags depending on the passband. This information is useful in planning the optimal execution of the LSST survey, and perhaps for other astronomical observations as well. Although our primary objective is to map out the angular structure and spectrum of the scattered light from the atmosphere and particulates, we also make an estimate of the expected number of scattered lunar photons per pixel per second in LSST, and find values that are in overall agreement with previous estimates.

  13. Getting to the Source: a Survey of Quantitative Data Sources Available to the Everyday Librarian: Part II: Data Sources from Specific Library Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Goddard

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a two-part article that provides a survey of data sources which are likely to be immediately available to the typical practitioner who wishes to engage in statistical analysis of collections and services within his or her own library. Part I outlines the data elements which can be extracted from web server logs, and discusses web log analysis tools. Part II looks at logs, reports, and data sources from proxy servers, resource vendors, link resolvers, federated search engines, institutional repositories, electronic reference services, and the integrated library system.

  14. Bright point study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.; Harvey, K.; Bruner, M.; Kent, B.; Antonucci, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transition region and coronal observations of bright points by instruments aboard the Solar Maximum Mission and high resolution photospheric magnetograph observations on September 11, 1980 are presented. A total of 31 bipolar ephemeral regions were found in the photosphere from birth in 9.3 hours of combined magnetograph observations from three observatories. Two of the three ephemeral regions present in the field of view of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Polarimeter were observed in the C IV 1548 line. The unobserved ephemeral region was determined to be the shortest-lived (2.5 hr) and lowest in magnetic flux density (13G) of the three regions. The Flat Crystal Spectrometer observed only low level signals in the O VIII 18.969 A line, which were not statistically significant to be positively identified with any of the 16 ephemeral regions detected in the photosphere. In addition, the data indicate that at any given time there lacked a one-to-one correspondence between observable bright points and photospheric ephemeral regions, while more ephemeral regions were observed than their counterparts in the transition region and the corona

  15. Galaxies in x-ray selected clusters and groups in Dark Energy Survey Data I: Stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies since Z similar to 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.; Rooney, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Romer, A. K.; Perfecto, R.; Song, J; Desai, S.; Mohr, J. J.; Vikram, V.

    2016-01-10

    Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z similar to 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into an analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation, m(*) proportional to (M-200/1.5 x 10(14)M(circle dot))(0.24 +/- 0.08)(1+z)(-0.19 +/- 0.34), and compare the observed relation to the model prediction. We estimate the average growth rate since z = 1.0 for BCGs hosted by clusters of M-200,M-z = 10(13.8)M(circle dot); at z = 1.0: m(*, BCG) appears to have grown by 0.13 +/- 0.11 dex, in tension at the similar to 2.5 sigma significance level with the 0.40 dex growth rate expected from the semi-analytic model. We show that the build-up of extended intracluster light after z = 1.0 may alleviate this tension in BCG growth rates.

  16. Investigating the Bright End of LSST Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Elle; Pepper, Joshua; LSST Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will begin operations in 2022, conducting a wide-field, synoptic multiband survey of the southern sky. Some fraction of objects at the bright end of the magnitude regime observed by LSST will overlap with other wide-sky surveys, allowing for calibration and cross-checking between surveys. The LSST is optimized for observations of very faint objects, so much of this data overlap will be comprised of saturated images. This project provides the first in-depth analysis of saturation in LSST images. Using the PhoSim package to create simulated LSST images, we evaluate saturation properties of several types of stars to determine the brightness limitations of LSST. We also collect metadata from many wide-field photometric surveys to provide cross-survey accounting and comparison. Additionally, we evaluate the accuracy of the PhoSim modeling parameters to determine the reliability of the software. These efforts will allow us to determine the expected useable data overlap between bright-end LSST images and faint-end images in other wide-sky surveys. Our next steps are developing methods to extract photometry from saturated images.This material is based upon work supported in part by the National Science Foundation through Cooperative Agreement 1258333 managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), and the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515 with the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Additional LSST funding comes from private donations, grants to universities, and in-kind support from LSSTC Institutional Members.Thanks to NSF grant PHY-135195 and the 2017 LSSTC Grant Award #2017-UG06 for making this project possible.

  17. Ultra High Brightness/Low Cost Fiber Coupled Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The focus of the proposed effort is maximizing the brightness of fiber coupled laser diode pump sources at a minimum cost. The specific innovation proposed is to...

  18. The Red MSX Source survey: distribution and properties of a sample of massive young stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, J. S.; Moore, T. J. T.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Rathborne, J. M.; Mottram, J. C.; Davies, B.; Stead, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Red MSX Source (RMS) survey has identified a large sample of massive young stellar objects and ultra compact H II regions from a sample of ˜2000 MSX and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) colour selected sources. Using a recent catalogue of molecular clouds derived from the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (BU-FCRAO) Galactic Ring Survey (GRS), and by applying a Galactic scaleheight cut-off of 120 pc, we solve the distance ambiguity for RMS sources located within 18° 54°. These two steps yield kinematic distances to 291 sources out of a possible 326, located within the GRS longitude range. Combining distances and integrated fluxes derived from spectral energy distributions, we estimate luminosities to these sources and find that >90 per cent are indicative of the presence of a massive star. We find the completeness limit of our sample is ˜104 L⊙, which corresponds to a zero-age main-sequence star with a mass of ˜12 M⊙. Selecting only these sources, we construct a complete sample of 196 sources. Comparing the properties of the sample of young massive stars with the general population, we find the RMS clouds are generally larger, more massive, and more turbulent. We examine the distribution of this subsample with respect to the location of the spiral arms and the Galactic bar and find them to be spatially correlated. We identify three significant peaks in the source surface density at Galactocentric radii of approximately 4, 6 and 8 kpc, which correspond to the proposed positions of the Scutum, Sagittarius and Perseus spiral arms, respectively. Fitting a scaleheight to the data we obtain an average value of ˜29 ± 0.5 pc, which agrees well with other reported values in the literature, however we note a dependence of the scaleheight on galactocentric radius with it increases from 30 to 45 pc between 2.5 and 8.5 kpc.

  19. Determinants, obstacles, sources and cooperation to innovation in Portuguese firms, using community innovation survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Aldina; Braga, Alexandra; Braga, Vitor

    2017-06-01

    Innovation is a topic of interest for the management researchers, confirmed by the creation of a Community Innovation Survey, which is an harmonised tool designed to provide information about Innovation in European Union enterprises. In this study, we use factorial analysis to identify the determinants and obstacles to innovation in Portuguese firms. The sources of innovation and cooperation to innovation are also analysed, using crossed information. For the determinants of innovation six factors were identified: Production costs and impacts to health and environment, Process and product innovation, Organizational innovation, Institutional sources of information, Others sources of information and Market sources of information. Obstacles to innovation were clustered into three groups: Knowledge and market factors, Cost factors and Reasons not to innovate. The main sources of innovation identified, in this study, are Suppliers and Clients, located in Portugal and in Europe. Cooperation partners are also majority Clients and Suppliers, in addition to other enterprises in the same group.

  20. Mapping Sources of Food Safety Information for U.S. Consumers: Findings From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Verrill, Linda; Kim, Jarim

    2017-03-01

    This research examines the sources from which U.S. consumers obtain their food safety information. It seeks to determine differences in the types of information sources used by U.S. consumers of different sociodemographic background, as well as the relationships between the types of information sources used and food safety risk perceptions. Analyzing the 2010 Food Safety Survey (N = 4,568) conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, we found that age, gender, education, and race predicted the use of different sources for food safety information. Additionally, use of several information sources predicted perceived susceptibility to foodborne illnesses and severity of food contamination. Implications of the findings for food safety risk communication are discussed.

  1. The Chandra Deep Protocluster Survey: point-source catalogues for a 400-ks observation of the z = 3.09 protocluster in SSA22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.; Chapman, S. C.; Smail, Ian; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Geach, J. E.; Matsuda, Y.; Mullaney, J. R.; Swinbank, A. M.

    2009-11-01

    We present X-ray point-source catalogues for a deep ~400-ks Chandra ACIS-I (Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer) exposure of the SSA22 field. The observations are centred on a z = 3.09 protocluster, which is populated by Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), Lyα emitters (LAEs) and extended Lyα-emitting blobs (LABs). The survey reaches ultimate (3 count) sensitivity limits of ~5.7 × 10-17 and ~3.0 × 10-16ergcm-2s-1 for the 0.5-2 and 2-8keV bands, respectively (corresponding to L2-10keV ~5.7 × 1042ergs-1 and L10-30keV ~2.0 × 1043ergs-1 at z = 3.09, respectively, for an assumed photon index of Γ = 1.4). These limits make SSA22 the fourth deepest extragalactic Chandra survey yet conducted, and the only one focused on a known high-redshift structure. In total, we detect 297 X-ray point sources and identify one obvious bright extended X-ray source over a ~330arcmin2 region. In addition to our X-ray catalogues, we provide all available optical spectroscopic redshifts and near-infrared and mid-infrared photometry available for our sources. The basic X-ray and infrared properties of our Chandra sources indicate a variety of source types, although absorbed active galactic nuclei (AGN) appear to dominate. In total, we have identified 12 X-ray sources (either via optical spectroscopic redshifts or LAE selection) at z = 3.06 - 3.12 that are likely to be associated with the SSA22 protocluster. These sources have X-ray and multiwavelength properties that suggest they are powered by AGN with 0.5-8keV luminosities in the range of ~1043-1045ergs-1. We have analysed the AGN fraction of sources in the protocluster as a function of local LAE source density and find suggestive evidence for a correlation between AGN fraction and local LAE source density (at the ~96 per cent confidence level), implying that supermassive black hole growth at z ~ 3 is strongest in the highest density regions.

  2. High brightness electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.; Carlsten, B.E.; Young, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of accelerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electrons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electrons as the electrons enter the first cavity. 5 figs

  3. Quantum Entanglement and High Brightness Laser Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our focus is on demonstrating high precision (sub-micron) laser ranging for Navigation using a unique high-sensitivity optical correlation receiver with both...

  4. H{sub 2}O Megamasers toward Radio-bright Seyfert 2 Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J. S.; Liu, Z. W. [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Henkel, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Wang, J. Z. [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Coldwell, G. V., E-mail: jszhang@gzhu.edu.cn [FCEFyN-UNSJ-CONICET, San Juan (Argentina)

    2017-02-20

    Using the Effelsberg-100 m telescope, we perform a successful pilot survey on H{sub 2}O maser emission toward a small sample of radio-bright Seyfert 2 galaxies with a redshift larger than 0.04. The targets were selected from a large Seyfert 2 sample derived from the spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7). One source, SDSS J102802.9+104630.4 ( z ∼ 0.0448), was detected four times during our observations, with a typical maser flux density of ∼30 mJy and a corresponding (very large) luminosity of ∼1135 L {sub ⊙}. The successful detection of this radio-bright Seyfert 2 and an additional tentative detection support our previous statistical results that H{sub 2}O megamasers tend to arise from Seyfert 2 galaxies with large radio luminosity. The finding provides further motivation for an upcoming larger H{sub 2}O megamaser survey toward Seyfert 2s with particularly radio-bright nuclei with the basic goal to improve our understanding of the nuclear environment of active megamaser host galaxies.

  5. Survey on the consumptions of energy sources in the industry in Italy in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, G.; Perrella, G.; Ballin, M.; Mercanti, A.; Poggi, A.

    2001-01-01

    This report has the aim to introduce the results of the sampling survey performed to determinate the consumption of energy sources (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, diesel oil, etc.) in the italian industry. The energy consumptions report to 1999 and they are disaggregated for typology of use: energy consumptions for productive uses, for production of energy and for traction. The energy intensive sectors and the great industries have represented the nucleus of survey. Particular attention has been devoted to the production of energy and the consumption of heat [it

  6. UAV using the open-source flight-control-system in the application of aerial survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji-chen; Ru, Chen

    2015-12-01

    The aerial survey as one of the branches of the Space Information Technology system, has an important application in data acquisition of the earth's surface. In recent years, the trend of UVA (unmanned aerial vehicle) to replace traditional survey aircraft has become increasingly obvious with the progress of science and technology. At present, the price of the commercial UAV Flight Control System is higher, limiting the application of UVA. This paper mainly discusses the possibility that the open-source's flight-control-system take the place of the commercial one. Result is that the costs of UVA are reduced, and make the application more widely.

  7. Discussion on the source survey method in a natural evaporation pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xiaoshu; Fan Chengrong; Fu Yunshan

    2014-01-01

    A natural evaporation pond intended to be decommissioned. The survey of the pond focused on investigating radioactive contamination distribution and estimating the total amount of deposits in the pond, in order to provide support for subsequent decommissioning activities. Based on the source survey in the pond, this paper introduced how to implement radiation measurements and sampling (such as water and sediment) in the water. The movable work platform was built on the pond to facilitate sampling and measurement. In addition, a sludge sampler had been designed so as to accurately determine the amount of sampling and its depth. This paper also described the distribution of sampling points. (authors)

  8. Survey on the consumptions of energy sources in the tertiary sector in Italy in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, G.; Perrella, G.; Ballin, M.

    2001-01-01

    This report has the aim to introduce the results of the sampling survey performed to determinate the consumption of energy sources (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, diesel oil, etc.) in the tertiary sector. The energy consumptions report to 1999 and they are disaggregated for typology of use: energy consumptions for productive uses, for production of energy and for traction. The economic energy intensive activities have represented the nucleus of the survey. Particular attention has been devoted to the production of energy and the consumption of heat [it

  9. A Survey of Information Source Preferences of Parents of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Amelia N; Kaplan, Samantha; Vardell, Emily

    2017-07-01

    For parents of children with an Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), high quality, easily accessible information and a strong peer network can be the key to raising a happy, healthy child, and maintaining family well-being and emotional resilience. This article reports the findings of an anonymous survey examining the information source preferences for 935 parents of individuals with ASDs in North Carolina. Data indicates that parents show similar information seeking patterns across the age spectrum, that availability of information (as indicated by overall information source selection) decrease as children age. It also shows that parents rely heavily on local sources of information, preferring them to nonlocal sources (such as the internet) for many types of information.

  10. Two field trials for deblending of simultaneous source surveys: Why we failed and why we succeeded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Shaohuan; Zhou, Hui; Chen, Haolin; Zheng, Hao; Chen, Yangkang

    2017-08-01

    Currently, deblending is the main strategy for dealing with the intense interference problem of simultaneous source data. Most deblending methods are based on the property that useful signal is coherent while the interference is incoherent in some domains other than common shot domain. In this paper, two simultaneous source field trials were studied in detail. In the first trial, the simultaneous source survey was not optimal, as the dithering code had strong coherency and the minimum distance between the two vessels was also small. The chosen marine shot scheduling and vessel deployment made it difficult to deblend the simultaneous source data, and result was an unexpected failure. Next, we tested different parameters (the dithering code and the minimum distance between vessels) of the simultaneous source survey using the simulated blended data and got some useful insights. Then, we carried out the second field trial with a carefully designed survey that was much different from the first trial. The deblended results in common receiver gather, common shot gather or the final stacked profile were encouraging. We obtained a complete success in the second field trial, which gave us confidence in the further test (such as a full three dimensional acquisition test or a high-resolution acquisition test with denser spatial sampling). Remembering that failures with simultaneous sourcing seldom reported, in this paper, our contribution is the discussion in detail about both our failed and successful field experiments and the lessons we have learned from them with the hope that the experience gained from this study can be very useful to other researchers in the same field.

  11. Sizing up the individual market for health insurance: a comparison of survey and administrative data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jean M; Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Boudreaux, Michel

    2013-08-01

    Provisions within the Affordable Care Act, including the introduction of subsidized, Exchange-based coverage for lower income Americans lacking access to employer coverage, are expected to greatly expand the size and importance of the individual market. Using multiple federal surveys and administrative data from the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, we generate national-, regional-, and state-level estimates of the individual market. In 2009, the number of nonelderly persons with individual coverage ranged from 9.55 million in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to 25.3 million in the American Community Survey. Notable differences also exist between survey estimates and National Association of Insurance Commissioners administrative counts, an outcome likely driven by variation in the type and measurement of individual coverage considered by surveys relative to administrative data. Future research evaluating the impact of the Affordable Care Act coverage provisions must be mindful of differences across surveys and administrative sources as it relates to the measurement of individual market coverage.

  12. Diagnosing the doctors' departure: survey on sources of dissatisfaction among Irish junior doctors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bruce-Brand, R

    2012-01-01

    There has been a significant decline in the number of applications for non-consultant hospital doctor (NCHD) posts in Ireland over the last 18 months. We conducted an online, anonymous survey of Irish NCHDs to establish levels of satisfaction, sources of dissatisfaction and the major reasons for junior doctors seeking work abroad. 522 NCHDs took the survey, including 64 (12.3%) currently working outside of the Republic. 219 (45.8%) were slightly dissatisfied and 142 (29.7%) were extremely dissatisfied with practising medicine in Ireland. Major sources of dissatisfaction included the state of the health care system, staffing cover for leave and illness, the dearth of consultant posts and the need to move around Ireland. The most important reason for NCHDs wishing to leave was to seek better training and career opportunities abroad.

  13. A Survey on Open-Source Flight Control Platforms of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Skriver, Martin; Jin, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), so-called drones, have gotten a lot of attention in academic research and commercial applications due to their simple structure, ease of operations and low-cost hardware components. Flight controller, embedded electronics component, represents the core part...... of the drone. It aims at performing the main operations of the drone (e.g., autonomous control and navigation). There are various types of flight controllers and each of them has its own characteristics and features. This paper presents an extensive survey on the publicly available open-source flight...... controllers that can be used for academic research. The paper introduces the basics of UAV system with its components. The survey fully covers both hardware and software open-source flight controller platforms and compares their main features....

  14. Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey on sources, transport, and fate of agricultural chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, Paul D.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Erwin, Martha L.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is assessing the sources, transport, and fate of chemicals applied to crops in agricultural basins across the Nation (referred to as "study units," see map). Chemicals selected for study include nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and about 50 commonly used pesticides and their transformation products, including triazine and acetanilide herbicides such as atrazine and metolachlor, and organophosphorus insecticides such as chlorpyrifos and diazinon.

  15. Survey of source code metrics for evaluating testability of object oriented systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen , Muhammad Rabee; Du Bousquet , Lydie

    2010-01-01

    Software testing is costly in terms of time and funds. Testability is a software characteristic that aims at producing systems easy to test. Several metrics have been proposed to identify the testability weaknesses. But it is sometimes difficult to be convinced that those metrics are really related with testability. This article is a critical survey of the source-code based metrics proposed in the literature for object-oriented software testability. It underlines the necessity to provide test...

  16. CANDELS MULTIWAVELENGTH CATALOGS: SOURCE IDENTIFICATION AND PHOTOMETRY IN THE CANDELS UKIDSS ULTRA-DEEP SURVEY FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galametz, Audrey; Grazian, Andrea; Fontana, Adriano; Castellano, Marco; Ferguson, Henry C.; Dahlen, Tomas; Grogin, Norman; Huang, Kuang-Han; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandy M.; Guo, Yicheng; Donley, Jennifer L.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Peth, Michael; Almaini, Omar

    2013-01-01

    We present the multiwavelength—ultraviolet to mid-infrared—catalog of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Ultra-Deep Survey field observed as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). Based on publicly available data, the catalog includes the CANDELS data from the Hubble Space Telescope (near-infrared WFC3 F125W and F160W data and visible ACS F606W and F814W data); u-band data from CFHT/Megacam; B, V, R c , i', and z' band data from Subaru/Suprime-Cam; Y and K s band data from VLT/HAWK-I; J, H, and K band data from UKIDSS (Data Release 8); and Spitzer/IRAC data (3.6, 4.5 μm from SEDS; 5.8 and 8.0 μm from SpUDS). The present catalog is F160W-selected and contains 35, 932 sources over an area of 201.7 arcmin 2 and includes radio- and X-ray-detected sources and spectroscopic redshifts available for 210 sources.

  17. Spatial Model of Sky Brightness Magnitude in Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzuan Tahar, Mohammad; Kamarudin, Farahana; Umar, Roslan; Khairul Amri Kamarudin, Mohd; Sabri, Nor Hazmin; Ahmad, Karzaman; Rahim, Sobri Abdul; Sharul Aikal Baharim, Mohd

    2017-03-01

    Sky brightness is an essential topic in the field of astronomy, especially for optical astronomical observations that need very clear and dark sky conditions. This study presents the spatial model of sky brightness magnitude in Langkawi Island, Malaysia. Two types of Sky Quality Meter (SQM) manufactured by Unihedron are used to measure the sky brightness on a moonless night (or when the Moon is below the horizon), when the sky is cloudless and the locations are at least 100 m from the nearest light source. The selected locations are marked by their GPS coordinates. The sky brightness data obtained in this study were interpolated and analyzed using a Geographic Information System (GIS), thus producing a spatial model of sky brightness that clearly shows the dark and bright sky areas in Langkawi Island. Surprisingly, our results show the existence of a few dark sites nearby areas of high human activity. The sky brightness of 21.45 mag arcsec{}-2 in the Johnson-Cousins V-band, as the average of sky brightness equivalent to 2.8 × {10}-4{cd} {{{m}}}-2 over the entire island, is an indication that the island is, overall, still relatively dark. However, the amount of development taking place might reduce the number in the near future as the island is famous as a holiday destination.

  18. DEEP GALEX UV SURVEY OF THE KEPLER FIELD. I. POINT SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmedo, Manuel; Chávez, Miguel; Bertone, Emanuele; Lloyd, James; Mamajek, Eric E.; Martin, D. Christopher; Neill, James D.

    2015-01-01

    We report observations of a deep near-ultraviolet (NUV) survey of the Kepler field made in 2012 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Complete All-Sky UV Survey Extension (CAUSE). The GALEX-CAUSE Kepler survey (GCK) covers 104 square degrees of the Kepler field and reaches a limiting magnitude of NUV ≃ 22.6 at 3σ. Analysis of the GCK survey has yielded a catalog of 669,928 NUV sources, of which 475,164 are cross-matched with stars in the Kepler Input Catalog. Approximately 327 of 451 confirmed exoplanet host stars and 2614 of 4696 candidate exoplanet host stars identified by Kepler have NUV photometry in the GCK survey. The GCK catalog should enable the identification and characterization of UV-excess stars in the Kepler field (young solar-type and low-mass stars, chromospherically active binaries, white dwarfs, horizontal branch stars, etc.), and elucidation of various astrophysics problems related to the stars and planetary systems in the Kepler field

  19. A VLA SURVEY FOR FAINT COMPACT RADIO SOURCES IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, Patrick D.; Eisner, Josh A. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mann, Rita K. [National Research Council Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Williams, Jonathan P., E-mail: psheehan@email.arizona.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 1.3, 3.6, and 6 cm continuum maps of compact radio sources in the Orion Nebular Cluster (ONC). We mosaicked 34 arcmin{sup 2} at 1.3 cm, 70 arcmin{sup 2} at 3.6 cm and 109 arcmin{sup 2} at 6 cm, containing 778 near-infrared detected young stellar objects and 190 Hubble Space Telescope -identified proplyds (with significant overlap between those characterizations). We detected radio emission from 175 compact radio sources in the ONC, including 26 sources that were detected for the first time at these wavelengths. For each detected source, we fitted a simple free–free and dust emission model to characterize the radio emission. We extrapolate the free–free emission spectrum model for each source to ALMA bands to illustrate how these measurements could be used to correctly measure protoplanetary disk dust masses from submillimeter flux measurements. Finally, we compare the fluxes measured in this survey with previously measured fluxes for our targets, as well as four separate epochs of 1.3 cm data, to search for and quantify the variability of our sources.

  20. Infrared-Bright Interacting Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Ruiz, Sofia; Murphy, Eric Joseph; Armus, Lee; Smith, John-David; Bradford, Charles Matt; Stierwalt, Sabrina

    2018-01-01

    We present the mid-infrared spectral mapping of eight LIRG-class interacting galaxies: NGC 6670, NGC 7592, IIZw 96, IIIZw 35, Arp 302, Arp 236, Arp 238, Arp 299. The properties of galaxy mergers, which are bright and can be studied at high resolutions at low-z, provide local analogs for sources that may be important contributors to the Far Infrared Background (FIRB.) In order to study star formation and the physical conditions in the gas and dust in our sample galaxies, we used the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) to map the galaxies over the 5-35 μm window to trace the PAH, molecular hydrogen, and atomic fine structure line emission on scales of 1.4 – 5.3 kpc. Here we present the reduction for low and high-resolution data, and preliminary results in the analysis of fine structure line ratios and dust features in the two nuclei and interacting regions from one of our sample galaxies, NGC 6670.

  1. A 31 GHz Survey of Low-Frequency Selected Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B. S.; Weintraub, L.; Sievers, J.; Bond, J. R.; Myers, S. T.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Shepherd, M. C.

    2009-10-01

    The 100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope and the 40 m Owens Valley Radio Observatory telescope have been used to conduct a 31 GHz survey of 3165 known extragalactic radio sources over 143 deg2 of the sky. Target sources were selected from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey in fields observed by the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI); most are extragalactic active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with 1.4 GHz flux densities of 3-10 mJy. The resulting 31 GHz catalogs are presented in full online. Using a maximum-likelihood analysis to obtain an unbiased estimate of the distribution of the 1.4-31 GHz spectral indices of these sources, we find a mean 31-1.4 GHz flux ratio of 0.110 ± 0.003 corresponding to a spectral index of α = -0.71 ± 0.01 (S ν vprop να) 9.0% ± 0.8% of sources have α > - 0.5 and 1.2% ± 0.2% have α > 0. By combining this spectral-index distribution with 1.4 GHz source counts, we predict 31 GHz source counts in the range 1 mJy S 31) = (16.7 ± 1.7) deg-2(S 31/1 mJy)-0.80±0.07. We also assess the contribution of mJy-level (S 1.4 GHz < 3.4 mJy) radio sources to the 31 GHz cosmic microwave background power spectrum, finding a mean power of ell(ell + 1)C src ell/(2π) = 44 ± 14 μK2 and a 95% upper limit of 80 μK2 at ell = 2500. Including an estimated contribution of 12 μK2 from the population of sources responsible for the turn-up in counts below S 1.4 GHz = 1 mJy, this amounts to 21% ± 7% of what is needed to explain the CBI high-ell excess signal, 275 ± 63 μK2. These results are consistent with other measurements of the 31 GHz point-source foreground.

  2. New seismic source `BLASTER` for seismic survey; Hasaiyaku wo shingen to shite mochiita danseiha tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, G.; Yoshikuni, Y. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Built-up weight and vacuole have been conceived as seismic sources without using explosive. There have been problems that they have smaller energy to generate elastic wave than explosive, and that they have inferior working performance. Concrete crushing explosive is tried to use as a new seismic source. It is considered to possess rather large seismic generating energy, and it is easy to handle from the viewpoint of safety. Performance as seismic source and applicability to exploration works of this crushing explosive were compared with four kinds of seismic sources using dynamite, dropping weight, shot-pipe utilizing shot vacuole, and impact by wooden maul. When considered by the velocity amplitude, the seismic generating energy of the crushing explosive of 120 g is about one-fifth of dynamite of 100 g. Elastic wave generated includes less high frequency component than that by dynamite, and similar to that using seismic source without explosive, such as the weight dropping. The maximum seismic receiving distance obtained by the seismic generation was about 100 m. This was effective for the slope survey with the exploration depth between 20 m and 30 m. 1 ref., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Teradiode's high brightness semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robin K.; Chann, Bien; Burgess, James; Lochman, Bryan; Zhou, Wang; Cruz, Mike; Cook, Rob; Dugmore, Dan; Shattuck, Jeff; Tayebati, Parviz

    2016-03-01

    TeraDiode is manufacturing multi-kW-class ultra-high brightness fiber-coupled direct diode lasers for industrial applications. A fiber-coupled direct diode laser with a power level of 4,680 W from a 100 μm core diameter, record brightness levels for direct diode lasers. The fiber-coupled output corresponds to a Beam Parameter Product (BPP) of 3.5 mm-mrad and is the lowest BPP multi-kW-class direct diode laser yet reported. This laser is suitable for industrial materials processing applications, including sheet metal cutting and welding. This 4-kW fiber-coupled direct diode laser has comparable brightness to that of industrial fiber lasers and CO2 lasers, and is over 10x brighter than state-of-the-art direct diode lasers. We have also demonstrated novel high peak power lasers and high brightness Mid-Infrared Lasers.

  4. Kinematics and physical conditions of H I in nearby radio sources. The last survey of the old Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccagni, F. M.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Geréb, K.; Maddox, N.

    2017-08-01

    We present an analysis of the properties of neutral hydrogen (H I) in 248 nearby (0.02 30 mJy and for which optical spectroscopy is available. The observations were carried out with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope as the last large project before the upgrade of the telescope with phased array feed receivers (Apertif). The sample covers almost four orders of magnitude in radio power from log P1.4 GHz = 22.5 W Hz-1 and 26.2 W Hz-1. We detect H I in absorption in 27% ± 5.5% of the objects. The detections are found over the full range of radio power. However, the distribution and kinematics of the absorbing H I gas appear to depend on radio power, the properties of the radio continuum emission, and the dust content of the sources. Among the sources where H I is detected, gas with kinematics deviating from regular rotation is more likely found as the radio power increases. In the great majority of these cases, the H I profile is asymmetric with a significant blue-shifted component. This is particularly common for sources with log P1.4 GHz > 24 W Hz-1, where the radio emission is small, possibly because these radio sources are young. The same is found for sources that are bright in the mid-infrared, I.e. sources rich in heated dust. In these sources, the H I is outflowing likely under the effect of the interaction with the radio emission. Conversely, in dust-poor galaxies, and in sources with extended radio emission, at all radio powers we only detect H I distributed in a rotating disk. Stacking experiments show that in sources for which we do not detect H I in absorption directly, the H I has a column density that is lower than 3.5 × 1017 (Tspin/cf) cm-2. We use our results to predict the number and type of H I absorption lines that will be detected by the upcoming surveys of the Square Kilometre Array precursors and pathfinders (Apertif, MeerKAT, and ASKAP).

  5. Fundamental study on airborne electromagnetic survey using grounded source; Chihyo source gata kuchu denji tansa no kisoteki kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, T.; Fujimitsu, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Science; Jomori, N. [Chiba Electronics Research Institute, Chiba (Japan); Morikawa, T. [Dowa Engineering Co. Ltd., Okayama (Japan); Kusunoki, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    With an objective to develop an airborne electromagnetic survey method for greater depths achievable of exploration, a discussion was given on an exploration method of a type in which a transmitting device is placed on the ground to receive signals in an atmosphere. A prototype exploration apparatus is mounted with a fluxgate magnetometer, an attitude meter, a GPS, and a battery. This exploration apparatus is suspended on a 30 meter long rope from a helicopter to perform the exploration. Two flight tests on this apparatus were carried out in the Unzen area, Nagasaki Prefecture and the Motomiya area, Wakayama Prefecture. The ground source was extended to a distance of 1.5 km, and a current of about 20 A was flown with a quiescent wave having four-second cycles. The helicopter flew nearly horizontally at a ground speed of about 50 km, a flight altitude of 450 m above sea level, and a terrain clearances of 100 to 400 m. The obtained data had variations in correspondence with changes in roll and pitch angles, whereas the variation of about 5000 nT was reduced to about 1000 nT as a result of correction. It was not possible, however, to correct completely the variation with short cycles, requiring further discussions on frequency characteristics of the magnetometer. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Study and survey of assembling parameters to a radioactive source production laboratory used to verify equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglitz, Erica; Nagatomy, Helio Rissei; Moura, Eduardo S.; Zeituni, Carlos Alberto; Hilario, Katia A. Fonseca; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Karam Junior, Dib

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the survey of parameters for the installation and implementation of a laboratory for radioactive sources production at immobilized resin. These sources are used in nuclear medicine for verification of dose calibrators, as the standard guidelines of the National Commission of Nuclear CNEN-NE-3.05 'Radioprotection and safety requirements for nuclear medicine services.' The radioisotopes used for this purpose are: Co-57, Cs-137 and Ba-133, with activities of 185 MBq, 9.3 MBq and 5.4 MBq, respectively. The parameters for the assembly of the laboratory shall be defined according to guidelines that guide the deployment of radiochemical laboratories and standards of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy. (author)

  7. Study and survey of assembling parameters to a radioactive source production laboratory used to verify equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Erica; Nagatomy, Helio Rissei; Moura, Eduardo S.; Zeituni, Carlos Alberto; Hilario, Katia A. Fonseca; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M., E-mail: egauglitz@ipen.b, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam Junior, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the survey of parameters for the installation and implementation of a laboratory for radioactive sources production at immobilized resin. These sources are used in nuclear medicine for verification of dose calibrators, as the standard guidelines of the National Commission of Nuclear CNEN-NE-3.05 'Radioprotection and safety requirements for nuclear medicine services.' The radioisotopes used for this purpose are: Co-57, Cs-137 and Ba-133, with activities of 185 MBq, 9.3 MBq and 5.4 MBq, respectively. The parameters for the assembly of the laboratory shall be defined according to guidelines that guide the deployment of radiochemical laboratories and standards of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy. (author)

  8. Smoothly Varying Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alfen, Nicholas; Hindman, Lauren; Moody, Joseph Ward; Biancardi, Rochelle; Whipple, Parkes; Gaunt, Caleb

    2018-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that blazar light can vary sinusoidally with periods of hundreds of days to tens of years. Such behavior is expected of, among other things, jets coming from binary black holes. To look for general variability in lesser-known blazars and AGN, in 2015-2016 we monitored 182 objects with Johnson V-band magnitudes reported as being < 16. In all, this campaign generated 22,000 frames from 2,000 unique pointings. We find that approximately one dozen of these objects show evidence of smooth variability consistent with sinusoidal periods. We report on the entire survey sample, highlighting those that show sinusoidal variations.

  9. Spectroscopic classification of X-ray sources in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wevers, T.; Torres, M. A. P.; Jonker, P. G.; Nelemans, G.; Heinke, C.; Mata Sánchez, D.; Johnson, C. B.; Gazer, R.; Steeghs, D. T. H.; Maccarone, T. J.; Hynes, R. I.; Casares, J.; Udalski, A.; Wetuski, J.; Britt, C. T.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.

    2017-10-01

    We present the classification of 26 optical counterparts to X-ray sources discovered in the Galactic Bulge Survey. We use (time-resolved) photometric and spectroscopic observations to classify the X-ray sources based on their multiwavelength properties. We find a variety of source classes, spanning different phases of stellar/binary evolution. We classify CX21 as a quiescent cataclysmic variable (CV) below the period gap, and CX118 as a high accretion rate (nova-like) CV. CXB12 displays excess UV emission, and could contain a compact object with a giant star companion, making it a candidate symbiotic binary or quiescent low-mass X-ray binary (although other scenarios cannot be ruled out). CXB34 is a magnetic CV (polar) that shows photometric evidence for a change in accretion state. The magnetic classification is based on the detection of X-ray pulsations with a period of 81 ± 2 min. CXB42 is identified as a young stellar object, namely a weak-lined T Tauri star exhibiting (to date unexplained) UX Ori-like photometric variability. The optical spectrum of CXB43 contains two (resolved) unidentified double-peaked emission lines. No known scenario, such as an active galactic nucleus or symbiotic binary, can easily explain its characteristics. We additionally classify 20 objects as likely active stars based on optical spectroscopy, their X-ray to optical flux ratios and photometric variability. In four cases we identify the sources as binary stars.

  10. The Red MSX Source survey: the bolometric fluxes and luminosity distributions of young massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, J. C.; Hoare, M. G.; Urquhart, J. S.; Lumsden, S. L.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Robitaille, T. P.; Moore, T. J. T.; Davies, B.; Stead, J.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The Red MSX Source (RMS) survey is returning a large sample of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and ultra-compact (UC) H ii regions using follow-up observations of colour-selected candidates from the MSX point source catalogue. Aims: We obtain the bolometric fluxes and, using kinematic distance information, the luminosities for young RMS sources with far-infrared fluxes. Methods: We use a model spectral energy distribution (SED) fitter to obtain the bolometric flux for our sources, given flux data from our work and the literature. The inputs to the model fitter were optimised by a series of investigations designed to reveal the effect varying these inputs had on the resulting bolometric flux. Kinematic distances derived from molecular line observations were then used to calculate the luminosity of each source. Results: Bolometric fluxes are obtained for 1173 young RMS sources, of which 1069 have uniquely constrained kinematic distances and good SED fits. A comparison of the bolometric fluxes obtained using SED fitting with trapezium rule integration and two component greybody fits was also undertaken, and showed that both produce considerable scatter compared to the method used here. Conclusions: The bolometric flux results allowed us to obtain the luminosity distributions of YSOs and UCH ii regions in the RMS sample, which we find to be different. We also find that there are few MYSOs with L ≥ 105 L⊙, despite finding many MYSOs with 104 L⊙ ≥ L ≥ 105 L⊙. Full Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/525/A149

  11. A PRECISION MULTI-BAND TWO-EPOCH PHOTOMETRIC CATALOG OF 44 MILLION SOURCES IN THE NORTHERN SKY FROM A COMBINATION OF THE USNO-B AND SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY CATALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, G. J.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    A key science driver for the next generation of wide-field optical and radio surveys is the exploration of the time variable sky. These surveys will have unprecedented sensitivity and areal coverage, but will be limited in their ability to detect variability on time scales longer than the lifetime of the surveys. We present a new precision, multi-epoch photometric catalog that spans 60 yr by combining the US Naval Observatory-B (USNO-B) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9 (DR9) catalogs. We recalibrate the photometry of the original USNO-B catalog and create a catalog with two epochs of photometry in up to five different bands for 43,647,887 optical point sources that lie in the DR9 footprint of the northern sky. The recalibrated objects span a magnitude range 14 ≲ m ≲ 20 and are accurate to ≈0.1 mag. We minimize the presence of spurious objects and those with inaccurate magnitudes by identifying and removing several sources of systematic errors in the two originating catalogs, with a focus on spurious objects that exhibit large apparent magnitude variations. After accounting for these effects, we find ≈250,000 stars and quasars that show significant (≥4σ) changes in brightness between the USNO-B and SDSS DR9 epochs. We discuss the historical value of the catalog and its application to the study of long time scale, large amplitude variable stars and quasars

  12. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF HIGH-LATITUDE WISE-SELECTED SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, S. E.; Wright, E. L.; Petty, S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Assef, R. J.; Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Jarrett, T. H.; Tsai, C.-W. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stanford, S. A., E-mail: lake@physics.ucla.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    We report on the results of an optical spectroscopic survey at high Galactic latitude (|b| {>=} 30 Degree-Sign ) of a sample of WISE-selected targets, grouped by WISE W1 ({lambda}{sub eff} = 3.4 {mu}m) flux, which we use to characterize the sources WISE detected. We observed 762 targets in 10 disjoint fields centered on ultraluminous infrared galaxy candidates using DEIMOS on Keck II. We find 0.30 {+-} 0.02 galaxies arcmin{sup -2} with a median redshift of z = 0.33 {+-} 0.01 for the sample with W1 {>=} 120 {mu}Jy. The foreground stellar densities in our survey range from 0.23 {+-} 0.07 arcmin{sup -2} to 1.1 {+-} 0.1 arcmin{sup -2} for the same sample. We obtained spectra that produced science grade redshifts for {>=}90% of our targets for sources with W1 flux {>=}120 {mu}Jy that also had an i-band flux {approx}> 18 {mu}Jy. We used this for targeting very preliminary data reductions available to the team in 2010 August. Our results therefore present a conservative estimate of what is possible to achieve using WISE's Preliminary Data Release for the study of field galaxies.

  13. The REX survey a search for Radio Emitting X-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Caccianiga, A; Wolter, A; Ceca, R D; Gioia, I M

    1999-01-01

    We present the scientific goals, the strategy and the first results of the REX project, an effort aimed at creating a sizable and statistically complete sample of Radio Emitting X-ray sources (REX) using the available data from a VLA survey and the ROSAT PSPC archive. Through a positional cross-correlation of the two data sets we have derived a sample of about 1600 REX. Among the 393 REX identified so far a high fraction is represented by AGNs, typically radio loud QSOs and BL Lacs. The remaining sources are galaxies, typically radio galaxies isolated or in cluster. Thanks to the low flux limits in the radio and in the X-ray band and the large area of sky covered by the survey, we intend to derive a new complete and unbiased sample of BL Lacs which will contain both ``RBL'' and ``XBL'' type objects. In this way, the apparent dichotomy resulting from the current samples of BL Lacs will be directly analyzed in a unique sample. Moreover, the high number of BL Lacs expected in the REX sample (about 200) will allo...

  14. AERIAL SURVEYING UAV BASED ON OPEN-SOURCE HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mészáros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the functionality and type of UAV-systems increased fast, but unfortunately these systems are hardly available for researchers in some cases. A simple and low-cost solution was developed to build an autonomous aerial surveying airplane, which can fulfil the necessities (aerial photographs with very-high resolution of other departments at the university and very useful and practical for teaching photogrammetry.. The base was a commercial, remote controlled model airplane and an open-source GPS/IMU system (MatrixPilot was adapted to achieve the semi-automatic or automatic stabilization and navigation of the model airplane along predefined trajectory. The firmware is completely open-source and easily available on the website of the project. The first used camera system was a low-budget, low-quality video camera, which could provide only 1.2 megapixel photographs or low resolution video depending on the light conditions and the desired spatial resolution. A field measurement test was carried out with the described system: the aerial surveying of an undiscovered archaeological site, signed by a crop-mark in mountain Pilis (Hungary.

  15. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. I. POINT-SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Daisuke; Onaka, Takashi; Shimonishi, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Tanabé, Toshihiko; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kawamura, Akiko; Wada, Takehiko; Usui, Fumihiko; Koo, Bon-Chul; Matsuura, Mikako

    2012-01-01

    We present a near- to mid-infrared point-source catalog of five photometric bands at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 μm for a 10 deg 2 area of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) obtained with the Infrared Camera on board the AKARI satellite. To cover the survey area the observations were carried out at three separate seasons from 2006 May to June, 2006 October to December, and 2007 March to July. The 10σ limiting magnitudes of the present survey are 17.9, 13.8, 12.4, 9.9, and 8.6 mag at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 μm, respectively. The photometric accuracy is estimated to be about 0.1 mag at 3.2 μm and 0.06-0.07 mag in the other bands. The position accuracy is 0.''3 at 3.2, 7, and 11 μm and 1.''0 at 15 and 24 μm. The sensitivities at 3.2, 7, and 24 μm are roughly comparable to those of the Spitzer SAGE LMC point-source catalog, while the AKARI catalog provides the data at 11 and 15 μm, covering the mid-infrared spectral range contiguously. Two types of catalog are provided: a Catalog and an Archive. The Archive contains all the detected sources, while the Catalog only includes the sources that have a counterpart in the Spitzer SAGE point-source catalog. The Archive contains about 650,000, 140,000, 97,000, 43,000, and 52,000 sources at 3.2, 7, 11, 15, and 24 μm, respectively. Based on the catalog, we discuss the luminosity functions at each band, the color-color diagram, and the color-magnitude diagram using the 3.2, 7, and 11 μm band data. Stars without circumstellar envelopes, dusty C-rich and O-rich stars, young stellar objects, and background galaxies are located at distinct regions in the diagrams, suggesting that the present catalog is useful for the classification of objects toward the LMC.

  16. A study on materials of steels by high brightness X-ray

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuzaki, K; Umezawa, O; Hara, T; Takahashi, T; Omura, T; Hayakawa, M; Yamauchi, Y

    2001-01-01

    As the survey study on materials analysis of steels using high brightness X-ray, under aiming to clarify direct experimental facts on deformations, failure phenomena, and metal textures forming at interior portions of bulk materials, feasibility on materials research and development using SPring-8 was surveyed. Its concrete items were summarized to fields shown as follows: 1) acquirement of foundation on synchrotron X-ray, 2) visualization of cracks and artificial cracks in metal bulk samples by using refraction imaging (point light source topography), 3) visualization of the second phase in the metal bulk samples by using refraction imaging, and 4) speciation of carbon elements in steel cords by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Together with clarifying problems more and more by the survey and some experiments, subjects and understandings vacantly considered at standpoints of materials researchers could be arranged and defined. (G.K.)

  17. Survey on the Sources of Information in Science, Technology and Commerce in the State of Penang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Lim Huck; Fong, Tang Wan

    1973-01-01

    Penang, Malaysia is undergoing rapid industrialization to stimulate its economy. A survey was conducted to determine what technical, scientific, and commercial information sources were available. Areas covered in the survey were library facilities, journals, commercial reference works and audio-visual materials. (DH)

  18. Environmental Survey of Drinking Water Sources in Kampala, Uganda, during a Typhoid Fever Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J L; Kahler, A M; Nansubuga, I; Nanyunja, E M; Kaplan, B; Jothikumar, N; Routh, J; Gómez, G A; Mintz, E D; Hill, V R

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, a typhoid fever outbreak began in downtown Kampala, Uganda, and spread into adjacent districts. In response, an environmental survey of drinking water source types was conducted in areas of the city with high case numbers. A total of 122 samples was collected from 12 source types and tested for Escherichia coli , free chlorine, and conductivity. An additional 37 grab samples from seven source types and 16 paired large volume (20 liter) samples from wells and springs were also collected and tested for the presence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Escherichia coli was detected in 60% of kaveras (drinking water sold in plastic bags) and 80% of refilled water bottles; free chlorine was not detected in either source type. Most jerry cans (68%) contained E. coli and had free chlorine residuals below the WHO-recommended level of 0.5 mg/liter during outbreaks. Elevated conductivity readings for kaveras, refilled water bottles, and jerry cans (compared to treated surface water supplied by the water utility) suggested that they likely contained untreated groundwater. All unprotected springs and wells and more than 60% of protected springs contained E. coli Water samples collected from the water utility were found to have acceptable free chlorine levels and no detectable E. coli While S Typhi was not detected in water samples, Salmonella spp. were detected in samples from two unprotected springs, one protected spring, and one refilled water bottle. These data provided clear evidence that unregulated vended water and groundwater represented a risk for typhoid transmission. IMPORTANCE Despite the high incidence of typhoid fever globally, relatively few outbreak investigations incorporate drinking water testing. During waterborne disease outbreaks, measurement of physical-chemical parameters, such as free chlorine residual and electrical conductivity, and of microbiological parameters, such as the presence of E. coli or the implicated etiologic agent, in drinking

  19. Source selection for cluster weak lensing measurements in the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medezinski, Elinor; Oguri, Masamune; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Speagle, Joshua S.; Miyatake, Hironao; Umetsu, Keiichi; Leauthaud, Alexie; Murata, Ryoma; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Sifón, Cristóbal; Strauss, Michael A.; Huang, Song; Simet, Melanie; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Masayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka

    2018-03-01

    We present optimized source galaxy selection schemes for measuring cluster weak lensing (WL) mass profiles unaffected by cluster member dilution from the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam Strategic Survey Program (HSC-SSP). The ongoing HSC-SSP survey will uncover thousands of galaxy clusters to z ≲ 1.5. In deriving cluster masses via WL, a critical source of systematics is contamination and dilution of the lensing signal by cluster members, and by foreground galaxies whose photometric redshifts are biased. Using the first-year CAMIRA catalog of ˜900 clusters with richness larger than 20 found in ˜140 deg2 of HSC-SSP data, we devise and compare several source selection methods, including selection in color-color space (CC-cut), and selection of robust photometric redshifts by applying constraints on their cumulative probability distribution function (P-cut). We examine the dependence of the contamination on the chosen limits adopted for each method. Using the proper limits, these methods give mass profiles with minimal dilution in agreement with one another. We find that not adopting either the CC-cut or P-cut methods results in an underestimation of the total cluster mass (13% ± 4%) and the concentration of the profile (24% ± 11%). The level of cluster contamination can reach as high as ˜10% at R ≈ 0.24 Mpc/h for low-z clusters without cuts, while employing either the P-cut or CC-cut results in cluster contamination consistent with zero to within the 0.5% uncertainties. Our robust methods yield a ˜60 σ detection of the stacked CAMIRA surface mass density profile, with a mean mass of M200c = [1.67 ± 0.05(stat)] × 1014 M⊙/h.

  20. Source selection for cluster weak lensing measurements in the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medezinski, Elinor; Oguri, Masamune; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Speagle, Joshua S.; Miyatake, Hironao; Umetsu, Keiichi; Leauthaud, Alexie; Murata, Ryoma; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Sifón, Cristóbal; Strauss, Michael A.; Huang, Song; Simet, Melanie; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Masayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka

    2018-02-01

    We present optimized source galaxy selection schemes for measuring cluster weak lensing (WL) mass profiles unaffected by cluster member dilution from the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam Strategic Survey Program (HSC-SSP). The ongoing HSC-SSP survey will uncover thousands of galaxy clusters to z ≲ 1.5. In deriving cluster masses via WL, a critical source of systematics is contamination and dilution of the lensing signal by cluster members, and by foreground galaxies whose photometric redshifts are biased. Using the first-year CAMIRA catalog of ˜900 clusters with richness larger than 20 found in ˜140 deg2 of HSC-SSP data, we devise and compare several source selection methods, including selection in color-color space (CC-cut), and selection of robust photometric redshifts by applying constraints on their cumulative probability distribution function (P-cut). We examine the dependence of the contamination on the chosen limits adopted for each method. Using the proper limits, these methods give mass profiles with minimal dilution in agreement with one another. We find that not adopting either the CC-cut or P-cut methods results in an underestimation of the total cluster mass (13% ± 4%) and the concentration of the profile (24% ± 11%). The level of cluster contamination can reach as high as ˜10% at R ≈ 0.24 Mpc/h for low-z clusters without cuts, while employing either the P-cut or CC-cut results in cluster contamination consistent with zero to within the 0.5% uncertainties. Our robust methods yield a ˜60 σ detection of the stacked CAMIRA surface mass density profile, with a mean mass of M200c = [1.67 ± 0.05(stat)] × 1014 M⊙/h.

  1. A Survey of Open Source Products for Building a SIP Communication Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Segec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is a multimedia signalling protocol that has evolved into a widely adopted communication standard. The integration of SIP into existing IP networks has fostered IP networks becoming a convergence platform for both real-time and non-real-time multimedia communications. This converged platform integrates data, voice, video, presence, messaging, and conference services into a single network that offers new communication experiences for users. The open source community has contributed to SIP adoption through the development of open source software for both SIP clients and servers. In this paper, we provide a survey on open SIP systems that can be built using publically available software. We identify SIP features for service development and programming, services and applications of a SIP-converged platform, and the most important technologies supporting SIP functionalities. We propose an advanced converged IP communication platform that uses SIP for service delivery. The platform supports audio and video calls, along with media services such as audio conferences, voicemail, presence, and instant messaging. Using SIP Application Programming Interfaces (APIs, the platform allows the deployment of advanced integrated services. The platform is implemented with open source software. Architecture components run on standardized hardware with no need for special purpose investments.

  2. Sources of Information During the 2014 West Virginia Water Crisis: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Elena; Lin, Leesa; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2017-04-01

    On January 9, 2014, a faulty storage tank leaked 10,000 gallons of an industrial coal-processing liquid into the Elk River in West Virginia, contaminating the drinking water of 9 counties collectively known as the Kanawha Valley. In the context of this event, we explored the relationship between social determinants and (1) the timeliness with which residents learned about the crisis, (2) the source of information, (3) opinions on the source of information, (4) information-seeking behaviors, and (5) knowledge acquired. Between February 7 and 26, 2014, we conducted a survey of 690 adult residents of West Virginia. Descriptive statistics and multivariable statistical models were performed. Information about water contamination spread quickly, with 88% of respondents from the affected counties hearing about the incident on the same day it occurred. Most people received the information from local television news (73%); social media users had 120% increased odds of knowing about the recommended behaviors. People who had a favorable opinion of the source of information demonstrated better knowledge of recommended behaviors. The use of local television news during a crisis is important for timely dissemination of information. Information exposure across segments of the population differed on the basis of the population's background characteristics. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:196-206).

  3. Survey of competing sources of manpower demand related to the nuclear power industry. Manpower studies series, Report No. 3 (Draft)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The following is a report of a survey designed to determine competing sources of demand for technically qualified manpower. The survey is part of a larger research effort which is also designed to investigate occupational employment and training in the nuclear power industry and sources of manpower supply available to the industry. The results of those other studies have been published separately and ara available upon request. This report includes a brief discussion of the background of the study, the research methods employed, the results obtained, and some implications of those findings. The appendices contain copies of the questionnaires used in the survey as well as some additional related data

  4. THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD-SOUTH SURVEY: 4 Ms SOURCE CATALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Y. Q.; Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Broos, P. S.; Schneider, D. P.; Bauer, F. E.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Fabian, A. C.; Hasinger, G.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Koekemoer, A.; Liu, T.; Mainieri, V.; Rosati, P.; Paolillo, M.; Rafferty, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present source catalogs for the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S), which is the deepest Chandra survey to date and covers an area of 464.5 arcmin 2 . We provide a main Chandra source catalog, which contains 740 X-ray sources that are detected with WAVDETECT at a false-positive probability threshold of 10 -5 in at least one of three X-ray bands (0.5-8 keV, full band; 0.5-2 keV, soft band; and 2-8 keV, hard band) and also satisfy a binomial-probability source-selection criterion of P -5 , satisfy the condition of 0.004 75% of the main-catalog sources are active galactic nuclei (AGNs); of the 300 new main-catalog sources, about 35% are likely normal and starburst galaxies, reflecting the rise of normal and starburst galaxies at the very faint flux levels uniquely accessible to the 4 Ms CDF-S. Near the center of the 4 Ms CDF-S (i.e., within an off-axis angle of 3'), the observed AGN and galaxy source densities have reached 9800 +1300 -1100 deg -2 and 6900 +1100 -900 deg -2 , respectively. Simulations show that our main catalog is highly reliable and is reasonably complete. The mean backgrounds (corrected for vignetting and exposure-time variations) are 0.063 and 0.178 counts Ms -1 pixel -1 (for a pixel size of 0.''492) for the soft and hard bands, respectively; the majority of the pixels have zero background counts. The 4 Ms CDF-S reaches on-axis flux limits of ∼3.2 x 10 -17 , 9.1 x 10 -18 , and 5.5 x 10 -17 erg cm -2 s -1 for the full, soft, and hard bands, respectively. An increase in the CDF-S exposure time by a factor of ∼2-2.5 would provide further significant gains and probe key unexplored discovery space.

  5. Bright Light Treatment in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Guzel Ozdemir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bright light treatment is a treatment modality that leads elevation of mood due to attenuation in depressive symptoms, regulation in circadian rhythm activity, increase the effect of antidepressants and amelioration in sleep quality. Bright light treatment is considered among the first-line treatments for seasonal affective disorder because of high response rates. Additionally, bright light treatment being extended to other conditions, including non-seasonal mood disorders, Alzheimer's disease, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other behavioral syndromes is likely to have a far reached use. Side effects are often temporary and can generally be overcome by reducing exposure time. The central focus on this paper is to review the action mechanisms, efficacy, usage areas, the ways of administration and side effects of the light treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 177-188

  6. The stakeholders' project in neuropsychological report writing: a survey of neuropsychologists' and referral sources' views of neuropsychological reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postal, Karen; Chow, Clifton; Jung, Sharon; Erickson-Moreo, Kalen; Geier, Flannery; Lanca, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Though some neuropsychological groups have proposed criteria and suggestions for clinical report writing there has never been professional consensus or accepted published guidelines on how to write reports. Given the paucity of guidelines and the evolving practice climate, we sought to survey neuropsychologists and referral source stakeholders to understand current report writing practices. The data were collected in two SurveyMonkey surveys via professional list servs, email, and LinkedIn clinical interest groups. Results of the survey indicate many neuropsychologists spend multiple hours writing reports that they believe will not be read completely by stakeholders. A striking 73% of referral sources reported slow turnaround time of neuropsychological reports negatively affected their patient care. Referral sources reported they value the diagnosis/impression and recommendations sections the most; in contrast, they did not find the history, behavioral observations, emotional functioning, or descriptions of cognitive domains sections as useful. The survey findings highlight the disjuncture between what neuropsychologists typically do in their practice of report writing versus what they believe is useful for patients and referral sources. The survey also highlights differences between writing practices of neuropsychologists and what referral sources identify as the most valuable aspects of reports to assist them in caring for their patients.

  7. Identification of ND 2000 survey meter response to standard Cs-137 and Co-60 gamma ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Taufik Dolah; Noriah Mod Ali; Rasmawati Abd Latif; Zelina Mat Zin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the response of 104 units of survey meter, model ND2000 to standard Cs-137 and Co-60 gamma ray sources. The survey meters were irradiated with a standard gamma ray sources of gamma irradiator, model OB 85. The calibration data for a period of one year are gathered from the calibration performed at the SSDL. In this study, the calibration factor (CF) which is refer to the ratio of standard gamma exposure to the survey meter reading are determined and the average value were then calculated. The survey meter is considered in a good response if the CF value is equal to one. Result shows that the average CF values are 1.01 and 0.96 for Cs-137 and Co-60 respectively. Study shows that this type of survey meter have a good response as the CF values obtained against Cs-137 is closes to one. (Author)

  8. 3SE: Expert system for the survey of electric sources - CPN of Bugey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, J.; Cheriaux, F.; Drelon, R.; Gaussot, J.P.; Marion, B.; Maurin, S.; Pichot, D.; Sancerni, G.; Voisin, C.; Legaud, P.

    1990-01-01

    The 3SE is an expert system for surveying the electric sources of a 900 MW PWR nuclear power plant. The main objectives of the expert system are: to provide a continuous and a real time support for electric faults data processing; to provide assistance in the electric equipment maintenance; to contribute to the instruction of operators as well as to the data base management of the electric system. Data bases and artificial intelligence techniques are applied. The system's application is based on the accurate knowledge of the nuclear power plant operation and topology, as well as on a model approach. The expert system is applied in the section 2 of the Bugey nuclear power plant. The system which required the effort of 20 engineers x years, is an example of the progress performed in the artificial intelligence field [fr

  9. Swope Supernova Survey 2017a (SSS17a), the optical counterpart to a gravitational wave source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, D A; Foley, R J; Kilpatrick, C D; Drout, M R; Piro, A L; Shappee, B J; Siebert, M R; Simon, J D; Ulloa, N; Kasen, D; Madore, B F; Murguia-Berthier, A; Pan, Y-C; Prochaska, J X; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Rest, A; Rojas-Bravo, C

    2017-12-22

    On 17 August 2017, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the Virgo interferometer detected gravitational waves (GWs) emanating from a binary neutron star merger, GW170817. Nearly simultaneously, the Fermi and INTEGRAL (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) telescopes detected a gamma-ray transient, GRB 170817A. At 10.9 hours after the GW trigger, we discovered a transient and fading optical source, Swope Supernova Survey 2017a (SSS17a), coincident with GW170817. SSS17a is located in NGC 4993, an S0 galaxy at a distance of 40 megaparsecs. The precise location of GW170817 provides an opportunity to probe the nature of these cataclysmic events by combining electromagnetic and GW observations. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. 150 southern compact and bright-nucleus galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairall, A.P.

    1977-01-01

    Galaxies having regions of exceptionally high surface brightness have been selected from the ESO Quick Blue Survey and investigated by 'grating photography' -direct photography plus low-dispersion slitless spectroscopy. Two new Seyfert galaxies and a peculiar multiple system have been discovered. Differences in red continua are also noted. (author)

  11. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. XV. THE PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT ESTIMATION FOR BACKGROUND SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Huertas-Company, M.; Licitra, R. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, 61 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ilbert, O.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Ball, N. M.; Côté, P.; Ferrarese, L.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Kavelaars, J. J. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Chen, Y.-T. [Insitute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Cuillandre, J.-C. [Canada-France-Hawaïi Telescope Corporation, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Duc, P. A. [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Durrell, P. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Guhathakurta, P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lançon, A., E-mail: anand.raichoor@obspm.fr [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); and others

    2014-12-20

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is an optical imaging survey covering 104 deg{sup 2} centered on the Virgo cluster. Currently, the complete survey area has been observed in the u*giz bands and one third in the r band. We present the photometric redshift estimation for the NGVS background sources. After a dedicated data reduction, we perform accurate photometry, with special attention to precise color measurements through point-spread function homogenization. We then estimate the photometric redshifts with the Le Phare and BPZ codes. We add a new prior that extends to i {sub AB} = 12.5 mag. When using the u* griz bands, our photometric redshifts for 15.5 mag ≤ i ≲ 23 mag or z {sub phot} ≲ 1 galaxies have a bias |Δz| < 0.02, less than 5% outliers, a scatter σ{sub outl.rej.}, and an individual error on z {sub phot} that increases with magnitude (from 0.02 to 0.05 and from 0.03 to 0.10, respectively). When using the u*giz bands over the same magnitude and redshift range, the lack of the r band increases the uncertainties in the 0.3 ≲ z {sub phot} ≲ 0.8 range (–0.05 < Δz < –0.02, σ{sub outl.rej} ∼ 0.06, 10%-15% outliers, and z {sub phot.err.} ∼ 0.15). We also present a joint analysis of the photometric redshift accuracy as a function of redshift and magnitude. We assess the quality of our photometric redshifts by comparison to spectroscopic samples and by verifying that the angular auto- and cross-correlation function w(θ) of the entire NGVS photometric redshift sample across redshift bins is in agreement with the expectations.

  12. Study and survey of assembling parameters to a radioactive source production laboratory used to verify equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglitz, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of parameters for the proper and safe flooring, doors, windows, fume hoods and others, in a radiochemical laboratory. The layout of each item follows guidelines and national standards of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), aiming to ensure the radiological protection of workers and environment. The adequate items arrangement in the radiochemical laboratory ensures quality and safety in the production of 57 Co 137 Cs and 133 Ba radioactive sealed sources, with activities 185, 9.3 and 5.4 MBq, respectively. These sources are used to verify meter activity equipment and should be available throughout the Nuclear Medicine Center, following the recommendations of CNEN-NN-3.05 standard R equirements for Radiation Protection and Safety Services for Nuclear Medicine , to verify the activity of radiopharmaceuticals that are administered in patients, for diagnosis and therapy. Verification of measuring activity equipment will be used to perform accuracy, reproducibility and linearity tests, which should show results within the limits specified in the standard CNEN-NN-3.05. (author)

  13. The X-ray source content of the XMM-Newton Galactic plane survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motch, C.; Warwick, R.; Cropper, M. S.; Carrera, F.; Guillout, P.; Pineau, F.-X.; Pakull, M. W.; Rosen, S.; Schwope, A.; Tedds, J.; Webb, N.; Negueruela, I.; Watson, M. G.

    2010-11-01

    We report the results of an optical campaign carried out by the XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre with the specific goal of identifying the brightest X-ray sources in the XMM-Newton Galactic plane survey. In addition to photometric and spectroscopic observations obtained at the ESO-VLT and ESO-3.6 m, we used cross-correlations with the 2XMMi, USNO-B1.0, 2MASS, and GLIMPSE catalogues to advance the identification process. Active coronae account for 16 of the 30 positively or tentatively identified X-ray sources and exhibit the softest X-ray spectra. Many of the identified hard X-ray sources are associated with massive stars, possible members of binary systems and emitting at intermediate X-ray luminosities of 1032-34 erg s-1. Among these are (i) a very absorbed, likely hyper-luminous star with X-ray/optical spectra and luminosities comparable to those of η Carina; (ii) a new X-ray-selected WN8 Wolf-Rayet star in which most of the X-ray emission probably arises from wind collision in a binary; (iii) a new Be/X-ray star belonging to the growing class of γ-Cas analogues; and (iv) a possible supergiant X-ray binary of the kind discovered recently by INTEGRAL. One of the sources, XGPS-25, has a counterpart of moderate optical luminosity that exhibits HeII λ4686 and Bowen CIII-NIII emission lines, suggesting that this may be a quiescent or X-ray shielded low mass X-ray binary, although its X-ray properties might also be consistent with a rare kind of cataclysmic variable (CV). We also report the discovery of three new CVs, one of which is a likely magnetic system displaying strong X-ray variability. The soft (0.4-2.0 keV) band log N(>S) - log S curve is completely dominated by active stars in the flux range of 1×10-13 to 1×10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. Several active coronae are also detected above 2 keV suggesting that the population of RS CVn binaries contributes significantly to the hard X-ray source population. In total, we are able to identify a large fraction of the hard

  14. Aquifers survey in the context of source rocks exploitation: from baseline acquisition to long term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Bruno; Rouchon, Virgile; Deflandre, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Producing hydrocarbons from source rocks (like shales: a mix of clays, silts, carbonate and sandstone minerals containing matured organic matter, i.e. kerogen oil and gas, but also non-hydrocarbon various species of chemical elements including sometimes radioactive elements) requires to create permeability within the rock matrix by at least hydraulically fracturing the source rock. It corresponds to the production of hydrocarbon fuels that have not been naturally expelled from the pressurized matured source rock and that remain trapped in the porosity or/and kerogen porosity of the impermeable matrix. Azimuth and extent of developed fractures can be respectively determined and mapped by monitoring the associated induced microseismicity. This allows to have an idea of where and how far injected fluids penetrated the rock formation. In a geological context, aquifers are always present in the vicinity -or on fluid migration paths- of such shale formations: deep aquifers (near the shale formation) up to sub-surface and potable (surface) aquifers. Our purpose will be to track any unsuitable invasion or migration of chemicals specifies coming from matured shales of production fluids including both drilling and fracturing ones into aquifers. Our objective is to early detect and alarm of any anomaly to avoid any important environmental issue. The approach consists in deploying a specific sampling tool within a well to recover formation fluids and to run a panoply of appropriate laboratory tests to state on fluid characteristics. Of course for deep aquifers, such a characterization process may consider aquifer properties prior producing shale oil and gas, as they may contain naturally some chemical species present in the source rocks. One can also consider that a baseline acquisition could be justified in case of possible previous invasion of non-natural fluids in the formation under survey (due to any anthropogenic action at surface or in the underground). The paper aims

  15. Interpretation of Oil Seepage of Source Rock Based Magnetic Survey in Cipari Cilacap District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmaji Anom Raharjo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic survey had been conducted in Village of Cipari, District of Cipari, Region of  Cilacap to interpret to the location of the oil seepage source rock. Boundary of the research area is 108.75675°E – 108.77611°E and 7.42319°S – 7.43761°S. The observed total magnetic data is corrected and reducted to obtain the local magnetic anomaly data. The local magnetic anomaly data is applied to model the subsurface bodies anomalies based on the Mag2DC for Windows software. With be supported the geological information, the some bodies anomalies are interpreted as the basaltic igneous rock (c = 0.0051, the alternately of sandstone and claystone and insert of marl from Halang Formation (c = 0.0014, the breccia from Kumbang Formation (c = 0.0035, the alternately of sandstones and claystone with insert of marl and breccia from Halang Formation (c = 0.0036, the claystone from Tapak Formation (c = 0.0015, the alternately of sandstones and claystone with insert of marl and compacted breccia from Halang Formation (c = 0.0030, and the alternately of sandstone and claystone from   Halang Formation (c = 0.0020. The plantonic foraminifer fossils as resources of oil seepage are estimated in the sedimentaries rocks, where the oil flows from those rocks into the         reservoir (source rock. Based on the interpretation results, the source rock is above basaltic igneous rock with the approximate position is 108.76164°W and 7.43089°S; and the depth is 132.09 meters below the average topographic.

  16. International Evidence-Based Medicine Survey of the Veterinary Profession: Information Sources Used by Veterinarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Selene J.; Dean, Rachel S.; Massey, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Veterinarians are encouraged to use evidence to inform their practice, but it is unknown what resources (e.g. journals, electronic sources) are accessed by them globally. Understanding the key places veterinarians seek information can inform where new clinically relevant evidence should most effectively be placed. An international survey was conducted to gain understanding of how veterinary information is accessed by veterinarians worldwide. There were 2137 useable responses to the questionnaire from veterinarians in 78 countries. The majority of respondents (n = 1835/2137, 85.9%) undertook clinical work and worked in a high income country (n = 1576/1762, 89.4%). Respondents heard about the survey via national veterinary organisations or regulatory bodies (31.5%), online veterinary forums and websites (22.7%), regional, discipline-based or international veterinary organisations (22.7%) or by direct invitation from the researchers or via friends, colleagues or social media (7.6%). Clinicians and non-clinicians reportedly used journals most commonly (65.8%, n = 1207/1835; 75.6%, n = 216/286) followed by electronic resources (58.7%, n = 1077/1835; 55.9%, n = 160/286), respectively. Respondents listed a total of 518 journals and 567 electronic sources that they read. Differences in veterinarian preference for resources in developed, and developing countries, were found. The nominated journals most read were the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (12.7% of nominations) for clinicians and the Veterinary Record (5.7%) for non-clinicians. The most accessed electronic resource reported was the Veterinary Information Network (25.6%) for clinicians and PubMed (7.4%) for non-clinicians. In conclusion, a wide array of journals and electronic resources appear to be accessed by veterinarians worldwide. Veterinary organisations appear to play an important role in global communication and outreach to veterinarians and consideration should be given to how these

  17. International Evidence-Based Medicine Survey of the Veterinary Profession: Information Sources Used by Veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Selene J; Dean, Rachel S; Massey, Andrew; Brennan, Marnie L

    2016-01-01

    Veterinarians are encouraged to use evidence to inform their practice, but it is unknown what resources (e.g. journals, electronic sources) are accessed by them globally. Understanding the key places veterinarians seek information can inform where new clinically relevant evidence should most effectively be placed. An international survey was conducted to gain understanding of how veterinary information is accessed by veterinarians worldwide. There were 2137 useable responses to the questionnaire from veterinarians in 78 countries. The majority of respondents (n = 1835/2137, 85.9%) undertook clinical work and worked in a high income country (n = 1576/1762, 89.4%). Respondents heard about the survey via national veterinary organisations or regulatory bodies (31.5%), online veterinary forums and websites (22.7%), regional, discipline-based or international veterinary organisations (22.7%) or by direct invitation from the researchers or via friends, colleagues or social media (7.6%). Clinicians and non-clinicians reportedly used journals most commonly (65.8%, n = 1207/1835; 75.6%, n = 216/286) followed by electronic resources (58.7%, n = 1077/1835; 55.9%, n = 160/286), respectively. Respondents listed a total of 518 journals and 567 electronic sources that they read. Differences in veterinarian preference for resources in developed, and developing countries, were found. The nominated journals most read were the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (12.7% of nominations) for clinicians and the Veterinary Record (5.7%) for non-clinicians. The most accessed electronic resource reported was the Veterinary Information Network (25.6%) for clinicians and PubMed (7.4%) for non-clinicians. In conclusion, a wide array of journals and electronic resources appear to be accessed by veterinarians worldwide. Veterinary organisations appear to play an important role in global communication and outreach to veterinarians and consideration should be given to how these

  18. International Evidence-Based Medicine Survey of the Veterinary Profession: Information Sources Used by Veterinarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene J Huntley

    Full Text Available Veterinarians are encouraged to use evidence to inform their practice, but it is unknown what resources (e.g. journals, electronic sources are accessed by them globally. Understanding the key places veterinarians seek information can inform where new clinically relevant evidence should most effectively be placed. An international survey was conducted to gain understanding of how veterinary information is accessed by veterinarians worldwide. There were 2137 useable responses to the questionnaire from veterinarians in 78 countries. The majority of respondents (n = 1835/2137, 85.9% undertook clinical work and worked in a high income country (n = 1576/1762, 89.4%. Respondents heard about the survey via national veterinary organisations or regulatory bodies (31.5%, online veterinary forums and websites (22.7%, regional, discipline-based or international veterinary organisations (22.7% or by direct invitation from the researchers or via friends, colleagues or social media (7.6%. Clinicians and non-clinicians reportedly used journals most commonly (65.8%, n = 1207/1835; 75.6%, n = 216/286 followed by electronic resources (58.7%, n = 1077/1835; 55.9%, n = 160/286, respectively. Respondents listed a total of 518 journals and 567 electronic sources that they read. Differences in veterinarian preference for resources in developed, and developing countries, were found. The nominated journals most read were the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (12.7% of nominations for clinicians and the Veterinary Record (5.7% for non-clinicians. The most accessed electronic resource reported was the Veterinary Information Network (25.6% for clinicians and PubMed (7.4% for non-clinicians. In conclusion, a wide array of journals and electronic resources appear to be accessed by veterinarians worldwide. Veterinary organisations appear to play an important role in global communication and outreach to veterinarians and consideration should be given to how

  19. Helmholtz bright and boundary solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J M; McDonald, G S; Chamorro-Posada, P

    2007-01-01

    We report, for the first time, exact analytical boundary solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic nonlinear Helmholtz (NLH) equation. These solutions have a linked-plateau topology that is distinct from conventional dark soliton solutions; their amplitude and intensity distributions are spatially delocalized and connect regions of finite and zero wave-field disturbances (suggesting also the classification as 'edge solitons'). Extensive numerical simulations compare the stability properties of recently derived Helmholtz bright solitons, for this type of polynomial nonlinearity, to those of the new boundary solitons. The latter are found to possess a remarkable stability characteristic, exhibiting robustness against perturbations that would otherwise lead to the destabilizing of their bright-soliton counterparts

  20. High brightness semiconductor lasers with reduced filamentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    1999-01-01

    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in spectroscopy, fiber lasers, manufacturing and materials processing, medicine and free space communication or energy transfer. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that, because of COD, high power requires a large aperture...

  1. Synchrotron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.L.

    1999-12-13

    Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of electromagnetic radiation extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. Brightness, defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle, is normally a more important quantity than flux or intensity, particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. The authors have attempted to compile the formulae needed to calculate the flux, brightness, polarization and power produced by the three standard storage ring synchrotron radiation sources: bending magnets, wigglers and undulators. Where necessary, these formulae have contained reference to the emittance of the electron beam, as well as to the electron beam size and its divergence. For all three type sources, the source phase space area, i.e. the spatial and angular extent of the effective (real) source, is a convolution of its electron and photon components.

  2. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Redshift distributions of the weak lensing source galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, B.; et al.

    2017-08-04

    We describe the derivation and validation of redshift distribution estimates and their uncertainties for the galaxies used as weak lensing sources in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 cosmological analyses. The Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code is used to assign galaxies to four redshift bins between z=0.2 and 1.3, and to produce initial estimates of the lensing-weighted redshift distributions $n^i_{PZ}(z)$ for bin i. Accurate determination of cosmological parameters depends critically on knowledge of $n^i$ but is insensitive to bin assignments or redshift errors for individual galaxies. The cosmological analyses allow for shifts $n^i(z)=n^i_{PZ}(z-\\Delta z^i)$ to correct the mean redshift of $n^i(z)$ for biases in $n^i_{\\rm PZ}$. The $\\Delta z^i$ are constrained by comparison of independently estimated 30-band photometric redshifts of galaxies in the COSMOS field to BPZ estimates made from the DES griz fluxes, for a sample matched in fluxes, pre-seeing size, and lensing weight to the DES weak-lensing sources. In companion papers, the $\\Delta z^i$ are further constrained by the angular clustering of the source galaxies around red galaxies with secure photometric redshifts at 0.15

  3. Getting to the Source: a Survey of Quantitative Data Sources Available to the Everyday Librarian: Part 1: Web Server Log Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Goddard

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a two‐part article that provides a survey of data sources which are likely to be immediately available to the typical practitioner who wishes to engage instatistical analysis of collections and services within his or her own library. Part I outlines the data elements which can be extracted from web server logs, and discusses web log analysis tools. Part II looks at logs, reports, and data sources from proxy servers, resource vendors, link resolvers, federated search engines, institutional repositories, electronic reference services, and the integrated library system.

  4. Does low surface brightness mean low density?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBlok, WJG; McGaugh, SS

    1996-01-01

    We compare the dynamical properties of two galaxies at identical positions on the Tully-Fisher relation, but with different surface brightnesses. We find that the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 128 has a higher mass-to-light ratio, and yet has lower mass densities than the high surface brightness

  5. High-brightness rf linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The issue of high brightness and its ramifications in linacs driven by radio-frequency fields is discussed. A history of the RF linacs is reviewed briefly. Some current applications are then examined that are driving progress in RF linacs. The physics affecting the brightness of RF linacs is then discussed, followed by the economic feasibility of higher brightness machines

  6. Controlled-source seismic reflection interferometry : Virtual-source retrieval, survey infill and identification of surface multiples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boullenger, B.

    2017-01-01

    The theory of seismic interferometry predicts that the cross-correlation (and possibly summation) between seismic recordings at two separate receivers allows the retrieval of an estimate of the inter-receiver response, or Green's function, from a virtual source at one of the receiver positions.

  7. Bright Stuff on Ceres = Sulfates and Carbonates on CI Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Fries, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of the DAWN spacecraft's observations of the surface of Ceres indicate that there are bright areas, which can be explained by large amounts of the Mg sulfate hexahydrate (MgSO4•6(H2O)), although the identification appears tenuous. There are preliminary indications that water is being evolved from these bright areas, and some have inferred that these might be sites of contemporary hydro-volcanism. A heat source for such modern activity is not obvious, given the small size of Ceres, lack of any tidal forces from nearby giant planets, probable age and presumed bulk composition. We contend that observations of chondritic materials in the lab shed light on the nature of the bright spots on Ceres

  8. Gender and Information Literacy: Evaluation of Gender Differences in a Student Survey of Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Arthur; Dalal, Heather A.

    2017-01-01

    Information literacy studies have shown that college students use a variety of information sources to perform research and commonly choose Internet sources over traditional library sources. Studies have also shown that students do not appear to understand the information quality issues concerning Internet information sources and may lack the…

  9. Automated detection of very Low Surface Brightness galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prole, D. J.; Davies, J. I.; Keenan, O. C.; Davies, L. J. M.

    2018-04-01

    We report the automatic detection of a new sample of very low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies, likely members of the Virgo cluster. We introduce our new software, DeepScan, that has been designed specifically to detect extended LSB features automatically using the DBSCAN algorithm. We demonstrate the technique by applying it over a 5 degree2 portion of the Next-Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) data to reveal 53 low surface brightness galaxies that are candidate cluster members based on their sizes and colours. 30 of these sources are new detections despite the region being searched specifically for LSB galaxies previously. Our final sample contains galaxies with 26.0 ≤ ⟨μe⟩ ≤ 28.5 and 19 ≤ mg ≤ 21, making them some of the faintest known in Virgo. The majority of them have colours consistent with the red sequence, and have a mean stellar mass of 106.3 ± 0.5M⊙ assuming cluster membership. After using ProFit to fit Sérsic profiles to our detections, none of the new sources have effective radii larger than 1.5 Kpc and do not meet the criteria for ultra-diffuse galaxy (UDG) classification, so we classify them as ultra-faint dwarfs.

  10. The Red MSX Source survey: critical tests of accretion models for the formation of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ben; Hoare, Melvin G.; Lumsden, Stuart L.; Hosokawa, Takashi; Oudmaijer, René D.; Urquhart, James S.; Mottram, Joseph C.; Stead, Joseph

    2011-09-01

    There is currently no accepted theoretical framework for the formation of the most massive stars, and the manner in which protostars continue to accrete and grow in mass beyond ˜10 M⊙ is still a controversial topic. In this study we use several prescriptions of stellar accretion and a description of the Galactic gas distribution to simulate the luminosities and spatial distribution of massive protostellar population of the Galaxy. We then compare the observables of each simulation to the results of the Red MSX Source (RMS) survey, a recently compiled data base of massive young stellar objects (YSO). We find that the observations are best matched by accretion rates which increase as the protostar grows in mass, such as those predicted by the turbulent core and competitive accretion (i.e. Bondi-Hoyle) models. These 'accelerating accretion' models provide very good qualitative and quantitative fits to the data, though we are unable to distinguish between these two models on our simulations alone. We rule out models with accretion rates which are constant with time, and those which are initially very high and which fall away with time, as these produce results which are quantitatively and/or qualitatively incompatible with the observations. To simultaneously match the low- and high-luminosity YSO distribution we require the inclusion of a 'swollen-star' pre-main-sequence phase, the length of which is well-described by the Kelvin-Helmholz time-scale. Our results suggest that the lifetime of the YSO phase is ˜105 yr, whereas the compact H II region phase lasts between ˜2 and 4 × 105 yr depending on the final mass of the star. Finally, the absolute numbers of YSOs are best matched by a globally averaged star formation rate for the Galaxy of 1.5-2 M⊙.

  11. Preliminary study of airborne electromagnetic survey using grounded source; Chihyo source gata kuchu denji tansa no kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Shimoizumi, M. [Kitakyushu Polytechnic College, Kitakyushu (Japan); Kusunoki, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Morikawa, T. [Dowa Engineering Co. Ltd., Okayama (Japan); Jomori, N. [Chiba Electronics Research Institute, Chiba (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    For the development of an airborne electromagnetic prospecting method capable of deeper exploration, a basic study was made about a system wherein a transmitter (source) is positioned on the ground and the receiving is done in the sky. Even in case of this airborne electromagnetic method, the TDEM method is supposedly advantageous over others as in case of groundborne exploration. In the study, the transient response of an airborne vertical magnetic field to a horizontal layered structure was calculated. The current source was 2000m long with a capacity of 30A. The one-layer structure was a 10 Ohm m semi-infinite ground, and the two-layer structure had a 100 Ohm m structure just under the one-layer structure. The result of the calculation suggests that, in the absence of a layer of extremely low resistivity, observation of an approximately 1 second long transient response aboard a helicopter flying at approximately 50km/h will enable an approximately 1000m deep exploration. Problems to affect airborne observation, such as swinging, natural magnetic field fluctuation, and artificially produced noises were investigated by use of a magnetometer suspended from a helicopter in flight. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Chandra ACIS Survey of M33 (ChASeM33): Spectral and Timing Analysis of the 15 Brightest Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plucinsky, Paul P.; Tuellmann, R.; Gaetz, T. J.; Challis, P.; Kirshner, R. P.; Williams, B. F.; Kuntz, K. D.; ChASeM33 Team

    2011-01-01

    The Chandra ACIS Survey of M33 (ChASeM33) is the deepest X-ray survey to date of M33. ChASeM33 covers about 70% of the D25 isophote (R 4.0 kpc) with a total exposure of 1.4 Ms. The source catalog includes 662 sources, reaching a limiting sensitivity of 2.0e34 erg/s in the 0.35--8.0 keV energy band. There are fifteen sources in the catalog with more than 2,000 net counts, allowing detailed spectral and timing analyses to be conducted. We report here the results of fitting these spectra with multi-component disk blackbody, power-law, and/or thermal plasma models. We also report on the short-term (within an observation) and long-term (from one observation to another) variability of these sources. These X-ray spectral and timing results in conjunction with optical spectroscopy for some of the sources, allow us to classify the objects. Six of the sources are X-ray Binaries (3 certain/3 most likely), 3 are Supernova Remnants (all three certain), and 6 are Active Galactic Nuclei (3 certain/3 most likely). The faintest of these sources has a flux (0.35-8.0 keV) of 3.5e-14 ergs/(s cm2) and an inferred luminosity of 3.0e36 ergs/s (0.35-8.0 keV) at the distance of M33. We comment on the contribution of these ``background'' sources to studies of the X-ray source populations in galaxies. This work was supported by NASA grant NAS G06-7073A and NASA contract NAS8-03060.

  13. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; Smith, Russell J.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lucey, John R.; Jogee, Shardha; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Chiboucas, Kristin; Davies, Jonathan I.; del Burgo, Carlos; Erwin, Peter; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hudson, Michael J.; Huxor, Avon; Jenkins, Leigh; Karick, Arna; Khosroshahi, Habib; Kourkchi, Ehsan; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lotz, Jennifer; Marzke, Ronald O.; Marinova, Irina; Matkovic, Ana; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Miller, Neal A.; Mobasher, Bahram; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Okamura, Sadanori; Percival, Sue; Phillipps, Steven; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Price, James; Sharples, Ray M.; Tully, R. Brent; Valentijn, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ~50% of the core high-density region in

  14. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; Smith, Russell J.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lucey, John R.; Jogee, Shardha; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Chiboucas, Kristin; Davies, Jonathan I.; del Burgo, Carlos; Erwin, Peter; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hudson, Michael J.; Huxor, Avon; Jenkins, Leigh; Karick, Arna; Khosroshahi, Habib; Kourkchi, Ehsan; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lotz, Jennifer; Marzke, Ronald O.; Marinova, Irina; Matkovic, Ana; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Miller, Neal A.; Mobasher, Bahram; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Okamura, Sadanori; Percival, Sue; Phillipps, Steven; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Price, James; Sharples, Ray M.; Tully, R. Brent; Valentijn, Edwin

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ~50% of the core high-density region in

  15. A meta-study investigating the sources of protest behaviour in stated preference surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Meyerhoff, Jürgen

    method, the question format, etc., then simply expelling protesters from surveys will lead to sample selection issues. Furthermore, WTP estimates will not be comparable across surveys. This paper seeks to explore potential causes of protest behaviour through a meta-study based on data from 10 different......  It is well known that some percentage of respondents participating in Stated Preference surveys will not give responses which reflect their true preferences. One reason is protest behaviour. If the distribution of protest responses is not independent of respondent demographics, the elicitation...... surveys. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of respondent specific variables as well as survey specific variables on protest behaviour. Our results suggest that some of the differences in WTP typically observed between different demographic groups, different elicitation formats...

  16. Media Use and Source Trust among Muslims in Seven Countries: Results of a Large Random Sample Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Corman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the perceived importance of media in the spread of and resistance against Islamist extremism, little is known about how Muslims use different kinds of media to get information about religious issues, and what sources they trust when doing so. This paper reports the results of a large, random sample survey among Muslims in seven countries Southeast Asia, West Africa and Western Europe, which helps fill this gap. Results show a diverse set of profiles of media use and source trust that differ by country, with overall low trust in mediated sources of information. Based on these findings, we conclude that mass media is still the most common source of religious information for Muslims, but that trust in mediated information is low overall. This suggests that media are probably best used to persuade opinion leaders, who will then carry anti-extremist messages through more personal means.

  17. A survey of quality assurance practices in biomedical open source software projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koru, Günes; El Emam, Khaled; Neisa, Angelica; Umarji, Medha

    2007-05-07

    Open source (OS) software is continuously gaining recognition and use in the biomedical domain, for example, in health informatics and bioinformatics. Given the mission critical nature of applications in this domain and their potential impact on patient safety, it is important to understand to what degree and how effectively biomedical OS developers perform standard quality assurance (QA) activities such as peer reviews and testing. This would allow the users of biomedical OS software to better understand the quality risks, if any, and the developers to identify process improvement opportunities to produce higher quality software. A survey of developers working on biomedical OS projects was conducted to examine the QA activities that are performed. We took a descriptive approach to summarize the implementation of QA activities and then examined some of the factors that may be related to the implementation of such practices. Our descriptive results show that 63% (95% CI, 54-72) of projects did not include peer reviews in their development process, while 82% (95% CI, 75-89) did include testing. Approximately 74% (95% CI, 67-81) of developers did not have a background in computing, 80% (95% CI, 74-87) were paid for their contributions to the project, and 52% (95% CI, 43-60) had PhDs. A multivariate logistic regression model to predict the implementation of peer reviews was not significant (likelihood ratio test = 16.86, 9 df, P = .051) and neither was a model to predict the implementation of testing (likelihood ratio test = 3.34, 9 df, P = .95). Less attention is paid to peer review than testing. However, the former is a complementary, and necessary, QA practice rather than an alternative. Therefore, one can argue that there are quality risks, at least at this point in time, in transitioning biomedical OS software into any critical settings that may have operational, financial, or safety implications. Developers of biomedical OS applications should invest more effort

  18. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  19. The Green Bank Third GB3 Survey of Extragalactic Radio Sources at 1400-MHZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, S.; Machalski, J.

    The NRAO 91-m telescope was used to make a 1400 MHz sky survey covering an area of 0.0988 sr at declinations 70° ≤ δ1950 ≤ 76°.8 with 10.1×10.5 arcmin resolution. This survey ends the series of smaller than 1-sr surveys made at 1400 MHz with that telescope. A catalogue of 502 radiosources is presented, statistically complete to 112 mJy, which is about five times the rms noise and extragalactic confusion. The observations and data reduction are briefly summarized; the position and flux density errors are discussed.

  20. The surface brightness of 1550 galaxies in Fornax: automated galaxy surface photometry: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.; Kibblewhite, E.J.; Cawson, M.G.M.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of a complete sample of galaxies in the region of the Fornax cluster is presented. Measurements with the Automatic Plate Measuring machine are used to derive the observed distribution of galaxy surface brightness for 1550 objects. Corrections for surface brightness dependent selection effects are then made in order to estimate the true distribution. It is found that the sample (with 16.6 ≤ Msub(APM) ≤ 19.1) is divided into two distinct populations. The 'normal' galaxies with extrapolated central surface brightness Ssub(x) ≤ 22.5 Bμ form a uniformly distributed background of field galaxies. Low surface brightness galaxies (Ssub(x) ≥ 22.5 Bμ), on the other hand, are strongly clumped about the cluster centre. There appear to be few low surface brightness field galaxies. (author)

  1. THE 31 DEG{sup 2} RELEASE OF THE STRIPE 82 X-RAY SURVEY: THE POINT SOURCE CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Urry, C. Megan; Ananna, Tonima; Civano, Francesca; Marchesi, Stefano; Pecoraro, Robert [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics Department, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Cappelluti, Nico; Comastri, Andrea; Brusa, Marcella [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Glikman, Eilat [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States); Richards, Gordon [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Cardamone, Carie [Department of Math and Science, Wheelock College, 200 Riverway, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Farrah, Duncan [Department of Physics MC 0435, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 850 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Gilfanov, Marat [Max-Planck Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Postfach 1317, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Green, Paul [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile); Makler, Martin [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22290-180 (Brazil); and others

    2016-02-01

    We release the next installment of the Stripe 82 X-ray survey point-source catalog, which currently covers 31.3 deg{sup 2} of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 Legacy field. In total, 6181 unique X-ray sources are significantly detected with XMM-Newton (>5σ) and Chandra (>4.5σ). This catalog release includes data from XMM-Newton cycle AO 13, which approximately doubled the Stripe 82X survey area. The flux limits of the Stripe 82X survey are 8.7 × 10{sup −16} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, 4.7 × 10{sup −15} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and 2.1 × 10{sup −15} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} in the soft (0.5–2 keV), hard (2–10 keV), and full bands (0.5–10 keV), respectively, with approximate half-area survey flux limits of 5.4 × 10{sup −15} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, 2.9 × 10{sup −14} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and 1.7 × 10{sup −14} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. We matched the X-ray source lists to available multi-wavelength catalogs, including updated matches to the previous release of the Stripe 82X survey; 88% of the sample is matched to a multi-wavelength counterpart. Due to the wide area of Stripe 82X and rich ancillary multi-wavelength data, including coadded SDSS photometry, mid-infrared WISE coverage, near-infrared coverage from UKIDSS and VISTA Hemisphere Survey, ultraviolet coverage from GALEX, radio coverage from FIRST, and far-infrared coverage from Herschel, as well as existing ∼30% optical spectroscopic completeness, we are beginning to uncover rare objects, such as obscured high-luminosity active galactic nuclei at high-redshift. The Stripe 82X point source catalog is a valuable data set for constraining how this population grows and evolves, as well as for studying how they interact with the galaxies in which they live.

  2. The lowest surface brightness disc galaxy known

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.I.; Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of a galaxy with a prominent bulge and a dominant extremely low surface brightness disc component is reported. The profile of this galaxy is very similar to the recently discovered giant low surface brightness galaxy Malin 1. The disc central surface brightness is found to be ∼ 26.4 Rμ, some 1.5 mag fainter than Malin 1 and thus by far the lowest yet observed. (author)

  3. Open-source tool for automatic import of coded surveying data to multiple vector layers in GIS environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Stopková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a tool that enables import of the coded data in a singletext file to more than one vector layers (including attribute tables, together withautomatic drawing of line and polygon objects and with optional conversion toCAD. Python script v.in.survey is available as an add-on for open-source softwareGRASS GIS (GRASS Development Team. The paper describes a case study basedon surveying at the archaeological mission at Tell-el Retaba (Egypt. Advantagesof the tool (e.g. significant optimization of surveying work and its limits (demandson keeping conventions for the points’ names coding are discussed here as well.Possibilities of future development are suggested (e.g. generalization of points’names coding or more complex attribute table creation.

  4. CONSTRUCTION OF A CALIBRATED PROBABILISTIC CLASSIFICATION CATALOG: APPLICATION TO 50k VARIABLE SOURCES IN THE ALL-SKY AUTOMATED SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Joseph W.; Starr, Dan L.; Miller, Adam A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Brink, Henrik; Crellin-Quick, Arien; Butler, Nathaniel R.

    2012-01-01

    With growing data volumes from synoptic surveys, astronomers necessarily must become more abstracted from the discovery and introspection processes. Given the scarcity of follow-up resources, there is a particularly sharp onus on the frameworks that replace these human roles to provide accurate and well-calibrated probabilistic classification catalogs. Such catalogs inform the subsequent follow-up, allowing consumers to optimize the selection of specific sources for further study and permitting rigorous treatment of classification purities and efficiencies for population studies. Here, we describe a process to produce a probabilistic classification catalog of variability with machine learning from a multi-epoch photometric survey. In addition to producing accurate classifications, we show how to estimate calibrated class probabilities and motivate the importance of probability calibration. We also introduce a methodology for feature-based anomaly detection, which allows discovery of objects in the survey that do not fit within the predefined class taxonomy. Finally, we apply these methods to sources observed by the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS), and release the Machine-learned ASAS Classification Catalog (MACC), a 28 class probabilistic classification catalog of 50,124 ASAS sources in the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars. We estimate that MACC achieves a sub-20% classification error rate and demonstrate that the class posterior probabilities are reasonably calibrated. MACC classifications compare favorably to the classifications of several previous domain-specific ASAS papers and to the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars, which had classified only 24% of those sources into one of 12 science classes.

  5. CONSTRUCTION OF A CALIBRATED PROBABILISTIC CLASSIFICATION CATALOG: APPLICATION TO 50k VARIABLE SOURCES IN THE ALL-SKY AUTOMATED SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Joseph W.; Starr, Dan L.; Miller, Adam A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Brink, Henrik; Crellin-Quick, Arien [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Butler, Nathaniel R., E-mail: jwrichar@stat.berkeley.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    With growing data volumes from synoptic surveys, astronomers necessarily must become more abstracted from the discovery and introspection processes. Given the scarcity of follow-up resources, there is a particularly sharp onus on the frameworks that replace these human roles to provide accurate and well-calibrated probabilistic classification catalogs. Such catalogs inform the subsequent follow-up, allowing consumers to optimize the selection of specific sources for further study and permitting rigorous treatment of classification purities and efficiencies for population studies. Here, we describe a process to produce a probabilistic classification catalog of variability with machine learning from a multi-epoch photometric survey. In addition to producing accurate classifications, we show how to estimate calibrated class probabilities and motivate the importance of probability calibration. We also introduce a methodology for feature-based anomaly detection, which allows discovery of objects in the survey that do not fit within the predefined class taxonomy. Finally, we apply these methods to sources observed by the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS), and release the Machine-learned ASAS Classification Catalog (MACC), a 28 class probabilistic classification catalog of 50,124 ASAS sources in the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars. We estimate that MACC achieves a sub-20% classification error rate and demonstrate that the class posterior probabilities are reasonably calibrated. MACC classifications compare favorably to the classifications of several previous domain-specific ASAS papers and to the ASAS Catalog of Variable Stars, which had classified only 24% of those sources into one of 12 science classes.

  6. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. II. X-Ray Point Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first survey results of hard X-ray point sources in the Galactic Center (GC) region by NuSTAR. We have discovered 70 hard (3-79 keV) X-ray point sources in a 0.6 deg2 region around Sgr A* with a total exposure of 1.7 Ms, and 7 sources in the Sgr B2 field with 300 ks. We identify...... persistent luminous X-ray binaries (XBs) and the likely run-away pulsar called the Cannonball. New source-detection significance maps reveal a cluster of hard (>10 keV) X-ray sources near the Sgr. A diffuse complex with no clear soft X-ray counterparts. The severe extinction observed in the Chandra spectra...... indicate that the X-ray spectra of the NuSTAR sources should have kT > 20 keV on average for a single temperature thermal plasma model or an average photon index of Gamma = 1.5-2 for a power-law model. These findings suggest that the GC X-ray source population may contain a larger fraction of XBs with high...

  7. New UV-source catalogs, UV spectral database, UV variables and science tools from the GALEX surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Luciana; de la Vega, Alexander; Shiao, Bernard; Bohlin, Ralph

    2018-03-01

    We present a new, expanded and improved catalog of Ultraviolet (UV) sources from the GALEX All-Sky Imaging survey: GUVcat_AIS (Bianchi et al. in Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 230:24, 2017). The catalog includes 83 million unique sources (duplicate measurements and rim artifacts are removed) measured in far-UV and near-UV. With respect to previous versions (Bianchi et al. in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 411:2770 2011a, Adv. Space Res. 53:900-991, 2014), GUVcat_AIS covers a slightly larger area, 24,790 square degrees, and includes critical corrections and improvements, as well as new tags, in particular to identify sources in the footprint of extended objects, where pipeline source detection may fail and custom-photometry may be necessary. The UV unique-source catalog facilitates studies of density of sources, and matching of the UV samples with databases at other wavelengths. We also present first results from two ongoing projects, addressing respectively UV variability searches on time scales from seconds to years by mining the GALEX photon archive, and the construction of a database of ˜120,000 GALEX UV spectra (range ˜1300-3000 Å), including quality and calibration assessment and classification of the grism, hence serendipitous, spectral sources.

  8. Aftereffect of Adaptation to Illusory Brightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinguang Cao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Several figures are known to induce illusory brightness. We tested whether adaptation to illusory brightness produced an aftereffect in brightness. After viewing a gray square area having illusory brightness (e.g., due to brightness contrast or illusory contours for ten seconds, the illusion-inducing surround vanished. After three seconds, subjects reported whether the square area was seen as brighter than, darker than, or the same brightness as a control gray square area. The luminance of the tested square area was physically unchanged. The results show that when the black surround inducing brightness contrast suddenly became gray (i.e., vanished, the center gray square tended to look darker than a control gray square. Similarly, after viewing a subjective square consisting of black-line terminations, the square area tended to look darker than the control even though the afterimage of the lines could not be seen. These results indicate that induced or illusory brightness causes an aftereffect in brightness regardless of the appearance of negative afterimages of the illusion-inducing components.

  9. The Einstein@Home Gamma-ray Pulsar Survey. II. Source Selection, Spectral Analysis, and Multiwavelength Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Clark, C. J.; Pletsch, H. J.; Guillemot, L.; Johnson, T. J.; Torne, P.; Champion, D. J.; Deneva, J.; Ray, P. S.; Salvetti, D.; Kramer, M.; Aulbert, C.; Beer, C.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bock, O.; Camilo, F.; Cognard, I.; Cuéllar, A.; Eggenstein, H. B.; Fehrmann, H.; Ferrara, E. C.; Kerr, M.; Machenschalk, B.; Ransom, S. M.; Sanpa-Arsa, S.; Wood, K.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the analysis of 13 gamma-ray pulsars discovered in the Einstein@Home blind search survey using Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 data. The 13 new gamma-ray pulsars were discovered by searching 118 unassociated LAT sources from the third LAT source catalog (3FGL), selected using the Gaussian Mixture Model machine-learning algorithm on the basis of their gamma-ray emission properties being suggestive of pulsar magnetospheric emission. The new gamma-ray pulsars have pulse profiles and spectral properties similar to those of previously detected young gamma-ray pulsars. Follow-up radio observations have revealed faint radio pulsations from two of the newly discovered pulsars and enabled us to derive upper limits on the radio emission from the others, demonstrating that they are likely radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars. We also present results from modeling the gamma-ray pulse profiles and radio profiles, if available, using different geometric emission models of pulsars. The high discovery rate of this survey, despite the increasing difficulty of blind pulsar searches in gamma rays, suggests that new systematic surveys such as presented in this article should be continued when new LAT source catalogs become available.

  10. Extremely Low Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures Due to Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Extreme events by their nature fall outside the bounds of routine experience. With imperfect or ambiguous measuring systems, it is appropriate to question whether an unusual measurement represents an extreme event or is the result of instrument errors or other sources of noise. About three weeks after the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite began collecting data in Dec 1997, a thunderstorm was observed over northern Argentina with 85 GHz brightness temperatures below 50 K and 37 GHz brightness temperatures below 70 K (Zipser et al. 2006). These values are well below what had previously been observed from satellite sensors with lower resolution. The 37 GHz brightness temperatures are also well below those measured by TRMM for any other storm in the subsequent 16 years. Without corroborating evidence, it would be natural to suspect a problem with the instrument, or perhaps an irregularity with the platform during the first weeks of the satellite mission. Automated quality control flags or other procedures in retrieval algorithms could treat these measurements as errors, because they fall outside the expected bounds. But the TRMM satellite also carries a radar and a lightning sensor, both confirming the presence of an intense thunderstorm. The radar recorded 40+ dBZ reflectivity up to about 19 km altitude. More than 200 lightning flashes per minute were recorded. That same storm's 19 GHz brightness temperatures below 150 K would normally be interpreted as the result of a low-emissivity water surface (e.g., a lake, or flood waters) if not for the simultaneous measurements of such intense convection. This paper will examine records from TRMM and related satellite sensors including SSMI, AMSR-E, and the new GMI to find the strongest signatures resulting from thunderstorms, and distinguishing those from sources of noise. The lowest brightness temperatures resulting from thunderstorms as seen by TRMM have been in Argentina in November and December. For

  11. Los Angeles OneSource System Youth Participant Customer Satisfaction Survey, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisley, Deborah D.; Moore, Richard W.; Patch, Robin N.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998, Los Angeles OneSource Centers offer low-income youth ages 14-21 services aimed at improving educational achievement, enhancing job skills, and preparing for college. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the youths' satisfaction with services received at 14 OneSource Centers throughout…

  12. The Los Alamos high-brightness photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    For a number of years Los Alamos National Laboratory has been developing photocathode RF guns for high-brightness electron beam applications such as free-electron lasers (FELs). Previously thermionic high-voltage guns have been the source of choice for the electron accelerators used to drive FELs. The performance of such FELs is severely limited by the emittance growth produced by the subharmonic bunching process and also by the low peak current of the source. In a photoinjector, a laser driven photocathode is placed directly in a high-gradient RF accelerating cavity. A photocathode allows unsurpassed control over the current, and the spatial and temporal profile of the beam. In addition the electrodeless emission'' avoids many of the difficulties associated with multi-electrode guns, i.e. the electrons are accelerated very rapidly to relativistic energies, and there are no electrodes to distort the accelerating fields. For the past two years we have been integrating a photocathode into our existing FEL facility by replacing our thermionic gun and subharmonic bunchers with a high-gradient 1.3 GHz photoinjector. The photoinjector, which is approximately 0.6 m in length, produces 6 MeV, 300 A, 15 ps linac, and accelerated to a final energy of 40 MeV. We have recently begun lasing at wavelengths near 3 {mu}m. 16 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  14. DETECTION OF AN ULTRA-BRIGHT SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY BEHIND THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takekoshi, Tatsuya; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Sorai, Kazuo; Habe, Asao [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Oogi, Taira [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Ezawa, Hajime; Komugi, Shinya; Mizuno, Norikazu; Muller, Erik; Kawamura, Akiko [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Oshima, Tai [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Scott, Kimberly S. [North American ALMA Science Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Austermann, Jason E. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Tosaki, Tomoka [Joetsu University of Education, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512 (Japan); Onishi, Toshikazu [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, 599-8531 Osaka (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsuo, Hiroshi [Advanced Technology Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Aretxaga, Itziar [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), 72000 Puebla (Mexico); and others

    2013-09-10

    We report the discovery of a new ultra-bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG) behind the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). This SMG is detected as a 43.3 {+-} 8.4 mJy point source (MM J01071-7302, hereafter MMJ0107) in the 1.1 mm continuum survey of the SMC by AzTEC on the ASTE telescope. MMJ0107 is also detected in the radio (843 MHz), Herschel/SPIRE, Spitzer MIPS 24 {mu}m, all IRAC bands, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and near-infrared (J, H, K{sub S} ). We find an optical (U, B, V) source, which might be the lensing object, at a distance of 1.''4 from near-infrared and IRAC sources. Photometric redshift estimates for the SMG using representative spectral energy distribution templates show the redshifts of 1.4-3.9. We estimate total far-infrared luminosity of (0.3-2.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} {mu}{sup -1} L{sub Sun} and a star formation rate of 5600-39, 000 {mu}{sup -1} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, where {mu} is the gravitational magnification factor. This apparent extreme star formation activity is likely explained by a highly magnified gravitational lens system.

  15. Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) Forward Brightness Temperature Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzheng; Peipmeier, Jeffrey; Kim, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The SMAP is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the US National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, Space Studies Board, National Academies Press, 2007) [1]. It is to measure the global soil moisture and freeze/thaw from space. One of the spaceborne instruments is an L-band radiometer with a shared single feedhorn and parabolic mesh reflector. While the radiometer measures the emission over a footprint of interest, unwanted emissions are also received by the antenna through the antenna sidelobes from the cosmic background and other error sources such as the Sun, the Moon and the galaxy. Their effects need to be considered accurately, and the analysis of the overall performance of the radiometer requires end-to-end performance simulation from Earth emission to antenna brightness temperature, such as the global simulation of L-band brightness temperature simulation over land and sea [2]. To assist with the SMAP radiometer level 1B algorithm development, the SMAP forward brightness temperature simulator is developed by adapting the Aquarius simulator [2] with necessary modifications. This poster presents the current status of the SMAP forward brightness simulator s development including incorporating the land microwave emission model and its input datasets, and a simplified atmospheric radiative transfer model. The latest simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the ability of supporting the SMAP L1B algorithm development.

  16. RADIO SOURCES FROM A 31 GHz SKY SURVEY WITH THE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH ARRAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchovej, Stephen; Hawkins, David; Lamb, James; Woody, David; Leitch, Erik; Carlstrom, John E.; Culverhouse, Thomas; Greer, Chris; Hennessy, Ryan; Loh, Michael; Marrone, Daniel P.; Pryke, Clem; Sharp, Matthew; Joy, Marshall; Miller, Amber; Mroczkowski, Tony

    2010-01-01

    We present the first sample of 31 GHz selected sources to flux levels of 1 mJy. From late 2005 to mid-2007, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array observed 7.7 deg 2 of the sky at 31 GHz to a median rms of 0.18 mJy beam -1 . We identify 209 sources at greater than 5σ significance in the 31 GHz maps, ranging in flux from 0.7 mJy to ∼200 mJy. Archival NVSS data at 1.4 GHz and observations at 5 GHz with the Very Large Array are used to characterize the sources. We determine the maximum-likelihood integrated source count to be N(>S) = (27.2 ± 2.5)deg -2 x (S mJy ) -1.18±0.12 over the flux range 0.7-15 mJy. This result is significantly higher than predictions based on 1.4 GHz selected samples, a discrepancy which can be explained by a small shift in the spectral index distribution for faint 1.4 GHz sources. From comparison with previous measurements of sources within the central arcminute of massive clusters, we derive an overdensity of 6.8 ± 4.4, relative to field sources.

  17. Discovery of two new bright magnetic B stars: i Car and Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiner, Coralie; Buysschaert, Bram; Oksala, Mary E.; Blazère, Aurore

    2015-11-01

    The BRITE (BRIght Target Explorer) constellation of nanosatellites performs seismology of bright stars via high-precision photometry. In this context, we initiated a high-resolution, high signal-to-noise, high-sensitivity, spectropolarimetric survey of all stars brighter than V = 4. The goal of this survey is to detect new bright magnetic stars and provide prime targets for both detailed magnetic studies and asteroseismology with BRITE. Circularly polarized spectra were acquired with Narval at TBL (Bernard Lyot Telescope, France) and HARPSpol at ESO (European Southern Observatory) in La Silla (Chile). We discovered two new magnetic B stars: the B3V star i Car and the B8V component of the binary star Atlas. Each star was observed twice to confirm the magnetic detections and check for variability. These bright magnetic B stars are prime targets for asteroseismology and for flux-demanding techniques, such as interferometry.

  18. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Tobacco Information Seeking and Information Sources: Findings From the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh B; Robinson, Joelle; O'Brien, Erin Keely; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2017-09-01

    This article describes sources of health information, types of tobacco information sought, and trust in sources of tobacco information among U.S. racial/ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asian and Pacific Islanders, and Other). Cross-sectional data (N = 3,788) from a nationally representative survey, HINTS-FDA 2015, were analyzed to examine unadjusted and adjusted associations between race/ethnicity and (a) first source of health information, (b) tobacco information seeking, and (c) trust in sources of tobacco information. Adjusted associations controlled for current tobacco product use and sociodemographic variables. Findings indicated that the Internet was the most common first source of health information while health care providers were the second most common source for all racial/ethnic groups. Tobacco-related health information seeking was more prevalent than other tobacco product information seeking. Unadjusted analyses indicated that a higher proportion of Whites sought other tobacco product information compared to Asians and Pacific Islanders. Trust was rated highest for doctors while trust for health organizations was rated second highest. Asians and Pacific Islanders had higher trust in the government compared to all other groups. Blacks had higher trust in religious organizations compared to all other groups besides Hispanics. Blacks had higher trust for tobacco companies compared to Whites and Other. Many of these differences were attenuated in adjusted analyses. This research has implications for tobacco control practice and policymaking by identifying potential dissemination strategies.

  19. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: Source Catalog and the Compton-thick Fraction in the UDS Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, A.; Civano, F.; Comastri, A.; Fornasini, F.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Lansbury, G. B.; Treister, E.; Alexander, D. M.; Boorman, P. G.; Brandt, W. N.; Farrah, D.; Gandhi, P.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Kocevski, D. D.; Lanz, L.; Marchesi, S.; Puccetti, S.; Ricci, C.; Saez, C.; Stern, D.; Zappacosta, L.

    2018-03-01

    We present the results and the source catalog of the NuSTAR survey in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (UDS) field, bridging the gap in depth and area between NuSTAR’s ECDFS and COSMOS surveys. The survey covers a ∼0.6 deg2 area of the field for a total observing time of ∼1.75 Ms, to a half-area depth of ∼155 ks corrected for vignetting at 3–24 keV, and reaching sensitivity limits at half-area in the full (3–24 keV), soft (3–8 keV), and hard (8–24 keV) bands of 2.2 × 10‑14 erg cm‑2 s‑1, 1.0 × 10‑14 erg cm‑2 s‑1, and 2.7 × 10‑14 erg cm‑2 s‑1, respectively. A total of 67 sources are detected in at least one of the three bands, 56 of which have a robust optical redshift with a median of ∼ 1.1. Through a broadband (0.5–24 keV) spectral analysis of the whole sample combined with the NuSTAR hardness ratios, we compute the observed Compton-thick (CT; N H > 1024 cm‑2) fraction. Taking into account the uncertainties on each N H measurement, the final number of CT sources is 6.8 ± 1.2. This corresponds to an observed CT fraction of 11.5% ± 2.0%, providing a robust lower limit to the intrinsic fraction of CT active galactic nuclei and placing constraints on cosmic X-ray background synthesis models.

  20. Kinematics of giant low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickering, TE; Davies, JI; Impey, C; Phillipps, S

    1999-01-01

    High sensitivity H I observations now exist for six giant low surface brightness (LSB) disk galaxies including the two prototypes, Malin 1 (Bothun et al. 1987; Impey & Bothun 1989) and F568-6 (also known as Malin 2; Bothun et al. 1990). Their H I surface brightnesses are generally low, but

  1. SURFACE PHOTOMETRY OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBLOK, WJG; VANDERHULST, JM; BOTHUN, GD

    1995-01-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are galaxies dominated by an exponential disc whose central surface brightness is much fainter than the value of mu(B)(0) = 21.65 +/- 0.30 mag arcsec(-2) found by Freeman. In this paper we present broadband photometry of a sample of 21 late-type LSB galaxies.

  2. Spectrophotometric study of five bright meteors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, K.Kh.; Zolowa, O.F.

    1971-01-01

    The results of 200 spectrophotometric study of five bright meteors and indentification of spectral lines are given. Distribution of energy for different points of the paths of meteors is found. Masses of meteor particles are determined on the base of integrated curves of brightness

  3. A Survey of Sound Source Localization Methods in Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Cobos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless acoustic sensor networks (WASNs are formed by a distributed group of acoustic-sensing devices featuring audio playing and recording capabilities. Current mobile computing platforms offer great possibilities for the design of audio-related applications involving acoustic-sensing nodes. In this context, acoustic source localization is one of the application domains that have attracted the most attention of the research community along the last decades. In general terms, the localization of acoustic sources can be achieved by studying energy and temporal and/or directional features from the incoming sound at different microphones and using a suitable model that relates those features with the spatial location of the source (or sources of interest. This paper reviews common approaches for source localization in WASNs that are focused on different types of acoustic features, namely, the energy of the incoming signals, their time of arrival (TOA or time difference of arrival (TDOA, the direction of arrival (DOA, and the steered response power (SRP resulting from combining multiple microphone signals. Additionally, we discuss methods not only aimed at localizing acoustic sources but also designed to locate the nodes themselves in the network. Finally, we discuss current challenges and frontiers in this field.

  4. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  5. Deep far infrared ISOPHOT survey in "Selected Area 57" - I. Observations and source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linden-Vornle, M.J.D.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    We present here the results of a deep survey in a 0.4 deg(2) blank field in Selected Area 57 conducted with the ISOPHOT instrument aboard ESAs Infrared Space Observatory (ISO1) at both 60 mu m and 90 mu m. The resulting sky maps have a spatial resolution of 15 x 23 arcsrc(2) per pixel which is mu...

  6. A meta-study investigating the sources of protest behaviour in stated preference surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyerhoff, Jürgen; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2014-01-01

    actually be attributed to inherent differences in the propensity to protest. Our results indicate that the propensity for respondents to exhibit protest behaviour when asked a stated preference type valuation question depends on a number of specific factors, respondent specific as well as survey specific...

  7. Automated Adaptive Brightness in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Using Image Segmentation and Sigmoid Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ravi; Mohammed, Shahed K; Hasan, Md Mehedi; Zhang, Xuechao; Wahid, Khan A

    2016-08-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) plays an important role in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases by capturing images of human small intestine. Accurate diagnosis of endoscopic images depends heavily on the quality of captured images. Along with image and frame rate, brightness of the image is an important parameter that influences the image quality which leads to the design of an efficient illumination system. Such design involves the choice and placement of proper light source and its ability to illuminate GI surface with proper brightness. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are normally used as sources where modulated pulses are used to control LED's brightness. In practice, instances like under- and over-illumination are very common in WCE, where the former provides dark images and the later provides bright images with high power consumption. In this paper, we propose a low-power and efficient illumination system that is based on an automated brightness algorithm. The scheme is adaptive in nature, i.e., the brightness level is controlled automatically in real-time while the images are being captured. The captured images are segmented into four equal regions and the brightness level of each region is calculated. Then an adaptive sigmoid function is used to find the optimized brightness level and accordingly a new value of duty cycle of the modulated pulse is generated to capture future images. The algorithm is fully implemented in a capsule prototype and tested with endoscopic images. Commercial capsules like Pillcam and Mirocam were also used in the experiment. The results show that the proposed algorithm works well in controlling the brightness level accordingly to the environmental condition, and as a result, good quality images are captured with an average of 40% brightness level that saves power consumption of the capsule.

  8. The TOP-SCOPE Survey of Planck Galactic Cold Clumps: Survey Overview and Results of an Exemplar Source, PGCC G26.53+0.17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Juvela, Mika; Wang, Ke; Tatematsu, Ken’ichi; Di Francesco, James; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Wu, Yuefang; Thompson, Mark; Fuller, Gary; Eden, David; Li, Di; Ristorcelli, I.; Kang, Sung-ju; Lin, Yuxin; Johnstone, D.; He, J. H.; Koch, P. M.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Qin, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Q.; Hirano, N.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Evans, Neal J., II; White, Glenn J.; Choi, Minho; Lee, Chang Won; Toth, L. V.; Mairs, Steve; Yi, H.-W.; Tang, Mengyao; Soam, Archana; Peretto, N.; Samal, Manash R.; Fich, Michel; Parsons, Harriet; Yuan, Jinghua; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Malinen, Johanna; Bendo, George J.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Liu, Hong-Li; Wouterloot, Jan; Li, Pak Shing; Qian, Lei; Rawlings, Jonathan; Rawlings, Mark G.; Feng, Siyi; Aikawa, Yuri; Akhter, S.; Alina, Dana; Bell, Graham; Bernard, J.-P.; Blain, Andrew; Bőgner, Rebeka; Bronfman, L.; Byun, D.-Y.; Chapman, Scott; Chen, Huei-Ru; Chen, M.; Chen, Wen-Ping; Chen, X.; Chen, Xuepeng; Chrysostomou, A.; Cosentino, Giuliana; Cunningham, M. R.; Demyk, K.; Drabek-Maunder, Emily; Doi, Yasuo; Eswaraiah, C.; Falgarone, Edith; Fehér, O.; Fraser, Helen; Friberg, Per; Garay, G.; Ge, J. X.; Gear, W. K.; Greaves, Jane; Guan, X.; Harvey-Smith, Lisa; HASEGAWA, Tetsuo; Hatchell, J.; He, Yuxin; Henkel, C.; Hirota, T.; Holland, W.; Hughes, A.; Jarken, E.; Ji, Tae-Geun; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Kang, Miju; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kim, Gwanjeong; Kim, Jungha; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Shinyoung; Koo, B.-C.; Kwon, Woojin; Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Lacaille, K. M.; Lai, Shih-Ping; Lee, C. F.; Lee, J.-E.; Lee, Y.-U.; Li, Dalei; Li, Hua-bai; Lo, N.; Lopez, John A. P.; Lu, Xing; Lyo, A.-Ran; Mardones, D.; Marston, A.; McGehee, P.; Meng, F.; Montier, L.; Montillaud, Julien; Moore, T.; Morata, O.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.; Ohashi, S.; Pak, Soojong; Park, Geumsook; Paladini, R.; Pattle, Kate M.; Pech, Gerardo; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Qiu, K.; Ren, Zhi-Yuan; Richer, John; Saito, M.; Sakai, Takeshi; Shang, H.; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Stamatellos, Dimitris; Tang, Y.-W.; Traficante, Alessio; Vastel, Charlotte; Viti, S.; Walsh, Andrew; Wang, Bingru; Wang, Hongchi; Wang, Junzhi; Ward-Thompson, D.; Whitworth, Anthony; Xu, Ye; Yang, J.; Yang, Yao-Lun; Yuan, Lixia; Zavagno, A.; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhang, H.-W.; Zhou, Chenlin; Zhou, Jianjun; Zhu, Lei; Zuo, Pei; Zhang, Chao

    2018-02-01

    The low dust temperatures (phase of star formation. “TOP-SCOPE” is a joint survey program targeting ∼2000 PGCCs in J = 1–0 transitions of CO isotopologues and ∼1000 PGCCs in 850 μm continuum emission. The objective of the “TOP-SCOPE” survey and the joint surveys (SMT 10 m, KVN 21 m, and NRO 45 m) is to statistically study the initial conditions occurring during star formation and the evolution of molecular clouds, across a wide range of environments. The observations, data analysis, and example science cases for these surveys are introduced with an exemplar source, PGCC G26.53+0.17 (G26), which is a filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC). The total mass, length, and mean line mass (M/L) of the G26 filament are ∼6200 M ⊙, ∼12 pc, and ∼500 M ⊙ pc‑1, respectively. Ten massive clumps, including eight starless ones, are found along the filament. The most massive clump as a whole may still be in global collapse, while its denser part seems to be undergoing expansion owing to outflow feedback. The fragmentation in the G26 filament from cloud scale to clump scale is in agreement with gravitational fragmentation of an isothermal, nonmagnetized, and turbulent supported cylinder. A bimodal behavior in dust emissivity spectral index (β) distribution is found in G26, suggesting grain growth along the filament. The G26 filament may be formed owing to large-scale compression flows evidenced by the temperature and velocity gradients across its natal cloud.

  9. EX56a study of extended X-ray emission around isolated galaxies EX56b identification and spectra of bright X-ray sources at high galactic latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.

    1987-01-01

    The EXOSAT observations confirmed the identification and extended nature of PKS 2345-35. It gave a good 2 to 10 keV X-ray spectrum and a detailed spatial profile indicating asymmetry of the structure. In the high galactic latitidue investigation, the BL Lac object identified with the HEAO-1 source 1430+423 was detected, and the first X-ray spectrum was obtained. Several simulataneous observations of H0323+022 were obtained over a broad range of electromagnetic spectrum. Studies of luminous active galactic nuclei have given significant information on the spectrum of the quasar PKS 0558-504. In a study of Southern sky cataclysmic variables, the EXOSAT was used to determine the X-ray spectrum and search for periodicities in two objects. Studies of complete identifications have revealed that X-ray sources in two high galactic latitude fields are stars, and therefore are to be excluded from the Piccinotti extragalactic sample. Only one Piccinotti source remains to be identified.

  10. Brightness Alteration with Interweaving Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roncato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromatic induction is observed whenever the perceived colour of a target surface shifts towards the hue of a neighbouring surface. Some vivid manifestations may be seen in a white background where thin coloured lines have been drawn (assimilation or when lines of different colours are collinear (neon effect or adjacent (watercolour to each other. This study examines a particular colour induction that manifests in concomitance with an opposite effect of colour saturation (or anti-spread. The two phenomena can be observed when a repetitive pattern is drawn in which outline thin contours intercept wider contours or surfaces, colour spreading appear to fill the surface occupied by surfaces or thick lines whereas the background traversed by thin lines is seen as brighter or filled of a saturated white. These phenomena were first observed by Bozzi (1975 and Kanizsa (1979 in figural conditions that did not allow them to document their conjunction. Here we illustrate various manifestations of this twofold phenomenon and compare its effects with the known effects of brightness and colour induction. Some conjectures on the nature of these effects are discussed.

  11. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  12. ProFound: Source Extraction and Application to Modern Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Koushan, S.; Taranu, D. S.; Casura, S.; Liske, J.

    2018-05-01

    We introduce PROFOUND, a source finding and image analysis package. PROFOUND provides methods to detect sources in noisy images, generate segmentation maps identifying the pixels belonging to each source, and measure statistics like flux, size, and ellipticity. These inputs are key requirements of PROFIT, our recently released galaxy profiling package, where the design aim is that these two software packages will be used in unison to semi-automatically profile large samples of galaxies. The key novel feature introduced in PROFOUND is that all photometry is executed on dilated segmentation maps that fully contain the identifiable flux, rather than using more traditional circular or ellipse-based photometry. Also, to be less sensitive to pathological segmentation issues, the de-blending is made across saddle points in flux. We apply PROFOUND in a number of simulated and real-world cases, and demonstrate that it behaves reasonably given its stated design goals. In particular, it offers good initial parameter estimation for PROFIT, and also segmentation maps that follow the sometimes complex geometry of resolved sources, whilst capturing nearly all of the flux. A number of bulge-disc decomposition projects are already making use of the PROFOUND and PROFIT pipeline, and adoption is being encouraged by publicly releasing the software for the open source R data analysis platform under an LGPL-3 license on GitHub (github.com/asgr/ProFound).

  13. ProFound: Source Extraction and Application to Modern Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Koushan, S.; Taranu, D. S.; Casura, S.; Liske, J.

    2018-02-01

    We introduce PROFOUND, a source finding and image analysis package. PROFOUND provides methods to detect sources in noisy images, generate segmentation maps identifying the pixels belonging to each source, and measure statistics like flux, size and ellipticity. These inputs are key requirements of PROFIT, our recently released galaxy profiling package, where the design aim is that these two software packages will be used in unison to semi-automatically profile large samples of galaxies. The key novel feature introduced in PROFOUND is that all photometry is executed on dilated segmentation maps that fully contain the identifiable flux, rather than using more traditional circular or ellipse based photometry. Also, to be less sensitive to pathological segmentation issues, the de-blending is made across saddle points in flux. We apply PROFOUND in a number of simulated and real world cases, and demonstrate that it behaves reasonably given its stated design goals. In particular, it offers good initial parameter estimation for PROFIT, and also segmentation maps that follow the sometimes complex geometry of resolved sources, whilst capturing nearly all of the flux. A number of bulge-disc decomposition projects are already making use of the PROFOUND and PROFIT pipeline, and adoption is being encouraged by publicly releasing the software for the open source R data analysis platform under an LGPL-3 license on GitHub (github.com/asgr/ProFound).

  14. The JCMT Transient Survey: Data Reduction and Calibration Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mairs, Steve; Lane, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Johnstone, Doug; Kirk, Helen [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Lacaille, Kevin; Chapman, Scott [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Bower, Geoffrey C. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 645 N. A‘ohōkū Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Bell, Graham S.; Graves, Sarah, E-mail: smairs@uvic.ca [East Asian Observatory, 660 North A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Collaboration: JCMT Transient Team

    2017-07-01

    Though there has been a significant amount of work investigating the early stages of low-mass star formation in recent years, the evolution of the mass assembly rate onto the central protostar remains largely unconstrained. Examining in depth the variation in this rate is critical to understanding the physics of star formation. Instabilities in the outer and inner circumstellar disk can lead to episodic outbursts. Observing these brightness variations at infrared or submillimeter wavelengths constrains the current accretion models. The JCMT Transient Survey is a three-year project dedicated to studying the continuum variability of deeply embedded protostars in eight nearby star-forming regions at a one-month cadence. We use the SCUBA-2 instrument to simultaneously observe these regions at wavelengths of 450 and 850 μ m. In this paper, we present the data reduction techniques, image alignment procedures, and relative flux calibration methods for 850 μ m data. We compare the properties and locations of bright, compact emission sources fitted with Gaussians over time. Doing so, we achieve a spatial alignment of better than 1″ between the repeated observations and an uncertainty of 2%–3% in the relative peak brightness of significant, localized emission. This combination of imaging performance is unprecedented in ground-based, single-dish submillimeter observations. Finally, we identify a few sources that show possible and confirmed brightness variations. These sources will be closely monitored and presented in further detail in additional studies throughout the duration of the survey.

  15. Sound source localization technique using a seismic streamer and its extension for whale localization during seismic surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Shima H; Wilcock, William S D; Tolstoy, Maya; Crone, Timothy J; Carbotte, Suzanne M

    2015-12-01

    Marine seismic surveys are under increasing scrutiny because of concern that they may disturb or otherwise harm marine mammals and impede their communications. Most of the energy from seismic surveys is low frequency, so concerns are particularly focused on baleen whales. Extensive mitigation efforts accompany seismic surveys, including visual and acoustic monitoring, but the possibility remains that not all animals in an area can be observed and located. One potential way to improve mitigation efforts is to utilize the seismic hydrophone streamer to detect and locate calling baleen whales. This study describes a method to localize low frequency sound sources with data recoded by a streamer. Beamforming is used to estimate the angle of arriving energy relative to sub-arrays of the streamer which constrains the horizontal propagation velocity to each sub-array for a given trial location. A grid search method is then used to minimize the time residual for relative arrival times along the streamer estimated by cross correlation. Results from both simulation and experiment are shown and data from the marine mammal observers and the passive acoustic monitoring conducted simultaneously with the seismic survey are used to verify the analysis.

  16. Calibration of a radiation survey meter using Cs-137 gamma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, R. O.

    2005-07-01

    The survey instrument smartIon was calibrated at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory, Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, in terms of kerma, free in air using Cs-137 gamma radiation. All the calibrations were performed using the reference instrument spherical ionization chamber LS-01. This reference instrument has been calibrated at the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna for x-rays, 137 Cs and 60 Co gamma radiation. The air kerma calibration factors for the instrument were determined as the ratio of the dose rates obtained with the reference standard chamber LS-01 and the dose rates of the instrument under calibration. The uncertainties for the survey meter smartIon and another survey meter RADOS were obtained and the results compared with the uncertainty for the reference standard chamber. Also, the values of dose rates were obtained for various angles of the incident beam, by changing the angle by which the radiation was incident on the sensitive point of the instrument.(Author)

  17. How Do Open Source Communities Document Software Architecture: An Exploratory Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, W.; Liang, P.; Tang, A.; Van Vliet, H.; Shahin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Software architecture (SA) documentation provides a blueprint of a software-intensive system for the communication between stakeholders about the high-level design of the system. In open source software (OSS) development, a lack of SA documentation may hinder the use and further development of OSS,

  18. Unveiling the sources of disk heating in spiral galaxies with the CALIFA survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinna, F.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Martig, M.; van de Ven, G.; Lyubenova, M.; Leaman, R.

    The stellar velocity ellipsoid (SVE) quantifies the amount of velocity dispersion in the vertical, radial and azimuthal directions. Since different disk heating mechanisms (e.g. spiral arms, giant molecular clouds, mergers, etc) affect these components differently, the SVE can constrain the sources

  19. Bright Streaks and Dark Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The south polar region of Mars is covered every year by a layer of carbon dioxide ice. In a region called the 'cryptic terrain,' the ice is translucent and sunlight can penetrate through the ice to warm the surface below. The ice layer sublimates (evaporates) from the bottom. The dark fans of dust seen in this image come from the surface below the layer of ice, carried to the top by gas venting from below. The translucent ice is 'visible' by virtue of the effect it has on the tone of the surface below, which would otherwise have the same color and reflectivity as the fans. Bright streaks in this image are fresh frost. The CRISM team has identified the composition of these streaks to be carbon dioxide. Observation Geometry Image PSP_003113_0940 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 26-Mar-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.8 degrees latitude, 106.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 244.9 km (153.0 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.0 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 147 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:20 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 79 degrees, thus the sun was about 11 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 207.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  20. Designers predict a bright future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statton, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    As power plant designers and builders, there is a bright future for the industry. The demand for electricity will continue to grow, and the need for new plants will increase accordingly. But companies that develop and supply these plants must adapt to new ways of doing business if they expect to see the dawn of this new age. Several factors will have a profound effect on the generation and use of electricity in future years. Instant communications now reach all corners of the globe, making people everywhere aspire to a higher standard of living. The economic surge needed to satisfy these appetites will, in turn, be fed by a network of suppliers who are themselves restructuring to serve global markets, unimpeded by past nationalistic barriers to trade. The strong correlation between economic progress and the growing demand for electricity is well recognized. A ready supply of affordable electricity is a necessary underpinning for any economic expansion. As economies advance and jobs increase, electric demand grows geometrically, fueled by an ever-improving quality of life. Coupled with increasing demand is the worldwide trend toward privatization of the generation industry. The reasons may vary in different parts of the world, but the effect is the same--companies are battling intensely for the right to build or purchase generating facilities. Those companies, like the industry they serve, are themselves in a period of transition. Once a closed, monopolistic group of owners in a predominantly services-based market, they are, thanks to competitive forces, being driven steadily toward a product-based structure

  1. Bright Sparks of Our Future!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Naoimh

    2016-04-01

    My name is Naoimh Riordan and I am the Vice Principal of Rockboro Primary School in Cork City, South of Ireland. I am a full time class primary teacher and I teach 4th class, my students are aged between 9-10 years. My passion for education has developed over the years and grown towards STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects. I believe these subjects are the way forward for our future. My passion and beliefs are driven by the unique after school programme that I have developed. It is titled "Sparks" coming from the term Bright Sparks. "Sparks" is an after school programme with a difference where the STEM subjects are concentrated on through lessons such as Science, Veterinary Science Computer Animation /Coding, Eco engineering, Robotics, Magical Maths, Chess and Creative Writing. All these subjects are taught through activity based learning and are one-hour long each week for a ten-week term. "Sparks" is fully inclusive and non-selective which gives all students of any level of ability an opportunity to engage into these subjects. "Sparks" is open to all primary students in County Cork. The "Sparks" after school programme is taught by tutors from the different Universities and Colleges in Cork City. It works very well because the tutor brings their knowledge, skills and specialised equipment from their respective universities and in turn the tutor gains invaluable teaching practise, can trial a pilot programme in a chosen STEM subject and gain an insight into what works in the physical classroom.

  2. Technological Challenges for High-Brightness Photo-Injectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Suberlucq, Guy

    2004-01-01

    Many applications, from linear colliders to free-electron lasers, passing through light sources and many other electron sources, require high brightness electron beams, usually produced by photo-injectors. Because certain parameters of these applications differ by several orders of magnitude, various solutions were implemented for the design and construction of the three main parts of the photo-injectors: lasers, photocathodes and guns. This paper summarizes the different requirements, how they lead to technological challenges and how R&D programs try to overcome these challenges. Some examples of state-of-the-art parts are presented.

  3. Microbiological risk assessment of Agios Georgios source supplies in Northwestern Greece based on faecal coliforms determination and sanitary inspection survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoulis, N; Maipa, V; Konstantinou, I; Albanis, T; Dimoliatis, I

    2005-03-01

    The assessment of potential risks from microbiological contamination of drinking water supplies is of greatest concern to human health. The study involves the examination of water samples from Agios Georgios source that supplies the capitals, the major towns and several villages of Arta, Preveza and Lefkada prefectures, in Northwestern Greece. The study includes the sanitary inspection survey of the source and the microbiological examination of water samples on a monthly basis during the period February 1996-June 1999 except of Augusts (n=38). The microbiological risk assessment (MRA) approach of World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines was applied to enhance the source protection. The faecal contamination of the source water was quantified using faecal coliforms (FC) as indicator bacteria. Microbiological analyses indicate that of the 38 samples analyzed the FC failure rate (positive samples) was 63.2% according to the limit set by the 98/83 directive of the European Union. The 36.8% of the source water samples was found in conformity with WHO guidelines, 42.1% of low risk, 21.1% of intermediate risk while there was not found samples of high or very high risk. Failure rates displayed a seasonal trend being greater during the winter, decreased during spring and autumn and lower during summer. This observation was explained partially by a significant positive relationship with the rainfall amount (r(Spearmann)=0.890, P=0.001). The sanitary inspection score was found 5/10 during the whole survey period that corresponds to an intermediate risk of source contamination. The color-code classification for FC contamination was found 36.8% A (blue, no risk), 42.1% B (green, low risk) and 21.1% C (yellow, intermediate risk). The previous risks were combined for the assessment of waterborne risk, which was determined as intermediate to high; therefore there is a need for high action priority. The potential remedial actions were also suggested in order to improve the source

  4. Surgical videos online: a survey of prominent sources and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinscore, Amanda; Andres, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This article determines the extent of the online availability and quality of surgical videos for the educational benefit of the surgical community. A comprehensive survey was performed that compared a number of online sites providing surgical videos according to their content, production quality, authority, audience, navigability, and other features. Methods for evaluating video content are discussed as well as possible future directions and emerging trends. Surgical videos are a valuable tool for demonstrating and teaching surgical technique and, despite room for growth in this area, advances in streaming video technology have made providing and accessing these resources easier than ever before.

  5. Optical Observations of X-ray Bright, Optically Normal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadun, Alberto C.; Aryan, N. S.; Ghosh, K. K.

    2007-05-01

    X-ray bright, optically normal galaxies (XBONGs) are galaxies that seem to have normal spectra and morphology, but are relatively bright x-ray sources. The large ratio of the x-ray to optical emission suggests that some activity, similar to that of active galactic nuclei (AGN), is occurring. Since the galaxies do not show any obvious sign of nuclear activity in their optical spectra, one possible explanation is that these galaxies do not have an optically thick accretion disk at small radii, as previously assumed. Previous data for NGC 7626 classifies it as an XBONG, and so we are studying optical features of this galaxy in order to determine better its features. After confirming an x-ray jet, we are now comparing this to optical features that we have found, including warped dust lanes and a possible optical jet.

  6. The structure of bright zinc coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIODRAG STOJANOVIC

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The structures of bright zinc coatings obtained from acid sulfate solutions in the presence of dextrin/salicyl aldehyde mixture were examined. It was shown by the STM technique that the surfaces of bright zinc coatings are covered by hexagonal zinc crystals, the tops of planes of which are flat and mutually parallel and which exhibit smoothness on the atomic level. X-Ray diffraction (XRD analysis of the bright zinc coatings showed that the zinc crystallites are oriented in the (110 plane only.

  7. Bright boys the making of information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Everything has a beginning. None was more profound-and quite as unexpected-than Information Technology. Here for the first time is the untold story of how our new age came to be and the bright boys who made it happen. What began on the bare floor of an old laundry building eventually grew to rival in size the Manhattan Project. The unexpected consequence of that journey was huge---what we now know as Information Technology. For sixty years the bright boys have been totally anonymous while their achievements have become a way of life for all of us. "Bright Boys" brings them home. By 1950 they'd

  8. Biofuels as an Alternative Energy Source for Aviation-A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowellBomani, Bilal M.; Bulzan, Dan L.; Centeno-Gomez, Diana I.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biofuels has been gaining in popularity over the past few years because of their ability to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. As a renewable energy source, biofuels can be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs if they are managed efficiently. We investigate past, present, and possible future biofuel alternatives currently being researched and applied around the world. More specifically, we investigate the use of ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel (palm oil, algae, and halophytes), and synthetic fuel blends that can potentially be used as fuels for aviation and nonaerospace applications. We also investigate the processing of biomass via gasification, hydrolysis, and anaerobic digestion as a way to extract fuel oil from alternative biofuels sources.

  9. The XMM-Newton serendipitous survey. V. The Second XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, M. G.; Schröder, A. C.; Fyfe, D.; Page, C. G.; Lamer, G.; Mateos, S.; Pye, J.; Sakano, M.; Rosen, S.; Ballet, J.; Barcons, X.; Barret, D.; Boller, T.; Brunner, H.; Brusa, M.; Caccianiga, A.; Carrera, F. J.; Ceballos, M.; Della Ceca, R.; Denby, M.; Denkinson, G.; Dupuy, S.; Farrell, S.; Fraschetti, F.; Freyberg, M. J.; Guillout, P.; Hambaryan, V.; Maccacaro, T.; Mathiesen, B.; McMahon, R.; Michel, L.; Motch, C.; Osborne, J. P.; Page, M.; Pakull, M. W.; Pietsch, W.; Saxton, R.; Schwope, A.; Severgnini, P.; Simpson, M.; Sironi, G.; Stewart, G.; Stewart, I. M.; Stobbart, A.-M.; Tedds, J.; Warwick, R.; Webb, N.; West, R.; Worrall, D.; Yuan, W.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Pointed observations with XMM-Newton provide the basis for creating catalogues of X-ray sources detected serendipitously in each field. This paper describes the creation and characteristics of the 2XMM catalogue. Methods: The 2XMM catalogue has been compiled from a new processing of the XMM-Newton EPIC camera data. The main features of the processing pipeline are described in detail. Results: The catalogue, the largest ever made at X-ray wavelengths, contains 246 897 detections drawn from 3491 public XMM-Newton observations over a 7-year interval, which relate to 191 870 unique sources. The catalogue fields cover a sky area of more than 500 deg^2. The non-overlapping sky area is ~360 deg2 (~1% of the sky) as many regions of the sky are observed more than once by XMM-Newton. The catalogue probes a large sky area at the flux limit where the bulk of the objects that contribute to the X-ray background lie and provides a major resource for generating large, well-defined X-ray selected source samples, studying the X-ray source population and identifying rare object types. The main characteristics of the catalogue are presented, including its photometric and astrometric properties Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA. The catalogue and full Tables D.1 and D.2 are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/493/339

  10. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Luigi; Rosenzweig, J.; Serafini, Luca

    2007-09-01

    Plenary sessions. RF deflector based sub-Ps beam diagnostics: application to FEL and advanced accelerators / D. Alesini. Production of fermtosecond pulses and micron beam spots for high brightness electron beam applications / S.G. Anderson ... [et al.]. Wakefields of sub-picosecond electron bunches / K.L.F. Bane. Diamond secondary emitter / I. Ben-Zvi ... [et al.]. Parametric optimization for an X-ray free electron laser with a laser wiggler / R. Bonifacio, N. Piovella and M.M. Cola. Needle cathodes for high-brightness beams / C.H. Boulware ... [et al.]. Non linear evolution of short pulses in FEL cascaded undulators and the FEL harmonic cascade / L. Giannessi and P. Musumeci. High brightness laser induced multi-meV electron/proton sources / D. Giulietti ... [et al.]. Emittance limitation of a conditioned beam in a strong focusing FEL undulator / Z. Huang, G. Stupakov and S. Reiche. Scaled models: space-charge dominated electron storage rings / R.A. Kishek ... [et al.]. High brightness beam applications: energy recovered linacs / G.A. Krafft. Maximizing brightness in photoinjectors / C. Limborg-Deprey and H. Tomizawa. Ultracold electron sources / O.J. Luiten ... [et al.]. Scaling laws of structure-based optical accelerators / A. Mizrahi, V. Karagodsky and L. Schächter. High brightness beams-applications to free-electron lasers / S. Reiche. Conception of photo-injectors for the CTF3 experiment / R. Roux. Superconducting RF photoinjectors: an overview / J. Sekutowicz. Status and perspectives of photo injector developments for high brightness beams / F. Stephan. Results from the UCLA/FNLP underdense plasma lens experiment / M.C. Thompson ... [et al.]. Medical application of multi-beam compton scattering monochromatic tunable hard X-ray source / M. Uesaka ... [et al.]. Design of a 2 kA, 30 fs RF-photoinjector for waterbag compression / S.B. Van Der Geer, O.J. Luiten and M.J. De Loos. Proposal for a high-brightness pulsed electron source / M. Zolotorev ... [et al

  11. A survey of job satisfaction, sources of stress and psychological symptoms among general practitioners in Leeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, K; House, A; Dowell, A

    1998-03-01

    The past seven years have seen rapid changes in general practice in the United Kingdom (UK), commencing with the 1990 contract. During the same period, concern about the health and morale of general practitioners (GPs) has increased and a recruitment crisis has developed. To determine levels of psychological symptoms, job satisfaction, and subjective ill health in GPs and their relationship to practice characteristics, and to compare levels of job satisfaction since the introduction of the 1990 GP contract with those found before 1990. Postal questionnaire survey of all GP principals on the Leeds Health Authority list. The main outcome measures included quantitative measures of practice characteristics, job satisfaction, mental health (General Health Questionnaire), and general physical health. Qualitative statements about work conditions, job satisfaction, and mental health were collected. A total of 285/406 GPs (70%) returned the questionnaires. One hundred and forty-eight (52%) scored 3 or more on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), which indicates a high level of psychological symptoms. One hundred and sixty GPs (56%) felt that work had affected their recent physical health. Significant associations were found between GHQ-12 scores, total job satisfaction scores, and GPs' perceptions that work had affected their physical health. Problems with physical and mental health were associated with several aspects of workload, including list size, number of sessions worked per week, amount of time spent on call, and use of deputizing services. In the qualitative part of the survey, GPs reported overwork and excessive hours, paperwork and administration, recent National Health Service (NHS) changes, and the 1990 GP contract as the most stressful aspects of their work. Fifty-two per cent of GPs in Leeds who responded showed high levels of psychological symptoms. Job satisfaction was lower than in a national survey conducted in 1987, and GPs expressed the least

  12. Trusting Social Media as a Source of Health Information: Online Surveys Comparing the United States, Korea, and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hayeon; Omori, Kikuko; Kim, Jihyun; Tenzek, Kelly E; Morey Hawkins, Jennifer; Lin, Wan-Ying; Kim, Yong-Chan; Jung, Joo-Young

    2016-03-14

    The Internet has increasingly become a popular source of health information by connecting individuals with health content, experts, and support. More and more, individuals turn to social media and Internet sites to share health information and experiences. Although online health information seeking occurs worldwide, limited empirical studies exist examining cross-cultural differences in perceptions about user-generated, experience-based information compared to expertise-based information sources. To investigate if cultural variations exist in patterns of online health information seeking, specifically in perceptions of online health information sources. It was hypothesized that Koreans and Hongkongers, compared to Americans, would be more likely to trust and use experience-based knowledge shared in social Internet sites, such as social media and online support groups. Conversely, Americans, compared to Koreans and Hongkongers, would value expertise-based knowledge prepared and approved by doctors or professional health providers more. Survey questionnaires were developed in English first and then translated into Korean and Chinese. The back-translation method ensured the standardization of questions. Surveys were administered using a standardized recruitment strategy and data collection methods. A total of 826 participants living in metropolitan areas from the United States (n=301), Korea (n=179), and Hong Kong (n=337) participated in the study. We found significant cultural differences in information processing preferences for online health information. A planned contrast test revealed that Koreans and Hongkongers showed more trust in experience-based health information sources (blogs: t451.50=11.21, Psocial networking sites [SNS]: t466.75=11.36, P<.001) and also reported using blogs (t515.31=6.67, P<.001) and SNS (t529.22=4.51, P<.001) more frequently than Americans. Americans showed a stronger preference for using expertise-based information sources (eg, Web

  13. Energy and Emission Characteristics of a Short-Arc Xenon Flash Lamp Under "Saturated" Optical Brightness Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrukov, A. S.; Kireev, S. G.; Kozlov, N. P.; Shashkovskii, S. G.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of a study of the electrical, energy, and spectral brightness characteristics of an experimental three-electrode high-pressure xenon flash lamp under conditions ensuring close to maximum possible spectral brightness for the xenon emission. We show that under saturated optical brightness conditions (brightness temperature in the visible region of the spectrum 30,000 K), emission of a pulsed discharge in xenon is quite different from the emission from an ideal blackbody: the maximum brightness temperatures are 24,000 K in the short-wavelength UV region and 19,000 K in the near IR range. The relative fraction of UV radiation in the emission spectrum of the lamp is >50%, which lets us consider such lamps as promising broadband sources of radiation with high spectral brightness for many important practical applications.

  14. Dark age of sourcing cadavers in developing countries: a Nigerian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, G E; Udemezue, O O; Obikili, E N

    2011-10-01

    Throughout the history of medical science, the sourcing, storage, and management of cadavers for the study of gross anatomy have been problematic issues. As presented in this report, a study of these issues was conducted in the departments of anatomy of medical schools in Nigeria. To establish the extent and depth of the prevailing difficulties in the sourcing of cadavers, 18 (62.1%) of the Departments of Anatomy that qualified for this study were used. In sum, 94.4% of these schools reported an inadequate number of cadavers for study. The estimated ages of the cadavers were between 20 and 40 years and 85% of the schools reported more than 75% of the cadavers to be from the lower socioeconomic class. Altogether, 94.4% of the schools reported a male dominance of more than 95%. More than 72% of the schools reported that more than 90% of the cadavers were criminals that had been killed by shooting, less than 10% were unclaimed and unidentified corpses, and 0% originated from body bequest. No form of screening exercises for diseases and infective microorganisms was noted for all the schools, and there were no set standards for the acceptance or rejection of cadavers. Causative factors for the profile of available cadavers such as culture and religion were noted. This study was designed to look at various issues associated with the sourcing of cadavers for Anatomy education in typical developing African countries like Nigeria. As outlined in this report, the creation of legislation and the promotion and funding of programs highlighting the importance of body donation are crucial for improving the field of medical education. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Nimbus-5 ESMR Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) data set consists of gridded brightness temperature arrays for the Arctic and Antarctic, spanning 11...

  16. AN ALL-SKY CATALOG OF BRIGHT M DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, Sebastien; Gaidos, Eric

    2011-01-01

    We present an all-sky catalog of M dwarf stars with apparent infrared magnitude J 40 mas yr -1 , supplemented on the bright end with the Tycho-2 catalog. Completeness tests which account for kinematic (proper motion) bias suggest that our catalog represents ∼75% of the estimated ∼11, 900 M dwarfs with J < 10 expected to populate the entire sky. Our catalog is, however, significantly more complete for the northern sky (∼90%) than it is for the south (∼60%). Stars are identified as cool, red M dwarfs from a combination of optical and infrared color cuts, and are distinguished from background M giants and highly reddened stars using either existing parallax measurements or, if such measurements are lacking, using their location in an optical-to-infrared reduced proper motion diagram. These bright M dwarfs are all prime targets for exoplanet surveys using the Doppler radial velocity or transit methods; the combination of low-mass and bright apparent magnitude should make possible the detection of Earth-size planets on short-period orbits using currently available techniques. Parallax measurements, when available, and photometric distance estimates are provided for all stars, and these place most systems within 60 pc of the Sun. Spectral type estimated from V - J color shows that most of the stars range from K7 to M4, with only a few late M dwarfs, all within 20 pc. Proximity to the Sun also makes these stars good targets for high-resolution exoplanet imaging searches, especially if younger objects can be identified on the basis of X-ray or UV excess. For that purpose, we include X-ray flux from ROSAT and FUV/NUV ultraviolet magnitudes from GALEX for all stars for which a counterpart can be identified in those catalogs. Additional photometric data include optical magnitudes from Digitized Sky Survey plates and infrared magnitudes from the Two Micron All Sky Survey.

  17. Linear feature detection algorithm for astronomical surveys - II. Defocusing effects on meteor tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektešević, Dino; Vinković, Dejan; Rasmussen, Andrew; Ivezić, Željko

    2018-03-01

    Given the current limited knowledge of meteor plasma micro-physics and its interaction with the surrounding atmosphere and ionosphere, meteors are a highly interesting observational target for high-resolution wide-field astronomical surveys. Such surveys are capable of resolving the physical size of meteor plasma heads, but they produce large volumes of images that need to be automatically inspected for possible existence of long linear features produced by meteors. Here, we show how big aperture sky survey telescopes detect meteors as defocused tracks with a central brightness depression. We derive an analytic expression for a defocused point source meteor track and use it to calculate brightness profiles of meteors modelled as uniform brightness discs. We apply our modelling to meteor images as seen by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope telescopes. The expression is validated by Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations of photons travelling through the atmosphere and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope telescope optics. We show that estimates of the meteor distance and size can be extracted from the measured full width at half-maximum and the strength of the central dip in the observed brightness profile. However, this extraction becomes difficult when the defocused meteor track is distorted by the atmospheric seeing or contaminated by a long-lasting glowing meteor trail. The full width at half-maximum of satellite tracks is distinctly narrower than meteor values, which enables removal of a possible confusion between satellites and meteors.

  18. Characteristics of the Plasma Source for Ground Ionosphere Simulation Surveyed by Disk-Type Langmuir Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kwangsun; Lee, Junchan; Kim, Songoo; Chung, Taejin; Shin, Goo-Hwan; Cha, Wonho; Min, Kyoungwook; Kim, Vitaly P.

    2017-12-01

    A space plasma facility has been operated with a back-diffusion-type plasma source installed in a mid-sized vacuum chamber with a diameter of 1.5 m located in Satellite Technology Research Center (SaTReC), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). To generate plasma with a temperature and density similar to the ionospheric plasma, nickel wires coated with carbonate solution were used as filaments that emit thermal electrons, and the accelerated thermal electrons emitted from the heated wires collide with the neutral gas to form plasma inside the chamber. By using a disk-type Langmuir probe installed inside the vacuum chamber, the generation of plasma similar to the space environment was validated. The characteristics of the plasma according to the grid and plate anode voltages were investigated. The grid voltage of the plasma source is realized as a suitable parameter for manipulating the electron density, while the plate voltage is suitable for adjusting the electron temperature. A simple physical model based on the collision cross-section of electron impact on nitrogen molecule was established to explain the plasma generation mechanism.

  19. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is proposed that Freeman's discovery that the extrapolated central surface brightness of spiral galaxies is approximately constant can be simply explained if the galaxies contain a spheroidal component which dominates the light in their outer isophotes. Calculations of an effective central surface brightness indicate a wide spread of values. This requires either a wide spread in disc properties or significant spheroidal components or, most probably, both. (author)

  20. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.; Phillipps, S.

    1985-01-01

    The intrinsic surface brightness Ssub(e) of 500 disc galaxies (0<=T<=9) drawn from the Second Reference Catalogue is computed and it is shown that Ssub(e) does not correlate significantly with Msub(B), (B-V) or type. This is consistent with the notion that there is a heavy selection bias in favour of disc galaxies with that particular surface brightness which allows inclusion in the catalogue over the largest volume of space. (author)

  1. MASTER: bright high amplitude CV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kornilov, V.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Shumkov, V.; Gabovich, A.

    2018-03-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 19h 52m 10.21s -61d 41m 04.9s on 2018-03-05.05144 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is (mlim=19.1).

  2. A preliminary nationwide survey of the presence of emerging contaminants in drinking and source waters in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Kelly C; Grassi, Marco Tadeu; Vidal, Cristiane; Pescara, Igor C; Jardim, Wilson F; Fernandes, Andreia N; Sodré, Fernando F; Almeida, Fernanda V; Santana, Joyce S; Canela, Maria Cristina; Nunes, Camila R O; Bichinho, Kátia M; Severo, Flaviana J R

    2016-12-01

    This is the first nationwide survey of emerging contaminants in Brazilian waters. One hundred drinking water samples were investigated in 22 Brazilian state capitals. In addition, seven source water samples from two of the most populous regions of the country were evaluated. Samples were collected from June to September of 2011 and again during the same period in 2012. The study covered emerging contaminants of different classes, including hormones, plasticizers, herbicides, triclosan and caffeine. The analytical method for the determination of the compounds was based on solid-phase extraction followed by analysis via liquid chromatography electrospray triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Caffeine, triclosan, atrazine, phenolphthalein and bisphenol A were found in at least one of the samples collected in the two sampling campaigns. Caffeine and atrazine were the most frequently detected substances in both drinking and source water. Caffeine concentrations in drinking water ranged from 1.8ngL -1 to values above 2.0μgL -1 while source-water concentrations varied from 40ngL -1 to about 19μgL -1 . For atrazine, concentrations were found in the range from 2.0 to 6.0ngL -1 in drinking water and at concentrations of up to 15ngL -1 in source water. The widespread presence of caffeine in samples of treated water is an indication of the presence of domestic sewage in the source water, considering that caffeine is a compound of anthropogenic origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy-exchange collisions of dark-bright-bright vector solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, R; Manikandan, N; Aravinthan, K

    2015-12-01

    We find a dark component guiding the practically interesting bright-bright vector one-soliton to two different parametric domains giving rise to different physical situations by constructing a more general form of three-component dark-bright-bright mixed vector one-soliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with nine free real parameters. Moreover our main investigation of the collision dynamics of such mixed vector solitons by constructing the multisoliton solution of the generalized Manakov model with the help of Hirota technique reveals that the dark-bright-bright vector two-soliton supports energy-exchange collision dynamics. In particular the dark component preserves its initial form and the energy-exchange collision property of the bright-bright vector two-soliton solution of the Manakov model during collision. In addition the interactions between bound state dark-bright-bright vector solitons reveal oscillations in their amplitudes. A similar kind of breathing effect was also experimentally observed in the Bose-Einstein condensates. Some possible ways are theoretically suggested not only to control this breathing effect but also to manage the beating, bouncing, jumping, and attraction effects in the collision dynamics of dark-bright-bright vector solitons. The role of multiple free parameters in our solution is examined to define polarization vector, envelope speed, envelope width, envelope amplitude, grayness, and complex modulation of our solution. It is interesting to note that the polarization vector of our mixed vector one-soliton evolves in sphere or hyperboloid depending upon the initial parametric choices.

  4. The Calan-Yale Deep Extragalactic Research (CYDER) Survey: Optical Properties and Deep Spectroscopy of Extragalactic Serendipitous X-Ray Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppi, P.S.; Treister, E.; Castander, F.J.; Maccarone, T.J.; Gawiser, E.; Maza, J.; Herrera, D.; Urry, C.M.; Gonzalez, V.; Montoya, C.; Pineda, P.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of deep optical imaging and spectroscopy of archival Chandra sources with intermediate fluxes (>1e-15 erg/cm2/sec). 267 Chandra sources were detected in 5 archival fields, with 106 spectroscopic IDs obtained using Magellan and the VLT. The survey is designed to fill the gap

  5. Spectroscopic Follow-up of X-Ray Sources in the ChaMPlane Survey: Identification of a New Cataclysmic Variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Servillat, M.; Grindlay, J.; van den Berg, M.; Hong, J.; Zhao, P.; Allen, B.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-object optical spectroscopy follow-up study of X-ray sources in a field along the Galactic plane (l = 327fdg42, b = 2fdg26) which is part of the Chandra Multi-wavelength Plane survey (ChaMPlane). We obtained spectra for 46 stars, including 15 likely counterparts to X-ray sources,

  6. No Time for Dead Time: Timing Analysis of Bright Black Hole Binaries with NuSTAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachetti, M.; Harrison, F.A.; Cook, R.; Tomsick, J.; Schmid, C.; Grefenstette, B.W.; Barret, D.; Boggs, S.E.; Christensen, F.E.; Craig, W.W.; Fabian, A.C.; Fürst, F.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C.J.; Kara, E.; Maccarone, T.J.; Miller, J.M.; Pottschmidt, K.; Stern, D.; Uttley, P.; Walton, D.J.; Wilms, J.; Zhang, W.W.

    2015-01-01

    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time per

  7. Optical microvariability of bright type 2 quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polednikova, Jana; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Cepa, Jordi; de Diego Onsurbe, José Antonio; González-Serrano, José Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    We present results from a project focused on searching optical microvariabilty (also known as ``intra-night'' variability) in type 2 - obscured - quasars. Optical microvariability can be described as very small changes in the flux, typically in the order of hundredths of magnitude, which can be observed on timescales of hours. Such studies have been so far conducted for samples of blazars and type 1, unobscured, AGNs, where the optical microvariability was detected with success. We have focused on obscured targets which would pose a challenge to the AGN standard model. In the present work, however, we have observed a sample of three bright (g mag < 17) type 2 quasar, based on the catalog of type 2 quasars from SDSS of Reyes et al. (2008). The observations were carried out with the 1.5 meter telescope at San Pedro Martir observatory in Mexico. The sample was observed during an observation period of four days in Johnsons V filter, resulting in at least two continuous intervals of observations per target during the observational run. We have obtained differential light curves for our sources as well as for the comparison stars. They were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance statistical test (ANOVA), which has been repeatedly used in the past for studies of unobscured targets. Based on the results from the statistical analysis, we show that at least two out of three observed targets appear to be variable on time scales of hours. So far, this is the first study which confirmed existence of optical microvariability in type 2 quasars.

  8. Radiological Assessment Survey of the Vance road Facility Source Vault Building Materials, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    From the 1950s, the Vance Road laboratory was the site of extensive nuclear medical research and involved the used of numerous radionuclides. These nuclides were stored in a source vault stored on the first floor of the facility. Nuclear medical research is no longer conducted in this facility, and the source vault was remediated in preparation for converting the area to office space and general use. The Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of ORISE performed a radiological assessment survey of the source vault and its associated miscellaneous building materials and laboratory equipment in preparation for the conversion to general use space

  9. GRB 990712 optical decay: indication of bright host galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, J.; Courbin, F.; Cuadra, J.; Minniti, D.

    We have obtained a 5-min R-band exposure of the optical afterglow of GRB 990712 (Frontera, GCN #385; Bakos et al., GCN #387) with the ESO 3.5-m NTT on 16.403 July 1999 UT. We detect an unresolved (seeing FWHM = 1.8") object at RA (2000) = 22 31 53.03, Dec (2000) = -73 24 28.3 (with a positional uncertainty of +- 0.6" relative to the USNO-A2.0 system), consistent with the position of the bright decaying source discovered by Bakos et al. (IAUC 7225). We have tied our photometry to the PLANET photometric zeropoint (K. Sahu, personal communication) and find that the object has continued to fade to R = 21.48 +- 0.02 (systematic) +- 0.05 (random). The combined SAAO data (Bakos et al., IAUC 7225) and NTT data indicate that the light curve is leveling off relative to a power law decline. Assuming that the light curve can be modeled as the combined effects of a power law decline of the OT and a constant contribution from the host galaxy we find an OT decay slope of -0.81 (i.e. a rather slow decay) and a bright host galaxy with R = 22.0. Such a bright host galaxy would be consistent with its fairly low redshift (z = 0.43) and would possibly even account for the prominent emission lines seen in the VLT spectrum (Galama et al., GCN #388). We caution however that the hypothesis of a bright host galaxy is based on just a few data points. To test this hypothesis continued monitoring of the system is therefore urged. The NTT image and the R-band light curve are posted at http://www.astro.ku.dk/~jens/grb990712/ .

  10. Help-Seeking on Facebook Versus More Traditional Sources of Help: Cross-Sectional Survey of Military Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Alan R; Marsh, Heather E; Liebow, Samuel B L; Chen, Jason I; Forsberg, Christopher W; Nicolaidis, Christina; Saha, Somnath; Dobscha, Steven K

    2018-02-26

    The media has devoted significant attention to anecdotes of individuals who post messages on Facebook prior to suicide. However, it is unclear to what extent social media is perceived as a source of help or how it compares to other sources of potential support for mental health problems. This study aimed to evaluate the degree to which military veterans with depression use social media for help-seeking in comparison to other more traditional sources of help. Cross-sectional self-report survey of 270 adult military veterans with probable major depression. Help-seeking intentions were measured with a modified General Help-Seeking Questionnaire. Facebook users and nonusers were compared via t tests, Chi-square, and mixed effects regression models. Associations between types of help-seeking were examined using mixed effects models. The majority of participants were users of social media, primarily Facebook (n=162). Mean overall help-seeking intentions were similar between Facebook users and nonusers, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Facebook users were very unlikely to turn to Facebook as a venue for support when experiencing either emotional problems or suicidal thoughts. Compared to help-seeking intentions for Facebook, help-seeking intentions for formal (eg, psychologists), informal (eg, friends), or phone helpline sources of support were significantly higher. Results did not substantially change when examining users of other social media, women, or younger adults. In its current form, the social media platform Facebook is not seen as a venue to seek help for emotional problems or suicidality among veterans with major depression in the United States. ©Alan R Teo, Heather E Marsh, Samuel B L Liebow, Jason I Chen, Christopher W Forsberg, Christina Nicolaidis, Somnath Saha, Steven K Dobscha. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 26.02.2018.

  11. Study on the optimization of the water Cherenkov detector array of the LHAASO project for surveying VHE gamma ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Cai; Chen, Ming-Jun; Jia, Huan-Yu; Gao, Bo; Wu, Han-Rong; Yao, Zhi-Guo; Yuo, Xiao-Hao; Zhou, Bin; Zhu, Feng-Rong

    2014-01-01

    It is prpopsed that a water Cherenkov detector array, LHAASO-WCDA, is to be built at Shangri-la, Yunnan Province, China. As one of the major components of the LHAASO project, the main purpose of it is to survey the northern sky for gamma ray sources in the energy range of 100 GeV-30 TeV. In order to design the water Cherenkov array efficiently to economize the budget, a Monte Carlo simulation is carried out. With the help of the simulation, the cost performance of different configurations of the array are obtained and compared with each other, serving as a guide for the more detailed design of the experiment in the next step.

  12. Study on the optimization of the water Cherenkov detector array of the LHAASO project for surveying VHE gamma ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huicai; Chen Mingjun; Gao Bo; Wu Hanrong; Yao Zhiguo; Zhou Bin; Jia Huanyu; Zhu Fengrong; You Xiaohao

    2014-01-01

    It is proposed that a water Cherenkov detector array, LHAASO-WCDA, is to be built at Shangri-la, Yunnan Province, China. As one of the major components of the LHAASO project, the main purpose of it is to survey the northern sky for gamma ray sources in the energy range of 100 GeV-30 TeV. In order to design the water Cherenkov array efficiently to economize the budget, a Monte Carlo simulation is carried out. With the help of the simulation, the cost performance of different configurations of the array are obtained and compared with each other, serving as a guide for the more detailed design of the experiment in the next step. (authors)

  13. Major food sources contributing to energy intake--a nationwide survey of Brazilians aged 10 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichieri, Rosely; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Araújo, Marina Campos; de Moura Souza, Amanda; Yokoo, Edna Massae; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2015-05-28

    Identification of major sources of energy in the diet helps to implement dietary recommendations to reduce obesity. To determine the food sources of energy consumed by Brazilians, we used the traditional method of ranking energy contribution of selected food groups and also compared days with and without consumption of specific food groups. Analysis was based on two non-consecutive days of dietary record from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey, conducted among 34,003 Brazilians (aged 10 years or more), taking into account the complex design of the survey. Comparison of days with and without consumption gave more consistent results, with sweets and cookies as the most important contributors to energy intake, increasing 992 kJ/d (95% CI 883, 1096) for those days when consumption of cakes, cookies and desserts was reported compared to days without their consumption. Savoury snacks, cheese and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) also increase energy intake by about 600 kJ. The only group associated with decreased energy intake was vegetable (-155 kJ; 95% CI -272, -37). Consumption of beans, milk and fruits increased the energy intake by about 210 kJ. In total, the mean energy intake of the group was 8000 kJ. Except for the consumption of vegetables, all of the other ten food groups analysed were associated with increased energy intake. Sweets and cookies may increase the energy intake by 12% and SSB by 7%, indicating that these two groups are major targets for improving healthy eating by reducing energy intake; whereas vegetable intake is associated with the reduction of energy content of the diet.

  14. A high brightness proton injector for the Tandetron accelerator at Jožef Stefan Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelicon, Primož, E-mail: primoz.pelicon@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Association EURATOM-MHEST, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Podaru, Nicolae C., E-mail: info@highvolteng.com [High Voltage Engineering Europa B.V., P.O. Box 99, Amersfoort 3800AB (Netherlands); Vavpetič, Primož; Jeromel, Luka [Jožef Stefan Institute, Association EURATOM-MHEST, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogrinc Potocnik, Nina [Jožef Stefan Institute, Association EURATOM-MHEST, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); LOTRIČ Metrology ltd, Selca 163, SI-4227 Selca (Slovenia); Ondračka, Simon [Jožef Stefan Institute, Association EURATOM-MHEST, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gottdang, Andreas; Mous, Dirk J.M. [High Voltage Engineering Europa B.V., P.O. Box 99, Amersfoort 3800AB (Netherlands)

    2014-08-01

    Jožef Stefan Institute recently commissioned a high brightness H{sup −} ion beam injection system for its existing tandem accelerator facility. Custom developed by High Voltage Engineering Europa, the multicusp ion source has been tuned to deliver at the entrance of the Tandetron™ accelerator H{sup −} ion beams with a measured brightness of 17.1 A m{sup −2} rad{sup −2} eV{sup −1} at 170 μA, equivalent to an energy normalized beam emittance of 0.767 π mm mrad MeV{sup 1/2}. Upgrading the accelerator facility with the new injection system provides two main advantages. First, the high brightness of the new ion source enables the reduction of object slit aperture and the reduction of acceptance angle at the nuclear microprobe, resulting in a reduced beam size at selected beam intensity, which significantly improves the probe resolution for micro-PIXE applications. Secondly, the upgrade strongly enhances the accelerator up-time since H and He beams are produced by independent ion sources, introducing a constant availability of {sup 3}He beam for fusion-related research with NRA. The ion beam particle losses and ion beam emittance growth imply that the aforementioned beam brightness is reduced by transport through the ion optical system. To obtain quantitative information on the available brightness at the high-energy side of the accelerator, the proton beam brightness is determined in the nuclear microprobe beamline. Based on the experience obtained during the first months of operation for micro-PIXE applications, further necessary steps are indicated to obtain optimal coupling of the new ion source with the accelerator to increase the normalized high-energy proton beam brightness at the JSI microprobe, currently at 14 A m{sup −2} rad{sup −2} eV{sup −1}, with the output current at 18% of its available maximum.

  15. Future Looks Bright for Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    First Light for the PRIMA instrument The PRIMA instrument [1] of the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) recently saw "first light" at its new home atop Cerro Paranal in Chile. When fully operational, PRIMA will boost the capabilities of the VLTI to see sources much fainter than any previous interferometers, and enable astrometric precision unmatched by any other existing astronomical facility. PRIMA will be a unique tool for the detection of exoplanets. First Light of the PRIMA Instrument ESO PR Photo 29a/08 Preparing for PRIMA "PRIMA is specifically designed to see if one star 'wobbles' to and fro because it is has unseen planetary companions", says instrument scientist Gerard van Belle. "This allows us to not only detect exoplanets, but to measure their mass." PRIMA's expected astrometric precision of tens of micro-arcseconds is unmatched by any other existing astronomical facility, whether on the ground or in orbit [2]. In addition to taking astrometric measurements PRIMA will be the key to the imaging of faint sources with the VLTI using the science instruments AMBER and MIDI. Interferometry combines the light received by two or more telescopes, concentrating on tiny differences between the signals to measure angles with exquisite precision. Using this technique PRIMA can pick out details as sharply as a single telescope with a diameter equivalent to the largest distance between the telescopes. For the VLTI, the distance between the two telescope elements is about 200 metres. The PRIMA instrument is unique amongst the VLTI instruments, in that it is effectively two interferometers in one. PRIMA will take data from two sources on the sky simultaneously: the brighter source can be used for tracking, allowing the interferometer to "stare" at the fainter source for longer than is now possible with conventional interferometers. Although there have been earlier pathfinder experiments to test this technique, PRIMA represents the first facility

  16. Measurement of Sky Surface Brightness Fluctuations at λ=4 Microns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Bock, James J.; Ganga, Ken M.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Uemizu, Kazunori; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Lange, Andrew E.; Matsumoto, Toshio; Watabe, Toyoki

    2002-12-01

    We present a measurement of faint-source confusion in deep, wide-field 4 μm images. The 1.8d×1.8d images with 17" resolution are centered about the nearby edge-on spiral galaxies NGC 4565 and NGC 5907. After removing statistical noise and gain fluctuations in the focal plane array, we measure spatial fluctuations in the sky brightness to be δνIν=2.74+/-0.14 nW m-2 sr-1, approximately 1% of the diffuse background level observed in a single pixel. The brightness fluctuations are confirmed to be associated with the sky by subtracting sequential images of the same region. An autocorrelation analysis shows the fluctuations are well described by unresolved point sources. We see no evidence for surface brightness fluctuations on larger angular scales (2'S)=1.04+0.86-0.34 nW m-2 sr-1 to the cosmic infrared background, evaluated at S=4.0×10-8 nW m-2. From the fluctuation data we can determine the integrated source counts N(>S)=1.79+0.26-0.40×107 sr-1, evaluated at S=4.0×10-8 nW m-2. The observed fluctuations are consistent with reddened K-band galaxy number counts. The number counts of extracted point sources with flux νFν>6.3×10-7 nW m-2 are dominated by stars and agree well with the Galactic stellar model of Wright & Reese. Removing the stellar contribution from DIRBE maps with zodiacal subtraction results in a residual brightness of 14.0+/-2.6 (22.2+/-5.9) nW m-2 sr-1 at 3.5 (4.9) μm for the NGC 5907 field and 24.0+/-2.7 (36.8+/-6.0) nW m-2 sr-1 at 3.5 (4.9) μm for the NGC 4565 field. The NGC 5907 residuals are consistent with tentative detections of the infrared background reported by Dwek & Arendt, Wright & Reese, and Gorjian, Wright, & Chary.

  17. Bright X-ray transient in the LMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, R.; Read, A. M.; Li, D. Y.

    2018-01-01

    We report a bright X-ray transient in the LMC from an XMM-Newton slew made on 5th January 2018. The source, XMMSL2 J053629.4-675940, had a soft X-ray (0.2-2 keV) count rate in the EPIC-pn detector, medium filter of 1.82+/-0.56 c/s, equivalent to a flux Fx=2.3+/-0.7E-12 ergs/s/cm2 for a nominal spectrum of a power-law of slope 2 absorbed by a column NH=3E20 cm^-2.

  18. Proxy magnetometry of the photosphere: why are G-band bright points so bright?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.; Kiselman, Dan; Voort, Luc Rouppe van der; Plez, Bertrand

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the formation of G-band bright points in terms of standard uxtube modeling, in particular the 1D LTE models constructed by Solanki and coworkers. Combined with LTE spectral synthesis they explain observed G-band bright point contrasts quite well. The G-band contrast increase over the

  19. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  20. Leveraging brightness from transportation lighting systems through light source color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Roadway transportation lighting is installed for multiple reasons including traffic safety and pedestrian : security. Judgments of pedestrian safety and security along roadways are not strictly correlated to : specified light levels, but the color of...

  1. Spectrographic mask for digital registration of bright source spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Xavier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present schematic diagrams for the construction of a spectrographic mask attachable to a camera objective in order to capture spectra using simple CD or DVD gratings. The mask is made of two parts: an adapter ring and elbow-shaped blockage for suitable registration of spectra in the lab and outdoors. By using a free software, we analyze and discuss the calibration of the wavelength scale of the solar spectrum, which allows us to identify many chemical elements in it. In the conclusion, we further discuss some interesting projects to be carried out by students using the idea.

  2. Bright perspectives for nuclear photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Habs, D.

    2014-05-01

    With the advent of new high-power, short-pulse laser facilities in combination with novel technologies for the production of highly brilliant, intense γ beams (like, e.g., Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) in Bucharest, MEGaRay in Livermore or a planned upgrade of the HIγS facility at Duke University), unprecedented perspectives will open up in the coming years for photonuclear physics both in basic sciences as in various fields of applications. Ultra-high sensitivity will be enabled by an envisaged increase of the γ-beam spectral density from the presently typical 102γ/eVs to about 104γ/eVs, thus enabling a new quality of nuclear photonics [1], assisted by new γ-optical elements [2]. Photonuclear reactions with highly brilliant γ beams will allow to produce radioisotopes for nuclear medicine with much higher specific activity and/or more economically than with conventional methods. This will open the door for completely new clinical applications of radioisotopes [3]. The isotopic, state-selective sensitivity of the well-established technique of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) will be boosted by the drastically reduced energy bandwidth (nuclear materials, such as radioactive waste management, the detection of nuclear fissile material in the recycling process or the detection of clandestine fissile materials. Moreover, also secondary sources like low-energy, pulsed, polarized neutron beams of high intensity and high brilliance [4] or a new type of positron source with significantly increased brilliance, for the first time fully polarized [5], can be realized and lead to new applications in solid state physics or material sciences.

  3. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. II. The IRAS faint source survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.; Conrow, T.P.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1990-01-01

    The new IRAS Faint Source Survey data base is used to confirm the conclusion of Hacking et al. (1987) that the 60 micron source counts fainter than about 0.5 Jy lie in excess of predictions based on nonevolving model populations. The existence of an anisotropy between the northern and southern Galactic caps discovered by Rowan-Robinson et al. (1986) and Needham and Rowan-Robinson (1988) is confirmed, and it is found to extend below their sensitivity limit to about 0.3 Jy in 60 micron flux density. The count anisotropy at f(60) greater than 0.3 can be interpreted reasonably as due to the Local Supercluster; however, no one structure accounting for the fainter anisotropy can be easily identified in either optical or far-IR two-dimensional sky distributions. The far-IR galaxy sky distributions are considerably smoother than distributions from the published optical galaxy catalogs. It is likely that structure of the large size discussed here have been discriminated against in earlier studies due to insufficient volume sampling. 105 refs

  4. STARS4ALL Night Sky Brightness Photometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Zamorano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the main features of TESS-W, the first version of a series of inexpensive but reliable photometers that will be used to measure night sky brightness. The bandpass is extended to the red with respect of that of the Sky Quality Meter (SQM. TESS-W connects to a router via WIFI and it sends automatically the brightness values to a data repository using Internet of Things protocols. The device includes an infrared sensor to estimate the cloud coverage. It is designed for fixed stations to monitor the evolution of the sky brightness. The photometer could also be used in local mode connected to a computer or tablet to gather data from a moving vehicle. The photometer is being developed within STARS4ALL project, a collective awareness platform for promoting dark skies in Europe, funded by the EU. We intend to extend the existing professional networks to a citizen-based network of photometers. 

  5. Shutter heating system of Antarctic bright star survey telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Dong, Shucheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Zhang, Hongfei; Wang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A heat preservation system for mechanical shutter in Antarctic is introduced in the paper. The system consists of the heat preservation chamber, the host controller STM32F103C8T6 with peripheral circuit and the control algorithm. The whole design is carried out on the basis of the low temperature requirement, including the cavity structure and thermal insulation. The heat preservation chamber is used to keep the shutter warm and support the weight of the camera. Using PT100 as the temperature sensor, the signal processing circuit converts the temperature to the voltage which is then digitized by the 12 bit ADC in the STM32. The host controller transforms the voltage data into temperature, and through the tuning of the Fussy PID algorithm which controls the duty cycle of the MOSFET, the temperature control of chamber is realized. The System has been tested in the cryogenic environment for a long time, with characteristic of low temperature resistance, small volume, high accuracy of temperature control as well as remote control and detection.

  6. Richard Bright and his neurological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2009-01-01

    Richard Bright was one of the famous triumvirate of Guy's Hospital physicians in the Victorian era. Remembered for his account of glomerulonephritis (Bright's disease) he also made many important and original contributions to medicine and neurology. These included his work on cortical epileptogenesis, descriptions of simple partial (Jacksonian) seizures, infantile convulsions, and a variety of nervous diseases. Most notable were his reports of neurological studies including papers on traumatic tetanus, syringomyelia, arteries of the brain, contractures of spinal origin, tumours of the base of the brain, and narcolepsy. His career and these contributions are outlined. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Trust in Health Information Sources: Survey Analysis of Variation by Sociodemographic and Tobacco Use Status in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Johnson, Cati G; Boeckman, Lindsay M; White, Ashley H; Burbank, Andrea D; Paulson, Sjonna; Beebe, Laura A

    2018-02-12

    Modern technology (ie, websites and social media) has significantly changed social mores in health information access and delivery. Although mass media campaigns for health intervention have proven effective and cost-effective in changing health behavior at a population scale, this is best studied in traditional media sources (ie, radio and television). Digital health interventions are options that use short message service/text messaging, social media, and internet technology. Although exposure to these products is becoming ubiquitous, electronic health information is novel, incompletely disseminated, and frequently inaccurate, which decreases public trust. Previous research has shown that audience trust in health care providers significantly moderates health outcomes, demographics significantly influence audience trust in electronic media, and preexisting health behaviors such as smoking status significantly moderate audience receptivity to traditional mass media. Therefore, modern health educators must assess audience trust in all sources, both media (traditional and digital) and interpersonal, to balance pros and cons before structuring multicomponent community health interventions. We aimed to explore current trust and moderators of trust in health information sources given recent changes in digital health information access and delivery to inform design of future health interventions in Oklahoma. We conducted phone surveys of a cross-sectional sample of 1001 Oklahoma adults (age 18-65 years) in spring 2015 to assess trust in seven media sources: traditional (television and radio), electronic (online and social media), and interpersonal (providers, insurers, and family/friends). We also gathered information on known moderators of trust (sociodemographics and tobacco use status). We modeled log odds of a participant rating a source as "trustworthy" (SAS PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC), with subanalysis for confounders (sociodemographics and tobacco use). Oklahomans showed

  8. Trust in Health Information Sources: Survey Analysis of Variation by Sociodemographic and Tobacco Use Status in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckman, Lindsay M; White, Ashley H; Burbank, Andrea D; Paulson, Sjonna; Beebe, Laura A

    2018-01-01

    Background Modern technology (ie, websites and social media) has significantly changed social mores in health information access and delivery. Although mass media campaigns for health intervention have proven effective and cost-effective in changing health behavior at a population scale, this is best studied in traditional media sources (ie, radio and television). Digital health interventions are options that use short message service/text messaging, social media, and internet technology. Although exposure to these products is becoming ubiquitous, electronic health information is novel, incompletely disseminated, and frequently inaccurate, which decreases public trust. Previous research has shown that audience trust in health care providers significantly moderates health outcomes, demographics significantly influence audience trust in electronic media, and preexisting health behaviors such as smoking status significantly moderate audience receptivity to traditional mass media. Therefore, modern health educators must assess audience trust in all sources, both media (traditional and digital) and interpersonal, to balance pros and cons before structuring multicomponent community health interventions. Objective We aimed to explore current trust and moderators of trust in health information sources given recent changes in digital health information access and delivery to inform design of future health interventions in Oklahoma. Methods We conducted phone surveys of a cross-sectional sample of 1001 Oklahoma adults (age 18-65 years) in spring 2015 to assess trust in seven media sources: traditional (television and radio), electronic (online and social media), and interpersonal (providers, insurers, and family/friends). We also gathered information on known moderators of trust (sociodemographics and tobacco use status). We modeled log odds of a participant rating a source as “trustworthy” (SAS PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC), with subanalysis for confounders (sociodemographics

  9. Identifying Bright X-Ray Beasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are astronomical sources of X-rays that, while dimmer than active galactic nuclei, are nonetheless brighter than any known stellar process. What are these beasts and why do they shine so brightly?Exceeding the LimitFirst discovered in the 1980s, ULXs are rare sources that have nonetheless been found in all types of galaxies. Though the bright X-ray radiation seems likely to be coming from compact objects accreting gas, theres a problem with this theory: ULXs outshine the Eddington luminosity for stellar-mass compact objects. This means that a stellar-mass object couldnt emit this much radiation isotropically without blowing itself apart.There are two alternative explanations commonly proposed for ULXs:Rather than being accreting stellar-mass compact objects, they are accreting intermediate-mass black holes. A hypothetical black hole of 100 solar masses or more would have a much higher Eddington luminosity than a stellar-mass black hole, making the luminosities that we observe from ULXs feasible.An example of one of the common routes the authors find for a binary system to become a ULX. In this case, the binary begins as two main sequence stars. As one star evolves off the main sequence, the binary undergoes a common envelope phase and a stage of mass transfer. The star ends its life as a supernova, and the resulting neutron star then accretes matter from the main sequence star as a ULX. [Wiktorowicz et al. 2017]They are ordinary X-ray binaries (a stellar-mass compact object accreting matter from a companion star), but they are undergoing a short phase of extreme accretion. During this time, their emission is beamed into jets, making them appear brighter than the Eddington luminosity.Clues from a New DiscoveryA few years ago, a new discovery shed some light on ULXs: M82 X-2, a pulsing ULX. Two more pulsing ULXs have been discovered since then, demonstrating that at least some ULXs contain pulsars i.e., neutron stars as the

  10. Star formation in the bright-rimmed molecular cloud IC 1848 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loren, R.B.; Wootten, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    A bright IR source has been detected within a bright-rimmed dust cloud at the edge of the IC 1848 H II region. The source appears to be an early-type star with a circumstellar dust shell typical of protostars. This star is associated with the position of greatest CO excitation in a dense molecular cloud. The contours of CO emission correspond to those of the bright-rimmed dust cloud, showing that the star formed within the bright rim. Formaldehyde observations at 6 cm, 2 cm, and 2 mm are used to determine the density of the layer between the star and the ionized gas of the bright Hα rim. The location of this star, with respect to the dense molecular cloud which is subject to the external pressure of HII region, indicates the possible role of the expansion of IC 1848 in triggering star formation in dense regions at the perimeter of the H II region. The observed CO emission is used to determine the required luminosity of the embedded star. An early-type star of this luminosity should be detectable as a compact continuum source

  11. Household dietary diversity and Animal Source Food consumption in Ethiopia: evidence from the 2011 Welfare Monitoring Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workicho, Abdulhalik; Belachew, Tefera; Feyissa, Garumma Tolu; Wondafrash, Beyene; Lachat, Carl; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-11-25

    It is imperative to track dietary quality and progress in nutritional outcomes in a population to develop timely interventions. Dietary diversity is a commonly used proxy to assess dietary quality in low-income countries. This study identified predictors of household dietary diversity in Ethiopia and pattern of consumption of animal source food (ASF) among households. Secondary data were analyzed from the 2011 Ethiopian Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS). This survey used a structured questionnaire to collect socio-demographic and economic data. Dietary data were collected using a dietary diversity questionnaire measuring dietary diversity over the past 1 week. A Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) was constructed according to the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) guidelines. Consumption of ASFs is described by its distribution among the regions and by HDDS. Multiple logistic regression analysis was fitted to identify independent predictors for HDDS. A total of 27,995 households were included in the analyses. A little over half of the study households (52.2%) had more than four household members, and 75% of households were male headed. The mean HHDS was five food groups. Cereals were the most commonly (96%) consumed food groups. Fish, egg and fruits, on the other hand, were the least consumed food groups. ASFs were consumed in greater proportion among households with higher HDDS. Being part of the higher and middle socio economic strata (P < 0.001), literacy (P < 0.01), urban residence (P < 0.01), male headed household (P < 0.01), larger family size (P <0.01) and owning livestock (P < 0.01) were positively associated with higher HDDS. Considering these findings, nutrition sensitive interventions which address the problem through economic and educational empowerment and modern technologies supporting agricultural practices need to be designed to increase both local production and increased consumption.

  12. Robust fitting of diurnal brightness temperature cycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Udahemuka, G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper, diurnal brightness temperatures received from the METEOSAT Second Generation (MSG) satellite were interpolated for missing data based on a model, and a performance test was performed by comparing a new approach based on robust modelling...

  13. A Magnetic Bright Point Case Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Utz, D.; Jurčák, Jan; Bellot Rubio, L.; del Toro Iniesta, J.C.; Thonhofer, S.; Hanslmeier, A.; Veronig, A.; Muller, R.; Lemmerer, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2013), s. 459-470 ISSN 1845-8319. [Hvar Astrophysical Colloquium /12./. Hvar, 03.09.2012-07.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) MEB061109 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : solar magnetic field * magnetic bright points * sunrise/IMaX Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  14. Microwave brightness temperature imaging and dielectric properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    material collected by former Soviet Union robots and Apollo astronauts. With the completion of the first round of lunar exploration by human beings, the study of lunar microwave brightness tempe- rature was completely forgotten. Accompanied by a new upcoming era of lunar exploration and the development of science and ...

  15. Human CD56bright NK Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Tatiana; Poli, Aurélie; Cuapio, Angelica

    2016-01-01

    Human NK cells can be subdivided into various subsets based on the relative expression of CD16 and CD56. In particular, CD56(bright)CD16(-/dim) NK cells are the focus of interest. They are considered efficient cytokine producers endowed with immunoregulatory properties, but they can also become...

  16. A Bright Future for Magnetic Resonance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Does magnetic resonance have a bright future? Ever since magnetic resonance in condensed phase started in 1945, questions about its future prospects (or its imminent doom) have been asked time and again. Some, like Nicolaas Bloembergen, left the field at an early stage because they felt there was no hope to gather ...

  17. Dark Matter in Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, W. J. G. de; McGaugh, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract: Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies form a large population of disc galaxies that extend the Hubble sequence towards extreme late-types. They are only slowly evolving, and still in an early evolutionary state. The Tully-Fisher relation and rotation curves of LSB galaxies both show that

  18. Dark matter in low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blok, WJG; McGaugh, SS; Persic, M; Salucci, P

    1997-01-01

    Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies form a large population of disc galaxies that extend the Hubble sequence towards extreme late-types. They are only slowly evolving, and still in an early evolutionary state. The Tully-Fisher relation and rotation curves of LSB galaxies both show that LSB

  19. Simultaneous brightness contrast of foraging Papilio butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the sense of brightness in the foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We presented two red discs of different intensity on a grey background to butterflies, and trained them to select one of the discs. They were successfully trained to select either a high intensity or a low intensity disc. The trained butterflies were tested on their ability to perceive brightness in two different protocols: (i) two orange discs of different intensity presented on the same intensity grey background and (ii) two orange discs of the same intensity separately presented on a grey background that was either higher or lower in intensity than the training background. The butterflies trained to high intensity red selected the orange disc of high intensity in protocol 1, and the disc on the background of low intensity grey in protocol 2. We obtained similar results in another set of experiments with purple discs instead of orange discs. The choices of the butterflies trained to low intensity red were opposite to those just described. Taken together, we conclude that Papilio has the ability to learn brightness and darkness of targets independent of colour, and that they have the so-called simultaneous brightness contrast. PMID:22179808

  20. Investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazarov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this project was investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors. This basic research in accelerator physics spanned over 5 years aiming to extend the fundamental understanding of high average current, low emittance sources of relativistic electrons based on photoemission guns, a necessary prerequisite for a new generation of coherent X-ray synchrotron radiation facilities based on continuous duty superconducting linacs. The program focused on two areas critical to making advances in the electron source performance: 1) the physics of photocathodes for the production of low emittance electrons and 2) control of space charge forces in the immediate vicinity to the cathode via 3D laser pulse shaping.

  1. Investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazarov, Ivan [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project was investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors. This basic research in accelerator physics spanned over 5 years aiming to extend the fundamental understanding of high average current, low emittance sources of relativistic electrons based on photoemission guns, a necessary prerequisite for a new generation of coherent X-ray synchrotron radiation facilities based on continuous duty superconducting linacs. The program focused on two areas critical to making advances in the electron source performance: 1) the physics of photocathodes for the production of low emittance electrons and 2) control of space charge forces in the immediate vicinity to the cathode via 3D laser pulse shaping.

  2. Sources of information influencing decision-making in orthopaedic surgery - an international online survey of 1147 orthopaedic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Arndt P; Jönsson, Anders; Kasch, Richard; Jettoo, Prithee; Bhandari, Mohit

    2013-03-14

    Manufacturers of implants and materials in the field of orthopaedics use significant amounts of funding to produce informational material to influence the decision-making process of orthopaedic surgeons with regards to choice between novel implants and techniques. It remains unclear how far orthopaedic surgeons are really influenced by the materials supplied by companies or whether other, evidence-based publications have a higher impact on their decision-making. The objective was to evaluate the subjective usefulness and usage of different sources of information upon which orthopaedic surgeons base their decisions when acquiring new implants or techniques. We undertook an online survey of 1174 orthopaedic surgeons worldwide (of whom n = 305 were head of their department). The questionnaire included 34 items. Sequences were randomized to reduce possible bias. Questions were closed or semi-open with single or multiple answers. The usage and relevance of different sources of information when learning about and selecting orthopaedic treatments were evaluated. Orthopaedic surgeons and trainees were targeted, and were only allowed to respond once over a period of two weeks. Baseline information included country of workplace, level of experience and orthopaedic subspecialisation. The results were statistically evaluated. Independent scientific proof had the highest influence on decisions for treatment while OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) driven activities like newsletters, white papers or workshops had the least impact. Comparison of answers from the three best-represented countries in this study (Germany, UK and USA) showed some significant differences: Scientific literature and congresses are significantly more important in the US than in the UK or Germany, although they are very important in all countries. Independent and peer-reviewed sources of information are preferred by surgeons when choosing between methods and implants. Manufacturers of medical devices in

  3. An extension of the SHARC survey

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, C.; Ulmer, M. P.; Durret, F.; Covone, G.; Cypriano, E.

    2007-01-01

    We report on our search for distant clusters of galaxies based on optical and X-ray follow up observations of X-ray candidates from the SHARC survey. Based on the assumption that the absence of bright optical or radio counterparts to possibly extended X-ray sources could be distant clusters. We have obtained deep optical images and redshifts for several of these objects and analyzed archive XMM-Newton or Chandra data where applicable. In our list of candidate clusters, two are probably galaxy...

  4. Bright PanSTARRS Nuclear Transients – what are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smartt S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an initial analysis of 49 bright transients occurring in the nuclei of galaxies with no previous known Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN. They have been discovered as part of the PanSTARRs 3π survey, and followed up with the Liverpool Telescope. Based on colours, light curve shape, and a small number with optical spectra, these transients seem to fall into three groups. Red/fast transients are nuclear supernovae of various types. Some bright nuclear transients are blue and decay on a timescale of a few months; these may be candidates for tidal disruption events. However most of the events we have found are blue and are either still rising or decaying slowly, on a timescale of years; the few spectra we have show AGN at z ∼ 1. We argue that these transients are background AGN microlensed by stars in foreground galaxies by a factor 10–100. Monitoring such events gives us very promising prospects for measuring the structure of AGN and so testing current theories.

  5. Circadian Phase-Shifting Effects of Bright Light, Exercise, and Bright Light + Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstedt, Shawn D; Kline, Christopher E; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Zielinski, Mark R; Devlin, Tina M; Moore, Teresa A

    2016-02-26

    Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects of late night bright light, late night exercise, and late evening bright light followed by early morning exercise. In a within-subjects, counterbalanced design, 6 young adults completed each of three 2.5-day protocols. Participants followed a 3-h ultra-short sleep-wake cycle, involving wakefulness in dim light for 2h, followed by attempted sleep in darkness for 1 h, repeated throughout each protocol. On night 2 of each protocol, participants received either (1) bright light alone (5,000 lux) from 2210-2340 h, (2) treadmill exercise alone from 2210-2340 h, or (3) bright light (2210-2340 h) followed by exercise from 0410-0540 h. Urine was collected every 90 min. Shifts in the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) cosine acrophase from baseline to post-treatment were compared between treatments. Analyses revealed a significant additive phase-delaying effect of bright light + exercise (80.8 ± 11.6 [SD] min) compared with exercise alone (47.3 ± 21.6 min), and a similar phase delay following bright light alone (56.6 ± 15.2 min) and exercise alone administered for the same duration and at the same time of night. Thus, the data suggest that late night bright light followed by early morning exercise can have an additive circadian phase-shifting effect.

  6. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  7. Spectral Index Changes with Brightness for γ-Ray Loud Blazars J. H. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spectral index changes depending on γ-ray brightness is obtained. ... the γ-ray band. Key words. Active galactic nuclei (AGN): blazars: γ-ray emission: spectral index. 1. Introduction. Generally, the spectrum of one source changes with its .... Pearl River Scholar Funded Scheme (GDUPS) (2009), Yangcheng Scholar Funded.

  8. Spectral Index Changes with Brightness for γ-Ray Loud Blazars J. H. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spectral index changes depending on γ-ray brightness is obtained. ... the γ-ray band. Key words. Active galactic nuclei (AGN): blazars: γ-ray emission: spectral index. 1. Introduction. Generally, the spectrum of one source changes with its .... China (NSFC 11173009, NSFC 11203007), the research fund of Hunan University.

  9. TC4 AMPR BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE (TB) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TC4 AMPR Brightness Temperature (TB) dataset consists of brightness temperature data from July 19, 2007 through August 8, 2007. The Tropical Composition, Cloud...

  10. The surface brightness of spiral galaxies: Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus

    1988-01-01

    Using measurements from IRAS correlations are found between optical surface brightness and both infrared-to-optical flux ratio and infrared colour temperature, in the sense that galaxies with high surface brightness have higher FIR emission and higher temperatures. (author)

  11. Australia 31-GHz brightness temperature exceedance statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    Water vapor radiometer measurements were made at DSS 43 during an 18 month period. Brightness temperatures at 31 GHz were subjected to a statistical analysis which included correction for the effects of occasional water on the radiometer radome. An exceedance plot was constructed, and the 1 percent exceedance statistics occurs at 120 K. The 5 percent exceedance statistics occurs at 70 K, compared with 75 K in Spain. These values are valid for all of the three month groupings that were studied.

  12. High-brightness H/sup -/ accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Neutral particle beam (NPB) devices based on high-brightness H/sup -/ accelerators are an important component of proposed strategic defense systems. The basic rational and R and D program are outlined and examples given of the underlying technology thrusts toward advanced systems. Much of the research accomplished in the past year is applicable to accelerator systems in general; some of these activities are discussed

  13. Measuring night sky brightness: methods and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänel, Andreas; Posch, Thomas; Ribas, Salvador J.; Aubé, Martin; Duriscoe, Dan; Jechow, Andreas; Kollath, Zoltán; Lolkema, Dorien E.; Moore, Chadwick; Schmidt, Norbert; Spoelstra, Henk; Wuchterl, Günther; Kyba, Christopher C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the brightness of the night sky has become an increasingly important topic in recent years, as artificial lights and their scattering by the Earth's atmosphere continue spreading around the globe. Several instruments and techniques have been developed for this task. We give an overview of these, and discuss their strengths and limitations. The different quantities that can and should be derived when measuring the night sky brightness are discussed, as well as the procedures that have been and still need to be defined in this context. We conclude that in many situations, calibrated consumer digital cameras with fisheye lenses provide the best relation between ease-of-use and wealth of obtainable information on the night sky. While they do not obtain full spectral information, they are able to sample the complete sky in a period of minutes, with colour information in three bands. This is important, as given the current global changes in lamp spectra, changes in sky radiance observed only with single band devices may lead to incorrect conclusions regarding long term changes in sky brightness. The acquisition of all-sky information is desirable, as zenith-only information does not provide an adequate characterization of a site. Nevertheless, zenith-only single-band one-channel devices such as the "Sky Quality Meter" continue to be a viable option for long-term studies of night sky brightness and for studies conducted from a moving platform. Accurate interpretation of such data requires some understanding of the colour composition of the sky light. We recommend supplementing long-term time series derived with such devices with periodic all-sky sampling by a calibrated camera system and calibrated luxmeters or luminance meters.

  14. Companions of Bright Barred Shapley Ames Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Barreto, J. Antonio; Carrillo, Rene; Vera-Villamizar, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barred galaxies from the Shapley Ames Catalog is presented. Among spiral barred galaxies there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclear structures, galaxies not associated with any large scale galaxy cloud structure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms) and galaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubble types. The companion galaxy list includes number of companion galaxies within 20...

  15. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Butterfield, Karla [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    With funding from the Building America Program, part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with BrightBuilt Home (BBH) to evaluate and optimize building systems. CARB’s work focused on a home built by Black Bros. Builders in Lincolnville, Maine (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zone 6). As with most BBH projects to date, modular boxes were built by Keiser Homes in Oxford, Maine.

  16. Possible Bright Starspots on TRAPPIST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brett M.; Agol, Eric; Davenport, James R. A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.

    2018-04-01

    The M8V star TRAPPIST-1 hosts seven roughly Earth-sized planets and is a promising target for exoplanet characterization. Kepler/K2 Campaign 12 observations of TRAPPIST-1 in the optical show an apparent rotational modulation with a 3.3-day period, though that rotational signal is not readily detected in the Spitzer light curve at 4.5 μm. If the rotational modulation is due to starspots, persistent dark spots can be excluded from the lack of photometric variability in the Spitzer light curve. We construct a photometric model for rotational modulation due to photospheric bright spots on TRAPPIST-1 that is consistent with both the Kepler and Spitzer light curves. The maximum-likelihood model with three spots has typical spot sizes of R spot/R ⋆ ≈ 0.004 at temperature T spot ≳ 5300 ± 200 K. We also find that large flares are observed more often when the brightest spot is facing the observer, suggesting a correlation between the position of the bright spots and flare events. In addition, these flares may occur preferentially when the spots are increasing in brightness, which suggests that the 3.3-day periodicity may not be a rotational signal, but rather a characteristic timescale of active regions.

  17. Personal audio with a planar bright zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Philip; Jackson, Philip J B; Olik, Marek; Pedersen, Jan Abildgaard

    2014-10-01

    Reproduction of multiple sound zones, in which personal audio programs may be consumed without the need for headphones, is an active topic in acoustical signal processing. Many approaches to sound zone reproduction do not consider control of the bright zone phase, which may lead to self-cancellation problems if the loudspeakers surround the zones. Conversely, control of the phase in a least-squares sense comes at a cost of decreased level difference between the zones and frequency range of cancellation. Single-zone approaches have considered plane wave reproduction by focusing the sound energy in to a point in the wavenumber domain. In this article, a planar bright zone is reproduced via planarity control, which constrains the bright zone energy to impinge from a narrow range of angles via projection in to a spatial domain. Simulation results using a circular array surrounding two zones show the method to produce superior contrast to the least-squares approach, and superior planarity to the contrast maximization approach. Practical performance measurements obtained in an acoustically treated room verify the conclusions drawn under free-field conditions.

  18. Brightness illusion in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo

    2016-02-01

    A long-standing debate surrounds the issue of whether human and nonhuman species share similar perceptual mechanisms. One experimental strategy to compare visual perception of vertebrates consists in assessing how animals react in the presence of visual illusions. To date, this methodological approach has been widely used with mammals and birds, while few studies have been reported in distantly related species, such as fish. In the present study we investigated whether fish perceive the brightness illusion, a well-known illusion occurring when 2 objects, identical in physical features, appear to be different in brightness. Twelve guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were initially trained to discriminate which rectangle was darker or lighter between 2 otherwise identical rectangles. Three different conditions were set up: neutral condition between rectangle and background (same background used for both darker and lighter rectangle); congruent condition (darker rectangle in a darker background and lighter rectangle in a lighter background); and incongruent condition (darker rectangle in a lighter background and lighter rectangle in a darker background). After reaching the learning criterion, guppies were presented with the illusory pattern: 2 identical rectangles inserted in 2 different backgrounds. Guppies previously trained to select the darker rectangle showed a significant choice of the rectangle that appears to be darker by human observers (and vice versa). The human-like performance exhibited in the presence of the illusory pattern suggests the existence of similar perceptual mechanisms between humans and fish to elaborate the brightness of objects. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. XMM-Newton Survey of Local O VII Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Galactic X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Fang, Taotao; Ma, Renyi

    2018-04-01

    The detection of highly ionized metal absorption lines in the X-ray spectra of the Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs) implies the distribution of hot gas along the sightline toward the background sources. However, the origin of this hot gas is still unclear: it can arise in the hot interstellar medium (ISM), or is intrinsic to the XRBs. In this paper, we present an XMM-Newton survey of the O VII absorption lines in the spectra of Galactic XRBs. A total of 33 XRBs were selected, with 29 low-mass XRBs and 4 high-mass XRBs. At a more than 3σ threshold, O VII absorption line was detected in 16 targets, among which 4 were newly discovered in this work. The average line equivalent width is centered around ∼20 mÅ. Additionally, we do not find strong correlations between the O VII EWs and the Galactic neutral absorption N H, the Galactic coordinates, or the distance of background targets. Such non-correlation may suggest contamination of the circumstellar material, or a lack of constraints on the line Doppler-b parameter. We also find that regardless of the direction of the XRBs, the O VII absorption lines are always detected when the flux of the background XRBs reaches a certain level, suggesting a uniform distribution of this hot gas. We estimate a ratio of 0.004–0.4 between the hot and neutral phases of the ISM. This is the second paper in the series following Fang et al. (2015), in which we focused on the local O VII absorption lines detected in the background AGN spectra. Detailed modeling of the hot ISM distribution will be investigated in a future paper.

  20. Forearc oceanic crust in the Izu-Bonin arc - new insights from active-source seismic survey -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, S.; Noguchi, N.; Takahashi, N.; Ishizuka, O.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Petrological studies have suggested that oceanic crust is formed in forearc areas during the initial stage of subduction. However, there is little geophysical evidence for the formation of oceanic crust in those regions. In order to examine crustal formation process associated with a subduction initiation process, we conducted an active-source seismic survey at a forearc region in the Izu-Bonin intra-oceanic arc. The resultant seismic image shows a remarkably thin crust (less than 10 km) at the northern half of the Bonin ridge (at the north of the Chichi-jima) and abrupt thickening the crust (~ 20 km thick) toward the south (at the Haha-jima). Comparison of velocity-depth profiles of the thin forearc crust of the Bonin ridge with those of typical oceanic crusts showed them to be seismologically identical. The observed structural variation also well corresponds to magmatic activities along the forearc. Boninitic magmatism is evident in the area of thin crust and tholeiitic-calcalkaline andesitic volcanism in the area of thick crust. Based on high precision dating studies of those volcanic rocks, we interpreted that the oceanic-type thin crust associated with boninitic volcanism has been created soon after the initiation of subduction (45-48 Ma) and and that the nonoceanic thick crust was created by tholeiitic-calcalkaline andesitic magmatism after the boninitic magmatism was ceased. The above seismological evidences strongly support the idea of forearc oceanic crust (or phiolite) created by forearc spreading in the initial stage of subduction along the intra-oceanic arc.

  1. Usual source of care and the quality of primary care: a survey of patients in Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhicheng; Liao, Yu; Chen, Chien-Chou; Hao, Yuantao; Hu, Ruwei

    2015-07-31

    Usual source of care (USC) refers to the provider or place a patient consults when sick or in need of medical advice. No studies have been conducted in China to compare the quality of primary care provided with or without USC. The purpose of this study was to fill this gap in the literature by examining the quality of primary care provided between those having a USC and those without. Results of the study would provide implications for policymakers in terms of improving primary care performance in China, and help guide patients in their health care seeking behaviors. A cross-sectional survey with patients was conducted in Guangdong province of China, using the Chinese validated Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT). ANOVA was performed to compare the overall and ten domains of primary care quality for patients with and without USC. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the association between USC and quality of primary care attributes while controlling for sociodemographic and health care characteristics. The study added evidence that having a USC can provide higher quality of primary care to patients than those without a USC. Results of this study showed that the PCAT score associated with those having a USC was significantly higher than those not having a USC. Moreover, the study showed that having a usual provider of care was also independently and significantly associated with patients' satisfaction with care. This study added evidence that in China, patients with a USC reported higher quality of medical care experiences compared with those without a USC. The efforts to improve quality of care should include policies promoting USC.

  2. 7 CFR 51.2000 - Clean and bright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean and bright. 51.2000 Section 51.2000 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2000 Clean and bright. Clean and bright...

  3. Star formation and the surface brightness of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1985-01-01

    The (blue) surface brightness of spiral galaxies is significantly correlated with their Hα linewidth. This can be most plausibly interpreted as a correlation of surface brightness with star formation rate. There is also a significant difference in surface brightness between galaxies forming stars in a grand design spiral pattern and those with floc star formation regions. (author)

  4. Active Processes: Bright Streaks and Dark Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2 In a region of the south pole known informally as 'Ithaca' numerous fans of dark frost form every spring. HiRISE collected a time lapse series of these images, starting at Ls = 185 and culminating at Ls = 294. 'Ls' is the way we measure time on Mars: at Ls = 180 the sun passes the equator on its way south; at Ls = 270 it reaches its maximum subsolar latitude and summer begins. In the earliest image (figure 1) fans are dark, but small narrow bright streaks can be detected. In the next image (figure 2), acquired at Ls = 187, just 106 hours later, dramatic differences are apparent. The dark fans are larger and the bright fans are more pronounced and easily detectable. The third image in the sequence shows no bright fans at all. We believe that the bright streaks are fine frost condensed from the gas exiting the vent. The conditions must be just right for the bright frost to condense. Observation Geometry Image PSP_002622_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 16-Feb-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.2 degrees latitude, 181.5 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 246.9 km (154.3 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.4 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 148 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 05:46 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 88 degrees, thus the sun was about 2 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 185.1 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  5. IRAS surface brightness maps of visible reflection nebulae: evidence for non-equilibrium infrared emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelaz, M.W.; Werner, M.W.; Sellgren, K.

    1986-01-01

    Surface brightness maps at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns of 16 visible reflection nebulae were extracted from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) database. The maps were produced by coadding IRAS survey scans over areas centered on the illuminating stars, and have spatial resolutions of 0.9' x 4' at 12 and 25 microns, 1.8' x 4.5' at 60 microns, and 3.6' x 5' at 100 microns. Extended emission in the four IRAS bandpasses was detected in fourteen of the reflection nebulae. The IRAS data were used to measure the flux of the infrared emission associated with each source. The energy distributions show that the 12 micron flux is greater than the 25 micron flux in 11 of the nebulae, and the peak flux occurs in the 60 or 100 micron bandpass in all 16 nebular. The 60 and 100 micron flux can be approximated by blackbodies with temperatures between 30 and 50 K, consistent with temperatures expected from extrapolation of greybody fits to the 60 and 100 micron data. The excess 12 and 25 micron emission is attributed to a nonequilibrium process such as emission from thermal fluctuations of very small grains excited by single ultraviolet photons, or emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) excited by ultraviolet radiation. The common features of the energy distributions of the 16 reflection nebulae, also seen in the reflection nebulae associated with the Pleiades, suggest that PAHs or very small grains may be found in most reflection nebulae

  6. All fiber based supercontinuum light source utilized for IR microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Sune; Petersen, Christian; Thøgersen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    An all fiber based supercontinuum light source is demonstrated for infrared microscopy. The high brightness and spatial coherence of the source facilitate fast high resolution measurements.......An all fiber based supercontinuum light source is demonstrated for infrared microscopy. The high brightness and spatial coherence of the source facilitate fast high resolution measurements....

  7. THE FAINT END OF THE LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Fabricant, Daniel G. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Diaferio, Antonaldo [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale ' Amedeo Avogadro' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dell' Antonio, Ian P., E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mkurtz@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: dfabricant@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: adiaferio@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: ian@het.brown.edu [Department of Physics, Brown University, Box 1843, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Smithsonian Hectospec Lensing Survey (SHELS) is a dense redshift survey covering a 4 deg{sup 2} region to a limiting R = 20.6. In the construction of the galaxy catalog and in the acquisition of spectroscopic targets, we paid careful attention to the survey completeness for lower surface brightness dwarf galaxies. Thus, although the survey covers a small area, it is a robust basis for computation of the slope of the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function to a limiting M{sub R} = -13.3 + 5log h. We calculate the faint-end slope in the R band for the subset of SHELS galaxies with redshifts in the range 0.02 {<=}z < 0.1, SHELS{sub 0.1}. This sample contains 532 galaxies with R < 20.6 and with a median surface brightness within the half-light radius of SB{sub 50,R} = 21.82 mag arcsec{sup -2}. We used this sample to make one of the few direct measurements of the dependence of the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function on surface brightness. For the sample as a whole the faint-end slope, {alpha} = -1.31 {+-} 0.04, is consistent with both the Blanton et al. analysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Liu et al. analysis of the COSMOS field. This consistency is impressive given the very different approaches of these three surveys. A magnitude-limited sample of 135 galaxies with optical spectroscopic redshifts with mean half-light surface brightness, SB{sub 50,R} {>=} 22.5 mag arcsec{sup -2} is unique to SHELS{sub 0.1}. The faint-end slope is {alpha}{sub 22.5} = -1.52 {+-} 0.16. SHELS{sub 0.1} shows that lower surface brightness objects dominate the faint-end slope of the luminosity function in the field, underscoring the importance of surface brightness limits in evaluating measurements of the faint-end slope and its evolution.

  8. No time for dead time: timing analysis of bright black hole binaries with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time ...... techniques. We apply this technique to NuSTAR observations of the black hole binaries GX 339-4, Cyg X-1, and GRS 1915+105....

  9. THE ARECIBO LEGACY FAST ALFA SURVEY: THE α.40 H I SOURCE CATALOG, ITS CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE DERIVATION OF THE H I MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Martin, Ann M.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Huang Shan; Papastergis, Emmanouil

    2011-01-01

    We present a current catalog of 21 cm H I line sources extracted from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey over ∼2800 deg 2 of sky: the α.40 catalog. Covering 40% of the final survey area, the α.40 catalog contains 15,855 sources in the regions 07 h 30 m h 30 m , +04° h h , +14° 2 , a factor of 29 improvement over the catalog extracted from the H I Parkes All-Sky Survey. In addition to the source centroid positions, H I line flux densities, recessional velocities, and line widths, the catalog includes the coordinates of the most probable optical counterpart of each H I line detection, and a separate compilation provides a cross-match to identifications given in the photometric and spectroscopic catalogs associated with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. Fewer than 2% of the extragalactic H I line sources cannot be identified with a feasible optical counterpart; some of those may be rare OH megamasers at 0.16 < z < 0.25. A detailed analysis is presented of the completeness, width-dependent sensitivity function and bias inherent of the α.40 catalog. The impact of survey selection, distance errors, current volume coverage, and local large-scale structure on the derivation of the H I mass function is assessed. While α.40 does not yet provide a completely representative sampling of cosmological volume, derivations of the H I mass function using future data releases from ALFALFA will further improve both statistical and systematic uncertainties.

  10. Ionized Gas Outflows in Infrared-bright Dust-obscured Galaxies Selected with WISE and SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Yoshiki; Bae, Hyun-Jin; Nagao, Tohru; Woo, Jong-Hak; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wagner, Alexander Y.; Sun, Ai-Lei; Chang, Yu-Yen

    2017-12-01

    We present the ionized gas properties of infrared (IR)-bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) that show an extreme optical/IR color, {(i-[22])}{AB}> 7.0, selected with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). For 36 IR-bright DOGs that show [O III]λ5007 emission in the SDSS spectra, we performed a detailed spectral analysis to investigate their ionized gas properties. In particular, we measured the velocity offset (the velocity with respect to the systemic velocity measured from the stellar absorption lines) and the velocity dispersion of the [O III] line. We found that the derived velocity offset and dispersion of most IR-bright DOGs are larger than those of Seyfert 2 galaxies (Sy2s) at z300 km s-1) velocity dispersion, which is a larger fraction compared to other AGN populations, suggests that IR-bright DOGs are good laboratories to investigate AGN feedback. The velocity offset and dispersion of [O III] and [Ne III]λ3869 are larger than those of [O II]λ3727, which indicates that the highly ionized gas tends to show stronger outflows.

  11. Robust brightness enhancement across a luminance range of the glare illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hideki; Nakauchi, Shigeki; Koida, Kowa

    2016-01-01

    The glare illusion refers to brightness enhancement and the perception of a self-luminous appearance that occurs when a central region is surrounded by a luminance gradient. The center region appears to be a light source, with its light dispersing into the surrounding region. If the luminous edge is critical for generating the illusion, modulating the perceived luminance of the image, and switching its appearance from luminous to nonluminous, would have a strong impact on lightness and brightness estimation. Here, we quantified the illusion in two ways, by assessing brightness enhancement and examining whether the center region appeared luminous. Thus, we could determine whether the two effects occurred jointly or independently. We examined a wide luminance range of center regions, from 0 to 200% relative to background. Brightness enhancement in the illusion was observed for a wide range of luminances (20% to 200% relative to background), while a luminous-white appearance was observed when the center region luminance was 145% of the background. These results exclude the possibility that brightness enhancement occurs because the stimuli appear self-luminous. We suggest that restoring the original image intensity precedes the perceptual process of lightness estimation.

  12. Geothermal energy as a source of electricity. A worldwide survey of the design and operation of geothermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo, R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of geothermal power generation is presented. A survey of geothermal power plants is given for the following countries: China, El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Turkey, USSR, and USA. A survey of countries planning geothermal power plants is included. (MHR)

  13. BATSE spectroscopy catalog of bright gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Teegarden, Bonnard J.; Fantasia, Stephan F.; Palmer, David; Cline, Thomas L.; Matteson, James L.; Band, David L.; Ford, Lyle A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegar, Charles A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents comprehensive results on the spectra of 30 bright gamma ray bursts (GRBs) as observed by the Spectroscopy Detectors (SDs) of the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). The data selection was strict in including only spectra that are of high reliability for continuum shape studies. This BATSE Spectroscopy Catalog presents fluences, model fits (for five spectral models for three energy ranges), and photon spectra in a standard manner for each burst. Complete information is provided to describe the data selection and analysis procedures. The catalog results are also presented in electronic format (from the Compton Observatory Science Support Center) and CD-ROM format (AAS CD-ROM series, Vol. 2). These electronic formats also present the count spectra and detector response matrices so as to allow for independent study and fitting by researchers outside the BATSE Team. This BATSE Spectroscopy Catalog complements the catalog from BATSE Large Area Detector (LAD) data by Fishman et al. (1994).

  14. High Brightness Injectors Based On Photocathode DC Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Yunn

    2001-01-01

    Sample results of new injector design method based on a photocathode dc gun are presented, based on other work analytically proving the validity of the emittance compensation scheme for the case even when beam bunching is involved. We have designed several new injectors appropriate for different bunch charge ranges accordingly. Excellent beam quality produced by these injectors clearly shows that a photocathode dc gun can compete with a rf gun on an equal footing as the source of an electron beam for the bunch charge ranging up to 2 nano Coulomb (nC). This work therefore elevates a dc gun based injector to the preferred choice for many ongoing high brightness accelerator projects considering the proven operational stability and high average power capability of the dc gun

  15. Electromagnetically induced transparency control in terahertz metasurfaces based on bright-bright mode coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiaoui, R.; Burrow, J. A.; Mekonen, S. M.; Sarangan, A.; Mathews, J.; Agha, I.; Searles, T. A.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a highly flexible planar terahertz metamaterial (MM) comprised of three-gap split-ring resonators. The keys to achieve EIT in this system are the frequency detuning and hybridization processes between two bright modes coexisting in the same unit cell as opposed to bright-dark modes. We present experimental verification of two bright modes coupling for a terahertz EIT-MM in the context of numerical results and theoretical analysis based on a coupled Lorentz oscillator model. In addition, a hybrid variation of the EIT-MM is proposed and implemented numerically to dynamically tune the EIT window by incorporating photosensitive silicon pads in the split gap region of the resonators. As a result, this hybrid MM enables the active optical control of a transition from the on state (EIT mode) to the off state (dipole mode).

  16. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Cross-Correlation Redshifts in the DES -- Calibration of the Weak Lensing Source Redshift Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.; et al.

    2017-10-06

    We present the calibration of the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (DES Y1) weak lensing source galaxy redshift distributions from clustering measurements. By cross-correlating the positions of source galaxies with luminous red galaxies selected by the redMaGiC algorithm we measure the redshift distributions of the source galaxies as placed into different tomographic bins. These measurements constrain any such shifts to an accuracy of $\\sim0.02$ and can be computed even when the clustering measurements do not span the full redshift range. The highest-redshift source bin is not constrained by the clustering measurements because of the minimal redshift overlap with the redMaGiC galaxies. We compare our constraints with those obtained from $\\texttt{COSMOS}$ 30-band photometry and find that our two very different methods produce consistent constraints.

  17. Selection effects in the bivariate brightness distribution for spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Disney, M.

    1986-01-01

    The joint distribution of total luminosity and characteristic surface brightness (the bivariate brightness distribution) is investigated for a complete sample of spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster. The influence of selection and physical limits of various kinds on the apparent distribution are detailed. While the distribution of surface brightness for bright galaxies may be genuinely fairly narrow, faint galaxies exist right across the (quite small) range of accessible surface brightnesses so no statement can be made about the true extent of the distribution. The lack of high surface brightness bright galaxies in the Virgo sample relative to an overall RC2 sample (mostly field galaxies) supports the contention that the star-formation rate is reduced in the inner region of the cluster for environmental reasons. (author)

  18. An exceptionally bright, compact starburst nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margon, Bruce; Anderson, Scott F.; Mateo, Mario; Fich, Michel; Massey, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Observations are reported of a remarkably bright (V about 13) starburst nucleus, 0833 + 652, which has been detected at radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths. Despite an observed flux at each of these wavelengths which is comparable to that of NGC 7714, often considered the 'prototypical' example of the starburst phenomenon, 0833 + 652 appears to be a previously uncataloged object. Its ease of detectability throughout the electromagnetic spectrum should make it useful for a variety of problems in the study of compact emission-line galaxies.

  19. LAT Monitored Source List Light Curves

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LAT team monitors flux values for a number of bright sources and transient sources that have shown flares during the mission. (See up-to-date weekly reports on...

  20. Following the Cosmic Evolution of Pristine Gas. II. The Search for Pop III–bright Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Richard; Scannapieco, Evan; Cohen, Seth

    2018-02-01

    Direct observational searches for Population III (Pop III) stars at high redshift are faced with the question of how to select the most promising targets for spectroscopic follow-up. To help answer this, we use a large-scale cosmological simulation, augmented with a new subgrid model that tracks the fraction of pristine gas, to follow the evolution of high-redshift galaxies and the Pop III stars they contain. We generate rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions for our galaxies and find that they are consistent with current z≥slant 7 observations. Throughout the redshift range 7≤slant z≤slant 15, we identify “Pop III–bright” galaxies as those with at least 75% of their flux coming from Pop III stars. While less than 1% of galaxies brighter than {m}UV,{AB}}=31.4 mag are Pop III–bright in the range 7≤slant z≤slant 8, roughly 17% of such galaxies are Pop III–bright at z = 9, immediately before reionization occurs in our simulation. Moving to z = 10, {m}UV,{AB}}=31.4 mag corresponds to larger, more luminous galaxies, and the Pop III–bright fraction falls off to 5%. Finally, at the highest redshifts, a large fraction (29% at z = 14 and 41% at z = 15) of all galaxies are Pop III–bright regardless of magnitude. While {m}UV,{AB}}=31.4 mag galaxies are extremely rare during this epoch, we find that 13% of galaxies at z = 14 are Pop III–bright with {m}UV,{AB}}≤slant 33 mag, a intrinsic magnitude within reach of the James Webb Space Telescope using lensing. Thus, we predict that the best redshift to search for luminous Pop III–bright galaxies is just before reionization, while lensing surveys for fainter galaxies should push to the highest redshifts possible.

  1. Estuarine Bathymetric Digital Elevation Models (30 meter resolution) Derived From Source Hydrographic Survey Soundings Collected by NOAA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These Bathymetric Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were generated from original point soundings collected during hydrographic surveys conducted by the National Ocean...

  2. UBVR Imaging of UV Bright Interacting Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C. H.; Weistrop, D.; Angione, R.; Cruzen, S.; Kaiser, M. E.

    1997-12-01

    Interacting galaxies are often found to contain UV-bright knots which are the sites of very recent or ongoing star-formation. To investigate the stellar populations of these complexes we have obtained UBVR images of several interacting or morphologically disturbed UV bright galaxies (NGC 3395/6, NGC 3991/4/5, NGC 4194, NGC 6090). Images of IRAS 15179+3956, an interacting galaxy in the Bootes Void, were also obtained. The images were made with the 2048x 2048 CCD camera on the 1-meter telescope at the Mount Laguna Observatory. Colors and magnitudes of star-forming regions in these objects will be presented and used to study how their properties change with age and position within each galaxy and how star-formation propagates through the system. This is part of an ongoing study of starburst galaxies that will include STIS (Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph) longslit spectroscopy of a subset of these galaxies. Mount Laguna Observatory is operated jointly by San Diego State University and the University of Illinois. This research is supported in part by NASA under contract NAS 5-31231.

  3. Next generation diode lasers with enhanced brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, S.; Rauch, S.; Irmler, L.; Rikels, J.; Killi, A.; Papastathopoulos, E.; Sarailou, E.; Zimer, H.

    2018-02-01

    High-power diode lasers are nowadays well established manufacturing tools in high power materials processing, mainly for tactile welding, surface treatment and cladding applications. Typical beam parameter products (BPP) of such lasers range from 30 to 50 mm·mrad at several kilowatts of output power. TRUMPF offers a product line of diode lasers to its customers ranging from 150 W up to 6 kW of output power. These diode lasers combine high reliability with small footprint and high efficiency. However, up to now these lasers are limited in brightness due to the commonly used spatial and coarse spectral beam combining techniques. Recently diode lasers with enhanced brightness have been presented by use of dense wavelength multiplexing (DWM). In this paper we report on TRUMPF's diode lasers utilizing DWM. We demonstrate a 2 kW and a 4 kW system ideally suited for fine welding and scanner welding applications. The typical laser efficiency is in the range of 50%. The system offers plug and play exchange of the fiber beam delivery cable, multiple optical outputs and integrated cooling in a very compact package. An advanced control system offers flexible integration in any customer's shop floor environment and includes industry 4.0 capabilities (e.g. condition monitoring and predictive maintenance).

  4. Does Stevens's Power Law for Brightness Extend to Perceptual Brightness Averaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Stevens's power law ([Psi][infinity][Phi][beta]) captures the relationship between physical ([Phi]) and perceived ([Psi]) magnitude for many stimulus continua (e.g., luminance and brightness, weight and heaviness, area and size). The exponent ([beta]) indicates whether perceptual magnitude grows more slowly than physical magnitude ([beta] less…

  5. High-brightness beamline for x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, R.C.C.; Jones, G. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Lindle, D.W. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a windowless beamline, covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range, designed to achieve the goals of high energy resolution, high flux, and high brightness at the sample. When completed later this year, it will be the first ALS monochromatic hard x-ray beamline, and its brightness will be an order of magnitude higher than presently available in this energy range. In addition, it will provide flux and resolution comparable to any other beamline now in operation. To achieve these goals, two technical improvements, relative to existing x-ray beamlines, were incorporated. First, a somewhat novel optical design for x-rays, in which matched toroidal mirrors are positioned before and after the double-crystal monochromator, was adopted. This configuration allows for high resolution by passing a collimated beam through the monochromator, and for high brightness by focusing the ALS source on the sample with unit magnification. Second, a new {open_quotes}Cowan type{close_quotes} double-crystal monochromator based on the design used at NSLS beamline X-24A was developed. The measured mechanical precision of this new monochromator shows significant improvement over existing designs, without using positional feedback available with piezoelectric devices. Such precision is essential because of the high brightness of the radiation and the long distance (12 m) from the source (sample) to the collimating (focusing) mirror. This combination of features will provide a bright, high resolution, and stable x-ray beam for use in the x-ray spectroscopy program at the ALS.

  6. Night-sky brightness monitoring in Hong Kong: a city-wide light pollution assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Chun Shing Jason; So, Chu Wing

    2012-04-01

    Results of the first comprehensive light pollution survey in Hong Kong are presented. The night-sky brightness was measured and monitored around the city using a portable light-sensing device called the Sky Quality Meter over a 15-month period beginning in March 2008. A total of 1,957 data sets were taken at 199 distinct locations, including urban and rural sites covering all 18 Administrative Districts of Hong Kong. The survey shows that the environmental light pollution problem in Hong Kong is severe-the urban night skies (sky brightness at 15.0 mag arcsec(- 2)) are on average ~ 100 times brighter than at the darkest rural sites (20.1 mag arcsec(- 2)), indicating that the high lighting densities in the densely populated residential and commercial areas lead to light pollution. In the worst polluted urban location studied, the night-sky at 13.2 mag arcsec(- 2) can be over 500 times brighter than the darkest sites in Hong Kong. The observed night-sky brightness is found to be affected by human factors such as land utilization and population density of the observation sites, together with meteorological and/or environmental factors. Moreover, earlier night skies (at 9:30 p.m. local time) are generally brighter than later time (at 11:30 p.m.), which can be attributed to some public and commercial lightings being turned off later at night. On the other hand, no concrete relationship between the observed sky brightness and air pollutant concentrations could be established with the limited survey sampling. Results from this survey will serve as an important database for the public to assess whether new rules and regulations are necessary to control the use of outdoor lightings in Hong Kong.

  7. The information sources and journals consulted or read by UK paediatricians to inform their clinical practice and those which they consider important: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Teresa H; Hanney, Steve; Buxton, Martin J

    2007-01-15

    Implementation of health research findings is important for medicine to be evidence-based. Previous studies have found variation in the information sources thought to be of greatest importance to clinicians but publication in peer-reviewed journals is the traditional route for dissemination of research findings. There is debate about whether the impact made on clinicians should be considered as part of the evaluation of research outputs. We aimed to determine first which information sources are generally most consulted by paediatricians to inform their clinical practice, and which sources they considered most important, and second, how many and which peer-reviewed journals they read. We inquired, by questionnaire survey, about the information sources and academic journals that UK medical paediatric specialists generally consulted, attended or read and considered important to their clinical practice. The same three information sources--professional meetings & conferences, peer-reviewed journals and medical colleagues--were, overall, the most consulted or attended and ranked the most important. No one information source was found to be of greatest importance to all groups of paediatricians. Journals were widely read by all groups, but the proportion ranking them first in importance as an information source ranged from 10% to 46%. The number of journals read varied between the groups, but Archives of Disease in Childhood and BMJ were the most read journals in all groups. Six out of the seven journals previously identified as containing best paediatric evidence are the most widely read overall by UK paediatricians, however, only the two most prominent are widely read by those based in the community. No one information source is dominant, therefore a variety of approaches to Continuing Professional Development and the dissemination of research findings to paediatricians should be used. Journals are an important information source. A small number of key ones can be

  8. Initial Results from the Survey of Organizational Research Climates (SOuRCe) in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Brian C.; Nelson, David; Hagel-Campbell, Emily; Mohr, David; Charns, Martin P.; Bangerter, Ann; Thrush, Carol R.; Ghilardi, Joseph R.; Bloomfield, Hanna; Owen, Richard; Wells, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background In service to its core mission of improving the health and well-being of veterans, Veterans Affairs (VA) leadership is committed to supporting research best practices in the VA. Recognizing that the behavior of researchers is influenced by the organizational climates in which they work, efforts to assess the integrity of research climates and share such information with research leadership in VA may be one way to support research best practices. The Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SOuRCe) is the first validated survey instrument specifically designed to assess the organizational climate of research integrity in academic research organizations. The current study reports on an initiative to use the SOuRCe in VA facilities to characterize the organizational research climates and pilot test the effectiveness of using SOuRCe data as a reporting and feedback intervention tool. Methods We administered the SOuRCe using a cross-sectional, online survey, with mailed follow-up to non-responders, of research-engaged employees in the research services of a random selection of 42 VA facilities (e.g., Hospitals/Stations) believed to employ 20 or more research staff. We attained a 51% participation rate, yielding more than 5,200 usable surveys. Results We found a general consistency in organizational research climates across a variety of sub-groups in this random sample of research services in the VA. We also observed similar SOuRCe scale score means, relative rankings of these scales and their internal reliability, in this VA-based sample as we have previously documented in more traditional academic research settings. Results also showed more substantial variability in research climate scores within than between facilities in the VA research service as reflected in meaningful subgroup differences. These findings suggest that the SOuRCe is suitable as an instrument for assessing the research integrity climates in VA and that the tool has similar patterns of

  9. Initial Results from the Survey of Organizational Research Climates (SOuRCe) in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Brian C; Nelson, David; Hagel-Campbell, Emily; Mohr, David; Charns, Martin P; Bangerter, Ann; Thrush, Carol R; Ghilardi, Joseph R; Bloomfield, Hanna; Owen, Richard; Wells, James A

    2016-01-01

    In service to its core mission of improving the health and well-being of veterans, Veterans Affairs (VA) leadership is committed to supporting research best practices in the VA. Recognizing that the behavior of researchers is influenced by the organizational climates in which they work, efforts to assess the integrity of research climates and share such information with research leadership in VA may be one way to support research best practices. The Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SOuRCe) is the first validated survey instrument specifically designed to assess the organizational climate of research integrity in academic research organizations. The current study reports on an initiative to use the SOuRCe in VA facilities to characterize the organizational research climates and pilot test the effectiveness of using SOuRCe data as a reporting and feedback intervention tool. We administered the SOuRCe using a cross-sectional, online survey, with mailed follow-up to non-responders, of research-engaged employees in the research services of a random selection of 42 VA facilities (e.g., Hospitals/Stations) believed to employ 20 or more research staff. We attained a 51% participation rate, yielding more than 5,200 usable surveys. We found a general consistency in organizational research climates across a variety of sub-groups in this random sample of research services in the VA. We also observed similar SOuRCe scale score means, relative rankings of these scales and their internal reliability, in this VA-based sample as we have previously documented in more traditional academic research settings. Results also showed more substantial variability in research climate scores within than between facilities in the VA research service as reflected in meaningful subgroup differences. These findings suggest that the SOuRCe is suitable as an instrument for assessing the research integrity climates in VA and that the tool has similar patterns of results that have been

  10. Initial Results from the Survey of Organizational Research Climates (SOuRCe in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Martinson

    Full Text Available In service to its core mission of improving the health and well-being of veterans, Veterans Affairs (VA leadership is committed to supporting research best practices in the VA. Recognizing that the behavior of researchers is influenced by the organizational climates in which they work, efforts to assess the integrity of research climates and share such information with research leadership in VA may be one way to support research best practices. The Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SOuRCe is the first validated survey instrument specifically designed to assess the organizational climate of research integrity in academic research organizations. The current study reports on an initiative to use the SOuRCe in VA facilities to characterize the organizational research climates and pilot test the effectiveness of using SOuRCe data as a reporting and feedback intervention tool.We administered the SOuRCe using a cross-sectional, online survey, with mailed follow-up to non-responders, of research-engaged employees in the research services of a random selection of 42 VA facilities (e.g., Hospitals/Stations believed to employ 20 or more research staff. We attained a 51% participation rate, yielding more than 5,200 usable surveys.We found a general consistency in organizational research climates across a variety of sub-groups in this random sample of research services in the VA. We also observed similar SOuRCe scale score means, relative rankings of these scales and their internal reliability, in this VA-based sample as we have previously documented in more traditional academic research settings. Results also showed more substantial variability in research climate scores within than between facilities in the VA research service as reflected in meaningful subgroup differences. These findings suggest that the SOuRCe is suitable as an instrument for assessing the research integrity climates in VA and that the tool has similar patterns of results that

  11. Bioinspired bright noniridescent photonic melanin supraballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ming; Hu, Ziying; Wang, Zhao; Li, Yiwen; Tormo, Alejandro Diaz; Le Thomas, Nicolas; Wang, Boxiang; Gianneschi, Nathan C; Shawkey, Matthew D; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Structural colors enable the creation of a spectrum of nonfading colors without pigments, potentially replacing toxic metal oxides and conjugated organic pigments. However, significant challenges remain to achieve the contrast needed for a complete gamut of colors and a scalable process for industrial application. We demonstrate a feasible solution for producing structural colors inspired by bird feathers. We have designed core-shell nanoparticles using high-refractive index (RI) (~1.74) melanin cores and low-RI (~1.45) silica shells. The design of these nanoparticles was guided by finite-difference time-domain simulations. These nanoparticles were self-assembled using a one-pot reverse emulsion process, which resulted in bright and noniridescent supraballs. With the combination of only two ingredients, synthetic melanin and silica, we can generate a full spectrum of colors. These supraballs could be directly added to paints, plastics, and coatings and also used as ultraviolet-resistant inks or cosmetics.

  12. Disclosure of funding sources and conflicts of interest in phase III surgical trials: survey of ten general surgery journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridoux, Valérie; Moutel, Grégoire; Schwarz, Lilian; Michot, Francis; Herve, Christian; Tuech, Jean-Jacques

    2014-10-01

    Discussions regarding disclosure of funding sources and conflicts of interest (COI) in published peer-reviewed journal articles are becoming increasingly more common and intense. The aim of the present study was to examine whether randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in leading surgery journals report funding sources and COI. All articles reporting randomized controlled phase III trials published January 2005 through December 2010 were chosen for review from ten international journals. We evaluated the number of disclosed funding sources and COI, and the factors associated with such disclosures. From a review of 657 RCT from the ten journals, we discovered that presence or absence of a funding source and COI was disclosed by 47 % (309) and 25.1 % (165), respectively. Most articles in "International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)-affiliated journals" did not disclose COI. Disclosure of funding was associated with a journal impact factor >3 (51.7 vs 41.6 %; p journal being ICMJE-affiliated (49.3 vs 40 %; p journal not being affiliated with ICMJE (36.9 vs 21.3 %; p < 0.001). Of the published studies we investigated, over half did not disclose funding sources (i.e., whether or not there was a funding source), and almost three quarters did not disclose whether COI existed. Our findings suggest the need to adopt best current practices regarding disclosure of competing interests to fulfill responsibilities to readers and, ultimately, to patients.

  13. Sources of measurement variation in blood pressure in large-scale epidemiological surveys with follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Henriksen, Jens H; Jensen, Gorm

    2002-01-01

    The Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS) is a longitudinal epidemiological study of 19698 subjects followed up since 1976. Variation in blood pressure (BP) measurement in the first three CCHS surveys is evaluated by assessing two components, systematic variation and random variation [daytime...

  14. A survey of HC3N in extragalactic sources Is HC3N a tracer of activity in ULIRGs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindberg, J. E.; Aalto, S.; Costagliola, F.; Perez Beaupuits, Juan; Monje, R.; Muller, S.

    Context. HC3N is a molecule that is mainly associated with Galactic star-forming regions, but it has also been detected in extragalactic environments. Aims. To present the first extragalactic survey of HC3N, when combining earlier data from the literature with six new single-dish detections, and to

  15. Global Survey of the Frequency of Atrial Fibrillation-Associated Stroke: Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source Global Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perera, Kanjana S.; Vanassche, Thomas; Bosch, Jackie; Swaminathan, Balakumar; Mundl, Hardi; Giruparajah, Mohana; Barboza, Miguel A.; O'Donnell, Martin J.; Gomez-Schneider, Maia; Hankey, Graeme J.; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Roxas, Artemio; Lavallee, Philippa; Sargento-Freitas, Joao; Shamalov, Nikolay; Brouns, Raf; Gagliardi, Rubens J.; Kasner, Scott E.; Pieroni, Alessio; Vermehren, Philipp; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Wang, Yongjun; Muir, Keith; Coutinho, Jonathan M.; Connolly, Stuart J.; Hart, Robert G.; Czeto, K.; Kahn, M.; Mattina, K. R.; Ameriso, S. F.; Pujol-Lereis, V.; Hawkes, M.; Pertierra, L.; Perera, N.; de Smedt, A.; van Dyck, R.; van Hooff, R. J.; Yperzeele, L.; Gagliardi, V. D. B.; Cerqueir, L. G.; Yang, X.; Chen, W.; Amarenco, P.; Guidoux, C.; Ringleb, P. A.; Bereczki, D.; Vastagh, I.; Canavan, M.; Toni, D.; Anzini, A.; Colosimo, C.; de Michele, M.; Di Mascio, M. T.; Durastanti, L.; Falcou, A.; Fausti, S.; Mancini, A.; Mizumo, S.; Uchiyama, S.; Kim, C. K.; Jung, S.; Kim, Y.; Kim, J. A.; Jo, J. Y.; Arauz, A.; Quiroz-Compean, A.; Colin, J.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Marianito, V. P.; Cunha, L.; Santo, G.; Silva, F.; Coelho, J.; Kustova, M.; Meshkova, K.; Williams, G.; Siegler, J.; Zhang, C.; Gallatti, N.; Kruszewski, M.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasingly recognized as the single most important cause of disabling ischemic stroke in the elderly. We undertook an international survey to characterize the frequency of AF-associated stroke, methods of AF detection, and patient features. Consecutive patients

  16. Information Literacy Standards and the World Wide Web: Results from a Student Survey on Evaluation of Internet Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Arthur; Dalal, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper aims to determine how appropriate information literacy instruction is for preparing students for these unmediated searches using commercial search engines and the Web. Method. A survey was designed using the 2000 Association of College and Research Libraries literacy competency standards for higher education. Survey…

  17. Study of Three-Dimensional Image Brightness Loss in Stereoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Cheng Yu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When viewing three-dimensional (3D images, whether in cinemas or on stereoscopic televisions, viewers experience the same problem of image brightness loss. This study aims to investigate image brightness loss in 3D displays, with the primary aim being to quantify the image brightness degradation in the 3D mode. A further aim is to determine the image brightness relationship to the corresponding two-dimensional (2D images in order to adjust the 3D-image brightness values. In addition, the photographic principle is used in this study to measure metering values by capturing 2D and 3D images on television screens. By analyzing these images with statistical product and service solutions (SPSS software, the image brightness values can be estimated using the statistical regression model, which can also indicate the impact of various environmental factors or hardware on the image brightness. In analysis of the experimental results, comparison of the image brightness between 2D and 3D images indicates 60.8% degradation in the 3D image brightness amplitude. The experimental values, from 52.4% to 69.2%, are within the 95% confidence interval

  18. CLPX-Satellite: AMSR-E Brightness Temperature Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) passive microwave brightness temperatures gridded to the...

  19. Mutagens from the cooking of food. III. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in secondary sources of cooked dietary protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjeldanes, L F; Morris, M M; Felton, J S; Healy, S; Stuermer, D; Berry, P; Timourian, H; Hatch, F T

    1982-08-01

    A survey of mutagen formation during the cooking of a variety of protein-rich foods that are minor sources of protein intake in the American diet is reported (see Bjeldanes, Morris, Felton et al. (1982) for survey of major protein foods). Milk, cheese, tofu and organ meats showed negligible mutagen formation except following high-temperature cooking for long periods of time. Even under the most extreme conditions, tofu, cheese and milk exhibited fewer than 500 Ames/Salmonella typhimurium revertants/100 g equivalents (wet weight of uncooked food), and organ meats only double that amount. Beans showed low mutagen formation after boiling and boiling followed by frying (with and without oil). Only boiling of beans followed by baking for 1 hr gave appreciable mutagenicity (3650 revertants/100g equivalents). Seafood samples gave a variety of results: red snapper, salmon, trout, halibut and rock cod all gave more than 1000 revertants/100 g wet weight equivalents when pan-fried or griddle-fried for about 6 min/side. Baked or poached rock and deep-fried shrimp showed no significant mutagen formation. Broiled lamb chops showed mutagen formation similar to that in red meats tested in the preceding paper: 16,000 revertants/100 g equivalents. These findings show that as measured by bioassay in S. typhimurium, most of the foods that are minor sources of protein in the American diet are also minor sources of cooking-induced mutagens.

  20. Multiple linear regression model for bromate formation based on the survey data of source waters from geographically different regions across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianwei; Liu, Juan; An, Wei; Wang, Yongjing; Zhang, Junzhi; Wei, Wei; Su, Ming; Yang, Min

    2015-01-01

    A total of 86 source water samples from 38 cities across major watersheds of China were collected for a bromide (Br(-)) survey, and the bromate (BrO3 (-)) formation potentials (BFPs) of 41 samples with Br(-) concentration >20 μg L(-1) were evaluated using a batch ozonation reactor. Statistical analyses indicated that higher alkalinity, hardness, and pH of water samples could lead to higher BFPs, with alkalinity as the most important factor. Based on the survey data, a multiple linear regression (MLR) model including three parameters (alkalinity, ozone dose, and total organic carbon (TOC)) was established with a relatively good prediction performance (model selection criterion = 2.01, R (2) = 0.724), using logarithmic transformation of the variables. Furthermore, a contour plot was used to interpret the influence of alkalinity and TOC on BrO3 (-) formation with prediction accuracy as high as 71 %, suggesting that these two parameters, apart from ozone dosage, were the most important ones affecting the BFPs of source waters with Br(-) concentration >20 μg L(-1). The model could be a useful tool for the prediction of the BFPs of source water.

  1. Sources of information about mental health and links to help seeking: findings from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, Nicola J; Cvetkovski, Stefan; Jorm, Anthony F

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of data from the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (NSMHWB) on the factors associated with the use of sources of information on mental health. A further aim is to examine the associations between the use of information sources and professional help-seeking. Data from the 2007 NSMHWB were used. The survey sample comprised 8,841 residents of private dwellings across Australia aged 16-85 years. Television was the most common source of information about mental health issues in the previous 12 months (accessed by 20.5% of respondents) followed by pamphlets and brochures (accessed by 15.6% of respondents). Having an anxiety or affective disorder, female gender, higher levels of education and having a family member with a mental health problem was associated with the seeking of information on mental health issues from the internet, non-fiction books and brochures/pamphlets. Accessing information on the internet was associated with increased use of any mental health services, GPs and mental health professionals (MHPs). The results suggest that promotion of internet resources may offer the opportunity to increase help seeking for mental health problems and may offer the opportunity to engage those least likely to seek professional help, notably young males.

  2. Keeping the Future Bright: Department of Defense (DOD) Sustainable Energy Strategy for Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    sustainable energy included renewable energy sources, such as hydroelectricity, solar energy , wind energy , wave power, geothermal energy , bioenergy, tidal ...June 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER KEEPING THE FUTURE BRIGHT: DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DOD) Sb. GRANT NUMBER SUSTAINABLE ENERGY STRATEGY...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Not for Commercial Use without the express written permission of the author 14. ABSTRACT The energy crisis of the 1970s brought an abrupt

  3. The Variability of Atmospheric Deuterium Brightness at Mars: Evidence for Seasonal Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayyasi, Majd; Clarke, John; Bhattacharyya, Dolon; Deighan, Justin; Jain, Sonal; Chaffin, Michael; Thiemann, Edward; Schneider, Nick; Jakosky, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    The enhanced ratio of deuterium to hydrogen on Mars has been widely interpreted as indicating the loss of a large column of water into space, and the hydrogen content of the upper atmosphere is now known to be highly variable. The variation in the properties of both deuterium and hydrogen in the upper atmosphere of Mars is indicative of the dynamical processes that produce these species and propagate them to altitudes where they can escape the planet. Understanding the seasonal variability of D is key to understanding the variability of the escape rate of water from Mars. Data from a 15 month observing campaign, made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph high-resolution echelle channel, are used to determine the brightness of deuterium as observed at the limb of Mars. The D emission is highly variable, with a peak in brightness just after southern summer solstice. The trends of D brightness are examined against extrinsic as well as intrinsic sources. It is found that the fluctuations in deuterium brightness in the upper atmosphere of Mars (up to 400 km), corrected for periodic solar variations, vary on timescales that are similar to those of water vapor fluctuations lower in the atmosphere (20-80 km). The observed variability in deuterium may be attributed to seasonal factors such as regional dust storm activity and subsequent circulation lower in the atmosphere.

  4. Multiple information sources and consequences of conflicting information about medicine use during pregnancy: a multinational Internet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämeen-Anttila, Katri; Nordeng, Hedvig; Kokki, Esa; Jyrkkä, Johanna; Lupattelli, Angela; Vainio, Kirsti; Enlund, Hannes

    2014-02-20

    A wide variety of information sources on medicines is available for pregnant women. When using multiple information sources, there is the risk that information will vary or even conflict. The objective of this multinational study was to analyze the extent to which pregnant women use multiple information sources and the consequences of conflicting information, and to investigate which maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle, and medical factors were associated with these objectives. An anonymous Internet-based questionnaire was made accessible during a period of 2 months, on 1 to 4 Internet websites used by pregnant women in 5 regions (Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Northern Europe, Americas, Australia). A total of 7092 responses were obtained (n=5090 pregnant women; n=2002 women with a child younger than 25 weeks). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used. Of the respondents who stated that they needed information, 16.16% (655/4054) used one information source and 83.69% (3393/4054) used multiple information sources. Of respondents who used more than one information source, 22.62% (759/3355) stated that the information was conflicted. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, factors significantly associated with experiencing conflict in medicine information included being a mother (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.11-1.58), having university (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.09-1.63) or other education (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.09-2.03), residing in Eastern Europe (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.89) or Australia (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.42-3.67), use of 3 (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.60) or >4 information sources (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.49-2.23), and having ≥2 chronic diseases (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.18-1.89). Because of conflicting information, 43.61% (331/759) decided not to use medication during pregnancy, 30.30% (230/759) sought a new information source, 32.67% (248/759) chose to rely on one source and ignore the conflicting one, 25.03% (190/759) became anxious, and 2.64% (20/759) did

  5. A new perspective on the infrared brightness temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is observed that Johnson SB function is the best continuous distribution function in explaining the histogram of infrared brightness temperatures of the convective clouds. The best fit is confirmed by Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistic. Johnson SB's distribution of histogram of infrared brightness temperatures clearly ...

  6. A new perspective on the infrared brightness temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    And Johnson SB parameters are observed to be best in discriminating the Johnson SB distribution of infrared brightness temperatures of deep convective systems for each season. Due to these properties of Johnson SB function, it can be utilized in the modelling of the histogram of infrared brightness temperature of deep ...

  7. Edge integration and the perception of brightness and darkness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladusich, T.; Lucassen, M.P.; Cornelissen, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    How do induced brightness and darkness signals from local and remote surfaces interact to determine the final achromatic color percept of a target surface? An emerging theory of achromatic color perception posits that brightness and darkness percepts are computed by weighting and summing the

  8. Henrietta Leavitt - A Bright Star of Astronomy; Resonance June 2001

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Leavitt discovered around a thousand variable stars in these clouds. Among these, she found 25. Cepheid variables in the small Magellanic cloud and noted that the period of these variable stars were correlated with the peak brightness. The brighter the star was, the longer it took to vary its brightness. In other words, the.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Star-galaxy separation in AKARI FIS All-Sky Survey (Pollo+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, A.; Rybka, P.; Takeuchi, T. T.

    2010-04-01

    The catalog contains names, coordinates, counterparts and far-infrared fluxes of 5176 sources detected by the AKARI FIS All Sky Survey (Bright Source Catalogue, version beta-1, Cat. ) in the sky regions with COBE DIRBE 100um sky emission intensivity lower than 10MJy/sr, in all four FIS AKARI bands, i.e. with a complete far-infrared color information. Sources are associated with the known galactic and extragalactic objects from the databases: NED (NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database) and SIMBAD. (1 data file).

  10. Structure of bright-rimmed molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootten, A.; Sargent, A.; Knapp, G.; Huggins, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Five bright-rimmed molecular clouds, NGC 1977, IC 1396, IC 1848 A, B35, and NGC 7822, have been mapped with 30'' resolution in the J = 2--1 lines of 12 co. For the first three, 13 CO maps have also been made. The spatial distributions of temperature, density, and molecular abundance in these clouds have been determined, particularly in the vicinity of the rims. In general, the gas densities increase close to the rims, but temperature enhancements occur over comparatively extended regions. Near the rims the gas kinematics is varied: velocity gradients are observed in several regions, and in IC 1396 line broadening is distinguishable. A detailed study of the excitation of 13 CO demonstrates that near the well-resolved rim in NGC 1977 where C I and carbon recombination lines have been observed, there is a definite decline in the CO abundance. These molecular clouds span a variety of stages of star formation, but in none does the interaction with the adjacent H II region appear to have substantially affected the course of the star-forming history of the cloud

  11. Bright visible light emission from graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Duck; Kim, Hakseong; Cho, Yujin; Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Kim, Pilkwang; Kim, Yong Seung; Lee, Sunwoo; Li, Yilei; Park, Seung-Nam; Yoo, Yong Shim; Yoon, Duhee; Dorgan, Vincent E; Pop, Eric; Heinz, Tony F; Hone, James; Chun, Seung-Hyun; Cheong, Hyeonsik; Lee, Sang Wook; Bae, Myung-Ho; Park, Yun Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Graphene and related two-dimensional materials are promising candidates for atomically thin, flexible and transparent optoelectronics. In particular, the strong light-matter interaction in graphene has allowed for the development of state-of-the-art photodetectors, optical modulators and plasmonic devices. In addition, electrically biased graphene on SiO2 substrates can be used as a low-efficiency emitter in the mid-infrared range. However, emission in the visible range has remained elusive. Here, we report the observation of bright visible light emission from electrically biased suspended graphene devices. In these devices, heat transport is greatly reduced. Hot electrons (∼2,800 K) therefore become spatially localized at the centre of the graphene layer, resulting in a 1,000-fold enhancement in thermal radiation efficiency. Moreover, strong optical interference between the suspended graphene and substrate can be used to tune the emission spectrum. We also demonstrate the scalability of this technique by realizing arrays of chemical-vapour-deposited graphene light emitters. These results pave the way towards the realization of commercially viable large-scale, atomically thin, flexible and transparent light emitters and displays with low operation voltage and graphene-based on-chip ultrafast optical communications.

  12. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Andrew Michael; Matthews, Allison M.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Avilez, Ian; Beale, Luca; Bittle, Lauren E.; Bordenave, David; Finn, Molly; Firebaugh, Ariel; Hancock, Danielle; Hughes, Paul; Rochford Hayes, Christian; Lewis, Hannah; Linden, Sean; Liss, Sandra; Liu, Mengyao; McNair, Shunlante; Murphy, Edward; Prager, Brian; Pryal, Matthew; Richardson, Whitney; Song, Yiqing; Troup, Nicholas; Villadsen, Jackie; Wenger, Trey V.; Wilson, Robert Forrest

    2018-01-01

    We present updates from the ninth year of operation of Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) including new club content, continued assessments, and our seventh annual Star Party. DSBK is an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts. DSBK’s most fundamental program is an 8-10 week long after-school Astronomy camp at surrounding local elementary schools, where each week introduces new concepts through interactive hands-on activities. Over the past two summers, we have traveled to four rural Virginia locations to bring week-long Astronomy camps to otherwise overlooked elementary school districts. These programs aim to inspire a curiosity for science and include inquiry based activities in topics ranging from the electromagnetic spectrum to the classification and evolution of galaxies. We strive to be self-reflective in our mission to inspire scientific curiosity in the minds of underserved demographics. In this effort, we continually assess the effectiveness of each activity through feedback in student-kept journal pages and observed excitement levels. This self-reflection has initiated the development of new curriculum. In addition, differing from our normal collaboration with local elementary schools, we have found great success partnering with local youth organizations, who may better represent DSBK's target demographics and have infrastructure to support incoming outreach groups.

  13. Featured Image: Bright Dots in a Sunspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    This image of a sunspot, located in in NOAA AR 12227, was captured in December 2014 by the 0.5-meter Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode spacecraft. This image was processed by a team of scientists led by Rahul Yadav (Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory Dewali, India) in order to examine the properties of umbral dots: transient, bright features observed in the umbral region (the central, darkest part) of a sunspot. By exploring these dots, Yadav and collaborators learned how their properties relate to the large-scale properties of the sunspots in which they form for instance, how do the number, intensities, or filling factors of dots relate to the size of a sunspots umbra? To find out more about the authors results, check out the article below.Sunspot in NOAA AR 11921. Left: umbralpenumbral boundary. Center: the isolated umbra from the sunspot. Right: The umbra with locations of umbral dots indicated by yellow plus signs. [Adapted from Yadav et al. 2018]CitationRahul Yadav et al 2018 ApJ 855 8. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaaeba

  14. Intercomparisons of Nine Sky Brightness Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Spoelstra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nine Sky Quality Meters (SQMs have been intercompared during a night time measurement campaign held in the Netherlands in April 2011. Since then the nine SQMs have been distributed across the Netherlands and form the Dutch network for monitoring night sky brightness. The goal of the intercomparison was to infer mutual calibration factors and obtain insight into the variability of the SQMs under different meteorological situations. An ensemble average is built from the individual measurements and used as a reference to infer the mutual calibration factors. Data required additional synchronization prior to the calibration determination, because the effect of moving clouds combined with small misalignments emerges as time jitter in the measurements. Initial scatter of the individual instruments lies between ±14%. Individual night time sums range from −16% to +20%. Intercalibration reduces this to 0.5%, and −7% to +9%, respectively. During the campaign the smallest luminance measured was 0.657 ± 0.003 mcd/m2 on 12 April, and the largest value was 5.94 ± 0.03 mcd/m2 on 2 April. During both occurrences interfering circumstances like snow cover or moonlight were absent.

  15. Modular Zero Energy. BrightBuilt Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.; Butterfield, Karla [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States). Steven Winters Associates, Inc.

    2016-03-01

    Kaplan Thompson Architects (KTA) has specialized in sustainable, energy-efficient buildings, and they have designed several custom, zero-energy homes in New England. These zero-energy projects have generally been high-end, custom homes with budgets that could accommodate advanced energy systems. In an attempt to make zero energy homes more affordable and accessible to a larger demographic, KTA explored modular construction as way to provide high-quality homes at lower costs. In the mid-2013, KTA formalized this concept when they launched BrightBuilt Home (BBH). The BBH mission is to offer a line of architect-designed, high-performance homes that are priced to offer substantial savings off the lifetime cost of a typical home and can be delivered in less time. For the past two years, CARB has worked with BBH and Keiser Homes (the primary modular manufacturer for BBH) to discuss challenges related to wall systems, HVAC, and quality control. In Spring of 2014, CARB and BBH began looking in detail on a home to be built in Lincolnville, ME by Black Bros. Builders. This report details the solution package specified for this modular plan and the challenges that arose during the project.

  16. A Cross-Comparative Survey of Information Seeking and Scanning About Drug-Related Sources and Topics Among U.S. and Israeli College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Ahn, Jisoo; Lewis, Nehama; Martinez, Lourdes S

    2017-08-01

    There is an increasing amount of drug-related information that is easily accessible from media and interpersonal sources. Recent research shows significant positive associations between information acquisition and nonmedical drug use intentions among college students. This study examines information about amphetamines and marijuana that was actively searched ("seeking") as well as information that was encountered during routine media use ("scanning"). Data are drawn from a cross-national comparative survey of college students in the United States (N = 734) and in Israel (N = 800). U.S. participants reported seeking and scanning information about marijuana across a broader range of sources than Israeli participants. Among U.S. and Israeli participants, the most frequently searched marijuana-related topics included the benefits of marijuana, negative effects of marijuana use, and political reasons why marijuana should be legal. Participants from both countries reported the benefits of amphetamines, and the negative effects of amphetamine use as the most frequently searched topics about amphetamines. Participants in both countries identified the internet and friends as the most popular sources of drug-related information and noted that physicians, friends, and the internet were the most trusted sources. Implications for research on information seeking and health communication are discussed.

  17. Information sources and level of knowledge of contraception issues among Greek women and men in the reproductive age: a country-wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tountas, Y; Creatsas, G; Dimitrakaki, C; Antoniou, A; Boulamatsis, D

    2004-03-01

    Good reproductive health depends to a great extent on how well informed people are on contraception issues. Contrary to the situation existing in many European countries, in Greece there has been a lack of studies investigating how well informed Greek women and men are. Also, the sources on which they draw are equally important. The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge of Greek women and men on issues of contraception, with the ultimate goal of identifying which groups should be the focus of prevention planning programs. A country-wide survey was conducted through a self-administered questionnaire. The sample, numbering 1500 people, was representative of the Greek population aged 16-45 years. A key finding was that only a small percentage of the respondents were able to answer correctly 50% or more of the questions on knowledge of basic contraceptive issues (30.6% of women and 14.7% of men). Regarding sources of information, media and friends were reported as the primary sources of information for men of all ages and young women. The gynecologist becomes a significant source of consultation for women only after the age of 25 years. Even then, only 4% of women visiting a gynecologist do so to obtain information on prevention of pregnancy. The majority of women asking professional advice have already experienced an unwanted pregnancy. The need for health education is apparent, especially for young people.

  18. A Systematic Review of Bright Light Therapy for Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Marshall T; Lundgren, Jennifer D

    2016-10-27

    Bright light therapy is a noninvasive biological intervention for disorders with nonnormative circadian features. Eating disorders, particularly those with binge-eating and night-eating features, have documented nonnormative circadian eating and mood patterns, suggesting that bright light therapy may be an efficacious stand-alone or adjunctive intervention. The purpose of this systematic literature review, using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, was (1) to evaluate the state of the empirical treatment outcome literature on bright light therapy for eating disorders and (2) to explore the timing of eating behavior, mood, and sleep-related symptom change so as to understand potential mechanisms of bright light therapy action in the context of eating disorder treatment. A comprehensive literature search using PsycInfo and PubMed/MEDLINE was conducted in April 2016 with no date restrictions to identify studies published using bright light therapy as a treatment for eating disorders. Keywords included combinations of terms describing disordered eating (eating disorder, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating, binge, eating behavior, eating, and night eating) and the use of bright light therapy (bright light therapy, light therapy, phototherapy). After excluding duplicates, 34 articles were reviewed for inclusion. 14 published studies of bright light therapy for eating disorders met inclusion criteria (included participants with an eating disorder/disordered-eating behaviors; presented as a case study, case series, open-label clinical trial, or randomized/nonrandomized controlled trial; written in English; and published and available by the time of manuscript review). Results suggest that bright light therapy is potentially effective at improving both disordered-eating behavior and mood acutely, although the timing of symptom response and the duration of treatment effects remain unknown. Future research should

  19. The first IRAM/PdBI polarimetric millimeter survey of active galactic nuclei. II. Activity and properties of individual sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippe, S.; Neri, R.; Krips, M.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Bremer, M.; Piétu, V.; Winters, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    We present an analysis of the linear polarization of six active galactic nuclei - 0415+379 (3C 111), 0507+179, 0528+134 (OG+134), 0954+658, 1418+546 (OQ+530), and 1637+574 (OS+562). Our targets were monitored from 2007 to 2011 in the observatory-frame frequency range 80-253 GHz, corresponding to a rest-frame frequency range 88-705 GHz. We find average degrees of polarization mL ≈ 2 - 7%; this indicates that the polarization signals are effectively averaged out by the emitter geometries. From a comparison of the fluctuation rates in flux and degree of polarization we conclude that the spatial scales relevant for polarized emission are of the same order of, but probably not smaller than, the spatial scales relevant for the emission of the total flux. We see indication for fairly strong shocks and/or complex, variable emission region geometries in our sources, with compression factors ≲ 0.9 and/or changes in viewing angles by ≳ 10°. An analysis of correlations between source fluxes and polarization parameter points out special cases: the presence of (at least) two distinct emission regions with different levels of polarization (for 0415+379) as well as emission from a single, predominant component (for 0507+179 and 1418+546). Regarding the evolution of flux and polarization, we find good agreement between observations and the signal predicted by "oblique shock in jet" scenarios in one source (1418+546). We attempt to derive rotation measures for all sources, leading to actual measurements for two AGN and upper limits for three sources. We derive values of RM = (-39 ± 1stat ± 13sys) × 103 rad m-2 and RM = (42 ± 1stat ± 11sys) × 104 rad m-2 for 1418+546 and 1637+574, respectively; these are the highest values reported to date for AGN. These values indicate magnetic field strengths of the order ~10-4 G. For 0415+379, 0507+179, and 0954+658 we derive upper limits |RM| < 1.7 × 104 rad m-2. From the relation |RM| ∝ νa we find a = 1.9 ± 0.3 for 1418+546, in

  20. Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  1. Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  2. SPIDERS: selection of spectroscopic targets using AGN candidates detected in all-sky X-ray surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwelly, T.; Salvato, M.; Merloni, A.; Brusa, M.; Buchner, J.; Anderson, S. F.; Boller, Th.; Brandt, W. N.; Budavári, T.; Clerc, N.; Coffey, D.; Del Moro, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Green, P. J.; Jin, C.; Menzel, M.-L.; Myers, A. D.; Nandra, K.; Nichol, R. C.; Ridl, J.; Schwope, A. D.; Simm, T.

    2017-07-01

    SPIDERS (SPectroscopic IDentification of eROSITA Sources) is a Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) survey running in parallel to the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) cosmology project. SPIDERS will obtain optical spectroscopy for large numbers of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) and galaxy cluster members detected in wide-area eROSITA, XMM-Newton and ROSAT surveys. We describe the methods used to choose spectroscopic targets for two sub-programmes of SPIDERS X-ray selected AGN candidates detected in the ROSAT All Sky and the XMM-Newton Slew surveys. We have exploited a Bayesian cross-matching algorithm, guided by priors based on mid-IR colour-magnitude information from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer survey, to select the most probable optical counterpart to each X-ray detection. We empirically demonstrate the high fidelity of our counterpart selection method using a reference sample of bright well-localized X-ray sources collated from XMM-Newton, Chandra and Swift-XRT serendipitous catalogues, and also by examining blank-sky locations. We describe the down-selection steps which resulted in the final set of SPIDERS-AGN targets put forward for spectroscopy within the eBOSS/TDSS/SPIDERS survey, and present catalogues of these targets. We also present catalogues of ˜12 000 ROSAT and ˜1500 XMM-Newton Slew survey sources that have existing optical spectroscopy from SDSS-DR12, including the results of our visual inspections. On completion of the SPIDERS programme, we expect to have collected homogeneous spectroscopic redshift information over a footprint of ˜7500 deg2 for >85 per cent of the ROSAT and XMM-Newton Slew survey sources having optical counterparts in the magnitude range 17 < r < 22.5, producing a large and highly complete sample of bright X-ray-selected AGN suitable for statistical studies of AGN evolution and clustering.

  3. Can AGN and galaxy clusters explain the surface brightness fluctuations of the cosmic X-ray background?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodzig, Alexander; Gilfanov, Marat; Hütsi, Gert; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2017-04-01

    Fluctuations of the surface brightness of cosmic X-ray background (CXB) carry unique information about faint and low-luminosity source populations, which is inaccessible for conventional large-scale structure (LSS) studies based on resolved sources. We used XBOOTES (5ks deep Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS-I maps of the ˜ 9 deg2 Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey) to conduct the most accurate measurement to date of the power spectrum of fluctuations of the unresolved CXB on the angular scales of 3 arcsec-17 arcmin. We find that at sub-arcmin angular scales, the power spectrum is consistent with the active galactic nucleus (AGN) shot noise, without much need for any significant contribution from their one-halo term. This is consistent with the theoretical expectation that low-luminosity AGN reside alone in their dark matter haloes. However, at larger angular scales, we detect a significant LSS signal above the AGN shot noise. Its power spectrum, obtained after subtracting the AGN shot noise, follows a power law with the slope of -0.8 ± 0.1 and its amplitude is much larger than what can be plausibly explained by the two-halo term of AGN. We demonstrate that the detected LSS signal is produced by unresolved clusters and groups of galaxies. For the flux limit of the XBOOTES survey, their flux-weighted mean redshift equals ˜ 0.3, and the mean temperature of their intracluster medium (ICM), ≈ 1.4 keV, corresponds to the mass of M500 ˜ 1013.5 M⊙. The power spectrum of CXB fluctuations carries information about the redshift distribution of these objects and the spatial structure of their ICM on the linear scales of up to ˜Mpc, I.e. of the order of the virial radius.

  4. Patterns and trends in sources of information about sex among young people in Britain: evidence from three National Surveys of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanton, Clare; Jones, Kyle G; Macdowall, Wendy; Clifton, Soazig; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Datta, Jessica; Lewis, Ruth; Field, Nigel; Sonnenberg, Pam; Stevens, Amy; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M; Mercer, Catherine H

    2015-03-05

    To assess progress in meeting young people's sex education needs in Britain by examining the current situation and changes over the past 20 years in sources of information about sexual matters and unmet information needs. Cross-sectional probability sample surveys. British general population. 3869 men and women aged 16-24 years, interviewed 2010-2012 for the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes & Lifestyles (Natsal-3), compared with 16-24 year-olds in Natsal-1 (1990-1991; 792 men and women) and Natsal-2 (1999-2001; 2673 men and women). Reported source of information about sexual matters, unmet information needs and preferred source of additional information. Between 1990 and 2012, the proportion citing school lessons as their main source of information about sexual matters increased from 28.2% (95% CI 24.6 to 32.1) to 40.3% (95% CI 38.6 to 42.1). In 2010-2012, parents were reported as a main source by only 7.1% (95% CI 5.8 to 8.7) of men and 14.1% (95% CI 12.6 to 15.7) of women and, for women, were less commonly reported than in 1999-2001 (21.7%; 95% CI 19.6 to 24.0). Most young people reported not knowing enough when they first felt ready for sexual experience (68.1% men, 70.6% women), and this did not change substantially over time. They wanted more information about psychosexual matters (41.6% men, 46.8% women), as well as sexually transmitted infections (27.8% men, 29.8% women) and, for women, contraception (27.5%). Young people primarily wanted this information from school, parents or health professionals. Over the past 20 years, young people have increasingly identified school lessons as their main source of information about sex, although they continue to report needing more information on a broad range of topics. The findings support the expressed need for improved sex and relationships education in schools alongside greater involvement of parents and health professionals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  5. Locating Desired Source Rocks by Using Shallow Ground Penetrating Radar and Seismic Survey Methods in western Washington, Pacific Northwest of the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, R.; Meng, X.; Butler, Q.; Jenkins, J.; Keck, J.; Walsh, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Natural Resources (WADNR) manages 2.1 million acres of forested state trust lands in Washington. WADNR sells timber and other agricultural products to help fund local services and the construction of institutions such as public schools and universities. Quality of rocks used as a surface on the roads built to access the timber is the essential and selecting appropriate rock quarry locations is challenging. Traditional borehole drilling methods only provide information from discrete locations. The study was conducted in the Capitol Forest area of western Washington. In our previous study, we suggested that a combination of P-wave seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) can be a rapid, comprehensive and cost effective alternative for identifying desired rock sources. In this study, we further improved upon that method and accomplished the following: 1) rock quality at a relatively fine resolution was distinguished and 2) the spatial variability of the rock was identified. Both 450 MHz and 80 MHz GPR antennas were used to obtain high resolution radargrams in the near-surface zone with 5m maximum penetration depth and lower resolution radargrams in the deeper subsurface zone with about 20m maximum penetration depth. We then correlated the GPR radargrams with P-wave velocities using the refraction survey data as well as S-wave velocities, estimated using Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) survey data. Additionally, nearby test pits and boreholes (maximum depth = 15 meters) were used to confirm the geophysical measurements. Our study results demonstrate that the combination of GPR, using the two antennas, and seismic surveys provides very useful subsurface information regarding quality and spatial distribution of the rocks beneath the overburden. Subsurface images gathered from these combined geophysical methods do assist quarry operators to rapidly locate the desired rock sources.

  6. High Brightness HDR Projection Using Dynamic Freeform Lensing

    KAUST Repository

    Damberg, Gerwin

    2016-05-03

    Cinema projectors need to compete with home theater displays in terms of image quality. High frame rate and spatial resolution as well as stereoscopic 3D are common features today, but even the most advanced cinema projectors lack in-scene contrast and, more important, high peak luminance, both of which are essential perceptual attributes of images appearing realistic. At the same time, HDR image statistics suggest that the average image intensity in a controlled ambient viewing environment such as the cinema can be as low as 1% for cinematic HDR content and not often higher than 18%, middle gray in photography. Traditional projection systems form images and colors by blocking the source light from a lamp, therefore attenuating between 99% and 82% of light, on average. This inefficient use of light poses significant challenges for achieving higher peak brightness levels. In this work, we propose a new projector architecture built around commercially available components, in which light can be steered to form images. The gain in system efficiency significantly reduces the total cost of ownership of a projector (fewer components and lower operating cost), and at the same time increases peak luminance and improves black level beyond what is practically achievable with incumbent projector technologies. At the heart of this computational display technology is a new projector hardware design using phase modulation in combination with a new optimization algorithm that is capable of on-the-fly computation of freeform lens surfaces. © 2016 ACM.

  7. Evaluating sources of job satisfaction: A survey of U.S. Fish and Wildlife refuge managers and biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponds, Phadrea D.; Brinson, Ayeisha A.; Benson, Delwin

    2003-01-01

    The following summary consists of revised excerpts from the thesis study that was conducted in 2000-2002 by Ayeisha Brinson, Colorado State University (Brinson, 2002). The purpose of this report is to provide the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) with additional finding related to sources of job satisfaction. Because this is a report of additional findings from a length study, the information in this report is condensed and represented without references from the original research. The literature review, methodology, and discussion from the original thesis are not presented in this report. Any questions concerning the thesis should be directed to Ayeisha Brinson, who may be reached by e-mail. The purpose of the report is to examine differences and similarities between National Wildlife Refuge managers and biologists on a selection of independent variable related to job satisfaction occupation status (being either a manager or a biologist): are managers more satisfied with their jobs than biologist? If so, what are the components of that satisfaction? What are the sources of dissatisfaction? a?|

  8. Estimating Finite Source Effects in Microlensing Events due to Free-Floating Planets with the Euclid Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindita Hamolli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years free-floating planets (FFPs have drawn a great interest among astrophysicists. Gravitational microlensing is a unique and exclusive method for their investigation which may allow obtaining precious information about their mass and spatial distribution. The planned Euclid space-based observatory will be able to detect a substantial number of microlensing events caused by FFPs towards the Galactic bulge. Making use of a synthetic population algorithm, we investigate the possibility of detecting finite source effects in simulated microlensing events due to FFPs. We find a significant efficiency for finite source effect detection that turns out to be between 20% and 40% for a FFP power law mass function index in the range [0.9, 1.6]. For many of such events it will also be possible to measure the angular Einstein radius and therefore constrain the lens physical parameters. These kinds of observations will also offer a unique possibility to investigate the photosphere and atmosphere of Galactic bulge stars.

  9. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, J.; Chou, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) project will provide a core satellite carrying the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and will use microwave observations from a constellation of other satellites. Each partner with a satellite in the constellation will have a calibration that meets their own requirements and will decide on the format to archive their brightness temperature (Tb) record in GPM. However, GPM multi-sensor precipitation algorithms need to input intercalibrated Tb's in order to avoid differences among sensors introducing artifacts into the longer term climate record of precipitation. The GPM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature Product is intended to address this problem by providing intercalibrated Tb data, called "Tc" data, where the "c" stands for common. The precipitation algorithms require a Tc file format that is both generic and flexible enough to accommodate the different passive microwave instruments. The format provides detailed information on the processing history in order to allow future researchers to have a record of what was done. The format is simple, including the main items of scan time, latitude, longitude, incidence angle, sun glint angle, and Tc. It also provides a quality flag, spacecraft orientation, spacecraft location, orbit, and instrument scan type (cross-track or conical). Another simplification is to store data in real numbers, avoiding the ambiguity of scaled data. Finally, units and descriptions will be provided in the product. The format is built on the concept of a swath, which is a series of scans that have common geolocation and common scan geometry. Scan geometry includes pixels per scan, sensor orientation, scan type, and incidence angles. The format includes 3 space saving methods: first rounding variables written as floats to their needed accuracy to achieve good compression, second writing sun glint angle as a one byte variable, and third storing only unique incidence angles but allowing access via a mapping

  10. Dark Skies, Bright Kids: Year 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Johnson, K.; Lynch, R.; Walker, L.; Beaton, R.; Corby, J.; de Messieres, G.; Drosback, M.; Gugliucci, N.; Jackson, L.; Kingery, A.; Layman, S.; Murphy, E.; Richardson, W.; Ries, P.; Romero, C.; Sivakoff, G.; Sokal, K.; Trammell, G.; Whelan, D.; Yang, A.; Zasowski, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) outreach program brings astronomy education into local elementary schools in central Virginia's Southern Albemarle County through an after-school club. Taking advantage of the unusually dark night skies in the rural countryside, DSBK targets economically disadvantaged schools that tend to be underserved due to their rural locale. The goals of DSBK are to foster children's natural curiosity, demonstrate that science is a fun and creative process, challenge students' conceptions of what a scientist is and does, and teach some basic astronomy. Furthermore, DSBK works to assimilate families into students' education by holding family observing nights at the school. Now in its third semester, DSBK has successfully run programs at two schools with very diverse student populations. Working with these students has helped us to revise our activities and to create new ones. A by-product of our work has been the development of lesson plans, complete with learning goals and detailed instructions, that we make publically available on our website. This year we are expanding our repertoire with our new planetarium, which allows us to visualize topics in novel ways and supplements family observing on cloudy nights. The DSBK volunteers have also created a bilingual astronomy artbook --- designed, written, and illustrated by UVa students --- that we will publish and distribute to elementary schools in Virginia. Our book debuted at the last AAS winter meeting, and since then it has been extensively revised and updated with input from many individuals, including parents, professional educators, and a children's book author. Because the club is currently limited to serving a few elementary schools, this book will be part of our efforts to broaden our impact by bringing astronomy to schools we cannot go to ourselves and reaching out to Spanish-speaking communities at the same time.

  11. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, David G.; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R. L.; Borish, J.; Corby, J. F.; Dorsey, G.; Gugliucci, N. E.; Prager, B. J.; Ries, P. A.; Romero, C. E.; Sokal, K. R.; Tang, X.; Walker, L. M.; Yang, A. J.; Zasowski, G.

    2012-01-01

    Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) is a program that brings astronomy education to elementary schools throughout central Virginia. In a relaxed, out-of-classroom atmosphere, we are able to foster the innate curiosity that young students have about science and the world around them. We target schools that are under-served due to their rural locale or special needs students, demonstrating that science is a fun and creative process to a segment of the population that might not otherwise be exposed to astronomy. Families are included in the learning experience during semi-annual `star parties'. Since last January, we have expanded the breadth and depth of our educational capabilities. We have developed new programs for use in our digital planetarium. We held the first Central Virginia Star Party, providing an atmosphere where local children from multiple schools were able to share their love for astronomy. Local government and University officials were also invited so that they could experience our focused science outreach. Most recently, we have become part of Ivy Creek School's Club Day activities, bringing our program to a new segment of the elementary school system in Albemarle County: those that have `low-incidence' disabilities, requiring special attention. We continue to develop a curriculum for after-school programs that functions as either a series of one-time activities or several months of focused outreach at one school. Many of these activities are provided on our website, http://www.astro.virginia.edu/dsbk/, for the wider astronomical community, including the new planetarium work. We have extended our book project to include two bilingual astronomy books called `Snapshots of the Universe,' one in Spanish and English, the other in French and English. These books introduce young people to some of the many wonders of the Universe through art and captions developed by DSBK volunteers.

  12. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Kimberly R.; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R.; Borish, J.; Crawford, S. B.; Corby, J.; Damke, G.; Dean, J.; Dorsey, G.; Jackson, L.; Liss, S.; Oza, A.; Peacock, S.; Prager, B.; Romero, C.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Walker, L.; Whelan, D. G.; Zucker, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to engage young children's natural excitement and curiosity, the outreach group Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) brings a hands-on approach to astronomy to elementary schools in Virginia. We hope to enhance children's view and understanding of science while exploring the Universe using fun activities. DSBK focuses on rural and underserved schools in Albemarle County and offers a semester-long astronomy club for third through fifth grade students. We believe regular interactions foster personal relationships between students and volunteers that encourage a life-long interest in science. In our fourth year of hosting clubs, we returned to Ivy Creek Elementary School, where we saw wonderful responses from a special group of students with `low-incidence' disabilities. DSBK has grown to realize a broader reach beyond local astronomy clubs; we hope to ignite a spark of interest in astronomy and science more widely- in more children, their families, and their teachers. We also hosted the Second Annual Central Virginia Star Party with an open invitation to the community to encourage families to enjoy astronomy together. Throughout the year, DSBK now holds 'one-off' programs (akin to astronomy field days) for elementary schools and children's groups throughout Virginia. Furthermore, we are in the final stages of a project to create two bilingual astronomy books called "Snapshots of the Universe", in Spanish and French with English translations. This art book will be made available online and we are working to get a copy in every elementary school in the state. DSBK has begun to reach out to elementary school teachers in order to provide them with useful and engaging classroom material. We have adapted our volunteer-created activities into useful and ready-to-use lessons, available online. After improvements based on research through interactions and feedback from teachers, we have explicitly identified the learning goals in terms of Virginia's Standards of Learning

  13. No Time for Dead Time: Timing Analysis of Bright Black Hole Binaries with NuSTAR

    OpenAIRE

    Bachetti, M.; Harrison, F.A.; Cook, R.; Tomsick, J.; Schmid, C.; Grefenstette, B.W.; Barret, D.; Boggs, S.E.; Christensen, F.E.; Craig, W.W.; Fabian, A.C.; Fürst, F.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C.J.; Kara, E.

    2015-01-01

    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time per event is relatively long (~2.5 msec) and varies event-to-event by a few percent. The most obvious effect is a distortion of the white noise level in the power density spectrum (PDS) that cannot be...

  14. Quantitative Brightness Analysis of Fluorescence Intensity Fluctuations in E. Coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho Hur

    Full Text Available The brightness measured by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy specifies the average stoichiometry of a labeled protein in a sample. Here we extended brightness analysis, which has been mainly applied in eukaryotic cells, to prokaryotic cells with E. coli serving as a model system. The small size of the E. coli cell introduces unique challenges for applying brightness analysis that are addressed in this work. Photobleaching leads to a depletion of fluorophores and a reduction of the brightness of protein complexes. In addition, the E. coli cell and the point spread function of the instrument only partially overlap, which influences intensity fluctuations. To address these challenges we developed MSQ analysis, which is based on the mean Q-value of segmented photon count data, and combined it with the analysis of axial scans through the E. coli cell. The MSQ method recovers brightness, concentration, and diffusion time of soluble proteins in E. coli. We applied MSQ to measure the brightness of EGFP in E. coli and compared it to solution measurements. We further used MSQ analysis to determine the oligomeric state of nuclear transport factor 2 labeled with EGFP expressed in E. coli cells. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying the stoichiometry of proteins by brightness analysis in a prokaryotic cell.

  15. Foveal to peripheral extrapolation of brightness within objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscani, Matteo; Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Valsecchi, Matteo

    2017-08-01

    Peripheral viewing is characterized by poor resolution and distortions as compared to central viewing; nevertheless, when we move our gaze around, the visual scene does not appear to change. One possible mechanism leading to perceptual uniformity would be that peripheral appearance is extrapolated based on foveal information. Here we investigate foveal-to-peripheral extrapolation in the case of the perceived brightness of an object's surface. While fixating a spot on the rendered object, observers were asked to adjust the brightness of a disc to match a peripherally viewed target area on the surface of the same object. Being forced to fixate a better illuminated point led to brighter matches as compared to fixating points in the shadow, indicating that foveal brightness information was extrapolated. When observers fixated additional points outside of the object on the scene's background, fixated brightness had no effect on the brightness match. Results indicate that our visual system uses the brightness of the foveally viewed surface area to estimate the brightness of areas in the periphery. However, this mechanism is selectively applied within an object's boundary.

  16. PePSS - A portable sky scanner for measuring extremely low night-sky brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Kómar, Ladislav; Kundracik, František

    2018-05-01

    A new portable sky scanner designed for low-light-level detection at night is developed and employed in night sky brightness measurements in a rural region. The fast readout, adjustable sensitivity and linear response guaranteed in 5-6 orders of magnitude makes the device well suited for narrow-band photometry in both dark areas and bright urban and suburban environments. Quasi-monochromatic night-sky brightness data are advantageous in the accurate characterization of spectral power distribution of scattered and emitted light and, also allows for the possibility to retrieve light output patterns from whole-city light sources. The sky scanner can operate in both night and day regimes, taking advantage of the complementarity of both radiance data types. Due to its inherent very high sensitivity the photomultiplier tube could be used in night sky radiometry, while the spectrometer-equipped system component capable of detecting elevated intensities is used in daylight monitoring. Daylight is a source of information on atmospheric optical properties that in turn are necessary in processing night sky radiances. We believe that the sky scanner has the potential to revolutionize night-sky monitoring systems.

  17. Characterizing Magmatic Sources in the Central Andes Volcanic Zone with a Regional InSAR Time Series Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S. T.; Pritchard, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Central Andes Volcanic Zone (CVZ) contains many intriguing areas of ongoing crustal deformation detectable with InSAR. Foremost among these are the 1-2cm/yr radar line-of-sight (LOS) inflations near Uturuncu Volcano in Bolivia and the Lazufre volcanic area spanning the border of Chile and Argentina (Pritchard and Simons 2002). These two deformation sources are intriguing in that they are long-lived (>10yrs), have large diameters (>50km), and have modeled sources at mid-crustal depths (10-20km). For Uturuncu, the best-fitting source depths coincide with the seismically imaged Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (eg. Chimielowsi et al. 1999, Zandt et al. 2003). Regional InSAR time series analysis enables the spatial and temporal comparison of the Uturuncu and Lazufre signals with other deformations in a sub-region of the CVZ from 1992 to the present. Our study focuses on volcanic deformation, but we also resolve non-magmatic deformation signals including landslides and salars. The study region benefits from a large InSAR dataset of 631 ERS and ENVISAT interferograms, distributed between two descending tracks and two ascending tracks, covering up to 870 kilometers along the volcanic arc. We employ an inversion method based on the SBAS algorithm (Berardino 2002), but modified to avoid interpolation across dates with incoherent values. This modification effectively deals with the heterogeneous spatial extents and data gaps present in individual interferograms for long tracks. With our time series results we investigate the timing of possible magma migrations and we explore the parameters of forward models that match observations. Results indicate continuing monotonic inflation styles at Uturuncu and Lazufre with maximum LOS uplift at 1.0cm/yr and 2.5cm/yr respectively (Pritchard and Simons 2004, Froger et al. 2007, Ruch et al. 2009). We discuss evidence for 2mm/yr broad LOS deflation collocated with the Uturuncu inflation signal and comment on possible models for its origin

  18. [Self-Medication: A Nationwide Representative Survey on Motives, Reasons and Sources on Consuming Over-the-Counter Medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Christiane; Auersperg, Felicitas; Rusch, Bernd Detlev; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-08-01

    Self-medication, meaning the autonomous treatment of self diagnosed diseases with non-prescription drugs, has become an increasingly relevant topic - not the least because since 2004 most non-prescription drugs were no longer refunded by statutory health insurance, due to the GKV-Modernisierungsgesetz. In light of the above, the central questions that motivate this paper are the following: - Where does the german population obtain information about non-prescription drugs? - Which health impairments are treated with non-prescription drugs before seeing a doctor and for what reasons? - Which habits, experiences and estimates concerning self-medication are shared? To answer these questions the GfK market research institution in Nürnberg conducted a survey treating different topics from 7(th) to 21(st) December 2012. The sample selected by the quota method is considered to be representative for the population of men and women aged 14 and above in Germany and is based on a total of 1 976 personal interviews. 94.9% of those questioned did treat at least one of the 25 symptoms included in the survey with non-prescription medicine before potentially seeing a doctor. The most common place to obtain information about OTC products is pharmacies. The symptoms most commonly treated by oneself are cold symptoms and headaches. The evidence from this study suggests a variety of factors explaining this behavior. Most of the respondents do not want to see a doctor over minor issues, i. e., think their health problems are not severe enough require consulting a doctor. Furthermore long waiting times and limited opening hours are mentioned. The majority of the respondents had good experiences with self-medication. However, some of the participants keep their OTC use from their treating physicians. In conclusion, it becomes evident that both opportunities and risks come with self-medication. Strategies to capitalize those opportunities and mitigate these risks are presented, with

  19. Survey of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in seven varieties of Lappula squarrosa: An alternative source of heart-healthy vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsyo, Emmanuel; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Horn, Gert; Beuerle, Till

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand for heart-healthy omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is putting stress on wild fish stocks. There is now a compelling need for new and novel sources of non-traditional seed oils containing high stearidonic acid (SDA), a precursor of EPA and DHA, to reduce this demand. The seed oil of Lappula squarrosa is one of the richest sources of SDA, however, the plant has been found to contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). In this study, the PA concentrations of seven varieties (A-G) of Lappula squarrosa were analysed to determine the most suitable varieties for commercial seed oil production. Whilst the clean-up procedure for the PAs in the roots, flowers and leaves was on diatomaceous earth columns and finally analysed with GC-EI-MS, that of the seeds was through SCX-SPE and a more sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method was used in the analysis. Altogether six PAs (supinine, amabiline, intermedine, lycopsamine and 3'-acetylintermedine) including one unknown retronecine-type PA were identified with variety C recording the lowest total PA concentration (4.64 mg seneciphylline equivalents (SE)/g dry weight (d.w.)). Besides, the total PA concentrations in the seeds of Lappula squarrosa varieties ranged between 2.88 μg PA/g and 10.36 μg PA/g d.w. Based solely on overall PA concentrations and PA distribution, variety D (5.95 mg SE/g d.w.) was found to be a potential candidate for commercial seed oil cultivation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Analysis of a high brightness photo electron beam with self field and wake field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-01-01

    High brightness sources are the basic ingredients in the new accelerator developments such as Free-Electron Laser experiments. The effects of the interactions between the highly charged particles and the fields in the accelerating structure, e.g. R.F., Space charge and Wake fields can be detrimental to the beam and the experiments. We present and discuss the formulation used, some simulation and results for the Brookhaven National Laboratory high brightness beam that illustrates effects of the accelerating field, space charge forces (e.g. due to self field of the bunch), and the wake field (e.g. arising from the interaction of the cavity surface and the self field of the bunch)

  1. Food Sources of Total Energy and Nutrients among U.S. Infants and Toddlers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley A. Grimes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers aged 0–24 months. Data from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed in 2740 subjects using one 24-h dietary recall. The population proportion was used to determine the contribution of foods and beverages to nutrient intakes. Overall infant formulas and baby foods were the leading sources of total energy and nutrients in infants aged 0–11.9 months. In toddlers, the diversity of food groups contributing to nutrient intakes was much greater. Important sources of total energy included milk, 100% juice and grain based mixed dishes. A number of foods of low nutritional quality also contributed to energy intakes including sweet bakery products, sugar-sweetened beverages and savory snacks. Overall non-flavored milks and ready-to-eat cereals were the most important contributors to micronutrient intakes. In conclusion this information can be used to guide parents regarding appropriate food selection as well as inform targeted dietary strategies within public health initiatives to improve the diets of infants and toddlers.

  2. Controlling excitons. Concepts for phosphorescent organic LEDs at high brightness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reineke, Sebastian

    2009-11-15

    This work focusses on the high brightness performance of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The use of phosphorescent emitter molecules in OLEDs is essential to realize internal electron-photon conversion efficiencies of 100 %. However, due to their molecular nature, the excited triplet states have orders of magnitude longer time constants compared to their fluorescent counterparts which, in turn, strongly increases the probability of bimolecular annihilation. As a consequence, the efficiencies of phosphorescent OLEDs decline at high brightness - an effect known as efficiency roll-off, for which it has been shown to be dominated by triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA). In this work, TTA of the archetype phosphorescent emitter Ir(ppy){sub 3} is investigated in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments. For the widely used mixed system CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}, host-guest TTA - an additional unwanted TTA channel - is experimentally observed at high excitation levels. By using matrix materials with higher triplet energies, this effect is efficiently suppressed, however further studies show that the efficiency roll-off of Ir(ppy)3 is much more pronounced than predicted by a model based on Foerster-type energy transfer, which marks the intrinsic limit for TTA. These results suggest that the emitter molecules show a strong tendency to form aggregates in the mixed film as the origin for enhanced TTA. Transmission electron microscopy images of Ir(ppy){sub 3} doped mixed films give direct proof of emitter aggregates. Based on these results, two concepts are developed that improve the high brightness performance of OLEDs. In a first approach, thin intrinsic matrix interlayers are incorporated in the emission layer leading to a one-dimensional exciton confinement that suppresses exciton migration and, consequently, TTA. The second concept reduces the efficiency roll-off by using an emitter molecule with slightly different chemical structure, i.e. Ir(ppy){sub 2

  3. ASAS-SN Discovery of a Very Bright, 313-Day Period Detached Eclipsing Binary in the LMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, T.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J. V.; Thompson, T. A.; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Dong, Subo

    2018-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort by the ASAS-SN project (Shappee et al. 2014; Kochanek et al. 2017; Jayasinghe et al. 2018, in preparation) to characterize and catalog all bright variable stars, we report the discovery of a very bright, long period detached eclipsing binary, most likely a system of two massive stars in the LMC. The source ASASSN-V J054601.74-665924.2 (position from Gaia, g 13.3) was first observed by ASAS-SN on UT 2014-04-29.

  4. Velocity bunching of high-brightness electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Anderson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Velocity bunching has been recently proposed as a tool for compressing electron beam pulses in modern high brightness photoinjector sources. This tool is familiar from earlier schemes implemented for bunching dc electron sources, but presents peculiar challenges when applied to high current, low emittance beams from photoinjectors. The main difficulty foreseen is control of emittance oscillations in the beam in this scheme, which can be naturally considered as an extension of the emittance compensation process at moderate energies. This paper presents two scenarios in which velocity bunching, combined with emittance control, is to play a role in nascent projects. The first is termed ballistic bunching, where the changing of relative particle velocities and positions occur in distinct regions, a short high gradient linac, and a drift length. This scenario is discussed in the context of the proposed ORION photoinjector. Simulations are used to explore the relationship between the degree of bunching, and the emittance compensation process. Experimental measurements performed at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory of the surprisingly robust bunching process, as well as accompanying deleterious transverse effects, are presented. An unanticipated mechanism for emittance growth in bends for highly momentum chirped beam was identified and studied in these experiments. The second scenario may be designated as phase space rotation, and corresponds closely to the recent proposal of Ferrario and Serafini. Its implementation for the compression of the electron beam pulse length in the PLEIADES inverse Compton scattering (ICS experiment at LLNL is discussed. It is shown in simulations that optimum compression may be obtained by manipulation of the phases in low gradient traveling wave accelerator sections. Measurements of the bunching and emittance control achieved in such an implementation at PLEIADES, as well as aspects of the use of velocity-bunched beam directly

  5. Prospects for Next-Generation Storage Ring Light Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Storage ring light sources are among the most productive large-scale scientific user facilities in existence, owing to a combination of broad tunability, mature technology, high capacity, remarkable reliability, and high performance. The most commonly-used performance measure is the photon beam brightness, which is proportional to the flux per unit volume in six-dimensional phase space. The brightness is generally maximized by minimizing the transverse phase space area, or emittance, of the electron beam that generates the photons. Since the 1990's, most storage ring light sources have used a variant of the Chasman-Green, or double-bend-achromat (DBA), lattice, which produces transverse emittances of several nanometers. Presently, several light sources are under construction based on more challenging multi-bend-achromat (MBA) concepts, which promise an order of magnitude reduction in the emittance. Somewhat larger reductions are contemplated for upgrades of the largest facilities. This talk briefly surveys the relevant concepts in light source design, then explains both the mechanism and challenge of achieving next-generation emittances. Other factors, such as improved radiation-emitting devices, are also described. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  6. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor L. Fulgoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332 in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy — milk (7% of energy and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%; protein — milk (13.2% and poultry (12.8%; total carbohydrate — soft drinks/soda (10.5% and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%; total sugars — soft drinks/soda (19.2% and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%; added sugars — soft drinks/soda (29.7% and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%; dietary fiber — fruit (10.4% and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%; total fat — cheese (9.3% and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%; saturated fatty acids — cheese (16.3% and milk (13.3%; cholesterol — eggs (24.2% and poultry (13.2%; vitamin D — milk (60.4% and milk drinks (8.3%; calcium — milk (33.2% and cheese (19.4%; potassium — milk (18.8% and fruit juice (8.0%; and sodium — salt (18.5% and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%. Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient

  7. Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Debra R.; Fulgoni III, Victor L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; O’Neil, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy—milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein—milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate—soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars—soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars—soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber—fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat—cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids—cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol—eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D—milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium—milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium—milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium—salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of

  8. Much Ado about Microbunching: Coherent Bunching in High Brightness Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, Daniel [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The push to provide ever brighter coherent radiation sources has led to the creation of correspondingly bright electron beams. With billions of electrons packed into normalized emittances (phase space) below one micron, collective effects may dominate both the preservation and use of such ultra-bright beams. An important class of collective effects is due to density modulations within the bunch, or microbunching. Microbunching may be deleterious, as in the case of the Microbunching Instability (MBI), or it may drive radiation sources of unprecedented intensity, as in the case of Free Electron Lasers (FELs). In this work we begin by describing models of microbunching due to inherent beam shot noise, which sparks both the MBI as well as SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source, the world's first hard X-ray laser. We first use this model to propose a mechanism for reducing the inherent beam shot noise as well as for predicting MBI effects. We then describe experimental measurements of the resulting microbunching at LCLS, including optical radiation from the MBI, as well as the first gain length and harmonic measurements from a hard X-ray FEL. In the final chapters, we describe schemes that use external laser modulations to microbunch light sources of the future. In these sections we describe coherent light source schemes for both both linacs and storage rings.

  9. A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.F.

    1996-03-01

    Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at some point. With the same two exceptions, all processes require water-gas shift reactors of significant size. All processes require low-sulfur or zero-sulfur fuels, and this may add cost to some of them. Fuels produced by steam reforming contain {approximately}70-80% hydrogen, those by partial oxidation {approximately}35-45%. The lower percentages may adversely affect cell performance. Theoretical input energies do not differ markedly among the various processes for generating hydrogen from organic-chemical fuels. Pure hydrogen has severe distribution and storage problems. As a result, the steam reforming of methanol is the leading candidate process for on-board generation of hydrogen for automotive propulsion. If methanol unavailability or a high price demands an alternative process, steam reforming appears preferable to partial oxidation for this purpose.

  10. Discovery of Novel Sources of Vitamin B12 in Traditional Korean Foods from Nutritional Surveys of Centenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Shil Kwak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B12 status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B12 in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B12, resulting in maintenance of health status.

  11. Reduction of artificial source effect in the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in the Hanshin region; Hanshin chiiki no komitsudo kuchu jiki tansa ni okeru jinko noise source no eikyo no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, T.; Makino, M.; Morijiri, R.; Okuma, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out in December 1995 on areas from Kobe City to Kyoto City in relation to the Hyogoken-nanbu Earthquake in 1995. It was found in the survey that effects of electric trains driven by direct current and man-made structures cannot be avoided, working as a large noise factor in extraction and analysis of geological information. This paper describes a quantitative analysis on magnetic anomaly suspected to have been caused from artificial sources seen in the magnetic map of the Hanshin area obtained from the above exploration data. The paper also gives considerations on methods to remove the effects therefrom. It then describes a quantitative analysis and the result of attempts on removal of the anomaly, taking up the following factors: (1) distribution of specific and remarkable magnetic anomalies which correspond to railroad positions of the Hanshin Railways running through the Nishinomiya-Toyonaka area, (2) the magnetic anomaly trend in positive and negative pair seen in the seafront area of Kobe City, and (3) typical bipolar isolated type magnetic anomaly in the north-west part of Kobe City. The cause for (1) was loop current flown for the railway operation, that for (2) was man-made structures in the improved seafront area, and that for (3) was a provisionally built metal waste storage yard. 9 figs.

  12. DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NSIDC produces daily gridded brightness temperature data from orbital swath data generated by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) aboard the Defense...

  13. Operational Bright-Band Snow Level Detection Using Doppler Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A method to detect the bright-band snow level from radar reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocity data collection with an atmospheric profiling Doppler radar. The...

  14. SMEX02 SSM/I Brightness Temperature Data, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) is a seven-channel, four-frequency, linearly polarized passive microwave radiometric system. Data are brightness...

  15. Matter-wave bright solitons in effective bichromatic lattice potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wave bright solitons in bichromatic lattice potentials are considered and their dynamics for different lattice environments are studied. ... Scientific Computing Laboratory, Institute of Physics Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia ...

  16. Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer Brightness Temperatures, Wakasa Bay, Japan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes calibrated brightness temperatures measured over Wakasa Bay in the Sea of Japan in January and February 2003. The MIR was carried on a...

  17. CLEMENTINE LWIR BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This volume contains the archive of Lunar brightness temperature data derived from images acquired by the Clementine Long Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) camera. The LWIR...

  18. Nimbus-1/HRIR Level 1 Brightness Temperature V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus-1 High Resolution Infrared Radiometer (HRIR) Level 1 Brightness Temperature Data Product (HRIRN1L1) contains infrared radiances converted to equivalent...

  19. CLPX-Satellite: AVHRR/HRPT Brightness Temperatures and Reflectances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes AVHRR/HRPT (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/High Resolution Picture Transmission) brightness temperatures and reflectances over the...

  20. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily EASE-Grid Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This document pertains to two data sets: AMSR-E/Aqua Daily EASE-Grid Brightness Temperatures (NSIDC-0301) and AMSR-E/Aqua Daily Global Quarter-Degree Gridded...