WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey aurora australis

  1. Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  2. Carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity, and other variables collected via surface underway survey from Volunteer Observing Ship AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from 1992-10-19 to 2001-12-12 (NODC Accession 0081031)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface and Atmospheric fCO2 measurements in the Southern Ocean during the VOS Project line onboard the oceanographic ship Aurora Australis.

  3. BAROMETRIC PRESSURE and Other Data from AURORA AUSTRALIS and Other Platforms from 19910106 to 19920306 (NODC Accession 9500152)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected from Ship AURORA AUSTRALIS. The data was collected over a period spanning from January 6,...

  4. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 1991-09-25 to 1991-10-27 (NODC Accession 0116370)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116370 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 1991-09-25 to...

  5. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using PAR Sensor and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS, NOAA Ship DISCOVERER and others in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea and others from 1994-01-28 to 2004-07-02 (NODC Accession 0109923)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109923 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS, NOAA Ship DISCOVERER,...

  6. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  7. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-04 to 2011-02-06 (NCEI Accession 0143947)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143947 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 2008-03-22 to 2008-04-17 (NODC Accession 0109900)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109900 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 2008-03-22...

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-01-02 to 2006-03-12 (NODC Accession 0109922)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109922 includes chemical, discrete sample, optical, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Great Australian Bight and Indian Ocean from 1998-02-28 to 1998-04-01 (NODC Accession 0115154)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115154 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Great Australian Bight and Indian Ocean...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, PAR Sensor and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2016-01-11 to 2016-03-15 (NCEI Accession 0163181)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163181 includes chemical, discrete sample, optical, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2004-12-23 to 2005-02-17 (NODC Accession 0108076)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108076 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-12-13 to 1995-02-01 (NODC Accession 0115020)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115020 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 1993-04-04 to 1993-05-09 (NODC Accession 0115004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115004 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean,...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 2001-10-29 to 2001-12-13 (NODC Accession 0108158)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108158 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 2001-10-29 to...

  16. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1995-07-17 to 1995-09-02 (NCEI Accession 0144339)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144339 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from...

  17. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, PAR Sensor and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-16 to 2008-01-27 (NCEI Accession 0143932)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143932 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Great Australian Bight, Indian Ocean and others from 1992-10-19 to 2001-12-12 (NODC Accession 0115153)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115153 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Great Australian Bight, Indian...

  19. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, PAR Sensor and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-01-05 to 2012-02-12 (NCEI Accession 0143949)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143949 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from...

  20. Surveying managers to inform a regionally relevant invasive Phragmites australis control research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohal, C B; Kettenring, K M; Sims, K; Hazelton, E L G; Ma, Z

    2018-01-15

    Managers of invasive species consider the peer-reviewed literature only moderately helpful for guiding their management programs. Though this "knowing-doing gap" has been well-described, there have been few efforts to guide scientists in how to develop useful and usable science. Here we demonstrate how a comprehensive survey of managers (representing 42 wetland management units across the Great Salt Lake watershed) can highlight management practices and challenges (here for the widespread invasive plant, Phragmites australis, a recent and aggressive invader in this region) to ultimately inform a research program. The diversity of surveyed organizations had wide-ranging amounts of Phragmites which led to different goals and approaches including more aggressive control targets and a wider array of control tools for smaller, private organizations compared to larger government-run properties. We found that nearly all managers (97%) used herbicide as their primary Phragmites control tool, while burning (65%), livestock grazing (49%), and mowing (43%) were also frequently used. Managers expressed uncertainties regarding the timing of herbicide application and type of herbicide for effective control. Trade-offs between different Phragmites treatments were driven by budgetary concerns, as well as environmental conditions like water levels and social constraints like permitting issues. Managers had specific ideas about the plant communities they desired following Phragmites control, yet revegetation of native species was rarely attempted. The results of this survey informed the development of large-scale, multi-year Phragmites control and native plant revegetation experiments to address management uncertainties regarding herbicide type and timing. The survey also facilitated initial scientist-manager communication, which led to collaborations and knowledge co-production between managers and researchers. An important outcome of the survey was that experimental results were

  1. Aurorae. Firework in the sky. 2. upd. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfoser, Andreas; Eklund, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Aurorae are fascinating phenomena. As aurora borealis and aurora australis occurring in the polar regions of both earth hemispheres, their incessant color and shape games put people in wonder. The meteorologist Andreas Pfoser explains the physical connections, which lead to the formation of this natural phenomenon. The link with the activity of the sun and the interaction in the earth atmosphere are explained detailedly and understandably. The fantastic recordings, presented in generous horizontal format has collected the Finnish aurora photographer Tom Eklund over a period of time of 14 years. Thereby it succeeded, to document also some events, the origin of which on our daystar were recorded by solar satellites, so that the sequence of events from the solar eruption until the aurora spectacle can be reproduced. The present 2nd edition contains new scientific findings. Additionally numerous aurora pictures were replaced by more actual photos created with modern technology.

  2. Environmental impact assessment - baseline noise survey and noise impact assessment for Aurora Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, S.

    1996-01-01

    A noise impact assessment was conducted at Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine site to comply with Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) Noise Control Directive ID 94-4. Noise assessments were conducted near a major noise source, i.e. the hydraulic and electric shovels. Noise levels at 50 meters away from the source varied from 72.3 to 79.7 dBA. The worst case noise level was 75 dBA measured at 100 meters away from a hydraulic shovel. This assessment was used to calculate the predicted design sound level from a noise source at the nearest or most impacted occupied dwelling. Two cabins located near the access road and along Kearl Lake respectively, were identified as the most impacted and nearest dwellings to the mine site. The predicted sound level at one cabin was 43 dBA, and 55 dBA at the other. Fort McKay was also assessed because it is the nearest community to the mine site. The sound level at Fort McKay was predicted to be 34 dBA. These results indicate that the sound level from Aurora Mine is not in compliance with the AEUB Noise Control Directive. Attenuation measures are required to reduce the noise to acceptable level at Cabin A and B. Predicted sound level at Fort McKay is lower than the permitted sound level

  3. Survey of conditions for artificial aurora experiments by the second electron gyro-harmonic at EISCAT Tromsø using dynasonde data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, T. T.; Rietveld, M. T.; Kosch, M. J.; Oyama, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Hosokawa, K.; Nozawa, S.; Kawabata, T.; Mizuno, A.

    2018-06-01

    We report a brief survey of matching conditions for artificial aurora optical experiments utilizing the second electron gyro-harmonic (2.7-MHz frequency) in F region heating with O-mode at the EISCAT Tromsø site using dynasonde data from 2000 to 2017. Our survey indicates the following: The possible conditions for successful artificial aurora experiments are concentrated on twilight hours in both evening and morning, compared with late night hours; the possible conditions appear in fall, winter, and spring, while there is no chance in summer, and the month-to-month variation among fall, winter, and spring is not so clear; the year-to-year variation is well correlated with the solar activity. These characteristics in the case of 2.7-MHz frequency are basically similar to those previously reported in the case of 4-MHz frequency. However, the number of days meeting the possible condition in the case of 2.7-MHz frequency is obviously large, compared with that in the case of 4-MHz frequency. In particular, unlike the 4-MHz frequency operation, the 2.7-MHz frequency operation can provide many chances for successful artificial aurora experiments even during the solar minimum.

  4. Aurorae. Firework in the sky. 2. upd. ed.; Polarlichter. Feuerwerk am Himmel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfoser, Andreas; Eklund, Tom

    2013-07-01

    Aurorae are fascinating phenomena. As aurora borealis and aurora australis occurring in the polar regions of both earth hemispheres, their incessant color and shape games put people in wonder. The meteorologist Andreas Pfoser explains the physical connections, which lead to the formation of this natural phenomenon. The link with the activity of the sun and the interaction in the earth atmosphere are explained detailedly and understandably. The fantastic recordings, presented in generous horizontal format has collected the Finnish aurora photographer Tom Eklund over a period of time of 14 years. Thereby it succeeded, to document also some events, the origin of which on our daystar were recorded by solar satellites, so that the sequence of events from the solar eruption until the aurora spectacle can be reproduced. The present 2nd edition contains new scientific findings. Additionally numerous aurora pictures were replaced by more actual photos created with modern technology.

  5. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. III. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH VIEW OF CORONA AUSTRALIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Dawn E.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Forbrich, Jan; Patten, Brian M.; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Allen, Lori E.; Dunham, Michael M.; Harvey, Paul M.; Evans, Neal J.; MerIn, Bruno; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Cieza, Lucas A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Knez, Claudia; Prager, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS observations of a 0.85 deg 2 field including the Corona Australis (CrA) star-forming region. At a distance of 130 pc, CrA is one of the closest regions known to be actively forming stars, particularly within its embedded association, the Coronet. Using the Spitzer data, we identify 51 young stellar objects (YSOs) in CrA which include sources in the well-studied Coronet cluster as well as sources distributed throughout the molecular cloud. Twelve of the YSOs discussed are new candidates, one of which is located in the Coronet. Known YSOs retrieved from the literature are also added to the list, and a total of 116 candidate YSOs in CrA are compiled. Based on these YSO candidates, the star formation rate is computed to be 12 M sun Myr -1 , similar to that of the Lupus clouds. A clustering analysis was also performed, finding that the main cluster core, consisting of 68 members, is elongated (having an aspect ratio of 2.36), with a circular radius of 0.59 pc and mean surface density of 150 pc -2 . In addition, we analyze outflows and jets in CrA by means of new CO and H 2 data. We present 1.3 mm interferometric continuum observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) covering R CrA, IRS 5, IRS 7, and IRAS 18595-3712 (IRAS 32). We also present multi-epoch H 2 maps and detect jets and outflows, study their proper motions, and identify exciting sources. The Spitzer and ISAAC/VLT observations of IRAS 32 show a bipolar precessing jet, which drives a CO(2-1) outflow detected in the SMA observations. There is also clear evidence for a parsec-scale precessing outflow, which is east-west oriented and originates in the SMA 2 region and likely driven by SMA 2 or IRS 7A.

  6. Australis: Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S.H.; Niklaus, T.R.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    The first stage of the development of AUSTRALIS, a microbeam AMS system at the HIGF laboratory at North Ryde, Sydney has been completed. The system is designed to enable in-situ microanalysis of geological samples for ultra-traces and for isotopic data for minerals exploration research. The negative ions for analysis are produced by sputtering with a microbeam of Cs{sup +}from a modified General Ionex model 834 HICONEX ion source. The source features a novel intermediate or `screen` electrode to correct for the effect of the secondary ion extraction field on the trajectory of the primary beam,in order to bring the primary beam to the geometric centre. The high energy analysis system of AUSTRALIS features a pair of deflector systems to permit fast switching of isotopes without altering the magnet setting. The paper describes the initial tests` results showing good agreement with the design parameters. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Australis: Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sie, S.H.; Niklaus, T.R.; Suter, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    The first stage of the development of AUSTRALIS, a microbeam AMS system at the HIGF laboratory at North Ryde, Sydney has been completed. The system is designed to enable in-situ microanalysis of geological samples for ultra-traces and for isotopic data for minerals exploration research. The negative ions for analysis are produced by sputtering with a microbeam of Cs + from a modified General Ionex model 834 HICONEX ion source. The source features a novel intermediate or 'screen' electrode to correct for the effect of the secondary ion extraction field on the trajectory of the primary beam,in order to bring the primary beam to the geometric centre. The high energy analysis system of AUSTRALIS features a pair of deflector systems to permit fast switching of isotopes without altering the magnet setting. The paper describes the initial tests' results showing good agreement with the design parameters. 5 refs., 4 figs

  8. Australis: Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S H; Niklaus, T R; Suter, G F [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1997-12-31

    The first stage of the development of AUSTRALIS, a microbeam AMS system at the HIGF laboratory at North Ryde, Sydney has been completed. The system is designed to enable in-situ microanalysis of geological samples for ultra-traces and for isotopic data for minerals exploration research. The negative ions for analysis are produced by sputtering with a microbeam of Cs{sup +}from a modified General Ionex model 834 HICONEX ion source. The source features a novel intermediate or `screen` electrode to correct for the effect of the secondary ion extraction field on the trajectory of the primary beam,in order to bring the primary beam to the geometric centre. The high energy analysis system of AUSTRALIS features a pair of deflector systems to permit fast switching of isotopes without altering the magnet setting. The paper describes the initial tests` results showing good agreement with the design parameters. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  9. The Spitzer survey of interstellar clouds in the Gould Belt. III. A multi-wavelength view of Corona Australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Dawn E.; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Bourke, Tyler L.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS observations of a 0.85 deg2 field including the Corona Australis (CrA) star-forming region. At a distance of 130 pc, CrA is one of the closest regions known to be actively forming stars, particularly within its embedded association, the Coronet. Us...

  10. Survey of wildlife, including aquatic mammals, associated with riparian habitat on the Syncrude Canada Ltd. Aurora Mine environmental impact assessment local study area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surrendi, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    A general overview of the wildlife associated with riparian habitats at Syncrude`s proposed Aurora Mine, located 70 km northeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta on the east side of the Athabasca River, was presented. The area is underlain by bitumen and is being considered for bitumen extraction and production of synthetic crude oil. Two surveys were conducted with the help of experienced trappers from the community at Fort McKay. One was an aerial survey on November 3, 1995, the other a ground survey on November 29-30, 1995. The two surveys yielded 248 observed tracks on four 500 metre transects. The study area was comprised of boreal forest with natural drainage via Stanley Creek into the Muskeg River and via Fort Creek into the Athabasca River. Beavers, fox, weasel, mink, rabbit, wolf, moose, deer, ptarmigan, sharp-tailed grouse and ruffed grouse, lynx, coyote, river otter and mice were associated with riparian habitat on the study area. There was no sign of muskrat in the study area. It was concluded that in order to develop an understanding of reclamation alternatives for mined areas in the region, future detailed examination of the site should be approached through the integration of traditional ecological knowledge and conventional scientific methodology. 26 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. Survey of wildlife, including aquatic mammals, associated with riparian habitat on the Syncrude Canada Ltd. Aurora Mine environmental impact assessment local study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrendi, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    A general overview of the wildlife associated with riparian habitats at Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine, located 70 km northeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta on the east side of the Athabasca River, was presented. The area is underlain by bitumen and is being considered for bitumen extraction and production of synthetic crude oil. Two surveys were conducted with the help of experienced trappers from the community at Fort McKay. One was an aerial survey on November 3, 1995, the other a ground survey on November 29-30, 1995. The two surveys yielded 248 observed tracks on four 500 metre transects. The study area was comprised of boreal forest with natural drainage via Stanley Creek into the Muskeg River and via Fort Creek into the Athabasca River. Beavers, fox, weasel, mink, rabbit, wolf, moose, deer, ptarmigan, sharp-tailed grouse and ruffed grouse, lynx, coyote, river otter and mice were associated with riparian habitat on the study area. There was no sign of muskrat in the study area. It was concluded that in order to develop an understanding of reclamation alternatives for mined areas in the region, future detailed examination of the site should be approached through the integration of traditional ecological knowledge and conventional scientific methodology. 26 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs

  12. AuroraMAX!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E. L.; Chicoine, R.; Pugsley, J.; Langlois, P.

    2011-12-01

    AuroraMAX is a public outreach and education initiative that brings auroral images to the public in real time. AuroraMAX utilizes an observing station located just outside Yellowknife, Canada. The station houses a digital All-Sky Imager (ASI) that collects full-colour images of the night sky every six seconds. These images are then transmitted via satellite internet to our web server, where they are made instantly available to the public. Over the last two years this program has rapidly become one of the most successful outreach programs in the history of Space Science in Canada, with hundreds of thousands of distinct visitors to the CSA AuroraMAX website, thousands of followers on social media, and hundreds of newspaper, magazine, radio, and television spots. Over the next few years, the project will expand to include a high-resolution SLR delivering real-time auroral images (also from Yellowknife), as well as a program where astronauts on the ISS will take pictures of the aurora with a handheld SLR. The objectives of AuroraMAX are public outreach and education. The ASI design, operation, and software were based on infrastructure that was developed for the highly successful ASI component of the NASA THEMIS mission as well as the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Canadian GeoSpace Monitoring (CGSM) program. So from an education and public outreach perspective, AuroraMAX is a single camera operating in the Canadian north. On the other hand, AuroraMAX is one of nearly 40 All-Sky Imagers that are operating across North America. The AuroraMAX camera produces data that is seamlessly integrated with the CGSM ASI data, and made widely available to the Space Science community through open-access web and FTP sites. One of our objectives in the next few years is to incorporate some of the data from the THEMIS and CGSM imagers into the AuroraMAX system, to maximize viewing opportunities and generate more real-time data for public outreach. This is an exemplar of a program that

  13. Southern right whales Eubalaena australis visit the coasts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Counts and photographs of right whales Eubalaena australis taken on aerial surveys of the southern coast of. South Africa between ... of 0.08–2.89 km.h-1. Theodolite tracking of undisturbed groups of right whales from Cape Columbine produced ...... right whales on the coast of Argentina (Outer Coast) between 1971 and ...

  14. Theory of aurora formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira.

    1975-04-01

    A new theory of aurora formation is presented based on Alfven wave-electron interaction. The theory explains consistently 1) the electron acceleration process, 2) the formation of auroral layers and 3) the long wave formation in the longitudinal direction. (auth.)

  15. Aurora energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falconer, D. [Aurora Energy Resources Inc., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the structure and activities of Aurora, a mining company which owns uranium mines, open pit mines at Michelin, Jacques Lake and Rainbow and underground mines at Michelin and Jacques Lake. The paper discusses issues such as economics, mining, processing and environmental impacts.

  16. Drifting black aurorae?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoute-Vanneck, H.; Scourfield, M.W.J.; Nielsen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Characteristics of eastward drifting forms, previously described in the literature as black aurorae, have been identified in low-light level TV camera data. The TV field of view was within the field of view of STARE and that of an all-sky camera. On the basis of these observations the authors propose that these auroral forms are a manifestation of folds or waves on the borders of auroral bands propagating along the dark regions between neighboring auroral bands. Conditions under which the folds or waves occur are compatible with their formation by the Kelvin-Helmholtz electrostatic instability

  17. Aurora laser optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, J.A.; McLeod, J.

    1987-01-01

    Aurora is the Los Alamos short-pulse high-power krypton fluoride laser system. It is primarily an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large-scale UV laser systems of interest for short-wavelength inertial confinement fusion (ICF) investigations. The system is designed to employ optical angular multiplexing and aerial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to deliver to ICF targets a stack of pulses with a duration of 5 ns containing several kilojoules at a wavelength of 248 nm. A program of high-energy density plasma physics investigations is now planned, and a sophisticated target chamber was constructed. The authors describe the design of the optical system for Aurora and report its status. This optical system was designed and is being constructed in two phases. The first phase carries only through the amplifier train and does not include a target chamber or any demultiplexing. Installation should be complete, and some performance results should be available. The second phase provides demultiplexing and carries the laser light to target. The complete design is reported

  18. Adventures in search of auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Colin

    2016-09-01

    In her book Aurora: In Search of the Northern Lights, Melanie Windridge describes travelling around the Arctic Circle on a quest to see the biggest and best auroral displays and to understand the physics that drives them.

  19. Did Aboriginal Australians record a simultaneous eclipse and aurora in their oral traditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert S.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate an Australian Aboriginal cultural story that seems to describe an extraordinary series of astronomical events occurring at the same time. We hypothesise that this was a witnessed natural event and explore natural phenomena that could account for the description. We select a thunderstorm, total solar eclipse, and strong Aurora Australis as the most likely candidates, then conclude a plausible date of 764 CE. We evaluate the different factors that would determine whether all these events could have been visible, include meteorological data, alternative total solar eclipse dates, solar activity cycles, aurorae appearances, and sky brightness during total solar eclipses. We conduct this study as a test-case for rigorously and systematically examining descriptions of rare natural phenomena in oral traditions, highlighting the difficulties and challenges with interpreting this type of hypothesis.

  20. Temporal variations of potential fecundity of southern blue whiting (Micromesistius australis australis) in the Southeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Andrés; Wiff, Rodrigo; Díaz, Eduardo; Carvajal, Bernardita

    2017-08-01

    Fecundity is a key aspect of fish species reproductive biology because it relates directly to total egg production. Yet, despite such importance, fecundity estimates are lacking or scarce for several fish species. The gravimetric method is the most-used one to estimate fecundity by essentially scaling up the oocyte density to the ovary weight. It is a relatively simple and precise technique, but also time consuming because it requires counting all oocytes in an ovary subsample. The auto-diametric method, on the other hand, is relatively new for estimating fecundity, representing a rapid alternative, because it requires only an estimation of mean oocyte density from mean oocyte diameter. Using the extensive database available from commercial fishery and design surveys for southern blue whiting Micromesistius australis australis in the Southeast Pacific, we compared estimates of fecundity using both gravimetric and auto-diametric methods. Temporal variations in potential fecundity from the auto-diametric method were evaluated using generalised linear models considering predictors from maternal characteristics such as female size, condition factor, oocyte size, and gonadosomatic index. A global and time-invariant auto-diametric equation was evaluated using a simulation procedure based on non-parametric bootstrap. Results indicated there were not significant differences regarding fecundity estimates between the gravimetric and auto-diametric method (p > 0.05). Simulation showed the application of a global equation is unbiased and sufficiently precise to estimate time-invariant fecundity of this species. Temporal variations on fecundity were explained by maternal characteristic, revealing signals of fecundity down-regulation. We discuss how oocyte size and nutritional condition (measured as condition factor) are one of the important factors determining fecundity. We highlighted also the relevance of choosing the appropriate sampling period to conduct maturity studies

  1. The Aurora space launcher concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Alexander; Stappert, Sven; Mattsson, David; Olofsson, Kurt; Marklund, Erik; Kurth, Guido; Mooij, Erwin; Roorda, Evelyne

    2017-11-01

    This paper gives an overview about the Aurora reusable space launcher concept study that was initiated in late-2015/early-2016. Within the Aurora study, several spaceplane-like vehicle configurations with different geometries, propulsion systems and mission profiles will be designed, investigated and evaluated with respect to their technical and economic feasibility. The first part of this paper will discuss the study logic and the current status of the Aurora studies and introduces the first vehicle configurations and their system design status. As the identification of highly efficient structural designs is of particular interest for Aurora, the structural design and analysis approach will be discussed in higher level of detail. A special design feature of the Aurora vehicle configurations is the utilization of the novel thin-ply composite material technology for structural mass reductions. Therefore, the second part of this paper will briefly discuss this technology and investigate the application and potential mass savings on vehicle level within simplified structural analysis studies. The results indicate that significant mass savings could be possible. Finally, an outlook on the next steps is provided.

  2. The Aurora space launcher concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Alexander; Stappert, Sven; Mattsson, David; Olofsson, Kurt; Marklund, Erik; Kurth, Guido; Mooij, Erwin; Roorda, Evelyne

    2018-06-01

    This paper gives an overview about the Aurora reusable space launcher concept study that was initiated in late-2015/early-2016. Within the Aurora study, several spaceplane-like vehicle configurations with different geometries, propulsion systems and mission profiles will be designed, investigated and evaluated with respect to their technical and economic feasibility. The first part of this paper will discuss the study logic and the current status of the Aurora studies and introduces the first vehicle configurations and their system design status. As the identification of highly efficient structural designs is of particular interest for Aurora, the structural design and analysis approach will be discussed in higher level of detail. A special design feature of the Aurora vehicle configurations is the utilization of the novel thin-ply composite material technology for structural mass reductions. Therefore, the second part of this paper will briefly discuss this technology and investigate the application and potential mass savings on vehicle level within simplified structural analysis studies. The results indicate that significant mass savings could be possible. Finally, an outlook on the next steps is provided.

  3. Aurora status and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristal, R.; Blair, L.S.; Burrows, M.D.

    1987-10-01

    Aurora is a short wavelength (248 nm) 10 to kJ KrF laser systems in the ICF program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It is both an experiment in driver technology and a means for studying target performance using KrF laser light. Both features will be used to help evaluate the uv excimer laser as a viable fusion driver. The system has been designed to employ several electron-beam pumped amplifiers in series, with a final aperture of one meter square, to amplify 96 angularly mulitplexed 5 ns beamlets to the 10 kJ level. In Phase I, 48 of these beamlets are brought to target by demultiplexing and focusing with f26 optics. The beamlet ensemble, contained within an f1.9 bundle, is focused as a single beam;however, pointing is done individually. Spot size in the target plane is variable from 0.1-4 mm, with maximum averaged intensity of /similar to/ 4 x 10 15 Wcm 2 . The illumination geometry is designed specifically for several classes of important target physics experiments. These include: energy flow, symmetry and preheat studies related to indirectly driven targets;x-ray conversion and plasma coupling characterization on disc targets, and hydrodynamic instability studies in planar geometry. System integration is proceeding toward initial target experiments in /similar to/ late 1988. Ninety-six beam amplification through the penultimate amplifier has been obtained at the sub-kJ level. Installation of beam train optics is proceeding, and the target system vacuum envelope is in place. 18 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Atise: a miniature Fourier-transform spectro-imaging concept for surveying auroras and airglow monitoring from a 6/12u cubesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Courer, E.; Barthelemy, M.; Vialatte, A.; Prugniaux, M.; Bourdarot, G.; Sequies, T.; Monsinjon, P.; Puget, R.; Guerineau, N.

    2017-09-01

    The nanosatellite ATISE is a mission dedicated to the observation of the emission spectra of the upper atmosphere (i.e. Airglow and Auroras) mainly related to both the solar UV flux and the precipitation of suprathermal particles coming from the solar wind through the magnetosphere. ATISE will measure specifically the auroral emissions, and the airglow (day- and night) in the spectral range between 380 and 900 nm at altitudes between 100 and 350 km. The exposure time will be 1 second in auroral region and 20 s at low latitude regions. The 5 year expected lifetime of this mission should cover almost a half of solar cycle (2 years nominal). This instrument concept is based on an innovative miniaturized Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) allowing simultaneous 1 Rayleigh sensitivity detection along six 1.5°x1° limb lines of sight. This 1-2kg payload instrument is hosted in a 12U cubeSat where 6U are allocated to the payload and 6U to the plateform subsystems. This represents a miniaturisation by a factor of 500 on weight and volume compared to previous Arizona-GLO instrument for equivalent performances in the visible. The instrument is based on microSPOC concept developed by ONERA and IPAG using one Fizeau interferometer per line of sight directly glued on top of the half of a very sensitive CMOS Pyxalis HDPYX detector. Three detectors are necessary with a total electrical consumption compatible with a 6U nanoSat. Each interferometer occupies a 1.4 M pixel part of detector, each is placed on an image of the entrance pupil corresponding to a unique direction of the six lines of sight, this in order to have a uniform illumination permitting good spectral Fourier reconstruction from fringes created between the Fizeau plate and the detector itself. Despite a limited 8x6 cm telescope, this configuration takes advantage of FTS multiplex effect and permits us to maximize the throughput and to integrate very faint emission lines over a wide field of view even if the 1

  5. Image analysis of dayside aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lybekk, B.

    1989-12-01

    Ground based observations from Svalbard of the midday aurora by all sky cameras and meridian scanning photometers showed the sporadic occurrence of discrete auroral forms within or near the stable cusp or cleft aurora. Some of these forms appeared near the equatorward boundary of the stable cusp/cleft aurora and moved westward and northward. The duration of the whole event was typically less than 10 minutes. Series of such events were observed when the cusp/cleft was located at low latitudes. Satellite measurements of magnetic field and ion drift components above auroral strucures gave detailed information of auroral electrodynamics in the cusp/cleft ionosphere. Satellite observations of the dayside oval at ∼ 09 MLT showed that auroral emissions can be separated in different latitudinal zones with corresponding structures in the particle precipitation. The ground based optical instruments at Svalbard measured the stationary cleft aurora produced by soft electrons and transient discrete arcs produced by precipitating keV electrons. 89 refs

  6. Aurora oil switch upgrade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, T.

    1989-03-01

    This report describes the short pulse synchronization requirements, the original Aurora trigger scheme, and the PI/SNLA approach to improving the synchronization. It also describes the oil switching design study undertaken as the first phase of the program. A discussion of oil-switch closure analysis and the conceptual design motivated by this analysis are presented. This paper also describes the oil-switch trigger pulser tests required to validate the concept. This includes the design of the testing facility, a description of the test goals, and a discussion of the results. This paper finally describes oil-switch trigger pulser testing on one of the four Aurora Blumlein modules, which includes the hardware design and operation, the testing goals, hardware installation, and test results. 9 refs., 26 figs

  7. Hydrogeology baseline study Aurora Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A baseline hydrogeologic study was conducted in the area of Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine in order to develop a conceptual regional hydrogeologic model for the area that could be used to understand groundwater flow conditions. Geologic information was obtained from over 2,000 coreholes and from data obtained between 1980 and 1996 regarding water level for the basal aquifer. A 3-D numerical groundwater flow model was developed to provide quantitative estimates of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed mining operations on the groundwater flow system. The information was presented in the context of a regional study area which encompassed much of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, and a local study area which was defined by the lowlands of the Muskeg River Basin. Characteristics of the topography, hydrology, climate, geology, and hydrogeology of the region are described. The conclusion is that groundwater flow in the aquifer occurs mostly in a westerly direction beneath the Aurora Mine towards its inferred discharge location along the Athabasca River. Baseflow in the Muskeg River is mostly related to discharge from shallow surficial aquifers. Water in the river under baseflow conditions was fresh, of calcium-carbonate type, with very little indication of mineralization associated with deeper groundwater in the Aurora Mine area. 44 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs

  8. A Panchromatic View of Brown Dwarf Aurorae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian [University of Colorado Boulder, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder CO, 80303 (United States); Hallinan, Gregg; Kao, Melodie M. [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, 1200 E. California Avenue, Pasadena CA, 91125 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Stellar coronal activity has been shown to persist into the low-mass star regime, down to late M-dwarf spectral types. However, there is now an accumulation of evidence suggesting that at the end of the main sequence, there is a transition in the nature of the magnetic activity from chromospheric and coronal to planet-like and auroral, from local impulsive heating via flares and MHD wave dissipation to energy dissipation from strong large-scale magnetospheric current systems. We examine this transition and the prevalence of auroral activity in brown dwarfs through a compilation of multiwavelength surveys of magnetic activity, including radio, X-ray, and optical. We compile the results of those surveys and place their conclusions in the context of auroral emission as a consequence of large-scale magnetospheric current systems that accelerate energetic electron beams and drive the particles to impact the cool atmospheric gas. We explore the different manifestations of auroral phenomena, like H α , in brown dwarf atmospheres and define their distinguishing characteristics. We conclude that large-amplitude photometric variability in the near-infrared is most likely a consequence of clouds in brown dwarf atmospheres, but that auroral activity may be responsible for long-lived stable surface features. We report a connection between auroral H α emission and quiescent radio emission in electron cyclotron maser instability pulsing brown dwarfs, suggesting a potential underlying physical connection between quiescent and auroral emissions. We also discuss the electrodynamic engines powering brown dwarf aurorae and the possible role of satellites around these systems both to power the aurorae and seed the magnetosphere with plasma.

  9. Significance of Aurora B overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Aurora B Overexpression in HCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zhong-Zhe; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Hu, Fu-Chang; Pan, Hung-Wei; Tsao, Hsin-Wei; Lai, Po-Lin; Lee, Po-Huang; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Hsu, Hey-Chi

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the significance of Aurora B expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The Aurora B and Aurora A mRNA level was measured in 160 HCCs and the paired nontumorous liver tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mutations of the p53 and β-catenin genes were analyzed in 134 and 150 tumors, respectively, by direct sequencing of exon 2 to exon 11 of p53 and exon 3 of β-catenin. Anticancer effects of AZD1152-HQPA, an Aurora B kinase selective inhibitor, were examined in Huh-7 and Hep3B cell lines. Aurora B was overexpressed in 98 (61%) of 160 HCCs and in all 7 HCC cell lines examined. The overexpression of Aurora B was associated with Aurora A overexpression (P = 0.0003) and p53 mutation (P = 0.002) and was inversely associated with β-catenin mutation (P = 0.002). Aurora B overexpression correlated with worse clinicopathologic characteristics. Multivariate analysis confirmed that Aurora B overexpression was an independent poor prognostic factor, despite its interaction with Aurora A overexpression and mutations of p53 and β-catenin. In Huh-7 and Hep3B cells, AZD1152-HQPA induced proliferation blockade, histone H3 (Ser10) dephosphorylation, cell cycle disturbance, and apoptosis. Aurora B overexpression is an independent molecular marker predicting tumor invasiveness and poor prognosis of HCC. Aurora B kinase selective inhibitors are potential therapeutic agents for HCC treatment

  10. Aurora Research: Earth/Space Data Fusion Powered by GIS and Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, V. L.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; MacDonald, E.; Kosar, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Aurora Borealis and Australis Borealis are visually spectacular, but are also an indicator of Sun-magnetosphere-ionosphere energy transfer during geomagnetic storms. The Saint Patrick's Day Storm of 2015 is a stellar example of this, and is the focus of our study that utilizes the Geographical Information Services of ArcGIS to bring together diverse and cross disciplinary data for analysis. This research leverages data from a polar-orbiting Earth science sensor band that is exquisitely sensitive to visible light, namely the Day/Night Band (DNB) of the VIIRS instrument onboard the Suomi NPP satellite. This Sun-synchronous data source can provide high temporal and spatial resolution observations of the aurorae, which is not possible with current space science instruments. This data can be compared with auroral model data, solar wind measurements, and citizen science data of aurora observations and tweets. While the proposed data sources are diverse in type and format, their common attribute is location. This is exploited by bringing all the data into ArcGIS for mapping and analysis. The Python programming language is used extensively to automate the data preprocessing, group the DNB and citizen science observations to temporal windows associated with an auroral model timestep, and print the data to a pdf mapbook for sharing with team members. There are several goals for this study: compare the auroral model predictions with DNB data, look for fine-grained structure of the aurora in the DNB data, compare citizen science data with DNB values, and correlate DNB intensity with solar wind data. This study demonstrates the benefits of using a GIS platform to bring together data that is diverse in type and format for scientific exploration, and shows how Python can be used to scale up to large datasets.

  11. Double layers above the aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temerin, M.; Mozer, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Two different kinds of double layers were found in association with auroral precipitation. One of these is the so-called electrostatic shock, which is oriented at an oblique angle to the magnetic field in such a way that the perpendicular electric field is much larger than the parallel electric field. This type of double layer is often found at the edges of regions of upflowing ion beams and the direction of the electric fields in the shock points toward the ion beam. The potential drop through the shock can be several kV and is comparable to the total potential needed to produce auroral acceleration. Instabilities associated with the shock may generate obliquely propagating Alfven waves, which may accelerate electrons to produce flickering auroras. The flickering aurora provides evidence that the electrostatic shock may have large temporal fluctuations. The other kind of double layer is the small-amplitude double layer found in regions of upward flowing in beams, often in association with electrostatic ion cyclotron waves. The parallel and perpendicular electric fields in these structures are comparable in magnitude. The associated potentials are a few eV. Since many such double layers are found in regions of upward flowing ion beams, the combined potential drop through a set of these double layers can be substantial

  12. Occurrence and average behavior of pulsating aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partamies, N.; Whiter, D.; Kadokura, A.; Kauristie, K.; Nesse Tyssøy, H.; Massetti, S.; Stauning, P.; Raita, T.

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by recent event studies and modeling efforts on pulsating aurora, which conclude that the precipitation energy during these events is high enough to cause significant chemical changes in the mesosphere, this study looks for the bulk behavior of auroral pulsations. Based on about 400 pulsating aurora events, we outline the typical duration, geomagnetic conditions, and change in the peak emission height for the events. We show that the auroral peak emission height for both green and blue emission decreases by about 8 km at the start of the pulsating aurora interval. This brings the hardest 10% of the electrons down to about 90 km altitude. The median duration of pulsating aurora is about 1.4 h. This value is a conservative estimate since in many cases the end of event is limited by the end of auroral imaging for the night or the aurora drifting out of the camera field of view. The longest durations of auroral pulsations are observed during events which start within the substorm recovery phases. As a result, the geomagnetic indices are not able to describe pulsating aurora. Simultaneous Antarctic auroral images were found for 10 pulsating aurora events. In eight cases auroral pulsations were seen in the southern hemispheric data as well, suggesting an equatorial precipitation source and a frequent interhemispheric occurrence. The long lifetimes of pulsating aurora, their interhemispheric occurrence, and the relatively high-precipitation energies make this type of aurora an effective energy deposition process which is easy to identify from the ground-based image data.

  13. Geographic variation in growth responses in Phragmites australis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevering, O.A.; Brix, H.; Lukavska, J.

    2001-01-01

    Phragmites australis is a cosmopolitan wetlands species occurring in a wide range of climatic habitats, It can be assumed that adaptations to climate have evolved to enable the synchronization of growth with the seasonality of the environment. To study these adaptations, European P. australis was

  14. Dynamics of the dayside aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzberg, F.; Mcewen, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    A clearer picture of the dynamical nature of the post-noon aurora has been obtained with instrumental studies during rocket flights over the Northwest Territories of Canada. A sequence of meridian scans showing the measured intensities of the emissions along the meridian from south to north is presented. An all-sky picture of an auroral event is presented which shows a very narrow arc running through the zenith in an east-west direction, typical of many occurring during the period 1-3 hrs after local magnetic noon. A contemporaneous meridian scan taken over the same location shows a narrow spike in the zenith. The frequent occurrence of these narrow, transient auroral arcs with lifetimes of 1-2 minutes, resulting from inverted V events, is discussed

  15. The mechanism of pulsating aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    New measurement using ground-based techniques, sounding-rockets and geostationary satellites show that pulsating aurora is almost certainly caused by a modulation of the precipitating electron beam. The modulation is probably imposed near the magnetic equator by an interaction with ELF waves which are observed to be modulated at the same frequency. The measured wave intensity is not strong enough to cause pulsations by variation of the rate of pitch angle diffusion so it is suggested that the pulsation is caused by a coherent interaction involving the generation of ELF chorus. The periodicity arises because the chorus is shut-off after approximately half a bounce period when the increased rate of precipitation removes most of the resonant electrons. The supply is then replenished by pitch angle diffusion

  16. Aurora Bertrana: bringing "otherness" home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pilar Godayol i Nogué

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available “Decidida a viure al preu que sigui” underscores contemporary writer Maria-Antònia Oliver in her prologue to Aurora Bertrana’s fourth book, El Marroc sensual i fanàtic (1936. The urge to travel, to explore the world and to slake her thirst for new experiences shaped much of the personality and the work of this Girona-born writer. Taking her own travels as a starting point, Bertrana distinguished herself in the genre of travel writing on exotic countries, which at that time underwent a significant revival in Catalonia. Bertrana’s originality lies partly in the image of the woman traveller that she consciously cultivated for herself, and partly in the way she narrates her travels. This article seeks to recover this author and make visible her singular way of presenting otherness.

  17. Understanding Super-Earths with MINERVA-Australis at USQ's Mount Kent Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenmyer, Robert; Horner, Jonathan; Kane, Stephen; Plavchan, Peter; Ciardi, David; Eastman, Jason; Johnson, John Asher; Wright, Jason; McCrady, Nate; MINERVA Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Super Earths, planets between 5-10 Earth masses, are the most common types of planets known, yet are completely absent from our Solar system. As a result, their detailed properties, compositions, and formation mechanisms are poorly understood. NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will identify hundreds of Super-Earths orbiting bright stars, for the first time allowing in-depth characterisation of these planets. At the University of Southern Queensland, we are host to the MINERVA-Australis project, dedicated wholly to the follow-up characterisation and mass measurement of TESS planets. We give an update on the status of MINERVA-Australis and our expected performance. We also present results from the fully operational Northern MINERVA array, with the primary mission of discovering rocky planets orbiting 80 nearby bright stars.

  18. Aurora Police Lieutenant Gains Intelligence Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2012-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, PRESS RELEASES Aurora (Colo.) Police Lt. Sam McGhee has served numerous traditional roles in law enforcement such as emergency services coordinator, media relations manager, narcotics and intelligence commander and sector commander. Currently,...

  19. Spitzbergen - a unique site for observing aurorae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egeland, A.; Sandholt, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    An international research project situated on Spitzbergen was begun in 1978-79 by Norwegian, British, and American scientists. The main purpose of the project is systematic studies of midday aurorae. Midday aurorae are a new and interesting research theme for which Norway has special qualifications. Through international cooperation a comprehensive instrument park and a practical and economic distribution of tasks have been attained. (Auth./JIW)

  20. Submillimeter Spectroscopy of the R Coronae Australis Molecular Cloud Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marina Madeline; Walker, Christopher K.; Pat, Terrance; Sirsi, Siddhartha; Swift, Brandon J.; Peters, William L.

    2018-01-01

    The Interstellar Medium is comprised of large amounts of gas and dust which coalesce to form stars. Observing in the Terahertz regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, approximately 0.3 -300 microns, allows astronomers to study the ISM in unprecedented detail. Using the high spectral resolution imaging system of the SuperCam receiver, a 64-pixel array previously installed on the Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham, AZ, we have begun a 500 square degree survey of the galactic plane. This instrument was designed to do a complete survey of the Milky Way from the ground, with the main focus being to observe two specific transitions of the carbon monoxide molecule, 12CO(3-2) and 13CO(3-2), at 345 GHz. In this work, we present results from these observations for the R Coronae Australis (R Cr A) complex, a region in the southern hemisphere of the sky, using spectroscopic data from a portion of the survey to gain better insight into the life cycle of the ISM. The majority of stars being formed here are similar to the stellar class of the Sun, making it an excellent area of observing interest. Using these results, we attempt to better ascertain the large-scale structure and kinematics inside of the molecular cloud.

  1. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.This image and other images and data

  2. Recent developments in pulsating aurora studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandahl, I.

    1985-11-01

    The field of pulsating aurora studies is reviewed. The paper begins with a short description of the characteristics of pulsating auroras and the theoretical ideas which, in view of existing experimental results, seem most important. A selection of new theoretical results and experimental results from both ground based instruments and instruments on rockets and satellites is then presented. There is now convincing evidence that the luminosity modulation is caused by a modulated flux of electron. The electron flux modulation seems to arise from a modulated resonant interaction between electrons and whistler mode waves in the equatorial plane, but the reason for the modulation is not known. Measurements concerning the drift and location of patches and the creation of Pi1 micropulsations are also deiscussed. Finally some suggestions for future research work are outlined. Optical measurements, especially with low light level TV, have proven to be of great importance in experimental studies of pulsating auroras. (author)

  3. The first accurate description of an aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2006-12-01

    As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

  4. 2-Aminobenzimidazoles as potent Aurora kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Min; Bui, Minna; Shen, Wang; Baskaran, Subramanian; Allen, Darin A; Elling, Robert A; Flanagan, W Michael; Fung, Amy D; Hanan, Emily J; Harris, Shannon O; Heumann, Stacey A; Hoch, Ute; Ivy, Sheryl N; Jacobs, Jeffrey W; Lam, Stuart; Lee, Heman; McDowell, Robert S; Oslob, Johan D; Purkey, Hans E; Romanowski, Michael J; Silverman, Jeffrey A; Tangonan, Bradley T; Taverna, Pietro; Yang, Wenjin; Yoburn, Josh C; Yu, Chul H; Zimmerman, Kristin M; O'Brien, Tom; Lew, Willard

    2009-09-01

    This Letter describes the discovery and key structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a series of 2-aminobenzimidazoles as potent Aurora kinase inhibitors. 2-Aminobenzimidazole serves as a bioisostere of the biaryl urea residue of SNS-314 (1c), which is a potent Aurora kinase inhibitor and entered clinical testing in patients with solid tumors. Compared to SNS-314, this series of compounds offers better aqueous solubility while retaining comparable in vitro potency in biochemical and cell-based assays; in particular, 6m has also demonstrated a comparable mouse iv PK profile to SNS-314.

  5. Proyecto Aurora: Building a Community of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Gladys R. Capella

    1997-01-01

    Describes the development of Proyecto Aurora, a program to develop and implement educational, support, and research programs to benefit low-income women in Puerto Rico. Portraits of some clients illustrate the rewards and challenges of working with this community and furthering their educational experiences and opportunities. (SLD)

  6. Early successional stages of reed Phragmites australis vegetations and its importance for the Bearded Reedling Panurus biarmicus in Oostvaardersplassen, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beemster, Nico; Troost, Els; Platteeuw, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A study on Bearded Reed ling Panurus biarmicus feeding habits in combination with a sample-wise breeding bird survey of the marshland zones of the Dutch wetland Oostvaardersplassen shows clear-cut spatial differences in densities and habitat use. The more mature stands of Reed Phragmites australis

  7. BOOK REVIEW: European Perceptions of Terra Australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, Christiaan

    2012-12-01

    Terra Australis - the southern land - has been one of the most widespread concepts in European geography from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. This book comprises a set of 14 interdisciplinary scholarly contributions that deal with personal perceptions of Terra Australis by cartographers and explorers, and with putting these perceptions in their historical and cultural environments. This book seems, at a first glance, to be very remote from astronomy - and even from the history of astronomy - however, as it also offers an excellent background to Captain James Cook's second voyage to observe the 1769 transit of Venus from Tahiti, it definitely is a work of truly interdisciplinary character. Cook's voyages, in fact, became a model in which key scientists of many nationalities and disciplines traveled together on ships. In these voyages, art, science, technology and political power were centralised and united. The chapters range across history, the visual arts, literature, popular culture, technology, politics and science. Issues of scientific reasoning are raised in the description of how people did think about the south before there even existed a perception of the unknown land - quite comparable to how ancient and early-modern astronomers had their thought about cosmology even before any observational data were available. Several early map systems - like the zonal and T-O maps (medieval world maps with the letter T inside an O representing the lands inside a circle of oceans) - are described, and the description of Roman geography shows the amazing fact that theory and practice were not unified, and existed independently of each other insofar that a real paradox between theory and observation had persisted for a very long time. The maps and charts also exemplify the long-lasting consequences of early modern copy-paste practice: navigators copied original sketch charts of coasts that were previously unknown to them, herewith committing many translation and

  8. Horse-collar aurora: A frequent pattern of the aurora in quiet times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hones, E.W. Jr.; Craven, J.D.; Frank, L.A.; Evans, D.S.; Newell, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    Reported here are DE 1 auroral imager observations of an auroral configuration which is given the name ''horse-collar aurora.'' The horse-collar pattern comprises the total area of auroral emissions from a single hemisphere and derives its name from the shape of the emitting area. The pattern is found in images recorded during quiet geomagnetic conditions and is possibly related to the theta aurora, another quiet time configuration of the auroras. This initial report of the DE 1 observations illustrates the horse-collar aurora with a 2-hour images sequence that displays its basic features and shows an example of its evolution into a theta-like auroral pattern. The interplanetary magnetic field was northward during this image sequence and there is some evidence for IMF B/sub y/ influence of the temporal development of the horse-collar pattern. A preliminary statistical analysis found the horse-collar pattern appearing in one-third or more of image sequences recorded during quiet conditions; it did not appear during disturbed conditions. Further study is required to establish more fully the characteristics of the horse-collar aurora and to determine its implications concerning solar wind-magnetosphere coupling when the IMF B/sub z/ is northward. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  9. Aurora Mine project - historical resources baseline study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, B.

    1996-01-01

    This volume contains the results of a base line archaeological study of the Aurora Mine Project local study area. It was compiled in support of Syncrude Canada's application to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) and Alberta Environmental Protection to construct and operate it new Aurora Mine, located northeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta. The objective of this study was to compile, consolidate, review and analyze the reports for the area compiled over the past 22 years in and adjacent to the local study area (LSA), particularly those of now existing and Syncrude projects, and previously proposed Alsands and OSLO projects. The report is a summary of the human history in the area including pre-contact native archaeological sites, past archaeological studies, the Hinterland site pattern, post-contact native traditional sites, oil sands exploration/development related sites and paleontological sites in the subject area, and areas adjacent to it. 150 refs., 5 tabs., 43 figs

  10. Jung's quest for the "Aurora consurgens"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaning, Aksel

    2014-01-01

    Auriferae (1593); and it raises the question of whether this could be the possible missing link to Jung's subsequent research in Alchemy and Hermetic Philosophy in the years to come. It is argued that here was the beginning of Jung's quest for the Aurora consurgens, the publication of which concludes...... the Mysterium Conuinctionis more than twenty years later. It is further maintained that this choice of the Aurora is a profound expression of Jung's ambition to revitalize the past from within the individual, and helps explain Jung's deep concern with the welfare and future of modern society.......The paper focuses on the year 1929 when Jung published ‘A European commentary’ to Richard Wilhelm's German translation of the Taoist text The Secret of the Golden Flower. This shows that Jung had already started on the track of European alchemy by following up Conrad Waldkirch's preface in Artis...

  11. Aurora A's functions during mitotic exit: the Guess Who game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eReboutier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the knowledge of Aurora A kinase functions during mitosis was limited to pre-metaphase events, particularly centrosome maturation, G2/M transition, and mitotic spindle assembly. However, an involvement of Aurora A in post-metaphase events was also suspected, but not clearly demonstrated due to the technical difficulty to perform the appropriate experiments. Recent developments of both an analog specific version of Aurora A, and of small molecule inhibitors have led to the first demonstration that Aurora A is required for the early steps of cytokinesis. As in pre-metaphase, Aurora A plays diverse functions during anaphase, essentially participating in astral microtubules dynamics and central spindle assembly and functioning. The present review describes the experimental systems used to decipher new functions of Aurora A during late mitosis and situate these functions into the context of cytokinesis mechanisms.

  12. Aurora kinase inhibitors: Progress towards the clinic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kollareddy, M.; Zheleva, D.; Dzubak, P.; Brahmkshatriya, Pathik; Lepšík, Martin; Hajduch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 6 (2012), s. 2411-2432 ISSN 0167-6997 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA301/08/1649; GA ČR(CZ) GD303/09/H048 Program:GA; GD Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Aurora kinases * cancer * inhibitors Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.498, year: 2012

  13. Electron energy measurements in pulsating auroras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, D.J.; Yee, E.; Whalen, B.A.; Yau, A.W.

    1981-01-01

    Electron spectra were obtained during two rocket flights into pulsating aurora from Southend, Saskatchewan. The first rocket launched at 1143:24 UT on February 15, 1980 flew into an aurora of background intensity 275 R of N 2 + 4278 A and showing regular pulsations with about a 17 s period. Electron spectra of Maxwellian energy distributions were observed with an average E 0 = 1.5 keV, rising to 1.8 keV during the pulsations. There was one-to-one correspondence between the electron energy modulation and the observed optical pulsations. The second rocket, launched at 1009:10 UT on February 23, flew into a diffuse auroral surface of intensity 800 R of N 2 + 4278 A and with somewhat irregular pulsations. The electron spectra were again of Maxwellian energy distribution with an average E 0 = 1.8 keV increasing to 2.1 keV during the pulsations. The results from these flights suggest that pulsating auroras occurring in the morning sector may be quite commonly excited by low energy electrons. The optical pulsations are due to periodic increases in the energy of the electrons with the source of modulation in the vicintiy of the geomagnetic equatorial plane. (auth)

  14. Dayside aurorae and their relation to other geophysical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leontyev, S.V.; Starkov, G.V.; Vorobjev, V.G.; Zverev, V.L.; Feldstein, Ya.I.

    1992-01-01

    Principal morphological peculiarities of auroral luminosity are investigated on the basis of the data from multi-year aurorae observations in day hours at Spitzbergen and Franz Jozef Land. It is shown that in this region the typical forms of aurorae are moving poleward rayed arcs appearing at the equatorward boundary of the auroral oval and disappearing at its pole boundary. Discrete forms of aurorae are located inside a much broader red luminosity band in its equatorward part. Auroral pulsations with a period of 10 50 s are observed in the prenoon sector in a region of much harder precipitations found more equatorward with respect to the daytime red luminosity band. The influence of a B z IMF component upon daytime aurorae is exercised both directly through an equatorward (poleward) shift of daytime aurorae upon decreasing (increasing) B z and via an increase in planetary geomagnetic activity related to the appearance of substorms during which the whole region of the daytime luminosity is shifted to much lower latitudes. A decrease of intensity of daytime aurorae with duration of 5-10 min before the beginning of an expansive phase of a substorm on the night side is detected. The peculiarities of the daytime aurorae dynamics during substorms are also investigated. A scheme of the daytime auroral luminosity distribution is presented. Analytical expressions of the dependence of the daytime aurorae position on IMF are provided. Certain physical mechanisms that can explain the peculiarities of daytime aurorae dynamics are also discussed. (Author)

  15. Swarm-Aurora: A web-based tool for quickly identifying multi-instrument auroral events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock, D.; Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E.; Knudsen, D. J.; Frey, H. U.; Kauristie, K.; Partamies, N.; Jackel, B. J.; Gillies, M.; Holmdahl Olsen, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    were capturing images of aurora of interest. Providing interaction with this data in this manner drastically reduces the time needed to do a preliminary survey of Swarm and ground-based instruments for investigating auroral phenomena. This paper will explore the current features of the Swarm-Aurora web application, in addition to our path moving forward.

  16. Isolation of fucoxanthin and fatty acids analysis of Padina australis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fucoxanthin has been successfully isolated from species of Malaysian brown seaweed, namely Padina australis. The purity of the fucoxanthin is >98% as indicated by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. This seaweed also contains a considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Thirteen fatty acids were ...

  17. Histomorphology of the digestive tract of Chonopeltis australis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphology and histology of the digestive tract of the branchiuran crustacean, Chonopeltis australis Box shall, 1976 are described from serial sections. The foregut is differentiated into a preoral cavity, containing the mandibles and tongue, an ascending oesophagus, with an H-shaped lumen invested with longitudinal, ...

  18. Preclinical validation of Aurora kinases-targeting drugs in osteosarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavanti, E.; Sero, V.; Vella, S.; Fanelli, M.; Michelacci, F.; Landuzzi, L.; Magagnoli, G.; Versteeg, R.; Picci, P.; Hattinger, C. M.; Serra, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aurora kinases are key regulators of cell cycle and represent new promising therapeutic targets in several human tumours. Biological relevance of Aurora kinase-A and -B was assessed on osteosarcoma clinical samples and by silencing these genes with specific siRNA in three human osteosarcoma cell

  19. Genetic diversity in two populations of Limicolaria aurora (Jay, 1839 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limicolaria aurora belongs to the group of land snails commonly called garden snails. This study seeks to use shell morphology and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPDPCR) to examine gross morphological differences in populations of L. aurora from New Bussa (guinea savannah) and ...

  20. Source of the dayside cusp aurora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, S B; Frey, H U; Angelopoulos, V

    2016-08-01

    Monochromatic all-sky imagers at South Pole and other Antarctic stations of the Automatic Geophysical Observatory chain recorded the aurora in the region where the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) satellites crossed the dayside magnetopause. In several cases the magnetic field lines threading the satellites when mapped to the atmosphere were inside the imagers' field of view. From the THEMIS magnetic field and the plasma density measurements, we were able to locate the position of the magnetopause crossings and map it to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko-96 field model. Field line mapping is reasonably accurate on the dayside subsolar region where the field is strong, almost dipolar even though compressed. From these coordinated observations, we were able to prove that the dayside cusp aurora of high 630 nm brightness is on open field lines, and it is therefore direct precipitation from the magnetosheath. The cusp aurora contained significant highly structured N 2 + 427.8 nm emission. The THEMIS measurements of the magnetosheath particle energy and density taken just outside the magnetopause compared to the intensity of the structured N 2 + 427.8 nm emissions showed that the precipitating magnetosheath particles had to be accelerated. The most likely electron acceleration mechanism is by dispersive Alfvén waves propagating along the field line. Wave-accelerated suprathermal electrons were seen by FAST and DMSP. The 427.8 nm wavelength channel also shows the presence of a lower latitude hard-electron precipitation zone originating inside the magnetosphere.

  1. Source region of aurora kilometric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Akira; Oya, Hiroshi; Tokumaru, Munetoshi

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the source region of aurora kilometric radiation (AKR), and the relation between the particle acceleration region and the polar ionosphere. The observation was made by the satellite 'Jikiken'. The AKR can be transferred to Jikiken without any interception, when the magnetic latitude of the apogee of the satellite is low. The spectra taken in June, 1980, were analyzed. The observed spectra showed the source regions of the AKR were in the aurora bands of the north and south poles. One example showed that the 200 kHz component of AKR from both poles showed the similar behavior, and another example showed that the AKR spectra from both poles showed different behavior. The altitude distribution of source regions was able to be obtained. The altitude of AKR-A was in the range between 6200 and 12000 km, and that of AKR-B was in the range of 3500 and 5200 km. The source of AKR-A was identified as that in the south hemisphere, and that of AKR-B in the north hemisphere. The asymmetric spectra of AKR-A and B showed that the spread and intensity of the electric field along magnetic lines generated above the polar ionosphere were related with the conditions of the ionosphere. (Kato, T.)

  2. The presence of eucalyptol in Artemisia australis validates its use in traditional Hawaiian medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Zant; Daniel A. Gubler

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the major organic compounds of Artemisia australis (A. australis), a plant used in traditional Hawaiian medicine for the treatment of asthma.Methods:The dichloromethane extract of A. australis was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and major compounds were identified by a National Institute of Standards and Technology library search and confirmed by peak enhancement.Results:The major chemical components of A. australis include eucalyptol, borneol, and caryophyllene.Conclusions:The presence and biological activity of eucalyptol correlate very well with the usage of this plant in traditional Hawaiian medicine.

  3. Storm-time Convection Dynamics Viewed from Optical Auroras: from Streamer to Patchy Pulsating Aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Donovan, E.; Liang, J.; Grono, E.

    2016-12-01

    In a series of statistical and event studies we have demonstrated that the motion of patches in regions of Patchy Pulsating Aurora (PPA) is very close to if not exactly convection. Thus, 2D maps of PPA motion provides us the opportunity to remote sense magnetospheric convection with relatively high space and time resolution, subject to uncertainties associated with mapping between the ionosphere and magnetosphere. In this study, we use THEMIS ASI aurora observations (streamers and patchy pulsating aurora) combined with SuperDARN convection measurements, Swarm ion drift velocity measurements, and RBSP electric field measurements to explore the convection dynamics in storm time. From 0500 UT to 0600 UT on March 19 2015, convection observations across 5 magnetic local time (MLT) inferred from the motion of PPA patches and SuperDARN measurements show that a westward SAPS (Subauroral Polarized Streams) enhancement occurs after an auroral streamer. This suggests that plasma sheet fast flows can affect the inner magnetospheric convection, and possibly trigger very fast flows in the inner magnetosphere.

  4. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Phragmites australis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Phragmites australis 名詞 一般 * * * ...* ヨシ ヨシ ヨシ Thesaurus2015 200906077254295905 C LS06 UNKNOWN_2 Phragmites australis

  5. Moving from a regional to a continental perspective of Phragmites australis invasion in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettenring, Karin M.; de Blois, Sylvie; Hauber, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Aims We use a regional comparison of Phragmites australis (common reed) subsp. americanus, P. australis subsp. berlandieri and introduced P. australis (possibly five sublineages) in the Chesapeake Bay, the St Lawrence River, Utah and the Gulf Coast to inform a North American perspective on P. australis invasion patterns, drivers, impacts and research needs. Findings and research needs Our regional assessments reveal substantial diversity within and between the three main lineages of P. australis in terms of mode of reproduction and the types of environment occupied. For introduced P. australis, the timing of introduction also differed between the regions. Nevertheless, a common finding in these regions reinforces the notion that introduced P. australis is opportunistic and thrives in disturbed habitats. Thus, we expect to see substantial expansion of introduced P. australis with increasing anthropogenic disturbances in each of these regions. Although there have been some studies documenting the negative impacts of introduced P. australis, it also plays a beneficial role in some regions, and in some cases, the purported negative impacts are unproven. There is also a broader need to clarify the genetic and ecological relationships between the different introduced sublineages observed in North America, and their relative competitive ability and potential for admixture. This may be done through regional studies that use similar methodologies and share results to uncover common patterns and processes. To our knowledge, such studies have not been performed on P. australis in spite of the broad attention given to this species. Such research could advance theoretical knowledge on biological invasion by helping to determine the extent to which the patterns observed can be generalized or are sublineage specific or region specific. Synthesis Given what appears to be sometimes idiosyncratic invasion patterns when interpreted in isolation in the regions that we analysed, it may

  6. Global magnetic anomaly and aurora of Neptune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    The large offset and tilt of Neptune's dipole magnetic field combine to create a global magnetic anomaly, analogous to but much more important than Earth's South Atlantic Anomaly. Energetic particle precipitation loss within the Neptune anomaly creates atmospheric drift shadows within which particle fluxes are greatly reduced. The energetic particle dropout observed by Voyager near closest approach occurred near the predicted times when Voyager passed within the atmospheric drift shadow. Extremely soft, structured bursts of ions and electrons within the drift shadow may result from plasma wave-induced pitch angle scattering of trapped particles confined near the magnetic equator. The dropout does not necessarily imply that Voyager passed through an Earth-like discrete auroral zone, as earlier reported. The ion and electron fluxes observed within the dropout period correspond to particles that must precipitate to Neptune's atmosphere within the anomaly region. This anomaly precipitation can account for a major portion of the ultraviolet emissions previously identified as Neptune aurora

  7. The Aurora accelerator's triggered oil switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenheimer, D.M.; Pereira, N.R.; Judy, D.C.; Stricklett, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Achieving a radiation pulse with 15 ns risetime using all four of the Aurora accelerator's Blumlein pulse-forming lines demands synchronization of the Blumleins to within 10 ns (in addition to a 15 ns risetime for a single line). Timing of each Blumlein is controlled by a triggered 12 MV oil switch. A smaller-than-customary trigger electrode makes the switching time more reproducible. Time-resolved photography of the oil arcs suggests that triggering occurs simultaneously around the sharp edge of the trigger electrode, perhaps with small deviations that grow into the most prominent arcs characteristically seen in open-shutter photographs. However, many smaller arcs that are usually overlooked in open-shutter pictures may contribute to current conduction in a closed switch

  8. Low latitude aurorae on October 21, 1989, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwashima, Masayuki; Tsunomura, Satoru; Uwai, Tetsuya; Saito, Buniti; Takahasi, Tosiyasu; Kiyama, Yositaka.

    1990-01-01

    Appearance of low-latitude aurorae was seen in Hokkaido, a northern district in Japan, on October 21 and November 17, 1989, during severe magnetic storms. Some characteristics of the associated magnetic variations are shown and discussed in the present short report. The appearance of low-latitude aurora events was found during a time interval of a sharp H-component increase succeeding to the maximum development of the storm time ring current. The cause of the increase in the H-component seems to be associated with the bay disturbance because Pi2 magnetic pulsations were always associated with the low-latitude aurora event. The period of an aurora associated Pi2 event is shorter (40-60 seconds) than that of a usual Pi2 event (100 seconds). During the main phase of geomagnetic storm on October 21, optical and spectroscopic observations of low latitude aurora were made with an airglow-photometer, spectrograph and an all sky camera at Niigata (latitude 37.7degN, longitude 138.8degE and geomagnetic latitude 27.7degN). Spectra of low latitude aurorae observed in Niigata are given and discussed. A model for the main part of the auroral emission is also presented. (N.K.)

  9. Effect of Plantago australis leaves on different gastric ulcer models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Bürger

    Full Text Available The anti-ulcerogenic effect of the crude ethanolic extract (CEE of Plantago australis leaves was tested against ethanol-, indomethacin-, and cold restrain-induced stress ulcers. The CEE (500 and 1000 mg/kg reduced the lesion index (LI and the ulcer index in ethanol-induced ulcers, and the dose of 1000 mg/kg increased the amount of mucous. The highest dose of the CEE reduced the LI of cold restraint-induced stress ulcers when compared to the control group. The indomethacin-induced ulcers were not affected by this extract.

  10. Aurora B kinase inhibition in mitosis: strategies for optimising the use of aurora kinase inhibitors such as AT9283.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Jayne; Angove, Hayley; Fazal, Lynsey; Lyons, John; Reule, Matthias; Thompson, Neil; Wallis, Nicola

    2009-06-15

    Aurora kinases play a key role in regulating mitotic division and are attractive oncology targets. AT9283, a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor with potent activity against Aurora A and B kinases, inhibited growth and survival of multiple solid tumor cell lines and was efficacious in mouse xenograft models. AT9283-treatment resulted in endoreduplication and ablation of serine-10 histone H3 phosphorylation in both cells and tumor samples, confirming that in these models it acts as an Aurora B kinase inhibitor. In vitro studies demonstrated that exposure to AT9283 for one complete cell cycle committed an entire population of p53 checkpoint-compromised cells (HCT116) to multinucleation and death whereas treatment of p53 checkpoint-competent cells (HMEC, A549) for a similar length of time led to a reversible arrest of cells with 4N DNA. Further studies in synchronized cell populations suggested that exposure to AT9283 during mitosis was critical for optimal cytotoxicity. We therefore investigated ways in which these properties might be exploited to optimize the efficacy and therapeutic index of Aurora kinase inhibitors for p53 checkpoint compromised tumors in vivo. Combining Aurora B kinase inhibition with paclitaxel, which arrests cells in mitosis, in a xenograft model resulted in promising efficacy without additional toxicity. These findings have implications for optimizing the efficacy of Aurora kinase inhibitors in clinical practice.

  11. Warm gas towards young stellar objects in Corona Australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Johan; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; D. Green, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of external irradiation on the chemistry and physics in the protostellar envelope around low-mass young stellar objects are poorly understood. The Corona Australis star-forming region contains the R CrA dark cloud, comprising several low-mass protostellar cores irradiated by an interm......The effects of external irradiation on the chemistry and physics in the protostellar envelope around low-mass young stellar objects are poorly understood. The Corona Australis star-forming region contains the R CrA dark cloud, comprising several low-mass protostellar cores irradiated...... by an intermediate-mass young star. We study the effects on the warm gas and dust in a group of low-mass young stellar objects from the irradiation by the young luminous Herbig Be star R CrA. Herschel/PACS far-infrared datacubes of two low-mass star-forming regions in the R CrA dark cloud are presented...... Be star R CrA. Our results show that a nearby luminous star does not increase the molecular excitation temperatures in the warm gas around a young stellar object (YSO). However, the emission from photodissociation products of H2O, such as OH and O, is enhanced in the warm gas associated...

  12. Dancing Lights: Creating the Aurora Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. L.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    Science tells a story about our world, our existence, our history, and the larger environment our planet occupies. Bearing this in mind, we created a series of lessons for 3rd-5th grades using a cross-disciplinary approach to teaching about the aurora by incorporating stories, photos, movies, and geography into the science in order to paint a broad picture and answer the question, “why do we care?” The fundamental backbone of the program is literacy. Students write and illustrate fiction and non-fiction work, poetry, and brochures that solidify both language arts skills and science content. In a time when elementary teachers relegate science to less than one hour per week, we have developed a novel science program that can be easily integrated with other topics during the typical school day to increase the amount of science taught in a school year. We are inspiring students to take an interest in the natural world with this program, a stepping-stone for larger things.

  13. Phylogeographic analyses and genetic structure illustrate the complex evolutionary history of Phragmites australis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Ricardo; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2016-05-01

    Genetic data suggest that three lineages of Phragmites australis are found in North America: the Native North American lineage, the Gulf Coast lineage, and the Invasive lineage. In Mexico, P. australis is a common species, but nothing is known about the distribution or ecology of these lineages. We examined the phylogeography of P. australis to analyze the current geographic distribution of genetic variation, demographic history, and dispersal patterns to better understand its evolutionary history in Mexico. We sampled 427 individuals from 28 populations. We used two noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA to estimate the levels of genetic variation and identified the genetic groups across the species' geographical range in Mexico. We compared the genealogical relationships among haplotypes with those previously reported. A hypothesis of demographic expansion was also tested for the Mexican P. australis lineages. We found 13 new haplotypes native to Mexico that might be undergoing an active process of expansion and diversification. Genealogical analyses provided evidence that two independent lineages of P. australis are present in Mexico. The invasive lineage was not detected with our sampling. Our estimates of population expansions in Mexico ranged from 0.202 to 0.726 mya. Phragmites australis is a native species that has been in Mexico for thousands of years. Genetic data suggest that climatic changes during the Pleistocene played an important role in the demographic expansion of the populations that constitute the different genetic groups of P. australis in Mexico. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  14. Aurora Borealis, A Painting by Frederic Edwin Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War. In 1865, the same year as the War's end, the great American landscape artist, Frederic Edwin Church, unveiled Aurora Borealis, a painting that depicts a fantastic, far-northern place, an auroral arch stretched across a quiet night-time sky, above dark mountains and a frozen sea. Church was born in Connecticut, lived in New York, and traveled to Labrador; he would have often seen the northern lights. Church might have also been influenced by the spectacular displays of aurora that were caused by some unusually intense magnetic storms in 1859. Aurora Borealis can certainly be interpreted in terms of 19th-century romanticism, scientific philosophy, and Arctic missions of exploration, all subjects of interest to Church. As with so many of his paintings, Church's meticulous attention to detail in Aurora Borealis reveals his deep admiration of nature. But his depiction of auroral light is a curious and possibly intentional departure from natural verisimilitude. Some art historians have suggested that Church painted Aurora Borealis as a subdued tribute to the end of the Civil War, with the drapery of auroral light forming an abstract representation of the American flag. If so, then colors of the flag have been unfurled across a cold and barren landscape, not in extravagant celebration, but in somber recognition of the reality of post-war desolation and an uncertain future.

  15. The presence of eucalyptol in Artemisia australis validates its use in traditional Hawaiian medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; Zant; Daniel; A.Gubler

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To identify the major organic compounds of Artemisia austeralis(A.australis),a plant used in traditional Hawaiian medicine for the treatment of asthma.Methods:The dichloromethane extract of A.australis was analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectroscopy and major compounds were identified by a National Institute of Standards and Technology library search and confirmed by peak enhancement Results:The major chemical components of A.australis include eucalyptol.borneol,and caryophyllene.Conclusions:The presence and biological activity of eucalyptol correlate very well with the usage of this plant in traditional Hawaiian medicine.

  16. Ionospheric response to particle precipitation within aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlund, J.E.

    1992-03-01

    The aurora is just the visible signature of a large number of processes occurring in a planetary ionosphere as a response to energetic charged particles falling in from the near-empty space far above the planetary atmosphere. This thesis, based on measurements using the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar system in northern Scandinavia, discusses ionospheric response processes and especially a mechanism leading to atmospheric gas escape from a planet. One of the most spectacular events in the high latitude atmosphere on earth are the 'auroral arcs' - dynamic rayed sheets of light. An investigation of the conditions of the ionosphere surrounding auroral arcs shows that strong field-aligned bulk ion outflows appear in the topside ionosphere which account for a large fraction of the escape of atmospheric oxygen from earth. Four different additional ionospheric responses are closely related to this ion outflow; 1. enhanced electron temperatures of several thousand Kelvin above an altitude of about 250 km, 2. enhanced ionization around an altitude of 200 km corresponding to electron precipitation with energies of a few hundred eV, 3. the occurrence of naturally enhanced ion acoustic fluctuations seen in the radar spectrum, most likely produced by an ion-ion two-stream instability, and 4. upward directed field-aligned currents partly carried by the outflowing ions. From these observations, it is suggested that the energy dissipation into the background plasma through Joule heating, the production of a few hundred eV energetic run-away electrons, and strong ion outflows are partly produced by the simultaneous presence of ion acoustic turbulence and field-aligned currents above auroral arcs. (20 refs.) (au)

  17. Optical tomography of the aurora and EISCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. U. Frey

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional auroral arc emission is used to obtain vertical and horizontal distributions of the optical auroral emission. Under the given experimental conditions with a very limited angular range and a small number of observers, algebraic reconstruction methods generally yield better results than transform techniques. Different algebraic reconstruction methods are tested with an auroral arc model and the best results are obtained with an iterative least-square method adapted from emission-computed tomography. The observation geometry used during a campaign in Norway in 1995 is tested with the arc model and root-mean-square errors, to be expected under the given geometrical conditions, are calculated. Although optimum geometry was not used, root-mean-square errors of less than 2% for the images and of the order of 30% for the distribution could be obtained. The method is applied to images from real observations. The correspondence of original pictures and projections of the reconstructed volume is discussed, and emission profiles along magnetic field lines through the three-dimensionally reconstructed arc are calibrated into electron density profiles with additional EISCAT measurements. Including a background profile and the temporal changes of the electron density due to recombination, good agreement can be obtained between measured profiles and the time-sequence of calculated profiles. These profiles are used to estimate the conductivity distribution in the vicinity of the EISCAT site. While the radar can only probe the ionosphere along the radar beam, the three-dimensional tomography enables conductivity estimates in a large area around the radar site.Key words. Tomography · Aurora · EISCAT · Ionosphere · Conductivity

  18. Optical tomography of the aurora and EISCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. U. Frey

    Full Text Available Tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional auroral arc emission is used to obtain vertical and horizontal distributions of the optical auroral emission. Under the given experimental conditions with a very limited angular range and a small number of observers, algebraic reconstruction methods generally yield better results than transform techniques. Different algebraic reconstruction methods are tested with an auroral arc model and the best results are obtained with an iterative least-square method adapted from emission-computed tomography. The observation geometry used during a campaign in Norway in 1995 is tested with the arc model and root-mean-square errors, to be expected under the given geometrical conditions, are calculated. Although optimum geometry was not used, root-mean-square errors of less than 2% for the images and of the order of 30% for the distribution could be obtained. The method is applied to images from real observations. The correspondence of original pictures and projections of the reconstructed volume is discussed, and emission profiles along magnetic field lines through the three-dimensionally reconstructed arc are calibrated into electron density profiles with additional EISCAT measurements. Including a background profile and the temporal changes of the electron density due to recombination, good agreement can be obtained between measured profiles and the time-sequence of calculated profiles. These profiles are used to estimate the conductivity distribution in the vicinity of the EISCAT site. While the radar can only probe the ionosphere along the radar beam, the three-dimensional tomography enables conductivity estimates in a large area around the radar site.

    Key words. Tomography · Aurora · EISCAT · Ionosphere · Conductivity

  19. TV morphology of some episodes of pulsating auroras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallance Jones, A.; Gattinger, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Sets of all-sky TV images of pulsating auroras obtained during the displays through which the sounding rockets of the Pulsating Aurora Campaign were fired are presented and discussed. It is emphasized that these displays are considerably more complex and variable than might seem to be the case on the basis of zenith photometer records. The pulsation modulation pattern was observed to be travelling westward during the first flight; later in the same display this apparent motion ceased. For the second flight the pulsation modulation pattern was almost stationary. (auth)

  20. Relative drift between black aurora and the ionospheric plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Blixt

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Black auroras are recognized as spatially well-defined regions within uniform diffuse aurora where the optical emission is significantly reduced. Although a well studied phenomenon, there is no generally accepted theory for black auroras. One theory suggests that black regions are formed when energetic magnetospheric electrons no longer have access to the loss cone. If this blocking mechanism drifts with the source electron population in the magnetosphere, black auroras in the ionosphere should drift eastward with a velocity that increases with the energy of the precipitating electrons in the surrounding aurora, since the gradient-B curvature drift is energy dependent. It is the purpose of this paper to test this hypothesis. To do so we have used simultaneous measurements by the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT radar and an auroral TV camera at Tromsø, Norway. We have analyzed 8 periods in which a black aurora occurred frequently to determine their relative drift with respect to the ionospheric plasma. The black aurora was found to drift eastward with a velocity of 1.5–4km/s, which is in accordance with earlier observations. However, one case was found where a black patch was moving westward, this being the first report of such behaviour in the literature. In general, the drift was parallel to the ionospheric flow but at a much higher velocity. This suggests that the generating mechanism is not of ionospheric origin. The characteristic energy of the precipitating electron population was estimated through inversion of E-region plasma density profiles. We show that the drift speed of the black patches increased with the energy of the precipitating electrons in a way consistent with the gradient-B curvature drift, suggesting a magnetospheric mechanism for the black aurora. As expected, a comparison of the drift speeds with a rudimentary dipole field model of the gradient-B curvature drift speed only yields order-of-magnitude agreement, which

  1. Navigation GPS/GLONASS in the Arctic and aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernouss S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The correspondence of the time-spatial distribution of the radiances of the aurora oval and time-spatial changes in the parameters of the navigation satellites' signal has been shown. For this aim the experimental data on the regional and local heterogeneities of the Total Electron Content (or TEC and the data on the signal delays in the polar ionosphere have been analyzed. Using the data concerning aurora as the indicator of disturbances in the work of the GPS/GLONASS systems can give the opportunity to increase considerably the accuracy of positioning in the Arctic with the help of satellite navigation systems (SNS.

  2. Australis: AMS for ultra sensitive trace element and isotopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S H; Suter, G F [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1994-12-31

    The accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the CSIRO HIAF laboratory is being upgraded to enable in-situ measurements of ultratraces and isotopic-ratios in mineralogical applications. The upgraded system will include a microbeam Cs ion source which is designed to produce better than 50 micrometre diameter Cs beam to enable analyses of monomineralic grains. The Cs primary beam will be mass analysed in order to minimize contamination of the sample. The detection system will be upgraded to enable analyses of elements up to U, at 2 MV terminal voltage for charge states 4 and 5. The system will be known as AUSTRALIS: A.M.S. for Ultra Sensitive TRAce eLement and Isotopic Studies. An overview of the system and the anticipated applications in minerals exploration and mining research are presented. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Australis: AMS for ultra sensitive trace element and isotopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1993-12-31

    The accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the CSIRO HIAF laboratory is being upgraded to enable in-situ measurements of ultratraces and isotopic-ratios in mineralogical applications. The upgraded system will include a microbeam Cs ion source which is designed to produce better than 50 micrometre diameter Cs beam to enable analyses of monomineralic grains. The Cs primary beam will be mass analysed in order to minimize contamination of the sample. The detection system will be upgraded to enable analyses of elements up to U, at 2 MV terminal voltage for charge states 4 and 5. The system will be known as AUSTRALIS: A.M.S. for Ultra Sensitive TRAce eLement and Isotopic Studies. An overview of the system and the anticipated applications in minerals exploration and mining research are presented. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Australis: AMS for ultra sensitive trace element and isotopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the CSIRO HIAF laboratory is being upgraded to enable in-situ measurements of ultratraces and isotopic-ratios in mineralogical applications. The upgraded system will include a microbeam Cs ion source which is designed to produce better than 50 micrometre diameter Cs beam to enable analyses of monomineralic grains. The Cs primary beam will be mass analysed in order to minimize contamination of the sample. The detection system will be upgraded to enable analyses of elements up to U, at 2 MV terminal voltage for charge states 4 and 5. The system will be known as AUSTRALIS: A.M.S. for Ultra Sensitive TRAce eLement and Isotopic Studies. An overview of the system and the anticipated applications in minerals exploration and mining research are presented. 4 refs., 1 fig

  5. Incorporation of 2H-labelled cadaverines into the quinolizidine alkaloids in Baptisia australis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, D.J.; Sheldrake, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    The incorporation of 2 H-labelled cadaverines into the quinolizidine alkaloids, sparteine and N-methylcytisine, in Baptisia australis has been studied in order to gain more information about the formation of these alkaloids. (author)

  6. Genetics, novel weapons and rhizospheric microcosmal signaling in the invasion of Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrappa, Thimmaraju; Bais, Harsh P

    2008-01-01

    Chemical communication and perception strategies between plants are highly sophisticated but are only partly understood. Among the different interactions, the suppressive interaction of a class of chemicals released by one plant through root exudates against the neighbouring plants (allelopathy) have been implicated in the invasiveness of many exotic weedy species. Phragmites australis (common reed) is one of the dominant colonizers of the North American wetland marshes and exhibits invasive behavior by virtually replacing the entire native vegetation in its niche. Recently, by adopting a systematic bioassay driven approach we elucidated the role of root derived allelopathy as one of the important mechanisms by which P. australis exerts its invasive behavior. Additionally, our recent preliminary data indicates the involvement of rhizobacterial signaling in the invasive success of P. australis. A better understanding of biochemical weaponry used by P. australis will aid scientists and technologists in addressing the impact of root secretions in invasiveness of weedy species and thus promote a more informed environmental stewardship.

  7. Identification, Development, and Release of Insect Biocontrol Agents for the Management of Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    currently testing the pathogenicity of different isolates on P. australis germination and results are extremely diverse. Isolates and P. australis...pathogenicity. While these Pythium species have large effects on seed germination , it is doubtful that they can contribute to reductions in P...potential agents for in-depth study; (2) outline and report initial testing procedures and results of host-specificity studies of identified agents; (3

  8. Antitumor activity of TY-011 against gastric cancer by inhibiting Aurora A, Aurora B and VEGFR2 kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overexpression of Aurora A and B has been reported in a wide range of tumor types, including gastric cancer. Anti-angiogenesis has been considered as an important therapeutic modality in advanced gastric cancer. Here we identified a novel compound TY-011 with promising antitumor activity by targeting mitotic kinases (Aurora A and B and angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase (VEGFR2. Methods HTRF® KinEASE™ assay was used to detect the effect of TY-011 against Aurora A, Aurora B and VEGFR2 activities. Docking simulation study was performed to predict the binding mode of TY-011 with Aurora A and B kinases. CCK-8 assay was used to test cell growth. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Gastric cancer cell xenograft mouse models were used for in vivo study. TUNEL kit was used to determine the apoptosis of tumor tissues. Immunohistochemistry analysis and HUVEC tube formation assay were performed to determine the anti-angiogenesis ability. Immunofluorescence and western blot were used to test protein expression. Results TY-011 was identified as a potential Aurora A and B inhibitor by HTRF® KinEASE™ assay. It effectively inhibited cellular Aurora A and B activities in a concentration-dependent manner. TY-011 occupied the ATP-binding site of both Aurora A and B kinases. TY-011 demonstrated prominent inhibitory effects on proliferation of gastric cancer cells. TY-011 treatment induced an obvious accumulation of cells at G2/M phase and a modest increase of cells with >4 N DNA content, which then underwent apoptosis. Meaningfully, orally administration of TY-011 demonstrated superior efficacy against the tumor growth in gastric cancer cell xenograft, with ~90% inhibition rate and 100% tumor regression at 9 mg/kg dose, and TY-011 did not affect the body weight of mice. Interestingly, we observed that TY-011 also antagonized tumor angiogenesis by targeting VEGFR2 kinase. Conclusions These results indicate that

  9. Altered expression of Aurora kinases in Arabidopsis results in aneu- and polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, Dmitri; Lermontova, Inna; Weiss, Oda; Fuchs, Joerg; Rutten, Twan; Kumke, Katrin; Sharbel, Timothy F; Van Damme, Daniel; De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny; Houben, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Aurora is an evolutionary conserved protein kinase family involved in monitoring of chromosome segregation via phosphorylation of different substrates. In plants, however, the involvement of Aurora proteins in meiosis and in sensing microtubule attachment remains to be proven, although the downstream components leading to the targeting of spindle assembly checkpoint signals to anaphase-promoting complex have been described. To analyze the three members of Aurora family (AtAurora1, -2, and -3) of Arabidopsis we employed different combinations of T-DNA insertion mutants and/or RNAi transformants. Meiotic defects and the formation of unreduced pollen were revealed including plants with an increased ploidy level. The effect of reduced expression of Aurora was mimicked by application of the ATP-competitive Aurora inhibitor II. In addition, strong overexpression of any member of the AtAurora family is not possible. Only tagged or truncated forms of Aurora kinases can be overexpressed. Expression of truncated AtAurora1 resulted in a high number of aneuploids in Arabidopsis, while expression of AtAurora1-TAPi construct in tobacco resulted in 4C (possible tetraploid) progeny. In conclusion, our data demonstrate an essential role of Aurora kinases in the monitoring of meiosis in plants. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Nutritive potentials and utilization of garden snail (Limicolaria aurora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... The possibility of using garden snail (Limicolaria aurora) meat meal as a protein source in fish feeds was tested in ... garden snail meat meal was used to replace fish meal at 0%, (control diet), 25, 50, 75 and 100% inclusion ..... Randall DJ, Brett JR (eds) Fish Physiology, Academic Press, NY 8: 279-352,.

  11. Nutritive potentials and utilization of garden snail (Limicolaria aurora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of using garden snail (Limicolaria aurora) meat meal as a protein source in fish feeds was tested in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Five isonitrogenous (43% crude protein) diets in which garden snail meat meal was used to replace fish meal at 0%, (control diet), 25, 50, 75 and 100% inclusion levels were used ...

  12. Canine osteosarcoma cells exhibit resistance to aurora kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, C M; Pozniak, J; Scott, M C; Ito, D; Gorden, B H; Graef, A J; Modiano, J F

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of Aurora kinase inhibitors AZD1152 and VX680 on canine osteosarcoma cells. Cytotoxicity was seen in all four cell lines; however, half-maximal inhibitory concentrations were significantly higher than in human leukaemia and canine lymphoma cells. AZD1152 reduced Aurora kinase B phosphorylation, indicating resistance was not because of failure of target recognition. Efflux mediated by ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters is one known mechanism of resistance against these drugs and verapamil enhanced AZD1152-induced apoptosis; however, these transporters were only expressed by a small percentage of cells in each line and the effects of verapamil were modest, suggesting other mechanisms contribute to resistance. Our results indicate that canine osteosarcoma cells are resistant to Aurora kinase inhibitors and suggest that these compounds are unlikely to be useful as single agents for this disease. Further investigation of these resistance mechanisms and the potential utility of Aurora kinase inhibitors in multi-agent protocols is warranted. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Functions of Aurora kinase C in meiosis and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M. Quartuccio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian genome encodes three Aurora kinase protein family members: A, B, and C. While Aurora kinase A (AURKA and B (AURKB are found in cells throughout the body, significant protein levels of Aurora kinase C (AURKC are limited to cells that undergo meiosis (sperm and oocyte. Despite its discovery nearly 15 years ago, we know little about the function of AURKC compared to that of the other 2 Aurora kinases. This lack of understanding can be attributed to the high sequence homology between AURKB and AURKC preventing the use of standard approaches to understand non-overlapping and meiosis I (MI-specific functions of the two kinases. Recent evidence has revealed distinct functions of AURKC in meiosis and may aid in our understanding of why chromosome segregation during MI often goes awry in oocytes. Many cancers aberrantly express AURKC, but because we do not fully understand AURKC function in its normal cellular context, it is difficult to predict the biological significance of this expression on the disease. Here, we consolidate and update what is known about AURKC signaling in meiotic cells to better understand why it has oncogenic potential.

  14. Time monitoring of radio jets and magnetospheres in the nearby young stellar cluster R Coronae Australis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Takami, Michihiro; Yan, Chi-Hung; Karr, Jennifer; Chou, Mei-Yin; Ho, Paul T.-P.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Costigan, Gráinne; Manara, Carlo Felice; Forbrich, Jan; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Zhang, Qizhou

    2014-01-01

    We report Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 8-10 GHz (λ = 3.0-3.7 cm) monitoring observations toward the young stellar object (YSO) cluster R Coronae Australis (R CrA), taken from 2012 March 15 to 2012 September 12. These observations were planned to measure the radio flux variabilities in timescales from 0.5 hr to several days, to tens of days, and up to ∼200 days. We found that among the YSOs detectable in individual epochs, in general, the most reddened objects in the Spitzer observations show the highest mean 3.5 cm Stokes I emission, and the lowest fractional variabilities on <200 day timescales. The brightest radio flux emitters in our observations are the two reddest sources IRS7W and IRS7E. In addition, by comparing our observations with observations taken from 1996 to 1998 and 2005, we found that the radio fluxes of these two sources have increased by a factor of ∼1.5. The mean 3.5 cm fluxes of the three Class I/II sources, IRSI, IRS2, and IRS6, appear to be correlated with their accretion rates derived by a previous near-infrared line survey. The weakly accreting Class I/II YSOs, or those in later evolutionary stages, present radio flux variability on <0.5 hr timescales. Some YSOs were detected only during occasional flaring events. The source R CrA went below our detection limit during a few fading events.

  15. Observation and Study of Proton Aurora by using Scanning Photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, T.; Ono, T.; Kadokura, A.; Sato, N.

    2009-12-01

    The proton auroras have significant differences from electron auroras in their spectral shape. They show Doppler-shifted and broadened spectra: the spectra have Doppler-shifted (~0.5 nm shorter) peak and both bluewing (~2-4 nm) and redwing (~1.5 nm) extending. Energy spectra of precipitating protons have been estimated from this shape. Recently it is found that the intensity in the extent of the blue wing reflects more effectively by the change of the mean energy of precipitating protons than the shift of peak wavelength [Lanchester et al., 2003]. Another character of the H-beta aurora is that it is diffuse form because a proton becomes hydrogen atom due to a charge-exchange reaction with atmospheric constituent and then possible to move across the magnetic field line. By using a scanning photometer, the movement of the proton auroral belt and change of a spectrum shape associated with the variation of proton source region due to storm and substorm were reported, however, not discussed in detail yet [Deehr and Lummerzheim, 2001]. The purpose of this study is to obtain the detail characteristics of H-beta aurora for understanding of source region of energetic protons in the magnetosphere. For this purpose, a new meridian-scanning photometer (SPM) was installed at Husafell station in Iceland in last summer season and Syowa Station, Antarctica. It will contribute to investigate the distribution of energetic protons and plasma waves which cause the pitch angle scattering in the magnetosphere. The meridian-scanning photometer is able to observe at five wavelengths for H-beta emission. One channel is to measure the background level. By analyzing the data obtained by the SPM, the H-beta spectrum can be estimated by fitting a model function with it. Then it is possible to obtain distribution of precipitating protons in north-south direction. It is also possible to estimate an energy spectrum of precipitating proton, simultaneously. The instrumental parameters of the SPM is

  16. Structural Biology Insight for the Design of Sub-type Selective Aurora Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvagalla, Sailu; Coumar, Mohane Selvaraj

    2015-01-01

    Aurora kinase A, B and C, are key regulators of mitosis and are over expressed in many of the human cancers, making them an ideal drug target for cancer chemotherapy. Currently, over a dozen of Aurora kinase inhibitors are in various phases of clinical development. The majority of the inhibitors (VX-680/MK-0457, PHA-739358, CYC116, SNS-314, AMG 900, AT-9283, SCH- 1473759, ABT-348, PF-03814735, R-763/AS-703569, KW-2449 and TAK-901) are pan-selective (isoform non-selective) and few are Aurora A (MLN8054, MLN8237, VX-689/MK5108 and ENMD 2076) and Aurora B (AZD1152 and GSK1070916) sub-type selective. Despite the intensive research efforts in the past decade, no Aurora kinase inhibitor has reached the market. Recent evidence suggests that the sub-type selective Aurora kinase A inhibitor could possess advantages over pan-selective Aurora inhibitors, by avoiding Aurora B mediated neutropenia. However, sub-type selective Aurora kinase A inhibitor design is very challenging due to the similarity in the active site among the isoforms. Structural biology and computational aspects pertaining to the design of Aurora kinase inhibitors were analyzed and found that a possible means to develop sub-type selective inhibitor is by targeting Aurora A specific residues (Leu215, Thr217 and Arg220) or Aurora B specific residues (Arg159, Glu161 and Lys164), near the solvent exposed region of the protein. Particularly, a useful strategy for the design of sub-type selective Aurora A inhibitor could be by targeting Thr217 residue as in the case of MLN8054. Further preclinical and clinical studies with the sub-type selective Aurora inhibitors could help bring them to the market for the treatment of cancer.

  17. Cosmopolitan Species As Models for Ecophysiological Responses to Global Change: The Common Reed Phragmites australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Eller

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Phragmites australis is a cosmopolitan grass and often the dominant species in the ecosystems it inhabits. Due to high intraspecific diversity and phenotypic plasticity, P. australis has an extensive ecological amplitude and a great capacity to acclimate to adverse environmental conditions; it can therefore offer valuable insights into plant responses to global change. Here we review the ecology and ecophysiology of prominent P. australis lineages and their responses to multiple forms of global change. Key findings of our review are that: (1 P. australis lineages are well-adapted to regions of their phylogeographic origin and therefore respond differently to changes in climatic conditions such as temperature or atmospheric CO2; (2 each lineage consists of populations that may occur in geographically different habitats and contain multiple genotypes; (3 the phenotypic plasticity of functional and fitness-related traits of a genotype determine the responses to global change factors; (4 genotypes with high plasticity to environmental drivers may acclimate or even vastly expand their ranges, genotypes of medium plasticity must acclimate or experience range-shifts, and those with low plasticity may face local extinction; (5 responses to ancillary types of global change, like shifting levels of soil salinity, flooding, and drought, are not consistent within lineages and depend on adaptation of individual genotypes. These patterns suggest that the diverse lineages of P. australis will undergo intense selective pressure in the face of global change such that the distributions and interactions of co-occurring lineages, as well as those of genotypes within-lineages, are very likely to be altered. We propose that the strong latitudinal clines within and between P. australis lineages can be a useful tool for predicting plant responses to climate change in general and present a conceptual framework for using P. australis lineages to predict plant responses

  18. IQGAP1 interacts with Aurora-A and enhances its stability and its role in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ning; Shi, Ji; Wang, Dapeng; Tong, Tong; Wang, Mingrong; Fan, Feiyue; Zhan, Qimin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► IQGAP1 interacts with Aurora-A through its RGCt domain. ► Overexpression of IQGAP1 prevents ubiquitination of Aurora-A. ► Overexpression of IQGAP1 enhances the protein stability of Aurora-A. ► Overexpression of IQGAP1 promotes the kinase activity of Aurora-A. -- Abstract: IQGAP1, a ubiquitously expressed scaffold protein, has been identified in a wide range of organisms. It participates in multiple aspects of cellular events by binding to and regulating numerous interacting proteins. In our present study, we identified a new IQGAP1 binding protein named Aurora-A which is an oncogenic protein and overexpressed in various types of human tumors. In vitro analysis with GST-Aurora-A fusion proteins showed a physical interaction between Aurora-A and IQGAP1. Moreover, the binding also occurred in HeLa cells as endogenous Aurora-A co-immunoprecipitated with IQGAP1 from the cell lysates. Overexpression of IQGAP1 resulted in an elevation of both expression and activity of Aurora-A kinase. Endogenous IQGAP1 knockdown by siRNA promoted Aurora-A degradation whereas IQGAP1 overexpression enhanced the stability of Aurora-A. Additionally, we documented that the IQGAP1-induced cell proliferation was suppressed by knocking down Aurora-A expression. Taken together, our results showed an unidentified relationship between Aurora-A and IQGAP1, and provided a new insight into the molecular mechanism by which IQGAP1 played a regulatory role in cancer.

  19. Activity of male pheromone of Melanesian rhinoceros beetle Scapanes australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Didier; Morin, Jean-Paul; Kakul, Titus; Beaudoin-Ollivier, Laurence; Prior, Robert; Renou, Michel; Malosse, Isabelle; Stathers, Tanya; Embupa, Sebastian; Laup, Samson

    2002-03-01

    Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to investigate the nature and role of the male pheromone emitted by the Dynast beetle Scapanes australis and to develop a mass trapping technique against this major coconut pest in Papua New Guinea. We report the biological data obtained from natural and synthetic pheromone, previously described as an 84:12:4 (w/w) mixture of 2-butanol (1), 3-hydoxy-2-butanone (2), and 2,3-butanediol (3). EAG recordings from natural and synthetic pheromone and a pitfall olfactometer were poorly informative. In contrast, extensive field trapping trials with various synthetic pheromone mixtures and doses showed that 1 and 2 (formulated in polyethylene sachets in 90:5 v/v ratio) were necessary and sufficient for optimum long-range attraction. Beetles were captured in traps baited with racemic 1 plus 2, with or without a stereoisomer mixture of 3 (2.5- to 2500-mg/day doses). Plant pieces, either sugarcane or coconut, enhanced captures by the synthetic pheromone, which was active alone. Traps with the pheromone caught both sexes in a 3:2 female-male ratio. A pheromone-based mass trapping led to the capture of 2173 beetles in 14 traps surrounding 40 ha of a cocoa-coconut plantation. The captures followed a log-linear decrease during the 125-week trapping program. The role of the male pheromone and its potential for crop protection are discussed.

  20. Comparative Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Cuscuta australis against Acetaminophen Intoxication in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folarin, Rachael O; Omirinde, Jamiu O; Bejide, Ronald; Isola, Tajudeen O; Usende, Levi I; Basiru, Afisu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the comparative hepatoprotective activity of crude ethanol extracts of Cuscuta australis against acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into six groups of 6 replicates: Group 1 which served as control received water. Group 2 was orally administered 835 mg/kg body wt. of paracetamol on day 8. Groups 3 and 4 were orally administered ethanolic extracts of the seed of Cuscuta australis in doses of 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, respectively, for 7 days and then intoxicated as in Group 2 on the 8th day. Groups 5 and 6 received similar oral doses of Cuscuta australis stem extracts for 7 days and then intoxicated as in Groups 3 and 4. Group 2 rats showed severe periportal hepatic necrosis, significantly elevated serum hepatic injury markers, markedly increased lipid peroxidation, and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities. Remarkably, Cuscuta australis (seed and stem) extract pretreatments in Groups 3, 4, 5, and 6, most especially, the stem extract pretreatment in Groups 5 and 6, improved better the hepatic histoarchitecture, the hepatocellular, and the oxidative stress injury markers in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusively, ethanol extractions of Cuscuta australis stem appear to protect the liver from acetaminophen intoxication better than the seed counterpart.

  1. Simulating the effect of emex australis densities and sowing dates on agronomic traits of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, R.N.; Tanveer, A.; Ali, A.; Zaheer, Z.A.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in yield and quality of wheat is major problem caused by the delayed sowing and interference of weeds. The effects of sowing dates (Nov 8, Nov 16, and Nov 24) and Emex australis Steinh. density (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 plants per pot) on growth and yield of wheat were evaluated over two seasons (2005-06, 2006-07). The statistical analysis of data exhibited non-significant effect of weed density on number of days taken to initiate flowering by E. australis. Highest values for E. australis plant height, dry biomass, number of seed per plant and seed weight were recorded by sowing wheat on November 8, at E. australis density of one plant per pot in both years. Maximum number of spike bearing tillers per pot, plant height, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were observed in November 8, sowing with zero E. australis density and minimum values for these parameters were recorded in late sowing ( November 24) at maximum weed density of 4 plants per pot. Early sowing ( Nov. 8) and weed free pots increased wheat grain yield compared to later sowings (Nov. 16 and Nov. 24) and higher weed density. (author)

  2. Phragmites australis root secreted phytotoxin undergoes photo-degradation to execute severe phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrappa, Thimmaraju; Choi, Yong Seok; Levia, Delphis F; Legates, David R; Lee, Kelvin H; Bais, Harsh P

    2009-06-01

    Our study organism, Phragmites australis (common reed), is a unique invader in that both native and introduced lineages are found coexisting in North America. This allows one to make direct assessments of physiological differences between these different subspecies and examine how this relates to invasiveness. Recent efforts to understand plant invasive behavior show that some invasive plants secrete a phytotoxin to ward-off encroachment by neighboring plants (allelopathy) and thus provide the invaders with a competitive edge in a given habitat. Here we show that a varying climatic factor like ultraviolet (UV) light leads to photo-degradation of secreted phytotoxin (gallic acid) in P. australis rhizosphere inducing higher mortality of susceptible seedlings. The photo-degraded product of gallic acid (hereafter GA), identified as mesoxalic acid (hereafter MOA), triggered a similar cell death cascade in susceptible seedlings as observed previously with GA. Further, we detected the biological concentrations of MOA in the natural stands of exotic and native P. australis. Our studies also show that the UV degradation of GA is facilitated at an alkaline pH, suggesting that the natural habitat of P. australis may facilitate the photo-degradation of GA. The study highlights the persistence of the photo-degraded phytotoxin in the P. australis's rhizosphere and its inhibitory effects against the native plants.

  3. Transcriptome Expression Profiling in Response to Drought Stress in Paulownia australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Dong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The response and adaptation to drought remains poorly understood for Paulownia australis. To investigate this issue, transcriptome profiling of four P. australis accessions (two diploid and the other two autotetraploid under water stress condition were studied using Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx analysis. The current study aimed to identify genes of P. australis metabolism pathways that might be involved in this plant’s response to water deficit. Potted seedlings were subjected to well-watered conditions and drought stress, respectively. More than 290 million raw transcript reads were assembled into 111,660 unigenes, with a mean length of 1013 bp. Clusters of orthologous groups, gene ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations analyses were performed on the unigenes. Many differentially expressed genes and several metabolic pathways were identified. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to verify the expression patterns of 14 genes. Our study identified altered gene expression in P. australis induced by drought stress and provided a comprehensive map of drought-responsive genes and pathways in this species. To our knowledge, this is the first publicly available global transcriptome study of P. australis. This study provides a valuable genetic resource for this species.

  4. Aurora-A regulates MCRS1 function during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Sylvain; Timón, Krystal; Vernos, Isabelle

    2016-07-02

    The mitotic spindle is made of microtubules (MTs) nucleated through different pathways involving the centrosomes, the chromosomes or the walls of pre-existing MTs. MCRS1 is a RanGTP target that specifically associates with the chromosome-driven MTs protecting them from MT depolymerases. MCRS1 is also needed for the control of kinetochore fiber (K-fiber) MT minus-ends dynamics in metaphase. Here, we investigated the regulation of MCRS1 activity in M-phase. We show that MCRS1 is phosphorylated by the Aurora-A kinase in mitosis on Ser35/36. Although this phosphorylation has no role on MCRS1 localization to chromosomal MTs and K-fiber minus-ends, we show that it regulates MCRS1 activity in mitosis. We conclude that Aurora-A activity is particularly important in the tuning of K-fiber minus-ends dynamics in mitosis.

  5. Identification of clouds and aurorae in optical data images

    CERN Document Server

    Seviour, R; Honary, F

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present an automatic image recognition technique used to identify clouds and aurorae in digital images, taken with a CCD all-sky imager. The image recognition algorithm uses image segmentation to generate a binary block object image. Object analysis is then performed on the binary block image, the results of which are used to assess whether clouds, aurorae and stars are present in the original image. The need for such an algorithm arises because the optical study of particle precipitation into the Earth's atmosphere by the Ionosphere and Radio Propagation Group at Lancaster generates vast data-sets, over 25 000 images/year, making manual classification of all the images impractical.

  6. The effects of litter on growth and plasticity of Phragmites australis clones originating from infertile, fertile or eutrophicated habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevering, O.A.

    1999-01-01

    In many European countries a strong decline of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex Steudel (common reed) has been observed. In some instances this decline has been related to the accumulation of litter. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with P. australis cuttings from different stable and

  7. Aurorasaurus: A citizen science platform for viewing and reporting the aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, E. A.; Case, N. A.; Clayton, J. H.; Hall, M. K.; Heavner, M.; Lalone, N.; Patel, K. G.; Tapia, A.

    2015-09-01

    A new, citizen science-based, aurora observing and reporting platform has been developed with the primary aim of collecting auroral observations made by the general public to further improve the modeling of the aurora. In addition, the real-time ability of this platform facilitates the combination of citizen science observations with auroral oval models to improve auroral visibility nowcasting. Aurorasaurus provides easily understandable aurora information, basic gamification, and real-time location-based notification of verified aurora activity to engage citizen scientists. The Aurorasaurus project is one of only a handful of space weather citizen science projects and can provide useful results for the space weather and citizen science communities. Early results are promising with over 2000 registered users submitting over 1000 aurora observations and verifying over 1700 aurora sightings posted on Twitter.

  8. Planetary protection in the framework of the Aurora exploration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, G.

    The Aurora Exploration Program will give ESA new responsibilities in the field of planetary protection. Until now, ESA had only limited exposure to planetary protection from its own missions. With the proposed ExoMars and MSR missions, however, ESA will enter the realm of the highest planetary protection categories. As a consequence, the Aurora Exploration Program has initiated a number of activities in the field of planetary protection. The first and most important step was to establish a Planetary Protection Working Group (PPWG) that is advising the Exploration Program Advisory Committee (EPAC) on all matters concerning planetary protection. The main task of the PPWG is to provide recommendations regarding: Planetary protection for robotic missions to Mars; Planetary protection for a potential human mission to Mars; Review/evaluate standards & procedures for planetary protection; Identify research needs in the field of planetary protection. As a result of the PPWG deliberations, a number of activities have been initiated: Evaluation of the Microbial Diversity in SC Facilities; Working paper on legal issues of planetary protection and astrobiology; Feasibility study on a Mars Sample Return Containment Facility; Research activities on sterilization procedures; Training course on planetary protection (May, 2004); Workshop on sterilization techniques (fall 2004). In parallel to the PPWG, the Aurora Exploration Program has established an Ethical Working Group (EWG). This working group will address ethical issues related to astrobiology, planetary protection, and manned interplanetary missions. The recommendations of the working groups and the results of the R&D activities form the basis for defining planetary protection specification for Aurora mission studies, and for proposing modification and new inputs to the COSPAR planetary protection policy. Close cooperation and free exchange of relevant information with the NASA planetary protection program is strongly

  9. Measurement of the electrostatic field in aurora by antarctic rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeya, Yoshio; Minami, Shigeyuki

    1974-01-01

    The direct measurement of the electrostatic field produced by the flow of charged particles and geomagnetic field in aurora has been carried out by means of rockets or satellites. The construction of an electric field meter and its characteristics are described, which measures the vectors of electric field with antarctic rockets. New scheme is presented: three components of an electric field are directly obtained through the probes set in three directions. (Mori, K.)

  10. Aurora kinase A controls meiosis I progression in mouse oocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šašková, Adéla; Šolc, Petr; Baran, V.; Kubelka, Michal; Schultz, R. M.; Motlík, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 15 (2008), s. 2368-2376 ISSN 1538-4101 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/06/1413; GA ČR GD204/05/H023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : aurora-A * MTOC * CDK1 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.120, year: 2008 www.landesbioscience.com/journals/cc/article/6361

  11. Dynamics of Auroras Conjugate to the Dayside Reconnection Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Doolittle, J. H.

    2006-12-01

    During periods of northward IMF Bz, observations of the IMAGE satellite FUV instrument demonstrated the existence of an auroral footprint of the dayside lobe reconnection region. Under these conditions the dayside "reconnection spot" is a distinct feature being separated from the dayside auroral oval. In the IMAGE data, ~100 km spatial and 2 minutes temporal resolution, this feature appeared as a modest size, 200 to 500 km in diameter, diffuse spot which was present steadily while the IMF conditions lasted and the solar wind particle pressure was large enough to create a detectable signature. Based on this evidence, dayside reconnection observed with this resolution appears to be a steady state process. There have been several attempts to identify and study the "reconnection foot print aurora" with higher resolution from the ground. South Pole Station and the network of the US Automatic Geophysical Observatories (AGO-s) in Antarctica have all sky imagers that monitor the latitude region of interest (70 to 85 degrees geomagnetic) near midday during the Antarctic winter. In this paper we present sequences of auroral images that were taken during different conditions of Bz and therefore they are high spatial resolution detailed views of the auroras associated with reconnection. During negative Bz, auroras appear to be dynamic with poleward moving auroral forms that are clearly observed by ground based imagers with a ~few km spatial resolution. During positive Bz however the extremely high latitude aurora is much more stable and shows no preferential meridional motions. It should be noted that winter solstice conditions, needed for ground based observations, produce a dipole tilt in which reconnection is not expected to be symmetric and the auroral signatures might favor the opposite hemisphere.

  12. Control system for compact SR light source 'AURORA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukami, Nobutaka; Kariya, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Hironari

    1991-01-01

    The computer control system developed for 'AURORA' has a three level hierarchical architecture. The top level is Central Intelligence System (CIS), and the second one is Autonomic Control System (ACS). The bottom one is an assembly of distributed local controllers linked to the ACS level through optical fibers. This system provides fully automated operation, and a powerful machine study capability through the associated man-machine console and an interpretive operation language. (author)

  13. Performance of the Aurora KrF ICF laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Turner, T.P.; Watt, R.G.; Thomas, S.J.; Netz, D.A.; Tallman, C.R.; Mack, J.M.; Figueira, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Because short wavelength lasers are attractive for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the Department of Energy is sponsoring work at Los Alamos National Laboratory in krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser technology. Aurora is a short-pulse, high-power, KrF laser system. It serves as an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large-scale ultraviolet laser systems for short wavelength ICF research. The system employs optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers. The 1 to 5 ns pulse of the Aurora front end is split into 96 beams which are angularly and temporally multiplexed to produce a 480 ns pulse train for amplification by four KrF laser amplifiers. In the present system configuration half (48) of the amplified pulses are demultiplexed using different optical path lengths and delivered simultaneously to target. This paper discusses how the Aurora laser system has entered the initial operational phase by delivering pulse energies of greater than one kilojoule to target

  14. The Discovery of Aurora Kinase Inhibitor by Multi-Docking-Based Virtual Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Tae Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the discovery of aurora kinase inhibitor using the fragment-based virtual screening by multi-docking strategy. Among a number of fragments collected from eMololecules, we found four fragment molecules showing potent activity (>50% at 100 μM against aurora kinase. Based on the explored fragment scaffold, we selected two compounds in our synthesized library and validated the biological activity against Aurora kinase.

  15. Accumulation of Metals and Boron in Phragmites australis Planted in Constructed Wetlands Polishing Real Electroplating Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochacki, Adam; Guy, Bernard; Faure, Olivier; Surmacz-Górska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of metals (Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn) and B were determined in the above- and belowground biomass of Phragmites australis collected from the microcosm constructed wetland system used for the polishing of real electroplating wastewater. Translocation factor and bioconcentration factor were determined. Pearson correlation test was used to determine correlation between metal concentration in substrate and above- and belowground parts of Phragmites australis. The obtained results suggested that Phragmites australis did not play a major role as an accumulator of metals. It was observed also that the substrate could have exerted an effect on the translocation of Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn. The analysed concentrations of metals and B in biomass were in the range or even below the concentrations reported in the literature with the exception of Ni. The aboveground biomass was found suitable as a composting input in terms of metals concentrations.

  16. [Allelopathic interactions between invasive plant Solidago canadensis and native plant Phragmites australis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Zhe; Fan, Jiang-Wen; Yin, Xin; Yang, En-Yi; Wei, Wei; Tian, Zhi-Hui; Da, Liang-Jun

    2011-05-01

    Taking the seeds of invasive plant Solidago canadensis and native plant Phragmites australis from their mono- and co-dominant communities as allelopathic acceptors, this paper analyzed the differences in the seed germination rate and sprout length after treated with five level (12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg x mL(-1)) S. canadensis and P. australis extracts, aimed to understand the allelopathic interactions between the two species. The 1000-grain weight and seed germination rate under distilled water treatment of the two species in co-dominated community were greater than those in mono-dominant community. Low level (12.5 and 25 mg x mL(-1)) S. canadensi extracts slightly promoted the seed germination rates of S. canadensis in both mono- and co-dominant communities, but high level (50, 100, and 200 mg x mL(-1)) S. canadensi extracts had strong inhibition effect, especially for the S. canadensis in co-dominated community. No significant patterns were observed about the effects of P. australis extract on S. canadensis seed germination. The sprout length of S. canadensis seeds in both mono- and co-dominant communities decreased with increasing level of S. canadensis extract, but decreased in a fluctuation way with increasing level of P. australis extract. After treated with the extracts of P. australis or S. canadensis, the seed germination rate of P. australis in mono-dominant community was significantly greater than that in co-dominant community (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between these two extracts.

  17. Description of the immature stages of the planthopper Lacertinella australis (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiz, M. F. Rossi; Marino de Remes Lenicov, A. M.; Hagedorn, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The five immature stages of the planthopper Lacertinella australis (Remes Lenicov and Rossi Batiz) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Saccharosydnini) are described and illustrated. The main characters that allowed us to distinguish the various stages were body size, number of tarsomeres and metatibial spines, and number of teeth on the spur. New biological data based on laboratory rearing and field observations showed that L. australis can carry out its biological cycle successfully on the graminaceous pampas grass ( Cortaderia spp. Stapf (Poales: Poaceae)). In addition, the efficient rearing in captivity, the high survivorship registered, and overwintering only on this host plant suggests that L. australis is a potential biocontrol agent of this invasive graminaceous weed. This study provides information about the immature stages , including a key for their identification, based on laboratory reared specimens and field observations. Resumen Se describen e ilustran las cinco etapas inmaduras de la especie de Saccharisydnini Lacertinella australis (Remes Lenicov and Rossi Batiz) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Los principales caracteres que permitieron distinguir las diferentes etapas fueron: tamaño corporal, número de espinas en los tarsómeros y metatibia y número de dientes en el espolón tibial. Nuevos datos biológicos, basados en la cría de laboratorio y observaciones de campo, mostraron que L. australis puede realizar su ciclo biológico exitosamente en la graminácea cortadera ( Cortaderia spp. Stapf (Poales: Poaceae)). Además, la eficiente crianza en cautive-rio y la alta supervivencia registrada en esta planta hospedera, sugieren que L. australis podría ser usada como un potencial agente de control biológico de esta maleza invasora. Este estudio proporciona informa-ción sobre las etapas inmaduras, incluyendo una clave para su identificación, basada en individuos provenientes de la cría de laboratorio y de campo. PMID:25199992

  18. Functional role of bacteria from invasive Phragmites australis in promotion of host growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, M. A.; Li, H-Y; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Bergen, M.; Torres, M. S.; White, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that bacterial endophytes may enhance the competitiveness and invasiveness of Phragmites australis. To evaluate this hypothesis, endophytic bacteria were isolated from P. australis. The majority of the shoot meristem isolates represent species from phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. We chose one species from each phylum to characterize further and to conduct growth promotion experiments in Phragmites. Bacteria tested include Bacillus amyloliquefaciens A9a, Achromobacter spanius B1, and Microbacterium oxydans B2. Isolates were characterized for known growth promotional traits, including indole acetic acid (IAA) production, secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, phosphate solubilization, and antibiosis activity. Potentially defensive antimicrobial lipopeptides were assayed for through application of co-culturing experiments and mass spectrometer analysis. B. amyloliquefaciens A9a and M. oxydans B2 produced IAA. B. amyloliquefaciens A9a secreted antifungal lipopeptides. Capability to promote growth of P. australis under low nitrogen conditions was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. All three isolates were found to increase the growth of P. australis under low soil nitrogen conditions and showed increased absorption of isotopic nitrogen into plants. This suggests that the Phragmites microbes we evaluated most likely promote growth of Phragmites by enhanced scavenging of nitrogenous compounds from the rhizosphere and transfer to host roots. Collectively, our results support the hypothesis that endophytic bacteria play a role in enhancing growth of P. australis in natural populations. Gaining a better understanding of the precise contributions and mechanisms of endophytes in enabling P. australis to develop high densities rapidly could lead to new symbiosis-based strategies for management and control of the host.

  19. Observations of the ipogean part of Typha Latifolia and Phragmites Australis; Osservazioni sull'apparato ipogeo di Typha Latifolia e Phragmites Australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borin, M.; Bonaiti, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Agronomia Ambientale e Produzioni Vegetali

    2000-06-01

    Since the interest on the use of wetlands to provide treatment of wastewaters is increasing in Italy, and the role of plants for the high performance of such systems is essential, observations on the ipogean part of Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis have been conducted after one year of growth in cubic containers (0,8 cm each side) filled with loamy textured soil. The length of rhizomes, the rhizomes and roots biomass production, and the TKN immobilisation in rhizomes and roots have been measured in soil layers of 10 cm wide. Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis produced high quantities of biomass (33 and 39 t {center_dot} ha{sup 1} of dry weight respectively) and showed a high immobilisation of nitrogen (270 and 250 kg {center_dot} ha{sup 1} respectively). The hypogeal part of Typha latifolia was developed especially in the first layers, whereas the one of Phragmites australis was more distributed along the soil profile (94 and 69% of the total biomass in the first 30 cm respectively). [Italian] Considerato l'interesse crescente che si sta osservando in Italia per la fitodepurazione delle acque inquinate e vista l'importanza che le piante esercitano in questa tecnologia, si sono condotte delle osservazioni sullo sviluppo dell'apparato ipogeo di Typha latifolia L. e Phragmites australis dopo un anno di accrescimento in cassoni cubici (0,8 m di lato) riempiti con terreno a grana media. Sono stati rilevati, per strati di 10 cm di profondita', la lunghezza dei rizomi, la biomassa di rizomi e radici ed il contenuto di TKN in rizomi e radici. Typha latifolia e Phragmites australis hanno prodotto molta biomassa (33 e 39 t {center_dot} ha{sup 1}di sostanza secca rispettivamente) ed hanno immagazinato una notevole quantita' di azoto (270 e 250 kg {center_dot} ha{sup 1} rispettivamente). Lungo il profilo del terreno, l'apparato ipogeo di Typha latifolia e' risultato piu' concentrato nei primi strati di quanto osservato in

  20. Inclined Zenith Aurora over Kyoto on 17 September 1770: Graphical Evidence of Extreme Magnetic Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Iwahashi, Kiyomi

    2017-10-01

    Red auroras were observed in Japan during an extreme magnetic storm that occurred on 17 September 1770. We show new evidence that the red aurora extended toward the zenith of Kyoto around midnight. The basic appearance of the historical painting of the red aurora is geometrically reproduced based on the inclination of the local magnetic field and a detailed description in a newly discovered diary. The presence of the inclined zenith aurora over Kyoto suggests that the intensity of the September 1770 magnetic storm is comparable to, or slightly larger than that of the September 1859 Carrington storm.

  1. Ancient writings reveal presence of aurora in 13th-century Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Sam

    Modern Norway, Iceland, and Greenland are subject to frequent displays of the aurora borealis. The aurora can be viewed on almost every clear night in the northern part of Iceland and southern Greenland, which lie in or near the auroral oval. Thus, it is surprising to find almost no mention of the aurora in medieval Norse chronicles or in the extensive Icelandic saga literature. Only one paragraph, in the "King's Mirror," a Norwegian writing dating to about 1250 C.E., notes the occurrence of the aurora in Greenland. The author reports this as hearsay and not from personal knowledge. For a fuller discussion of the Norse literature, see Brekke and Egeland [1983].

  2. Can nutrient enrichment influence the invasion of Phragmites australis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall William

    2018-02-01

    Plant invasion and nutrient enrichment because of anthropogenic landscape modifications seriously threaten native plant community diversity in aquatic and wetland ecosystems. It is poorly understood, however, whether these two disturbances interact with the functional identity of recipient native plants to drive community change. We performed combined studies in the fields and greenhouse to examine whether nutrient enrichment may trigger the invasion of Phragmites australis in wetlands through competitive advantage over native Melaleuca ericifolia. Chemical characterizations of rhizosphere water were distinguished in two different nutrient enriched wetlands associated with and without Phragmites over the seasons. Significant changes in rhizosphere water were observed in invaded area compared to uninvaded area at both sites. High nitrogen (NO 3 - ), phosphorous (PO 4 3- ), dissolved organic carbon, phenolics contents, with low pH were found in invaded areas compared to uninvaded areas. Total biomass of Phragmites was positively regressed with rhizosphere water nitrogen (NO 3 - ) and phosphorous (PO 4 3- ) content. Nutrient addition significantly enhanced the growth and competitive ability of Phragmites over Melaleuca. In contrast, Melaleuca was significantly less competitive than Phragmites. There was a significantly positive correlation between the growth of Phragmites grown alone and its competitive ability. The findings in greenhouse studies coupled with characteristics of Phragmites and its' rhizosphere chemistry in the nutrient enriched fields suggest that nutrient enrichment may enhance Phragmites invasion through correspondingly increasing growth and maintaining inherent competitive advantages of Phragmites. Nutrient management could limit the vigorous growth of Phragmites in wetlands and thereby reduce invasion through competitive advantages over natives, which might have important management implications for wetland managers. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  3. Evolutionary relationships of Aurora kinases: Implications for model organism studies and the development of anti-cancer drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Denis R

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As key regulators of mitotic chromosome segregation, the Aurora family of serine/threonine kinases play an important role in cell division. Abnormalities in Aurora kinases have been strongly linked with cancer, which has lead to the recent development of new classes of anti-cancer drugs that specifically target the ATP-binding domain of these kinases. From an evolutionary perspective, the species distribution of the Aurora kinase family is complex. Mammals uniquely have three Aurora kinases, Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C, while for other metazoans, including the frog, fruitfly and nematode, only Aurora-A and Aurora-B kinases are known. The fungi have a single Aurora-like homolog. Based on the tacit assumption of orthology to human counterparts, model organism studies have been central to the functional characterization of Aurora kinases. However, the ortholog and paralog relationships of these kinases across various species have not been rigorously examined. Here, we present comprehensive evolutionary analyses of the Aurora kinase family. Results Phylogenetic trees suggest that all three vertebrate Auroras evolved from a single urochordate ancestor. Specifically, Aurora-A is an orthologous lineage in cold-blooded vertebrates and mammals, while structurally similar Aurora-B and Aurora-C evolved more recently in mammals from a duplication of an ancestral Aurora-B/C gene found in cold-blooded vertebrates. All so-called Aurora-A and Aurora-B kinases of non-chordates are ancestral to the clade of chordate Auroras and, therefore, are not strictly orthologous to vertebrate counterparts. Comparisons of human Aurora-B and Aurora-C sequences to the resolved 3D structure of human Aurora-A lends further support to the evolutionary scenario that vertebrate Aurora-B and Aurora-C are closely related paralogs. Of the 26 residues lining the ATP-binding active site, only three were variant and all were specific to Aurora-A. Conclusions In

  4. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M.; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) μg/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed

  5. AURORA on MEGSAT 1 a photon counting observatory for the Earth UV night-sky background and Aurora emission

    CERN Document Server

    Monfardini, A; Stalio, R; Mahne, N; Battiston, R; Menichelli, M; Mazzinghi, P

    2001-01-01

    A low-mass, low-cost photon-counting scientific payload has been developed and launched on a commercial microsatellite in order to study the near-UV night-sky background emission with a telescope nicknamed 'Notte' and the Aurora emission with 'Alba'. AURORA, this is the name of the experiment, will determine, with the 'Notte' channel, the overall night-side photon background in the 300-400 nm spectral range, together with a particular 2 sup + N sub 2 line (lambda sub c =337 nm). The 'Alba' channel, on the other hand, will study the Aurora emissions in four different spectral bands (FWHM=8.4-9.6 nm) centered on: 367 nm (continuum evaluation), 391 nm (1 sup - N sup + sub 2), 535 nm (continuum evaluation), 560 nm (OI). The instrument has been launched on the 26 September, 2000 from the Baikonur cosmodrome on a modified SS18 Dnepr-1 'Satan' rocket. The satellite orbit is nearly circular (h sub a sub p sub o sub g sub e sub e =648 km, e=0.0022), and the inclination of the orbital plane is 64.56 deg. An overview of...

  6. AURORA on MEGSAT 1: a photon counting observatory for the Earth UV night-sky background and Aurora emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monfardini, A.; Trampus, P.; Stalio, R.; Mahne, N.; Battiston, R.; Menichelli, M.; Mazzinghi, P.

    2001-01-01

    A low-mass, low-cost photon-counting scientific payload has been developed and launched on a commercial microsatellite in order to study the near-UV night-sky background emission with a telescope nicknamed 'Notte' and the Aurora emission with 'Alba'. AURORA, this is the name of the experiment, will determine, with the 'Notte' channel, the overall night-side photon background in the 300-400 nm spectral range, together with a particular 2 + N 2 line (λ c =337 nm). The 'Alba' channel, on the other hand, will study the Aurora emissions in four different spectral bands (FWHM=8.4-9.6 nm) centered on: 367 nm (continuum evaluation), 391 nm (1 - N + 2 ), 535 nm (continuum evaluation), 560 nm (OI). The instrument has been launched on the 26 September, 2000 from the Baikonur cosmodrome on a modified SS18 Dnepr-1 'Satan' rocket. The satellite orbit is nearly circular (h apogee =648 km, e=0.0022), and the inclination of the orbital plane is 64.56 deg. An overview of the techniques adopted is given in this paper

  7. Structural and lithologic constraints to mineralization in Aurora, Nevada and Bodie, California mining districts, observed with aerospace geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailbegovic, Amer

    the Bodie Hills. The high-resolution, narrow-swath, hyperspectral data obtained from high and low altitude AVIRIS targeted on the individual districts, allows identification of hydrothermal alteration assemblages, potential structural mineralization conduits and surface manifestations of mineralization. Individual segments of the regional-to-local geophysical survey are field checked and spatially integrated using WofE. The interpretation and WofE modeling of the geophysical data and detailed geologic field mapping reveal a close relationship between the basement uplift (source for metals), NE-trending structures (conduits), volcanic activity (energy), hydrothermal activity (genesis) and mineralization in Aurora and Bodie. This study confirms that Aurora represents a low-sulfidation system hosted in a strike-slip influenced dilational vein system, which may be genetically associated with the initial phase of Miocene extension and stress accommodation in Western Great Basin during 15--8 Ma.

  8. Aurora-A overexpression and aneuploidy predict poor outcome in serous ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassus, Heini; Staff, Synnöve; Leminen, Arto; Isola, Jorma; Butzow, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Aurora-A is a potential oncogene and therapeutic target in ovarian carcinoma. It is involved in mitotic events and overexpression leads to centrosome amplification and chromosomal instability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of Aurora-A and DNA ploidy in serous ovarian carcinoma. Serous ovarian carcinomas were analysed for Aurora-A protein by immunohistochemistry (n=592), Aurora-A copy number by CISH (n=169), Aurora-A mRNA by real-time PCR (n=158) and DNA ploidy by flowcytometry (n=440). Overexpression of Aurora-A was found in 27% of the tumors, cytoplasmic overexpression in 11% and nuclear in 17%. The cytoplasmic and nuclear overexpression were nearly mutually exclusive. Both cytoplasmic and nuclear overexpression were associated with shorter survival, high grade, high proliferation index and aberrant p53. Interestingly, only cytoplasmic expression was associated with aneuploidy and expression of phosphorylated Aurora-A. DNA ploidy was associated with poor patient outcome as well as aggressive clinicopathological parameters. In multivariate analysis, Aurora-A overexpression appeared as an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival, together with grade, stage and ploidy. Aurora-A protein expression is strongly linked with poor patient outcome and aggressive disease characteristics, which makes Aurora-A a promising biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in ovarian carcinoma. Cytoplasmic and nuclear Aurora-A protein may have different functions. DNA aneuploidy is a strong predictor of poor prognosis in serous ovarian carcinoma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Discovery of a new subclass of alpha-conotoxins in the venom of Conus australis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lebbe, E; Peigneur, S.; Maiti, M.; Mille, B.G.; Prabhadevi; Ravichandran, S.; Lescrinier, E; Waelkens, E; DeSouza, L.; Herdewijn, P.; Tytgat, J.

    -conotoxin family. We purified the venom of a yet unexplored cone snail species, i.e. Conus australis, and we isolated a 16-amino acid peptide named alpha-conotoxin AusIA. The peptide has the typical alpha-conotoxin CC-Xm-C-Xn-C framework...

  10. Primary structure of the oligosaccharide moiety of hemocyanin from the scorpion Androctonus australis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Debeire, P.; Montreuil, J.; Goyffon, M.; Kuik, J.A. van; Halbeek, H. van

    1986-01-01

    Hemocyanin, the copper-containing glycoprotein that serves as an oxygen carrier in the hemolymph of some arthropods and molluscs, was obtained from the blood of the scorpion Androctonus australis. Sugar analysis of the glycoprotein revealed that its carbohydrate moiety is of the N-glycosylic type.

  11. Decomposition processes in soil of a healthy and a declining Phragmites australis stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantrůčková, Hana; Picek, Tomáš; Šimek, Miloslav; Bauer, Václav; Kopecký, Jiří; Pechar, Libor; Lukavská, Jaroslava; Čížková, Hana

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 69, - (2001), s. 217-234 ISSN 0304-3770 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/96/0589 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : decomposition * eutrophication * Phragmites australis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.361, year: 2001

  12. Aurora B is dispensable for megakaryocyte polyploidization, but contributes to the endomitotic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordier, Larissa; Chang, Yunhua; Jalil, Abdelali; Aurade, Frédéric; Garçon, Loïc; Lécluse, Yann; Larbret, Frédéric; Kawashima, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Toshio; Larghero, Jérôme; Debili, Najet; Vainchenker, William

    2010-09-30

    Polyploidization of megakaryocytes (MKs), the platelet precursors, occurs by endomitosis, a mitotic process that fails at late stages of cytokinesis. Expression and function of Aurora B kinase during endomitosis remain controversial. Here, we report that Aurora B is normally expressed during the human MK endomitotic process. Aurora B localized normally in the midzone or midbody during anaphase and telophase in low ploidy megakaryocytes and in up to 16N rare endomitotic MKs was observed. Aurora B was also functional during cytokinesis as attested by phosphorylation of both its activation site and MgcRacGAP, its main substrate. However, despite its activation, Aurora B did not prevent furrow regression. Inhibition of Aurora B by AZD1152-HQPA decreased cell cycle entry both in 2N to 4N and polyploid MKs and induced apoptosis mainly in 2N to 4N cells. In both MK classes, AZD1152-HQPA induced p53 activation and retinoblastoma hypophosphorylation. Resistance of polyploid MKs to apoptosis correlated to a high BclxL level. Aurora B inhibition did not impair MK polyploidization but profoundly modified the endomitotic process by inducing a mis-segregation of chromosomes and a mitotic failure in anaphase. This indicates that Aurora B is dispensable for MK polyploidization but is necessary to achieve a normal endomitotic process.

  13. Bora and Aurora-A continue to activate Plk1 in mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Wytse; Macurek, Libor; Freire, Raimundo; Lindqvist, Arne; Medema, René H

    2014-02-15

    Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1) is required for proper cell division. Activation of Plk1 requires phosphorylation on a conserved threonine in the T-loop of the kinase domain (T210). Plk1 is first phosphorylated on T210 in G2 phase by the kinase Aurora-A, in concert with its cofactor Bora. However, Bora was shown to be degraded prior to entry into mitosis, and it is currently unclear how Plk1 activity is sustained in mitosis. Here we show that the Bora-Aurora-A complex remains the major activator of Plk1 in mitosis. We show that a small amount of Aurora-A activity is sufficient to phosphorylate and activate Plk1 in mitosis. In addition, a fraction of Bora is retained in mitosis, which is essential for continued Aurora-A-dependent T210 phosphorylation of Plk1. We find that once Plk1 is activated, minimal amounts of the Bora-Aurora-A complex are sufficient to sustain Plk1 activity. Thus, the activation of Plk1 by Aurora-A may function as a bistable switch; highly sensitive to inhibition of Aurora-A in its initial activation, but refractory to fluctuations in Aurora-A activity once Plk1 is fully activated. This provides a cell with robust Plk1 activity once it has committed to mitosis.

  14. Akt Inhibitor A-443654 Interferes with Mitotic Progression by Regulating Aurora A Kinase Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Liu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Both Akt and Aurora A kinase have been shown to be important targets for intervention for cancer therapy. We report here that Compound A (A-443654, a specific Akt inhibitor, interferes with mitotic progression and bipolar spindle formation. Compound A induces G2/M accumulation, defects in centrosome separation, and formation of either monopolar arrays or disorganized spindles. On the basis of gene expression array studies, we identified Aurora A as one of the genes regulated transcriptionally by Akt inhibitors including Compound A. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway, either by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or by Compound A, dramatically inhibits the promoter activity of Aurora A, whereas the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor has little effect, suggesting that Akt might be responsible for up-regulating Aurora A for mitotic progression. Further analysis of the Aurora A promoter region indicates that the Ets element but not the Sp1 element is required for Compound A-sensitive transcriptional control of Aurora A. Overexpression of Aurora A in cells treated with Compound A attenuates the mitotic arrest and the defects in bipolar spindle formation induced by Akt inhibition. Our studies suggest that that Akt may promote mitotic progression through the transcriptional regulation of Aurora A.

  15. Latitudinally propagating on-off switching aurorae and associated geomagnetic pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguti, T.; Kokubun, S.; Hayashi, K.; Tsuruda, K.; Machida, S.; Kitamura, T.; Saka, O.; Watanabe, T.

    1981-01-01

    Poleward propagating on-off switching aurorae and equatorward propagating aurorae, otherwise similar, were observed simultaneously at Rabbit Lake and La Ronge, respectively, for about 40 min before dawn of Feb 20, 1980. Rabbit Lake is a high auroral latitude site at the northern end of the Saskatchewan chain of stations for the Pulsating Aurora Campaign, whereas La Ronge, due south of Rabbit, is almost at the southern edge of the auroral zone. The repetition periods of the on-off switching aurorae are about 6 to 13 s. The poleward propagating aurorae had well defined fronts of light which extended a few hundred kilometres or more in the east-west direction. The light fronts of the equatorward propagating aurorae, though comparable in extent, were less well defined: they were thicker and fuzzier. The poleward propagating aurorae moved with a speed of approximately 10 km/s whereas the equatorward ones did so with a slightly greater velocity. Geomagnetic field fluctuations were concurrent with the aurorae at both sites. At Rabbit Lake, northward (southward) field changes were associated with upward (downward) changes, whereas the trend is reversed at La Ronge, viz., northward (southward) changes with downward (upward) changes. These trends are consistent with a model of a periodic occurrence of two line currents, westward and eastward, the former moving poleward north of Rabbit Lake and the latter approaching La Ronge from the north

  16. Jupiter's Mid-Infrared Aurora: Solar Connection and Minor Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodore; Livengood, T.A.; Fast, K.E.; Hewagama, T.; Schmilling, F.; Sonnabend, G.; Delgado, J.

    2009-01-01

    High spectral resolution in the 12 pin region of the polar regions of Jupiter reveal unique information on auroral phenomena and upper stratospheric composition. Polar aurorae in Jupiter's atmosphere radiate; throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X-ray through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 5 - 20 micron wavelength). Voyager IRIS data and ground-based. spectroscopic measurements of Jupiter's northern mid-IR aurora acquired since 1982, reveal a correlation between auroral brightness and solar activity that has not been observed in Jovian aurora at other wavelengths. Over nearly three solar cycles, Jupiter auroral ethane, emission brightness and solar 10.7-cm radar flux and sunspot number are positively correlated with high confidence. Ethane line emission intensity varies over tenfold between low and high scalar activity periods. Detailed measurements have been made using the GSFC HIPWAC spectrometer at the NASA IRTF since the last solar maximum, following the mid-IR emission through the declining phase toward solar minimum. An even more convincing correlation with solar activity is evident in these data. The spectra measured contain features that cannot be attributed to ethane and are most likely spectra of minor constituents whose molecular bands overlap the v9 band of ethane. Possible candidates are allene, propane, and other higher order hydrocarbons. These features appear to be enhanced in the active polar regions. Laboratory measurements at comparable spectral resolution of spectra of candidate molecules will be used to identify the constituents. Current analyses of these results will be described, including planned measurements on polar ethane line emission scheduled through the rise of the next solar maximum beginning in 2009, with a steep gradient to a maximum in 2012. This work is relevant to the Juno mission and to the development of the NASA/ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission.

  17. Double layers in the laboratory and above the aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.

    1980-11-01

    Recent laboratory double layer experiments have simulated, much better than before, the conditions prevailing on auroral field lines at high altitudes. In particular, magnetic fields strong enough to magnetize the electrons (but not quite the ions) have been used. Particle and wave spectra have been measured. Wave-particle interaction has been shown to play a minor role in the only case that has been quantitatively analyzed. The three-dimensional potential distribution has been mapped. The particle budget requires the radial electric field to be outward in the no magnetic field case but inward with magnetic field, in agreement with what is observed above the aurora. (author)

  18. Dayside auroras in relation to the interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandholt, P.E.; Egeland, A.; Lybekk, B.; Deehr, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Dynamics of dayside auroras, including cusp emissions, and their relation to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have been investigated by optical ground-based observations from Svalbard, Norway, and IMF data from various satellites. Combined with the Svalbard program, simultaneous night-side observations from Alaska provide information on the large-scale behaviour of the auroral oval. Drift characteristics, spatial scale, time of duration and repetition frequency of auroral structures on the day-side, occuring at the time of large-scale oval expansions (IMF B z z positive and negative values

  19. Expression of Aurora-B and FOXM1 predict poor survival in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Pei-Yu; Luo, Dong-Hua; Mai, Hai-Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Guangzhou (China); Li, Yan; Zeng, Ting-Ting; Li, Meng-Qing [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Hou, Xue; Zhang, Li [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Medical Oncology, Guangzhou (China)

    2015-08-15

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between Aurora-B, FOXM1, and clinical outcomes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who were treated with a combination of induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The expression of Aurora-B and FOXM1 were investigated by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray (TMA) containing samples from 166 NPC patients who were treated with cisplatin (DDP) + fluorouracil (5-FU) induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy between 1999 and 2005. The relationship of Aurora-B, FOXM1, and survival of these NPC patients was analyzed. Informative TMA results were obtained in 91 tumor cases for Aurora-B and 93 tumor cases for FOXM1. The 8-year failure-free survival rate (FFS) for the Aurora-B-negative and Aurora-B-positive group was 65.6 and 37.3 %, respectively (p = 0.024), and the 8-year distant FFS (D-FFS) rate was 65.6 and 41.5 %, respectively (p = 0.047). The 8-year overall survival (OS) in the FOXM1-negative group was moderately higher than in the FOXM1-positive group (58.4 vs 39.1 %, p = 0.081). Cox regression analysis revealed that for FFS, Aurora-B expression was a significant prognostic factor (p = 0.025), while for D-FFS, Aurora-B expression was a marginally significant prognostic factor (p = 0.056). When FOXM1 expression was analyzed, the Cox regression analyses showed that FOXM1 expression was a marginally significant prognostic factor (p = 0.056) for OS. Correlation analysis showed that Aurora-B and FOXM1 expression had no significant correlation. Aurora-B and FOXM1 were both adverse prognostic markers for NPC patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. However, the two markers had no significant correlation. (orig.) [German] Ziel war die Untersuchung der Beziehung zwischen Aurora-B, FOXM1 und den klinischen Ergebnissen bei Patienten mit nasopharyngealem Karzinom (NPC), die mit einer Kombinationstherapie aus Induktionschemotherapie und Radiotherapie behandelt wurden. Die Expression von Aurora-B und

  20. Correspondence of vacuum ultraviolet aurora image with the inverted-V structure observed by Kyokko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneda, Eisuke; Mukai, Toshifumi; Hirao, Kunio.

    1982-01-01

    Since the Kyokko has been in an orbit with the inclination of 65.3 degree, various patterns of the inverted-V structure can be observed. Correspondence of vacuum ultraviolet aurora image with the inverted-V structure was studied. The energy-time diagrams were obtained. The inverted-V event occurrence map was made. The down-dusk asymmetry was recognized. The patterns of the inverted-V structure observed at present were not much different from previous ones. The observed aurora images showed not only the patterns of aurora, but also the state of aurora spreading in the polar region. Some of the observed results of energy characteristics and the aurora images are shown. (Kato, T.)

  1. The Aurora B kinase in chromosome biorientation and spindle checkpoint signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eKrenn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aurora B, a member of the Aurora family of serine/threonine protein kinases, is a key player in chromosome segregation. As part of a macromolecular complex known as the chromosome passenger complex, Aurora B concentrates early during mitosis in the proximity of centromeres and kinetochores, the sites of attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules. There, it contributes to a number of processes that impart fidelity to cell division, including kinetochore stabilization, kinetochore-microtubule attachment, and the regulation of a surveillance mechanism named the spindle assembly checkpoint. In the regulation of these processes, Aurora B is the fulcrum of a remarkably complex network of interactions that feed back on its localization and activation state. In this review we discuss the multiple roles of Aurora B during mitosis, focusing in particular on its role at centromeres and kinetochores. Many details of the network of interactions at these locations remain poorly understood, and we focus here on several crucial outstanding questions.

  2. Basal aurora kinase B activity is sufficient for histone H3 phosphorylation in prophase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ly-Thuy-Tram Le

    2013-02-01

    Histone H3 phosphorylation is the hallmark of mitosis deposited by aurora kinase B. Benzo[e]pyridoindoles are a family of potent, broad, ATP-competitive aurora kinase inhibitors. However, benzo[e]pyridoindole C4 only inhibits histone H3 phosphorylation in prophase but not in metaphase. Under the C4 treatment, the cells enter into mitosis with dephosphorylated histone H3, assemble chromosomes normally and progress to metaphase, and then to anaphase. C4 also induces lagging chromosome in anaphase but we demonstrated that these chromosome compaction defects are not related to the absence of H3 phosphorylation in prophase. As a result of C4 action, mitosis lasts longer and the cell cycle is slowed down. We reproduced the mitotic defects with reduced concentrations of potent pan aurora kinase as well as with a specific aurora B ATP-competitive inhibitor; we therefore propose that histone H3 phosphorylation and anaphase chromosome compaction involve the basal activity of aurora kinase B. Our data suggest that aurora kinase B is progressively activated at mitosis entry and at anaphase onset. The full activation of aurora kinase B by its partners, in prometaphase, induces a shift in the catalytic domain of aurora B that modifies its affinity for ATP. These waves of activation/deactivation of aurora B correspond to different conformations of the chromosomal complex revealed by FRAP. The presence of lagging chromosomes may have deleterious consequences on the daughter cells and, unfortunately, the situation may be encountered in patients receiving treatment with aurora kinase inhibitors.

  3. X-ray scanning of overhead aurorae from rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcus, J.R.; Goldberg, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Two Nike Tomahawk rocket payloads were launched into energetic auroral events to investigate their structure and effects on the atmosphere. The instrument complement included X-ray scintillation detectors with energy discrimination in four ranges to measure the deposition of bremsstrahlung produced X-rays within the stratosphere and mesosphere. For this purpose, each instrument was designed for wide angle viewing; however, properties of the rocket motion have permitted coarse observation of distinct spatial X-ray structure. The detectors were mounted at a 45 0 angle with respect to the payload axis to permit scanning of the upper hemisphere, with rocket spin rates near 5 c/s during the upleg portion of each flight. Here, atmospheric shielding reduced energetic particle contamination effects to insignificant values below 65 to 75 km. Iterative computer techniques were used to reconstruct X-ray source maps at 100 km, taking atmospheric absorption effects into account. Payload 18.178 was launched on 21 September (0302 LMT) into an aurora observed to have two distinct azimuthal regions of optical brightness. Payload 18.179 (23 September, 0147 LMT) was launched into an aurora of more diffuse character. The presence of a two component spectrum is indicated for each event with the hard component originating in the more diffuse, optically faint regions. (author)

  4. Terrestrial aurora: astrophysical laboratory for anomalous abundances in stellar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Roth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The unique magnetic structure of the terrestrial aurora as a conduit of information between the ionosphere and magnetosphere can be utilized as a laboratory for physical processes at similar magnetic configurations and applied to various evolutionary phases of the solar (stellar system. The most spectacular heliospheric abundance enhancement involves the 3He isotope and selective heavy elements in impulsive solar flares. In situ observations of electromagnetic waves on active aurora are extrapolated to flaring corona in an analysis of solar acceleration processes of 3He, the only element that may resonate strongly with the waves, as well as heavy ions with specific charge-to-mass ratios, which may resonate weaker via their higher gyroharmonics. These results are applied to two observed anomalous astrophysical abundances: (1 enhanced abundance of 3He and possibly 13C in the late stellar evolutionary stages of planetary nebulae; and (2 enhanced abundance of the observed fossil element 26Mg in meteorites as a decay product of radioactive 26Al isotope due to interaction with the flare-energized 3He in the early solar system.

  5. Dynamic rayed aurora and enhanced ion-acoustic radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Blixt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation mechanism for naturally enhanced ion-acoustic echoes is still debated. One important issue is how these enhancements are related to auroral activity. All events of enhanced ion-acoustic echoes observed simultaneously with the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR and with high-resolution narrow field-of-view auroral imagers have been collected and studied. Characteristic of all the events is the appearance of very dynamic rayed aurora, and some of the intrinsic features of these auroral displays are identified. Several of these identified features are directly related to the presence of low energy (10-100eV precipitating electrons in addition to the higher energy population producing most of the associated light. The low energy contribution is vital for the formation of the enhanced ion-acoustic echoes. We argue that this type of aurora is sufficient for the generation of naturally enhanced ion-acoustic echoes. In one event two imagers were used to observe the auroral rays simultaneously, one from the radar site and one 7km away. The data from these imagers shows that the auroral rays and the strong backscattering filaments (where the enhanced echoes are produced are located on the same field line, which is in contrast to earlier statements in the litterature that they should be separated.

  6. Pulsating aurora from electron scattering by chorus waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, S.; Miyoshi, Y.; Yokota, S.; Mitani, T.; Kasahara, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Kumamoto, A.; Matsuoka, A.; Kazama, Y.; Frey, H. U.; Angelopoulos, V.; Kurita, S.; Keika, K.; Seki, K.; Shinohara, I.

    2018-02-01

    Auroral substorms, dynamic phenomena that occur in the upper atmosphere at night, are caused by global reconfiguration of the magnetosphere, which releases stored solar wind energy. These storms are characterized by auroral brightening from dusk to midnight, followed by violent motions of distinct auroral arcs that suddenly break up, and the subsequent emergence of diffuse, pulsating auroral patches at dawn. Pulsating aurorae, which are quasiperiodic, blinking patches of light tens to hundreds of kilometres across, appear at altitudes of about 100 kilometres in the high-latitude regions of both hemispheres, and multiple patches often cover the entire sky. This auroral pulsation, with periods of several to tens of seconds, is generated by the intermittent precipitation of energetic electrons (several to tens of kiloelectronvolts) arriving from the magnetosphere and colliding with the atoms and molecules of the upper atmosphere. A possible cause of this precipitation is the interaction between magnetospheric electrons and electromagnetic waves called whistler-mode chorus waves. However, no direct observational evidence of this interaction has been obtained so far. Here we report that energetic electrons are scattered by chorus waves, resulting in their precipitation. Our observations were made in March 2017 with a magnetospheric spacecraft equipped with a high-angular-resolution electron sensor and electromagnetic field instruments. The measured quasiperiodic precipitating electron flux was sufficiently intense to generate a pulsating aurora, which was indeed simultaneously observed by a ground auroral imager.

  7. Arsenic-induced Aurora-A activation contributes to chromosome instability and tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Han; Tseng, Ya-Shih; Yang, Chao-Chun; Kao, Yu-Ting; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic may cause serious environmental pollution and is a serious industrial problem. Depending on the dosage, arsenic may trigger the cells undergoing either proliferation or apoptosis-related cell death. Because of lack of the proper animal model to study arsenic induced tumorigenesis, the accurate risk level of arsenic exposure has not been determined. Arsenic shows genotoxic effect on human beings who uptake water contaminated by arsenic. Chromosome aberration is frequently detected in arsenic exposure-related diseases and is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased DNA repairing activity, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Aurora-A is a mitotic kinase, over-expression of Aurora-A leads to centrosome amplification, chromosomal instability and cell transformation. We revealed that Aurora-A is over-expressed in the skin and bladder cancer patients from blackfoot-disease endemic areas. Our cell line studies reveal that arsenic exposure between 0.5 μM and 1 μM for 2-7 days are able to induce Aurora-A expression and activation based on promoter activity, RNA and protein analysis. Aurora-A overexpression further increases the frequency of unsymmetrical chromosome segregation through centrosome amplification followed by cell population accumulated at S phase in immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) and uroepithelial cells (E7). Furthermore, Aurora-A over-expression was sustained for 1-4 weeks by chronic treatment of immortalized bladder and skin cells with NaAsO2. Aurora-A promoter methylation and gene amplification was not detected in the long-term arsenic treated E7 cells. Furthermore, the expression level of E2F1 transcription factor (E2F1) is increased in the presence of arsenic, and arsenic-related Aurora-A over-expression is transcriptionally regulated by E2F1. We further demonstrated that overexpression of Aurora-A and mutant Ha-ras or Aurora-A and mutant p53 may act additively to trigger arsenic-related bladder and skin cancer

  8. Interspecific interactions between Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora along a tidal gradient in the Dongtan wetland, Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yuan

    Full Text Available The invasive species Spartina alterniora Loisel was introduced to the eastern coast of China in the 1970s and 1980s for the purposes of land reclamation and the prevention of soil erosion. The resulting interspecific competition had an important influence on the distribution of native vegetation, which makes studying the patterns and mechanisms of the interactions between Spartina alterniora Loisel and the native species Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin ex Steud in this region very important. There have been some researches on the interspecific interactions between P. australis and S. alterniora in the Dongtan wetland of Chongming, east China, most of which has focused on the comparison of their physiological characteristics. In this paper, we conducted a neighbor removal experiment along a tidal gradient to evaluate the relative competitive abilities of the two species by calculating their relative neighbor effect (RNE index. We also looked at the influence of environmental stress and disturbance on the competitive abilities of the two species by comparing interaction strength (I among different tidal zones both for P. australis and S. alterniora. Finally, we measured physiological characteristics of the two species to assess the physiological mechanisms behind their different competitive abilities. Both negative and positive interactions were found between P. australis and S. alterniora along the environmental gradient. When the direction of the competitive intensity index for P. australis and S. alterniora was consistent, the competitive or facilitative effect of S. alterniora on P. australis was stronger than that of P. australis on S. alterniora. The interspecific interactions of P. australis and S. alterniora varied with environmental conditions, as well as with the method used, to measure interspecific interactions.

  9. Pembentukan mother plant Bacopa australis secara In-vitro dan aklimatisasi dalam aquascape air tawar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Media Fitri Isma Nugraha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanaman air adalah bagian penting dari ekosistem air tawar. Salah satu spesies yang terkenal adalah Bacopa australis. Hobiis aquascape saat ini memiliki ketertarikan tinggi terhadap tanaman air dengan kualitas yang bagus dari setiap spesiesnya. Metode perbanyakan tanaman air tanpa tanah, lahan pertanian dan air perlu dilakukan untuk memenuhi keinginan tersebut. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan formula media kultur jaringan dan zat pengatur tumbuh yang tepat untuk multiplikasi dalam perakitan mother plant (tanaman induk Bacopa australis, serta mendapatkan media terbaik untuk aklimatisasi. Media yang digunakan adalah media Murashige dan Skoog (MS A padat dengan perbedaan konsentrasi zat pengatur tumbuh. Perlakuan uji dalam kombinasi zat pengatur tumbuh (a 0,50 mg/L BAP + 0,50 mg/L kinetin; (b 0,50 mg/L BAP; dan (c 0,50 mg/L 2,4-D. Aklimatisasi tanaman induk dilakukan pada berbagai media antara lain 1 pasir silika + pupuk aqua soil amazonia, 2. pasir malang + pupuk aqua soil amazonia, 3 pasir silika + pupuk cair; 4 pasir malang + pupuk. Hasil yang diperoleh, yaitu formula media kultur terbaik untuk multiplikasi tunas tanaman B. australis secara in-vitro adalah media MS (A yang diperkaya dengan 0,5 mg/L BAP + 0,5 mg/L kinetin, sedangkan aklimatisasi terbaik pada media pasir malang + pupuk aqua soil amazonia. Water plant is an important part of freshwater ecosystems. One of the famous species is Bacopa australis. Today, many aquascape hobbyists have a high interest in aquatic plant species that have good aesthetic appearances. To answer this challenge, a new method in-vitro propagation of aquatic plants, planted without soil, agricultural land and water was conducted. The aim of this research was to find the best growth regulator hormon formula and aclimatisation medium, in creating the mother plant Bacopa australis. The medium used was MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1974 with different growth regulator hormon, i.e: (a 0.50 mg L-1 BAP

  10. The selective Aurora B kinase inhibitor AZD1152 is a potential new treatment for multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert P; Naber, Claudia; Steffler, Tara; Checkland, Tamara; Maxwell, Christopher A; Keats, Jonathan J; Belch, Andrew R; Pilarski, Linda M; Lai, Raymond; Reiman, Tony

    2008-02-01

    Aurora kinases are potential targets for cancer therapy. Previous studies have validated Aurora kinase A as a therapeutic target in multiple myeloma (MM), and have demonstrated in vitro anti-myeloma effects of small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors that inhibit both Aurora A and B. This study demonstrated that Aurora B kinase was strongly expressed in myeloma cell lines and primary plasma cells. The selective Aurora B inhibitor AZD1152-induced apoptotic death in myeloma cell lines at nanomolar concentrations, with a cell cycle phenotype consistent with that reported previously for Aurora B inhibition. In some cases, AZD1152 in combination with dexamethasone showed increased anti-myeloma activity compared with the use of either agent alone. AZD1152 was active against sorted CD138(+) BM plasma cells from myeloma patients but also, as expected, was toxic to CD138(-) marrow cells from the same patients. In a murine myeloma xenograft model, AZD1152-inhibited tumour growth at well-tolerated doses and induced cell death in established tumours, with associated mild, transient leucopenia. AZD1152 shows promise in these preclinical studies as a novel treatment for MM.

  11. Survivin inhibits anti-growth effect of p53 activated by aurora B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ji-Eun; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Lee, Joong-Seob; Oh, Se-Yeong; Kwak, Sungwook; Jin, Xun; Sohn, Jin-Young; Song, Min-Keun; Sohn, Young-Woo; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Pian, Xumin; Lee, Jang-Bo; Chung, Yong Gu; Choi, Young Ki; You, Seungkwon; Kim, Hyunggee

    2005-01-01

    Genomic instability and apoptosis evasion are hallmarks of cancer, but the molecular mechanisms governing these processes remain elusive. Here, we found that survivin, a member of the apoptosis-inhibiting gene family, and aurora B kinase, a chromosomal passenger protein, were co-overexpressed in the various glioblastoma cell lines and tumors. Notably, exogenous introduction of the aurora B in human BJ cells was shown to decrease cell growth and increase the senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity by activation of p53 tumor suppressor. However, aurora B overexpression failed to inhibit cell proliferation in BJ and U87MG cells transduced with dominant-negative p53 as well as in p53 -/- mouse astrocytes. Aurora B was shown to increase centrosome amplification in the p53 -/- astrocytes. Survivin was shown to induce anchorage-independent growth and inhibit anti-proliferation and drug-sensitive apoptosis caused by aurora B. Overexpression of both survivin and aurora B further accelerated the proliferation of BJ cells. Taken together, the present study indicates that survivin should accelerate tumorigenesis by inhibiting the anti-proliferative effect of p53 tumor suppressor that is activated by aurora B in normal and glioblastoma cells containing intact p53

  12. Targeting Aurora B to the equatorial cortex by MKlp2 is required for cytokinesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Kitagawa

    Full Text Available Although Aurora B is important in cleavage furrow ingression and completion during cytokinesis, the mechanism by which kinase activity is targeted to the cleavage furrow and the molecule(s responsible for this process have remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that an essential mitotic kinesin MKlp2 requires myosin-II for its localization to the equatorial cortex, and this event is required to recruit Aurora B to the equatorial cortex in mammalian cells. This recruitment event is also required to promote the highly focused accumulation of active RhoA at the equatorial cortex and stable ingression of the cleavage furrow in bipolar cytokinesis. Specifically, in drug-induced monopolar cytokinesis, targeting Aurora B to the cell cortex by MKlp2 is essential for cell polarization and furrow formation. Once the furrow has formed, MKlp2 further recruits Aurora B to the growing furrow. This process together with continuous Aurora B kinase activity at the growing furrow is essential for stable furrow propagation and completion. In contrast, a MKlp2 mutant defective in binding myosin-II does not recruit Aurora B to the cell cortex and does not promote furrow formation during monopolar cytokinesis. This mutant is also defective in maintaining the ingressing furrow during bipolar cytokinesis. Together, these findings reveal that targeting Aurora B to the cell cortex (or the equatorial cortex by MKlp2 is essential for the maintenance of the ingressing furrow for successful cytokinesis.

  13. A SUMOylation Motif in Aurora-A: Implications for Spindle Dynamics and Oncogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez de Castro, Ignacio; Aguirre-Portolés, Cristina [Molecular Oncology Programme, Cell Division and Cancer Group, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas, Madrid (Spain); Martin, Benedicte [CNRS-UMR 6061, Institut de Génétique et Développement de Rennes, IFR 140 GFAS, Faculté de Médecine, Université Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Fernández-Miranda, Gonzalo [Molecular Oncology Programme, Cell Division and Cancer Group, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas, Madrid (Spain); Klotzbucher, Andrea; Kubbutat, Michael H. G. [ProQinase GmBH, Freiburg (Germany); Megías, Diego [Confocal Microscopy Core Unit, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas, Madrid (Spain); Arlot-Bonnemains, Yannick [CNRS-UMR 6061, Institut de Génétique et Développement de Rennes, IFR 140 GFAS, Faculté de Médecine, Université Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Malumbres, Marcos, E-mail: mmm@cnio.es, E-mail: iperez@cnio.es [Molecular Oncology Programme, Cell Division and Cancer Group, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-12-14

    Aurora-A is a serine/threonine kinase that plays critical roles in centrosome maturation, spindle dynamics, and chromosome orientation and it is frequently over-expressed in human cancers. In this work, we show that Aurora-A interacts with the SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBC9 and co-localizes with SUMO1 in mitotic cells. Aurora-A can be SUMOylated in vitro and in vivo. Mutation of the highly conserved SUMOylation residue lysine 249 significantly disrupts Aurora-A SUMOylation and mitotic defects characterized by defective and multipolar spindles ensue. The Aurora-A{sup K249R} mutant has normal kinase activity but displays altered dynamics at the mitotic spindle. In addition, ectopic expression of the Aurora-A{sup K249R} mutant results in a significant increase in susceptibility to malignant transformation induced by the Ras oncogene. These data suggest that modification by SUMO residues may control Aurora-A function at the spindle and that deficiency of SUMOylation of this kinase may have important implications for tumor development.

  14. Heavy metal contents and transfer capacities of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa in the Yellow River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Bai, Junhong; Wang, Wei; Huang, Laibing; Zhang, Guangliang; Wang, Dawei

    2018-04-01

    Plant samples including roots, stems and leaves of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa were collected in the short-term flooding and tidal flooding wetlands of the Yellow River Delta of China. Six heavy metals (e.g., As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) were measured in roots, stems and leaves of each plant species using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry (ICP-AAS) to investigate the levels, and transfer capabilities of heavy metals in these two plant species. Our results showed that in the tidal flooding wetlands, the contents of As, Cr and Cd in roots of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa were higher than those in their stems and leaves. Suaeda salsa showed higher contents of Pb and Zn in leaves than those in roots and stems, whereas lower levels of Pb and Zn were observed in Phragmites australis. In the short-term flooding wetlands, heavy metal contents exhibited a big difference between different tissues of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa, and both plant species showed higher levels of Pb and Zn in leaves. Suaeda salsa roots enriched more As and Cd, whereas higher enrichment levels were observed in Phragmites australis leaves, which indicated different transfer capacities of these two wetland plants. The transfer factors for stems and leaves of Phragmites australis in the tidal flooding wetlands significantly differed from those in the short-term flooding wetlands, however, no significant differences in transfer factors for stems and leaves of Suaeda salsa were observed between these two types of wetlands.

  15. Combined geophysical methods for mapping infiltration pathways at the Aurora Water Aquifer recharge and recovery site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Cameron A.

    Although aquifer recharge and recovery systems are a sustainable, decentralized, low cost, and low energy approach for the reclamation, treatment, and storage of post- treatment wastewater, they can suffer from poor infiltration rates and the development of a near-surface clogging layer within infiltration ponds. One such aquifer recharge and recovery system, the Aurora Water site in Colorado, U.S.A, functions at about 25% of its predicted capacity to recharge floodplain deposits by flooding infiltration ponds with post-treatment wastewater extracted from river bank aquifers along the South Platte River. The underwater self-potential method was developed to survey self-potential signals at the ground surface in a flooded infiltration pond for mapping infiltration pathways. A method for using heat as a groundwater tracer within the infiltration pond used an array of in situ high-resolution temperature sensing probes. Both relatively positive and negative underwater self-potential anomalies are consistent with observed recovery well pumping rates and specific discharge estimates from temperature data. Results from electrical resistivity tomography and electromagnetics surveys provide consistent electrical conductivity distributions associated with sediment textures. A lab method was developed for resistivity tests of near-surface sediment samples. Forward numerical modeling synthesizes the geophysical information to best match observed self- potential anomalies and provide permeability distributions, which is important for effective aquifer recharge and recovery system design, and optimization strategy development.

  16. Simulations of the neutral structure within the dusk side aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Parish

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations of neutral winds from rocket release experiments within the premidnight and postmidnight substorm recovery phase aurora, show very large E-region neutral winds of several hundred m/s, where winds measured on the dusk side are even larger than those on the dawn side. These large winds are also associated with strong shears, and there is evidence that some of the regions below these shears may be unstable. The mechanisms which generate this strong vertical structure are not well understood. It is also not known whether the acceleration conditions in the pre and post midnight sectors of the aurora may produce significantly different neutral responses on the dawn and dusk sides. Simulations have been performed using a three-dimensional high resolution limited area thermosphere model to try to understand the neutral structure within the dawn and dusk side aurora. When simulations are performed using auroral forcing alone, for equivalent conditions within the dawn and dusk sectors, differences are found in the simulated response on each side. When measured values of auroral forcing parameters, and background winds and tides consistent with recent observations, are used as model inputs, some of the main features of the zonal and meridional wind observations are reproduced in the simulations, but the magnitude of the peak zonal wind around 140 km tends to be too small and the maximum meridional wind around 130 km is overestimated. The winds above 120 km altitude are found to be sensitive to changes in electric fields and ion densities, as was the case for the dawn side, but the effects of background winds and tides on the magnitudes of the winds above 120 km are found to be relatively small on the dusk side. The structure below 120 km appears to be related mainly to background winds and tides rather than auroral forcing, as was found in earlier studies on the dawn side, although the peak magnitudes of simulated wind variations in the 100 to

  17. Chonopeltis australis (Crustacea) male reproductive system morphology; sperm transfer and review of reproduction in Branchiura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, Lourelle Alicia Martins; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2015-02-01

    The morphology of the male reproductive system as well as sperm transfer in Branchiura has been described for Dolops ranarum and Argulus japonicus. In this study, the reproductive system and accessory structures are described for male Chonopeltis australis using histology, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. For the first time, we describe sperm transfer by means of a spermatophore in this genus. The internal and external morphology and mechanism of sperm transfer is compared with other Branchiura, where it has been described. The morphology of the reproductive system of C. australis is similar to that of D. ranarum while the accessory structures and the spermatophore produced are similar to that of A. japonicus. A revision of the definition of Branchiura with respect to reproduction is provided. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Quantification of environment-driven changes in epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities associated to Phragmites australis

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel CAÑEDO-ARGÜELLES; Maria RIERADEVALL

    2009-01-01

    The epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities associated with the Common Reed, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel, were examined seasonally from summer 2004 to spring 2005 in eleven coastal lagoons of the Llobregat Delta (NE Spain) following the method proposed by Kornijów & Kairesalo (1994). The aims of the study were to: 1) characterise and quantify changes in epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities along environmental gradients; 2) assess the contribution of elements of the epi...

  19. [Effects of Cuscuta australis parasitism on the growth, reproduction and defense of Solidago canadensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei-fen; Du, Le-shan; Li, Jun-min

    2015-11-01

    In order to find out how parasitic Cuscuta australis influences the growth and reproduction of Solidago canadensis, the effects of the parasitism of C. australis on the morphological, growth and reproductive traits of S. canadensis were examined and the relationships between the biomass and the contents of the secondary metabolites were analyzed. The results showed that the parasitism significantly reduced the plant height, basal diameter, root length, root diameter, root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, total biomass, number of inflorescences branches, axis length of inflorescence, and number of inflorescence. In particular, plant height, number of inflorescence and the stem biomass of parasitized S. canadensis were only 1/2, 1/5 and 1/8 of non-parasitized plants, respectively. There was no significant difference of plant height, root length, stem biomass and total biomass between plants parasitized with high and low intensities. But the basal diameter, root volume, leaf biomass, root biomass, the number of inflorescences branches, axis length of inflorescence and number of inflorescence of S. canadensis parasitized with high intensity were significantly lower than those of plants parasitized with low intensity. The parasitism of C. australis significantly increased the tannins content in the root and the flavonoids content in the stem of S. canadensis. The biomass of S. canadensis was significantly negatively correlated with the tannin content in the root and the flavonoids content in the stem. These results indicated that the parasitism of C. australis could inhibit the growth of S. canadensis by changing the resources allocation patterns as well as reducing the resources obtained by S. canadensis.

  20. A sulphated flavone glycoside from Livistona australis and its antioxidant and cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mona E S; Shoela, Soha; Marzouk, Mona M; Sleem, Amany A

    2012-01-01

    A new flavone glycoside tricin 7-O-β-glucopyranoside-2″-sulphate sodium salt along with 14 known flavonoid compounds were isolated and identified from the aqueous methanol extract of Livistona australis leaves. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive NMR (¹H, ¹³C, HSQC and H-H COSY) and ESIMS data. Antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties of the methanol extract of the leaves as well as the new compound were investigated.

  1. Short-term Responses of Posidonia australis to Changes in Light Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Strydom

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows are highly productive ecosystems that provide ecosystem services to the coastal zone but are declining globally, particularly due to anthropogenic activities that reduce the quantity of light reaching seagrasses, such as dredging, river discharge and eutrophication. Light quality (the spectral composition of the light is also altered by these anthropogenic stressors as the differential attenuation of wavelengths of light is caused by materials within the water column. This study addressed the effect of altered light quality on different life-history stages of the seagrass Posidonia australis, a persistent, habitat-forming species in Australia. Aquarium-based experiments were conducted to determine how adult shoots and seedlings respond to blue (peak λ = 451 nm; green (peak λ = 522 nm; yellow (peak λ = 596 nm and red (peak λ = 673 nm wavelengths with a control of full-spectrum light (λ = 400 – 700 nm, at 200 μmol photons m-2 s-1. Posidonia australis adults did not respond to changes in light quality relative to full-spectrum light, demonstrating a capacity to obtain enough photons from a range of wavelengths across the visible spectrum to maintain short-term growth at high irradiances. Posidonia australis seedlings (<4 months old grown in blue light showed a significant increase in xanthophyll concentrations when compared to plants grown in full-spectrum, demonstrating a pigment acclimation response to blue light. These results differed significantly from negative responses to changes in light quality recently described for Halophila ovalis, a colonizing seagrass species. Persistent seagrasses such as P. australis, appear to be better at tolerating short-term changes in light quality compared to colonizing species when sufficient PPFD is present.

  2. Non-linear growth in tree ferns, Dicksonia antarctica and Cyathea australis

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, David P.; Blanchard, Wade; Banks, Sam C.; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Tree ferns are an important structural component of forests in many countries. However, because their regeneration is often unrelated to major disturbances, their age is often difficult to determine. In addition, rates of growth may not be uniform, which further complicates attempts to determine their age. In this study, we measured 5 years of growth of Cyathea australis and Dicksonia antarctica after a large wildfire in 2009 in south-eastern Australia. We found growth rates of these two spec...

  3. Allelopathy and resource competition: the effects of Phragmites australis invasion in plant communities

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall William

    2017-01-01

    Background Phragmites australis, a ubiquitous wetland plant, has been considered one of the most invasive species in the world. Allelopathy appears to be one of the invasion mechanisms, however, the effects could be masked by resource competition among target plants. The difficulty of distinguishing allelopathy from resource competition among plants has hindered investigations of the role of phytotoxic allelochemicals in plant communities. This has been addressed via experiments conducted in ...

  4. Anatomy of nasal complex in the southern right whale, Eubalaena australis (Cetacea, Mysticeti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Mónica R; Fernández, Marta S; Fordyce, R Ewan; Reidenberg, Joy S

    2015-01-01

    The nasal region of the skull has undergone dramatic changes during the course of cetacean evolution. In particular, mysticetes (baleen whales) conserve the nasal mammalian pattern associated with the secondary function of olfaction, and lack the sound-producing specializations present in odontocetes (toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises). To improve our understanding of the morphology of the nasal region of mysticetes, we investigate the nasal anatomy, osteology and myology of the southern right whale, Eubalaena australis, and make comparisons with other mysticetes. In E. australis external deflection surfaces around the blowholes appear to divert water off the head, and differ in appearance from those observed in balaenopterids, eschrichtiids and cetotherids. In E. australis the blowholes are placed above hypertrophied nasal soft tissues formed by fat and nasal muscles, a pattern also observed in balaenopterids (rorqual mysticetes) and a cetotherid (pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata). Blowhole movements are due to the action of five nasofacial muscles: dilator naris superficialis, dilator naris profundus, depressor alae nasi, constrictor naris, and retractor alae nasi. The dilator naris profundus found in E. australis has not been previously reported in balaenopterids. The other nasofacial muscles have a similar arrangement in balaenopterids, with minor differences. A novel structure, not reported previously in any mysticete, is the presence of a vascular tissue (rete mirabile) covering the lower nasal passage. This vascular tissue could play a role in warming inspired air, or may engorge to accommodate loss of respiratory space volume due to gas compression from increased pressure during diving. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  5. DNA hybridization evidence for the Australasian affinity of the American marsupial Dromiciops australis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsch, J A; Dickerman, A W; Reig, O A; Springer, M S

    1991-01-01

    DNA hybridization was used to compare representatives of the major groups of marsupials and a eutherian outgroup. Because of the large genetic distances separating marsupial families, trees were calculated from normalized percentages of hybridization; thermal-melting statistics, however, gave identical topologies for the well-supported clades. The most notable results were the association of the only extant microbiotheriid, Dromiciops australis, an American marsupial, with the Australasian Di...

  6. Beam propagation considerations in the Aurora laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosoche, L.A.; Mc Leod, J.; Hanlon, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Aurora is a high-power KrF laser system now being constructed for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) studies. It will use optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF amplifiers to deliver a stacked, multikilojoule 5-ns-duration laser pulse to ICF targets. The requirements of angular multiplexing KrF lasers at the multikilojoule level dictate path lengths on the order of 1 km. The inherent complicated path crossings produced by angular multiplexing and pulse stacking do not allow isolation of individual beam lines, so the optical quality of the long beam paths must be controlled. Propagation of the 248-nm light beams over long paths in air is affected by scattering, absorption thermal gradients and turbulence, beam alignment, and control and optical component figure errors

  7. Environmental impact assessment for the Syncrude Aurora Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Syncrude Canada has applied to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) and Alberta Environmental Protection for approval to construct and operate the Aurora Mine, its new oil sands mine and associated bitumen facilities located 70 km northeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta. Volume 1, the principal volume in the set of 31 volumes, includes the detailed assessment of environmental effects on air quality, noise, surface water flows, surface water quality, groundwater flow and quality, geology, terrain and soils overburden, fisheries and aquatic resources, vegetation and resource use, wildlife population and habitat, human health and public safety. Baseline data for each of the above areas are contained in separate volumes. 400 refs., 162 tabs., 190 figs

  8. The charge spectrum of positive ions in a hydrogen aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J.; Pulliam, D.; Leach, R.; Scherb, F.

    1976-01-01

    An auroral ion charge spectrometer was flown into a hydrogen aurora on a Javelin sounding rocket launched from Churchill, Manitoba. The instrument contained an electrostatic analyzer which selected particles with incident energy per unit charge up to 20 keV/charge and an 80-kV power supply which accelerated these ions onto an array of solid state detectors. Ions tentatively identified as H(+), He(+2), and O(+) were detected from 225 to 820 km in altitude. The experiment did not discriminate between H(+) and He(+), or between O(+), N(+), and C(+). Upper limits of highly charged heavy ion abundances have been set at 20% of the He(+2) and 0.15% of the H(+). It is concluded that both terrestrial and solar wind sources play significant roles in auroral ion precipitation.

  9. Exploring the Secrets of the Aurora Second Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Akasofu, Syun-Ichi

    2007-01-01

    This new edition of Exploring the Secrets of the Aurora is based on the author's own experiences as a scientist. It describes the history of progress made in auroral science and magnetospheric physics by providing examples of ideas, controversies, struggles, acceptance, and success. Although no general methodologies are mentioned, the hope is that the reader will learn about the history of progress in auroral science and examples of dealing with the many controversies. This book aims to help young scientific researchers learn how to persevere during periods of controversy and struggles for acceptance. In this second edition, by utilizing multiple examples, Akasofu is successful in demonstrating the importance and usefulness of Synthesis. "Probably the book's most valuable contribution to the history of space physics is precisely the narration of the discovery of substorms.---The book has special features.---Akasofu's coverage of the history of pre-space age solar-terrestrial relations is the most comprehensiv...

  10. Aurora A kinase RNAi and small molecule inhibition of Aurora kinases with VE-465 induce apoptotic death in multiple myeloma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert; Naber, Claudia; Steffler, Tara; Checkland, Tamara; Keats, Jonathan; Maxwell, Christopher; Perry, Troy; Chau, Heidi; Belch, Andrew; Pilarski, Linda; Reiman, Tony

    2008-03-01

    The expression of RHAMM and other centrosome-associated genes are known to correlate with the extent of centrosome amplification in multiple myeloma, and with poor prognosis. RHAMM has a significant interaction with TPX2, a protein which regulates the localization and action of Aurora A kinase (AURKA) at the spindle poles. AURKA is known to be a central determinant of centrosome and spindle function and is a target for cancer therapy. Given these observations, we investigated the role of Aurora kinases as therapeutic targets in myeloma. Here we report that AURKA is expressed ubiquitously in myeloma, to varying degrees, in both cell lines and patients' bone marrow plasma cells. siRNA targeting AURKA induces apoptotic cell death in myeloma cell lines. The Aurora kinase inhibitor VE-465 also induces apoptosis and death in myeloma cell lines and primary myeloma plasma cells. The combination of VE-465 and dexamethasone improves cell killing compared with the use of either agent alone, even in cells resistant to the single agents. The phenotype of myeloma cells treated with VE-465 is consistent with published reports on the effects of Aurora kinase inhibition. Aurora kinase inhibitors should be pursued as potential treatments for myeloma.

  11. Reproductive behavior in the squid Sepioteuthis australis from South Australia: interactions on the spawning grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, Troy M; Havenhand, Jon N

    2003-06-01

    Squid behavior is synonymous with distinctive body patterns, postures, and movements that constitute a complex visual communication system. These communications are particularly obvious during reproduction. They are important for sexual selection and have been identified as a potential means of species differentiation. Here we present a detailed account of copulation, mating, and egg deposition behaviors from in situ observations of the squid Sepioteuthis australis from South Australia. We identified four mating types from 85 separate mating attempts: "Male-upturned mating" (64% of mating attempts); "Sneaker mating" (33%); "Male-parallel" (2%); and "Head-to-head" (1%). Intervals between successive egg deposition behaviors were clearly bimodal, with modes at 2.5 s and 70.0 s. Ninety-three percent of egg capsules contained 3 or 4 eggs (mean = 3.54), and each egg cluster contained between 218 and 1922 egg capsules (mean = 893.9). The reproductive behavior of S. australis from South Australia was different from that described for other cephalopod species. More importantly, comparison between these results and those for other populations of S. australis suggests that behavior may differ from one population to another.

  12. Role of Phragmites australis (common reed) for heavy metals phytoremediation of estuarine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero-Fernández, Diego; Peña-Fernández, Manuel; Expósito-Camargo, Jose A; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Phragmites australis to take up heavy metals (Co, Ni, Mo, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Hg) and other trace elements (As, Se, Ba), from estuarine sediments was investigated using a pilot plant experimental approach. Bioaccumulation (BCF) and translocation factors (TF) were calculated in vegetative and senescence periods for two populations of P. australis, from contaminated (MIC) and non-contaminated (GAL) estuarine sediments, respectively, both growing in estuarine contaminated sediment (RIA) from ría del Carmen y Boo, Santander Bay, Spain. The highest BCF values were obtained for Ni (0.43), Ba (0.43) Mo (0.36), Cr (0.35), and Cd (0.31) for plants collected from site GAL following the senescence period. The highest BCF values recorded for plants collected from MIC following the senescence period were for Mo (0.22) and Cu (0.22). Following senescence, plants collected from GAL and MIC presented TF>1 for Ni, Mo, Se, and Zn, and in addition plants collected from MIC presented TF>1 for Ba, Cr, and Mn. A substantial increase of Micedo's rhizosphere, six times higher than Galizano's rhizosphere, suggested adaptation to contaminated sediment. The evaluated communities of P. australis demonstrated their suitability for phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated estuarine sediments.

  13. Genital morphology of the male South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis and biological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sander D. Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Male capacity for spreading genes to a great number of descendents and to determine population dynamics depend directly on the genital organs. Morphological studies in pinnipeds are scarce and the functional meaning of some characteristics has never been discussed. We hypothesized that Arctocephalus australis (A. australis shows morphophysiological adaptations in order to guarantee the perpetuation of the species in the unique annual mating season. Seven males, dead from natural causes, had their genital organs collected and fixed for morphological description. Some features differ from other described mammalian males and are closely related to the biology and reproductive cycle of this species, as the scrotal epidermis, absence of glandular portion in the ductus deferens and spermatogenic epithelium suggest a recrudescent testis period. The corona glandis exhibits a singular arrangement: its erectile border looks like a formation of petals and its association with the os penis gives a "lily-flower" form to this region. We propose the name margo petaliformis to this particular erectile border of the corona glandis because of its similarity to a flower corola. The male genital organs of A. australis show morphological features compatible with adaptation to environment requirements and reproductive efficiency.

  14. Bcl-XL represents a druggable molecular vulnerability during aurora B inhibitor-mediated polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, O Jameel; Lin, Xiaoyu; Li, Leiming; Huang, Xiaoli; Li, Junling; Anderson, Mark G; Tang, Hua; Rodriguez, Luis E; Warder, Scott E; McLoughlin, Shaun; Chen, Jun; Palma, Joann; Glaser, Keith B; Donawho, Cherrie K; Fesik, Stephen W; Shen, Yu

    2010-07-13

    Aurora kinase B inhibitors induce apoptosis secondary to polyploidization and have entered clinical trials as an emerging class of neocytotoxic chemotherapeutics. We demonstrate here that polyploidization neutralizes Mcl-1 function, rendering cancer cells exquisitely dependent on Bcl-XL/-2. This "addiction" can be exploited therapeutically by combining aurora kinase inhibitors and the orally bioavailable BH3 mimetic, ABT-263, which inhibits Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, and Bcl-w. The combination of ABT-263 with aurora B inhibitors produces a synergistic loss of viability in a range of cell lines of divergent tumor origin and exhibits more sustained tumor growth inhibition in vivo compared with aurora B inhibitor monotherapy. These data demonstrate that Bcl-XL/-2 is necessary to support viability during polyploidization in a variety of tumor models and represents a druggable molecular vulnerability with potential therapeutic utility.

  15. Optical aurora detectors: using natural optics to motivate education and outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Joseph A.; Way, Jesse M.; Pust, Nathan J.; Nugent, Paul W.; Coate, Hans; Balster, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    Natural optical phenomena enjoy a level of interest sufficiently high among a wide array of people to provide ideal education and outreach opportunities. The aurora promotes particularly high interest, perhaps because of its relative rarity in the areas of the world where most people live. A project is being conducted at Montana State University to use common interest and curiosity about auroras to motivate learning and outreach through the design and deployment of optical sensor systems that detect the presence of an auroral display and send cell phone messages to alert interested people. Project participants learn about the physics and optics of the aurora, basic principles of optical system design, radiometric calculations and calibrations, electro-optical detectors, electronics, embedded computer systems, and computer software. The project is moving into a stage where it will provide greatly expanded outreach and education opportunities as optical aurora detector kits are created and disbursed to colleges around our region.

  16. E region neutral winds in the postmidnight diffuse aurora during the atmospheric response in aurora 1 rocket campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkman, D.G.; Walterscheid, R.L.; Lyons, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    Measured E region neutral winds from the Atmospheric Response in Aurora (ARIA 1) rocket campaign are compared with winds predicted by a high-resolution nonhydrostatic dynamical thermosphere model. The ARIA 1 rockets were launched into the postmidnight diffuse aurora during the recovery phase of a substorm. Simulations have shown that electrodynamical coupling between the auroral ionosphere and the thermosphere was expected to be strong during active diffuse auroral conditions. This is the first time that simulations using the time history of detailed specifications of the magnitude and latitudinal variation of the auroral forcing based on measurements have been compared to simultaneous wind measurements. Model inputs included electron densities derived from ground-based airglow measurements, precipitating electron fluxes measured by the rocket, electron densities measured on the rocket, electric fields derived from magnetometer and satellite ion drift measurements, and large-scale background winds from a thermospheric general circulation model. Our model predicted a strong jet of eastward winds at E region heights. A comparison between model predicted and observed winds showed modest agreement. Above 135 km the model predicted zonal winds with the correct sense, the correct profile shape, and the correct altitude of the peak wind. However, it overpredicted the magnitude of the eastward winds by more than a factor or 2. For the meridional winds the model predicted the general sense of the winds but was unable to predict the structure or strength of the winds seen in the observations. Uncertainties in the magnitude and latitudinal structure of the electric field and in the magnitude of the background winds are the most likely sources of error contributing to the differences between model and observed winds. Between 110 and 135 km the agreement between the model and observations was poor because of a large unmodeled jetlike feature in the observed winds

  17. Atmospheric response in aurora experiment: Observations of E and F region neutral winds in a region of postmidnight diffuse aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, M.F.; Marshall, T.R.; Mikkelsen, I.S.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the Atmospheric Response in Aurora (ARIA) experiment carried out at Poker Flat, Alaska, on March 3, 1992, was to determine the response of the neutral atmosphere to the long-lived, large-scale forcing that is characteristic of the diffuse aurora in the postmidnight sector. A combination of chemical release rocket wind measurements, intrumented rocket composition measurements, and ground-based optical measurements were used to characterize the response of the neutral atmosphere. The rocket measurements were made at the end of a 90-min period of strong Joule heating. We focus on the neutral wind measurements made with the rocket. The forcing was determined by running the assimilated mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) analysis procedure developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The winds expected at the latitude and longitude of the experiment were calculated using the spectral thermospheric general circulation model developed at the Danish Meteorological Institute. Comparisons of the observations and the model suggest that the neutral winds responded strongly in two height ranges. An eastward wind perturbation of ∼100 m s -1 developed between 140 and 200 km altitude with a peak near 160 km. A southwestward wind with peak magnitude of ∼150 m s -1 developed near 115 km altitude. The large amplitude winds at the lower altitude are particularly surprising. They appear to be associated with the upward propagating semidiurnal tide. However, the amplitude is much larger than predicted by any of the tidal models, and the shear found just below the peak in the winds was nomially unstable with a Richardson number of ∼0.08. 17 refs., 12 figs

  18. Detection of aurorae in light time of the day at rocket investigations of atmospheric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, V.N.

    1996-01-01

    Results of rocket observations of aurorae in light time of the day were analyzed. Characteristic features of Rayleigh scattering, day airglow, solar radiation, scattered in the device and near-rocket glow were considered. The contribution of aurorae in the light time of the day was determined on the basis of analyzing results of rocket experiments, laboratory measurements and theoretical simulation. 4 refs., 2 figs

  19. Aurorae between miracle and reality. History of culture and physics of a celestial phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, Birgit; Schlegel, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Since the 18th century natural-researchers have searched for the natural-scientific explanations for the generation of aurorae, but just in ther 20th century the puzzle was completely solved. Facts from physics, geophysics, and space research, which are in connection with the generation of aurorae, are scientifically precisely explained in a generally understandable text up to the latest researches. Numerous pictures, photos, graphics, text extracts, as well as statements on the literature and on internet pages supplement the text.

  20. Phosphorylation of CPAP by Aurora-A Maintains Spindle Pole Integrity during Mitosis

    OpenAIRE

    En-Ju Chou; Liang-Yi Hung; Chieh-Ju C. Tang; Wen-Bin Hsu; Hsin-Yi Wu; Pao-Chi Liao; Tang K. Tang

    2016-01-01

    CPAP is required for centriole elongation during S/G2 phase, but the role of CPAP in mitosis is incompletely understood. Here, we show that CPAP maintains spindle pole integrity through its phosphorylation by Aurora-A during mitosis. Depletion of CPAP induced a prolonged delay in mitosis, pericentriolar material (PCM) dispersion, and multiple mitotic abnormalities. Further studies demonstrated that CPAP directly interacts with and is phosphorylated by Aurora-A at serine 467 during mitosis. In...

  1. The evening diffuse radio aurora, field-aligned currents and particle precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unwin, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of the afternoon/evening diffuse radio aurora, proton and electron precipitation and field-aligned currents is studied with data from the auroral radar at Slope Point, New Zealand, and the ISIS 2 satellite. It is shown that there is a very close association between the radio aurora and (primarily downward) field-aligned currents, which confirms and extends previous work, but that there is no clear relation with either proton or electron precipitation. (author)

  2. Historical space weather monitoring of prolonged aurora activities in Japan and in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Isobe, Hiroaki; Hayakawa, Hisashi; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Miyahara, Hiroko; Iwahashi, Kiyomi; Yamamoto, Kazuaki; Takei, Masako; Terashima, Tsuneyo; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Fujiwara, Yasunori; Nakamura, Takuji

    2017-02-01

    Great magnetic storms are recorded as aurora sightings in historical documents. The earliest known example of "prolonged" aurora sightings, with aurora persistent for two or more nights within a 7 day interval at low latitudes, in Japan was documented on 21-23 February 1204 in Meigetsuki, when a big sunspot was also recorded in China. We have searched for prolonged events over the 600 year interval since 620 in Japan based on the catalogue of Kanda and over the 700 year interval since 581 in China based on the catalogues of Tamazawa et al. (2017) and Hayakawa et al. (2015). Before the Meigetsuki event, a significant fraction of the 200 possible aurora sightings in Sòng dynasty (960-1279) of China was detected at least twice within a 7 day interval and sometimes recurred with approximately the solar rotation period of 27 days. The majority of prolonged aurora activity events occurred around the maximum phase of solar cycles rather than around the minimum, as estimated from the 14C analysis of tree rings. They were not reported during the Oort Minimum (1010-1050). We hypothesize that the prolonged aurora sightings are associated with great magnetic storms resulting from multiple coronal mass ejections from the same active region. The historical documents therefore provide useful information to support estimation of great magnetic storm frequency, which are often associated with power outages and other societal concerns.

  3. Aurora Kinase A Promotes AR Degradation via the E3 Ligase CHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sukumar; Brautigan, David L; Larner, James M

    2017-08-01

    Reducing the levels of the androgen receptor (AR) is one of the most viable approaches to combat castration-resistant prostate cancer. Previously, we observed that proteasomal-dependent degradation of AR in response to 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) depends primarily on the E3 ligase C-terminus of HSP70-interacting protein (STUB1/CHIP). Here, 2-ME stimulation activates CHIP by phosphorylation via Aurora kinase A (AURKA). Aurora A kinase inhibitors and RNAi knockdown of Aurora A transcript selectively blocked CHIP phosphorylation and AR degradation. Aurora A kinase is activated by 2-ME in the S-phase as well as during mitosis, and phosphorylates CHIP at S273. Prostate cancer cells expressing an S273A mutant of CHIP have attenuated AR degradation upon 2-ME treatment compared with cells expressing wild-type CHIP, supporting the idea that CHIP phosphorylation by Aurora A activates its E3 ligase activity for the AR. These results reveal a novel 2-ME→Aurora A→CHIP→AR pathway that promotes AR degradation via the proteasome that may offer novel therapeutic opportunities for prostate cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 15(8); 1063-72. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Seasonal changes in metal accumulation and distribution in the organs of Phragmites australis (common reed from Lake Skadar, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastratović Vlatko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its ability to accumulate metals, availability throughout the year and its large biomass, Phragmites australis (common reed is suitable for biomonitoring studies for the evaluation of load level of water ecosystem with trace metals. The heavy metals concentration in P.australis tissue can be several ten to several thousand times higher than those in the surrounding water. In this study we examined the content of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Sr and V in sediment, water and different organs of Phragmites australis collected from Lake Skadar, Montenegro, during different seasons of the year 2011. The highest concentrations of Sr were found in the leaves, while the other studied metals showed their highest concentrations in the roots. Thus, P. australis is considered a root bioaccumulation species. For most metals the concentration in roots and stems increases over time until the end of the growing season, and then decreases, while the concentration in leaves increases even after the growing season of the plant. If P. australis is used for phytoremediation purposes, then it should be harvested after the growing season because then the concentration of metals in the aboveground parts is maximal.

  5. AURORA BOREALIS: a polar-dedicated European Research Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff-Boenisch, Bonnie; Egerton, Paul; Thiede, Joern; Roberto, Azzolini; Lembke-Jene, Lester

    2010-05-01

    Polar research and in particular the properties of northern and southern high latitude oceans are currently a subject of intense scientific debate and investigations, because they are subject to rapid and dramatic climatic variations. Polar regions react more rapidly and intensively to global change than other regions of the earth. A shrinking of the Arctic sea-ice cover, potentially leading to an opening of sea passages to the north of North America and Eurasia, on the long to a "blue" Arctic Ocean would additionally have a strong impact on transport, commerce and tourism bearing potential risk for humans and complex ecosystems in the future. In spite of their critical role processes and feedbacks, especially in winter but not exclusively, are virtually unknown: The Arctic Ocean for example, it is the only basin of the world's oceans that has essentially not been sampled by the drill ships of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) or the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and its long-term environmental history and tectonic structure is therefore poorly known. Exceptions are the ODP Leg 151 and the more recent very successful ACEX-expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) in 2004. To help to address the most pressing questions regarding climate change and related processes, a Pan-European initiative in the field of Earth system science has been put in place: AURORA BOREALIS is the largest environmental research infrastructure on the ESFRI roadmap of the European Community. AURORA BOREALIS is a very powerful research icebreaker, which will enable year-round operations in the Arctic and the Antarctic as well as in the adjacent ocean basins. Equipped with its drilling rig, the vessel is also capable to explore the presently completely unknown Arctic deep-sea floor. Last but not least, the ship is a floating observatory and mobile monitoring platform that permits to measure on a long-term basis comprehensive time series in all research fields relevant to

  6. Indomethacin promotes apoptosis in gastric cancer cells through concomitant degradation of Survivin and Aurora B kinase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shiun-Kwei; Hoa, Neil; Hodges, Amy; Ge, Lishen; Jadus, Martin R

    2014-09-01

    Regular usage of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with reduced incidence of a variety of cancers. The molecular mechanisms underlying these chemopreventive effects remain poorly understood. This current investigation showed that in gastric cancer cells: (1) Indomethacin treatment enhanced the degradation of chromosomal passenger proteins, Survivin and Aurora B kinase; (2) Indomethacin treatment down-regulated Aurora B kinase activity in a cell cycle-independent fashion; (3) siRNA knockdown of Survivin level promoted Aurora B kinase protein degradation, and vice versa; (4) ectopic overexpression of Survivin blocked reduction of Aurora B kinase level and activity by indomethacin treatment, and vice versa; (5) siRNA knockdown of Aurora B kinase level and AZD1152 inhibition of its activity induced apoptosis, and overexpression of Aurora B kinase inhibited indomethacin-induced apoptosis; (6) indomethacin treatment reduced Aurora B kinase level, coinciding with reduction of Survivin level and induction of apoptosis, in KATO III and HT-29 cells, and in mouse gastric mucosa. A role for Aurora B kinase function in NSAID-induced apoptosis was not previously explored. Thus this report provides better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effect of NSAIDs by elucidating a significant role for Aurora B kinase in indomethacin-induced apoptosis.

  7. Differentiation of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta australis by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis and HPLC-UV quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xianghui; Yang, Wenzhi; Ye, Min; Wang, Qing; Guo, Dean

    2011-11-01

    Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta australis, the two botanical sources of the Chinese herbal medicine Tu-Si-Zi, were distinguished from each other based on qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis. By HPLC‑DAD‑MS, a total of 36 compounds were characterized from these two Cuscuta species, including 14 flavonoids, 17 quinic acid derivatives, and 5 lignans. In addition, HPLC‑UV was applied to determine seven major compounds (6 flavonoids plus chlorogenic acid) in 27 batches of Tu-Si-Zi. The results revealed that the amounts of the three classes of compounds varied significantly between the species. C. australis contained more flavonoids but less quinic acid derivatives and lignans than C. chinensis. Particularly, the amounts of kaempferol and astragalin in C. australis were remarkably higher than in C. chinensis. This finding could be valuable for the quality control of Tu-Si-Zi. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Seasonal changes of metal accumulation and distribution in common club rush (Schoenoplectus lacustris) and common reed (Phragmites australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Fatih; Cicek, Mehmet; Sezen, Goksal

    2007-08-01

    In this study, two aquatic macrophytes Phragmites australis and Schoenoplectus lacustris and corresponding sediment samples were collected every three months from Lake Sapanca (Turkey) and analysed for their heavy-metal contents (Pb, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn and Cd). Accumulation factor ratios of plant parts were calculated for all metals, and the two species were compared in terms of accumulation properties. The highest concentrations were measured in the root systems while relatively low concentrations were found in the rhizome and above-ground parts of the plants. The accumulation ratios of root for P. australis were usually higher than the ratios for S. lacustris. While the accumulation ratios of root were higher in winter than in the other seasons for P. australis, for S. lacustris the highest accumulation ratios were found in the autumn. Both plant species were found to be root accumulators of Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn and Cd.

  9. Distribution of positive ion species above a diffuse midnight aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    The origin of the hot plasma in the Earth's magnetosphere is still open to investigation. Mass composition is an indicator of source region, while the distribution functions bear the signatures of transport and energization processes. Only ions identified as H + and He ++ were detected, and the He ++ was statistically marginal. Coincident magnetic storms are likely to play a crucial role in populating the magnetosphere with energized ionospheric ions. The measured proton distribution was nearly isotropic over downcoming pitch angles at all energies and showed a depleted atmospheric source cone. The high-altitude proton energy distribution had a best fit temperature of 4.5 keV and a number density of 0.17 cm- 3 , corresponding to a peak intensity just over 10 5 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 keV -1 . Altitudinal variations are consistent with the theory of charge exchange of a time-steady incident proton population. Simultaneous electron measurements can be interpreted in terms of an incident electron distribution that is also thermal wih a similar number density but a temperature of 2.5 keV. Taken together, the ion and electron data are consistent with the model of diffuse auroras in which plasma convecting in from the magnetospheric tail precipitates due to strong pitch angle diffusion on auroral field lines linking the near Earth plasma sheet

  10. Amplified spontaneous emission measurements on the Aurora large aperture module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, J.A.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Leland, W.T.; Turner, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    The large aperture module (LAM) of the Aurora KrF laser can be used to address a number of issues that relate to the scaling of KrF amplifiers to larger ICF systems. Perhaps foremost among these are the possible effects of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) on laser performance. To assess this problem a 3-D computer code has been developed to model these ASE effects. The code uses an iterative procedure to arrive at a self-consistent steady state solution to the 3-D distribution of coherent and incoherent fluxes within the amplifier. Two-pass energy extraction, wall reflectivity, and nonuniform excitation are included in the model. The authors previously reported the effects of ASE on the small signal gains measured in the 1- x 1- x 2-m 3 LAM. The code also makes quantitative predictions of the ASE that should be generated in the amplifier. This paper indicates the radiance expected for a medium of uniform gain in terms of the (g - ν)L product and the parameter g/a. The quantity (g - ν)L is the product of the net gain and the path length along the direction of observation. The present experiments compare values of ASE measured at various locations around the LAM with the code predictions. The impact of ASE on amplifier output, is also discussed

  11. Ezekiel and the Northern Lights: Biblical aurora seems plausible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siscoe, George L.; Silverman, Samuel M.; Siebert, Keith D.

    Auroral specialists have suggested that in the Bible's Old Testament book of Ezekiel, the opening vision of a "storm cloud out of the north" depicts imagery inspired by a low-latitude auroral display [Link, 1967; Eather, 1980; Silverman, 1998]. Naturally, other interpretations have been suggested, including a true epiphany, a sandstorm, a thunderstorm, a tornado, a solar halo, a hallucination, and a UFO. Biblical scholars place the site of the Ezekiel's vision about 100 km south of Babylon near Nippur, latitude ˜32°, longitude ˜45°, and the date is within a year or two of 593 B.C., or about 2600 years ago.An auroral interpretation of the vision is subject to possible refutation due to several geophysical considerations. Can auroras be seen at Ezekiel's latitude? More important, can they reach a coronal stage of development, which is what the vision requires? Was the tilt of the dipole axis favorable? Was the general level of solar activity favorable? And finally, What effect does a larger dipole moment in Ezekiel's time have on the question? All but the last question could have been answered on the basis of geophysical data a decade ago or earlier.

  12. Aurora 7 the Mercury space flight of M. Scott Carpenter

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Colin

    2016-01-01

    TO A NATION enthralled by the heroic exploits of the Mercury astronauts, the launch of Lt. Cmdr. Scott Carpenter on NASA’s second orbital space flight was a renewed cause for pride, jubilation and celebration. Within hours, that excitement had given way to stunned disbelief and anxiety as shaken broadcasters began preparing the American public for the very real possibility that an American astronaut and his spacecraft may have been lost at sea. In fact, it had been a very close call. Completely out of fuel and forced to manually guide Aurora 7 through the frightening inferno of re-entry, Carpenter brought the Mercury spacecraft down to a safe splashdown in the ocean. In doing so, he controversially overshot the intended landing zone. Despite his efforts, Carpenter’s performance on the MA-7 mission was later derided by powerful figures within NASA. He would never fly into space again. Taking temporary leave of NASA, Carpenter participated in the U.S. Navy’s pioneering Sealab program. For a record 30 days...

  13. Bioavailability of cadmium adsorbed on various oxides minerals to wetland plant species Phragmites australis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang He; Jia Yongfeng; Wang Shaofeng; Zhu Huijie; Wu Xing

    2009-01-01

    The bioavailability of heavy metals strongly depends on their speciation in the environment. The effect of different chemical speciations of cadmium ions (i.e. adsorbed on different oxide minerals) on its bioavailability to wetland plant Phragmites australis was studied. Goethite, magnetite, gibbsite, alumina, and manganese oxide were chosen as representatives of metal (hydr)oxides commonly present in sediment. The cultivar system with Hoagland solution as nutrition supply, and single metal oxide with adsorbed Cd as contaminant was applied to study Cd accumulation by P. australis. The bioaccumulation degree in root after the 45-day treatment followed the order: Al(OH) 3 > Al 2 O 3 > Fe 3 O 4 > MnO 2 > FeOOH. The concentration of Cd in stem and leaf followed a similar order although it was considerably lower than that in root. Low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs), acetic acid, malic acid and citric acid were used to evaluate the desorbability of Cd from different oxides, which can be indicative of Cd-oxide bonding strength and Cd bioavailability. Desorption of Cd by acetic acid and malic acid followed the order: Al(OH) 3 > Fe 3 O 4 > Al 2 O 3 > FeOOH > MnO 2 , while by citric acid: Al(OH) 3 ≥ Al 2 O 3 > Fe 3 O 4 > FeOOH > MnO 2 . This was consistent with the Cd accumulation degree in the plant. Cd adsorbed on Al(OH) 3 was the most easily desorbable species and most bioavailable to P. australis among the oxide minerals, whereas MnO 2 adsorbed Cd was least desorbable by LMWOAs hence constituted the least bioavailable Cd species adsorbed on the oxide minerals.

  14. Phytoextraction of chloride from a cement kiln dust (CKD) contaminated landfill with Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, Kaitlin; Rutter, Allison; Cumming, Robert; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2016-05-01

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a globally produced by-product from cement manufacturing that is stockpiled or landfilled. Elevated concentrations of chloride pose toxic threats to plants and aquatic communities, as the anion is highly mobile in water and can leach into surrounding water sources. Re-vegetation and in situ phytoextraction of chloride from a CKD landfill in Bath, ON, Canada, was investigated with the resident invasive species Phragmites australis (haplotype M). Existing stands of P. australis were transplanted from the perimeter of the site into the highest areas of contamination (5.9×10(3)μg/g). Accumulation in the shoots of P. australis was quantified over one growing season by collecting samples from the site on a bi-weekly basis and analyzing for chloride. Concentrations decreased significantly from early May (24±2.2×10(3)μg/g) until mid-June (15±2.5×10(3)μg/g), and then remained stable from June to August. Shoot chloride accumulation was not significantly affected by water level fluctuations at the site, however elevated potassium concentrations in the soil may have contributed to uptake. Based on shoot chloride accumulation and total biomass, it was determined that phytoextraction from the CKD landfill can remove 65±4kg/km(2) of chloride per season. Based on this extraction rate, removal of chloride present in the highly contaminated top 10cm of soil can be achieved in 3-9years. This is the first study to apply phytotechnologies at a CKD landfill, and to successfully demonstrate in situ phytoextraction of chloride. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of gamma irradiation as a quarantine control method for Frankliniella australis (Morgan) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araya, J.E.; Curkovic, T.; Cayo, A.

    2007-01-01

    The black flower thrips, Frankliniella australis (Morgan), a Chilean species, causes quarantine rejections of fresh fruits for export. Today, fumigation with CH3Br is efficient to avoid these rejections, but is questioned because it affects the ozone layer, irradiation of foods being an alternative. The effect of gamma irradiation was studied in the laboratory on F. australis adults, at dosages of 250, 500, 750, and 1000 Gy, followed by storage at 0-5 deg C to simulate shipping conditions. Mortality immediately after irradiation was low (1.5 to 22.3% at 250 and 1000 Gy, respectively), but increased an hour later (15.8, 33.4, 44.5, and 51.7% with 250, 500, 750, and 1000 Gy, respectively). In this evaluation, mortality with the greatest dosage was significantly larger than with 500 and 250 Gy, while results with 750 and 500 Gy were not different between them but different with the smallest dosage. At 24 hours, mortality with all dosages surpassed 91%, although only that at 1000 Gy was significantly greater than at 250 Gy. At day 4th (96 hours) there was at least 98.8% mortality for the irradiation treatments, with significant differences with the control, which then presented only 12.8% mortality. Using logit regression with results up to day 4, a probit 9 (LD99.9968) for adults was estimated at 188 Gy. This dosage is slightly less to those indicated in the literature for control of other thrips, which may be explained because of the combined use of cold storage, although more studies are necessary of this technology under commercial conditions to verify its applicability for quarantine control of F. australis. (author) [es

  16. Isolation, cloning, and characterization of a partial novel aro A gene in common reed (Phragmites australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taravat, Elham; Zebarjadi, Alireza; Kahrizi, Danial; Yari, Kheirollah

    2015-05-01

    Among the essential amino acids, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine are aromatic amino acids which are synthesized by the shikimate pathway in plants and bacteria. Herbicide glyphosate can inhibit the biosynthesis of these amino acids. So, identification of the gene tolerant to glyphosate is very important. It has been shown that the common reed or Phragmites australis Cav. (Poaceae) is relatively tolerant to glyphosate. The aim of the current research is identification, cloning, sequencing, and registering of partial aro A gene of the common reed P. australis. The partial aro A gene of common reed (P. australis) was cloned in Escherichia coli and the amino acid sequence was identified/determined for the first time. This is the first report for isolation, cloning, and sequencing of a part of aro A gene from the common reed. A 670 bp fragment including two introns (86 bp and 289 bp) was obtained. The open reading frame (ORF) region in part of gene was encoded for 98 amino acids. Alignment showed high similarity among this region with Zea mays (L.) (Poaceae) (94.6%), Eleusine indica L. Gaertn (Poaceae) (94.2%), and Zoysia japonica Steud. (Poaceae) (94.2%). The alignment of amino acid sequence of the investigated part of the gene showed a homology with aro A from several other plants. This conserved region forms the enzyme active site. The alignment results of nucleotide and amino acid residues with related sequences showed that there are some differences among them. The relative glyphosate tolerance in the common reed may be related to these differences.

  17. Bioavailability of cadmium adsorbed on various oxides minerals to wetland plant species Phragmites australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang He, E-mail: he.wangworld@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jia Yongfeng, E-mail: yongfeng.jia@iae.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang Shaofeng [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhu Huijie; Wu Xing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-08-15

    The bioavailability of heavy metals strongly depends on their speciation in the environment. The effect of different chemical speciations of cadmium ions (i.e. adsorbed on different oxide minerals) on its bioavailability to wetland plant Phragmites australis was studied. Goethite, magnetite, gibbsite, alumina, and manganese oxide were chosen as representatives of metal (hydr)oxides commonly present in sediment. The cultivar system with Hoagland solution as nutrition supply, and single metal oxide with adsorbed Cd as contaminant was applied to study Cd accumulation by P. australis. The bioaccumulation degree in root after the 45-day treatment followed the order: Al(OH){sub 3} > Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} > MnO{sub 2} > FeOOH. The concentration of Cd in stem and leaf followed a similar order although it was considerably lower than that in root. Low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs), acetic acid, malic acid and citric acid were used to evaluate the desorbability of Cd from different oxides, which can be indicative of Cd-oxide bonding strength and Cd bioavailability. Desorption of Cd by acetic acid and malic acid followed the order: Al(OH){sub 3} > Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} > Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > FeOOH > MnO{sub 2}, while by citric acid: Al(OH){sub 3} {>=} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} > FeOOH > MnO{sub 2}. This was consistent with the Cd accumulation degree in the plant. Cd adsorbed on Al(OH){sub 3} was the most easily desorbable species and most bioavailable to P. australis among the oxide minerals, whereas MnO{sub 2} adsorbed Cd was least desorbable by LMWOAs hence constituted the least bioavailable Cd species adsorbed on the oxide minerals.

  18. Allelopathy and resource competition: the effects of Phragmites australis invasion in plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall William

    2017-12-01

    Phragmites australis, a ubiquitous wetland plant, has been considered one of the most invasive species in the world. Allelopathy appears to be one of the invasion mechanisms, however, the effects could be masked by resource competition among target plants. The difficulty of distinguishing allelopathy from resource competition among plants has hindered investigations of the role of phytotoxic allelochemicals in plant communities. This has been addressed via experiments conducted in both the greenhouse and laboratory by growing associated plants, Melaleuca ericifolia, Rumex conglomeratus, and model plant, Lactuca sativa at varying densities with the allelopathic plant, P. australis, its litter and leachate of P. australis litter. This study investigated the potential interacting influences of allelopathy and resource competition on plant growth-density relationships. In greenhouse, the root exudates mediated effects showed the strongest growth inhibition of M. ericifolia at high density whereas litter mediated results revealed increased growth at medium density treatments compared to low and high density. Again, laboratory experiments related to seed germination and seedling growth of L. sativa and R. conglomeratus exhibited phytotoxicity decreased showing positive growth as plant density increased and vice versa. Overall, the differential effects were observed among experiments but maximum individual plant biomass and some other positive effects on plant traits such as root and shoot length, chlorophyll content occurred at an intermediate density. This was attributed to the sharing of the available phytotoxin among plants at high densities which is compatible to density-dependent phytotoxicity model. The results demonstrated that plant-plant interference is the combined effect of allelopathy and resource competition with many other factors but this experimental design, target-neighbor mixed-culture in combination of plant grown at varying densities with varying

  19. Conditions for selective degradation of lignin by the fungus Ganoderma australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, S.; Eyzaguirre, J. (Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Lab. de Bioquimica)

    1992-08-01

    The white-rot fungus Ganoderma australis selectively degrades lignin in the ecosystem 'palo podrido'. Using conditions that simulate those of 'palo podrido' in the laboratory, it was found that low nitrogen content and low O{sub 2} tension stimulate the production of manganese peroxidase and lignin degradation, and depress cellulose degradation and cellulase production. The inverse is found at high nitrogen concentration and high O{sub 2} tension. This agrees with previous results indicating that low O{sub 2} tension and low nitrogen stimulate selective lignin degradation by this fungus. (orig.).

  20. Uptake of inorganic phosphorus by the aquatic plant Isoetes australis inhabiting oligotrophic vernal rock pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nina Høj; Pulido, Cristina; Pedersen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    The submerged aquatic freshwater macrophyte Isoetes australis S. Williams grows in rock pools situated in south-western Australia, an environment where dissolved inorganic phosphorus (Pi) availability possibly limits growth. In contrast to the two coexisting aquatic species, Glossostigma drummundii...... experiment revealed high amounts of Pi translocation internally in the plant which seemed to go from roots and oldest leaves to younger leaves. As a result of the high root to shoot ratio, high surface area, root uptake kinetics, and sediment Pi availability, roots accounted for 87% of plant Pi uptake...

  1. Isolation and amino acid sequence of a short-chain neurotoxin from an Australian elapid snake, Pseudechis australis.

    OpenAIRE

    Takasaki, C; Tamiya, N

    1985-01-01

    A short-chain neurotoxin Pseudechis australis a (toxin Pa a) was isolated from the venom of an Australian elapid snake Pseudechis australis (king brown snake) by sequential chromatography on CM-cellulose, Sephadex G-50 and CM-cellulose columns. Toxin Pa a has an LD50 (intravenous) value of 76 micrograms/kg body wt. in mice and consists of 62 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of Pa a shows considerable homology with those of short-chain neurotoxins of elapid snakes, especially of tr...

  2. Syncrude's Aurora Mine : the key to future Athabasca oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, D.

    1998-01-01

    Syncrude's newest mine, the Aurora mine is located 35 km northeast of Syncrude's existing Mildred Lake plant, across the Athabasca River. It has a potential to produce more than 2.5 billion barrels of bitumen. Aurora will eventually consist of two surface mines, the Aurora North and Aurora South. Mining and extraction will occur at Aurora with the resulting bitumen transported as a froth by pipeline back to the existing plant for upgrading to Syncrude Sweet Blend. A total of 120 km of pipeline will be used. Syncrude has developed a new method of sending oilsand from its Athabasca deposit to the extraction plant. The company plans to phase out the dragline, bucketwheel reclaimer, and conveyor ore mining and delivery system in favour of shovel, truck, and hydrotransport technology. The advantages of hydrotransport include significant energy savings and considerably less plant infrastructure. A hydrotransport prototype is at work at Syncrude's base mine where it is responsible for 15 per cent of the production

  3. Summary of environmental impact assessment for the Syncrude Canada Ltd. Aurora Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A summary of the environmental impact assessment for the Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine was provided. Two mining areas will be opened. Aurora Mine North, located on oil sands leases 10, 12 and 34 will open first followed by the opening of Aurora Mine South, located on Lease 31. Each mining area will contain two extraction facilities, each capable of producing 6.25 million cubic metres of bitumen per year for a total annual capacity of 25 million cubic metres. The areas of land that will be disturbed by development of the Aurora Mines will total 15,171 hectares. The preferred pipeline, roadway and utility corridor and river crossing to be used for the Mine are shown. Production of SO 2 and NO x emissions from the Aurora Mine is expected to be very low, nevertheless, the cumulative effects of emissions from the mines will be addressed in the context of emissions from the existing or proposed oil sand facilities in the area. 7 tabs., 15 figs

  4. Rebamipide inhibits gastric cancer growth by targeting survivin and Aurora-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnawski, A.; Pai, R.; Chiou, S.-K.; Chai, J.; Chu, E.C.

    2005-01-01

    Rebamipide accelerates healing of gastric ulcers and gastritis but its actions on gastric cancer are not known. Survivin, an anti-apoptosis protein, is overexpressed in stem, progenitor, and cancer cells. In gastric cancer, increased and sustained survivin expression provides survival advantage and facilitates tumor progression and resistance to anti-cancer drugs. Aurora-B kinase is essential for chromosome alignment and mitosis progression but surprisingly its role in gastric cancer has not been explored. We examined in human gastric cancer AGS cells: (1) survivin expression, (2) localization of survivin and Aurora-B (3) cell proliferation, and (4) effects of specific survivin siRNA and/or rebamipide (free radical scavenging drug) on survivin and Aurora-B expression and cell proliferation. Survivin and Aurora-B are strongly expressed in human AGS gastric cancer cells and co-localize during mitosis. Survivin siRNA significantly reduces AGS cell viability. Rebamipide significantly downregulates in AGS cell survivin expression, its association with Aurora-B and cell proliferation. Rebamipide-induced downregulation of survivin is at the transcription level and does not involve ubiquitin-proteasome pathway

  5. Urochordate ascidians possess a single isoform of Aurora kinase that localizes to the midbody via TPX2 in eggs and cleavage stage embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Hebras

    Full Text Available Aurora kinases are key proteins found throughout the eukaryotes that control mitotic progression. Vertebrate Aurora-A and B kinases are thought to have evolved from a single Aurora-kinase isoform closest to that found in present day urochordates. In urochordate ascidians Aurora binds both TPX2 (a vertebrate AURKA partner and INCENP (a vertebrate AURKB partner and localizes to centrosomes and spindle microtubules as well as chromosomes and midbody during both meiosis and mitosis. Ascidian Aurora also displays this localization pattern during mitosis in echinoderms, strengthening the idea that non-vertebrate deuterostomes such as the urochordates and echinoderms possess a single form of Aurora kinase that has properties of vertebrate Aurora-kinase A and B. In the ascidian, TPX2 localizes to the centrosome and the spindle poles also as in vertebrates. However, we were surprised to find that TPX2 also localized strongly to the midbody in ascidian eggs and embryos. We thus examined more closely Aurora localization to the midbody by creating two separate point mutations of ascidian Aurora predicted to perturb binding to TPX2. Both forms of mutated Aurora behaved as predicted: neither localized to spindle poles where TPX2 is enriched. Interestingly, neither form of mutated Aurora localized to the midbody where TPX2 is also enriched, suggesting that ascidian Aurora midbody localization required TPX2 binding in ascidians. Functional analysis revealed that inhibition of Aurora kinase with a pharmacological inhibitor or with a dominant negative kinase dead form of Aurora caused cytokinesis failure and perturbed midbody formation during polar body extrusion. Our data support the view that vertebrate Aurora-A and B kinases evolved from a single non-vertebrate deuterostome ancestor. Moreover, since TPX2 localizes to the midbody in ascidian eggs and cleavage stage embryos it may be worthwhile re-assessing whether Aurora A kinase or TPX2 localize to the midbody

  6. Project Aether Aurora: STEM outreach near the arctic circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmier, B. W.; Bering, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Project Aether is a program designed to immerse high-school through graduate students to field research in some of the fields of STEM. The program leaders launch high altitude weather balloons in collaboration with schools and students to teach physics concepts, experimental research skills, and to make space exploration accessible to students. A weather balloon lifts a specially designed payload package that is composed of HD cameras, GPS tracking devices, and other science equipment. The payload is constructed and attached to the balloon by the students with low-cost materials. The balloon and payload are launched with FAA clearance from a site chosen based on wind patterns and predicted landing locations. The balloon ascends over 2 hours to a maximum altitude of 100,000 feet where it bursts and allows the payload to slowly descend using a built-in parachute. The balloon's location is monitored during its flight by GPS-satellite relay. Most of the science and video data are recorded on SD cards using an Arduino digitizer. The payload is located using the GPS device. The science data are recovered from the payload and shared with the students. In April 2012, Project Aether leaders conducted a field campaign near Fairbanks Alaska, sending several student-built experiments to an altitude of 30km, underneath several strong auroral displays. Auroral physics experiments that can be done on ultra small balloons (5 cubic meters) include electric field and magnetic fluctuation observations, full spectrum and narrow band optical imaging, GPS monitoring of the total electron content of the ionosphere, x-ray detection and infrared and UV spectroscopy. The actual undergraduate student experiments will be reviewed and some data presented.; Balloon deployment underneath aurora, Fairbanks Alaska, 2012.

  7. Aurora Flight Sciences' Perseus B Remotely Piloted Aircraft in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft, seen here during a test flight in June 1998. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST

  8. Tabla de vida y parámetros poblacionales de Lacertinella australis (Insecta-Hemiptera-Fulgoromorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. ROSSI BATIZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lacertinella australis ha sido capturada en 11 provincias de la Argentina y fue mencionada como una especie de interés fitosanitario por su potencial para vehiculizar fitopatógenos. Atendiendo al amplio rango de distribución, su potencial importancia fitosanitaria y el carácter invasivo de su principal planta hospedera, Cor - taderia spp., se evaluaron aspectos del ciclo de vida a través de una tabla de vida vertical bajo condiciones controladas en el laboratorio y se confeccionó una segunda tabla de vida sobre la base de un muestreo de una población natural. Se estimaron los atributos poblacionales: tasa reproductiva básica o tasa de reemplazo ( R 0 , tasa finita de crecimiento poblacional ( λ , capacidad de incremento poblacional ( r c , valor reproductivo ( V x , tiempo generacional de la cohorte ( T c y el promedio del tiempo de desarrollo por estadios. Se mencionan y comparan aspectos comportamentales y de la bionomía de L. australis compartidos con las dos especies de la tribu cuya biología se conoce: Saccharosydne procerus y Saccharosydne saccharivora.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on toxicity and immunogenicity of Androctonus australis hector venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abib, L.; Laraba-Djebari, F.

    2003-01-01

    An investigation was made of the radiosensitivity of the toxic and immunological properties of Androctonus australis hector venom. This venom was irradiated with two doses of gamma rays (1 and 2 kGy) from a 60 Co source. The results showed that venom toxicity was abolished for the two radiation doses (1 and 2 kGy) with, respectively, 10 and 25 times its initial LD50 value. However, irradiated venoms were immunogenic, and the antibodies elicited by them were able to recognize the native venom by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antisera raised against these toxoids (1 and 2 kGy) had a higher neutralizing capacity and immunoreactivity against all components of native venom than did the antiserum produced against the native venom. The antiserum of rabbits immunized with 2-kGy-irradiated venom was more efficient than 1-kGy-irradiated toxoid antiserum. Indeed, in vivo protection assays showed that the mice immunized with 2-kGy-irradiated venom resisted lethal doses (i.p.) of A. australis hector venom. (author)

  10. The effect of sampling methods on the apparent constituents of ink from the squid Sepioteuthis australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaras, F; Gerber, J P; Peddie, F; Kokkinn, M J

    2010-11-01

    Results of experiments conducted on ink recovered from the squid Sepioteuthis australis indicate that there is no epinephrine or protein naturally present in the ink as it would be ejected in vivo. Protein content was effectively zero when ink was syringed from the duct end of the ink sac of freshly killed animals. By contrast, there were proteins in samples collected from dead specimens where ink was collected by a stripping method. From these samples, a single large molecular weight protein was identified as having tyrosinase activity. Digestion of syringed ink did not yield signs of melanin-bound proteins. Analysis of supernatants after centrifugation of squid ink consistently revealed the presence of DOPA, dopamine, and taurine, whereas epinephrine and nor-epinephrine were recorded from what was believed to be contaminated ink. Histological investigations of the ink sac revealed a compartmentalised glandular structure distal to the duct end. Closer observation of the glandular tissue showed that compartments increased in size as they matured and moved further into the lumen. It was concluded that the presence of epinephrine and tyrosinase (or a related protein) in the ink of S. australis could be attributed to rupturing of basal glandular compartments or contamination from other sources during the extraction process.

  11. Phytotoxic potential of celtis australis L. (family ulmaceae) against four crop species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Hussain, F.

    2014-01-01

    Bioassays were conducted to test the phytotoxic potential of Celtis australis against Trifolium alexandrinum, Brassica campestris, Triticum aestivum and Lactuca sativa under laboratory condition. Aqueous extracts from twigs and leaves were obtained by soaking 5 and 10g plant material in 100 ml distilled water for 24 and 48hr durations. Aqueous extracts significantly delayed/retarded the germination and reduced the plumule and radicle growth of all the four test species. Generally, extracts soaked for 48h especially 10 gm/100ml were inhibitory than 24h extracts of 5 or 10gm material. Extracts from twigs were inhibitory to germination of wheat while same extracts inhibited the plumule growth of B. campestris. Radicle growth of T. alexandrinum was inhibited more by twig extracts. Hot water extracts from twigs were less inhibitory than leaf extracts. Litter and mulch also significantly delayed the seed germination and retarded the overall growth of seedlings of all test species. The number and length of seminal roots of T. aestivum was suppressed by all aqueous extracts, added litter and mulch. The inhibitory response depended upon the test species, concentration, soaking duration and physiological parameters. The results suggested that Celtis australis has strong phytotoxic potential. (author)

  12. Morphology and dynamics of aurora at fine scale: first results from the ASK instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dahlgren

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The ASK instrument (Auroral Structure and Kinetics is a narrow field auroral imager, providing simultaneous images of aurora in three different spectral bands at multiple frames per second resolution. The three emission species studied are O2+ (5620 Å, O+ (7319 Å and O (7774 Å. ASK was installed and operated for the first time in an observational campaign on Svalbard, from December 2005 to March 2006. The measurements were supported by data from the Spectrographic Imaging Facility (SIF. The relation between the morphology and dynamics of the visible aurora and its spectral characteristics is studied for selected events from this period. In these events it is found that dynamic aurora is coupled to high energy electron precipitation. By studying the O2+/O intensity ratio we find that some auroral filaments are caused by higher energy precipitation within regions of lower energy precipitation, whereas other filaments are the result of a higher particle flux compared to the surroundings.

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Electron acceleration in the aurora and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, K. G.

    1999-08-01

    Duncan Bryant is a retired space plasma physicist who spent most of his career at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire, England. For many years he has been challenging a widely accepted theory, that auroral electrons are accelerated by double layers, on the grounds that it contains a fundamental error (allegedly, an implicit assumption that charged particles can gain energy from conservative fields). It is, of course, right that models of particle acceleration in natural plasmas should be scrutinized carefully in terms of their consistency with basic physical principles, and I believe that Dr Bryant has performed a valuable service by highlighting this issue. He maintains that auroral electron acceleration by double layers is fundamentally untenable, and that acceleration takes place instead via resonant interactions with lower hybrid waves. In successive chapters, he asserts that essentially the same process can account for electron acceleration observed at the Earth's bow shock, in the neighbourhood of an `artificial comet' produced as part of the Active Magnetospheric Particle Explorers (AMPTE) space mission in 1984/85, in the solar wind, at the Earth's magnetopause, and in the Earth's magneto- sphere. The evidence for this is not always convincing: waves with frequencies of the order of the lower hybrid resonance are often observed in these plasma environments, but in general it is difficult to identify clearly which wave mode is being observed (whistlers, for example, have frequencies in approximately the same range as lower hybrid waves). Moreover, it is not at all clear that the waves which are observed, even if they were of the appropriate type, would have sufficient intensity to accelerate electrons to the extent observed. The author makes a persuasive case, however, that acceleration in the aurora, and in other plasma environments accessible to in situ measurements, involves some form of wave turbulence. In Chapter 2 it is pointed out that

  14. Aurora kinase A as a possible marker for endocrine resistance in early estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Anne E; Iversen, Benedikte R; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2018-01-01

    in 980 tumors and semi quantitively scored into three groups; negative/weak, moderate and high. The Aurora A expression levels were compared to other clinico-pathological parameters and outcome, defined as disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: High expression of Aurora......BACKGROUND: Cell culture studies have disclosed that the mitotic Aurora kinase A is causally involved in both tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitor resistant cell growth and thus may be a potential new marker for endocrine resistance in the clinical setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Archival tumor tissue...... A was found in 26.9% of patients and moderate in 57.0%. High expression was significantly associated with high malignancy grade and HER2 amplification. High Aurora A expression was significantly more frequent in ductal compared to lobular carcinomas. We found no significant association between Aurora...

  15. Energies of precipitating electrons during pulsating aurora events derived from ionosonde observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, J.W.; Hofstee, J.; Koehler, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The time-history of particle energies and fluxes associated with pulsating auroras in the morning sector is derived from ionosonde measurements. All the pulsating auroras studied showed a similar history with the pulsations occurring during a time interval of the order of an hour during which the average auroral Maxwellian characteristic energy stays relatively constant but the energy flux decreases progressively during the event. A possible explanation for this behaviour in terms of an injection of particles into a magnetospheric 'bottle' near the midnight meridian and the progressive precipitation out of the bottle during the pulsating event is suggested. (auth)

  16. Assessment of the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic activity and phytochemical screening of aqueous extracts of Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. (ADOXACEAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Marília; Kuhn, Andrielle W; Frescura, Viviane Dal-Souto; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Tedesco, Solange B; Silva, Antonio C F DA

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic activity of Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. aqueous extracts on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L. as well as determine the phenolic compounds in such extracts. S. australis inflorescences and leaves of two accessions were used for aqueous extract preparation at concentrations: 0.003 g/ml and 0.012 g/ml. A. cepa bulbs were rooted in distilled water and, subsequently, placed in treatments for 24 hours. Rootlets were collected and fixed in modified Carnoy's solution for 24 hours and kept. The squash technique was performed for slide preparation. Root tips were smashed and stained with 2% acetic orcein, and a total of 4000 cells per treatment were analyzed. The phenolic compounds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and data was analyzed using the Scott-Knott test. The results show that S. australis aqueous extracts have antiproliferative potential. Besides, the extracts prepared from S. australis leaves of both accessions at a concentration of 0.012 g/ml have shown antigenotoxic activity. The phytochemical analysis allowed us to determine the presence of flavonoids and phenolic acids, of which kaempferol and chrologenic acid were the most predominant compounds in the extracts from the inflorescences and leaves, respectively.

  17. Phragmites australis + Typha latifolia Community Enhanced the Enrichment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in the Soil of Qin Lake Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic plants play an essential role and are effective in mitigating lake eutrophication by forming complex plant-soil system and retaining total nitrogen (TN and phosphorus (TP in soils to ultimately reduce their quantities in aquatic systems. Two main vegetation types (Phragmites australis community and P. australis + Typha latifolia community of Qin Lake wetland were sampled in this study for the analysis of TN and TP contents and reserves in the wetland soils. The results showed that (1 the consumption effect of Qin Lake wetland on soluble N was much more significant than on soluble P. (2 The efficiency of TN enrichment in wetland soil was enhanced by vegetation covering of P. australis and T. latifolia. (3 Wetland soil P was consumed by P. australis community and this pattern was relieved with the introduction of T. latifolia. (4 According to the grey relativity analysis, the most intensive interaction between plants and soil occurred in summer. In addition, the exchange of N in soil-vegetation system primarily occurred in the 0–15 cm soil layer. Our results indicated that vegetation covering was essential to the enrichment of TN and TP, referring to the biology-related fixation in the wetland soil.

  18. The Effect of Artificial Mowing on the Competition of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora in the Yangtze Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spartina alterniflora Loisel. is one of the most invasive species in the world. However, little is known about the role of artificial mowing in its invasiveness and competiveness. In this work, we studied the effect of mowing on its interspecific interactions with native species Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin ex Steud of the Yangtze Estuary, China. We calculated their relative neighbor effect (RNE index, effect of relative crowding (Dr index, and interaction strength (I index. The results showed that the RNE of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora was 0.354 and 0.619, respectively, and they have competitive interactions. The mowing treatments can significantly influence the RNE of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora on each other. Concretely, the RNE of Spartina alterniflora in the removal treatments was significantly higher than the value in the controls. But the RNE of Phragmites australis in the removal treatments was significantly lower than the value in the controls. Meanwhile, Dr of the two species on the targets was higher in the removal treatments than that in the controls, and the opposite was for I. We concluded that artificial mowing could promote the invasion of Spartina alterniflora by increasing its competitive performance compared with native species.

  19. Aurora-A overexpression enhances cell-aggregation of Ha-ras transformants through the MEK/ERK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Ya-Shih; Lee, Jenq-Chang; Huang, Chi-Ying F; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Overexpression of Aurora-A and mutant Ras (Ras V12 ) together has been detected in human bladder cancer tissue. However, it is not clear whether this phenomenon is a general event or not. Although crosstalk between Aurora-A and Ras signaling pathways has been reported, the role of these two genes acting together in tumorigenesis remains unclear. Real-time PCR and sequence analysis were utilized to identify Ha- and Ki-ras mutation (Gly -> Val). Immunohistochemistry staining was used to measure the level of Aurora-A expression in bladder and colon cancer specimens. To reveal the effect of overexpression of the above two genes on cellular responses, mouse NIH3T3 fibroblast derived cell lines over-expressing either Ras V12 and wild-type Aurora-A (designated WT) or Ras V12 and kinase-inactivated Aurora-A (KD) were established. MTT and focus formation assays were conducted to measure proliferation rate and focus formation capability of the cells. Small interfering RNA, pharmacological inhibitors and dominant negative genes were used to dissect the signaling pathways involved. Overexpression of wild-type Aurora-A and mutation of Ras V12 were detected in human bladder and colon cancer tissues. Wild-type Aurora-A induces focus formation and aggregation of the Ras V12 transformants. Aurora-A activates Ral A and the phosphorylation of AKT as well as enhances the phosphorylation of MEK, ERK of WT cells. Finally, the Ras/MEK/ERK signaling pathway is responsible for Aurora-A induced aggregation of the Ras V12 transformants. Wild-type-Aurora-A enhances focus formation and aggregation of the Ras V12 transformants and the latter occurs through modulating the Ras/MEK/ERK signaling pathway

  20. Recent laser experiments on the Aurora KrF/ICF laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, T.P.; Jones, J.E.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Watt, R.G.; Thomas, S.J.; Kang, M.; Tallman, C.R.; Mack, J.M.; Figueira, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Aurora KrF/ICF Laser Facility at Los Alamos is operational at the kilojoule-level for both laser and target experiments. We report on recent laser experiments on the system and resulting system improvements. 3 refs., 4 figs

  1. 76 FR 65216 - Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, CO; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-80,219] Beacon Medical Services... workers and former workers of Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, Colorado (Beacon Medical Services... published in the Federal Register on July 8, 2011 (76 FR 40401). The workers of Beacon Medical Services are...

  2. Cancer Cell Resistance to Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: Identification of Novel Targets for Cancer Therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabáková, Rita; Kollaredy, M.; Tylečková, Jiřina; Halada, Petr; Hajdúch, M.; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2013), s. 455-469 ISSN 1535-3893 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aurora kinase inhibitors * resistance * p53 * apoptosis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.001, year: 2013

  3. Aurora kinase A is essential for correct chromosome segregation in mouse zygote

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovaříková, V.; Burkus, J.; Rehák, P.; Brzáková, Adéla; Šolc, Petr; Baran, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2016), s. 326-337 ISSN 0967-1994 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : apoptosis * aurora A * MLN8237 * mouse zygote * spindle Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.053, year: 2016

  4. GATEWAY Demonstrations: OLED Lighting in the Offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    At the offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc., in Grayslake, IL, the GATEWAY program conducted its first investigation involving OLED lighting. The project experienced several challenges, but also highlighted a number of promising attributes – which indicate that with continued improvements in efficacy, longevity, size, and flexibility, OLEDs could provide a new tool for creative and effective lighting.

  5. Discovery of Salamandra atra aurorae (Trevisan, 1982 on the Altopiano di Vezzena, Trentino (Northeastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Beukema

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Aurora’s Alpine Salamander is a limited distributed subspecies endemic to the Altopiano di Asiago, Veneto. In the current paper the occurrence of Salamandra atra aurorae is described for the Altopiano di Vezzena, Trentino. The aim of this paper is to review the distribution as well as to comment on the conservational status of the subspecies in Trentino.

  6. Aurora T: a Monte Carlo code for transportation of neutral atoms in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bignami, A.; Chiorrini, R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper contains a short description of Aurora code. This code have been developed at Princeton with Monte Carlo method for calculating neutral gas in cylindrical plasma. In this work subroutines such one can take in account toroidal geometry are developed

  7. Radar and photometric measurements of an intense type A red aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. M.; Mende, S. B.; Vondrak, R. R.; Kozyra, J. U.; Nagy, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    On the evening of March 5, 1981, an intense, type A red aurora appeared over southern Alaska. Radar and photometric measurements were made of the aurora from the Chatanika radar site. The line of sight intensity of the 630.0-nm emissions exceeded 150 kR and was accompanied by enhanced emissions at 486.1 and 427.8 nm. The Chatanika radar measured electron densities of 10 to the 6th per cu cm and electron temperatures of 6000 K at an altitude of 400 km and an invariant latitude of 59 deg in association with the aurora. Comparison of optical and radar measurements indicated that the 630.0-nm emissions were produced to a large degree by thermal excitation of O(1D) in the region of high electron temperatures and densities. Model calculations indicate that the observed density and temperature enhancements and the related optical emissions were the results of a relatively short duration (5-10 min) pulse of precipitating, low-energy (about 30 eV) electrons. Whereas conventional stable auroral red arcs are associated with a gradual decrease in ring current energy density during the recovery phase of a magnetic storm, the type A red aurora may be produced by impulsive ring current energy loss during the main phase.

  8. Phragmites australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Truong Tho; Sorrell, Brian K.; Lambertini, Carla

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that in plant invasions, species may develop intrinsically higher gas exchange and growth rates, and greater nitrogen uptake and allocation to shoots, in their invasive range than in their native habitat under excess nutrients. In this study, native populations of two old...... world Phragmitesaustralis phylogeographic groups (EU and MED) were compared with their invasive populations in North America [NAint (M) and NAint (Delta)] under unlimited nutrient availability and identical environmental conditions in a common garden. We expected that both introduced groups would have......, the introduced groups invested more biomass in above-ground tissues than roots and rhizomes. Our results support the concept that invasive populations develop enhanced morphological, physiological and biomass traits in their new ranges that may assist their competiveness under nutrient-enriched conditions...

  9. Preparation and Adsorption Performances of Phragmites australis Activated Carbon with High Acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Cheng-kai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For removal of heavy metals from wastewater and recycling the wetland plants, the present study investigated the viability of using silage of Phragmites australis (PA to prepare activated carbons (ACs with high acidity. BET surface area, porous texture and surface functional characteristics of ACs were analyzed by N2 adsorption/desorption, elemental analysis and Boehm titration method. ACs presented well-developed micro-porosity and favorable surface acidity. The sorption equilibrium data for Ni (Ⅱ and Cd (Ⅱ sorption onto ACs were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Langmuir model was fitted well to the adsorption behavior. The properties of high surface acidity promoted the adsorption of heavy metals by the silage-treated ACs and the chemical sorption played the key role in the sorption process.

  10. A sub-fossil kauri (Agathis australis) tree-ring chronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, M.C.; Ogden, J.

    1986-01-01

    A 491-year floating tree-ring chronology was constructed using sub-fossil bog kauris, Agathis australis, from a site near Huntly, North Island, New Zealand. The chronology has been approximately dated to within the period 3,500 B.P. to 3,000 B.P. by radiocarbon dating. This is the first sub-fossil New Zealand chronology, and shows the potential for the formation of a long chronology from the present back over several millenia. The applications of this chronology and its possible extensions include radiocarbon calibration for the Southern Hemisphere, and climatic reconstructions based on ring-widths. It will also assist interpretation of the history of the Waikato Valley over the last few millenia

  11. Mapping the change of Phragmites australis live biomass in the lower Mississippi River Delta marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina

    2017-07-28

    Multiyear remote sensing mapping of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was carried out as an indicator of live biomass composition of the Phragmites australis (hereafter Phragmites) marsh in the lower Mississippi River Delta (hereafter delta) from 2014 to 2017. Maps of NDVI change showed that the Phragmites condition was fairly stable between May 2014 and July 2015. From July 2015 to April 2016 NDVI change indicated Phragmites suffered a widespread decline in the live biomass proportion.  Between April and September 2016, most marsh remained unchanged from the earlier period or showed improvement; although there were pockets of continued decline scattered throughout the lower delta. From September 2016 to May 2017 a pronounced and widely exhibited decline in the condition of Phragmites marsh again occurred throughout the lower delta. This final NDVI change mapping supported field observations of Phragmites decline during the same period.

  12. Metazoan parasites of Brama australis from southern Chile: a tool for stock discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M E; Espinola, J F; Ñacari, L A

    2016-03-01

    The metazoan parasites of 403 specimens of the southern ray's bream Brama australis from three localities in southern Chile (Lebu 36° 70' S; 73° 40' W, Calbuco 41° 50' S; 73° 08' W and Punta Arenas 53° 10' S; 70° 50' W) were recorded. More than 23 400 parasite specimens belonging to 12 taxa were registered. Metazoan parasites were dominated by the copepod Hatschekia conifera, constituting 97% of the total number of parasites; the larval cestode Hepatoxylon trichiuri was the second most important parasite (2·1% of the total number of parasites). The remaining 10 species constituted parasites. Parasitological evidence, based on univariate and multivariate analysis, does not support the existence of discrete stocks in the studied zone. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Radio emission from pre-main-sequence stars in Corona Australis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.

    1987-01-01

    The central region of the Corona Australis molecular cloud surrounding the stars R and TY CrA has been studied using the VLA at 6 cm. Eleven radio sources are detected including five associated with pre-main-sequence objects. The most striking is associated with the near-IR source IRS 7 and shows a complex structure comprising two strong pointlike sources positioned either side of the deeply embedded IR source and two extended lobes of radio emission. The IRS 7 radio source appears to be similar to that associated with Lynds 1551 IRS 5 but has a considerably larger angular size. The other detected sources include the massive pre-main-sequence star TY CrA, the near-IR sources IRS 1 and IRS 5, and the Herbig-Haro object HH 101. The stars R and T CrA were not detected. 35 references

  14. DNA hybridization evidence for the Australasian affinity of the American marsupial Dromiciops australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, J A; Dickerman, A W; Reig, O A; Springer, M S

    1991-01-01

    DNA hybridization was used to compare representatives of the major groups of marsupials and a eutherian outgroup. Because of the large genetic distances separating marsupial families, trees were calculated from normalized percentages of hybridization; thermal-melting statistics, however, gave identical topologies for the well-supported clades. The most notable results were the association of the only extant microbiotheriid, Dromiciops australis, an American marsupial, with the Australasian Diprotodontia, and of both together with the Dasyuridae. Estimates of the rate of divergence among marsupial genomes suggest that the Dromiciops-Diprotodontia split occurred approximately 50 million years ago, well after the establishment of the major clades of marsupials but before deep oceanic barriers prohibited dispersal among Australia, Antarctica, and South America. Because Dromiciops is nested within an Australasian group, it seems likely that dispersal from Australia accounts for its present distribution. Images PMID:1961710

  15. Marine water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Pontarachnidae) from Taiwan, Korea and India, with the first description of the male of Pontarachna australis Smit, 2003

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pesic, V.; Chatterjee, T.; Chan, B.K.K.; Ingole, B.S.

    he hitherto unknown male of the marine water mite Pontarachna australis Smit, 2003 (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Pontarachnidae) is described and recorded from Taiwan for the first time. Another marine water mite, Litarachna denhami (Lohmann, 1909...

  16. Non-linear growth in tree ferns, Dicksonia antarctica and Cyathea australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David P; Blanchard, Wade; Banks, Sam C; Lindenmayer, David B

    2017-01-01

    Tree ferns are an important structural component of forests in many countries. However, because their regeneration is often unrelated to major disturbances, their age is often difficult to determine. In addition, rates of growth may not be uniform, which further complicates attempts to determine their age. In this study, we measured 5 years of growth of Cyathea australis and Dicksonia antarctica after a large wildfire in 2009 in south-eastern Australia. We found growth rates of these two species were unaffected by aspect and elevation but slope had a minor effect with D. antarctica growing 0.3mm faster for each additional degree of slope. Geographic location influenced growth in both species by up to 12 - 14mm/yr. The most consistent factor influencing growth rate, however, was initial height at the time of the 2009 fire; a finding consistent in both species and all geographic locations. For both tree fern species, individuals that were taller at the commencement of the study had greater overall growth for the duration of the study. This effect did not decrease even among the tallest tree ferns in our study (up to 6 metres tall). Overall, Cyathea australis averaged 73 (± 22)mm/year of growth (± 1SD), with the rate increasing 5mm/yr per metre of additional height. Dicksonia antarctica averaged 33 (± 13)mm/year, increasing by 6mm/yr/m. Growth rates dependent on initial height were unexpected and we discuss possible reasons for this finding. Variable growth rates also suggest that common age estimation methods of dividing height by average growth rate are likely to underestimate the age of short tree ferns, while overestimating the age of tall tree ferns, particularly if they have been subject to a fire.

  17. Uptake of Carbamazepine by rhizomes and endophytic bacteria of Phragmites australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres eSauvetre

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazepine is an antiepileptic and mood-stabilizing drug which is used widely in Europe and North America. In the environment, it is found as a persistent and recalcitrant conta¬mi-nant, being one of the most prominent hazardous pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs in effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. Phragmites australis is one of the species with both, the highest potential of detoxification and phytoremediation. It has been used successfully in the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Recently, the identification of endophytic micro¬organisms from different plant species growing in contaminated sites has provided a list of candidates which could be used as bio-inoculants for bioremediation of difficult compounds. In this study, Phragmites australis plants were exposed to 5 mg/L of carbamazepine. After 9 days the plants had removed 90% of the initial concentration. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from these plants and further characterized. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the majority of these isolates belong to three groups: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Carbamazepine uptake and plant growth promoting (PGP traits were analyzed among the isolates. Ninety percent of the isolates produce indole acetic acid (IAA and all of them possess at least one of the PGP traits tested. One isolate identified as Chryseobacterium taeanense combines good carbamazepine uptake and all of the PGP traits. Rhizobium daejeonense can remove carbamazepine and produces 23 µg/mL of IAA. Diaphorobacter nitroreducens and Achromobacter mucicolens are suitable for carbamazepine removal while both, Pseudomonas veronii and Pseudomonas lini show high siderophore production and phosphate solubilization. Alone or in combination, these isolates might be applied as inoculates in constructed wetlands in order to enhance the phyto-remediation of carbamazepine during wastewater

  18. Morphology of the eye of the southern right whales (Eubalaena australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Mónica R; Fernández, Marta S; Herrera, Yanina

    2012-02-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in the anatomy and optics of the visual system of cetaceans. However, much of the new information has been focused on odontocetes, and relatively little is known about the visual anatomy of baleen whales. The aim of this study was describe the eye anatomy of the southern right whale (Eubalaena australis). Eye samples were collected from 26 calves, four adults with known body length, as well as two specimens of unknown body length that had stranded near their nursery ground at Península Valdés, Argentina, over 6 years. We provide anatomical descriptions of the eyeball and extraocular structures, as well as quantitative data in the form of eyeball, corneal, scleral, and lens measurements. To explore the sensitivity of the eye to light, the f-number was estimated in one specimen. We found that the eyes of the calves differed from those of the adults in having less periorbital fat surrounding the eyeball. We also observed variations in the abundance of periorbital fat among the adult specimens. The regression analysis revealed a correlation between body length and eyeball size. By contrast, the dimensions of the cornea were only weakly correlated with body length. The estimated f-number suggests that the optical sensitivity of the Eubalaena australis eye is relatively low. However, caution had to be taken in interpreting f-number as a proxy of eye sensitivity because it depends on the lens size, which can be affected by the fixation methods used. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Characterization and structural analysis of a potent anticoagulant phospholipase A2 from Pseudechis australis snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qianyun Sharon; Trabi, Manuela; Richards, Renée Stirling; Mirtschin, Peter; Madaras, Frank; Nouwens, Amanda; Zhao, Kong-Nan; de Jersey, John; Lavin, Martin F; Guddat, Luke W; Masci, Paul P

    2016-03-01

    Pseudechis australis is one of the most venomous and lethal snakes in Australia. Numerous phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms constitute a major portion of its venom, some of which have previously been shown to exhibit not only enzymatic, but also haemolytic, neurotoxic and anticoagulant activities. Here, we have purified a potent anticoagulant PLA2 (identified as PA11) from P. australis venom to investigate its phospholipase, anticoagulant, haemolytic and cytotoxic activities and shown that addition of 11 nM PA11 resulted in a doubling of the clotting time of recalcified whole blood. We have also demonstrated that PA11 has high PLA2 enzymatic activity (10.9 × 10(4) Units/mg), but low haemolytic activity (0.6% of red blood cells hydrolysed in the presence of 1 nM PA11). PA11 at a concentration lower than 600 nM is not cytotoxic towards human cultured cells. Chemical modification experiments using p-bromophenacyl bromide have provided evidence that the catalytic histidine of PA11 is critical for the anticoagulant activity of this PLA2. PA11 that was subjected to trypsin digestion without previous reduction and alkylation of the disulfide bonds maintained enzymatic and anticoagulant activity, suggesting that proteolysis alone cannot abolish these properties. Consistent with these results, administration of PA11 by gavage in a rabbit stasis thrombosis model increased the clotting time of recalcified citrated whole blood by a factor of four. These data suggest that PA11 has potential to be developed as an anticoagulant in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the myotoxic venom of Pseudechis australis (mulga snake) in the anesthetised rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, A J; Hodgson, W C; O'Leary, M; Isbister, G K

    2014-07-01

    Myotoxicity is a common clinical effect of snake envenoming and results from either local or systemic myotoxins in snake venoms. Although numerous myotoxins have been isolated from snake venoms, there has been limited study on the relationship between the time course of venom concentrations (pharmacokinetics) and the time course of muscle injury measured as a rise in creatine kinase (CK) (pharmacodynamics). The aim of this study was to develop an in vivo model of myotoxicity to investigate the time course of myotoxicity and the effect of antivenom. Anesthetised rats were administered Pseudechis australis (mulga snake) venom either through i.v., i.m. or s.d. route, including a range of doses (5-100 μg/kg). Serial blood samples were collected for measurement of venom using enzyme immunoassay and measurement of CK and creatinine. Antivenom was administered before, 1 and 6 h after venom administration to investigate its effect on muscle injury. Plots of venom and CK versus time were made and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. There was a significant dose-dependent increase in CK concentration after administration of P. australis venom, which was greatest for i.v. administration. Timed measurement of venom concentrations showed a rapid absorption through s.d. and i.m. routes and a delayed rise in CK concentrations following any route. Antivenom prevented myotoxicity shown by a decrease in the CK AUC, which was most effective if given earliest. There was a rise in creatinine following i.v. venom administration. The study shows the delayed relationship between venom absorption and the rise in CK, consistent with the delayed onset of myotoxicity in human envenoming. Antivenom prevented myotoxicity more effectively if given earlier.

  1. Decomposition of Phragmites australis rhizomes in artificial land-water transitional zones (ALWTZs) and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhen; Cui, Baoshan; Zhang, Yongtao

    2015-09-01

    Rhizomes are essential organs for growth and expansion of Phragmites australis. They function as an important source of organic matter and as a nutrient source, especially in the artificial land-water transitional zones (ALWTZs) of shallow lakes. In this study, decomposition experiments on 1- to 6-year-old P. australis rhizomes were conducted in the ALWTZ of Lake Baiyangdian to evaluate the contribution of the rhizomes to organic matter accumulation and nutrient release. Mass loss and changes in nutrient content were measured after 3, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days. The decomposition process was modeled with a composite exponential model. The Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationships between mass loss and litter quality factors. A multiple stepwise regression model was utilized to determine the dominant factors that affect mass loss. Results showed that the decomposition rates in water were significantly higher than those in soil for 1- to 6-year-old rhizomes. However, the sequence of decomposition rates was identical in both water and soil. Significant relationships between mass loss and litter quality factors were observed at a later stage, and P-related factors proved to have a more significant impact than N-related factors on mass loss. According to multiple stepwise models, the C/P ratio was found to be the dominant factor affecting the mass loss in water, and the C/N and C/P ratios were the main factors affecting the mass loss in soil. The combined effects of harvesting, ditch broadening, and control of water depth should be considered for lake administrators.

  2. Retinal amino acid neurochemistry of the southern hemisphere lamprey, Geotria australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Nivison-Smith

    Full Text Available Lampreys are one of the two surviving groups of the agnathan (jawless stages in vertebrate evolution and are thus ideal candidates for elucidating the evolution of visual systems. This study investigated the retinal amino acid neurochemistry of the southern hemisphere lamprey Geotria australis during the downstream migration of the young, recently-metamorphosed juveniles to the sea and during the upstream migration of the fully-grown and sexually-maturing adults to their spawning areas. Glutamate and taurine were distributed throughout the retina, whilst GABA and glycine were confined to neurons of the inner retina matching patterns seen in most other vertebrates. Glutamine and aspartate immunoreactivity was closely matched to Müller cell morphology. Between the migratory phases, few differences were observed in the distribution of major neurotransmitters i.e. glutamate, GABA and glycine, but changes in amino acids associated with retinal metabolism i.e. glutamine and aspartate, were evident. Taurine immunoreactivity was mostly conserved between migrant stages, consistent with its role in primary cell functions such as osmoregulation. Further investigation of glutamate signalling using the probe agmatine (AGB to map cation channel permeability revealed entry of AGB into photoreceptors and horizontal cells followed by accumulation in inner retinal neurons. Similarities in AGB profiles between upstream and downstream migrant of G. australis confirmed the conservation of glutamate neurotransmission. Finally, calcium binding proteins, calbindin and calretinin were localized to the inner retina whilst recoverin was localized to photoreceptors. Overall, conservation of major amino acid neurotransmitters and calcium-associated proteins in the lamprey retina confirms these elements as essential features of the vertebrate visual system. On the other hand, metabolic elements of the retina such as neurotransmitter precursor amino acids and Müller cells

  3. Otolith shape analysis as a tool for stock identification of the southern blue whiting, Micromesistius australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Leguá

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The southern blue whiting, Micromesistius australis (Norman, 1937, is an important demersal resource associated with the slope and continental shelf of southern Chile, Argentina and the Malvinas/Falkland Islands. Recent studies have reported schools of adult fish from Atlantic waters migrating along the southern Chilean coast in mid-winter, moving northwards to spawn in August (47°-51°S, and then returning to Atlantic waters, presumably to feed. The migratory pattern suggests the presence of one or more stock units associated with the South American coast. In the present study, "otolith morphometry" is used to determine the stock structure of M. australis based on applications of basic size descriptors (SDs (area, perimeter and otolith size, shape indices (SIs (circularity, squareness, shape factor, roundness, ellipticity, and normalised elliptical Fourier descriptors (NEFDs. Samples were collected during the winter and spring of 2010, during the reproductive period, in the economic zone of southern Chile (36°-57°S, in the Pacific Ocean and around the Falkland Islands economic zone (50°-52°S in the Atlantic Ocean. Analyses were conducted to include the effects of size, sex and age. A stepwise canonical discriminant analysis showed that fish were successfully discriminated with SDs, SIs and NEFDs. In this analysis, 86.4% and 70.1% of the fish were correctly classified as belonging to the Atlantic and Pacific stocks, respectively. A multivariate analysis of variance showed that the mean values of the NEFDs, SDs, and SIs did not vary significantly between sexes within areas (P > 0.05, but varied significantly between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans (P < 0.05. These results highlighted that otolith shape analysis can be a useful tool to evaluate the potential level of mixing in feeding areas where both stocks, the Pacific and Atlantic units, are expected to co-occur.

  4. Non-linear growth in tree ferns, Dicksonia antarctica and Cyathea australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Blair

    Full Text Available Tree ferns are an important structural component of forests in many countries. However, because their regeneration is often unrelated to major disturbances, their age is often difficult to determine. In addition, rates of growth may not be uniform, which further complicates attempts to determine their age. In this study, we measured 5 years of growth of Cyathea australis and Dicksonia antarctica after a large wildfire in 2009 in south-eastern Australia. We found growth rates of these two species were unaffected by aspect and elevation but slope had a minor effect with D. antarctica growing 0.3mm faster for each additional degree of slope. Geographic location influenced growth in both species by up to 12 - 14mm/yr. The most consistent factor influencing growth rate, however, was initial height at the time of the 2009 fire; a finding consistent in both species and all geographic locations. For both tree fern species, individuals that were taller at the commencement of the study had greater overall growth for the duration of the study. This effect did not decrease even among the tallest tree ferns in our study (up to 6 metres tall. Overall, Cyathea australis averaged 73 (± 22mm/year of growth (± 1SD, with the rate increasing 5mm/yr per metre of additional height. Dicksonia antarctica averaged 33 (± 13mm/year, increasing by 6mm/yr/m. Growth rates dependent on initial height were unexpected and we discuss possible reasons for this finding. Variable growth rates also suggest that common age estimation methods of dividing height by average growth rate are likely to underestimate the age of short tree ferns, while overestimating the age of tall tree ferns, particularly if they have been subject to a fire.

  5. Human consumption of a vagrant South American Fur Seal Arctocephalus australis (Carnivora: Otariidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Siciliano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The South American Fur Seal Arctocephalus australis is one of the most widely distributed South American otariid species. In Brazil, during austral winter months specimens of A. australis are regularly found along the Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina coasts. Occasionally, vagrants have been recorded along the southeastern coast but rarely moves north of Rio de Janeiro, at 23°S. On 01 May 2015, fishermen noticed in the surf zone an unidentified large animal in Ilhéus, Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Severely wounded, it was still alive when first spotted. Numerous shark bites were observed in the rostrum and flippers, the peduncle was severely lacerated and the intestines were protruding. The specimen was identified as an adult of South American Fur Seal based on the combination of the characteristic coloration of the pelage, head shape, body size, the relatively large eye size, and mainly due to the pronounced three cusped teeth in post canines. Fishermen decided to butcher the carcass and share the meat among their companions. The present record, however, is of special concern as human consumption South American Fur Seal seems to be unusual in Brazil. Pieces of meat were shared among fishermen. In addition, small pieces of blubber were used as bait in the local shark long-line fishery. Consumption of an injured and presumably weak marine mammal carcass points to an increasing risk of contact between potentially harmful viruses, bacteria and fungi and humans. This note represents an alert to public health specialists and wildlife authorities in Brazil. It calls the urgency of an outreach campaign advertising to the potential risks of ingesting bushmeat either from land or aquatic sources. 

  6. Aurora: Los Alamos multikilojoule angular-multiplexed KrF driver prototype for ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Hanlon, J.A.; McLeod, J.

    1987-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has participated in programs to apply high-power gas lasers to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The bulk of this effort has been in the development of CO/sub 2/ laser systems and laser-plasma interaction experiments at a 10.6-μm wavelength. The main hardware element in this program is the Aurora KrF laser system, which is a prototype for using optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by large electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to study KrF systems as potential fusion drivers. Aurora will serve as a test-bed for specific laser, optical, and electron-beam-pumping technology aspects of larger KrF fusion systems. The Aurora system is being built in two phases. The first-phase portion of the Aurora system contains all the main optical and laser elements from the front end to the final amplifier output. In the first phase, the front end output is replicated using aperture slicers and beam splitters to produce a 480-ns long pulse train consisting of 96 separate 5-ns pulses. This pulse train is encoded in angular separation, relayed through the amplifier chain by means of the centered optical system and the computer-controlled alignment station, and delivered to a diagnostic station which follows the main power amplifier [large aperture module (LAM)]. The second phase of the system contains the first-phase portion and the additional optical and target hardware needed to stack 48 of the 96 multiplexed and amplified beams into a single multikilojoule 5-ns pulse at the fusion target. The authors give a description of the Aurora system and discuss its present status

  7. Root-secreted allelochemical in the noxious weed Phragmites australis deploys a reactive oxygen species response and microtubule assembly disruption to execute rhizotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrappa, Thimmaraju; Bonsall, Justin; Gallagher, John L; Seliskar, Denise M; Bais, Harsh P

    2007-10-01

    Phragmites australis is considered the most invasive plant in marsh and wetland communities in the eastern United States. Although allelopathy has been considered as a possible displacing mechanism in P. australis, there has been minimal success in characterizing the responsible allelochemical. We tested the occurrence of root-derived allelopathy in the invasiveness of P. australis. To this end, root exudates of two P. australis genotypes, BB (native) and P38 (an exotic) were tested for phytotoxicity on different plant species. The treatment of the susceptible plants with P. australis root exudates resulted in acute rhizotoxicity. It is interesting to note that the root exudates of P38 were more effective in causing root death in susceptible plants compared to the native BB exudates. The active ingredient in the P. australis exudates was identified as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (gallic acid). We tested the phytotoxic efficacy of gallic acid on various plant systems, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Most tested plants succumbed to the gallic acid treatment with the exception of P. australis itself. Mechanistically, gallic acid treatment generated elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the treated plant roots. Furthermore, the triggered ROS mediated the disruption of the root architecture of the susceptible plants by damaging the microtubule assembly. The study also highlights the persistence of the exuded gallic acid in P. australis's rhizosphere and its inhibitory effects against A. thaliana in the soil. In addition, gallic acid demonstrated an inhibitory effect on Spartina alterniflora, one of the salt marsh species it successfully invades.

  8. Water and Energy Balance in Response to the Removal of Invasive Phragmites Australis in a Riparian Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykleby, P.; Lenters, J. D.; Cutrell, G. J.; Herrman, K.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Scott, D.

    2011-12-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in the surface energy and water balance of wetlands. Transpiration from phreatophytes, in particular, withdraws water directly from groundwater, often impacting streamflow rates in adjacent tributaries. In the Republican River basin of the Central Plains (USA), streamflow has declined significantly in the past 30-40 years. Invasive vegetation species (such as Phragmites australis) have been removed from portions of the riparian corridor in an effort to halt or reverse the downward trend in streamflow. In this study, we investigated the energy and water balance of a P. australis-dominated riparian wetland in south-central Nebraska to assess the potential effectiveness of such an approach. Evapotranspiration (ET) rates were measured during two growing seasons - one being 2009, when the P. australis was at full growth, and the other during 2010, after the vegetation had been sprayed with herbicide (and remained only as dead, standing biomass). Energy balance measurements at the field site included net radiation, heat storage rates in the canopy, soil, and standing water, and sensible heat flux, which was measured using a large-aperture scintillometer (LAS). Latent heat flux (i.e., ET) was calculated as a residual of the energy balance, and comparisons were made between the two growing seasons. As a result of the spraying of the P. australis vegetation, season-mean ET rates dropped from 4.4 mm day-1 in 2009 to 3.0 mm day-1 in 2010. This decrease in ET was associated with a large increase in sensible heat flux, which more than doubled between the two years (from 33 W m-2 in 2009 to 76 W m-2 in 2010). Meteorological conditions at the site were slightly different from one year to the next, but the differences were not large enough to account for the dramatic changes in latent and sensible heat flux that were observed. We conclude, therefore, that the majority of the ~30% decrease in ET (and ~130% increase in sensible heat flux) was the

  9. Polar cap particle precipitation and aurora: Review and commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Patrick T.; Liou, Kan; Wilson, Gordon R.

    2009-02-01

    presence of ions does not fit the properties of polar rain, which can in any event be nearly absent for northward interplanetary magnetic field). One theory is that such arcs are associated with merging tailward of the cusp. Both of these common types of sun-aligned arcs fade within about 30 min of a southward IMF turning. The third, and rarest, category of sun-aligned arcs are intense, well detached from the auroral oval, contain plasma sheet origin ion precipitation as well as electrons, and persist for hours after a southward turning. These intense detached sun-aligned arcs can rapidly cross the polar cap, sometimes multiple times. Most events discussed in the literature as "theta-aurora" do not fit into this category (for example, although they may appear detached in images, they abut the oval in particle data, and do not have the persistence of detached events under southward IMF turnings). It is possible that no single theory can account for all three types of sun-aligned arcs. Solar energetic particle (SEP) events are at times used to demarcate polar cap open/closed boundaries. Although this works at times, examples exist where this method fails (e.g., very quiet conditions for which SEP reaches below L=4), and the method should be used with caution. Finally, it is shown that, although it is rare, the polar cap can at times completely close.

  10. Monitoring Phragmites australis increases from 1937 to 1976 in the Siyai Lagoon (Natal, South Africa by means of air photo interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Weisser

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The colonization o f the Siyai Lagoon on the north coast of Natal by Phragmites australis was studied by means of  air photo interpretation. It was possible to locate and estimate P. australis areas for 1957 (0,74 ha, 1965 (1,65 ha, 1969 (1,93 ha and 1976 (2,94 ha. Phragmites australis first inhabited the shores of the middle section o f the lagoon followed by rapid expansion in the lower section. The upper section was colonized only at its lower end by expansion from the middle section. It is suggested that P. australis was unsuccessful in this section because of competition by the  Hibiscus tiliaceus—Barringtonia racemosa  Lagoon Fringe Forest. This same community is shading out  P. australis in some places. The notable increase in the rate of advance of land and littoral vegetation into the Siyai Lagoon was caused by sugar farming activities leading to erosion and sedimentation in the lagoon. A vegetation age gradient was observed from the upper section to the mouth region. The colonization of most of the Siyai Lagoon except the immediate mouth zone by  P. australis Reedswamp and  Hibiscus tiliaceus—Barringtonia racemosa Lagoon Fringe Forest, can be expected before the turn of the century. Dredging and mechanical control of vegetation will become necessary if major open water spaces are to be maintained.

  11. Intestinal helminth fauna of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and fur seal Arctocephalus australis from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, J S; Montero, F E; Juan-García, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 56 South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, and 5 South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 97,325 helminth specimens were collected from sea lions. Gravid individuals were represented by 6 species of parasites: 1 digenean (Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis), 1 cestode (Diphyllobothrium spp.), 3 nematodes (Uncinaria hamiltoni, Contracaecum ogmorhini s.s., Pseudoterranova cattani) and 1 acanthocephalan (Corynosoma australe). In addition, third-stage larvae of 2 nematodes (Contracaecum sp. and Anisakis sp. type I) and 3 juvenile acanthocephalans (Andracantha sp., Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Corynosoma cetaceum) were also collected. Andracantha sp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and P. chasmagnathi represent new host records. A total of 1516 helminth specimens were collected from fur seals. Gravid individuals were represented by three species of parasites, namely, Diphyllobothrium spp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and C. australe. In addition, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and P. cattani, juveniles of C. cetaceum and immature cestodes (Tetrabothriidae gen. sp.) were also collected. Corynosoma australe was the most prevalent and abundant parasite in both hosts, accounting for >90% of all specimens. Sea lions and furs seals from northern Patagonia harbour the intestinal helminth communities that could be predicted for otariids, i.e. the combination of species of the genera Corynosoma, Diphyllobothrium, Pseudoterranova, Contracaecum and, in pups, Uncinaria. Additionally, both species of otariid are apparently unsuitable hosts (i.e. non-hosts) for as many as five parasite taxa. The inclusion or exclusion of these species affects estimation of species richness at both component community (11 versus 6 species in sea lions; 7 versus 3 species in fur seals) and infracommunity (mean: 3.1 versus 2.6 in sea lions; 2.2 versus 1.7 species) levels. Information about the reproductive status of

  12. Design and performance of large area monolithic electron guns for the Aurora KrF laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, M.; Rosocha, L.A.; Romero, V.O.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Brucker, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Aurora is an inertial confinement fusion laser system using optical angular multiplexing and a chain of four cold cathode electron beam driven KrF laser amplifiers to produce 10 to 20 kJ of optical energy

  13. Identification of critical chemical features for Aurora kinase-B inhibitors using Hip-Hop, virtual screening and molecular docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Thangapandian, Sundarapandian; John, Shalini; Lee, Keun Woo

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to find the selective chemical features for Aurora kinase-B inhibitors using the potent methods like Hip-Hop, virtual screening, homology modeling, molecular dynamics and docking. The best hypothesis, Hypo1 was validated toward a wide range of test set containing the selective inhibitors of Aurora kinase-B. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics studies were carried out to perform the molecular docking studies. The best hypothesis Hypo1 was used as a 3D query to screen the chemical databases. The screened molecules from the databases were sorted based on ADME and drug like properties. The selective hit compounds were docked and the hydrogen bond interactions with the critical amino acids present in Aurora kinase-B were compared with the chemical features present in the Hypo1. Finally, we suggest that the chemical features present in the Hypo1 are vital for a molecule to inhibit the Aurora kinase-B activity.

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SEPTEMBER 2017 MARS GLOBAL AURORA EVENT AND CRUSTAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Camella-Rosa; Schneider, Nick; Connour, Kyle; Jain, Sonal; Deighan, Justin; Jakosky, Bruce; MAVEN/IUVS Team

    2018-01-01

    In September 2017, the Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph (IUVS) on the MAVEN spacecraft observed global aurora on Mars caused by a surprisingly strong solar energetic particle event. Widespread “diffuse aurora” have previously been detected on Mars through more limited observations (Schneider et al., Science 350, (2015); DOI: 10.1126/science.aad0313), but recent observations established complete coverage of the observable portion of Mars’ nightside. The aurora was global due to Mars’s lack of a global magnetic field, which allowed energetic electrons from the Sun to directly precipitate into the atmosphere. On September 11th, IUVS detected aurora more than 25 times brighter than any prior IUVS observation, with high SNR detections of aurora at the limb and against the disk of the planet. Fainter auroral emission was seen around the nightside limb over 13 orbits spanning nearly 3 days.On September 14th, during the declining phase of the event, faint linear features and patches were detected by the spacecraft, which were higher than the noise floor, with a similar spatial distribution to “discrete aurora” patches observed on Mars by the SPICAM instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft (Bertaux et al., Nature 435, doi :10.1038/nature03603). Discrete aurora occur near areas of the crust affected by the magnetism left over from Mars’ once-strong dipole field. Emission is limited to regions of the crustal magnetic field where the field lines are likely to be open to solar wind interactions. Those regions are concentrated in Mars’ southern hemisphere centered on 180 degrees east longitude.We studied the localized emissions on 14 September to determine whether there might be a connection between the observed diffuse aurora event and discrete auroral processes. First, we investigated the localized emissions to confirm that the observed signal was consistent with expected auroral spectra. Second, their locations were projected on a map of the crustal magnetic

  15. Decomposition of Phragmites australis litter retarded by invasive Solidago canadensis in mixtures: an antagonistic non-additive effect

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Yaojun; Zou, Jianwen; Siemann, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Solidago canadensis is an aggressive invader in China. Solidago invasion success is partially attributed to allelopathic compounds release and more benefits from AM fungi, which potentially makes the properties of Solidago litter different from co-occurring natives. These properties may comprehensively affect litter decomposition of co-occurring natives. We conducted a field experiment to examine litter mixing effects in a Phragmites australis dominated community invaded by Solidago in southe...

  16. Spectral characteristics of aurorae connected with high-velocity flows of the solar wind from coronal holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khviyuzova, T.A.; Leont'ev, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Bright electron aurorae almost always followed by red lower edge occur when the Earth is being passed by high-velocity flows from coronal holes within the auroral range at the night meridian. In contrast to other types of the solar wind the high-velocity flows from coronal holes do not cause the occurrence of A type red polar aurorae, that is, the spectrum of electrons pouring into the Earth atmosphere in these cases is shifted towards higher energies

  17. Simultaneous Aurora-A/STK15 overexpression and centrosome amplification induce chromosomal instability in tumour cells with a MIN phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentini, Laura; Amato, Angela; Schillaci, Tiziana; Di Leonardo, Aldo

    2007-01-01

    Genetic instability is a hallmark of tumours and preneoplastic lesions. The predominant form of genome instability in human cancer is chromosome instability (CIN). CIN is characterized by chromosomal aberrations, gains or losses of whole chromosomes (aneuploidy), and it is often associated with centrosome amplification. Centrosomes control cell division by forming a bipolar mitotic spindle and play an essential role in the maintenance of chromosomal stability. However, whether centrosome amplification could directly cause aneuploidy is not fully established. Also, alterations in genes required for mitotic progression could be involved in CIN. A major candidate is represented by Aurora-A/STK15 that associates with centrosomes and is overexpressed in several types of human tumour. Centrosome amplification were induced by hydroxyurea treatment and visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy. Aurora-A/STK15 ectopic expression was achieved by retroviral infection and puromycin selection in HCT116 tumour cells. Effects of Aurora-A/STK15 depletion on centrosome status and ploidy were determined by Aurora-A/STK15 transcriptional silencing by RNA interference. Changes in the expression levels of some mitotic genes were determined by Real time RT-PCR. We investigated whether amplification of centrosomes and overexpression of Aurora-A/STK15 induce CIN using as a model system a colon carcinoma cell line (HCT116). We found that in HCT116 cells, chromosomally stable and near diploid cells harbouring a MIN phenotype, centrosome amplification induced by hydroxyurea treatment is neither maintained nor induces aneuploidy. On the contrary, ectopic overexpression of Aurora-A/STK15 induced supernumerary centrosomes and aneuploidy. Aurora-A/STK15 transcriptional silencing by RNA interference in cells ectopically overexpressing this kinase promptly decreased cell numbers with supernumerary centrosomes and aneuploidy. Our results show that centrosome amplification alone is not sufficient

  18. Removal of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cr from Yangtze Estuary Using the Phragmites australis Artificial Floating Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of heavy metals would threaten the water and soil resources; phytoremediation can be potentially used to remediate metal contaminated sites. We constructed the Phragmites australis artificial floating wetlands outside the Qingcaosha Reservoir in the Yangtze Estuary. Water characteristic variables were measured in situ by using YSI Professional Pro Meter. Four heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead, and chromium in both water and plant tissues were determined. Four heavy metals in estuary water were as follows: 0.03 mg/Kg, 0.016 mg/Kg, 0.0015 mg/Kg, and 0.004 mg/Kg. These heavy metals were largely retained in the belowground tissues of P. australis. The bioaccumulation (BAF and translation factor (TF value of four heavy metals were affected by the salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. The highest BAF of each metal calculated was as follows: Cr (0.091 in winter > Cu (0.054 in autumn > Pb (0.016 in summer > Zn (0.011 in summer. Highest root-rhizome TF values were recorded for four metals: 6.450 for Cu in autumn, 2.895 for Zn in summer, 7.031 for Pb in autumn, and 2.012 for Cr in autumn. This indicates that the P. australis AFW has potential to be used to protect the water of Qingcaosha Reservoir from heavy metal contamination.

  19. Genital morphology of the male South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis and biological implications Morfologia dos órgãos genitais do macho do Lobo marinho (Arctocephalus australis e implicações biológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sander D. Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Male capacity for spreading genes to a great number of descendents and to determine population dynamics depend directly on the genital organs. Morphological studies in pinnipeds are scarce and the functional meaning of some characteristics has never been discussed. We hypothesized that Arctocephalus australis (A. australis shows morphophysiological adaptations in order to guarantee the perpetuation of the species in the unique annual mating season. Seven males, dead from natural causes, had their genital organs collected and fixed for morphological description. Some features differ from other described mammalian males and are closely related to the biology and reproductive cycle of this species, as the scrotal epidermis, absence of glandular portion in the ductus deferens and spermatogenic epithelium suggest a recrudescent testis period. The corona glandis exhibits a singular arrangement: its erectile border looks like a formation of petals and its association with the os penis gives a "lily-flower" form to this region. We propose the name margo petaliformis to this particular erectile border of the corona glandis because of its similarity to a flower corola. The male genital organs of A. australis show morphological features compatible with adaptation to environment requirements and reproductive efficiency.A capacidade do macho de espalhar seus genes a um grande número de descendentes e determinar a dinâmica populacional depende diretamente dos seus órgãos genitais. Estudos morfológicos em pinípedes são escassos e o significado funcional de algumas de suas características ecológicas ainda foi pouco discutido. Nossa hipótese é que Arctocephalus australis (A. australis apresenta adaptações morfofisiológicas em seus órgãos genitais capazes de interagir com o meio e garantir a perpetuação da espécie que apresenta apenas uma época de acasalamento que ocorre uma vez a cada ano. Sete A. australis machos, mortos recentes por causas

  20. Time sequence analysis of flickering auroras. I - Application of Fourier analysis. [in atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkey, F. T.; Silevitch, M. B.; Parsons, N. R.

    1980-01-01

    Using a technique that enables one to digitize the brightness of auroral displays from individual fields of a video signal, we have analyzed the frequency content of flickering aurora. Through the application of Fourier analysis to our data, we have found that flickering aurora contains a wide range of enhanced frequencies, although the dominant frequency enhancement generally occurs in the range 6-12 Hz. Each incidence of flickering that we observed was associated with increased radio wave absorption. Furthermore, we have found that flickering occurs in bright auroral surges, the occurrence of which is not limited to the 'breakup' phase of auroral substorms. Our results are interpreted in terms of a recently proposed theory of fluctuating double layers that accounts for a number of the observational features.

  1. Aurora multikilojoule KrF laser system prototype for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Hanlon, J.A.; Mc Leod, J.; Kang, M.; Kortegaard, B.L.; Burrows, M.D.; Bowling, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aurora is the Los Alamos National Laboratory short-pulse, high-power, KrF laser system. It serves as an end-to-end technology demonstration for large-scale ultraviolet laser systems of interest for short wavelength, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) investigations. The systems is a prototype for using optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by large electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to deliver stacked, 248-nm, 5-ns duration multikilojoule laser pulses to ICF targets using an --1-km-long optical beam path. The entire Aurora KrF laser system is described and the design features of the following major system components are summarized: front-end lasers, amplifier train, multiplexer, optical relay train, demultiplexer, target irradiation apparatus, and alignment and controls systems

  2. Macro-micro interlocked simulation algorithm: an exemplification for aurora arc evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Tetsuya [University of Hyogo, Kobe 650-0044 (Japan); Hasegawa, Hiroki; Ohno, Nobuaki [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama 236-0001 (Japan)], E-mail: sato@hq.u-hyogo.ac.jp

    2009-01-01

    Using an innovative holistic simulation algorithm that can self-consistently treat a system that evolves as cooperation between macroscopic and microscopic processes, the evolution of a colorful aurora arc is beautifully reproduced as the result of cooperation between the global field-aligned feedback instability of the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the ensuing microscopic ion-acoustic instability that generates electric double layers and accelerates aurora electrons. These results are in agreement with rocket and satellite observations. This shows that the proposed holistic algorithm could be a reliable tool to reveal complex real dramatic events and become, in the near future, a viable scientifically secure prediction tool for natural disasters such as earthquakes, landslides and floods caused by typhoons.

  3. Computer control system of the superconducting SR-light source ''Aurora''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, H.

    1989-01-01

    The Aurora is a compact SR-light system optimized for x-ray lithography. The system includes a superconducting electron storage ring, a 150-MeV race track microtron as an injector, and light beamlines. The SR-ring features a single magnet body, in which the 650-MeV electron beam orbits a true circular trajectory of 1 m diameter. The computer control system developed for Aurora has a three-level hierarchical architecture. The top level is the Central Intelligence System, and the second an Autonomic Control System (ACS). The bottom is an assembly of distributed local controllers linked to the ACS level through optical fibers. This system provides fully automatic and remote operation, and a powerful machine study capability through the associated man--machine console and the interpretive operation language

  4. Computer control system of the superconducting SR-light source ``Aurora''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hironari

    1989-07-01

    The Aurora is a compact SR-light system optimized for x-ray lithography. The system includes a superconducting electron storage ring, a 150-MeV race track microtron as an injector, and light beamlines. The SR-ring features a single magnet body, in which the 650-MeV electron beam orbits a true circular trajectory of 1 m diameter. The computer control system developed for Aurora has a three-level hierarchical architecture. The top level is the Central Intelligence System, and the second an Autonomic Control System (ACS). The bottom is an assembly of distributed local controllers linked to the ACS level through optical fibers. This system provides fully automatic and remote operation, and a powerful machine study capability through the associated man-machine console and the interpretive operation language.

  5. A numerical solution of the coupled proton-H atom transport equations for the proton aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, B.; Jasperse, J.R.; Grossbard, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    A numerical code has been developed to solve the coupled proton-H atom linear transport equations for the proton aurora. The transport equations have been simplified by using plane-parallel geometry and the forward-scattering approximations only. Otherwise, the equations and their numerical solutions are exact. Results are presented for the particle fluxes and the energy deposition rates, and they are compared with the previous analytical results that were obtained by using additional simplifying approximations. It is found that although the analytical solutions for the particle fluxes differ somewhat from the numerical solutions, the energy deposition rates calculated by the two methods agree to within a few percent. The accurate particle fluxes given by the numerical code are useful for accurate calculation of the characteristic quantities of the proton aurora, such as the ionization rates and the emission rates

  6. Proteomic analysis of human metaphase chromosomes reveals Topoisomerase II alpha as an Aurora B substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ciaran; Henzing, Alexander J; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2002-01-01

    B in the presence of radioactive ATP. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the HeLa scaffold fraction to be enriched for known chromosomal proteins including CENP-A, CENP-B, CENP-C, ScII and INCENP. Mass spectrometry of bands excised from one-dimensional polyacrylamide gels further defined the protein......The essential Aurora B kinase is a chromosomal passenger protein that is required for mitotic chromosome alignment and segregation. Aurora B function is dependent on the chromosome passenger, INCENP. INCENP, in turn, requires sister chromatid cohesion for its appropriate behaviour. Relatively few...... composition of the extracted chromosome fraction. Cloning, fluorescent tagging and expression in HeLa cells of the putative GTP-binding protein NGB/CRFG demonstrated it to be a novel mitotic chromosome protein, with a perichromosomal localisation. Identi fication of the protein bands corresponding to those...

  7. CO2 and CH4 exchange by Phragmites australis under different climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Ortiz, Penélope; Chojnickic, Bogdan H.; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Kowalska, Natalia; López-Ballesteros, Ana; Fernández, Néstor; Urbaniak, Marek; Olejnik, Janusz; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2015-04-01

    The key role of wetlands regarding global warming is the resulting balance between net CO2 assimilation, via photosynthesis, and CO2 and CH4 emissions, given the potential to release stored carbon, because of the high temperature sensitivity of heterotrophic soil respiration and anoxic conditions. However, it is still unknown whether wetlands will convert from long-term carbon sinks to sources as a result of climate change and other anthropogenic effects such as land use changes. Phragmites australis is one of the most common species found in wetlands and is considered the most globally widespread and productive plant species in this type of ecosystem. In this context, the main objective of this study is to analyse the GHG exchange (CO2 and CH4) of two wetlands with Phragmites australis as the dominant species under different climates using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. The first site, Padul, is located in southern Spain, with a sub-humid warm climate, characterised by a mean annual temperature of 16°C and annual precipitation of ca. 470 mm, with a very dry summer. The second site, Rzecin is located in Poland with a mean annual temperature of 8°C, and annual precipitation around 600mm with no dry season. The Padul EC station is equipped with two infrared gas analysers to measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes (LI-7200 and LI-7700 respectively) while the Rzecin EC station has the same CH4 sensor as Padul, but also a sensor measuring both GHG fluxes (DLT-100 Fast Methane Analyser, Los Gatos). In this study, we present: i) the results of a CH4 analyser inter-comparison campaign (LI-7700 vs. Los Gatos), ii) a comparative analysis of the functional behaviour of respiration and photosynthesis in both sites testing relationships between CO2 fluxes measured with the EC technique and meteorological variables such as temperature and direct or diffuse radiation and iii) the CH4 dynamicsat both sites by identifying, when possible, annual, seasonal and diurnal patterns.

  8. Melliferous flora and pollen characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 in apiaries in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZABETE S. SEKINE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies.

  9. Modeling the energy deposition in the Aurora KrF laser amplifier chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comly, J.C.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Greene, D.P.; Hanson, D.E.; Krohn, B.J.; McCown, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations model the energy depositions by highly energetic electron beams into the cavities of the four KrF laser amplifiers in the Aurora chain. Deposited energy density distributions are presented and studied as functions of e-beam energy and gas pressure. Results are useful for analyzing small signal gain (SSG) measurements and optimizing deposition in future experiments. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  10. Observation of the pulsating aurora by S-520-12 rocket at Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruda, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Machida, S.; Mukai, T.; Morioka, A.; Nagano, I.; Miyaoka, H.

    1991-01-01

    Particle, field an wave observations in a pulsating aurora have been carried out using the sounding rocket S-520-12, at northern polar region, Norway, on February 26, 1990. The initial analysis has disclosed two new findings, (i) precipitating low energy electrons associated with the auroral patch region, which suggests the secondary local acceleration of the auroral particles, (ii) pulsating LF wave component that is generated by periodically precipitating energetic electrons above the auroral ionosphere. (author)

  11. Pulsating aurora and cosmic noise absorption associated with growth-phase arcs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. McKay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial stage of a magnetospheric substorm is the growth phase, which typically lasts 1–2 h. During the growth phase, an equatorward moving, east–west extended, optical auroral arc is observed. This is called a growth-phase arc. This work aims to characterize the optical emission and riometer absorption signatures associated with growth-phase arcs of isolated substorms. This is done using simultaneous all-sky camera and imaging riometer observations. The optical and riometric observations allow determination of the location of the precipitation within growth-phase arcs of low- (< 10  keV and high- (>  10 keV energy electrons, respectively. The observations indicate that growth-phase arcs have the following characteristics: 1. The peak of the cosmic noise absorption (CNA arc is equatorward of the optical emission arc. This CNA is contained within the region of diffuse aurora on the equatorward side.2. Optical pulsating aurora are seen in the border region between the diffuse emission region on the equatorward side and the bright growth-phase arc on the poleward side. CNA is detected in the same region. 3. There is no evidence of pulsations in the CNA. 4. Once the equatorward drift starts, it proceeds at constant speed, with uniform separation between the growth-phase arc and CNA of 40 ± 10 km. Optical pulsating aurora are known to be prominent in the post-onset phase of a substorm. The fact that pulsations are also seen in a fairly localized region during the growth phase shows that the substorm expansion-phase dynamics are not required to closely precede the pulsating aurora.

  12. Status of the Aurora laser system: Angular-multiplexed multikilojoule krypton fluoride prototype for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Goldstone, P.D.; Kristal, R.

    1986-01-01

    In this presentation, the authors report on the present status of the Aurora system including: The operation of the final stage 1-X 1-m laser at the 10-kJ level; the generation of 5-ns pulses by the front end; integration of the front end, multiplexer, amplifiers, and the extraction of long-pulse energy from the amplifier chain. Progress on the design and construction of the demultiplexer are also reported

  13. Shock aurora: Field-aligned discrete structures moving along the dawnside oval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Haerendel, Gerhard; Moen, Jøran I.; Trondsen, Espen; Clausen, Lasse; Strangeway, Robert J.; Lybekk, Bjørn; Lorentzen, Dag A.

    2017-03-01

    Generated by interplanetary shocks or solar wind pressure pulses, shock aurora has transient, global, and dynamic significances and provides a direct manifestation of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction. As a part of a series of studies of the shock aurora, this paper focuses on the interaction at the morning magnetopause and its auroral manifestation at 06 magnetic local time, where the velocity and magnetic field shears dominate the interaction. Flow shears can generate wave-like structures inside a viscous boundary layer or even larger-scale vortices. These structures couple to the ionosphere via quasi-static field-aligned currents or via kinetic Alfvén waves. Potential drops along field-aligned filaments may be generated accelerating electrons to form auroral manifestations of the structures. A shock aurora event at dawnside is used to test this scenario. The findings include moving auroral streaks/rays that have a vertical profile from red (at 250 km altitude) to purple (at 100 km). The streaks moved antisunward along the poleward boundary of the oval at an ionospheric speed of 3 km s-1. It was mapped to the magnetopause flank at 133 km s-1, which was consistent with the observed speed of the magnetopause surface waves generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The calculated field-aligned potential drop using Haerendel's analytic model was 5 kV that reasonably explained the observations. The results support the above scenario and reveal that magnetic and velocity shears at the flanks of the magnetospause may be the main cause of the fast moving shock aurora streaks.

  14. Magnetospheric source region of discrete auroras inferred from their relationship with isotropy boundaries of energetic particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Yahnin

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available According to observations, the discrete auroral arcs can sometimes be found, either deep inside the auroral oval or at the poleward border of the wide (so-called double auroral oval, which map to very different regions of the magnetotail. To find common physical conditions for the auroral-arc generation in these magnetotail regions, we study the spatial relationship between the diffuse and discrete auroras and the isotropic boundaries (IBs of the precipitating energetic particles which can be used to characterise locally the equatorial magnetic field in the tail. From comparison of ground observation of auroral forms with meridional profiles of particle flux measured simultaneously by the low-altitude NOAA satellites above the ground observation region, we found that (1 discrete auroral arcs are always situated polewards from (or very close to the IB of >30-keV electrons, whereas (2 the IB of the >30-keV protons is often seen inside the diffuse aurora. These relationships hold true for both quiet and active (substorm conditions in the premidnight-nightside (18-01-h MLT sector considered. In some events the auroral arcs occupy a wide latitudinal range. The most equatorial of these arcs was found at the poleward edge of the diffuse auroras (but anyway in the vicinity of the electron IB, the most poleward arcs were simultaneously observed on the closed field lines near the polar-cap boundary. These observations disagree with the notion that the discrete aurora originate exclusively in the near-Earth portion of plasma sheet or exclusively on the PSBL field lines. Result (1 may imply a fundamental feature of auroral-arc formation: they originate in the current-sheet regions having very curved and tailward-stretched magnetic field lines.

  15. Bora and Aurora-A continue to activate Plk1 in mitosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruinsma, W.; Macůrek, Libor; Freire, R.; Lindqvist, A.; Medema, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 4 (2014), s. 801-811 ISSN 0021-9533 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18392S Grant - others:Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad(ES) SAF2010-22357; CONSOLIDER-Ingenio(NL) CDS2007-0015 Keywords : Aurora-A * Bora * Mitosis * Plk1 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.432, year: 2014

  16. Ionospheric Electron Heating Associated With Pulsating Auroras: Joint Optical and PFISR Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Donovan, E.; Reimer, A.; Hampton, D.; Zou, S.; Varney, R.

    2018-05-01

    In a recent study, Liang et al. (2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JA024127) repeatedly identified strong electron temperature (Te) enhancements when Swarm satellites traversed pulsating auroral patches. In this study, we use joint optical and Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) observations to further investigate the F region plasma signatures related to pulsating auroras. On 19 March 2015 night, which contained multiple intervals of pulsating auroral activities, we identify a statistical trend, albeit not a one-to-one correspondence, of strong Te enhancements ( 500-1000 K) in the upper F region ionosphere during the passages of pulsating auroras over PFISR. On the other hand, there is no discernible and repeatable density enhancement in the upper F region during pulsating auroral intervals. Collocated optical and NOAA satellite observations suggest that the pulsating auroras are composed of energetic electron precipitation with characteristic energy >10 keV, which is inefficient in electron heating in the upper F region. Based upon PFISR observations and simulations from Liang et al. (2017) model, we propose that thermal conduction from the topside ionosphere, which is heated by precipitating low-energy electrons, offers the most likely explanation for the observed electron heating in the upper F region associated with pulsating auroras. Such a heating mechanism is similar to that underlying the "stable auroral red arcs" in the subauroral ionosphere. Our proposal conforms to the notion on the coexistence of an enhanced cold plasma population and the energetic electron precipitation, in magnetospheric flux tubes threading the pulsating auroral patch. In addition, we find a trend of enhanced ion upflows during pulsating auroral intervals.

  17. Possible Cause of Extremely Bright Aurora Witnessed in East Asia on 17 September 1770

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Yusuke; Hayakawa, Hisashi; Iwahashi, Kiyomi; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Isobe, Hiroaki

    2017-10-01

    Extremely bright aurora was witnessed in East Asia on 17 September 1770, according to historical documents. The aurora was described as "as bright as a night with full moon" at magnetic latitude of 25°. The aurora was dominated by red color extending from near the horizon up beyond the polar star (corresponding to elevation angle of 35°). We performed a two-stream electron transport code to calculate the volume emission rates at 557.7 nm (OI) and 630.0 nm (OI). Two types of distribution of precipitating electrons were assumed. The first one is based on the unusually intense electron flux measured by the DMSP satellite in the March 1989 storm. The distribution consists of hot (peaking at 3 keV) and cold (peaking at 71 eV) components. The second one is the same as the first one, but the hot component is removed. We call this high-intensity low-energy electrons (HILEEs). The first spectrum results in an auroral display with a bright, lower green border. The second one results in red-dominated aurora extending up to the elevation angle of 35° when the equatorward boundary of the electron precipitation is located at 32° invariant latitude. The poleward boundary of the precipitation would be 42° invariant latitude or greater to explain the auroral display extending from near the horizon. The origin of the HILEEs is probably the plasma sheet or the plasmasphere that is transported earthward to L 1.39 due to enhanced magnetospheric convection. Local heating or acceleration is also plausible.

  18. Integrating Felting in Elementary Science Classrooms to Facilitate Understanding of the Polar Auroras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy Terrill

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS emphasize conceptual science instruction that draws on students’ ability to make observations, explain natural phenomena, and examine concept relationships. This paper explores integrating the arts, in the form of felting, in elementary science classrooms as a way for students to model and demonstrate understanding of the complex scientific processes that cause the polar auroras. The steps for creating felting, and using the felting artwork students create for assessing science learning, are described.

  19. GATEWAY Report Brief: OLED Lighting in the Offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-05-31

    Summary of a GATEWAY report evaluation at the offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc., in Grayslake, IL, where the GATEWAY program conducted its first investigation involving OLED lighting. The project experienced several challenges, but also highlighted a number of promising attributes – which indicate that with continued improvements in efficacy, longevity, size, and flexibility, OLEDs could provide a new tool for creative and effective lighting.

  20. A compact SR light source for x-ray lithography 'AURORA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toba, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A compact synchrotron radiation (SR) light source called AURORA has been developed for industrial use. It is specially designed for X-ray lithography. AURORA consists of a storage ring, injector microtron and SR light beam lines. The storage ring is a superconducting single magnet machine, designed to accelerate a 150 MeV electron beam to 650 MeV and to store as high as 300 mA current. The injector is a racetrack microtron (RTM) producing a pulsed 150 MeV beam. As many as 16 SR light beam channels are available for AURORA. Prototypes of the storage ring and RTM are constructed, and beam commissioning is performed. A hundred and fifty MeV electron beam of a pulsed current 10 μA from the RTM is successfully injected to the ring and accelerated to 600 MeV and 10 mA current stored with a lifetime of more than 20 hours. The half-integer method investigated is shown to work well with the injection efficiency being found to be very high. Improvement of the design is now under way. (N.K.)

  1. Observation of O+ (4P-4D0 lines in electron aurora over Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Throp

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on observations of O+ lines in aurora over Svalbard, Norway. The Spectrographic Imaging Facility measures auroral spectra in three wavelength intervals (Hβ, N+2 1N(0,2 and N+2 1N(1,3. The oxygen ion multiplet (4639-4696Å is blended with the band. It is found that in electron aurora, the brightness of this multiplet, is on average, about 0.1 of the total brightness. A joint optical and incoherent scatter radar study of an electron aurora event shows that the ratio is enhanced when the ionisation in the upper E-layer (140-190km is significant with respect to the E-layer peak below 130km. Rayed arcs were observed on one such occasion, whereas on other occasions the auroral intensity was below the threshold of the imager. A one-dimensional electron transport model is used to estimate the cross section for production of the multiplet in electron collisions, yielding 0.18x10-18cm2.

  2. Morphology and dynamics of aurora at fine scale: first results from the ASK instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dahlgren

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The ASK instrument (Auroral Structure and Kinetics is a narrow field auroral imager, providing simultaneous images of aurora in three different spectral bands at multiple frames per second resolution. The three emission species studied are O2+ (5620 Å, O+ (7319 Å and O (7774 Å. ASK was installed and operated for the first time in an observational campaign on Svalbard, from December 2005 to March 2006. The measurements were supported by data from the Spectrographic Imaging Facility (SIF. The relation between the morphology and dynamics of the visible aurora and its spectral characteristics is studied for selected events from this period. In these events it is found that dynamic aurora is coupled to high energy electron precipitation. By studying the O2+/O intensity ratio we find that some auroral filaments are caused by higher energy precipitation within regions of lower energy precipitation, whereas other filaments are the result of a higher particle flux compared to the surroundings.

  3. Phosphorylation of CPAP by Aurora-A Maintains Spindle Pole Integrity during Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, En-Ju; Hung, Liang-Yi; Tang, Chieh-Ju C; Hsu, Wen-Bin; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Liao, Pao-Chi; Tang, Tang K

    2016-03-29

    CPAP is required for centriole elongation during S/G2 phase, but the role of CPAP in mitosis is incompletely understood. Here, we show that CPAP maintains spindle pole integrity through its phosphorylation by Aurora-A during mitosis. Depletion of CPAP induced a prolonged delay in mitosis, pericentriolar material (PCM) dispersion, and multiple mitotic abnormalities. Further studies demonstrated that CPAP directly interacts with and is phosphorylated by Aurora-A at serine 467 during mitosis. Interestingly, the dispersal of the PCM was effectively rescued by ectopic expression of wild-type CPAP or a phospho-mimic CPAP-S467D mutant, but not a non-phosphorylated CPAP-S467A mutant. Finally, we found that CPAP-S467D has a low affinity for microtubule binding but a high affinity for PCM proteins. Together, our results support a model wherein CPAP is required for proper mitotic progression, and phosphorylation of CPAP by Aurora-A is essential for maintaining spindle pole integrity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The instantaneous relationship between polar cap and oval auroras at times of northward interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphree, J.S.; Anger, C.D.; Cogger, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    Optical images of the polar cap region at both 5577 and 3914 A obtained from 1400 km above the earth have been used to study the relationship between polar cap and oval aurora during periods when the interplanetary magnetic field is strongly northward, i.e., B > 3.5 nT. When this rather rare condition occurs, distinction between the two types of aurora is no longer as clear as depicted on the basis of statistical definitions of the auroral oval. Diffuse, weak emission can fill in the region between the auroral oval and discrete auroral features in the polar cap. The polar cap discrete features can appear very similar to auroral oval arcs in intensity, intensity ratio, and structure. Even more striking are the situations where discrete polar cap features merge with oval auroras. From this study it is concluded that under conditions of large positive B the region of closed magnetic field lines can expand poleward to occupy much of the high latitude region

  5. Phosphorylation of CPAP by Aurora-A Maintains Spindle Pole Integrity during Mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Ju Chou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CPAP is required for centriole elongation during S/G2 phase, but the role of CPAP in mitosis is incompletely understood. Here, we show that CPAP maintains spindle pole integrity through its phosphorylation by Aurora-A during mitosis. Depletion of CPAP induced a prolonged delay in mitosis, pericentriolar material (PCM dispersion, and multiple mitotic abnormalities. Further studies demonstrated that CPAP directly interacts with and is phosphorylated by Aurora-A at serine 467 during mitosis. Interestingly, the dispersal of the PCM was effectively rescued by ectopic expression of wild-type CPAP or a phospho-mimic CPAP-S467D mutant, but not a non-phosphorylated CPAP-S467A mutant. Finally, we found that CPAP-S467D has a low affinity for microtubule binding but a high affinity for PCM proteins. Together, our results support a model wherein CPAP is required for proper mitotic progression, and phosphorylation of CPAP by Aurora-A is essential for maintaining spindle pole integrity.

  6. A 230 ka record of glacial and interglacial events from Aurora Cave, Fiordland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.W.

    1996-01-01

    Caves overrun by glaciers are known to accumulate dateable evidence of past glacial and interglacial events. Results are reported from an investigation of Aurora Cave on the slopes above Lake Te Anau in Fiordland. The cave commenced to form before c. 230 ka B.P. Sequences of glaciofluvial sediments interbedded with speleothems are evidence of the number and timing of glacial advances and the status of intervals between them. Twenty-six uranium series dates on speleothems underpin a chronology of seven glacial advances in the last 230 ka, with the peak of the late Otira glaciation, Aurora 3 advance, at c. 19 ka B.P. With five advances in the Otiran, the last glaciation is more complex than previously recognised. Comparison of the record with that recorded offshore from DSDP Site 594 reveals little matching, but the correspondence of the Aurora sequence with that interpreted from other onshore deposits is more convincing. Glacial deposits on slopes above the cave for a further 660 m may be evidence of the 'missing' glacial events of the mid-early Pleistocene. (author). 44 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Strong Solar Control of Infrared Aurora on Jupiter: Correlation Since the Last Solar Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Hewagama, T.

    2009-01-01

    Polar aurorae in Jupiter's atmosphere radiate throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X ray through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 5 - 20 micron wavelength). Voyager IRIS data and ground-based spectroscopic measurements of Jupiter's northern mid-IR aurora, acquired since 1982, reveal a correlation between auroral brightness and solar activity that has not been observed in Jovian aurora at other wavelengths. Over nearly three solar cycles, Jupiter auroral ethane emission brightness and solar 10.7 cm radio flux and sunspot number are positively correlated with high confidence. Ethane line emission intensity varies over tenfold between low and high solar activity periods. Detailed measurements have been made using the GSFC HIPWAC spectrometer at the NASA IRTF since the last solar maximum, following the mid-IR emission through the declining phase toward solar minimum. An even more convincing correlation with solar activity is evident in these data. Current analyses of these results will be described, including planned measurements on polar ethane line emission scheduled through the rise of the next solar maximum beginning in 2009, with a steep gradient to a maximum in 2012. This work is relevant to the Juno mission and to the development of the Europa Jupiter System Mission. Results of observations at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) operated by the University of Hawaii under Cooperative Agreement no. NCC5-538 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Science Mission Directorate, Planetary Astronomy Program. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program.

  8. Resistance strategies of Phragmites australis (common reed to Pb pollution in flood and drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance strategies of clonal organs, and parent and offspring shoots of Phragmites australis (common reed to heavy metal pollution in soils are not well known. To clarify the tolerance or resistance strategies in reeds, we conducted a pot experiment with five levels of Pb concentration (0∼4,500 mg kg−1 in flood and drought conditions. Lead toxicity had no inhibitory effect on the number of offspring shoots in flood environment; however, biomass accumulation, and photosynthetic and clonal growth parameters were inhibited in both water environment. At each treatment of Pb concentration, offspring shoots had greater biomass and higher photosynthesis indicators than parent shoots. The lowest Pb allocation was found in rhizomes. More of the Pb transported to above-ground parts tended to accumulate in parent shoots rather than in offspring shoots. Biomass and photosynthesis of offspring shoots, rhizome length, and the number of buds, rhizomes and offspring shoots in the flooded treatment were significantly greater than those in the drought treatment. Our results indicated that the tolerance strategies used by reeds, including higher biomass accumulation and photosynthesis in offspring shoots, low allocation of Pb in rhizomes and offspring shoots, and stable clonal growth, maintained the stability of population propagation and productivity, improving the resistance of reeds to Pb pollution in flood environment. However, the resistance or tolerance was significantly reduced by the synergistic effect of Pb and drought, which significantly inhibited biomass accumulation, photosynthesis, and clonal growth of reeds.

  9. An exploration of common reed (Phragmites australis bioenergy potential in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vaičekonytė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In North America, reed (Phragmites australis is typically considered to be a weed although it provides important ecosystem services. Small, sparse, patchy or mixed reedbeds are more suitable as habitat for many species than extensive dense reedbeds, whose habitat functions can be enhanced by the selective removal of biomass. We propose that above-ground reed biomass could be harvested for bioenergy, at the same time improving habitat for biodiversity by thinning or fragmenting the more extensive reedbeds. Biofuel pellets manufactured from reeds harvested at Montréal (Canada had moisture content 6.4 %, energy content 16.9 kJ g-1 (dry mass, ash content 3.44 %, and chloride content 1962 ppm. Thus, reed as a material for fuel pellet manufacture is similar to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, which is commonly cultivated for that purpose and requires higher inputs than harvested wild reed. We discuss these findings in the context of environmental considerations and conclude that the bioenergy potential of reed could most expediently be realised in North America by combining material harvested from the widespread spontaneously occurring reedbeds with organic waste from other sources to create mixed biofuels. However, reeds with high levels of chlorine, sulphur or metals should not be burned to avoid air pollution or equipment damage unless these problems are mitigated by means of appropriate season of harvest, equipment, combustion regime, or use of a mixed feedstock.

  10. Proteomic analysis of blue light-induced twining response in Cuscuta australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongxiao; Wang, Liangjiang; Yang, Xiaopo; Zhang, Guoguang; Chen, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The parasitic plant Cuscuta australis (dodder) invades a variety of species by entwining the stem and leaves of a host and developing haustoria. The twining response prior to haustoria formation is regarded as the first sign for dodders to parasitize host plants, and thus has been the focus of studies on the host-parasite interaction. However, the molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. In the present work, we have investigated the different effects of blue and white light on the twining response, and identified a set of proteins that were differentially expressed in dodder seedlings using a proteomic approach. Approximately 1,800 protein spots were detected on each 2-D gel, and 47 spots with increased or decreased protein levels were selected and analyzed with MALDI-TOF-MS. Peptide mass fingerprints (PMFs) obtained for these spots were used for protein identification through cross-species database searches. The results suggest that the blue light-induced twining response in dodder seedlings may be mediated by proteins involved in light signal transduction, cell wall degradation, cell structure, and metabolism.

  11. A comparison of the impact of 'seagrass-friendly' boat mooring systems on Posidonia australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Marie-Claire A; Davis, Andrew R; Knott, Nathan A

    2013-02-01

    Permanent boat moorings have contributed to the decline of seagrasses worldwide, prompting the development of 'seagrass-friendly' moorings. We contrasted seagrass cover and density (predominantly Posidonia australis) in the vicinity of three mooring types and nearby reference areas lacking moorings in Jervis Bay, Australia. We examined two types of 'seagrass-friendly' mooring and a conventional 'swing' mooring. 'Swing' moorings produced significant seagrass scour, denuding patches of ~9 m radius. Seagrass-friendly 'cyclone' moorings produced extensive denuded patches (average radius of ~18 m). Seagrass-friendly 'screw' moorings, conversely, had similar seagrass cover to nearby reference areas. Our findings reinforce previous work highlighting the negative effects of 'swing' and 'cyclone' moorings. In contrast, the previously unstudied 'screw' moorings were highly effective. We conclude that regular maintenance of moorings and the monitoring of surrounding seagrass are required to ensure that 'seagrass-friendly' moorings are operating effectively. This is important, as following damage Posidonia will take many decades to recover. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Paper production from wild dogwood (Cornus australis L. and the effect of bark on paper properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Gençer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Generally bark has a negative effect pulp and paper properties. In this study, paper pulp and hand sheets were produced from Wild dogwood (Cornus australis L. using Kraft method. The cooking have been different conditions, chip / solution ratio 1/5, cooking temperature 170±2 °C by taking constant. Kraft method with the Na2S/NaOH, 18/20, 18/15, 18/10, 18/5 performed. Samples were used with and without bark in order to identify the negative impacts of the bark on pulp and paper production. In addition, it has been investigated whether the time of reaching the maximum temperature of K2 cooking is reduced from 120 minutes to 90 minutes, and the time and energy saving can be made. For all of the mechanical properties that were measured and pulp yield, the bark had a negative effect. But, this effect had not significant on mechanical properties at 95% significant level. On the other hand the bark had a negative effect on brightness and positive effects on opacity. These effects had significant at 95% significant level.

  13. Effects of nutrients on interaction between the invasive bidens pilosa the parasitic cusuta australis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, B.; Li, J.; Yan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic plants have been identified as potential biological agents to control invasive plants. Understanding the interaction between invasive plants and their novel natural enemies is important for understanding mechanisms underlying plant invasion success and thus taking measures to control invasion. We conducted a factorial experiment to test the interactive effects of nutrient addition (low vs. high) and parasitism (with vs. without Cuscuta australis) on the growth of the invasive Bidens pilosa. Parasitism significantly decreased leaf, stem and root biomass of the host invasive plant, and nutrient addition increased leaf and stem biomass of the host. A synergistic effect of parasitism and nutrient addition was found on stem and leaf biomass of the hosts. Nutrient addition significantly increased vegetative biomass of the parasitic plant and caused a more deleterious effect on the invasive host. Reproductive biomass of the parasitic plant was significantly positively related with net photosynthetic rate, light-utilisation efficiency and apparent carboxylation efficiency. Vegetative biomass and total biomass of the parasitic plants were significantly positively related with specific leaf area and the relative chlorophyll content of the host plant. The deleterious effect of the parasite on the growth of the host plant was significantly positively correlated with vegetative biomass of the parasitic plant. Nutrient addition increased the negative effect of the parasitic plant on the invasive host, indicating that the parasitic plant is potentially a biological control agent for the invasive plant even in the context of changing global resources. (author)

  14. Veiling and Accretion Around the Young Binary Stars S and VV Corona Australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kendall; Prato, Lisa; Avilez, Ian

    2018-01-01

    S CrA and VV CrA are two young binary star systems with separations of 170 AU and 250 AU, respectively, in the southern star-forming region Corona Australis. The spectral types of the four stars in these two systems are similar, approximately K7 to M1, hence the stellar masses are also similar. The study of young stars just emerging from their natal cloud cores at the very limits of observability allows us to probe the extreme environments in which planet formation begins to occur. Stars in this early evolutionary stage can have circumstellar or circumbinary disks, and sometimes remnants of the envelopes which surrounded them during the protostellar stage. Envelopes accrete onto disks and disks in turn accrete onto the central stars, triggering elevated continuum emission, line emission, outflows, and stellar winds. This violent stage marks the onset of the epoch of planet formation. Using high-resolution near-infrared, H-band spectroscopy from the Keck II telescope using the NIRSPEC instrument over 4-6 epochs, we are probing the chaotic environment surrounding the four stars in these systems. We determine the spectral types for VV CrA A and B for the first time, and examine the variable veiling and emission occurring around each of these stars. This research was supported in part by NSF grants AST-1461200 and AST-1313399.

  15. Clinical Manifestations and Outcomes of Rickettsia australis Infection: A 15-Year Retrospective Study of Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Stewart

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Queensland tick typhus (QTT; Rickettsia australis is an important cause of community-acquired acute febrile illness in eastern Australia. Cases of QTT were identified retrospectively from 2000 to 2015 at five sites in Northern Brisbane through a pathology database. Those included had a fourfold rise in spotted fever group (SFG-specific serology, a single SFG-specific serology ≥ 256 or SFG-specific serology ≥ 128 with a clinically consistent illness. Cases were excluded on the basis of clinical unlikelihood of QTT infection. Thirty-six cases were included. Fever was found in 34/36 (94% patients. Rash occurred in 83% of patients with maculopapular being the dominant morphology (70%. Thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, and raised transaminases were common and occurred in 58%, 69%, and 89% of patients, respectively. Thirty-one of 36 (86% patients received antibiotic therapy (usually doxycycline and the time to correct antibiotic (from admission ranged from 3 to 120 h (mean 45.5 h. Four of 36 (11% required intensive care unit (ICU admission for severe sepsis and end-organ support. There were no deaths. QTT has a wide range of clinical and laboratory features. Early and appropriate antimicrobial therapy is important and may prevent severe disease. Further prospective studies are required to identify factors associated with severe infection and sepsis.

  16. Nutritional, antioxidative, and antimicrobial analysis of the Mediterranean hackberry (Celtis australis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Ajda; Višnjevec, Ana Miklavčič; Vidrih, Rajko; Prgomet, Željko; Nečemer, Marijan; Hribar, Janez; Cimerman, Nina Gunde; Možina, Sonja Smole; Bučar-Miklavčič, Milena; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2017-01-01

    Celtis australis is a deciduous tree commonly known as Mediterranean hackberry or the European nettle tree. The fruit of hackberry are seldom used for nutritional purposes. The nutritional and physicochemical properties of ripe hackberry fruit from Istria (Marasi village near Vrsar, Croatia) were determined, including water, total fiber, protein, vitamin, mineral, and phenolic contents. This analysis demonstrates that the hackberry fruit is a valuable source of dietary fiber, protein, and vitamins, and of pigments such as lutein, β -carotene, zeaxanthin, and tocopherols. The seasonal differences associated with the different growth stages for the element composition, total phenolic content, and phenolic profile were also determined for hackberry mesocarp and leaves. Water and ethanol extracts were prepared from mesocarp and leaves harvested at different growth stages and their phenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated. This study demonstrates that water and ethanol extracts of hackberry fruit and leaves collected at different growth stages contain epicatechin, gallic acid, vanillic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, delphinidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside, and pelargonidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside. They also show some antimicrobial and antifungal activities. Further studies are needed to identify and define the active ingredients of these hackberry leaf ethanol extracts.

  17. Covalent structure of the insect toxin of the North African scorpion Androctonus australis Hector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbon, H.; Kopeyan, C.; Rietschoten, J. van; Rochat, H.; Zlotkin, E.

    1982-01-01

    The complete covalent structure of the insect toxin purified from the venom of the North-African scorpion Androctonus australis Hector was described. Its amino acid sequence was established by phenylisothiocyanate degradation of several protein derivatives and proteolytic fragments in a liquid protein sequencer using either a ''protein'' or a ''peptide'' program. The position of the four disulfide bridges were deduced by analysis of proteolytic peptides before and after performic oxidation, and by partial labeling of the half cystine residues with [ 14 C]-iodoacetic acid and determining the specific radioactivities of the S-[ 14 C]-carboxymethylated phenylthiohydantoin cysteines. The sequences of the insect and mammal toxins from scorpions can be aligned with homology with the positions of seven half-cystine residues as registers. The mammal and insect toxins have three disulfide bridges at homologous positions. The fourth bridge is different in that Cys 12 in mammal toxin II is replaced by Cys 38 in the insect toxin. It is likely that the position of the disulfide bridges is the same for all scorpion neurotoxins active on mammals. We believe that the shift of one half-cystine residue in the insect toxin may induce a conformational change in the structure of the protein, which, in turn, may partially account for the total specificity of this toxin for insect nervous system. (author)

  18. Cellular and ultrastructural characterization of the grey-morph phenotype in southern right whales (Eubalaena australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroh, Guy D; Clayton, Fred C; Florell, Scott R; Cassidy, Pamela B; Chirife, Andrea; Marón, Carina F; Valenzuela, Luciano O; Campbell, Michael S; Seger, Jon; Rowntree, Victoria J; Leachman, Sancy A

    2017-01-01

    Southern right whales (SRWs, Eubalena australis) are polymorphic for an X-linked pigmentation pattern known as grey morphism. Most SRWs have completely black skin with white patches on their bellies and occasionally on their backs; these patches remain white as the whale ages. Grey morphs (previously referred to as partial albinos) appear mostly white at birth, with a splattering of rounded black marks; but as the whales age, the white skin gradually changes to a brownish grey color. The cellular and developmental bases of grey morphism are not understood. Here we describe cellular and ultrastructural features of grey-morph skin in relation to that of normal, wild-type skin. Melanocytes were identified histologically and counted, and melanosomes were measured using transmission electron microscopy. Grey-morph skin had fewer melanocytes when compared to wild-type skin, suggesting reduced melanocyte survival, migration, or proliferation in these whales. Grey-morph melanocytes had smaller melanosomes relative to wild-type skin, normal transport of melanosomes to surrounding keratinocytes, and normal localization of melanin granules above the keratinocyte nuclei. These findings indicate that SRW grey-morph pigmentation patterns are caused by reduced numbers of melanocytes in the skin, as well as by reduced amounts of melanin production and/or reduced sizes of mature melanosomes. Grey morphism is distinct from piebaldism and albinism found in other species, which are genetic pigmentation conditions resulting from the local absence of melanocytes, or the inability to synthesize melanin, respectively.

  19. The removal of heavy metals by iron mine drainage sludge and Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang Ha, Nguyen Thi; Anh, Bui Thi Kim

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the removal of heavy metals from solutions by the combination of modified iron mine drainage sludge (sorbent column) and surface and subsurface flow constructed wetlands using the common reed (Phragmites australis) during 30 days of experiment. The results of this study demonstrated that the average removal rates of Zn, Pb, Mn, and As by sorbent column were 59.0, 55.1, 38.7, and 42.4%, respectively. The decreasing trend of removal rates of metals by sorbent column was obtained during the experiment. The average removal rates of Zn, Pb, Mn, and As by sorbent column-surface constructed wetland were 78.9, 73.5, 91.2, and 80.5%, respectively; those by sorbent column-subsurface flow constructed wetland were 81.7, 81.1, 94.1, and 83.1% which reflected that subsurface flow constructed wetland showed higher removal rate than the surface system. Concentrations of heavy metals in the outlet water were lower than the Vietnamese standard limits regulated for industrial wastewater. The results indicate the feasibility of integration of iron mine drainage sludge and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment.

  20. Effects of sediment burial disturbance on macro and microelement dynamics in decomposing litter of Phragmites australis in the coastal marsh of the Yellow River estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhigao; Mou, Xiaojie

    2016-03-01

    From April 2008 to November 2009, a field decomposition experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sediment burial on macro (C, N) and microelement (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Mn) variations in decomposing litter of Phragmites australis in the coastal marsh of the Yellow River estuary. Three one-off sediment burial treatments [no sediment burial (0 mm year(-1), S0), current sediment burial (100 mm year(-1), S10), and strong sediment burial (200 mm year(-1), S20)] were laid in different decomposition sites. Results showed that sediment burials showed significant influence on the decomposition rate of P. australis, in the order of S10 (0.001990 day(-1)) ≈ S20 (0.001710 day(-1)) > S0 (0.000768 day(-1)) (p macro and microelement in decomposing litters of the three burial depths exhibited different temporal variations except for Cu, Zn, and Ni. No significant differences in C, N, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Mn concentrations were observed among the three burial treatments except for Cu and Ni (p > 0.05). With increasing burial depth, N, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Mn concentrations generally increased, while C, Pb, and Zn concentrations varied insignificantly. Sediment burial was favorable for C and N release from P. australis, and, with increasing burial depth, the C release from litter significantly increased, and the N in litter shifted from accumulation to release. With a few exceptions, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Mn stocks in P. australis in the three treatments evidenced the export of metals from litter to environment, and, with increasing burial depth, the export amounts increased greatly. Stocks of Cu and Ni in P. australis in the S10 and S20 treatments were generally positive, evidencing incorporation of the two metals in most sampling times. Except for Ni, the variations of C, N, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Mn stocks in P. australis in the S10 and S20 treatments were approximated, indicating that the strong burial episodes (S20) occurred in P. australis marsh in the future

  1. The Composition and The Content of The Main Pigments on Dodders Plant Cuscuta australis R.Br. and Cassytha filiformis L.

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    Heriyanto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on dodders plant Cuscuta australis R.Br. and Cassytha filiformis L was done to analyze their pigment composition and content. The pigment composition was analyzed by the use of thin layer chromatography (TLC method based on spot color and retardation factor. The water content was measured according to Sudarmadji et. al. The chlorophylls and carotenoid contents were calculated by Porra et. al. and Gross equation, respectively. Result showed that Cuscuta australis R.Br. (green yellowish and orange and Cassytha filiformis L. (green and brown reddish had similar pigment composition consist of carotene, pheophytin a, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and xanthophyll. The average of the chlorophyll content from the highest to the lowest one was Cassytha filiformis L. green followed by Cuscuta australis R.Br. green yellowish and orange, while the total chlorophyll of Cassytha filiformis L. brown reddish was relatively similar with other dodders plant. The average of the carotenoid content from the highest to the lowest was Cuscuta australis R.Br. orange followed by Cuscuta australis R.Br. green yellowish. The pigment content of Cassytha filiformis L. was relatively similar to Cassytha filiformis L. brown reddish.

  2. Contamination of Soil with Pb and Sb at a Lead-Acid Battery Dumpsite and Their Potential Early Uptake by Phragmites australis

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    Abraham Jera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of spent Lead-Acid Batteries (LABs and disposal of process slag potentially contaminate soil with Pb and Sb. Total and available concentrations of Pb and Sb in three soil treatments and parts of Phragmites australis were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Soil with nonrecycled slag (NR had higher total metal concentrations than that with recycled slag (RS. Low available fractions of Pb and Sb were found in the soil treatments before planting P. australis. After 16 weeks of growth of P. australis, the available fractions of Pb had no statistical difference from initial values (p>0.05 while available Sb fractions were significantly lower when compared with their initial values (p<0.05. Metal transfer factors showed that P. australis poorly accumulate Pb and Sb in roots and very poorly translocate them to leaves after growing for 8 and 16 weeks. It may be a poor phytoextractor of Pb and Sb in metal-contaminated soil at least for the 16 weeks of its initial growth. However, the plant established itself on the metalliferous site where all vegetation had been destroyed. This could be useful for potential ecological restoration. The long-term phytoextraction potential of P. australis in such environments as LABs may need further investigation.

  3. First Joint Observations of Radio Aurora by the VHF and HF Radars of the ISTP SB RAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngardt, O. I.; Lebedev, V. P.; Kutelev, K. A.; Kushnarev, D. S.; Grkovich, K. V.

    2018-01-01

    Two modern radars for diagnosis of the ionosphere by the radio-wave backscattering method, namely, the Irkutsk incoherent scatter radar at VHF (IISR, 154-162 MHz) and the Ekaterinburg coherent radar at HF (EKB, 8-20 MHz) are operated at the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISTP SB RAS). The paper analyzes the results of joint observations of strong scattering (radio aurora) on June 8, 2015. To determine the geographical position of the radio aurora, we developed original methods that take into account both the features of the radio-wave propagation and the features of the radar antenna systems. It is shown that there are areas where the spatial position of the HF and VHF radio aurora can coincide. This permits using the radars as a single complex for diagnosis of the characteristics of small-scale high-latitude irregularities in the ionospheric E and F layers. A comparative analysis of the characteristics and temporal dynamics of the radio-aurora region in the HF and VHF ranges is performed. Using the DMSP satellite data, it has been shown that the radio aurora dynamics during this experiment with the EKB radar can be related with the spatial dynamics of the localized area with high electric field, which moves from high to equatorial latitudes. It is found that due to the broader field of view, radio aurora at the HF radar was stably observed 6-12 min earlier than at the VHF radar. This permits using the EKB radar data for prediction of the radio-aurora detection by the IISR radar.

  4. Phylogeography of Australia's king brown snake (Pseudechis australis) reveals Pliocene divergence and Pleistocene dispersal of a top predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuch, Ulrich; Keogh, J. Scott; Weigel, John; Smith, Laurie A.; Mebs, Dietrich

    2005-03-01

    King brown snakes or mulga snakes (Pseudechis australis) are the largest and among the most dangerous and wide-ranging venomous snakes in Australia and New Guinea. They occur in diverse habitats, are important predators, and exhibit considerable morphological variation. We infer the relationships and historical biogeography of P. australis based on phylogenetic analysis of 1,249 base pairs from the mitochondrial cytochrome b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 and three adjacent tRNA genes using Bayesian, maximum-likelihood, and maximum-parsimony methods. All methods reveal deep phylogenetic structure with four strongly supported clades comprising snakes from New Guinea (I), localities all over Australia (II), the Kimberleys of Western Australia (III), and north-central Australia (IV), suggesting a much more ancient radiation than previously believed. This conclusion is robust to different molecular clock estimations indicating divergence in Pliocene or Late Miocene, after landbridge dispersal to New Guinea had occurred. While members of clades I, III and IV are medium-sized, slender snakes, those of clade II attain large sizes and a robust build, rendering them top predators in their ecosystems. Genetic differentiation within clade II is low and haplotype distribution largely incongruent with geography or colour morphs, suggesting Pleistocene dispersal and recent ecomorph evolution. Significant haplotype diversity exists in clades III and IV, implying that clade IV comprises two species. Members of clade II are broadly sympatric with members of both northern Australian clades. Thus, our data support the recognition of at least five species from within P. australis (auct.) under various criteria. We discuss biogeographical, ecological and medical implications of our findings.

  5. R. B. Cunninghame Graham’s “Aurora La Cujiñi” (1898 : An Exploration / Aurora La Cujiñi” (1898 de R. B. Cunninghame Graham - Una indagación

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    John C. Mc Intyre

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In Aurora La Cujiñi-A realistic sketch in Seville, published by the Scottish writer R. B. Cunninghame Graham in 1898, the frontispiece showed the sepia image of a female flamenco dancer. What might ‘La Cujiñi’ mean? Charles Davillier and Gustave Doré in 1862-63 note the existence of a Sevillan dancer with this name. In 2011 the present writer was gifted an old lithograph, in colour, published in Seville ‘c. 1850’ and entitled ‘Aurora La Cujiñí’ - with ñ and í. The two images are supplied. ‘Aurora La Cujiñi’ really existed. Graham’s sketch has five phases: Seville; the bullfight; the crowd’s return to town; a low-quality flamenco show; and the highly stirring performance by an initially anonymous female dancer - the dead Aurora brought back to life. Graham emphasises the Seville blend of blood and sensuality in a realist style also capable of mockery and criticism. Graham’s writing includes a good variety of well-controlled Spanish vocabulary, his empathy with horses and a deep nostalgia for times past. W. H. Hudson, writer and friend of Graham, in 1894 recommended that Graham should read the Argentine sketches published by Alfred Ébélot in 1890. In Aurora La Cujiñi Graham in 1898 is beginning to show mastery of the literary sketch. Question: Might Lorca have read Aurora La Cujiñi before drafting “Teoría y juego del duende”? Resumen: En Aurora La Cujiñi-A realistic sketch in Seville (1898 del escritor escocés R. B. Cunninghame Graham, el frontispicio llevaba la imagen en sepia de una bailadora de flamenco. ¿Qué podría significar ‘La Cujiñi’? Charles Davillier y Gustave Doré en 1862-1863 apuntan la existencia de una bailaora sevillana con este nombre. En 2011 al que esto escribe le regalaron una litografía antigua, en color, publicada en Sevilla ‘hacia 1850’ e intitulada ‘Aurora la Cujiñí’ - con ñ y con í. Se incluyen las dos imágenes. ‘Aurora La Cujiñi’ realmente

  6. Toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic analyses of Androctonus australis hector venom in rats: Optimization of antivenom therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudi-Triki, D.; Lefort, J.; Rougeot, C.; Robbe-Vincent, A.; Bon, C.; Laraba-Djebari, F.; Choumet, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the simultaneous determination of toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic properties of Androctonus australis hector venom, in the absence and presence of antivenom (F(ab') 2 and Fab), in envenomed rats. After subcutaneous injection of the venom, toxins showed a complete absorption phase from the site of injection associated with a distribution into a large extravascular compartment. The injection of Fab and F(ab') 2 induced the neutralization of venom antigens in the blood compartment, as well as the redistribution of venom components from the extravascular compartment to the blood compartment. Interestingly, F(ab') 2 and Fab showed distinct efficiencies depending on their route of injection. F(ab') 2 induced a faster venom neutralization and redistribution than Fab when injected intravenously. Fab was more effective than F(ab') 2 by the intramuscular route. The hemodynamic effects of Aah venom were further investigated. Changes in mean arterial pressure and heart rate were observed in parallel with an upper airway obstruction. Fab was more effective than F(ab') 2 for preventing early symptoms of envenomation, whatever their route of administration. Intraperitoneal injection of F(ab') 2 and Fab was similar for the prevention of the delayed symptoms, even after a late administration. Fab was more effective than F(ab') 2 in the inhibition of airway resistance, independent of the route and time of administration. These results show that the treatment for scorpion stings might be improved by the intravascular injection of a mixture of Fab and F(ab') 2 . If antivenom cannot be administered intravenously, Fab might be an alternative as they are more effective than F(ab') 2 when injected intramuscularly

  7. Quantification of environment-driven changes in epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities associated to Phragmites australis

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    Miguel CAÑEDO-ARGÜELLES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities associated with the Common Reed, Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steudel, were examined seasonally from summer 2004 to spring 2005 in eleven coastal lagoons of the Llobregat Delta (NE Spain following the method proposed by Kornijów & Kairesalo (1994. The aims of the study were to: 1 characterise and quantify changes in epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities along environmental gradients; 2 assess the contribution of elements of the epiphytic compartment to structuring the community; 3 define the optima and tolerances of selected epiphytic macroinvertebrate taxa for the most relevant ecological factors responsible for assemblage composition; and 4 identify possible epiphytic species assemblages that would allow a lagoon’s typology to be established, as well as their representative indicator species. Communities showed statistically significant seasonal variation, with two faunal peaks: one in summer, with high chironomid densities, and the other in winter, with high naidid densities. These peaks showed a clear response to the influence of environmental factors. Salinity explained the highest percentage of total variance (36%, while trophic variables (nutrients, phytoplanktonic chlorophyll-a, and total organic carbon and epiphyton biomass (19.2 and 4% of total variance explained, respectively were secondary. Three different epiphytic macroinvertebrate species assemblages could be defined. These assemblages were directly linked to conductivity conditions, which determined the rate of survival of certain taxa, and to the existence of a direct connection with the sea, which permitted the establishment of "brackish-water" species. In spite of the existence of these species assemblages, the species composition and biomass of epiphytic macroinvertebrates and epiphyton differed substantially between lagoons; both elements were subject to changes in the environment, which finally determined the site

  8. Comparison of mercury contamination in live and dead dolphins from a newly described species, Tursiops australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Monk

    Full Text Available Globally it is estimated that up to 37% of all marine mammals are at a risk of extinction, due in particular to human impacts, including coastal pollution. Dolphins are known to be at risk from anthropogenic contaminants due to their longevity and high trophic position. While it is known that beach-cast animals are often high in contaminants, it has not been possible to determine whether levels may also be high in live animals from the same populations. In this paper we quantitatively assess mercury contamination in the two main populations of a newly described dolphin species from south eastern Australia, Tursiops australis. This species appear to be limited to coastal waters in close proximity to a major urban centre, and as such is likely to be vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution. For the first time, we were able to compare blubber mercury concentrations from biopsy samples of live individuals and necropsies of beach-cast animals and show that beach-cast animals were highly contaminated with mercury, at almost three times the levels found in live animals. Levels in live animals were also high, and are attributable to chronic low dose exposure to mercury from the dolphin's diet. Measurable levels of mercury were found in a number of important prey fish species. This illustrates the potential for low dose toxins in the environment to pass through marine food webs and potentially contribute to marine mammal deaths. This study demonstrates the potential use of blubber from biopsy samples to make inferences about the health of dolphins exposed to mercury.

  9. Diversity of fungal endophytes in non-native Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Keith; Shearin, Zachery; Bourke, Kimberly; Bickford, Wesley A.; Kowalski, Kurt P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant–microbial interactions may play a key role in plant invasions. One common microbial interaction takes place between plants and fungal endophytes when fungi asymptomatically colonize host plant tissues. The objectives of this study were to isolate and sequence fungal endophytes colonizing non-native Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes region to evaluate variation in endophyte community composition among three host tissue types and three geographical regions. We collected entire ramets from multiple clones and populations, surface sterilized plant tissues, and plated replicate tissue samples from leaves, stems, and rhizomes on corn meal agar plates to culture and isolate fungal endophytes. Isolates were then subjected to Sanger sequencing of the ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Sequences were compared to fungal databases to define operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were analyzed statistically for community composition. In total, we obtained 173 endophyte isolates corresponding to 55 OTUs, 39 of which were isolated only a single time. The most common OTU corresponded most closely to Sarocladium strictum and comprised 25 % of all fungal isolates. More OTUs were found in stem tissues, but endophyte diversity was greatest in rhizome tissues. PERMANOVA analyses indicated significant differences in endophyte communities among tissue types, geographical regions, and the interaction between those factors, but no differences among individual ramets were detected. The functional role of the isolated endophytes is not yet known, but one genus isolated here (Stagonospora) has been reported to enhance Phragmites growth. Understanding the diversity and functions of Phragmites endophytes may provide targets for control measures based on disrupting host plant/endophyte interactions.

  10. Comparison of mercury contamination in live and dead dolphins from a newly described species, Tursiops australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Alissa; Charlton-Robb, Kate; Buddhadasa, Saman; Thompson, Ross M

    2014-01-01

    Globally it is estimated that up to 37% of all marine mammals are at a risk of extinction, due in particular to human impacts, including coastal pollution. Dolphins are known to be at risk from anthropogenic contaminants due to their longevity and high trophic position. While it is known that beach-cast animals are often high in contaminants, it has not been possible to determine whether levels may also be high in live animals from the same populations. In this paper we quantitatively assess mercury contamination in the two main populations of a newly described dolphin species from south eastern Australia, Tursiops australis. This species appear to be limited to coastal waters in close proximity to a major urban centre, and as such is likely to be vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution. For the first time, we were able to compare blubber mercury concentrations from biopsy samples of live individuals and necropsies of beach-cast animals and show that beach-cast animals were highly contaminated with mercury, at almost three times the levels found in live animals. Levels in live animals were also high, and are attributable to chronic low dose exposure to mercury from the dolphin's diet. Measurable levels of mercury were found in a number of important prey fish species. This illustrates the potential for low dose toxins in the environment to pass through marine food webs and potentially contribute to marine mammal deaths. This study demonstrates the potential use of blubber from biopsy samples to make inferences about the health of dolphins exposed to mercury.

  11. Comparison of Mercury Contamination in Live and Dead Dolphins from a Newly Described Species, Tursiops australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Alissa; Charlton-Robb, Kate; Buddhadasa, Saman; Thompson, Ross M.

    2014-01-01

    Globally it is estimated that up to 37% of all marine mammals are at a risk of extinction, due in particular to human impacts, including coastal pollution. Dolphins are known to be at risk from anthropogenic contaminants due to their longevity and high trophic position. While it is known that beach-cast animals are often high in contaminants, it has not been possible to determine whether levels may also be high in live animals from the same populations. In this paper we quantitatively assess mercury contamination in the two main populations of a newly described dolphin species from south eastern Australia, Tursiops australis. This species appear to be limited to coastal waters in close proximity to a major urban centre, and as such is likely to be vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution. For the first time, we were able to compare blubber mercury concentrations from biopsy samples of live individuals and necropsies of beach-cast animals and show that beach-cast animals were highly contaminated with mercury, at almost three times the levels found in live animals. Levels in live animals were also high, and are attributable to chronic low dose exposure to mercury from the dolphin's diet. Measurable levels of mercury were found in a number of important prey fish species. This illustrates the potential for low dose toxins in the environment to pass through marine food webs and potentially contribute to marine mammal deaths. This study demonstrates the potential use of blubber from biopsy samples to make inferences about the health of dolphins exposed to mercury. PMID:25137255

  12. Nitrous oxide emissions from Phragmites australis-dominated zones in a shallow lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhifeng; Zhao Ying; Xia Xinghui

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from Phragmites australis (reed) – dominated zones in Baiyangdian Lake, the largest shallow lake of Northern China, were investigated under different hydrological conditions with mesocosm experiments during the growing season of reeds. The daily and monthly N 2 O emissions were positively correlated with air temperature and the variation of aboveground biomass of reeds (p 2 O emissions from reeds were about 45.8–52.8% of that from the sediments. In terms of the effect of hydrological conditions, N 2 O emissions from the aquatic-terrestrial ecotone were 9.4–26.1% higher than the submerged zone, inferring that the variation of water level would increase N 2 O emissions. The annual N 2 O emission from Baiyangdian Lake was estimated to be about 114.2 t. This study suggested that N 2 O emissions from shallow lakes might be accelerated by the climate change as it has increased air temperature and changed precipitation, causing the variation of water level. - Highlights: ► The daily N 2 O emissions were significant positively correlated with air temperature. ► The monthly N 2 O emissions positively correlated with reed aboveground biomass variations. ► The N 2 O emissions from reeds contributed to 45.8–52.8% of that from the sediment. ► N 2 O emissions from the aquatic-terrestrial ecotone were 9.4–26.1% higher than the submerged zone. ► N 2 O emissions from shallow lakes might be accelerated by the climate change. - The increase of air temperature and water level variation would increase N 2 O emissions, suggesting N 2 O emissions from shallow lakes might be accelerated by climate change.

  13. A comparative study on the uptake and translocation of organochlorines by Phragmites australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Miguel, Angélique; Ravanel, Patrick [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS n°5553, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Raveton, Muriel, E-mail: muriel.raveton@ujf-grenoble.fr [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS n°5553, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► This study compares uptake/translocation of organochlorine congeners in macrophytes. ► First, root OC uptake was strongly linked with the partitioning/diffusion process. ► With time exposure, bioconcentration increased with OC solubility and volatility. ► Translocation was linked to the combination of water flow and vapor flux transfers. ► The most volatile OCs might be phytovolatilized from foliar surfaces. -- Abstract: Organochlorines (OCs) are persistent chemicals found in various environmental compartments. The differences in the uptake of {sup 14}C-labeled 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γHCH) by Phragmites australis were investigated under hydroponic conditions. The first step in sorption appears to be correlated with the hydrophobic nature of the compounds, since log-linear correlations were obtained between root concentration factor and partition coefficient (LogK{sub ow}). After 7 days of exposure, plant uptake of DCB, TCB, γHCH was significant with bioconcentration factors reaching 14, 19 and 15, respectively. Afterwards, uptake and translocation were seen to be more complex, with a loss of the simple relationship between uptake and LogK{sub ow}. Linear correlations between the bioconcentration/translocation factors and the physico-chemical properties of OCs were shown, demonstrating that translocation from roots to shoots increases with solubility and volatility of the OCs. This suggests that OC-translocation inside plants might result from the combination of two processes, xylem sap flow and vapor fluxes. {sup 14}C-phytovolatilization was measured and was correlated with the volatility of the compounds; the more volatile OCs being most the likely to be phytovolatilized from foliar surfaces (p = 0.0008). Thus, OC-uptake/translocation appears to proceed at a rate that depends mostly on the OCs hydrophobicity, solubility and volatility.

  14. Against the odds: complete outcrossing in a monoecious clonal seagrass Posidonia australis (Posidoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Elizabeth A; Gecan, Ilena; Krauss, Siegfried L; Kendrick, Gary A

    2014-06-01

    Seagrasses are marine, flowering plants with a hydrophilous pollination strategy. In these plants, successful mating requires dispersal of filamentous pollen grains through the water column to receptive stigmas. Approximately 40 % of seagrass species are monoecious, and therefore little pollen movement is required if inbreeding is tolerated. Outcrossing in these species is further impacted by clonality, which is variable, but can be extensive in large, dense meadows. Despite this, little is known about the interaction between clonal structure, genetic diversity and mating systems in hydrophilous taxa. Polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were used to characterize genetic diversity, clonal structure, mating system and realized pollen dispersal in two meadows of the temperate, monoecious seagrass, Posidonia australis, in Cockburn Sound, Western Australia. Within the two sampled meadows, genetic diversity was moderate among the maternal shoots (R = 0·45 and 0·64) and extremely high in the embryos (R = 0·93-0·97). Both meadows exhibited a highly clumping (or phalanx) structure among clones, with spatial autocorrelation analysis showing significant genetic structure among shoots and embryos up to 10-15 m. Outcrossing rates were not significantly different from one. Pollen dispersal distances inferred from paternity assignment averaged 30·8 and 26·8 m, which was larger than the mean clone size (12·8 and 13·8 m). These results suggest highly effective movement of pollen in the water column. Despite strong clonal structure and moderate genetic diversity within meadows, hydrophilous pollination is an effective vector for completely outcrossed offspring. The different localized water conditions at each site (highly exposed conditions vs. weak directional flow) appear to have little influence on the success and pattern of successful pollination in the two meadows. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All

  15. Stable isotopes indicate population structuring in the southwest Atlantic population of right whales (Eubalaena australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Vighi

    Full Text Available From the early 17th century to the 1970s southern right whales, Eubalaena australis, were subject to intense exploitation along the Atlantic coast of South America. Catches along this coast recorded by whalers originally formed a continuum from Brazil to Tierra del Fuego. Nevertheless, the recovery of the population has apparently occurred fragmentarily, and with two main areas of concentration, one off southern Brazil (Santa Catarina and another off central Argentina (Peninsula Valdés. This pattern suggests some level of heterogeneity amongst the population, which is apparently contradicted by records that traced individuals moving throughout the whole geographical extension covered by the species in the Southwest Atlantic. To test the hypothesis of the potential occurrence of discrete subpopulations exploiting specific habitats, we investigated N, C and O isotopic values in 125 bone samples obtained from whaling factories operating in the early 1970s in southern Brazil (n=72 and from contemporary and more recent strandings occurring in central Argentina (n=53. Results indicated significant differences between the two sampling areas, being δ13C and δ18O values significantly higher in samples from southern Brazil than in those from central Argentina. This variation was consistent with isotopic baselines from the two areas, indicating the occurrence of some level of structure in the Southwest Atlantic right whale population and equally that whales more likely feed in areas commonly thought to exclusively serve as nursing grounds. Results aim at reconsidering of the units currently used in the management of the southern right whale in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. In the context of the current die-off affecting the species in Peninsula Valdés, these results also highlight the necessity to better understand movements of individuals and precisely identify their feeding areas.

  16. Optical observations of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere coupling: Inter-hemispheric electron reflections within pulsating aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Khazanov, G. V.; Grubbs, G. A., II

    2017-12-01

    Magnetosphere-Ionosphere coupling is exhibited in reflected primary and secondary electrons which constitute the second step in the formation of the total precipitating electron distribution. While they have largely been missing from the current theoretical studies of particle precipitation, ground based observations point to the existence of a reflected electron population. We present evidence that pulsating aurora is caused by electrons bouncing back and forth between the two hemispheres. This means that these electrons are responsible for some of the total light in the aurora, a possibility that has largely been ignored in theoretical models. Pulsating auroral events imaged optically at high time resolution present direct observational evidence in agreement with the inter-hemispheric electron bouncing predicted by the SuperThermal Electron Trans-port (STET) model. Immediately following each of the `pulsation-on' times are equally spaced, and subsequently fainter pulsations, which can be explained by the primary precipitating electrons reflecting upwards from the ionosphere, traveling to the opposite hemisphere, and reflecting upwards again. The high time-resolution of these data, combined with the short duration of the `pulsation-on' time ( 1 s) and the relatively long spacing between pulsations ( 6 to 9 s) made it possible to observe the faint optical pulses caused by the reflected electrons coming from the opposite hemisphere. These results are significant and have broad implications because they highlight that the formation of the auroral electron distributions within regions of diffuse and pulsating aurora contain contributions from reflected primary and secondary electrons. These processes can ultimately lead to larger fluxes than expected when considering only the primary injection of magnetospheric electrons.

  17. Simultaneous measurement of aurora-related, irregular magnetic pulsations at northern and southern high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoldy, R.L.; Rajashekar, R.; Cahill, L.J. Jr.; Engebretson, M.J.; Rosenberg, T.J.; Mende, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    A dominant feature of high-latitude magnetic pulsations is large-amplitude irregular pulsations (Pi) which are closely correlated with the movement of the observing station under particle precipitation, producing the dayside auroral and the high-latitude expansion of nightside aurora. The dayside Pi-1 pulsation maximum centered about local magnetic noon has no strong seasonal dependence, indicating that the dayside aurora illuminates both hemispheres independent of the latitude of the subsolar point. The summer noon pulsation maximum has, however, a greater longitudinal extent than the winter noon maximum, as measured at 74 degree-75 degree invariant latitude. The nightside magnetic pulsations are bursts of Pi (PiB) having an average duration of 15 min. From Defense Meteorological Satellite Program photos the auroral forms related to the high-latitude PiB can be identified as the poleward discrete arc generally having a large longitudinal extent. If the auroral forms are very similar in both hemispheres, then the large longitudinal extent coupled with movement of the auroral could explain why 85% of the PiB events have onsets within 10 min at opposite hemisphere sites (South Pole, Antarctica, and Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland) separated in local magnetic time by about 1.5 hours. There is no seasonal dependence in the statistical occurrence of PiB, nor in its simultaneity in opposite hemispheres. Apparently, the seasonal distortion of the tail plasma sheet has little effect on the acceleration of high-latitude auroral beams. The actual several minute time difference in opposite hemisphere onsets of PiB is probably due to the westward/poleward motion of the longitudinally extended aurora

  18. The aurora at quite magnetospheric conditions: Repeatability and dipole tilt angle dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oznovich, I.; Eastes, R.W.; Huffman, R.E.; Tur, M.; Glaser, I.

    1993-01-01

    Is there a magnetospheric ground state? Do the position and size of the auroral oval depend on the magnetic dipole tilt angle at quiet magnetospheric conditions? In order to address these questions, northern hemisphere images of the aurora at 1356 Angstrom, obtained by Polar BEAR at solar minimum (beginning of 1987), were related to high temporal resolution IPM 8 measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field, to solar wind velocity, and to the ground-based activity index Kp. The first problem was addressed by a two-dimensional correlation study of the repeatability of auroral emissions in corrected geomagnetic space at conditions of minimum energy transfer from the magnetosphere. The correlation measure of auroral images was 0.6-0.85. Error simulations indicate that given the uncertainties in pixel position and intensity, the maximum expected value of the correlation measure is 0.65-0.9. The notion of a ground state magnetosphere is therefore supported by this data. Repeatability was found at the same level regardless of time or reconfigurations of the magnetosphere between images and independent of magnetic time sector. The second problem was addressed by relating latitudinal shifts of the aurora with dipole tilt angle without resorting to auroral boundary specification. This data indicate that the latitude of the continuous aurora is related to the dipole tilt angle at quiet magnetospheric conditions. In the winter hemisphere a 10 degrees increase in the dipole tilt angle causes a 1 degree decrease (increase) in the latitude of auroral emissions at noon (midnight). The magnetic local time distribution of the latitudinal shifts with dipole tilt angle support a simple model in which the dipole tilt angle determines the position of the center of the auroral circle along the magnetic meridian 1320-0120 MLT (for IMF B y positive) and does not affect its radius. 22 refs., 8 figs

  19. Long-term responses of Burrunan dolphins (Tursiops australis to swim-with dolphin tourism in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia: A population at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Filby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated Burrunan dolphin responses to dolphin-swim tour vessels across two time periods: 1998–2000 and 2011–2013. A total of 211 dolphin sightings were documented across 306 surveys. Sighting success rate and mean encounter time with dolphins decreased significantly by 12.8% and 8.2 min, respectively, between periods. Approaches that did not contravene regulations elicited highest approach responses by dolphins towards tour vessels, whereas dolphins’ responded to illegal approaches most frequently with avoidance. Small groups responded to tour vessels with avoidance significantly more than large groups. Initial dolphin behaviour had a strong effect on dolphin’s responses to tour vessels, with resting groups the most likely to exhibit avoidance. Calves were significantly more likely to be present during swims in 2011–2013. Dolphin’s responses to tour vessels changed across time, with effect responses (avoidance and approach increasing significantly as dolphins gained cumulative experience. These dolphins are forced to expend a greater level of time and energy avoiding or approaching boats, shifting from a non-effect response to an effect response. Consequences of this include possible decrease in biological fitness by detracting from core biological activities such as foraging and resting. Combined with a decrease in sighting success between periods, the results imply that this population of dolphins, which is endemic to Australia and listed as threatened under the Victorian Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988, may not be well suited to the dolphin-swim industry. The management implications of these results warrant a shift from passive to active management in Port Phillip Bay. The importance of long-term research is highlighted, given behavioural responses detected herein would be undetected in short-term studies. Keywords: Burrunan dolphin (Tursiops australis, Avoidance, Behaviour, Compliance, Management

  20. Increased Wounding of Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis Calves by Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus at Península Valdés, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina F Marón

    Full Text Available At least 626 southern right whale (Eubalaena australis calves died at the Península Valdés calving ground, Argentina, between 2003 and 2014. Intense gull harassment may have contributed to these deaths. In the 1970s, Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus began feeding on skin and blubber pecked from the backs of living right whales at Valdés. The frequency of gull attacks has increased dramatically over the last three decades and mother-calf pairs are the primary targets. Pairs attacked by gulls spend less time nursing, resting and playing than pairs not under attack. In successive attacks, gulls open new lesions on the whales' backs or enlarge preexisting ones. Increased wounding could potentially lead to dehydration, impaired thermoregulation, and energy loss to wound healing. The presence, number and total area of gull-inflicted lesions were assessed using aerial survey photographs of living mother-calf pairs in 1974-2011 (n = 2680 and stranding photographs of dead calves (n = 192 in 2003-2011. The percentage of living mothers and calves with gull lesions increased from an average of 2% in the 1970s to 99% in the 2000s. In the 1980s and 1990s, mothers and calves had roughly equal numbers of lesions (one to five, but by the 2000s, calves had more lesions (nine or more covering a greater area of their backs compared to their mothers. Living mother-calf pairs and dead calves in Golfo Nuevo had more lesions than those in Golfo San José in the 2000s. The number and area of lesions increased with calf age during the calving season. Intensified Kelp Gull harassment at Península Valdés could be compromising calf health and thereby contributing to the high average rate of calf mortality observed in recent years, but it cannot explain the large year-to-year variance in calf deaths since 2000.

  1. Parasite body volume and infracommunity patterns in the southern pomfret Brama australis (Pisces: Bramidae Volumen corporal del parásito y patrones infracomunitarios en la reineta Brama australis (Pisces: Bramidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The patterns of infracommunity descriptors (diversity, dominance, abundance are compared when calculated with the number and body volume of the parasites in a sample of 26 southern pomfrets Brama australis collected in the area off Talcahuano, Chile. No numerical infracommunity descriptor was correlated with its corresponding volumetric descriptor. This single result casts doubts about the general validity of the infracommunity patterns described in the literature so far, because they are almost exclusively based on the number of parasite individuals per individual host, restricting communication with ecologists that use density or other measures of ecological abundanceLos patrones de los descriptores infracomunitarios (diversidad, dominancia, abundancia son comparados cuando son calculados en base a los números o al volumen corporal de los parásitos en una muestra de 26 reinetas Brama australis recolectadas en el área de Talcahuano, Chile. Ningún descriptor infracomunitario calculado con el número de parásitos estuvo correlacionado con los basados en el volumen corporal de los parásitos. Este resultado siembra dudas acerca de la validez general que pueden tener los patrones infracomunitarios registrados en la literatura ya que están casi exclusivamente calculados con el número de parásitos por individuo hospedador, lo que dificulta aún más la comunicación con los ecólogos, que usan la densidad u otras medidas de abundancia ecológica

  2. On the variability of I(7620 Å/I(5577 Å in low altitude aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Llewellyn

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available An auroral electron excitation model, combined with simple equilibrium neutral and ion chemistry models, is used to investigate the optical emission processes and height profiles of I(5577 Å and I(7620 Å in the 90 to 100 km altitude region. It is shown that the apparent discrepancies between ground-based and rocket-borne auroral observations of the I(7620 Å/I(5577 Å ratio are due to the extreme height variation of this intensity ratio in the 90 to 100 km region.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (airglow and aurora

  3. Indole Alkaloids from the Sea Anemone Heteractis aurora and Homarine from Octopus cyanea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Kamel H; Göhl, Matthias; Müller, Tobias; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2015-11-01

    The two new indole alkaloids 2-amino-1,5-dihydro-5-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-4H-imidazol-4-one (1), 2-amino-5-[(6-bromo-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl]-3,5-dihydro-3-methyl-4H-imidazol-4-one (2), and auramine (3) have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis aurora. Both indole alkaloids were synthesized for the confirmation of the structures. Homarine (4), along with uracil (5), hypoxanthine (6), and inosine (7) have been obtained from Octopus cyanea. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. On the variability of I(7620 Å/I(5577 Å in low altitude aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Llewellyn

    Full Text Available An auroral electron excitation model, combined with simple equilibrium neutral and ion chemistry models, is used to investigate the optical emission processes and height profiles of I(5577 Å and I(7620 Å in the 90 to 100 km altitude region. It is shown that the apparent discrepancies between ground-based and rocket-borne auroral observations of the I(7620 Å/I(5577 Å ratio are due to the extreme height variation of this intensity ratio in the 90 to 100 km region.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (airglow and aurora

  5. Aurora-B Mediated ATM Serine 1403 Phosphorylation Is Required For Mitotic ATM Activation and the Spindle Checkpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chunying; Tang, Xi; Guo, Xiaojing; Niikura, Yohei; Kitagawa, Katsumi; Cui, Kemi; Wong, Stephen T.C.; Fu, Li; Xu, Bo

    2011-01-01

    The ATM kinase plays a critical role in the maintenance of genetic stability. ATM is activated in response to DNA damage and is essential for cell cycle checkpoints. Here, we report that ATM is activated in mitosis in the absence of DNA damage. We demonstrate that mitotic ATM activation is dependent on the Aurora-B kinase and that Aurora-B phosphorylates ATM on serine 1403. This phosphorylation event is required for mitotic ATM activation. Further, we show that loss of ATM function results in...

  6. Simultaneous Aurora-A/STK15 overexpression and centrosome amplification induce chromosomal instability in tumour cells with a MIN phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schillaci Tiziana

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic instability is a hallmark of tumours and preneoplastic lesions. The predominant form of genome instability in human cancer is chromosome instability (CIN. CIN is characterized by chromosomal aberrations, gains or losses of whole chromosomes (aneuploidy, and it is often associated with centrosome amplification. Centrosomes control cell division by forming a bipolar mitotic spindle and play an essential role in the maintenance of chromosomal stability. However, whether centrosome amplification could directly cause aneuploidy is not fully established. Also, alterations in genes required for mitotic progression could be involved in CIN. A major candidate is represented by Aurora-A/STK15 that associates with centrosomes and is overexpressed in several types of human tumour. Methods Centrosome amplification were induced by hydroxyurea treatment and visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy. Aurora-A/STK15 ectopic expression was achieved by retroviral infection and puromycin selection in HCT116 tumour cells. Effects of Aurora-A/STK15 depletion on centrosome status and ploidy were determined by Aurora-A/STK15 transcriptional silencing by RNA interference. Changes in the expression levels of some mitotic genes were determined by Real time RT-PCR. Results We investigated whether amplification of centrosomes and overexpression of Aurora-A/STK15 induce CIN using as a model system a colon carcinoma cell line (HCT116. We found that in HCT116 cells, chromosomally stable and near diploid cells harbouring a MIN phenotype, centrosome amplification induced by hydroxyurea treatment is neither maintained nor induces aneuploidy. On the contrary, ectopic overexpression of Aurora-A/STK15 induced supernumerary centrosomes and aneuploidy. Aurora-A/STK15 transcriptional silencing by RNA interference in cells ectopically overexpressing this kinase promptly decreased cell numbers with supernumerary centrosomes and aneuploidy. Conclusion Our

  7. The parasitic plant Cuscuta australis is highly insensitive to abscisic acid-induced suppression of hypocotyl elongation and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Hettenhausen, Christian; Sun, Guiling; Zhuang, Huifu; Li, Jian-Hong; Wu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Around 1% of angiosperms are parasitic plants. Their growth and development solely or partly depend on host plants from which they extract water, nutrients, and other molecules using a parasitic plant-specific organ, the haustorium. Strong depletion of nutrients can result in serious growth retardation and in some cases, death of the hosts. The genus Cuscuta (dodder) comprises about 200 holoparasitic species occurring on all continents. Their seedlings have no roots and cotyledons but are only string-like hypocotyls. When they contact suitable host plants, haustoria are formed and thereafter seedlings rapidly develop into vigorously growing branches without roots and leaves. This highly specialized lifestyle suggests that Cuscuta plants likely have unique physiology in development and stress responses. Using germination and seedling growth assays, we show that C. australis seeds and seedlings are highly insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA). Transcriptome analysis and protein sequence alignment with Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice homologs revealed that C. australis most likely consists of only four functional ABA receptors. Given that Cuscuta plants are no longer severely challenged by drought stress, we hypothesize that the ABA-mediated drought resistance pathway in Cuscuta spp. might have had degenerated over time during evolution.

  8. The parasitic plant Cuscuta australis is highly insensitive to abscisic acid-induced suppression of hypocotyl elongation and seed germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    Full Text Available Around 1% of angiosperms are parasitic plants. Their growth and development solely or partly depend on host plants from which they extract water, nutrients, and other molecules using a parasitic plant-specific organ, the haustorium. Strong depletion of nutrients can result in serious growth retardation and in some cases, death of the hosts. The genus Cuscuta (dodder comprises about 200 holoparasitic species occurring on all continents. Their seedlings have no roots and cotyledons but are only string-like hypocotyls. When they contact suitable host plants, haustoria are formed and thereafter seedlings rapidly develop into vigorously growing branches without roots and leaves. This highly specialized lifestyle suggests that Cuscuta plants likely have unique physiology in development and stress responses. Using germination and seedling growth assays, we show that C. australis seeds and seedlings are highly insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA. Transcriptome analysis and protein sequence alignment with Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice homologs revealed that C. australis most likely consists of only four functional ABA receptors. Given that Cuscuta plants are no longer severely challenged by drought stress, we hypothesize that the ABA-mediated drought resistance pathway in Cuscuta spp. might have had degenerated over time during evolution.

  9. Preliminary Study On Gonad Maturity Stages of the Sea Cucumber Paracaudina australis from Kenjeran Water, Surabaya, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widianingsih, Widianingsih; Zaenuri, Muhammad; Anggoro, Sutrisno; Pancasakti Kusumaningrum, Hermin; Hartati, Retno

    2018-02-01

    The holothurian Paracaudina australis is belong to family Caudinidae, ordo Molpadida and class Holothuroidea. This species is among the most common holothurian widely distributed in the tropical water. The purpose of this reseach is to do preliminary study on maturity stages of sea cucumber Paracaudina australis from Kenjeran Water, Surabaya, Indonesia. This research was conducted on April 2016. Samples were collected randomly on the Kenjeran Water, Surabaya. The result showed that there are five stages of gonad maturity. At the stage of maturity 1, the gonad was not clearly distinguished, there were unbranched small tubule. At the stage of maturity 2, there were small branched of tubules. At this stage, gonad can be differentiated between male and female. At the stage of maturity 3, tubule can been branched not only for male but also female. At the stage of maturity 4, the gonad was good mature, there were clearly branched tubule. At the stage of matury 5, there were generally had empty tubule except for a few relict unreleased spermatozoa. At female gonad, there were shrunken tubule and relict oocytes were presented in the lumen of the tubule.

  10. Uptake and Bioaccumulation of Pentachlorophenol by Emergent Wetland Plant Phragmites australis (Common Reed) in Cadmium Co-contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechmi, Nejla; Ben Aissa, Nadhira; Abdenaceur, Hassen; Jedidi, Naceur

    2015-01-01

    Despite many studies on phytoremediation of soils contaminated with either heavy metals or organics, little information is available on the effectiveness of phytoremediation of co-occurring metal and organic pollutants especially by using wetland species. Phragmites australis is a common wetland plant and its potential for phytoremediation of cadmium pentachlorophenol (Cd-PCP) co-contaminated soil was investigated. A greenhouse study was executed to elucidate the effects of Cd (0, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1)) without or with PCP (0, 50, and 250 mg kg(-1)) on the growth of the wetland plant P. australis and its uptake, accumulation and removal of pollutant from soils. After 75 days, plant biomass was significantly influenced by interaction of Cd and PCP and the effect of Cd on plant growth being stronger than that of PCP. Coexistence of PCP at low level lessened Cd toxicity to plants, resulting in improved plant growth and increased Cd accumulation in plant tissues. The dissipation of PCP in soils was significantly influenced by interactions of Cd, PCP and plant presence or absence. As an evaluation of soil biological activities after remediation soil enzyme was measured.

  11. Bioactivity and chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Guatteria australis A.St.-Hil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Carlos Alberto Theodoro; Serain, Alessandra Freitas; Pascoal, Aislan Cristina Rheder Fagundes; Andreazza, Nathalia Luiza; de Lourenço, Caroline Caramano; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T Góis; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; de Souza, Ana Cláudia Oliveira; Mesquita, Juliana Tonini; Tempone, Andre Gustavo; Salvador, Marcos José

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil from the leaves of Guatteria australis was obtained by hydrodistillation, analyzed by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectromery (GC-MS) and their antiproliferative, antileishmanial, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Twenty-three compounds were identified among which germacrene B (50.66%), germacrene D (22.22%) and (E)-caryophyllene (8.99%) were the main compounds. The highest antiproliferative activity was observed against NCI-ADR/RES (TGI = 31.08 μg/ml) and HT-29 (TGI = 32.81 μg/ml) cell lines. It also showed good antileishmanial activity against Leishmania infantum (IC50 = 30.71 μg/ml). On the other hand, the oil exhibited a small effect against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 14458 and Escherichia coli ATCC 10799 (MIC = 250 μg/ml), as well as small antioxidant activity (457 μmol TE/g) assessed through ORACFL assay. These results represent the first report regarding chemical composition and bioactivity of G. australis essential oil.

  12. Precipitation of relativistic electrons of the Van Allen belts into the proton aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanova, Vania K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Sakaguchi, K.; Shiokawa, K.; Evans, D.S.; Albert, Jay; Connors, M

    2008-01-01

    The Van Allen electron belts consist of two regions encircling the earth in which relativistic electrons are trapped in the earth's magnetic field. Populations of relativistic electrons in the Van Allen belts vary greatly with geomagnetic disturbance and they are a major source of damage to space vehicles. In order to know when and by how much these populations of relativistic electrons increase, it is important to elucidate not only the cause of acceleration of relativistic electrons but also the cause of their loss from the Van Allen belts. Here we show the first evidence that left-hand polarized electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) plasma waves can cause the loss of relativistic electrons into the atmosphere, on the basis of results of an excellent set of ground and satellite observations showing coincident precipitation of ions with energies of tens of keV and of relativistic electrons into an isolated proton aurora. The proton aurora was produced by precipitation of ions with energies of tens of keV due to EMIC waves near the plasma pause, which is a manifestation of wave-particle interactions. These observations clarify that ions with energies of tens of keV affect the evolution of relativistic electrons in the Van Allen belts via parasitic resonance with EMIC waves, an effect that was first theoretically predicted in the early 1970's

  13. Improved performance of the Aurora KrF/ICF laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Turner, T.P.; Watt, R.G.; Thomas, S.J.; Netz, D.A.; Tallman, C.R.; Figueira, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on Aurora the Los Alamos National Laboratory short pulse high power krypton-fluoride laser system. It serves as an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large scale UV laser systems for short wavelength inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. The system employs optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by electron-beam driven KrF laser amplifiers. The 1-5-ns pulse of the Aurora front end is split into ninety-six beams which are angularly and temporally multiplexed to produce a 480-ns pulse train for amplification by four KrF laser amplifiers. The largest amplifier, the large aperture module (LAM), has a 1-m square aperture and a gain length of 2 m. In the present system configuration half (forty-eight) of the amplified pulses are demultiplexed using different optical path lengths and delivered simultaneously to target. The system has not been optimized, and several near term improvements are expected to result in significant increases in both delivered energy and target irradiance. Removing the twelve calorimeters from the lens plate and allowing forty-eight beams to go to target will increase delivered energy by 33%. Relatively minor modifications to the front end should result in a 30% increase in system output energy. Replacement of damaged optics will increase transmission into the preamplifier by at least 25%. New optics and reduction of retro-pulses will allow the preamplifier stage gain to be increased by 50%

  14. Integration of the Aurora KrF ICF laser system at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Blair, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Aurora laser system, under construction at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the past few years, is now being integrated into a working system for examining the applicability of high-power KrF lasers to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The design principles of the system have been described in detail in earlier publications and conferences. Multikilojoule 248-nm 5-ns duration laser pulses, which have been derived from angular-multiplexed electron-beam-driven KrF amplifiers, are to be delivered to ICF targets when the system is fully integrated. The authors describe the progress of the Aurora system toward the goal of delivering energy (MkJ/48 pulses stacked into one 5-ns pulse/200-μm spot) to ICF targets. Integrated performance to date of the front end optical multiplexer/demultiplexer e-beam-driven amplifiers and alignment hardware are discussed in particular. They have concentrated on the demonstration of system integration at a modest (--100-J) level of energy on-target (without the final amplifier stage). They discuss the amplifier gain measurements, the extraction of energy from a chain of three e-beam-driven machines, and progress toward the delivery of on-target energy

  15. Jupiter's Aurora Observed With HST During Juno Orbits 3 to 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodent, Denis; Bonfond, B.; Yao, Z.; Gérard, J.-C.; Radioti, A.; Dumont, M.; Palmaerts, B.; Adriani, A.; Badman, S. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Clarke, J. T.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Gladstone, G. R.; Greathouse, T.; Kimura, T.; Kurth, W. S.; Mauk, B. H.; McComas, D. J.; Nichols, J. D.; Orton, G. S.; Roth, L.; Saur, J.; Valek, P.

    2018-05-01

    A large set of observations of Jupiter's ultraviolet aurora was collected with the Hubble Space Telescope concurrently with the NASA-Juno mission, during an eight-month period, from 30 November 2016 to 18 July 2017. These Hubble observations cover Juno orbits 3 to 7 during which Juno in situ and remote sensing instruments, as well as other observatories, obtained a wealth of unprecedented information on Jupiter's magnetosphere and the connection with its auroral ionosphere. Jupiter's ultraviolet aurora is known to vary rapidly, with timescales ranging from seconds to one Jovian rotation. The main objective of the present study is to provide a simplified description of the global ultraviolet auroral morphology that can be used for comparison with other quantities, such as those obtained with Juno. This represents an entirely new approach from which logical connections between different morphologies may be inferred. For that purpose, we define three auroral subregions in which we evaluate the auroral emitted power as a function of time. In parallel, we define six auroral morphology families that allow us to quantify the variations of the spatial distribution of the auroral emission. These variations are associated with changes in the state of the Jovian magnetosphere, possibly influenced by Io and the Io plasma torus and by the conditions prevailing in the upstream interplanetary medium. This study shows that the auroral morphology evolved differently during the five 2 week periods bracketing the times of Juno perijove (PJ03 to PJ07), suggesting that during these periods, the Jovian magnetosphere adopted various states.

  16. Phenotypic Screening Approaches to Develop Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: Drug Discovery Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marugán, Carlos; Torres, Raquel; Lallena, María José

    2015-01-01

    Targeting mitotic regulators as a strategy to fight cancer implies the development of drugs against key proteins, such as Aurora-A and -B. Current drugs, which target mitosis through a general mechanism of action (stabilization/destabilization of microtubules), have several side effects (neutropenia, alopecia, and emesis). Pharmaceutical companies aim at avoiding these unwanted effects by generating improved and selective drugs that increase the quality of life of the patients. However, the development of these drugs is an ambitious task that involves testing thousands of compounds through biochemical and cell-based assays. In addition, molecules usually target complex biological processes, involving several proteins and different molecular pathways, further emphasizing the need for high-throughput screening techniques and multiplexing technologies in order to identify drugs with the desired phenotype. We will briefly describe two multiplexing technologies [high-content imaging (HCI) and flow cytometry] and two key processes for drug discovery research (assay development and validation) following our own published industry quality standards. We will further focus on HCI as a useful tool for phenotypic screening and will provide a concrete example of HCI assay to detect Aurora-A or -B selective inhibitors discriminating the off-target effects related to the inhibition of other cell cycle or non-cell cycle key regulators. Finally, we will describe other assays that can help to characterize the in vitro pharmacology of the inhibitors.

  17. Generation of ninety-six angularly multiplexed KrF beams at Aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Aurora KrF laser facility is designed to produce ninety-six laser beams at 248 nm with total energy of -- 10 kJ. The 5-ns duration beams are angularly multiplexed to allow sequential amplification in electron-beam-pumped amplifiers. These amplifiers operated over a half-microsecond period. Previous to this investigation, all individual components of the Aurora system have been operated independently. As a first step toward integration of the full system, the author operated the front end, beam slicer, small-aperture module (SAM), and angle encoder to generate ninety-six angularly multiplexed beams. These beams have been delivered to the first of the three large amplifiers, which will boost the pulse train energy from <1 J to 10 kJ. Measurements to date have concentrated on the total energy of the pulse train and pulse shapes of the individual beams at positions preceding and following SAM. Measured gain through SAM is -- 13 with 20 the target figure. Relative pulse heights are preserved through SAM with the exception of the first pulse of the 12

  18. Recent progress on the Los Alamos Aurora ICF [inertial confinement fusion] laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Blair, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aurora is the Los Alamos short-pulse, high-power, krypton-fluoride laser system. It serves as an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large-scale ultraviolet laser systems for short wavelength inertial confinement fusion (ICF) investigations. The system is designed to employ optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to deliver stacked, 248-nm, 5-ns duration multikilojoule laser pulses to ICF-relevant targets. This paper presents a summary of the Aurora system and a discussion of the progress achieved in the construction and integration of the laser system. We concentrate on the main features of the following major system components: front-end lasers, amplifier train, multiplexer, optical relay train, demultiplexer, and the associated optical alignment system. During the past year, two major construction and integration tasks have been accomplished. The first task is the demonstration of 96-beam multiplexing and amplified energy extraction, as evidenced by the integrated operation of the front end, the multiplexer (12-fold and 8-fold encoders), the optical relay train, and three electron-beam-driven amplifiers. The second task is the assembly and installation of the demultiplexer optical hardware, which consists of over 300 optical components ranging in size from several centimeters square to over a meter square. 13 refs., 13 figs

  19. Phenotypic screening approaches to develop Aurora kinase inhibitors: Drug Discovery perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eMarugán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting mitotic regulators as a strategy to fight cancer implies the development of drugs against key proteins such as Aurora A and B. Current drugs which target mitosis through a general mechanism of action (stabilization/destabilization of microtubules, have several side effects (neutropenia, alopecia, emesis. Pharmaceutical companies aim at avoiding these unwanted effects by generating improved and selective drugs that increase the quality of life of the patients. However, the development of these drugs is an ambitious task that involves testing thousands of compounds through biochemical and cell-based assays. In addition, molecules usually target complex biological processes, involving several proteins and different molecular pathways, further emphasizing the need for high-throughput screening techniques and multiplexing technologies in order to identify drugs with the desired phenotype.We will briefly describe two multiplexing technologies (high-content imaging, microarrays and flow cytometry and two key processes for drug discovery research (assay development and validation following our own published industry quality standards. We will further focus on high-content imaging as a useful tool for phenotypic screening and will provide a concrete example of high-content imaging assay to detect Aurora A or B selective inhibitors discriminating the off-target effects related to inhibition of other cell cycle or non-cell cycle key regulators. Finally, we will describe other assays that can help to characterize the in vitro pharmacology of the inhibitors.

  20. Interdomain allosteric regulation of Polo kinase by Aurora B and Map205 is required for cytokinesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaner, David; Pinson, Xavier; El Kadhi, Khaled Ben; Normandin, Karine; Talje, Lama; Lavoie, Hugo; Lépine, Guillaume; Carréno, Sébastien; Kwok, Benjamin H.; Hickson, Gilles R.

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster Polo and its human orthologue Polo-like kinase 1 fulfill essential roles during cell division. Members of the Polo-like kinase (Plk) family contain an N-terminal kinase domain (KD) and a C-terminal Polo-Box domain (PBD), which mediates protein interactions. How Plks are regulated in cytokinesis is poorly understood. Here we show that phosphorylation of Polo by Aurora B is required for cytokinesis. This phosphorylation in the activation loop of the KD promotes the dissociation of Polo from the PBD-bound microtubule-associated protein Map205, which acts as an allosteric inhibitor of Polo kinase activity. This mechanism allows the release of active Polo from microtubules of the central spindle and its recruitment to the site of cytokinesis. Failure in Polo phosphorylation results in both early and late cytokinesis defects. Importantly, the antagonistic regulation of Polo by Aurora B and Map205 in cytokinesis reveals that interdomain allosteric mechanisms can play important roles in controlling the cellular functions of Plks. PMID:25332165

  1. Ndel1 suppresses ciliogenesis in proliferating cells by regulating the trichoplein-Aurora A pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hironori; Goto, Hidemasa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Kumamoto, Kanako; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Inoko, Akihito; Yamano, Shotaro; Wanibuchi, Hideki; He, Dongwei; Goshima, Naoki; Kiyono, Tohru; Hirotsune, Shinji; Inagaki, Masaki

    2016-02-15

    Primary cilia protrude from the surface of quiescent cells and disassemble at cell cycle reentry. We previously showed that ciliary reassembly is suppressed by trichoplein-mediated Aurora A activation pathway in growing cells. Here, we report that Ndel1, a well-known modulator of dynein activity, localizes at the subdistal appendage of the mother centriole, which nucleates a primary cilium. In the presence of serum, Ndel1 depletion reduces trichoplein at the mother centriole and induces unscheduled primary cilia formation, which is reverted by forced trichoplein expression or coknockdown of KCTD17 (an E3 ligase component protein for trichoplein). Serum starvation induced transient Ndel1 degradation, subsequent to the disappearance of trichoplein at the mother centriole. Forced expression of Ndel1 suppressed trichoplein degradation and axonemal microtubule extension during ciliogenesis, similar to trichoplein induction or KCTD17 knockdown. Most importantly, the proportion of ciliated and quiescent cells was increased in the kidney tubular epithelia of newborn Ndel1-hypomorphic mice. Thus, Ndel1 acts as a novel upstream regulator of the trichoplein-Aurora A pathway to inhibit primary cilia assembly. © 2016 Inaba et al.

  2. Floristic Inventory of The Proposed Site for Tarsier Tourism Center in Villa Aurora, Bilar, Bohol, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas D Reyes Jr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the present vegetation composition of the Proposed Site for the Tarsier Tourism Center (PTTC at Villa Aurora, Bilar, Bohol and performed a comparative analysis with the existing Tarsier Sanctuary (TS at Canapnapan, Corella, Bohol. The basis for comparison was the computed importance values, species richness, species dominance, and percent distribution of plants according to self-defined DBH classes. Results showed that both sites had very high species richness and evenness values. Common overstorey and understorey plant species found in both areas were katagpo (Psychotria sp., sagimsim (Syzygium brevistylum [C. B. Rob]Merr. and bagauak (Clerodendrum minahassae Teijsm. & Binn.. Apart from sagimsim (Syzygium brevistylum [C.B.Rob.] Merr., selaginella (Selaginella cuppresina Lin., and lunas (Lunasia amara Blanco were also common in the ground vegetation of both areas. Percent distribution of trees according to self-defined DBH classes revealed that PTTC had 87.55% of the total recorded plants with DBH measurements of 20 cm. Percent distribution of trees on these DBH ranges (especially on DBH class >20 cm indicated the presence of medium and large trees. The largest DBH measured in the PTTC was 70 cm while in TS was only 22 cm. The proposed 10-ha site in Villa Aurora, Bilar, is suited to be utilized as Tarsier Tourism Center. In case the proposed project is to be pursued, enclosure similar to what has been constructed in Canapnapan, Corella, Bohol, Philippines should also be established to prevent stray animals from predating the captive tarsiers.

  3. Detection of the 'continuous' H3(+) electrojet in the Jovian Aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, T. S.; Miller, S.; Achilleos, N.; Rego, D.; Prange, R.; Dougherty, M.; Joseph, R. D.

    1999-09-01

    Recently we have published the first detection of an auroral electrojet - a fast ion wind circulating around the auroral oval - on Jupiter (Rego et al., Nature, 399, 121-123). The detection was made during an unusual "auroral event", but raised the possibility that such electrojets might be detectable under "normal" auroral conditions. This work, currently in progress, is directed towards that aim. To accomplish this, high resolution infrared spectra and images of the Jovian aurora were taken on the nights of September 7-11(th) 1998, observing the nu_ {2} Q(1,0(-) ) line of H(+}_{3) at 3.953 mu m. The slit was aligned across the planet, perpendicular to the rotational axis, and the spectra were taken at 1 arcsec steps across the planet through the region of aurora. Each spectrum has been fitted row by row with a gaussian using height, width, background and central position as free parameters. This results in a measurement of how the relative central position varies across each spectra. Having processed the data, removing any systematic array effects, rotation, and instrumentally based spatial effects, we intend to show a measurable electrojet from the dopler shift it causes. This will be in the form of LOS maps of the auroral region at different CML taken over the 5 night observation period.

  4. Isolation of a Seawater Tolerant Leptospira spp. from a Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grune Loffler, Sylvia; Rago, Virginia; Martínez, Mara; Uhart, Marcela; Florin-Christensen, Monica; Romero, Graciela; Brihuega, Bibiana

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonotic disease in the world. It is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira spp. and is maintained in nature through chronic renal infection of carrier animals. Rodents and other small mammals are the main reservoirs. Information on leptospirosis in marine mammals is scarce; however, cases of leptospirosis have been documented in pinniped populations from the Pacific coast of North America from southern California to British Columbia. We report the isolation of a Leptospira spp. strain, here named Manara, from a kidney sample obtained from a Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis) calf, which stranded dead in Playa Manara, Península Valdés, Argentina. This strain showed motility and morphology typical of the genus Leptospira spp. under dark-field microscopy; and grew in Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris (EMJH) medium and Fletcher medium after 90 days of incubation at 28°C. Considering the source of this bacterium, we tested its ability to grow in Fletcher medium diluted with seawater at different percentages (1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% v/v). Bacterial growth was detected 48 h after inoculation of Fletcher medium supplemented with 5% sea water, demonstrating the halophilic nature of the strain Manara. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences placed this novel strain within the radiation of the pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira spp., with sequence similarities within the range 97-100%, and closely related to L. interrogans. Two different PCR protocols targeting genus-specific pathogenic genes (G1-G2, B64I-B64II and LigB) gave positive results, which indicates that the strain Manara is likely pathogenic. Further studies are needed to confirm this possibility as well as determine its serogroup. These results could modify our understanding of the epidemiology of this zoonosis. Until now, the resistance and ability to grow in seawater for long periods of time had been proven for the strain

  5. Isolation of a Seawater Tolerant Leptospira spp. from a Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Grune Loffler

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonotic disease in the world. It is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira spp. and is maintained in nature through chronic renal infection of carrier animals. Rodents and other small mammals are the main reservoirs. Information on leptospirosis in marine mammals is scarce; however, cases of leptospirosis have been documented in pinniped populations from the Pacific coast of North America from southern California to British Columbia. We report the isolation of a Leptospira spp. strain, here named Manara, from a kidney sample obtained from a Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis calf, which stranded dead in Playa Manara, Península Valdés, Argentina. This strain showed motility and morphology typical of the genus Leptospira spp. under dark-field microscopy; and grew in Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris (EMJH medium and Fletcher medium after 90 days of incubation at 28°C. Considering the source of this bacterium, we tested its ability to grow in Fletcher medium diluted with seawater at different percentages (1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% v/v. Bacterial growth was detected 48 h after inoculation of Fletcher medium supplemented with 5% sea water, demonstrating the halophilic nature of the strain Manara. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences placed this novel strain within the radiation of the pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira spp., with sequence similarities within the range 97-100%, and closely related to L. interrogans. Two different PCR protocols targeting genus-specific pathogenic genes (G1-G2, B64I-B64II and LigB gave positive results, which indicates that the strain Manara is likely pathogenic. Further studies are needed to confirm this possibility as well as determine its serogroup. These results could modify our understanding of the epidemiology of this zoonosis. Until now, the resistance and ability to grow in seawater for long periods of time had been proven

  6. Reproduction at the extremes: pseudovivipary, hybridization and genetic mosaicism in Posidonia australis (Posidoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Elizabeth A; Statton, John; Hovey, Renae; Anthony, Janet M; Dixon, Kingsley W; Kendrick, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    Organisms occupying the edges of natural geographical ranges usually survive at the extreme limits of their innate physiological tolerances. Extreme and prolonged fluctuations in environmental conditions, often associated with climate change and exacerbated at species' geographical range edges, are known to trigger alternative responses in reproduction. This study reports the first observations of adventitious inflorescence-derived plantlet formation in the marine angiosperm Posidonia australis, growing at the northern range edge (upper thermal and salinity tolerance) in Shark Bay, Western Australia. These novel plantlets are described and a combination of microsatellite DNA markers and flow cytometry is used to determine their origin. Polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were used to generate multilocus genotypes to determine the origin of the adventitious inflorescence-derived plantlets. Ploidy and genome size were estimated using flow cytometry. All adventitious plantlets were genetically identical to the maternal plant and were therefore the product of a novel pseudoviviparous reproductive event. It was found that 87 % of the multilocus genotypes contained three alleles in at least one locus. Ploidy was identical in all sampled plants. The genome size (2 C value) for samples from Shark Bay and from a separate site much further south was not significantly different, implying they are the same ploidy level and ruling out a complete genome duplication (polyploidy). Survival at range edges often sees the development of novel responses in the struggle for survival and reproduction. This study documents a physiological response at the trailing edge, whereby reproductive strategy can adapt to fluctuating conditions and suggests that the lower-than-usual water temperature triggered unfertilized inflorescences to 'switch' to growing plantlets that were adventitious clones of their maternal parent. This may have important long-term implications as both genetic and

  7. The effect of kauri (Agathis australis) on grain size distribution and clay mineralogy of andesitic soils in the Waitakere Ranges, New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongkind, A.G.; Buurman, P.

    2006-01-01

    Kauri (Agathis australis) is generally associated with intense podzolisation, but little research has been carried out to substantiate this. We studied soil profiles, grain size distribution patterns and clay mineralogy under kauri and broadleaf/tree fern vegetation in the Waitakere Ranges, North

  8. Aphid (Myzus persicae) feeding on the parasitic plant dodder (Cuscuta australis) activates defense responses in both the parasite and soybean host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Huifu; Li, Juan; Song, Juan; Hettenhausen, Christian; Schuman, Meredith C; Sun, Guiling; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Jing; Song, Dunlun; Wu, Jianqiang

    2018-06-01

    Dodders (Cuscuta spp.) are shoot holoparasites, whose haustoria penetrate host tissues to enable fusion between the parasite and host vascular systems, allowing Cuscuta to extract water, nutrients and other molecules from hosts. Aphids are piercing-sucking herbivores that use specialized stylets to feed on phloem sap. Aphids are known to feed on Cuscuta, but how Cuscuta and its host plant respond to aphids attacking the parasite was unknown. Phytohormone quantification, transcriptomic analysis and bioassays were performed to determine the responses of Cuscuta australis and its soybean (Glycine max) hosts to the feeding of green peach aphid (GPA; Myzus persicae) on C. australis. Decreased salicylic acid levels and 172 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found in GPA-attacked C. australis, and the soybean hosts exhibited increased jasmonic acid contents and 1015 DEGs, including > 100 transcription factor genes. Importantly, GPA feeding on C. australis increased the resistance of the soybean host to subsequent feeding by the leafworm Spodoptera litura and soybean aphid Aphis glycines, resulting in 21% decreased leafworm mass and 41% reduced aphid survival rate. These data strongly suggest that GPA feeding on Cuscuta induces a systemic signal, which is translocated to hosts and activates defense against herbivores. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Short-term and long-term effects of tannins on nitrogen mineralisation and litter decomposition in kauri (Agathis australis (D. Don) Lindl.) forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik, E.; Jongkind, A.G.; Berendse, F.

    2006-01-01

    Kauri (Agathis australis (D. Don) Lindl.) occurs naturally in the warm temperate forest of northern New Zealand where it grows mixed with angiosperm tree species. Below mature kauri trees thick organic layers develop in which large amounts of nitrogen are accumulated. This nitrogen seems to be

  10. Egg discrimination in the Australian reed warbler (Acrocephalus australis) : rejection response toward model and conspecific eggs depending on timing and mode of artificial parasitism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welbergen, J; Komdeur, J; Kats, R; Berg, M

    2001-01-01

    In a coevolutionary arms race between an interspecific brood parasite and its host species, bath are expected to evolve adaptations and counteradaptations. We studied egg discrimination in the Australian warbler (Acrocephalus australis). This species is currently not significantly parasitized by the

  11. Changes in soluble metal concentrations induced by variable water table levels as response to liming and Phragmites australis growth in metal-polluted wetland soils: Management effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Alcaraz, M.N.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of liming and Phragmites australis growth for the management of metal-polluted wetland soils under fluctuating water table levels. Soil columns (20 cm in diameter and 60 cm high) were constructed with two soil types (pH ~ 6.4 and pH ~ 3.1) and four

  12. Die-back of Phragmites australis in European wetlands: an overview of the European Research Programme on Reed Die-Back and Progression (1993-1994)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Putten, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel) is one of the dominant plant species in European land-water ecotones. During the past decades reed belts have died back, especially in central and eastern Europe. The aim of the European Research Programme on Reed Die-back and Progression (EUREED),

  13. Debregeasia australis sp. nov. (Urticaceae), with a new synopsis of and a new key to the genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilmot-Dear, Christine Melanie; Friis, Ib

    2012-01-01

    A new species in the Old World genus Debregeasia (Urticaceae), D. australis Friis, Wilmot-Dear & C.J.Chen, based on material from forest habitats in eastern Queensland, Australia, is described, illustrated and mapped. A new synopsis of the genus and a new key to species recognised is provided as ...

  14. Surveys for California red-legged frog and arroyo toad on the Los Padres National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerie K. Hubbartt; Thomas G. Murphey

    2005-01-01

    Starting in the spring of 1999 through the fall of 2000, USDA Forest Service biologists have conducted surveys throughout the Los Padres National Forest for the federally-listed California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) and arroyo toad (Bufo californicus). Sites known to have frogs or toads present were monitored for...

  15. [Effects of water table manipulation on leaf photosynthesis, morphology and growth of Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrica in the reclaimed tidal wetland at Dongtan of Chongming Island, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qi-Cheng; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Zhou, Jian-Hong; Ou, Qiang; Wang, Kai-Yun

    2014-02-01

    During the growing season of 2011, the leaf photosynthesis, morphological and growth traits of Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrica were investigated along a gradient of water table (low, medium and high) in the reclaimed tidal wetland at the Dongtan of Chongming Island in the Yangtze Estuary of China. A series of soil factors, i. e., soil temperature, moisture, salinity and inorganic nitrogen content, were also measured. During the peak growing season, leaf photosynthetic capacity of P. australis in the wetland with high water table was significantly lower than those in the wetland with low and medium water tables, and no difference was observed in leaf photosynthetic capacity of I. cylindrica at the three water tables. During the entire growing season, at the shoot level, the morphological and growth traits of P. australis got the optimum in the wetland with medium water table, but most of the morphological and growth traits of I. cylindrica had no significant differences at the three water tables. At the population level, the shoot density, leaf area index and aboveground biomass per unit area were the highest in the wetland with high water table for P. australis, but all of the three traits were the highest in the wetland with low water table for I. cylindrica. At the early growing season, the rhizome biomass of P. australis in the 0-20 cm soil layer had no difference at the three water tables, and the rhizome biomass of I. cylindrica in the 0-20 cm soil layer in the wetland with high water table was significantly lower than those in the wetland with low and medium water table. As a native hygrophyte before the reclamation, the variations of performances of P. australis at the three water tables were probably attributed to the differences in the soil factors as well as the intensity of competition from I. cylindrica. To appropriately manipulate water table in the reclaimed tidal wetland may restrict the growth and propagation of the mesophyte I

  16. 78 FR 23318 - Trust for Professional Managers and Aurora Investment Management L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... subadvisory agreements (``Subadvisory Agreements'') with Chicago Fundamental Investment Partners, LLC, First... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 30460; 812-14113] Trust for Professional Managers and Aurora Investment Management L.L.C.; Notice of Application April 12, 2013. AGENCY...

  17. Haspin kinase regulates microtubule-organizing center clustering and stability through Aurora kinase C in mouse oocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balboula, A. Z.; Nguyen, A. L.; Gentilello, A. S.; Quartuccio, S. M.; Drutovič, Dávid; Šolc, Petr; Schindler, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 129, č. 19 (2016), s. 3648-3660 ISSN 0021-9533 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1609 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : haspin * aurora kinase * spindle * MTOC * oocyte Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.431, year: 2016

  18. The Aurora A-HP1γ pathway regulates gene expression and mitosis in cells from the sperm lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Phoebe H; Grzenda, Adrienne; Mathison, Angela; Morbeck, Dean E; Fredrickson, Jolene R; de Assuncao, Thiago M; Christensen, Trace; Salisbury, Jeffrey; Calvo, Ezequiel; Iovanna, Juan; Coddington, Charles C; Urrutia, Raul; Lomberk, Gwen

    2015-05-29

    HP1γ, a well-known regulator of gene expression, has been recently identified to be a target of Aurora A, a mitotic kinase which is important for both gametogenesis and embryogenesis. The purpose of this study was to define whether the Aurora A-HP1γ pathway supports cell division of gametes and/or early embryos, using western blot, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, shRNA-based knockdown, site-directed mutagenesis, and Affymetrix-based genome-wide expression profiles. We find that the form of HP1γ phosphorylated by Aurora A, P-Ser83 HP1γ, is a passenger protein, which localizes to the spermatozoa centriole and axoneme. In addition, disruption in this pathway causes centrosomal abnormalities and aberrations in cell division. Expression profiling of male germ cell lines demonstrates that HP1γ phosphorylation is critical for the regulation of mitosis-associated gene expression networks. In female gametes, we observe that P-Ser83-HP1γ is not present in meiotic centrosomes of M2 oocytes, but after syngamy, it becomes detectable during cleavage divisions, coinciding with early embryonic genome activation. These results support the idea that phosphorylation of HP1γ by Aurora A plays a role in the regulation of gene expression and mitotic cell division in cells from the sperm lineage and in early embryos. Combined, this data is relevant to better understanding the function of HP1γ in reproductive biology.

  19. A Comparative Study of the Aneugenic and Polyploidy-inducing Effects of Fisetin and Two Model Aurora Kinase Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollapudi, P.; Hasegawa, L.S.; Eastmond, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits, nuts and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its reported cardioprotective, anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant properties. Earlier reports from our laboratory and others have indicated that fisetin has both aneugenic and clastogenic properties in cultured cells. More recently, fisetin has also been reported to target Aurora B kinase, a Ser/Thr kinase involved in ensuring proper microtubule attachment at the spindle assembly checkpoint, and an enzyme that is overexpressed in several types of cancer. Here we have further characterized the chromosome damage caused by fisetin and compared it with that induced by two known Aurora kinase inhibitors, VX-680 and ZM-447439, in cultured TK6 cells using the micronucleus assay with CREST staining as well as a flow cytometry-based assay that measures multiple types of numerical chromosomal aberrations. The three compounds were highly effective in inducing aneuploidy and polyploidy as evidenced by increases in kinetochore-positive micronuclei, hyperdiploidy, and polyploidy. With fisetin, however, the latter two effects were most significantly observed only after cells were allowed to overcome a cell cycle delay, and occurred at higher concentrations than those induced by the other Aurora kinase inhibitors. Modest increases in kinetochore-negative micronuclei were also seen with the model Aurora kinase inhibitors. These results indicate that fisetin induces multiple types of chromosome abnormalities in human cells, and indicate a need for a thorough investigation of fisetin-augmented dietary supplements. PMID:24680981

  20. Shugoshin-1 balances Aurora B kinase activity via PP2A to promote chromosome bi-orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Amanda; Kabeche, Lilian; Vromans, Martijn J M; Compton, Duane A; Lens, Susanne M A

    2015-01-01

    Correction of faulty kinetochore-microtubule attachments is essential for faithful chromosome segregation and dictated by the opposing activities of Aurora B kinase and PP1 and PP2A phosphatases. How kinase and phosphatase activities are appropriately balanced is less clear. Here, we show that a

  1. High expression of nuclear survivin and Aurora B predicts poor overall survival in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erpolat, O.P.; Akmansu, M. [Medical School of Gazi Univ., Besevler-Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Gocun, P.U.; Karakus, E.; Akyol, G. [Medical School of Gazi Univ., Besevler-Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Pathology

    2012-03-15

    Survivin is one of the apoptosis inhibitor proteins. Together with Aurora B, it also plays a role in regulating several aspects of mitosis. High expression of these markers is correlated with malignant behavior of various cancers and resistance to therapy. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic role of these markers in head and neck cancers. We evaluated the expression of Aurora B and survivin in tissue specimens of 58 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemistry. Patients who showed high expression of cytoplasmic and nuclear survivin and Aurora B had significantly shorter overall survival (p = 0.036, p < 0.000, p = 0.032, respectively). In multivariate analysis, high expression of nuclear survivin was the only independent negative prognostic factor (p = 0.024). Moreover, it was found that high co-expression of nuclear survivin and Aurora B had a negative effect on survival in univariate (p < 0.000) and multivariate (p < 0.000) analyses. The negative prognostic values of high expression of Aurora B and high co-expression of nuclear survivin and Aurora B on survival were shown. These findings suggest that co-expression of nuclear survivin and Aurora B can be useful diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, further studies with a larger number of patients in a more homogeneous disease group are needed to confirm the conclusion.

  2. Temperature, energy acquisition and energy use in the Chilean silverside Basilichthys australis Eigenmann (Atherinopsidae Temperatura, adquisición de energía y uso de energía en el pejerrey chileno Basilichthys australis Eigenmann (Atherinopsidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEOPOLDO FUENTES

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the influence of water temperature (Tw on the energy acquisition and use in the chilean silverside Basilichthys australis (Eigenmann 1927, an endemic species inhabiting freshwater ecosystems in Chile. We tested the effect of Tw (11.5, 14.0, 18.0, 22.0 and 26.0 °C on food intake, digestibility, food transit time and metabolic rate. As expected, this study demonstrated that many physiological variables under study were significantly affected by Tw, as well as the net energy balance of this species. Nevertheless, the net energy balance was not strictly related to the range of Tws evaluated. At Tws lower than 14 °C the energy budget was depressed, because food intake was lower than at Tws between 14 and 26 °C, where food intake was higher and independent of Tw. Consequently, at these temperatures the energy balance was positive and also independent of Tw. Physiologically, B. australis appears to be a tolerant species with respect to the wide range of water temperature in habitats at different depths. Thus, its distributions may extend through the entire profile of lakes and rivers, even in systems characterised by spatial and temporal thermal variabilityEn este trabajo evaluamos la influencia de la temperatura del agua (Ta en la adquisición de energía y su uso por parte del pejerrey chileno Basilichthys australis (Eigenmann 1927, una especie endémica que habita los ecosistemas dulceacuícolas de Chile. Investigamos el efecto de Ta (11,5, 14,0, 18,0, 22,0 y 26,0 °C en la ingesta de alimento, digestibilidad, tiempo de transito del alimento y tasa metabólica. De acuerdo a lo esperado, este estudio demostró que varias de las variables fisiológicas bajo estudio fueron significativamente afectadas por Ta, así como el balance energético de esta especie. Sin embargo, el balance neto de energía no estuvo estrictamente relacionado al rango de Tas evaluadas. En Tas inferiores a 14 °C el presupuesto de energía fue deprimido, debido a

  3. Breaking the Ice: Strategies for Future European Research in the Polar Oceans - The AURORA BOREALIS Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Thiede, J.; European Research Icebreaker Consortium

    2011-12-01

    Research vessels dedicated to work in polar ice-covered waters have only rarely been built. Their history began with Fritjof Nansen's FRAM, which he used for his famous first crossing of the Arctic Ocean 1893-1896. She served as example for the first generation of polar research vessels, at their time being modern instruments planned with foresight. Ice breaker technology has developed substantially since then. However, it took almost 80 years until this technical advance also reached polar research, when the Russian AKADEMIK FEDEROV, the German POLARSTERN, the Swedish ODEN and the USCG Cutter HEALY were built. All of these house modern laboratories, are ice-breakers capable to move into the deep-Arctic during the summer time and represent the second generation of dedicated polar research vessels. Still, the increasing demand in polar marine research capacities by societies that call for action to better understand climate change, especially in the high latitudes is not matched by adequate facilities and resources. Today, no icebreaker platform exists that is permanently available to the international science community for year-round expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean or heavily ice-infested waters of the polar Southern Ocean around Antarctica. The AURORA BOREALIS concept plans for a heavy research icebreaker, which will enable polar scientists around the world to launch international research expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic continental shelf seas autonomously during all seasons of the year. The European Research Icebreaker Consortium - AURORA BOREALIS (ERICON-AB) was established in 2008 to plan the scientific, governance, financial, and legal frameworks needed for the construction and operation of this first multi-nationally owned and operated research icebreaker and polar scientific drilling platform. By collaborating together and sharing common infrastructures it is envisioned that European nations make a major contribution to

  4. Ozone Satellite Data Synergy and Combination with Non-satellite Data in the AURORA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, U.; Tirelli, C.; Arola, A.; Dragani, R.; Keppens, A.; Loenen, E.; Masini, A.; Tsiakos, , C.; van der A, R.; Verberne, K.

    2017-12-01

    The geostationary satellite constellation composed of TEMPO (North America), SENTINEL-4 (Europe) and GEMS (Asia) missions is a major instance of space component in the fundamentally new paradigm aimed at integrating information on air quality from a wide variety of sources. Space-borne data on tropospheric composition from new generation satellites have a growing impact in this context because of their unprecedented quantity and quality, while merging with non-satellite measurements and other types of auxiliary data via state-of-the-art modelling capabilities remains essential to fit the purpose of highly accurate information made readily available at high temporal and spatial resolution, both in analysis and forecast mode. Proper and effective implementation of this paradigm poses severe challenges to science, technology and applications that must be addressed in a closely interconnected manner to pave the way to high quality products and innovative services. Novel ideas and tools built on these three pillars are currently under investigation in the AURORA (Advanced Ultraviolet Radiation and Ozone Retrieval for Applications) Horizon 2020 project of the European Commission. The primary goal of the project is the proof of concept of a synergistic approach to the exploitation of Sentinel-4 and -5 Ozone measurements in the UV, Visible and Thermal Infrared based on the combination of an innovative data fusion method and assimilation models. The scientific objective shares the same level of priority with the technological effort to realize a prototype data processor capable to manage the full data processing chain and with the development of two downstream applications for demonstration purposes. The presentation offers a first insight in mid-term results of the project, which is mostly based on the use of synthetic data from the atmospheric Sentinels. Specific focus is given to the role of satellite data synergy in integrated systems for air quality monitoring, in

  5. Fra radikalt samfunnsportrett til borgerlig idyll? En resepsjonsanalyse av Anne-Cath. Vestlys forfatterskap med hovedvekt på Aurora-bøkene

    OpenAIRE

    Vatnedalen, Mariell Bugge

    2015-01-01

    I min avhandling gjennomgår jeg utviklingen og tendensene i resepsjonen til Anne-Cath. Vestlys forfatterskap fra samtiden og fram til i dag, med Aurora-serien til å eksemplifisere. Jeg støtter meg til bøkene om Aurora i blokk Z (1966) og Aurora og pappa (1967), som tar for seg en familie som bryter med de tradisjonelle kjønnsrollemønstrene. Far er hjemmeværende student, glad i husarbeid og passer barn. Mor på den annen side er jurist i jobb og kjører bil - alt de...

  6. Echolocation in sympatric Peale's dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis) and Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) producing narrow-bandhigh-frequency clicks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Line Anker; Jensen, Frants Havmand; Beedholm, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    -element hydrophone array from wild Peale's (Lagenorhynchus australis) and Commerson's (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) dolphins off the Falkland Islands. The centroid frequency was different between Commerson's (133±2kHz) and Peale's (129±3kHz) dolphins. The r.m.s. bandwidth was 12±3kHz for both species. The source...... level was higher for Peale's dolphin (185±6dB re 1 uPa p.-p.) than for Commerson's(177±5 dB re 1 uPa p.-p.). The mean directivity indexes were 25dB for both species. The relatively low source levels in combination with the high directivity index may be an adaptation to reduce clutter when foraging...

  7. Decomposition of Phragmites australis litter retarded by invasive Solidago canadensis in mixtures: an antagonistic non-additive effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Yaojun; Zou, Jianwen; Siemann, Evan

    2014-06-01

    Solidago canadensis is an aggressive invader in China. Solidago invasion success is partially attributed to allelopathic compounds release and more benefits from AM fungi, which potentially makes the properties of Solidago litter different from co-occurring natives. These properties may comprehensively affect litter decomposition of co-occurring natives. We conducted a field experiment to examine litter mixing effects in a Phragmites australis dominated community invaded by Solidago in southeast China. Solidago had more rapid mass and N loss rate than Phragmites when they decomposed separately. Litter mixing decreased N loss rate in Phragmites litter and increased that of Solidago. Large decreases in Phragmites mass loss and smaller increases in Solidago mass loss caused negative non-additive effect. Solidago litter extracts reduced soil C decomposition and N processes, suggested an inhibitory effect of Solidago secondary compounds. These results are consistent with the idea that nutrient transfer and secondary compounds both affected litter mixtures decomposition.

  8. Crassulacean acid metabolism enhances underwater photosynthesis and diminishes photorespiration in the aquatic plant Isoetes australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Rich, S.M.; Pulido Pérez, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Underwater photosynthesis by aquatic plants is often limited by low availability of CO2, and photorespiration can be high. Some aquatic plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis. The benefits of CAM for increased underwater photosynthesis and suppression of photorespiration...... photorespiration was evident at a range of O2 concentrations, including values below air equilibrium. At a high O2 concentration of 2.2-fold the atmospheric equilibrium concentration, net photosynthesis was reduced substantially and, although it remained positive in leaves containing high malate concentrations...... were evaluated for Isoetes australis, a submerged plant that inhabits shallow temporary rock pools. • Leaves high or low in malate were evaluated for underwater net photosynthesis and apparent photorespiration at a range of CO2 and O2 concentrations. • CAM activity was indicated by 9.7-fold higher leaf...

  9. Моrрhоlоgy of inflorescensce and bluming peculiarities of Baptisia australis (L. R.Br. (Fabaceae introduced in М.М. Grishko National Botanical Garden NAS of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vira G. Mikolajchuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure of inflorescence in Baptisia australis introduced in conditions of M.M. Grishko National Botanical Garden in Kyiv has been studied. The dynamics of blooming and inflorescence development were analyzed.

  10. Aurora project: optical design for a kilojoule class KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, J.; McLeod, J.; Sollid, J.E.; Horn, W. III; Carmichael, R.; Kortegaard, B.; Woodfin, G.; Rosocha, L.

    1985-01-01

    Aurora is a 248-nm, 10-kilojoule laser system being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory to demonstrate the feasibility of large KrF laser systems for laser fusion. It was designed as a test bed to demonstrate: (1) efficiet energy extraction at 248 nm; (2) an angularly multiplexed optical system that is scaleable to large system designs; (3) the control of parasitics and ASE (amplified spontaneous emission); (4) long path pulse propagation at uv wavelengths; (5) alignment systems for multibeam systems; and (6) new or novel approaches to optical hardware that can lead to cost reduction on large systems. In this paper only issues pertinent to the optical system are addressed. First, a description of the entire system is given. The design constraints on the optical system are explained, concurrent with a discussion of the final design. This is followed by a very brief discussion of coatings; in particular, the use of sol-gels for antireflection coatings is presented

  11. Plant Aurora kinases play a role in maintenance of primary meristems and control of endoreduplication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovská, Beáta; Cenklová, Věra; Pochylová, Žaneta; Kourová, Hana; Doskočilová, Anna; Plíhal, Ondřej; Binarová, Lenka; Binarová, Pavla

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 193, č. 3 (2012), s. 590-604 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/07/1169; GA ČR GP204/09/P155; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H084; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA MŠk LC545; GA AV ČR IAA500200719 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * AtTPX2 (targeting protein for Xklp2) * Aurora kinases Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.736, year: 2012

  12. GPS Signal Corruption by the Discrete Aurora: Precise Measurements From the Mahali Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeter, Joshua; Mrak, Sebastijan; Hirsch, Michael; Swoboda, John; Akbari, Hassan; Starr, Gregory; Hampton, Don; Erickson, Philip; Lind, Frank; Coster, Anthea; Pankratius, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Measurements from a dense network of GPS receivers have been used to clarify the relationship between substorm auroras and GPS signal corruption as manifested by loss of lock on the received signal. A network of nine receivers was deployed along roadways near the Poker Flat Research Range in central Alaska, with receiver spacing between 15 and 30 km. Instances of large-amplitude phase fluctuations and signal loss of lock were registered in space and time with auroral forms associated with a sequence of westward traveling surges associated with a substorm onset over central Canada. The following conclusions were obtained: (1) The signal corruption originated in the ionospheric E region, between 100 and 150 km altitude, and (2) the GPS links suffering loss of lock were confined to a narrow band (<20 km wide) along the trailing edge of the moving auroral forms. The results are discussed in the context of mechanisms typically cited to account for GPS phase scintillation by auroral processes.

  13. Our life is protected by the Earth's atmosphere and magnetic field: what aurora research tells us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamide, Y

    2001-01-01

    Our sun is an average middle-aged star. Without the sun, there would be no atmosphere, no water, and no life on the Earth. The sun is constantly changing, providing the Earth with energy through a complicated chain of processes that occur in space surrounding the Earth. This paper demonstrates that life on Earth is protected by two barriers, i.e., the atmosphere and the magnetic field, against otherwise menacing events in space. Because of these shielding effects, we, peacefully sitting on the Earth's surface, are not aware of a number of critical and potentially dangerous episodes that are taking place only 100 km above the Earth's surface. The aurora, which dances in the polar sky also because of the two barriers, is sending us a crucial hint about what is happening in space.

  14. Baseline vegetation inventory and productivity assessment for the Syncrude Aurora Mine EIA local study area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report presented an inventory and assessment of vegetation communities and forest covers within the proposed Aurora Mine local study area. A field inventory was conducted in the summer of 1995 to ground-truth air photo interpretations and to collect data. The inventory includes a classification of vegetation, forest covers and wetlands. It also includes the documentation of uncommon plants and the vegetation productivity estimates of tree, shrub and herbaceous plants. The study area is located east of the Athabasca River about 35 km northeast of Mildred Lake Oil Sands Plant. The area includes portions of Oil Sands Leases 10, 12, 13, 31, and 34 which includes much of the Muskeg River drainage and all of Kearl Lake. 24 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs.

  15. Coordinated observations of electron energy spectra and electrostatic cyclotron waves during diffuse auroras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, D.; Perraut, S.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Aparicio, B.; Bosqued, J.M.; Rodgers, D.

    1986-01-01

    An auroral precipitation event lasting several hours in the dusk sector on June 2, 1982 is studied in conjunction with three instruments: the EISCAT European Incoherent Scatter radar based in Scandinavia, the GEOS-2 European geostationary spacecraft, and the ARCAD-3 French-Soviet polar spacecraft. Electron energy spectra between about 1 and 10 keV, computed from EISCAT measurements, were in agreement, during a diffuse aurora period, with direct observations onboard ARCAD-3, and also with the plasma sheet component (3-10 keV) measured onboard GEOS-2 and available at large pitch-angles. This last comparison suggested the quasi-isotropy of equatorial electron fluxes. The electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves, also observed onboard GEOS-2, were not found to be intense enough to cause by themselves the strong pitch-angle diffusion of electrons of a few keV

  16. A new dolphin species, the Burrunan Dolphin Tursiops australis sp. nov., endemic to southern Australian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Robb, Kate; Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Thompson, Ross; Austin, Jeremy; Owen, Kylie; McKechnie, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Small coastal dolphins endemic to south-eastern Australia have variously been assigned to described species Tursiops truncatus, T. aduncus or T. maugeanus; however the specific affinities of these animals is controversial and have recently been questioned. Historically 'the southern Australian Tursiops' was identified as unique and was formally named Tursiops maugeanus but was later synonymised with T. truncatus. Morphologically, these coastal dolphins share some characters with both aforementioned recognised Tursiops species, but they also possess unique characters not found in either. Recent mtDNA and microsatellite genetic evidence indicates deep evolutionary divergence between this dolphin and the two currently recognised Tursiops species. However, in accordance with the recommendations of the Workshop on Cetacean Systematics, and the Unified Species Concept the use of molecular evidence alone is inadequate for describing new species. Here we describe the macro-morphological, colouration and cranial characters of these animals, assess the available and new genetic data, and conclude that multiple lines of evidence clearly indicate a new species of dolphin. We demonstrate that the syntype material of T. maugeanus comprises two different species, one of which is the historical 'southern form of Tursiops' most similar to T. truncatus, and the other is representative of the new species and requires formal classification. These dolphins are here described as Tursiops australis sp. nov., with the common name of 'Burrunan Dolphin' following Australian aboriginal narrative. The recognition of T. australis sp. nov. is particularly significant given the endemism of this new species to a small geographic region of southern and south-eastern Australia, where only two small resident populations in close proximity to a major urban and agricultural centre are known, giving them a high conservation value and making them susceptible to numerous anthropogenic threats.

  17. Caracterización estructural de un bosque de Podocarpus parlatorei y Juglans australis en Salta, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pinazo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la estructura de bosques montanos ubicados en áreas con distinto grado de modificación humana en el Noroeste de Argentina (22º24’ S, 1550 msnm. Se utilizaron parcelas circulares para caracterizar los rodales. Los rodales fueron clasificados en función del área basal por especie. Se reconocieron cinco estructuras diferenciadas por la proporción de Juglans australis, Podocarpus parlatorei y de las especies tolerantes a la sombra Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Myrcianthes sp y Allophylus edulis. Se presentan datos de densidad y área basal de individuos con diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP> 10 cm y la densidad de individuos con DAPStands of Subtropical Montane Cloud Forest were studied in areas under different land use regimes near Los Toldos (NW Argentina. Circular plots were used to calculate density and basal area of trees with dbh > 10 cm; and density of trees with dbh < 10 cm. The stands were classified and grouped as a function of basal area. Five structures were recognized, with different proportions of Juglans australis, Podocarpus parlatorei and shade-tolerant species like Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Allophylus edulis and Myrcianthes sp. Less disturbed area stands had a higher basal area and greater dbh for all species, and shade-tolerant species in the canopy. In the most disturbed area, all canopy species were shade intolerant and regeneration was dominated by shade-tolerant species. The differences in composition, basal area, stem diameter class distribution and regeneration indicate that the structure types corresponded to different stages of the successional process, and the regeneration of the most disturbed areas suggest a tendency towards the composition of mature forest.

  18. A new dolphin species, the Burrunan Dolphin Tursiops australis sp. nov., endemic to southern Australian coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Charlton-Robb

    Full Text Available Small coastal dolphins endemic to south-eastern Australia have variously been assigned to described species Tursiops truncatus, T. aduncus or T. maugeanus; however the specific affinities of these animals is controversial and have recently been questioned. Historically 'the southern Australian Tursiops' was identified as unique and was formally named Tursiops maugeanus but was later synonymised with T. truncatus. Morphologically, these coastal dolphins share some characters with both aforementioned recognised Tursiops species, but they also possess unique characters not found in either. Recent mtDNA and microsatellite genetic evidence indicates deep evolutionary divergence between this dolphin and the two currently recognised Tursiops species. However, in accordance with the recommendations of the Workshop on Cetacean Systematics, and the Unified Species Concept the use of molecular evidence alone is inadequate for describing new species. Here we describe the macro-morphological, colouration and cranial characters of these animals, assess the available and new genetic data, and conclude that multiple lines of evidence clearly indicate a new species of dolphin. We demonstrate that the syntype material of T. maugeanus comprises two different species, one of which is the historical 'southern form of Tursiops' most similar to T. truncatus, and the other is representative of the new species and requires formal classification. These dolphins are here described as Tursiops australis sp. nov., with the common name of 'Burrunan Dolphin' following Australian aboriginal narrative. The recognition of T. australis sp. nov. is particularly significant given the endemism of this new species to a small geographic region of southern and south-eastern Australia, where only two small resident populations in close proximity to a major urban and agricultural centre are known, giving them a high conservation value and making them susceptible to numerous anthropogenic

  19. Pitch angle scattering and particle precipitation in a pulsating aurora - an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandahl, I.

    1984-10-01

    A pulsating aurora occurring during the recovery phase of a substorm on January 27, 1979 was monitored by a large set of instruments. The Swedish sounding rocket S23-L2 was launched at magnetic midnight over pulsating patches, some of which exhibited 3+-1 Hz modulation. The ground based instrumentation included auroral TV cameras, all sky cameras, photometers and magnetometers. The geostationary satellite GEOS-2 was located in the equatorial plane, approximately conjugate to the rocket. The central experiment of this study is the particle experiment on the rocket. Several aspects of pulsating auroras have been investigated. The auroral luminosity variations were very well correlated to variations in the flux of precipitating hot electrons. The 1-20 second pulsations were caused by increased fluxes of 4-40 keV electrons. The 3+-1 Hz modulation was detected in 7-200 keV electrons, but the biggest energy flux modulation occurred for electrons of about 60 keV. Model calculations involving the electron distributions measured by the sounding rocket and GEOS-2, consistently show that the electrons may have been scattered into the loss cone through the Doppler shifted gyroresonance with whistler mode waves. The scattering was not a pure pitch angle scattering as in the classical Coroniti and Kennel theory, but involved also a systematic energy loss from the particles. The waves were probably hiss with some chorus elements. The equatorial plane plasma density was estimated in two independent ways to be about 2x10 6 m- 3 . The 3+-1 Hz modulation was measured both by the particle experiment on the rocket and by the wave experiment on GEOS-2. Properties of the modulated fluxes are described and a qualitative model for the cause of the modulation is proposed. (author)

  20. Dayside aurorae and polar arcs under south-east IMF orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We document a characteristic spatial and temporal structure of the aurora in the postnoon sector present during a 10-h-long interval of very steady southeast IMF orientation (clock angle=135° ending in a sharp south-to-north transition. Focus is placed on the detailed morphology of auroral forms/activities corresponding to merging and lobe convection cells obtained from SuperDARN convection data and Greenland magnetograms. The ground optical instruments at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard (76° MLAT recorded different auroral forms/activities as the station moved to higher magnetic local times (MLTs in the 13:00–17:00 MLT sector. Whereas the 13:00–15:00 MLT sector is characterized by classical poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs associated with merging cell transients, the aurora in the 15:00–17:00 MLT sector shows instead a characteristic latitudinal bifurcation consisting of standard oval forms and polar arcs, and a corresponding composite pattern of merging and lobe convection cells. The merging and lobe cells respond to the southward and northward IMF transitions by activation/fading and fading/activation, respectively. A sequence of brightening events is characterized by successive activations progressing in latitude from the merging cell regime to the lobe cell regime. Emphasis is placed on the association between polar arc brightenings and the activation of the channel of enhanced sunward flow in the lobe cell. The observations are discussed in relation to recent work on solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interconnection topology.

  1. New benzimidazoles and their antitumor effects with Aurora A kinase and KSP inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-All, Amira S; Magd-El-Din, Asmaa A; Ragab, Fatma A F; ElHefnawi, Mahmoud; Abdalla, Mohamed M; Galal, Shadia A; El-Rashedy, Ahmed A

    2015-07-01

    A newly synthesized series of anticancer compounds comprising thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine derivatives 6a-q bearing a benzimidazole moiety was produced via a one-pot reaction of N-(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-2-cyanoacetamide 5 with 2-aminothiazole and an appropriate aromatic aldehyde. Compound 7 was obtained via the reaction of 4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2yl)benzenamide 1 with carbon disulphide and methyl iodide in the presence of concentrated aqueous solution of NaOH, then treated with o-phenylenediamine to give N-(4-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-amine 8. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by analytical and spectroscopic measurements (IR, MS, and (1) H NMR). The synthesized products were screened and studied for their in vitro antitumor activity against three human cancer cell lines (namely colorectal cancer cell line HCT116, human liver cancer cell line HepG2, and human ovarian cancer cell line A2780) and their Aurora A kinase and KSP inhibitory activities. All newly synthesized compounds revealed marked results comparable with the standard drug CK0106023. The compounds 6e and 6k of the thiazolopyrimidine derivatives were the most active compounds when tested against the three cell lines in comparison with the standard drug CK0106023, and showed potent dual KSP and Aurora A kinase inhibition. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Aurora-A Expression Is Independently Associated with Chromosomal Instability in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Baba

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available AURKA (the official symbol for Aurora-A, STK15, or BTAK regulates the function of centrosomes, spindles, and kinetochores for proper mitotic progression. AURKA overexpression is observed in various cancers including colon cancer, and a link between AURKA and chromosomal instability (CIN has been proposed. However, no study has comprehensively examined AURKA expression in relation to CIN or prognosis using a large number of tumors. Using 517 colorectal cancers in two prospective cohort studies, we detected AURKA overexpression (by immunohistochemistry in 98 tumors (19%. We assessed other molecular events including loss of heterozygosity (LOH in 2p, 5q, 17q, and 18q, the CpG island methylation phenotype (CIMP, and microsatellite instability (MSI. Prognostic significance of AURKA was evaluated by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier method. In both univariate and multivariate logistic regressions, AURKA overexpression was significantly associated with CIN (defined as the presence of LOH in any of the chromosomal segments; multivariate odds ratio, 2.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.40–6.29; P = .0045. In multivariate analysis, AURKA was associated with cyclin D1 expression (P = .010 and inversely with PIK3CA mutation (P=.014, fatty acid synthase expression (P=.028, and family history of colorectal cancer (P = .050, but not with sex, age, body mass index, tumor location, stage, CIMP, MSI, KRAS, BRAF, BMI, LINE-1 hypomethylation, p53, p21, β-catenin, or cyclooxygenase 2. AURKA was not significantly associated with clinical outcome or survival. In conclusion, AURKA overexpression is independently associated with CIN in colorectal cancer, supporting a potential role of Aurora kinase-A in colorectal carcinogenesis through genomic instability (rather than epigenomic instability.

  3. Introduction of the 2007-2008 JOGMEC/NRCan/Aurora Mallik Gas Hydrate Production Research Program, NWT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Dallimore, S. R.; Numasawa, M.; Yasuda, M.; Fujii, T.; Fujii, K.; Wright, J.; Nixon, F.

    2007-12-01

    Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC) and Natural Resource Canada (NRCan) have embarked on a new research program to study the production potential of gas hydrates. The program is being carried out at the Mallik gas hydrate field in the Mackenzie Delta, a location where two previous scientific investigations have been carried in 1998 and 2002. In the 2002 program that was undertaken by seven partners from five countries, 468m3 of gas flow was measured during 124 hours of thermal stimulation using hot warm fluid. Small-scale pressure drawdown tests were also carried out using Schlumberger's Modular Dynamics Tester (MDT) wireline tool, gas flow was observed and the inferred formation permeabilities suggested the possible effectiveness of the simple depressurization method. While the testing undertaken in 2002 can be cited as the first well constrained gas production from a gas hydrate deposit, the results fell short of that required to fully calibrate reservoir simulation models or indeed establish the technical viability of long term production from gas hydrates. The objectives of the current JOGMEC/NRCan/Aurora Mallik production research program are to undertake longer term production testing to further constrain the scientific unknowns and to demonstrate the technical feasibility of sustained gas hydrate production using the depressurization method. A key priority is to accurately measure water and gas production using state-of-art production technologies. The primary production test well was established during the 2007 field season with the re-entry and deepening of JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 well, originally drilled in 1998. Production testing was carried out in April of 2007 under a relatively low drawdown pressure condition. Flow of methane gas was measured from a 12m perforated interval of gas-hydrate-saturated sands from 1093 to 1105m. The results establish the potential of the depressurization method and provide a basis for future

  4. APIO-EE-9 is a novel Aurora A and B antagonist that suppresses esophageal cancer growth in a PDX mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guoguo; Yao, Ke; Guo, Zhiping; Zhao, Zhenjiang; Liu, Kangdong; Liu, Fangfang; Chen, Hanyong; Gorja, Dhilli Rao; Reddy, Kanamata; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Ziming; Dong, Zigang

    2017-08-08

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract. Over the past three decades, with advances in surgical techniques and treatment, the prognosis of esophageal cancer has only slowly improved. Thus identifying novel molecular targets and developing therapeutic agents are critical. Aurora kinases play a crucial role in mitosis and selective inhibitors might provide an effective therapeutic treatment for cancer. However, the role of Aurora kinases in EC is still inadequately studied. Here, we identified a novel compound, referred to as APIO-EE-9, which inhibits growth and colony formation and induces apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells. Using computer modeling, we found that APIO-EE-9 interacted with both Aurora A and B in the ATP-binding pocket. APIO-EE-9 inhibited both Aurora A and B kinase activities in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with APIO-EE-9 substantially reduced the downstream Aurora kinase phosphorylation of histone H3 (Ser10), resulting in formation of multiple nuclei and centrosomes. Additionally, esophageal cancer cells expressing shAurora A or shAurora B kinase exhibited a dramatic reduction in proliferation and colony formation. Injection of these cells as xenografts in mice reduced tumor formation compared to wildtype cells. Importantly, APIO-EE-9 significantly decreased the size of esophageal patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumors implanted in SCID mice. These results demonstrated that APIO-EE-9 is a specific Aurora kinase inhibitor that could be developed as a therapeutic agent against esophageal cancer.

  5. Rosmarinic acid plays a protective role in the embryogenesis of zebrafish exposed to food colours through its influence on aurora kinase A level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnalatha, Y; Jerrine Joseph, I S; Jayakrishna, Tippabathani

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the protective nature of the rosmarinic acid from Sphaeranthus amaranthoides during zebra fish embryogenesis. Rosmarinic acid was isolated from the S. amaranthoides. An accurate, sensitive and simple LC-MS analysis was performed to determine the rosmarinic acid from S. amaranthoides. In the present study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to crimson red and sunset yellow at a concentration of 0.1 and 0.5mg/l and the effect of these food colours on the levels of aurora kinase A was studied individually. Aurora kinase A levels are crucial for embryogenesis in zebrafish which is used as model in this study. The decrease of aurora kinase A levels in food colour treated embryos influences the embryogenesis, resulting in short and bent trunk leading to cell death and growth retardation. Elevated levels of aurora kinase A in rosmarinic acid treated groups can be attributed to the restoration of normal growth in zebra fish embryos with well developed brain and eyes. Further insilico docking studies were carried out and target was identified as rosmarinic acid. From the docking studies the docking poses and binding energy confirms that aurora kinase A is the target for rosmarinic acid. Rosmarinic acid was found to play a protective role in the embryogenesis of zebra fish exposed to food colours (crimson red and sunset yellow) through its influence on aurora kinase A levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Baseline non-traditional resource use in the Aurora Mine EIA local study area and the Syncrude/Suncor regional study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    As part of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the regional and local study area of Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine, the use of natural resources by non-aboriginal residents and non-residents in the area was documented. The objective of the study was to determine what specific resources are being used, how much, when, where and why. The topics included hunting, fishing, camping and canoeing. Public opinion regarding opportunities for resource use was also documented. The report focused on the dynamic nature of resource use, secondary economies (tourist accommodations) and quality of life. A telephone survey was conducted in which 17 respondents from recreational organizations answered a resource use questionnaire which contained 38 questions on consumptive and non-consumptive uses of wildlife, fish, berries, timber, non-resident use and resource management policies. The three environmentally significant areas of the local study area included the Muskeg River, Kearl Lake and East Jackpine Creek. The regional study are contained the Horse River Diversity area, La Saline Natural area, Schultz's Bog Diversity area, Athabasca Tar Sands Reach, Clearwater River, McClelland Lake Patterned Fens, McClelland Lake, and the Fort Hills. Agriculture in both areas is limited because of unfavourable climate and generally low-quality soil. 13 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs

  7. Baseline non-traditional resource use in the Aurora Mine EIA local study area and the Syncrude/Suncor regional study area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    As part of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the regional and local study area of Syncrude`s proposed Aurora Mine, the use of natural resources by non-aboriginal residents and non-residents in the area was documented. The objective of the study was to determine what specific resources are being used, how much, when, where and why. The topics included hunting, fishing, camping and canoeing. Public opinion regarding opportunities for resource use was also documented. The report focused on the dynamic nature of resource use, secondary economies (tourist accommodations) and quality of life. A telephone survey was conducted in which 17 respondents from recreational organizations answered a resource use questionnaire which contained 38 questions on consumptive and non-consumptive uses of wildlife, fish, berries, timber, non-resident use and resource management policies. The three environmentally significant areas of the local study area included the Muskeg River, Kearl Lake and East Jackpine Creek. The regional study are contained the Horse River Diversity area, La Saline Natural area, Schultz`s Bog Diversity area, Athabasca Tar Sands Reach, Clearwater River, McClelland Lake Patterned Fens, McClelland Lake, and the Fort Hills. Agriculture in both areas is limited because of unfavourable climate and generally low-quality soil. 13 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs.

  8. Role of solid-phase microextraction in the identification of highly volatile pheromones of two Rhinoceros beetles Scapanes australis and Strategus aloeus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, D; Ramirez-Lucas, P; Malosse, C; Aldana, R; Kakul, T; Morin, J P

    2000-07-14

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) samplings from live insects or natural secretion allowed one to identify the aggregation pheromones of the pest beetles Scapanes australis and Strategus aloeus by efficient and rapid isolation of their highly volatile (72 < M(r) < 116) components. S. australis male pheromone was identified as a 84:12:4 (w/w) mixture of 2-butanol [67:33 (R)-(-):(S)-(+) ratio], 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and 2,3-butanediol [43:17:40 (R,R)-(-):(S,S)-(+):meso ratio], and S. aloeus pheromone as a 95.5:4.0:0.5 (w/w) mixture of 2-butanone, 3-pentanone and sec.-butyl acetate by GC-MS using conventional and chiral capillary columns. This is the first report of Scarabaeidae pheromones based on such small and common molecules.

  9. Genetic and epigenetic diversity and structure of Phragmites australis from local habitats of the Songnen Prairie using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, T; Jiang, L L; Yang, Y F

    2016-08-19

    The genetic and epigenetic diversity and structure of naturally occurring Phragmites australis populations occupying two different habitats on a small spatial scale in the Songnen Prairie in northeastern China were investigated by assessing amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphisms (MSAPs) through fluorescent capillary detection. The two groups of P. australis were located in a seasonal waterlogged low-lying and alkalized meadow with a pH of 8-8.5 and in an alkaline patch without accumulated rainwater and with a pH greater than 10. These groups showed high levels of genetic diversity at the habitat level based on the percentage of polymorphic bands (90.32, 82.56%), Nei's gene diversity index (0.262, 0.248), and the Shannon diversity index (0.407, 0.383). Although little is known about the between-habitat genetic differentiation of P. australis on a small spatial scale, our results implied significant genetic differentiation between habitats. Extensive epigenetic diversity within habitats, along with clear differentiation, was found. Specifically, the former habitat (Habitat 1, designated H1) harbored higher levels of genetic and epigenetic diversity than the latter (Habitat 2, designated H2), and population-level diversity was also high. This study represents one of few attempts to predict habitat-based genetic differentiation of reeds on a small scale. These assessments of genetic and epigenetic variation are integral aspects of molecular ecological studies on P. australis. Possible causes for within- and between-habitat genetic and epigenetic variations are discussed.

  10. Invasion of Old World Phragmites australis in the New World: precipitation and temperature patterns combined with human influences redesign the invasive niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wen-Yong; Lambertini, Carla; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Meyerson, Laura A; Brix, Hans

    2013-11-01

    After its introduction into North America, Euro-Asian Phragmites australis became an aggressive invasive wetland grass along the Atlantic coast of North America. Its distribution range has since expanded to the middle, south and southwest of North America, where invasive P. australis has replaced millions of hectares of native plants in inland and tidal wetlands. Another P. australis invasion from the Mediterranean region is simultaneously occurring in the Gulf region of the United States and some countries in South America. Here, we analysed the occurrence records of the two Old World invasive lineages of P. australis (Haplotype M and Med) in both their native and introduced ranges using environmental niche models (ENMs) to assess (i) whether a niche shift accompanied the invasions in the New World; (ii) the role of biologically relevant climatic variables and human influence in the process of invasion; and (iii) the current potential distribution of these two lineages. We detected local niche shifts along the East Coast of North America and the Gulf Coast of the United States for Haplotype M and around the Mississippi Delta and Florida of the United States for Med. The new niche of the introduced Haplotype M accounts for temperature fluctuations and increased precipitation. The introduced Med lineage has enlarged its original subtropical niche to the tropics-subtropics, invading regions with a high annual mean temperature (> ca. 10 °C) and high precipitation in the driest period. Human influence is an important factor for both niches. We suggest that an increase in precipitation in the 20th century, global warming and human-made habitats have shaped the invasive niches of the two lineages in the New World. However, as the invasions are ongoing and human and natural disturbances occur concomitantly, the future distribution ranges of the two lineages may diverge from the potential distribution ranges detected in this study. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effects of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen on the Growth and Production of Domoic Acid by Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis (Bacillariophyceae) in Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Jézéquel, Véronique; Calu, Guillaume; Candela, Leo; Amzil, Zouher; Jauffrais, Thierry; Séchet, Véronique; Weigel, Pierre

    2015-11-26

    Over the last century, human activities have altered the global nitrogen cycle, and anthropogenic inputs of both inorganic and organic nitrogen species have increased around the world, causing significant changes to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The increasing frequency of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in estuarine and coastal waters reinforces the need to understand better the environmental control of its growth and domoic acid (DA) production. Here, we document Pseudo-nitzschia spp. growth and toxicity on a large set of inorganic and organic nitrogen (nitrate, ammonium, urea, glutamate, glutamine, arginine and taurine). Our study focused on two species isolated from European coastal waters: P. multiseries CCL70 and P. australis PNC1. The nitrogen sources induced broad differences between the two species with respect to growth rate, biomass and cellular DA, but no specific variation could be attributed to any of the inorganic or organic nitrogen substrates. Enrichment with ammonium resulted in an enhanced growth rate and cell yield, whereas glutamate did not support the growth of P. multiseries. Arginine, glutamine and taurine enabled good growth of P. australis, but without toxin production. The highest DA content was produced when P. multiseries grew with urea and P. australis grew with glutamate. For both species, growth rate was not correlated with DA content but more toxin was produced when the nitrogen source could not sustain a high biomass. A significant negative correlation was found between cell biomass and DA content in P. australis. This study shows that Pseudo-nitzschia can readily utilize organic nitrogen in the form of amino acids, and confirms that both inorganic and organic nitrogen affect growth and DA production. Our results contribute to our understanding of the ecophysiology of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and may help to predict toxic events in the natural environment.

  12. Akkumulation von L-Malat und D-Lactat in Arabidopsis thaliana und Laccase/HBT-vermittelte Delignifizierung von Spartina alterniflora und Phragmites australis

    OpenAIRE

    Heil, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The current work contains two projects "Accumulation of L-malate and D-lactate in Arabidopsis thaliana" (A) "Laccase/HBT mediated delignification of Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis" (B). In project A, L-malate and D-lactate accumulated in A. thaliana plants. The accumulation of L-malate is carried out by modification of the plant metabolism with the enzymes PEPC, MDH and the tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter (TDT). Gene pepci2 (Hydrilla verticillata), mdh5 (Zea mays) and tdt ...

  13. Relation between fine structure of energy spectra for pulsating aurora electrons and frequency spectra of whistler mode chorus waves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miyoshi, Y.; Saito, S.; Seki, K.; Nishiyama, T.; Kataoka, R.; Asamura, K.; Katoh, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Sakanoi, T.; Hirahara, M.; Oyama, S.; Kurita, S.; Santolík, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 9 (2015), s. 7728-7736 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12231 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : pulsating aurora * chorus waves * wave-particle interactions * computer simulation * Reimei satellite Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015JA021562/full

  14. v-Src causes delocalization of Mklp1, Aurora B, and INCENP from the spindle midzone during cytokinesis failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Shuhei [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Nakayama, Yuji, E-mail: nakayama@mb.kyoto-phu.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, 5 Nakauchi-cho, Misasagi, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8414 (Japan); Honda, Takuya; Aoki, Azumi; Tamura, Naoki; Abe, Kohei; Fukumoto, Yasunori [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Naoto, E-mail: nyama@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan)

    2013-06-10

    Src-family tyrosine kinases are aberrantly activated in cancers, and this activation is associated with malignant tumor progression. v-Src, encoded by the v-src transforming gene of the Rous sarcoma virus, is a mutant variant of the cellular proto-oncogene c-Src. Although investigations with temperature sensitive mutants of v-Src have shown that v-Src induces many oncogenic processes, the effects on cell division are unknown. Here, we show that v-Src inhibits cellular proliferation of HCT116, HeLa S3 and NIH3T3 cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that inducible expression of v-Src results in an accumulation of 4N cells. Time-lapse analysis revealed that binucleation is induced through the inhibition of cytokinesis, a final step of cell division. The localization of Mklp1, which is essential for cytokinesis, to the spindle midzone is inhibited in v-Src-expressing cells. Intriguingly, Aurora B, which regulates Mklp1 localization at the midzone, is delocalized from the spindle midzone and the midbody but not from the metaphase chromosomes upon v-Src expression. Mklp2, which is responsible for the relocation of Aurora B from the metaphase chromosomes to the spindle midzone, is also lost from the spindle midzone. These results suggest that v-Src inhibits cytokinesis through the delocalization of Mklp1 and Aurora B from the spindle midzone, resulting in binucleation. -- Highlights: • v-Src inhibits cell proliferation of HCT116, HeLa S3 and NIH3T3 cells. • v-Src induces binucleation together with cytokinesis failure. • v-Src causes delocalization of Mklp1, Aurora B and INCENP from the spindle midzone.

  15. Resonant dissociation in N2 by electron impact: a source of heating in the thermosphere and auroras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, D.; Burrow, P.D.

    1979-01-01

    An electron impact resonant dissociation process, leading to superthermal atom production in molecular nitrogen is described. The maximum cross section for this process is found to be 2.5 x 10 -18 cm 2 at 10 eV. Measurements of scattered electrons indicate a value of -65 to -90 MeV for the electron affinity of N. The possible role of resonant dissociation as a source of heating in the thermosphere and in auroras is discussed

  16. Bioinformatic prediction of G protein-coupled receptor encoding sequences from the transcriptome of the foreleg, including the Haller's organ, of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Munoz

    Full Text Available The cattle tick of Australia, Rhipicephalus australis, is a vector for microbial parasites that cause serious bovine diseases. The Haller's organ, located in the tick's forelegs, is crucial for host detection and mating. To facilitate the development of new technologies for better control of this agricultural pest, we aimed to sequence and annotate the transcriptome of the R. australis forelegs and associated tissues, including the Haller's organ. As G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are an important family of eukaryotic proteins studied as pharmaceutical targets in humans, we prioritized the identification and classification of the GPCRs expressed in the foreleg tissues. The two forelegs from adult R. australis were excised, RNA extracted, and pyrosequenced with 454 technology. Reads were assembled into unigenes and annotated by sequence similarity. Python scripts were written to find open reading frames (ORFs from each unigene. These ORFs were analyzed by different GPCR prediction approaches based on sequence alignments, support vector machines, hidden Markov models, and principal component analysis. GPCRs consistently predicted by multiple methods were further studied by phylogenetic analysis and 3D homology modeling. From 4,782 assembled unigenes, 40,907 possible ORFs were predicted. Using Blastp, Pfam, GPCRpred, TMHMM, and PCA-GPCR, a basic set of 46 GPCR candidates were compiled and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. With further screening of tertiary structures predicted by RaptorX, 6 likely GPCRs emerged and the strongest candidate was classified by PCA-GPCR to be a GABAB receptor.

  17. Accumulation of nutrients and heavy metals in Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel and Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla in a constructed wetland of the Venice lagoon watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragato, Claudia; Brix, Hans; Malagoli, Mario

    2006-01-01

    A recently constructed wetland, located in the Venice lagoon watershed, was monitored to investigate growth dynamics, nutrient and heavy metal shoot accumulation of the two dominating macrophytes: Phragmites australis and Bolboschoenus maritimus. Investigations were conducted over a vegetative season at three locations with different distance to the inlet point to assess effects on vegetation. The distance from the inlet did not affect either shoot biomass or nutrients (N, P, K and Na) and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) shoot content. With the exception of Na, nutrient and heavy metal concentrations were higher in shoots of P. australis than in B. maritimus. Heavy metal concentration in the incoming water and in the soil was not correlated to the plant content of either species. Shoot heavy metal concentrations were similar to those reported in the current literature, but accumulation generally increased towards the end of the growing season. - Heavy metal shoot concentration in Phragmites australis and Bolboschoenus maritimus increased significantly at the end of the growing season

  18. Genetic variation within three populations of Phycella australis (Phil. Ravenna from Biobío Region, Chile, evaluated using ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Flores

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phycella australis (Phil. Ravenna is a Chilean plant with high ornamental potential; however, the intensive extraction as a cut flower might be detrimental for the conservational state by ignoring the state of genetic variation. The objective of this investigation was to assess genetic variability within and between three populations of P. australis in the Biobío Region using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. The evaluated areas correspond to three locations in the province of Concepción, Biobío Region: Desembocadura (36°48' S, 73°10' W, Santa Juana (36°58' S, 72°58' W, and Lipinhue (37°00' S, 72°58' W. Six ISSR primers were used obtaining 51 fragments, from which 72.5% were polymorphic. From the three evaluated sites Santa Juana showed a higher percentage of polymorphic loci (76.47%. From this variability, 83% belong to within population variability and only 17% belong to variability between populations. The dendrogram generated using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA method, grouped Lipinhue and Santa Juana sites together, which agrees with the geographic locations. This investigation proved that P. australis has high genetic variability despite the exploitation for economic purposes.

  19. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil nutrient addition on the growth of Phragmites australis under different drying-rewetting cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jin-Feng; An, Jing; Gao, Jun-Qin; Zhang, Xiao-Ya; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2018-01-01

    The frequency of soil drying-rewetting cycles is predicted to increase under future global climate change, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are symbiotic with most plants. However, it remains unknown how AMF affect plant growth under different frequencies of soil drying-rewetting cycles. We subjected a clonal wetland plant Phragmites australis to three frequencies of drying-rewetting cycles (1, 2, or 4 cycles), two nutrient treatments (with or without), and two AMF treatments (with or without) for 64 days. AMF promoted the growth of P. australis, especially in the 2 cycles of the drying-rewetting treatment. AMF had a significant positive effect on leaf mass and number of ramets in the 2 cycles of the drying-rewetting treatment with nutrient addition. In the 2 cycles of drying-rewetting treatment without nutrient addition, AMF increased leaf area and decreased belowground to aboveground biomass ratio. These results indicate that AMF may assist P. australis in coping with medium frequency of drying-rewetting cycles, and provide theoretical guidance for predicting how wetland plants respond to future global climate change.

  20. The effects of short term exposure to Bass Strait crude oil and Corexit 8667 on benthic community metabolism in Posidonia australis Hook. f. dominated microcosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, A.I.; Larkum, A.W.D.

    1982-03-01

    Microcosms consisting of a sublittoral seagrass meadow from Botany Bay, N.S.W. were maintained in aquaria in a controlled environment room from March to August 1979. Oxygen production and consumption in the microcosms and leaf turnover of the seagrass, Posidonia australis Hook.f. were measured before, during and after a 7-day treatment in June with Bass Strait crude oil and the dispersant Corexit 8667. Four microcosms received oil and two of these received dispersant. The leaf turnover of P. australis was not significantly affected by the addition of oil and dispersant. Photosynthetic oxygen production decreased and respiration increased in the microcosms during treatment. In August, 40 days after treatment, oxygen production rates and P/R ratios in the oil-treated microcosms were higher than rates measured before treatment. The oil-and-dispersant-treated microcosms did not show this trend. The results of this study indicate that a more severe stress is placed on the P. australis dominated benthic community by oil and dispersant than by oil alone.

  1. Retratos de Aurora: Deconstrucción de una memoria derrumbada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Sáez Gutiérrez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemos decido publicar en este número el proyecto Retratos de Aurora coordinado por Walter Blas1 , como una manera de visibilizar acciones que desde el arte y su enseñanza logran transcender al entorno donde se ha efectuado dicha acción. Aquí la fotografía y el propio aparato fotográfico son el medio instrumental propuesto para construir la historia viva de la emblemática población “Aurora de Chile”.2 Las vecinas y vecinos fueron invitados por Walter a construir artesanalmente cámaras estenopeicas (sin lente adaptando objetos de su cotidiano y su memoria. Una antigua caja de madera, un lechero de aluminio, un madero de la antigua fábrica, un motor de arranque y hasta el estuche de un acordeón reliquia familiar son las formas cotidianas que se transformaron en mecanismos de captura fotográfica del propio territorio. Estos inventos caseros permitieron no solo comprender didácticamente el procedimiento técnico de la fijación química de la imagen producida por el fenómeno físico lumínico conocido como “cámara obscura”, si no que a dar un nuevo y mágico destino a estas “cámaras latentes”. Objetos que cargan con sus respectivos "relatos de existencia”, se transforman y vuelven a tener una utilidad impensada que las conecta con la intimidad familiar y la memoria colectiva. Desde ahí son operadas para construir un imaginario actualizado de lo que ha sido la población hasta hoy y para ser parte de una especie de inventario visual que prevalezca en el tiempo, como bien lo dijo Sontag “la fotografía es un inventario de la inmortalidad”.3 Las fotografías estenopeicas resultantes construyen un nuevo paisaje de la población “Aurora de Chile”. Un paisaje de resistencia, que enaltece su patrimonio humano y cultural, que activa a la memoria pasada pero que sabe construirá la futura... que desea ser un paisaje discursivo que denuncia su empoderada existencia. En nuestra actual era de la

  2. Response of Jupiter's Aurora to Plasma Mass Loading Rate Monitored by the Hisaki Satellite During Volcanic Eruptions at Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, T.; Hiraki, Y.; Tao, C.; Tsuchiya, F.; Delamere, P. A.; Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Yamazaki, A.; Kita, H.; Badman, S. V.; Fukazawa, K.; Yoshikawa, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2018-03-01

    The production and transport of plasma mass are essential processes in the dynamics of planetary magnetospheres. At Jupiter, it is hypothesized that Io's volcanic plasma carried out of the plasma torus is transported radially outward in the rotating magnetosphere and is recurrently ejected as plasmoid via tail reconnection. The plasmoid ejection is likely associated with particle energization, radial plasma flow, and transient auroral emissions. However, it has not been demonstrated that plasmoid ejection is sensitive to mass loading because of the lack of simultaneous observations of both processes. We report the response of plasmoid ejection to mass loading during large volcanic eruptions at Io in 2015. Response of the transient aurora to the mass loading rate was investigated based on a combination of Hisaki satellite monitoring and a newly developed analytic model. We found that the transient aurora frequently recurred at a 2-6 day period in response to a mass loading increase from 0.3 to 0.5 t/s. In general, the recurrence of the transient aurora was not significantly correlated with the solar wind, although there was an exceptional event with a maximum emission power of 10 TW after the solar wind shock arrival. The recurrence of plasmoid ejection requires the precondition that an amount comparable to the total mass of magnetosphere, 1.5 Mt, is accumulated in the magnetosphere. A plasmoid mass of more than 0.1 Mt is necessary in case that the plasmoid ejection is the only process for mass release.

  3. Specific primary sequence requirements for Aurora B kinase-mediated phosphorylation and subcellular localization of TMAP during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kwon, Hye-Rim; Bae, Chang-Dae; Park, Joobae; Hong, Kyung U

    2010-05-15

    During mitosis, regulation of protein structures and functions by phosphorylation plays critical roles in orchestrating a series of complex events essential for the cell division process. Tumor-associated microtubule-associated protein (TMAP), also known as cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 (CKAP2), is a novel player in spindle assembly and chromosome segregation. We have previously reported that TMAP is phosphorylated at multiple residues specifically during mitosis. However, the mechanisms and functional importance of phosphorylation at most of the sites identified are currently unknown. Here, we report that TMAP is a novel substrate of the Aurora B kinase. Ser627 of TMAP was specifically phosphorylated by Aurora B both in vitro and in vivo. Ser627 and neighboring conserved residues were strictly required for efficient phosphorylation of TMAP by Aurora B, as even minor amino acid substitutions of the phosphorylation motif significantly diminished the efficiency of the substrate phosphorylation. Nearly all mutations at the phosphorylation motif had dramatic effects on the subcellular localization of TMAP. Instead of being localized to the chromosome region during late mitosis, the mutants remained associated with microtubules and centrosomes throughout mitosis. However, the changes in the subcellular localization of these mutants could not be completely explained by the phosphorylation status on Ser627. Our findings suggest that the motif surrounding Ser627 ((625) RRSRRL (630)) is a critical part of a functionally important sequence motif which not only governs the kinase-substrate recognition, but also regulates the subcellular localization of TMAP during mitosis.

  4. Combining the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 with histone deacetylase inhibitors enhances antitumor activity in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, Channing J; Wissing, Michel D; Mendonca, Janet; Sharma, Anup; Kim, Eugene; Kim, Hea-Soo; Kortenhorst, Madeleine S Q; Gerber, Stephanie; Rosen, Marc; Shaikh, Faraz; Zahurak, Marianna L; Rudek, Michelle A; Hammers, Hans; Rudin, Charles M; Carducci, Michael A; Kachhap, Sushant K

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors. While most studies have focused on the reexpression of silenced tumor suppressor genes, a number of genes/pathways are downregulated by HDACIs. This provides opportunities for combination therapy: agents that further disable these pathways through inhibition of residual gene function are speculated to enhance cell death in combination with HDACIs. A previous study from our group indicated that mitotic checkpoint kinases such as PLK1 and Aurora A are downregulated by HDACIs. We used in vitro and in vivo xenograft models of prostate cancer (PCA) to test whether combination of HDACIs with the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 can synergistically or additively kill PCA cells. AMG 900 and HDACIs synergistically decreased cell proliferation activity and clonogenic survival in DU-145, LNCaP, and PC3 PCA cell lines compared to single-agent treatment. Cellular senescence, polyploidy, and apoptosis was significantly increased in all cell lines after combination treatment. In vivo xenograft studies indicated decreased tumor growth and decreased aurora B kinase activity in mice treated with low-dose AMG 900 and vorinostat compared to either agent alone. Pharmacodynamics was assessed by scoring for phosphorylated histone H3 through immunofluorescence. Our results indicate that combination treatment with low doses of AMG 900 and HDACIs could be a promising therapy for future clinical trials against PCA

  5. Antifouling activity by sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica and H. aurora extracts against marine biofilm bacteria Actividades antiincrustantes de las extractos de las anémonas marinas Heteractis magnifica y H. aurora frente a biofilm de bacterias marinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Bragadeeswaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones (Actiniaria are solitary, ocean-dwelling members of the phylum Cnidaria and the class Anthozoa. In this study, we screened antibacterial activity of two benthic sea anemones (Heteractis magnifica and H. aurora collected from the Mandapam coast of southeast India. Crude extracts of the sea anemone were assayed against seven bacterial biofilms isolated from three different test panels. The crude extract of H. magnifica showed a maximum inhibition zone of 18 mm against Pseudomonas sp. and Escherichia coli and a minimum inhibition zone of 3 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Bacillus cerens for methanol, acetone, and DCM extracts, respectively. The butanol extract of H. aurora showed a maximum inhibition zone of 23 mm against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, whereas the methanol extract revealed a minimum inhibition zone of 1 mm against V. parahaemolyticus. The present study revealed that the H. aurora extracts were more effective than those of H. magnifica and that the active compounds from the sea anemone can be used as antifouling compounds.Las anémonas de mar (Actiniaria son solitarias, habitantes oceánicos del phylum Cnidaria y de la clase Anthozoa. En este estudio se determina la actividad antibacteriana de dos anémonas bentónicas Heteractis magnifica y H. aurora recolectadas en la costa de Mandapam, sudeste de India. Los extractos crudos de estas anémonas fueron ensayados frente a siete biofilms bacterianos aislados de tres paneles de control distintos. El extracto crudo de la anémona H. magnifica mostró una zona inhibición máxima de 18 mm contra Psudomonas sp. y Escherichia coli y la zona de inhibición mínima de 3 mm fue encontrada frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococus sp. y Bacillus cerens de extractos de metanol, acetona y DCM respectivamente. El extracto de butanol de la anémona H. magnifica mostró una zona de inhibición máxima de 23 mm frente a Vibrio parahemolyticus, mientras que con el

  6. Alfvén Waves and the Aurora (Hannes Alfvén Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysak, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The most compelling visual evidence of plasma processes in the magnetosphere of Earth as well as the other magnetized planets is the aurora. Over 40 years of research have indicated that the aurora is a consequence of the acceleration of charged particles toward the neutral atmosphere, where the excitation of neutral atoms and their subsequent relaxation to the ground state produces the auroral light. Much of this acceleration can be described by acceleration in a quasi-static electric field parallel to the geomagnetic field, producing nearly monoenergetic beams of electrons. While a variety of quasi-static models to describe such parallel electric fields have been developed, the dynamics of how these fields evolve is still an open question. Satellite measurements have indicated that a primary source of energy to support these fields is the Poynting flux associated with shear Alfvén waves propagating along auroral field lines. These Alfvén waves are generated in the magnetosphere and reflect from the ionosphere. On closed field lines, Alfvén waves bouncing between conjugate ionospheres produce field line resonances that have be observed both in space and by ground magnetometers. However, some auroral emissions do not follow this scenario. In these cases, the accelerated electrons are observed to have a broad energy spectrum, rather than a monoenergetic peak. Such a spectrum is suggestive of a time-dependent acceleration process that operates on a time scale of a few seconds, comparable to the electron transit time across the acceleration region. While field line resonances have a time scale on the order of minutes, waves with periods of a few seconds can be produced by partial reflections in the Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator, a resonant cavity formed by the rapid decrease of the plasma density and increase of the Alfvén speed above the ionosphere. In order to develop a parallel electric field that can accelerate auroral particles, these Alfvén waves must

  7. Pliocene to late Pleistocene magmatism in the Aurora Volcanic Field, Nevada and California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, S.; Cousens, B.; John, D. A.; du Bray, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    The 3.9- 0.1 Ma Aurora Volcanic Field (AVF) covers 325 km2 east and southeast of the Bodie Hills, north of Mono Lake, California, USA. The AVF is located immediately northwest of the Long Valley magmatic system and adjacent and overlapping the Miocene Bodie Hills Volcanic Field (BHVF). Rock types range from trachybasalt to trachydacite, and high-silica rhyolite. The trachybasalts to trachydacites are weakly to moderately porphyritic (1-30%) with variable phenocryst assemblages that are some combination of plagioclase, hornblende, clinopyroxene, and lesser orthopyroxene, olivine, and/or biotite. Microphenocrysts are dominated by plagioclase, and include opaque oxides, clinopyroxene, and apatite. These rocks are weakly to strongly devitrified. The high-silica rhyolites are sparsely porphyritic with trace to 10% phenocrysts of quartz, sanidine, plagioclase, biotite, (+/- hornblende), accessory opaque oxide minerals, titanite, allanite, (+/-apatite, zircon), and have glassy groundmasses. Rocks in the AVF are less strongly porphyritic than those of BHVF. Plagioclase phenocrysts are often oscillatory zoned and many have sieve texture. Amphiboles have distinct black opaque rims. Xenocrystic quartz and plagioclase are rare. AVF lavas have bimodal SiO2 compositions, ranging from 49 to 78 wt%, with a gap between 65 and 75 wt%. They are high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic in composition, and are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous. They are enriched in rare earth elements (REE), especially light REEs, compared to the Miocene BHVF rocks. Primordial mantle-normalized incompatible element patterns show arc- or subduction-related signatures, with enrichment in Ba and Pb, and depletion in Nb and Ta. Enrichment in K and Sr and depletion in Ti are less pronounced than in the BHVF rocks. There is no correlation between lead isotope ratios and silica (initial 206Pb/204Pb ratios range from 18.974 to 19.151). Neodymium isotope ratios show a moderate negative correlation with silica

  8. A statistical analysis of the location and width of Saturn's southern auroras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Badman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A selection of twenty-two Hubble Space Telescope images of Saturn's ultraviolet auroras obtained during 1997–2004 has been analysed to determine the median location and width of the auroral oval, and their variability. Limitations of coverage restrict the analysis to the southern hemisphere, and to local times from the post-midnight sector to just past dusk, via dawn and noon. It is found that the overall median location of the poleward and equatorward boundaries of the oval with respect to the southern pole are at ~14° and ~16° co-latitude, respectively, with a median latitudinal width of ~2°. These median values vary only modestly with local time around the oval, though the poleward boundary moves closer to the pole near noon (~12.5° such that the oval is wider in that sector (median width ~3.5° than it is at both dawn and dusk (~1.5°. It is also shown that the position of the auroral boundaries at Saturn are extremely variable, the poleward boundary being located between 2° and 20° co-latitude, and the equatorward boundary between 6° and 23°, this variability contrasting sharply with the essentially fixed location of the main oval at Jupiter. Comparison with Voyager plasma angular velocity data mapped magnetically from the equatorial magnetosphere into the southern ionosphere indicates that the dayside aurora lie poleward of the main upward-directed field-aligned current region associated with corotation enforcement, which maps to ~20°–24° co-latitude, while agreeing reasonably with the position of the open-closed field line boundary based on estimates of the open flux in Saturn's tail, located between ~11° and ~15°. In this case, the variability in location can be understood in terms of changes in the open flux present in the system, the changes implied by the Saturn data then matching those observed at Earth as fractions of the total planetary flux. We infer that the broad (few degrees diffuse auroral emissions

  9. Organic geochemistry of resins from modern Agathis australis and Eocene resins from New Zealand: Diagenetic and taxonomic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Orem, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    A maturation series of resins and fossil resins from New Zealand, ranging in age from Modern to Eocene and ranging from uncoalified to high volatile C bituminous coal, were analyzed by elemental, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC), Fourier Transform infrared (FTir), and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) techniques. For comparison, four resin samples from the Latrobe Valley, Australia, were analyzed. All of the resins and fossil resins of this study show very high H/C atomic ratios, and are characterized by dominant peaks in the 10-60??ppm range of solid-state 13C NMR spectra and prominent bands in the aliphatic stretching region (2800-3000??cm- 1) of FTir spectra, all indicating a highly aliphatic molecular structure. The 13C NMR and FTir data indicate a diterpenoid structure for these resins. There is an abrupt loss of oxygen that occurs at the Lignite A/Subbituminous C stage, which is attributed to a dramatic loss of carboxyl (COOH) from the diterpenoid molecule. This is a new finding in the diagenesis of resins. This important loss in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to a maturation change. Also, there is a progressive loss of exomethylene (CH2) groups with increasing degree of maturation, as shown by both 13C NMR and FTir data. This change has been noted by previous investigators. Exomethylene is absent in the fossil resins from the Eocene high volatile C bituminous coals. This progressive loss is characteristic of Class I resinites. FTir data indicate that the oxygenated functional groups are strong in all the resin samples except the fossil resin from high volatile C bituminous coal. This important change in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to maturation changes. The 13C NMR and FTir data indicate there are minor changes in the Agathis australis resin from the living tree and soil, which suggests that alteration of A. australis resins begins shortly after deposition in the soil for as little as 1000??years. The Morwell

  10. Organic geochemistry of resins from modern Agathis australis and Eocene resins from New Zealand: Diagenetic and taxonomic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Paul C. [Lyons and Associates Consultants, 206 Amber Road, Middleboro, MA 02346 (United States); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 611 North Walnut Grove, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Orem, William H. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States)

    2009-10-01

    A maturation series of resins and fossil resins from New Zealand, ranging in age from Modern to Eocene and ranging from uncoalified to high volatile C bituminous coal, were analyzed by elemental, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC), Fourier Transform infrared (FTir), and solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 13}C NMR) techniques. For comparison, four resin samples from the Latrobe Valley, Australia, were analyzed. All of the resins and fossil resins of this study show very high H/C atomic ratios, and are characterized by dominant peaks in the 10-60 ppm range of solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectra and prominent bands in the aliphatic stretching region (2800-3000 cm{sup -} {sup 1}) of FTir spectra, all indicating a highly aliphatic molecular structure. The {sup 13}C NMR and FTir data indicate a diterpenoid structure for these resins. There is an abrupt loss of oxygen that occurs at the Lignite A/Subbituminous C stage, which is attributed to a dramatic loss of carboxyl (COOH) from the diterpenoid molecule. This is a new finding in the diagenesis of resins. This important loss in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to a maturation change. Also, there is a progressive loss of exomethylene (CH{sub 2}) groups with increasing degree of maturation, as shown by both {sup 13}C NMR and FTir data. This change has been noted by previous investigators. Exomethylene is absent in the fossil resins from the Eocene high volatile C bituminous coals. This progressive loss is characteristic of Class I resinites. FTir data indicate that the oxygenated functional groups are strong in all the resin samples except the fossil resin from high volatile C bituminous coal. This important change in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to maturation changes. The {sup 13}C NMR and FTir data indicate there are minor changes in the Agathis australis resin from the living tree and soil, which suggests that alteration of A. australis resins begins shortly after deposition

  11. Comparative morphophysiological evaluation of the testis of adult Wistar rats fed low protein-energy diet and dosed with aqueous extracts of Cuscuta australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozegbe, P C; Omirinde, J O

    2012-12-18

    Cuscuta australis (C. australis) seed and stem are historically used by the local population as dietary supplement for the management of infertility. This study, therefore, evaluated the effect of orally administered aqueous extracts of C. australis seed and stem, 300 mg/kg body weight/day for seven days, on the testis of the adult Wistar rat fed either low or normal protein-energy diets. The control group received water. The relative weight of the testis was non-significantly increased (p>0.05) in the Low Protein-energy diet-Water-treated (LPWA), Low Protein-energy diet-Seed-treated (LPSE) and Normal Protein-energy diet-Seed-treated (NPSE) groups relative to the Normal Protein-energy diet-Water-treated (NPWA). The weight of the testis was also non-significantly increased (p˃0.05) in the Low Protein-energy diet-Stem-treated (LPST), but decreased in the Normal Protein-energy diet-Stem-treated (NPST), relative to LPWA and NPWA. Heights of germinal epithelium were significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the LPWA, LPSE and LPST relative to the NPWA, NPSE and NPST. Diet significantly influenced (p<0.001) the effect of stem extract on the height of germinal epithelium. The NPSE, LPSE, NPST, LPST and LPWA showed significantly decreased (p<0.001) plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) relative to NPWA. The LPWA, LPSE and NPST also showed significantly decreased (p<0.001) levels of testosterone relative to NPWA and LPST. Diet significantly influenced (p<0.001) the effect of seed on the level of LH. Seed-diet interactions significantly affected the levels of FSH (p<0.001) and LH (p<0.05), but not testosterone. Diet significantly influenced (p<0.001) the effects of stem extract on the levels of FSH, LH and testosterone. Stem-diet interactions significantly affected (p<0.001) the levels of FSH, LH and testosterone. Our data suggest that the aqueous extract of C. australis stem is more potent than the seed extract and that dietary protein

  12. Trivalent dimethylarsenic compound induces histone H3 phosphorylation and abnormal localization of Aurora B kinase in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshihide; Miyazaki, Koichi; Kita, Kayoko; Ochi, Takafumi

    2009-01-01

    Trivalent dimethylarsinous acid [DMA(III)] has been shown to induce mitotic abnormalities, such as centrosome abnormality, multipolar spindles, multipolar division, and aneuploidy, in several cell lines. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these mitotic abnormalities, we investigated DMA(III)-mediated changes in histone H3 phosphorylation and localization of Aurora B kinase, which is a key molecule in cell mitosis. DMA(III) caused the phosphorylation of histone H3 (ser10) and was distributed predominantly in mitotic cells, especially in prometaphase cells. By contrast, most of the phospho-histone H3 was found to be localized in interphase cells after treatment with inorganic arsenite [iAs(III)], suggesting the involvement of a different pathway in phosphorylation. DMA(III) activated Aurora B kinase and slightly activated ERK MAP kinase. Phosphorylation of histone H3 by DMA(III) was effectively reduced by ZM447439 (Aurora kinase inhibitor) and slightly reduced by U0126 (MEK inhibitor). By contrast, iAs(III)-dependent histone H3 phosphorylation was markedly reduced by U0126. Aurora B kinase is generally localized in the midbody during telophase and plays an important role in cytokinesis. However, in some cells treated with DMA(III), Aurora B was not localized in the midbody of telophase cells. These findings suggested that DMA(III) induced a spindle abnormality, thereby activating the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) through the Aurora B kinase pathway. In addition, cytokinesis was not completed because of the abnormal localization of Aurora B kinase by DMA(III), thereby resulting in the generation of multinucleated cells. These results provide insight into the mechanism of arsenic tumorigenesis.

  13. miR-137 suppresses tumor growth of malignant melanoma by targeting aurora kinase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Xiao; Zhang, Haiping [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Lian, Shi [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Zhu, Wei, E-mail: zhuwei_2020@163.com [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2016-07-01

    As an oncogene, aurora kinase A (AURKA) is overexpressed in various types of human cancers. However, the expression and roles of AURKA in malignant melanoma are largely unknown. In this study, a miR-137-AURKA axis was revealed to regulate melanoma growth. We found a significant increase in levels of AURKA in melanoma. Both genetic knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition of AURKA decreased tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Further found that miR-137 reduced AURKA expression through interaction with its 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) and that miR-137 was negatively correlated with AURKA expression in melanoma specimens. Overexpression of miR-137 decreased cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro. Notably, re-expression of AURKA significantly rescued miR-137-mediated suppression of cell growth and clonality. In summary, these results reveal that miR-137 functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting AURKA, providing new insights into investigation of therapeutic strategies against malignant melanoma. -- Highlights: •First reported overexpression of AURKA in melanoma. •Targeting AURKA inhibits melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. •Further found miR-137 suppressed cell growth by binding to AURKA 3′UTR. •Re-expression of AURKA rescued miR-137-mediated suppression. •miR-137-AURKA axis may be potential therapeutic targets of melanoma.

  14. Aurora: A short-pulse multikilojoule KrF inertial fusion laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Aurora is a laser system that serves as an operating technology demonstration prototype for large-scale high-energy KrF laser systems of interest for inertial fusion applications. This system will incorporate the following elements to achieve an end-to-end 248-nm laser fusion concept demonstration: an injection-locked oscillator-amplifier front end; an optical angular multiplexer to produce 96 encoded optical channels each of 5-nsec duration; a chain of four electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers; automated alignment systems for beam alignment; a decoder to provide for pulse compression of some fraction of the total beam train to be delivered to target, and a target chamber to house and diagnose fusion targets. The front end configuration uses a stable resonator master oscillator to drive an injection-locked unstable resonator slave oscillator. An extension of existing technology has been used to develop an electrooptic switchout at 248 nm that produces a 5-nsec pulse from the longer slave oscillator pulse. This short pulse is amplified by a postamplifier. Using these discharge lasers, the front end then delivers at least 250 mJ of KrF laser light output to the optical encoder

  15. Energetic electron precipitation in the aurora as determined by x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werden, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    This work examines two aspects of energetic-particle dynamics in the Earth's magnetosphere through the use of an x-ray imager flown from a stratospheric balloon in the auroral zone. The design and theory of this instrument is completely described, including the technique of image formation using an on-board microprocessor and a statistical analysis of the imaging process. Day-side energetic-electron precipitation is examined in the context of global energy dissipation during the substorm process. It is found that the relationship between events on the night side and the day side are considerably more complex that can be modeled with just a simple picture of drifting particles that induced instabilities, wave growth, and pitch-angle diffusion into the loss cone. The driving force for precipitation is probably not the presence of the energetic electrons (>30 keV) alone, but is influenced either by local effects or the less energetic component. The presence of small-scale structure, including gradients and complex motions in the precipitation region in the morning sector, suggests a local process influencing the rate of electron precipitation. The spatial and temporal evolution of a classic 5-15 second pulsating aurora during the post-breakup phase is also examined with the x-ray imager

  16. Chandra's Observations of Jupiter's X-Ray Aurora During Juno Upstream and Apojove Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, C.M.; Dunn, W.; Kraft, R.; Gladstone, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Knigge, C.; Altamirano, D.; Elsner, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Chandra space telescope has recently conducted a number of campaigns to observe Jupiter's X-ray aurora. The first set of campaigns took place in summer 2016 while the Juno spacecraft was upstream of the planet sampling the solar wind. The second set of campaigns took place in February, June and August 2017 at times when the Juno spacecraft was at apojove (expected close to the magnetopause). We report on these upstream and apojove campaigns including intensities and periodicities of auroral X-ray emissions. This new era of jovian X-ray astronomy means we have more data than ever before, long observing windows (up to 72 kiloseconds for this Chandra set), and successive observations relatively closely spaced in time. These features combine to allow us to pursue novel methods for examining periodicities in the X-ray emission. Our work will explore significance testing of emerging periodicities, and the search for coherence in X-ray pulsing over weeks and months, seeking to understand the robustness and regularity of previously reported hot spot X-ray emissions. The periods that emerge from our analysis will be compared against those which emerge from radio and UV wavelengths.

  17. Genomic organization, expression, and chromosome localization of a third aurora-related kinase gene, Aie1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H M; Chuang, C K; Lee, M J; Tseng, T C; Tang, T K

    2000-11-01

    We previously reported two novel testis-specific serine/threonine kinases, Aie1 (mouse) and AIE2 (human), that share high amino acid identities with the kinase domains of fly aurora and yeast Ipl1. Here, we report the entire intron-exon organization of the Aie1 gene and analyze the expression patterns of Aie1 mRNA during testis development. The mouse Aie1 gene spans approximately 14 kb and contains seven exons. The sequences of the exon-intron boundaries of the Aie1 gene conform to the consensus sequences (GT/AG) of the splicing donor and acceptor sites of most eukaryotic genes. Comparative genomic sequencing revealed that the gene structure is highly conserved between mouse Aie1 and human AIE2. However, much less homology was found in the sequence outside the kinase-coding domains. The Aie1 locus was mapped to mouse chromosome 7A2-A3 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Northern blot analysis indicates that Aie1 mRNA likely is expressed at a low level on day 14 and reaches its plateau on day 21 in the developing postnatal testis. RNA in situ hybridization indicated that the expression of the Aie1 transcript was restricted to meiotically active germ cells, with the highest levels detected in spermatocytes at the late pachytene stage. These findings suggest that Aie1 plays a role in spermatogenesis.

  18. Superthermal Electron Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Diffuse Aurora in the Presence of ECH Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Tripathi, A. K.; Singhal, R. P.; Himwich, Elizabeth; Glocer, A.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2015-01-01

    There are two main theories for the origin of the diffuse auroral electron precipitation: first, pitch angle scattering by electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves, and second, by whistler mode waves. Precipitating electrons initially injected from the plasma sheet to the loss cone via wave-particle interaction processes degrade in the atmosphere toward lower energies and produce secondary electrons via impact ionization of the neutral atmosphere. These secondary electrons can escape back to the magnetosphere, become trapped on closed magnetic field lines, and deposit their energy back to the inner magnetosphere. ECH and whistler mode waves can also move electrons in the opposite direction, from the loss cone into the trap zone, if the source of such electrons exists in conjugate ionospheres located at the same field lines as the trapped magnetospheric electron population. Such a situation exists in the simulation scenario of superthermal electron energy interplay in the region of diffuse aurora presented and discussed by Khazanov et al. (2014) and will be quantified in this paper by taking into account the interaction of secondary electrons with ECH waves.

  19. Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Energy Interplay in the Regions of Diffuse Aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Glocer, A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Tripathi, A. K.; Detweiler, L.G.; Avanov, L. A.; Singhal, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    Both electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves and whistler mode chorus waves resonate with electrons of the Earths plasma sheet in the energy range from tens of eV to several keV and produce the electron diffuse aurora at ionospheric altitudes. Interaction of these superthermal electrons with the neutral atmosphere leads to the production of secondary electrons (E500600 eV) and, as a result, leads to the activation of lower energy superthermal electron spectra that can escape back to the magnetosphere and contribute to the thermal electron energy deposition processes in the magnetospheric plasma. The ECH and whistler mode chorus waves, however, can also interact with the secondary electrons that are coming from both of the magnetically conjugated ionospheres after they have been produced by initially precipitated high-energy electrons that came from the plasma sheet. After their degradation and subsequent reflection in magnetically conjugate atmospheric regions, both the secondary electrons and the precipitating electrons with high (E600 eV) initial energies will travel back through the loss cone, become trapped in the magnetosphere, and redistribute the energy content of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Thus, scattering of the secondary electrons by ECH and whistler mode chorus waves leads to an increase of the fraction of superthermal electron energy deposited into the core magnetospheric plasma.

  20. Climate and surface water hydrology baseline data for Aurora Mine EIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    A climate and hydrology database was assembled to describe the existing climatic and surface water hydrological characteristics of the proposed Aurora Mine area in Leases 10, 12, 13, 31, and 34 east of the Athabasca River near Fort McKay. The study was based upon data available from the regional hydrometeorological monitoring network operated by the Governments of Canada and Alberta. The study also included the installation and monitoring of one climate station and five streamflow gauging stations on small watersheds in the area. The representative climatic and hydrologic characteristics of the area, including precipitation, evaporation, evapotranspiration, temperature and wind, were determined. Streamflow characteristics such as flood frequencies, low flow frequencies, water yield and flow durations representative of large gauged watersheds within the study area were also determined. The results offer a good basis for preliminary design of surface water management systems. It was recommended that the monitoring program should be continued to monitor potential environmental impacts of proposed development activities. 9 refs., 29 tabs., 32 figs.

  1. Aurorasaurus Database of Real-Time, Soft-Sensor Sourced Aurora Data for Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosar, B.; MacDonald, E.; Heavner, M.

    2017-12-01

    Aurorasaurus is an innovative citizen science project focused on two fundamental objectives i.e., collecting real-time, ground-based signals of auroral visibility from citizen scientists (soft-sensors) and incorporating this new type of data into scientific investigations pertaining to aurora. The project has been live since the Fall of 2014, and as of Summer 2017, the database compiled approximately 12,000 observations (5295 direct reports and 6413 verified tweets). In this presentation, we will focus on demonstrating the utility of this robust science quality data for space weather research needs. These data scale with the size of the event and are well-suited to capture the largest, rarest events. Emerging state-of-the-art computational methods based on statistical inference such as machine learning frameworks and data-model integration methods can offer new insights that could potentially lead to better real-time assessment and space weather prediction when citizen science data are combined with traditional sources.

  2. Design and implementation of the GPS subsystem for the Radio Aurora eXplorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangelo, Sara C.; Bennett, Matthew W.; Meinzer, Daniel C.; Klesh, Andrew T.; Arlas, Jessica A.; Cutler, James W.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the Global Positioning System (GPS) subsystem for the Radio Aurora eXplorer (RAX) CubeSat. The GPS subsystem provides accurate temporal and spatial information necessary to satisfy the science objectives of the RAX mission. There are many challenges in the successful design and implementation of a GPS subsystem for a CubeSat-based mission, including power, size, mass, and financial constraints. This paper presents an approach for selecting and testing the individual and integrated GPS subsystem components, including the receiver, antenna, low noise amplifier, and supporting circuitry. The procedures to numerically evaluate the GPS link budget and test the subsystem components at various stages of system integration are described. Performance results for simulated tests in the terrestrial and orbital environments are provided, including start-up times, carrier-to-noise ratios, and orbital position accuracy. Preliminary on-orbit GPS results from the RAX-1 and RAX-2 spacecraft are presented to validate the design process and pre-flight simulations. Overall, this paper provides a systematic approach to aid future satellite designers in implementing and verifying GPS subsystems for resource-constrained small satellites.

  3. Cross-Field Current Instabilities in Thin Ionization Layers and the Enhanced Aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jay R.; Okuda, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    Nearly half of the time, auroral displays exhibit thin, bright layers known as 'enhanced aurora'. There is a substantial body of evidence that connects these displays with thin, dense, heavy ion layers in the E-region. Based on the spectral characteristics of the enhanced layers, it is believed that they result when wave-particle interaction heats ambient electrons to energies at or just above the 17 eV ionization energy of N2. While there are several possible instabilities that could produce suprathermal electrons in thin layers, there has been no clear theoretical investigation which examines in detail how wave instabilities in the thin ionization layers could develop and produce the suprathermal electrons. We examine instabilities which would occur in thin, dense, heavy ion layers using extensive analytical analysis combined with particle simulations. We analyze a cross field current instability that is found to be strongly unstable in the heavy ion layers. Electrostatic simulations show that substantial heating of the ambient electrons occurs with energization at or above the N2 ionization energy.

  4. Red fox ( Vulpes vulpes L.) favour seed dispersal, germination and seedling survival of Mediterranean Hackberry ( Celtis australis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Traba; Sagrario, Arrieta; Jesús, Herranz; Cristina, Clamagirand M.

    2006-07-01

    Seeds of the Mediterranean Hackberry Celtis australis are often encountered in fox faeces. In order to evaluate the effect of gut transit on the size of seeds selected, the rates and speed of germination and on the survival of the seedlings, Mediterranean Hackberry seeds from fox faeces were germinated in a greenhouse. The results were compared with those of seeds taken from ripe, uneaten fruits. Fox-dispersed seeds were smaller and lighter than the control ones and had higher (74% vs. 57%) and more rapid germination (74.5 days vs. 99.2 days). Seedlings from fox-dispersed seeds showed significantly greater survival by the end of the study period (74.1% vs. 43.6%) than the control ones. Survival in seedlings from fox-dispersed seeds was related to germination date, late seedlings showing poorer survival. This relationship was not observed away in the control seedlings. Seed mass did not affect seedling survival. Seedling arising from fox-dispersed seeds grew faster than control ones. These results suggest that fox can play a relevant role as seed disperser of Mediterranean Hackberry.

  5. Kelp and dolphin gulls cause perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguel, Mauricio; Muñoz, Francisco; Montalva, Felipe; Perez-Venegas, Diego; Pavés, Héctor; Gottdenker, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups ( Arctocephalus australis ) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms ( Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic dermatitis with granulation tissue and mixed bacterial colonies. In 2015 and 2017, kelp gulls ( Larus dominicanus ) and dolphin gulls ( Leucophaeus scoresbii ) were observed picking and wounding the perineal area of marked pups. This behaviour occurred more frequently after the pups' defecation, when sea gulls engaged in consumption of pups' faeces. The affected pups usually had moderate to marked hookworm infections along with bloody diarrhoea and anaemia. Pups with severe wounds (23% of affected animals) had swollen perineal areas and signs of secondary systemic bacterial infection. We propose that seagulls on Guafo Island have learned to consume remains of blood and parasites in the faeces of pups affected by hookworm infection, causing perineal wounds during this process. We conclude that this perineal wounding is an unintentional, occasional negative effect of an otherwise commensal gull-fur seal relationship.

  6. Coastal upwelling linked to toxic Pseudo-nitzschia australis blooms in Los Angeles coastal waters, 2005-2007

    KAUST Repository

    Schnetzer, Astrid; Jones, Burton; Schaffner, Rebecca A.; Cetinić, Ivona; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Miller, Peter E.; Seubert, Erica L.; Caron, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms dominated by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. have become a perennial but variable event within surface waters near the greater Los Angeles area. Toxic blooms during spring seasons from 2005 to 2007 varied strongly in their overall toxicity and duration. Differences in bloom dynamics were linked to differences in storm-induced river discharge following episodic rain events and coastal upwelling, both major coastal processes that led to the injection of nutrients into coastal surface waters. Heavy river runoff during early 2005, a record-rainfall year, favored a phytoplankton community mainly comprised of algal taxa other than Pseudo-nitzschia. The spring bloom during 2005 was associated with low domoic acid surface concentrations and minor contributions of (mainly) P. delicatissima to the diatom assemblage. In contrast, highly toxic P. australis-dominated blooms during spring seasons of 2006 and 2007 were linked to strong upwelling events. River discharge quotas in 2006 and 2007, in contrast to 2005, fell well below annual averages for the region. Surface toxin levels were linked to colder, more saline (i.e. upwelled) water over the 3-year study, but no such consistent relationship between domoic acid levels and other physiochemical parameters, such as macronutrient concentrations or nutrient ratios, was observed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns of rhizospheric bacteria isolated from Phragmites australis growing in constructed wetland for distillery effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sonal; Chandra, Ram; Rai, Vibhuti

    2008-01-01

    Susceptibility patterns of 12 different antibiotics were investigated against rhizospheric bacteria isolated from Phragmites australis from three different zones i.e. upper (0-5 cm), middle (5-10 cm), lower (10-15 cm) in constructed wetland system with and without distillery effluent. The major pollutants of distillery effluent were phenols, sulphide, heavy metals, and higher levels of biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) etc. The antibiotic resistance properties of bacteria were correlated with the heavy metal tolerance (one of distillery pollutant). Twenty-two species from contaminated and seventeen species from non-contaminated site were tested by agar disc-diffusion method. The results revealed that more than 63% of total isolates were resistance towards one or more antibiotics tested from all the three different zones of contaminated sites. The multiple-drug resistance property was shown by total 8 isolates from effluent contaminated region out of which 3 isolates were from upper zone, 3 isolates from middle zone and 2 isolates were from lower zone. Results indicated that isolates from contaminated rhizosphere were found more resistant to antibiotics than isolates from non-contaminated rhizosphere. Further this study produces evidence suggesting that tolerance to antibiotics was acquired by isolates for the adaptation and detoxification of all the pollutants present in the effluent at contaminated site. This consequently facilitated the phytoremediation of effluent, which emerges the tolerance and increases resistance to antibiotics.

  8. Adaptive response of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis to accumulation of elements and translocation in Phragmites australis affected by cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaochen; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Zhu, Shishu; Ma, Fang; Wu, Jieting; Yang, Jixian; Wang, Li

    2017-07-15

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been reported to play a central role in improving plant tolerance to cadmium (Cd)-contaminated sites. This is achieved by enhancing both the growth of host plants and the nutritive elements in plants. This study assessed potential regulatory effects of AM symbiosis with regard to nutrient uptake and transport, and revealed different response strategies to various Cd concentrations. Phragmites australis was inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis in the greenhouse cultivation system, where it was treated with 0-20 mg L -1 of Cd for 21days to investigate growth parameters, as well as Cd and nutritive element distribution in response to AM fungus inoculation. Mycorrhizal plants showed a higher tolerance, particularly under high Cd-level stress in the substrate. Moreover, our results determined the roots as dominant Cd reservoirs in plants. The AM fungus improved Cd accumulation and saturated concentration in the roots, thus inhibiting Cd uptake to shoots. The observed distributions of nutritive elements and the interactions among these indicated the highest microelement contribution to roots, Ca contributed maximally in leaves, and K and P contributed similarly under Cd stress. In addition, AM fungus inoculation effectively impacted Mn and P uptake and accumulation while coping with Cd toxicity. This study also demonstrated translocation factor from metal concentration (TF) could be a good parameter to evaluate different transportation strategies induced by various Cd stresses in contrast to the bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor from metal accumulation (TF'). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biogas properties and enzymatic analysis during anaerobic fermentation of Phragmites australis straw and cow dung: influence of nickel chloride supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yonglan; Zhang, Huayong; Chai, Yang; Wang, Lijun; Mi, Xueyue; Zhang, Luyi; Ware, Maxwell Adam

    2017-02-01

    The importance of nickel (added as NiCl 2 ) on mesophilic anaerobic fermentation of Phragmites australis straw and cow dung was demonstrated by investigating the biogas properties, pH values, organic matter degradation [chemical oxygen demand (COD)] and enzyme activities (cellulase, protease and dehydrogenase) during the fermentation process. The results showed that Ni 2+ addition increased the cumulative biogas yields by >18 % by improving the efficiency of first peak stage and bringing forward the second peak stage. The pH values were not significantly influenced by Ni 2+ addition (p > 0.05). Biogas yields were associated with variations in COD concentrations rather than momentary concentrations. At the start-up stage of fermentation (4th day), the biogas yields increased gradually together with the increase of dehydrogenase activities at elevated Ni 2+ concentrations when cellulase and protease activities were similar in all test groups. It is suggested that Ni 2+ addition was mainly dependent on the methanogenic stage. After the start-up stage, the impact of Ni 2+ addition on biogas production was mainly dependent on its effect on cellulase activities, rather than protease or dehydrogenase activities.

  10. Registros de enredamentos de baleias-franca, Eubalaena australis (CETACEA, MISTICETI, na temporada reprodutiva de 2010, em Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Pontalti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n2p109 Baleias-francas (Eubalaena australis sofrem diferentes pressões antrópicas como poluição, tráfego de embarcações e emalhe em redes de pesca. Casos de enredamentos em baleias-francas são crescentes no litoral sul de Santa Catarina, podendo levar a encalhes e morte. Durante a temporada reprodutiva de 2010, foram registrados seis casos de emalhes em indivíduos juvenis e adultos. É necessária a criação de medidas de regulamentação da pesca durante a temporada reprodutiva de baleias-francas em Santa Catarina, considerando as peculiaridades da pesca na região com o objetivo de minimizar as injúrias causadas às baleias e evitar prejuízos às comunidades pesqueiras locais.

  11. Disease protection and allelopathic interactions of seed-transmitted endophytic pseudomonads of invasive reed grass (Phragmites australis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James F.; Kingsley, Katheryn I; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Micci, April; Soares, Marcos Antonio; Bergen, Marshall S.

    2018-01-01

    Background and aimsNon-native Phragmites australis (haplotype M) is an invasive grass that decreases biodiversity and produces dense stands. We hypothesized that seeds of Phragmites carry microbes that improve seedling growth, defend against pathogens and maximize capacity of seedlings to compete with other plants.MethodsWe isolated bacteria from seeds of Phragmites, then evaluated representatives for their capacities to become intracellular in root cells, and their effects on: 1.) germination rates and seedling growth, 2.) susceptibility to damping-off disease, and 3.) mortality and growth of competitor plant seedlings (dandelion (Taraxacum officionale F. H. Wigg) and curly dock (Rumex crispus L.)).ResultsTen strains (of 23 total) were identified and characterized; seven were identified as Pseudomonas spp. Strains Sandy LB4 (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and West 9 (Pseudomonas sp.) entered root meristems and became intracellular. These bacteria improved seed germination in Phragmites and increased seedling root branching in Poa annua. They increased plant growth and protected plants from damping off disease. Sandy LB4 increased mortality and reduced growth rates in seedlings of dandelion and curly dock.ConclusionsPhragmites plants associate with endophytes to increase growth and disease resistance, and release bacteria into the soil to create an environment that is favorable to their seedlings and less favorable to competitor plants.

  12. Mapping invasive Phragmites australis in the coastal Great Lakes with ALOS PALSAR satellite imagery for decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Scarbrough, Kirk A.; Powell, Richard B.; Brooks, Colin N.; Huberty, Brian; Jenkins, Liza K.; Banda, Elizabeth C.; Galbraith, David M.; Laubach, Zachary M.; Riordan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The invasive variety of Phragmites australis (common reed) forms dense stands that can cause negative impacts on coastal Great Lakes wetlands including habitat degradation and reduced biological diversity. Early treatment is key to controlling Phragmites, therefore a map of the current distribution is needed. ALOS PALSAR imagery was used to produce the first basin-wide distribution map showing the extent of large, dense invasive Phragmites-dominated habitats in wetlands and other coastal ecosystems along the U.S. shore of the Great Lakes. PALSAR is a satellite imaging radar sensor that is sensitive to differences in plant biomass and inundation patterns, allowing for the detection and delineation of these tall (up to 5 m), high density, high biomass invasive Phragmites stands. Classification was based on multi-season ALOS PALSAR L-band (23 cm wavelength) HH and HV polarization data. Seasonal (spring, summer, and fall) datasets were used to improve discrimination of Phragmites by taking advantage of phenological changes in vegetation and inundation patterns over the seasons. Extensive field collections of training and randomly selected validation data were conducted in 2010–2011 to aid in mapping and for accuracy assessments. Overall basin-wide map accuracy was 87%, with 86% producer's accuracy and 43% user's accuracy for invasive Phragmites. The invasive Phragmites maps are being used to identify major environmental drivers of this invader's distribution, to assess areas vulnerable to new invasion, and to provide information to regional stakeholders through a decision support tool.

  13. Coastal upwelling linked to toxic Pseudo-nitzschia australis blooms in Los Angeles coastal waters, 2005-2007

    KAUST Repository

    Schnetzer, Astrid

    2013-06-10

    Harmful algal blooms dominated by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. have become a perennial but variable event within surface waters near the greater Los Angeles area. Toxic blooms during spring seasons from 2005 to 2007 varied strongly in their overall toxicity and duration. Differences in bloom dynamics were linked to differences in storm-induced river discharge following episodic rain events and coastal upwelling, both major coastal processes that led to the injection of nutrients into coastal surface waters. Heavy river runoff during early 2005, a record-rainfall year, favored a phytoplankton community mainly comprised of algal taxa other than Pseudo-nitzschia. The spring bloom during 2005 was associated with low domoic acid surface concentrations and minor contributions of (mainly) P. delicatissima to the diatom assemblage. In contrast, highly toxic P. australis-dominated blooms during spring seasons of 2006 and 2007 were linked to strong upwelling events. River discharge quotas in 2006 and 2007, in contrast to 2005, fell well below annual averages for the region. Surface toxin levels were linked to colder, more saline (i.e. upwelled) water over the 3-year study, but no such consistent relationship between domoic acid levels and other physiochemical parameters, such as macronutrient concentrations or nutrient ratios, was observed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of high salinity from desalination brine on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and osmolyte concentrations of seagrass Posidonia australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, M L; Zavala-Perez, A; Cawthray, G R; Mondon, J; Kendrick, G A

    2017-02-15

    Highly saline brines from desalination plants expose seagrass communities to salt stress. We examined effects of raised salinity (46 and 54psu) compared with seawater controls (37psu) over 6weeks on the seagrass, Posidonia australis, growing in tanks with the aim of separating effects of salinity from other potentially deleterious components of brine and determining appropriate bioindicators. Plants survived exposures of 2-4weeks at 54psu, the maximum salinity of brine released from a nearby desalination plant. Salinity significantly reduced maximum quantum yield of PSII (chlorophyll a fluorescence emissions). Leaf water potential (Ψ w ) and osmotic potential (Ψ π ) were more negative at increased salinity, while turgor pressure (Ψ p ) was unaffected. Leaf concentrations of K + and Ca 2+ decreased, whereas concentrations of sugars (mainly sucrose) and amino acids increased. We recommend leaf osmolarity, ion, sugar and amino acid concentrations as bioindicators for salinity effects, associated with brine released in desalination plant outfalls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of high salinity from desalination brine on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and osmolyte concentrations of seagrass Posidonia australis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambridge, M L; Zavala-Perez, A; Cawthray, G R; Mondon, J; Kendrick, G A

    2017-01-01

    Highly saline brines from desalination plants expose seagrass communities to salt stress. We examined effects of raised salinity (46 and 54 psu) compared with seawater controls (37 psu) over 6 weeks on the seagrass, Posidonia australis, growing in tanks with the aim of separating effects of salinity from other potentially deleterious components of brine and determining appropriate bioindicators. Plants survived exposures of 2–4 weeks at 54 psu, the maximum salinity of brine released from a nearby desalination plant. Salinity significantly reduced maximum quantum yield of PSII (chlorophyll a fluorescence emissions). Leaf water potential (Ψ w ) and osmotic potential (Ψ π ) were more negative at increased salinity, while turgor pressure (Ψ p ) was unaffected. Leaf concentrations of K + and Ca 2+ decreased, whereas concentrations of sugars (mainly sucrose) and amino acids increased. We recommend leaf osmolarity, ion, sugar and amino acid concentrations as bioindicators for salinity effects, associated with brine released in desalination plant outfalls. - Highlights: • We separated salt effects of desalination brine from other deleterious components. • Sublethal salinity stress depended on both salinity increase and exposure time. • Very effective osmoregulation led to tolerance of short intervals of high salinity.

  16. Growth of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex. Steudel in mine water treatment wetlands: effects of metal and nutrient uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batty, Lesley C.; Younger, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    The abandoned mine of Shilbottle Colliery, Northumberland, UK is an example of acidic spoil heap discharge that contains elevated levels of many metals. Aerobic wetlands planted with the common reed, Phragmites australis, were constructed at the site to treat surface runoff from the spoil heap. The presence of a perched water table within the spoil heap resulted in the lower wetlands receiving acidic metal contaminated water from within the spoil heap while the upper wetland receives alkaline, uncontaminated surface runoff from the revegetated spoil. This unique situation enabled the comparison of metal uptake and growth of plants used in treatment schemes in two cognate wetlands. Results indicated a significant difference in plant growth between the two wetlands in terms of shoot height and seed production. Analyses of metal and nutrient concentrations within plant tissues provided the basis for three hypotheses to explain these differences: (i) the toxic effects of high levels of metals in shoot tissues (ii) the inhibition of Ca (an essential nutrient) uptake by the presence of metals and H + ions, and (iii) low concentrations of bioavailable nitrogen sources resulting in nitrogen deficiency. This has important implications for the engineering of constructed wetlands in terms of the potential success of plant establishment and vegetation development

  17. Skull morphometrics of adult male Antartic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, and South American fur seal A. australis Morfometría craneana comparada de ejemplares machos adultos de lobo fino antártico, Arctocephalus gazella y lobo fino sudamericano, A. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Daneri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The skull morphometrics of adult male Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella (Peters, 1875 and South American fur seal, A. australis (Zimmermann, 1783 were investigated using a collection of 45 and 38 skulls, respectively. Eighteen measurements were taken for each specimen. Comparative univariate and multivariate statistical analyses included standard statistics, one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis and discriminant analysis. Individual variation was relatively high for some variables, as expressed by the coefficient of variation. Skulls of A. gazella were larger than those of A. australis for all but two variables: squamosal jugal suture and rostral length. Both species differed significantly as shown by both univariate and multivariate analyses. The discriminant function correctly classified all specimens. The standardized canonical coefficients showed that the variables which most contribute to the differentiation between species were, in decreasing order, the rostral length, palatal length, palatal width at postcanine 5 and braincase width. The present study corroborates that A. gazella and A. australis are phenotipically distinct species.Se estudió la morfometría craneana de especímenes machos adultos de lobo fino Antártico, Arctocephalus gazella (Peters, 1875 y lobo fino sudamericano, A. australis (Zimmermann, 1783, consultando una colección de 45 y 38 cráneos respectivamente. Para cada ejemplar se tomó un total de 18 medidas. El análisis comparativo univariado y multivariado incluyó estadística standard, análisis de varianza, análisis de componentes principales y análisis discriminante. La variación individual, según lo expresado por el coeficiente de variación, fue relativamente alta para algunas variables. Los cráneos de A. gazella fueron proporcionalmente más grandes que aquellos de A. australis para todas las variables estudiadas, excepto dos: longitud de la sutura escamoso-yugal y longitud

  18. Variations in energy, flux, and brightness of pulsating aurora measured at high time resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dahlgren

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution multispectral optical and incoherent scatter radar data are used to study the variability of pulsating aurora. Two events have been analysed, and the data combined with electron transport and ion chemistry modelling provide estimates of the energy and energy flux during both the ON and OFF periods of the pulsations. Both the energy and energy flux are found to be reduced during each OFF period compared with the ON period, and the estimates indicate that it is the number flux of foremost higher-energy electrons that is reduced. The energies are found never to drop below a few kilo-electronvolts during the OFF periods for these events. The high-resolution optical data show the occurrence of dips in brightness below the diffuse background level immediately after the ON period has ended. Each dip lasts for about a second, with a reduction in brightness of up to 70 % before the intensity increases to a steady background level again. A different kind of variation is also detected in the OFF period emissions during the second event, where a slower decrease in the background diffuse emission is seen with its brightness minimum just before the ON period, for a series of pulsations. Since the dips in the emission level during OFF are dependent on the switching between ON and OFF, this could indicate a common mechanism for the precipitation during the ON and OFF phases. A statistical analysis of brightness rise, fall, and ON times for the pulsations is also performed. It is found that the pulsations are often asymmetric, with either a slower increase of brightness or a slower fall.

  19. Vortex, ULF wave and Aurora Observation after Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Here we will summarize our recent study and show some new results on the Magnetosphere and Ionosphere Response to Dynamic Pressure Change/disturbances in the Solar Wind and foreshock regions. We study the step function type solar wind dynamic pressure change (increase/decrease) interaction with the magnetosphere using THEMIS satellites at both dayside and nightside in different geocentric distances. Vortices generated by the dynamic pressure change passing along the magnetopause are found and compared with model predictions. ULF waves and vortices are excited in the dayside and nightside plasma sheet when dynamic pressure change hit the magnetotail. The related ionospheric responses, such as aurora and TCVs, are also investigated. We compare Global MHD simulations with the observations. We will also show some new results that dayside magnetospheric FLRs might be caused by foreshock structures.Shi, Q. Q. et al. (2013), THEMIS observations of ULF wave excitation in the nightside plasma sheet during sudden impulse events, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, doi:10.1029/2012JA017984. Shi, Q. Q. et al. (2014), Solar wind pressure pulse-driven magnetospheric vortices and their global consequences, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, doi:10.1002/2013JA019551. Tian, A.M. et al.(2016), Dayside magnetospheric and ionospheric responses to solar wind pressure increase: Multispacecraft and ground observations, J. Geophys. Res., 121, doi:10.1002/2016JA022459. Shen, X.C. et al.(2015), Magnetospheric ULF waves with increasing amplitude related to solar wind dynamic pressure changes: THEMIS observations, J. Geophys. Res., 120, doi:10.1002/2014JA020913Zhao, H. Y. et al. (2016), Magnetospheric vortices and their global effect after a solar wind dynamic pressure decrease, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, doi:10.1002/2015JA021646. Shen, X. C., et al. (2017), Dayside magnetospheric ULF wave frequency modulated by a solar wind dynamic pressure negative impulse, J. Geophys. Res

  20. Chandra observations of Jupiter's X-ray Aurora during Juno upstream and apojove intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, W.; Jackman, C. M.; Kraft, R.; Gladstone, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Knigge, C.; Altamirano, D.; Elsner, R.; Kammer, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Chandra space telescope has recently conducted a number of campaigns to observe Jupiter's X-ray aurora. The first set of campaigns took place in summer 2016 while the Juno spacecraft was upstream of the planet sampling the solar wind. The second set of campaigns took place in February, June and August 2017 at times when the Juno spacecraft was at apojove. These campaigns were planned following the Juno orbit correction to capitalise on the opportunity to image the X-ray emission while Juno was orbiting close to the expected position of the magnetopause. Previous work has suggested that the auroral X-ray emissions map close to the magnetopause boundary [e.g. Vogt et al., 2015; Kimura et al., 2016; Dunn et al., 2016] and thus in situ spacecraft coverage in this region combined with remote observation of the X-rays afford the chance to constrain the drivers of these energetic emissions and determine if they originate on open or closed field lines. We aim to examine possible drivers of X-ray emission including reconnection and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and to explore the role of the solar wind in controlling the emissions. We report on these upstream and apojove campaigns including intensities and periodicities of auroral X-ray emissions. This new era of jovian X-ray astronomy means we have more data than ever before, long observing windows (up to 72 ks for this Chandra set), and successive observations relatively closely spaced in time. These features combine to allow us to pursue novel methods for examining periodicities in the X-ray emission. Our work will explore significance testing of emerging periodicities, and the search for coherence in X-ray pulsing over weeks and months, seeking to understand the robustness and regularity of previously reported hot spot X-ray emissions. The periods that emerge from our analysis will be compared against those which emerge from radio and UV wavelengths.

  1. Amplification and overexpression of aurora kinase A (AURKA) in immortalized human ovarian epithelial (HOSE) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C M; Man, C; Jin, Y; Jin, C; Guan, X Y; Wang, Q; Wan, T S K; Cheung, A L M; Tsao, S W

    2005-07-01

    Immortalization is an early and essential step of human carcinogenesis. Amplification of chromosome 20q has been shown to be a common event in immortalized cells and cancers. We have previously reported that gain and amplification of chromosome 20q is a non-random and common event in immortalized human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cells. The chromosome 20q harbors genes including TGIF2 (20q11.2-q12), AIB1 (20q12), PTPN1 (20q13.1), ZNF217 (20q13.2), and AURKA (20q13.2-q13.3), which were previously reported to be amplified and overexpressed in ovarian cancers. Some of these genes may be involved in immortalization of HOSE cells and represent crucial premalignant changes in ovarian surface epithelium. Investigation of the involvement of these genes was examined in four pairs of pre-crisis (preimmortalized) and post-crisis (immortalized) HOSE cells. Overexpression of AURKA (Aurora kinase A), also known as BTAK and STK15, by both real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) and Western blotting was detected in all the four immortalized HOSE cells examined while overexpression of AIB1 and ZNF217 was observed in two of four immortalized HOSE cells examined. Overexpression of TGIF2 and PTPN1 was not significant in our immortalized HOSE cell systems. The degree of overexpression of AURKA was shown to be closely associated with the amplification of chromosome 20q in immortalized HOSE cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with labeled P1 artificial clone (PAC) confirmed the amplification of the chromosomal region (20q13.2-13.3) where AURKA resides. DNA amplification of AURKA was also confirmed using semi-quantitative PCR. Our study showed that amplification and overexpression of AURKA is a common and significant event during immortalization of HOSE cells and may represent an important premalignant change in ovarian carcinogenesis. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Representation of the Indian in Calderón’s «La Aurora en Copacabana»

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    José Elías Gutiérrez Meza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the onomastics of the Indian characters, the portrayal of the Inca Empire of Huáscar and Atahualpa, and the Christianization of Guacolda and Yupangui in Calderón’s La Aurora en Copacabana. Rational and proactive, these two characters realize the illegitimacy of the Inca idolatry and embrace the true religion, long before the formal start of Perú’s christianization. Thus, it is argued that this specific representation of the Indian may have been influenced by the close circles indianos of Miguel de Aguirre, who allegedly patronized this comedy.

  3. Aurora Bosna, Scautismo femminile e Guidismo. Esperienze educative in prospettiva di Genere: i casi dell'Italia e della Spagna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tortora

    2015-03-01

    pp. 291 La recensione presenta il volume Scautismo femminile e Guidismo. Esperienze educative in prospettiva di Genere: i casi dell'Italia e della Spagna di Aurora Bosna, che analizza i fenomeni dello Scautismo femminile e del Guidismo in una prospettiva comparatstica e in un'ottica pedagogica e di genere, evidenziando il valore che tali esperienze hanno avuto nel percorso di emancipazione femminile all'interno dei contesti socio-culturali dell'Italia e della Spagna tra il XIX e il XX secolo.

  4. Root parasitic plant Orobanche aegyptiaca and shoot parasitic plant Cuscuta australis obtained Brassicaceae-specific strictosidine synthase-like genes by horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dale; Qi, Jinfeng; Yue, Jipei; Huang, Jinling; Sun, Ting; Li, Suoping; Wen, Jian-Fan; Hettenhausen, Christian; Wu, Jinsong; Wang, Lei; Zhuang, Huifu; Wu, Jianqiang; Sun, Guiling

    2014-01-13

    Besides gene duplication and de novo gene generation, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is another important way of acquiring new genes. HGT may endow the recipients with novel phenotypic traits that are important for species evolution and adaption to new ecological niches. Parasitic systems expectedly allow the occurrence of HGT at relatively high frequencies due to their long-term physical contact. In plants, a number of HGT events have been reported between the organelles of parasites and the hosts, but HGT between host and parasite nuclear genomes has rarely been found. A thorough transcriptome screening revealed that a strictosidine synthase-like (SSL) gene in the root parasitic plant Orobanche aegyptiaca and the shoot parasitic plant Cuscuta australis showed much higher sequence similarities with those in Brassicaceae than with those in their close relatives, suggesting independent gene horizontal transfer events from Brassicaceae to these parasites. These findings were strongly supported by phylogenetic analysis and their identical unique amino acid residues and deletions. Intriguingly, the nucleus-located SSL genes in Brassicaceae belonged to a new member of SSL gene family, which were originated from gene duplication. The presence of introns indicated that the transfer occurred directly by DNA integration in both parasites. Furthermore, positive selection was detected in the foreign SSL gene in O. aegyptiaca but not in C. australis. The expression of the foreign SSL genes in these two parasitic plants was detected in multiple development stages and tissues, and the foreign SSL gene was induced after wounding treatment in C. australis stems. These data imply that the foreign genes may still retain certain functions in the recipient species. Our study strongly supports that parasitic plants can gain novel nuclear genes from distantly related host species by HGT and the foreign genes may execute certain functions in the new hosts.

  5. Transcriptome and Degradome of microRNAs and Their Targets in Response to Drought Stress in the Plants of a Diploid and Its Autotetraploid Paulownia australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyan Niu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that play vital roles in plant growth, development, and stress response. Increasing numbers of studies aimed at discovering miRNAs and analyzing their functions in plants are being reported. In this study, we investigated the effect of drought stress on the expression of miRNAs and their targets in plants of a diploid and derived autotetraploid Paulownia australis. Four small RNA (sRNA libraries and four degradome libraries were constructed from diploid and autotetraploid P. australis plants treated with either 75% or 25% relative soil water content. A total of 33 conserved and 104 novel miRNAs (processing precision value > 0.1 were identified, and 125 target genes were identified for 36 of the miRNAs by using the degradome sequencing. Among the identified miRNAs, 54 and 68 were differentially expressed in diploid and autotetraploid plants under drought stress (25% relative soil water content, respectively. The expressions of miRNAs and target genes were also validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the relative expression trends of the randomly selected miRNAs were similar to the trends predicted by Illumina sequencing. And the correlations between miRNAs and their target genes were also analyzed. Furthermore, the functional analysis showed that most of these miRNAs and target genes were associated with plant development and environmental stress response. This study provided molecular evidence for the possible involvement of certain miRNAs in the drought response and/or tolerance in P. australis, and certain level of differential expression between diploid and autotetraploid plants.

  6. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the genus Wittrockiella (Pithophoraceae, Cladophorales), including the descriptions of W. australis sp. nov. and W. zosterae sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, Christian; O'Kelly, Charles J; West, John A; Hanyuda, Takeaki; Neale, Adele; Wakana, Isamu; Wilcox, Mike D; Karsten, Ulf; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C

    2017-06-01

    Wittrockiella is a small genus of filamentous green algae that occurs in habitats with reduced or fluctuating salinities. Many aspects of the basic biology of these algae are still unknown and the phylogenetic relationships within the genus have not been fully explored. We provide a phylogeny based on three ribosomal markers (ITS, LSU, and SSU rDNA) of the genus, including broad intraspecific sampling for W. lyallii and W. salina, recommendations for the use of existing names are made, and highlight aspects of their physiology and life cycle. Molecular data indicate that there are five species of Wittrockiella. Two new species, W. australis and W. zosterae, are described, both are endophytes. Although W. lyallii and W. salina can be identified morphologically, there are no diagnostic morphological characters to distinguish between W. amphibia, W. australis, and W. zosterae. A range of low molecular weight carbohydrates were analyzed but proved to not be taxonomically informative. The distribution range of W. salina is extended to the Northern Hemisphere as this species has been found in brackish lakes in Japan. Furthermore, it is shown that there are no grounds to recognize W. salina var. kraftii, which was described as an endemic variety from a freshwater habitat on Lord Howe Island, Australia. Culture experiments indicate that W. australis has a preference for growth in lower salinities over full seawater. For W. amphibia and W. zosterae, sexual reproduction is documented, and the split of these species is possibly attributable to polyploidization. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  7. Surface pH changes suggest a role for H+/OH- channels in salinity response of Chara australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absolonova, Marketa; Beilby, Mary J; Sommer, Aniela; Hoepflinger, Marion C; Foissner, Ilse

    2018-05-01

    To understand salt stress, the full impact of salinity on plant cell physiology has to be resolved. Electrical measurements suggest that salinity inhibits the proton pump and opens putative H + /OH - channels all over the cell surface of salt sensitive Chara australis (Beilby and Al Khazaaly 2009; Al Khazaaly and Beilby 2012). The channels open transiently at first, causing a characteristic noise in membrane potential difference (PD), and after longer exposure remain open with a typical current-voltage (I/V) profile, both abolished by the addition of 1 mM ZnCl 2 , the main known blocker of animal H + channels. The cells were imaged with confocal microscopy, using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) coupled to dextran 70 to illuminate the pH changes outside the cell wall in artificial fresh water (AFW) and in saline medium. In the early saline exposure, we observed alkaline patches (bright fluorescent spots) appearing transiently in random spatial distribution. After longer exposure, some of the spots became fixed in space. Saline also abolished or diminished the pH banding pattern observed in the untreated control cells. ZnCl 2 suppressed the alkaline spot formation in saline and the pH banding pattern in AFW. The osmotic component of the saline stress did not produce transient bright spots or affect banding. The displacement of H + from the cell wall charges, the H + /OH - channel conductance/density, and self-organization are discussed. No homologies to animal H + channels were found. Salinity activation of the H + /OH - channels might contribute to saline response in roots of land plants and leaves of aquatic angiosperms.

  8. Composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material and compost effects on soil and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumpeli, Anna; Pavlatou-Ve, Athina K; Kostopoulou, Sofia K; Mamolos, Andreas P; Siomos, Anastasios S; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L

    2013-10-15

    Composting organic residues is a friendly to the environment alternative to producing fertilizer. This research was carried out to study the process of composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material alone or with animal manure on a pilot-scale, to evaluate firstly the quality of the composts produced and secondly, using a pot experiment, the effects of their application on soil physicochemical characteristics and tomato plants development. For the compost production a randomized complete block design was used with five treatments (five compost types) and four replications. For the pot experiment, a completely randomized design was used with 17 treatments (plain soil, soil with synthetic fertilizer and the application of five compost types, at three rates each) and five replications. Compost N increased with composting time, while C/N ratio decreased significantly and by the end it ranged from 43.3 for CM to 22.6 for CY. Compost pH became almost neutral, ranging from 6.73 for CY to 7.21 for CM3Y3AM4 by the end. Compost combinations CY7AM3 and CM7AM3 had a more positive influence on the soil physicochemical characteristics than the others. Soil N, P, Ca and Mg concentrations and the reduction of clay dispersion were the highest when CM7AM3 compost was added. The macro-aggregate stability was the highest for CY7AM3, which also sustained plant growth. The latter compost combination improved most of the soil physicochemical characteristics and plant growth especially, when the application rate was 4% (w/w), which equals to 156 Mg ha(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN MOLECULAR CLOUD CORE DC 000.4-19.5 (SL42) IN CORONA AUSTRALIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardegree-Ullman, E.; Whittet, D. C. B. [New York Center for Astrobiology and Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Harju, J. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FI-21500, Piikkioe (Finland); Juvela, M.; Sipilae, O. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Hotzel, S., E-mail: hardee@rpi.edu [Observatory, FI-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-01-20

    Chemical reactions in starless molecular clouds are heavily dependent on interactions between gas phase material and solid phase dust and ices. We have observed the abundance and distribution of molecular gases in the cold, starless core DC 000.4-19.5 (SL42) in Corona Australis using data from the Swedish ESO Submillimeter Telescope. We present column density maps determined from measurements of C{sup 18}O (J = 2-1, 1-0) and N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1-0) emission features. Herschel data of the same region allow a direct comparison to the dust component of the cloud core and provide evidence for gas phase depletion of CO at the highest extinctions. The dust color temperature in the core calculated from Herschel maps ranges from roughly 10.7 to 14.0 K. This range agrees with the previous determinations from Infrared Space Observatory and Planck observations. The column density profile of the core can be fitted with a Plummer-like density distribution approaching n(r) {approx} r {sup -2} at large distances. The core structure deviates clearly from a critical Bonnor-Ebert sphere. Instead, the core appears to be gravitationally bound and to lack thermal and turbulent support against the pressure of the surrounding low-density material: it may therefore be in the process of slow contraction. We test two chemical models and find that a steady-state depletion model agrees with the observed C{sup 18}O column density profile and the observed N(C{sup 18}O) versus A{sub V} relationship.

  10. Anomalous colour in Neotropical mammals: a review with new records for Didelphis sp. (Didelphidae, Didelphimorphia and Arctocephalus australis (Otariidae, Carnivora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSL. Abreu

    Full Text Available Anomalous colourations occur in many tropical vertebrates. However, they are considered rare in wild populations, with very few records for the majority of animal taxa. We report two new cases of anomalous colouration in mammals. Additionally, we compiled all published cases about anomalous pigmentation registered in Neotropical mammals, throughout a comprehensive review of peer reviewed articles between 1950 and 2010. Every record was classified as albinism, leucism, piebaldism or eventually as undetermined pigmentation. As results, we report the new record of a leucistic specimen of opossum (Didelphis sp. in southern Brazil, as well as a specimen of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis with piebaldism in Uruguay. We also found 31 scientific articles resulting in 23 records of albinism, 12 of leucism, 71 of piebaldism and 92 records classified as undetermined pigmentation. Anomalous colouration is apparently rare in small terrestrial mammals, but it is much more common in cetaceans and michrochiropterans. Out of these 198 records, 149 occurred in cetaceans and 30 in bats. The results related to cetaceans suggest that males and females with anomolous pigmentation are reproductively successful and as a consequence their frequencies are becoming higher in natural populations. In bats, this result can be related to the fact these animals orient themselves primarily through echolocation, and their refuges provide protection against light and predation. It is possible that anomalous colouration occurs more frequently in other Neotropical mammal orders, which were not formally reported. Therefore, we encourage researchers to publish these events in order to better understand this phenomenon that has a significant influence on animal survival.

  11. Factors affecting post-control reinvasion by seed of an invasive species, Phragmites australis, in the central Platte River, Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatowitsch, Susan M.; Larson, Diane L.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants, such as Phragmites australis, can profoundly affect channel environments of large rivers by stabilizing sediments and altering water flows. Invasive plant removal is considered necessary where restoration of dynamic channels is needed to provide critical habitat for species of conservation concern. However, these programs are widely reported to be inefficient. Post-control reinvasion is frequent, suggesting increased attention is needed to prevent seed regeneration. To develop more effective responses to this invader in the Central Platte River (Nebraska, USA), we investigated several aspects of Phragmites seed ecology potentially linked to post-control reinvasion, in comparison to other common species: extent of viable seed production, importance of water transport, and regeneration responses to hydrology. We observed that although Phragmites seed does not mature until very late in the ice-free season, populations produce significant amounts of viable seed (>50 % of filled seed). Most seed transported via water in the Platte River are invasive perennial species, although Phragmites abundances are much lower than species such as Lythrum salicaria, Cyperus esculentus and Phalaris arundinacea. Seed regeneration of Phragmites varies greatly depending on hydrology, especially timing of water level changes. Flood events coinciding with the beginning of seedling emergence reduced establishment by as much as 59 % compared to flood events that occurred a few weeks later. Results of these investigations suggest that prevention of seed set (i.e., by removal of flowering culms) should be a priority in vegetation stands not being treated annually. After seeds are in the seedbank, preventing reinvasion using prescribed flooding has a low chance of success given that Phragmites can regenerate in a wide variety of hydrologic microsites.

  12. Organização e arquitetura microscópica do sistema tegumentar do Lobo-marinho-sul-americano (Arctocephalus australis, Zimmermann, 1783)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula da Silva

    2008-01-01

    O lobo-marinho-sul-americano (Arctocephalus australis) membro da Ordem Carnivora, é comumente visto nos períodos de outono e inverno na costa brasileira do Rio Grande do Sul até o Rio de Janeiro, porém, sem colônias reprodutivas estabelecidas. A espécie pertence ao grupo dos pinípedes, carnívoros com membros em forma de nadadeiras que vivem em ambiente aquático e terrestre. Estudos sobre a morfologia da pele em pinípedes são raros e antigos, destes procederam muitos relatos divergentes, em vi...

  13. Evaluación de la Remoción de Nitrógeno, Fósforo y Sulfuros en Agua Residual Doméstica, Utilizando Phragmites australis en Bioreactores

    OpenAIRE

    Correa-Torres, Sandra N; Gamarra, Yolanda; Salazar, Andrés A; Pitta, Natalia M

    2015-01-01

    En el presente estudio se evaluó la remoción de nitrógeno, fósforo y sulfuros en un agua residual doméstica mediante fitorremediación utilizando Phragmites australis en bioreactores a escala de laboratorio. Se determinó el estudio las condiciones hidráulicas en reactores analizando las variables de relación geométrica largo:ancho (4:1 y 1:4) y usando un medio filtrante (grava/arena). Adicionalmente se evaluó el crecimiento de P. australis en los reactores y se analizó los porcentajes de remoc...

  14. Synthesis and SAR of 1-acetanilide-4-aminopyrazole-substituted quinazolines: selective inhibitors of Aurora B kinase with potent anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kevin M; Mortlock, Andrew A; Heron, Nicola M; Jung, Frédéric H; Hill, George B; Pasquet, Georges; Brady, Madeleine C; Green, Stephen; Heaton, Simon P; Kearney, Sarah; Keen, Nicholas J; Odedra, Rajesh; Wedge, Stephen R; Wilkinson, Robert W

    2008-03-15

    A new class of 1-acetanilide-4-aminopyrazole-substituted quinazoline Aurora kinase inhibitors has been discovered possessing highly potent cellular activity. Continuous infusion into athymic mice bearing SW620 tumors of the soluble phosphate derivative 2 led to dose-proportional exposure of the des-phosphate compound 8 with a high-unbound fraction. The combination of potent cell activity and high free-drug exposure led to pharmacodynamic changes in the tumor at low doses, indicative of Aurora B-kinase inhibition and a reduction in tumor volume.

  15. DNA barcoding and molecular systematics of the benthic and demersal organisms of the CEAMARC survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettai, Agnes; Adamowizc, Sarah J.; Allcock, Louise; Arango, Claudia P.; Barnes, David K. A.; Barratt, Iain; Chenuil, Anne; Couloux, Arnaud; Cruaud, Corinne; David, Bruno; Denis, Françoise; Denys, Gael; Díaz, Angie; Eléaume, Marc; Féral, Jean-Pierre; Froger, Aurélie; Gallut, Cyril; Grant, Rachel; Griffiths, Huw J.; Held, Christoph; Hemery, Lenaïg G.; Hosie, Graham; Kuklinski, Piotr; Lecointre, Guillaume; Linse, Katrin; Lozouet, Pierre; Mah, Christopher; Monniot, Françoise; Norman, Mark D.; O'Hara, Timothy; Ozouf-Costaz, Catherine; Piedallu, Claire; Pierrat, Benjamin; Poulin, Elie; Puillandre, Nicolas; Riddle, Martin; Samadi, Sarah; Saucède, Thomas; Schubart, Christoph; Smith, Peter J.; Stevens, Darren W.; Steinke, Dirk; Strugnell, Jan M.; Tarnowska, K.; Wadley, Victoria; Ameziane, Nadia

    2011-08-01

    The Dumont d’Urville Sea (East Antarctic region) has been less investigated for DNA barcoding and molecular taxonomy than other parts of the Southern Ocean, such as the Ross Sea and the Antarctic Peninsula. The Collaborative East Antarctic MARine Census (CEAMARC) took place in this area during the austral summer of 2007-2008. The Australian vessel RSV Aurora Australis collected very diverse samples of demersal and benthic organisms. The specimens were sorted centrally, and then distributed to taxonomic experts for molecular and morphological taxonomy and identification, especially barcoding. The COI sequences generated from CEAMARC material provide a sizeable proportion of the Census of Antarctic Marine Life barcodes although the studies are still ongoing, and represent the only source of sequences for a number of species. Barcoding appears to be a valuable method for identification within most groups, despite low divergences and haplotype sharing in a few species, and it is also useful as a preliminary taxonomic exploration method. Several new species are being described. CEAMARC samples have already provided new material for phylogeographic and phylogenetic studies in cephalopods, pycnogonids, teleost fish, crinoids and sea urchins, helping these studies to provide a better insight in the patterns of evolution in the Southern Ocean.

  16. Reducing uncertainty and bias in acoustic biomass estimations of southern blue whiting (Micromesistius australis in the southeastern Pacific: transducer motion effects upon acoustic attenuation Reduciendo el sesgo e incertidumbre de las estimaciones hidroacústicas de biomasa de merluza de tres aletas (Micromesistius australis en el Pacífico suroriental: efectos del movimiento del transductor sobre la atenuación acústica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Saavedra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the loss of sensitivity due to the motion experienced by a hull-mounted transducer and its effects upon the estimated biomass of southern blue whiting (Micromesistius australis in an acoustic survey conducted in the southeastern Pacific, off the Chilean coast, during the austral winter of 2009. Vessel motion data (pitch and roll were registered in situ using a digital clinometer and used to correct the nautical area scattering coefficients (NASC in elementary sampling units of 926 m distance by 10 m depth. These NASC correction factors (NASCcp were calculated using Dunford's algorithm for circular transducers. We found high variability in NASCcp, which averaged 12%, and ranged between 0 and 50%. NASCcp variability was explained significantly by the mean depth of the integrated stratum (33%, the weather condition, as measured by Beaufort's scale (5%, and the vessel course relative to wind direction (2%. The empirical model we used to explain NASC Cp variability may be suitable for correcting bias due to transducer motion in other, past and future, fisheries acoustic surveys targeting mid-water species under rough weather conditions.Se evaluó la pérdida de sensibilidad producida por el movimiento de un transductor montado en el casco y sus efectos sobre la abundancia y biomasa estimada de merluza de tres aletas (Micromesistius australis en un estudio acústico realizado en el Pacífico suroriental, frente a la costa de Chile, durante el invierno austral de 2009. Los datos de movimiento del barco (cabeceo y balanceo fueron registrados in situ utilizando un clinómetro digital y luego utilizados para estimar la pérdida teórica de sensibilidad del transductor y, finalmente, traducir esta pérdida en factores de corrección del coeficiente de dispersión por área náutica (NASC calculados para intervalos básicos de muestreo de 926 m de distancia por 10 m de profundidad. Los factores de corrección del NASC (NASC Cp fueron calculados

  17. Cold storage of peaches cv. Aurora grown in the Zona da Mata Mineira, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the postharvest behavior of peach cv. Aurora 1 harvested in the Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais in two ripening stages and kept under different storage temperatures. Fruits on mid-ripe and fully ripe stages were stored at three temperatures: 5.6 ± 1.57 °C and 72.8 ± 3.8% RH; 10.4 ± 0.5 °C and 95.8 ± 5.5% RH; 21.04 ± 1.63 °C and 96.9 ± 2.6% RH up to 28 storage days (SD . During storage, fruits stored at 21.04 ± 1.63 °C were evaluated every two days until 8 SD, and every four days for fruits stored at other temperatures. The harvest day was assigned as day zero. The variables evaluated were CO2 production, color of the pericarp and pulp, fresh mass loss, flesh firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, contents of ascorbic acid and carotenoids. The fresh mass loss increased during storage, peaking at 5.6 °C. The reduction in ascorbic acid content was higher in fully ripe fruits at all temperatures. Mid-ripe fruits reached the end of the storage period with better quality. The temperature of 10.4 °C was the most efficient in keeping postharvest quality of peach cv. Aurora 1 harvested in the Zona da Mata region.

  18. The mitosis-regulating and protein-protein interaction activities of astrin are controlled by aurora-A-induced phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shao-Chih; Chen, Jo-Mei Maureen; Wei, Tong-You Wade; Cheng, Tai-Shan; Wang, Ya-Hui Candice; Ku, Chia-Feng; Lian, Chiao-Hsuan; Liu, Chun-Chih Jared; Kuo, Yi-Chun; Yu, Chang-Tze Ricky

    2014-09-01

    Cells display dramatic morphological changes in mitosis, where numerous factors form regulatory networks to orchestrate the complicated process, resulting in extreme fidelity of the segregation of duplicated chromosomes into two daughter cells. Astrin regulates several aspects of mitosis, such as maintaining the cohesion of sister chromatids by inactivating Separase and stabilizing spindle, aligning and segregating chromosomes, and silencing spindle assembly checkpoint by interacting with Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein (SKAP) and cytoplasmic linker-associated protein-1α (CLASP-1α). To understand how Astrin is regulated in mitosis, we report here that Astrin acts as a mitotic phosphoprotein, and Aurora-A phosphorylates Astrin at Ser(115). The phosphorylation-deficient mutant Astrin S115A abnormally activates spindle assembly checkpoint and delays mitosis progression, decreases spindle stability, and induces chromosome misalignment. Mechanistic analyses reveal that Astrin phosphorylation mimicking mutant S115D, instead of S115A, binds and induces ubiquitination and degradation of securin, which sequentially activates Separase, an enzyme required for the separation of sister chromatids. Moreover, S115A fails to bind mitosis regulators, including SKAP and CLASP-1α, which results in the mitotic defects observed in Astrin S115A-transfected cells. In conclusion, Aurora-A phosphorylates Astrin and guides the binding of Astrin to its cellular partners, which ensures proper progression of mitosis. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. The variations of oxygen emissions in corresponding to Earth's aurora in low latitude region under influence of solar wind dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamlongkul, P.; Wannawichian, S.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's aurora in low latitude region was studied via time variations of oxygen emission spectra, simultaneously with solar wind data. The behavior of spectrum intensity, in corresponding with solar wind condition, could be a trace of aurora in low latitude region including some effects of high energetic auroral particles. Oxygen emission spectral lines were observed by Medium Resolution Echelle Spectrograph (MRES) at 2.4-m diameter telescope at Thai National Observatory, Inthanon Mountain, Chiang Mai, Thailand, during 1-5 LT on 5 and 6 February 2017. The observed spectral lines were calibrated via Dech95 - 2D image processing program and Dech-Fits spectra processing program for spectrum image processing and spectrum wavelength calibration, respectively. The variations of observed intensities each day were compared with solar wind parameters, which are magnitude of IMF (|BIMF|) including IMF in RTN coordinate (BR, BT, BN), ion density (ρ), plasma flow pressure (P), and speed (v). The correlation coefficients between oxygen spectral emissions and different solar wind parameters were found to vary in both positive and negative behaviors.

  20. An integrated chemical biology approach identifies specific vulnerability of Ewing's sarcoma to combined inhibition of Aurora kinases A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Georg E; Rix, Uwe; Lissat, Andrej; Stukalov, Alexey; Müllner, Markus K; Bennett, Keiryn L; Colinge, Jacques; Nijman, Sebastian M; Kubicek, Stefan; Kovar, Heinrich; Kontny, Udo; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2011-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a pediatric cancer of the bone that is characterized by the expression of the chimeric transcription factor EWS-FLI1 that confers a highly malignant phenotype and results from the chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12). Poor overall survival and pronounced long-term side effects associated with traditional chemotherapy necessitate the development of novel, targeted, therapeutic strategies. We therefore conducted a focused viability screen with 200 small molecule kinase inhibitors in 2 different Ewing's sarcoma cell lines. This resulted in the identification of several potential molecular intervention points. Most notably, tozasertib (VX-680, MK-0457) displayed unique nanomolar efficacy, which extended to other cell lines, but was specific for Ewing's sarcoma. Furthermore, tozasertib showed strong synergies with the chemotherapeutic drugs etoposide and doxorubicin, the current standard agents for Ewing's sarcoma. To identify the relevant targets underlying the specific vulnerability toward tozasertib, we determined its cellular target profile by chemical proteomics. We identified 20 known and unknown serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinase targets. Additional target deconvolution and functional validation by RNAi showed simultaneous inhibition of Aurora kinases A and B to be responsible for the observed tozasertib sensitivity, thereby revealing a new mechanism for targeting Ewing's sarcoma. We further corroborated our cellular observations with xenograft mouse models. In summary, the multilayered chemical biology approach presented here identified a specific vulnerability of Ewing's sarcoma to concomitant inhibition of Aurora kinases A and B by tozasertib and danusertib, which has the potential to become a new therapeutic option.

  1. Overview of the 2006-2008 JOGMEC/NRCan/Aurora Mallik Gas Hydrate Production Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Dallimore, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    During the winters of 2007 and 2008 the Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC) and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), with Aurora Research Institute as the operator, carried out an on-shore gas hydrate production test program at the Mallik site, Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. The prime objective of the program was to verify the feasibility of depressurization technique by drawing down the formation pressure across a 12m perforated gas hydrate bearing section. This project was the second full scale production test at this site following the 2002 Japex/JNOC/GSC et al Mallik research program in which seven participants organizatinos from five countries undertook a thermal test using hot water circulation Field work in 2007 was devoted to establishing a production test well, installing monitoring devices outside of casing, conducting base line geophysical studies and undertaking a short test to gain practical experience prior to longer term testing planned for 2008 . Hydrate-dissociated gas was produced to surface by depressurization achieved by lowering the fluid level with a dowhole pump. However, the operation was terminated 60 hours after the start of the pumping mainly due to sand production problems. In spite of the short period (12.5 hours of ellapsed pumping time), at least 830m3 of the gas was produced and accumulated in the borehole. Sand screens were installed across the perforated interval at the bottom hole for the 2008 program to overcome operational problems encountered in 2007 and achieve sustainable gas production. Stable bottom hole flowing pressures were successfully achieved during a 6 day test with continuous pump operation. Sustained gas production was achieved with rates between 2000- 4000m3/day and cummulative gas volume in the surface of approximately 13,000m3. Temperature and pressure data measured at the bottom hole and gas and water production rates gave positive evidence for the high efficiency of gas

  2. On the motion of dayside auroras caused by a solar wind pressure pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kozlovsky

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Global ultraviolet auroral images from the IMAGE satellite were used to investigate the dynamics of the dayside auroral oval responding to a sudden impulse (SI in the solar wind pressure. At the same time, the TV all-sky camera and the EISCAT radar on Svalbard (in the pre-noon sector allowed for detailed investigation of the auroral forms and the ionospheric plasma flow. After the SI, new discrete auroral forms appeared in the poleward part of the auroral oval so that the middle of the dayside oval moved poleward from about 70° to about 73° of the AACGM latitude. This poleward shift first occurred in the 15 MLT sector, then similar shifts were observed in the MLT sectors located more westerly, and eventually the shift was seen in the 6 MLT sector. Thus, the auroral disturbance "propagated" westward (from 15 MLT to 6 MLT at an apparent speed of the order of 7km/s. This motion of the middle of the auroral oval was caused by the redistribution of the luminosity within the oval and was not associated with the corresponding motion of the poleward boundary of the oval. The SI was followed by an increase in the northward plasma convection velocity. Individual auroral forms showed poleward progressions with velocities close to the velocity of the northward plasma convection. The observations indicate firstly a pressure disturbance propagation through the magnetosphere at a velocity of the order of 200km/s which is essentially slower than the velocity of the fast Alfvén (magnetosonic wave, and secondly a potential (curl-free electric field generation behind the front of the propagating disturbance, causing the motion of the auroras. We suggest a physical explanation for the slow propagation of the disturbance through the magnetosphere and a model for the electric field generation. Predictions of the model are supported by the global convection maps produced by the SuperDARN HF radars. Finally, the interchange instability and the eigenmode toroidal

  3. Osmotic and ionic effects of NaCl and Na2SO4 salinity on Phragmites australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagter, Majken; Bragato, Claudia; Malagoli, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Osmotic and ion-specific effects of NaCl and Na2SO4 on Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex. Steud. were investigated in a laboratory experiment by examining effects of iso-osmotic solutions of NaCl and Na2SO4 on growth, osmolality of cell sap, proline content, elemental composition and gas exchange....... Plants were supplied with a control standard nutrient solution (Ψ = -0.09 MPa) or solutions of NaCl or Na2SO4 at water potentials of -0.50, -1.09 or -1.74 MPa. Salt treatments increased root concentrations of Na and S or Cl, whereas P. australis had efficient mechanisms for exclusion of Na and S...... and partly Cl ions from the leaves. Incomplete exclusion of Cl from the leaves may affect aboveground biomass production, which was significantly more reduced by NaCl than Na2SO4. Stomatal conductance was negatively influenced by decreasing water potentials caused by NaCl or Na2SO4, implying that a non...

  4. Single cell gel electrophoresis as a tool to assess genetic damage in Heleobia cf. australis (Mollusca: Gastropoda as sentinel for industrial and domestic pollution in Montevideo bay (Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Villar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in aquatic organisms in polluted areas is an important issue because contamination may alter their health at sublethal levels. Although molluscs have been widely used to monitor water pollution, there are no records of in vivo genotoxicity studies. Heleobia cf. australis, is distributed in almost all Uruguayan coastal ecosystems, including highly polluted sites. The comet assay is a damage genetic biomarker based on the migration of negatively charged DNA fragments produced by mutagenic agents in individual cells. Live individuals were collected in the Montevideo Bay (impacted area and Laguna Garzón (control to analyze the presence of mutagenic agents in the former site through comet assay. Cells from organisms of the impacted area showed significantly higher levels of genetic damage than those obtained in the control population, measured by percentage of DNA in the tail. Although preliminary, this approach supports the idea that H. cf. australis could be used as a sentinel to evaluate the presence of mutagenic agents in estuarine environments, alerting to the impact of contamination in its early stages.

  5. Extracts from Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex (Soft Corals are Capable of Inhibiting the Growth of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guey-Horng Wang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Many biomedical products have already been obtained from marine organisms. In order to search more therapeutic drugs against cancer, this study demonstrates the cytotoxicity effects of Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex extractson human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC4, SCC9 and SCC25 cells using cell adhesion and cell viability assay. The morphological alterations in SCCs cells after treatment with three extracts, such as typical nuclear condensation, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies of cells were demonstrated by Hoechst stain. Flow cytometry indicated that three extracts sensitized SCC25 cells in the G0/G1 and S-G2/M phases with a concomitant significantly increased sub-G1 fraction, indicating cell death by apoptosis. This apoptosis process was accompanied by activation of caspase-3 expression after SCC25 cells were treated with three extracts. Thereby, it is possible that extracts of C. australis, C. viridis and K. simplex cause apoptosis of SCCs and warrant further research investigating the possible anti-oral cancer compounds in these soft corals.

  6. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  7. Determining the best phenological state for accurate mapping of Phragmites australis in wetlands using time series multispectral satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupasinghe, P. A.; Markle, C. E.; Marcaccio, J. V.; Chow-Fraser, P.

    2017-12-01

    Phragmites australis (European common reed), is a relatively recent invader of wetlands and beaches in Ontario. It can establish large homogenous stands within wetlands and disperse widely throughout the landscape by wind and vehicular traffic. A first step in managing this invasive species includes accurate mapping and quantification of its distribution. This is challenging because Phragimtes is distributed in a large spatial extent, which makes the mapping more costly and time consuming. Here, we used freely available multispectral satellite images taken monthly (cloud free images as available) for the calendar year to determine the optimum phenological state of Phragmites that would allow it to be accurately identified using remote sensing data. We analyzed time series, Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2 images for Big Creek Wildlife Area, ON using image classification (Support Vector Machines), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). We used field sampling data and high resolution image collected using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV; 8 cm spatial resolution) as training data and for the validation of the classified images. The accuracy for all land cover classes and for Phragmites alone were low at both the start and end of the calendar year, but reached overall accuracy >85% by mid to late summer. The highest classification accuracies for Landsat-8 OLI were associated with late July and early August imagery. We observed similar trends using the Sentinel-2 images, with higher overall accuracy for all land cover classes and for Phragmites alone from late July to late September. During this period, we found the greatest difference between Phragmites and Typha, commonly confused classes, with respect to near-infrared and shortwave infrared reflectance. Therefore, the unique spectral signature of Phragmites can be attributed to both the level of greenness and factors related to water content in the leaves during late

  8. Warm gas towards young stellar objects in Corona Australis. Herschel/PACS observations from the DIGIT key programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Johan E.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Green, Joel D.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Dionatos, Odysseas; Evans, Neal J.; Karska, Agata; Wampfler, Susanne F.

    2014-05-01

    Context. The effects of external irradiation on the chemistry and physics in the protostellar envelope around low-mass young stellar objects are poorly understood. The Corona Australis star-forming region contains the R CrA dark cloud, comprising several low-mass protostellar cores irradiated by an intermediate-mass young star. Aims: We study the effects of the irradiation coming from the young luminous Herbig Be star R CrA on the warm gas and dust in a group of low-mass young stellar objects. Methods: Herschel/PACS far-infrared datacubes of two low-mass star-forming regions in the R CrA dark cloud are presented. The distributions of CO, OH, H2O, [C ii], [O i], and continuum emission are investigated. We have developed a deconvolution algorithm which we use to deconvolve the maps, separating the point-source emission from the extended emission. We also construct rotational diagrams of the molecular species. Results: By deconvolution of the Herschel data, we find large-scale (several thousand AU) dust continuum and spectral line emission not associated with the point sources. Similar rotational temperatures are found for the warm CO (282 ± 4 K), hot CO (890 ± 84 K), OH (79 ± 4 K), and H2O (197 ± 7 K) emission in the point sources and the extended emission. The rotational temperatures are also similar to those found in other more isolated cores. The extended dust continuum emission is found in two ridges similar in extent and temperature to molecular millimetre emission, indicative of external heating from the Herbig Be star R CrA. Conclusions: Our results show that nearby luminous stars do not increase the molecular excitation temperatures of the warm gas around young stellar objects (YSOs). However, the emission from photodissociation products of H2O, such as OH and O, is enhanced in the warm gas associated with these protostars and their surroundings compared to similar objects not subjected to external irradiation. Table 9 and appendices are available in

  9. The Aurora Kinase in Trypanosoma brucei plays distinctive roles in metaphase-anaphase transition and cytokinetic initiation.

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    Ziyin Li

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aurora B kinase is an essential regulator of chromosome segregation with the action well characterized in eukaryotes. It is also implicated in cytokinesis, but the detailed mechanism remains less clear, partly due to the difficulty in separating the latter from the former function in a growing cell. A chemical genetic approach with an inhibitor of the enzyme added to a synchronized cell population at different stages of the cell cycle would probably solve this problem. In the deeply branched parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, an Aurora B homolog, TbAUK1, was found to control both chromosome segregation and cytokinetic initiation by evidence from RNAi and dominant negative mutation. To clearly separate these two functions, VX-680, an inhibitor of TbAUK1, was added to a synchronized T. brucei procyclic cell population at different cell cycle stages. The unique trans-localization pattern of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC, consisting of TbAUK1 and two novel proteins TbCPC1 and TbCPC2, was monitored during mitosis and cytokinesis by following the migration of the proteins tagged with enhanced yellow fluorescence protein in live cells with time-lapse video microscopy. Inhibition of TbAUK1 function in S-phase, prophase or metaphase invariably arrests the cells in the metaphase, suggesting an action of TbAUK1 in promoting metaphase-anaphase transition. TbAUK1 inhibition in anaphase does not affect mitotic exit, but prevents trans-localization of the CPC from the spindle midzone to the anterior tip of the new flagellum attachment zone for cytokinetic initiation. The CPC in the midzone is dispersed back to the two segregated nuclei, while cytokinesis is inhibited. In and beyond telophase, TbAUK1 inhibition has no effect on the progression of cytokinesis or the subsequent G1, S and G2 phases until a new metaphase is attained. There are thus two clearly distinct points of TbAUK1 action in T. brucei: the metaphase-anaphase transition and

  10. An overview of Aurora: a multi-kilojoule KrF laser system for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Bowling, P.S.; Burrows, M.D.; Kang, M.; Hanlon, J.; McLeod, J.; York, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Aurora is a short-pulse high-power krypton-fluoride laser system that serves as an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large-scale ultraviolet laser systems of interest for short wavelength inertial confinement fusion (ICF) studies. The system is designed to employ optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to deliver 248 nm, 5-ns duration multi-kilojoule laser pulses to ICF targets using a beam train of approximately 1 km in length. The goals for the system are discussed and the design features of the major system components: front-end lasers, amplifier train, and the alignment and controls systems are summarised. (author)

  11. Expression of aurora kinase A is associated with metastasis-free survival in node-negative breast cancer patients

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    Siggelkow Wulf

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitors targeting the cell cycle-regulated aurora kinase A (AURKA are currently being developed. Here, we examine the prognostic impact of AURKA in node-negative breast cancer patients without adjuvant systemic therapy (n = 766. Methods AURKA was analyzed using microarray-based gene-expression data from three independent cohorts of node-negative breast cancer patients. In multivariate Cox analyses, the prognostic impact of age, histological grade, tumor size, estrogen receptor (ER, and HER2 were considered. Results Patients with higher AURKA expression had a shorter metastasis-free survival (MFS in the Mainz (HR 1.93; 95% CI 1.34 – 2.78; P Conclusions AURKA is associated with worse prognosis in estrogen receptor positive breast carcinomas. Patients with the highest AURKA expression (>75% percentile have a particularly bad prognosis and may profit from therapy with AURKA inhibitors.

  12. An index to determine vulnerability of communities in a coastal zone: a case study of Baler, Aurora, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orencio, Pedcris M; Fujii, Masahiko

    2013-02-01

    A coastal community vulnerability index (CCVI) was constructed to evaluate the vulnerability of coastal communities (Buhangin, Pingit, Reserva, Sabang, and Zabali) in the municipality of Baler, Aurora, Philippines. This index was composed of weighted averages of seven vulnerability factors namely geographical, economic and livelihood, food security, environmental, policy and institutional, demographic, and capital good. Factor values were computed based on scores that described range of conditions that influence communities' susceptibility to hazard effects. Among the factors evaluated, economic and livelihood, policy and institutional and food security contributed to CCVI across communities. Only small variations on CCVI values (i.e., 0.47-0.53) were observed as factor values cancelled out one another during combination process. Overall, Sabang received the highest CCVI, which was contributed mainly by geographical and demographic factors. This technique to determine factors that influenced communities' vulnerability can provide information for local governments in enhancing policies on risk mitigation and adaptation.

  13. “La logia dominicana Aurora Nº 82 de San Pedro de Macoris (1889-1923”

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    José Antonio Ferrer Benimeli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La logia Aurora Nº 82 de San Pedro de Macoris en Santo Domingo afrontó el contexto dominicano e internacional auspiciada por la obediencia española del Gran Oriente Español desde 1889 hasta 1923. Este trabajo traza la historia general de este taller en dicho periodo aportando respuestas a los siguientes interrogantes: ¿Cómo actuaron los masones de este taller en dicho contexto? ¿Cuál fue su relación con las obediencias dominicanas? ¿Cuáles fueron las principales actuaciones oficiales entre esta logia y las autoridades masónicas españolas? ¿Cuáles fueron los principales conflictos internos de la logia?

  14. Intelectuais e política no Chile: Apontamentos sobre a revista Aurora de Chile (1938-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia M.C. Melo

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é o de examinar a revista Aurora de Chile que circula em Santiago entre 1938-1940. Criada por Pablo Neruda esta publicação apresentou-se como um importante órgão de comunicação da Alianza de Intelectuales de Chile para la Defensa de la Cultura (AICH, entidade fundada em articulação com outras organizações internacionais de intelectuais e com orientação da Comintern. A revista situou-se nos debates políticos e culturais desses anos no Chile e atuou vigorosamente na defesa dos princípios da democracia, das liberdades públicas e contra o fascismo. Neste estudo busco demonstrar o papel desta revista como uma das vozes da perspectiva frentista que passou a orientar o Partido Comunista Chileno no período.

  15. Anthropocene Knowledge Practices in McKenzie Wark’s Molecular Red and Kim Stanley Robinson’s Aurora

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    Gib Prettyman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Through a close reading of McKenzie Wark’s theoretical treatise 'Molecular Red' (2015 and Kim Stanley Robinson’s novel 'Aurora' (2015, this essay examines how Anthropocene knowledge practices challenge our conceptions of human agency in provocative and potentially productive ways. For example, our knowledge of climate science arises through global material infrastructures. As material components of Anthropocene knowledge practices, these infrastructures reveal the material labors and cyborg structures by means of which our knowledge is produced. Wark sees the heterogenous materiality of Anthropocene knowledge practices as evidence for the value of ‘low theories’ based on a ‘labor point of view.’ At the same time, Anthropocene knowledge practices reveal ‘eco-logical’ complexities and fundamental recognitions of the ‘intra-action’ of entangled matter. These complexities produce very estranged views of human agency. Robinson’s novel highlights the eco-logical implications of contemporary knowledge practices by imagining an interstellar ship that must function as a completely artificial ecosystem for a 170-year voyage to another solar system. The significance of knowledge practices and eco-logical complexity is most evident when failures or crises arise, and 'Aurora' tells the story of many such failures. However, I argue that Robinson’s novel and Wark’s ‘low theory’ ultimately function as hopeful accounts of Anthropocene knowledge practices. Among other things, these practices show the material importance of storytelling and point the way toward more complexly realist theories of human agency.

  16. Tyrosine kinase, aurora kinase and leucine aminopeptidase as attractive drug targets in anticancer therapy - characterisation of their inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemska, Joanna; Solecka, Jolanta

    Cancers are the leading cause of deaths all over the world. Available anticancer agents used in clinics exhibit low therapeutic index and usually high toxicity. Wide spreading drug resistance of cancer cells induce a demanding need to search for new drug targets. Currently, many on-going studies on novel compounds with potent anticancer activity, high selectivity as well as new modes of action are conducted. In this work, we describe in details three enzyme groups, which are at present of extensive interest to medical researchers and pharmaceutical companies. These include receptor tyrosine kinases (e.g. EGFR enzymes) and non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src enzymes), type A, B and C Aurora kinases and aminopeptidases, especially leucine aminopeptidase. We discuss classification of these enzymes, biochemistry as well as their role in the cell cycle under normal conditions and during cancerogenesis. Further on, the work describes enzyme inhibitors that are under in vitro, preclinical, clinical studies as well as drugs available on the market. Both, chemical structures of discovered inhibitors and the role of chemical moieties in novel drug design are discussed. Described enzymes play essential role in cell cycle, especially in mitosis (Aurora kinases), cell differentiation, growth and apoptosis (tyrosine kinases) as well as G1/S transition (leucine aminopeptidase). In cancer cells, they are overexpressed and only their inhibition may stop tumor progression. This review presents the clinical outcomes of selected inhibitors and argues the safety of drug usage in human volunteers. Clinical studies of EGFR and Src kinase inhibitors in different tumors clearly show the need for molecular selection of patients (to those with mutations in genes coding EGFR and Src) to achieve positive clinical response. Current data indicates the great necessity for new anticancer treatment and actions to limit off-target activity.

  17. Magnetospheric magnetic field modelling for the 2011 and 2012 HST Saturn aurora campaigns – implications for auroral source regions

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    E. S. Belenkaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A unique set of images of Saturn's northern polar UV aurora was obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope in 2011 and 2012 at times when the Cassini spacecraft was located in the solar wind just upstream of Saturn's bow shock. This rare situation provides an opportunity to use the Kronian paraboloid magnetic field model to examine source locations of the bright auroral features by mapping them along field lines into the magnetosphere, taking account of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF measured near simultaneously by Cassini. It is found that the persistent dawn arc maps to closed field lines in the dawn to noon sector, with an equatorward edge generally located in the inner part of the ring current, typically at ~ 7 Saturn radii (RS near dawn, and a poleward edge that maps variously between the centre of the ring current and beyond its outer edge at ~ 15 RS, depending on the latitudinal width of the arc. This location, together with a lack of response in properties to the concurrent IMF, suggests a principal connection with ring-current and nightside processes. The higher-latitude patchy auroras observed intermittently near to noon and at later local times extending towards dusk are instead found to straddle the model open–closed field boundary, thus mapping along field lines to the dayside outer magnetosphere and magnetopause. These emissions, which occur preferentially for northward IMF directions, are thus likely associated with reconnection and open-flux production at the magnetopause. One image for southward IMF also exhibits a prominent patch of very high latitude emissions extending poleward of patchy dawn arc emissions in the pre-noon sector. This is found to lie centrally within the region of open model field lines, suggesting an origin in the current system associated with lobe reconnection, similar to that observed in the terrestrial magnetosphere for northward IMF.

  18. On open and closed field line regions in Tsyganenko's field model and their possible associations with horse collar auroras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.; Hones, E.W. Jr.; Craven, J.D.; Frank, L.A.; Elphinstone, R.D.; Stern, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Using the empirical Tsyganenko (1987) long model as a prime example of a megnetospheric field model, the authors have attempted to identify the boundary between open and closed field lines. They define as closed all field lines that are connested with the Earth at both ends and cross the equatorial plane earthward of x = -70 R E , the tailward validity limit of the Tsyganenko model. They find that the form of the open/closed boundary at the Earth's surface, identified with the polar cap boundary, can exhibit the arrowhead shape, pointed toward the Sun, observed in horse collar auroras (Hones et al., 1989). The polar cap size in the Tsyganenko model increases with increasing K p values, and it becomes rounder and less pointed. The superposition of a net B y field, which is the expected consequence of an IMF B y , rotates the polar cap pattern and, for larger values, degrades the arrowhead shape, resulting in polar cap configurations consistent with known asymmetries in the aurora. The pointedness of the polar cap shape also diminishes or even completely disappears if the low-latitude magnetopause is assumed open and located considerably inside of the outermost magnetic flux surface in the Tsyganenko model. The arrowhead shape of the polar cap is found to be associated with a strong increase of B z from midnight toward the tail flanks, which is observed independently, and is possibly related to the NBZ field-aligned current system, observed during quiet times and strongly northward IMF B z . The larger B z values near the flanks of the tail cause more magnetic flux to close through these regions than through the midnight equatorial region

  19. Invasion of Old World Phragmites australis in the New World: precipitation and temperature patterns combined with human influences redesign the invasive niche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Wen-Yong; Lambertini, Carla; Li, Xiu-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    niches. We suggest that an increase in precipitation in the 20(th) century, global warming and human-made habitats have shaped the invasive niches of the two lineages in the New World. However, as the invasions are on-going and human and natural disturbances occur concomitantly, the future distribution....... australis (Haplotype M and Med) in both their native and introduced ranges using environmental niche models (ENMs) to assess (i) whether a niche shift accompanied the invasions in the New World; (ii) the role of biologically relevant climatic variables and human influence in the process of invasion...... for temperature fluctuations and increased precipitation. The introduced Med lineage has enlarged its original subtropical niche to the tropics-subtropics, invading regions with a high annual mean temperature (> c. 10 °C) and high precipitation in the driest period. Human influence is an important factor for both...

  20. Preclinical FLT-PET and FDG-PET imaging of tumor response to the multi-targeted Aurora B kinase inhibitor, TAK-901

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullinane, Carleen; Waldeck, Kelly L.; Binns, David; Bogatyreva, Ekaterina; Bradley, Daniel P.; Jong, Ron de; McArthur, Grant A.; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Aurora kinases play a key role in mitosis and have recently been identified as attractive targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the utility of 3′-[ 18 F]fluoro-3′-deoxythymidine (FLT) and 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) for assessment of tumor response to the multi-targeted Aurora B kinase inhibitor, TAK-901. Methods: Balb/c nude mice bearing HCT116 colorectal xenografts were treated with up to 30 mg/kg TAK 901 or vehicle intravenously twice daily for two days on a weekly cycle. Tumor growth was monitored by calliper measurements and PET imaging was performed at baseline, day 4, 8, 11 and 15. Tumors were harvested at time points corresponding to days of PET imaging for analysis of ex vivo markers of cell proliferation and metabolism together with markers of Aurora B kinase inhibition including phospho-histone H3 (pHH3) and senescence associated β-galactosidase. Results: Tumor growth was inhibited by 60% on day 12 of 30 mg/kg TAK-901 therapy. FLT uptake was significantly reduced by day 4 of treatment and this corresponded with reduction in bromodeoxyuridine and pHH3 staining by immunohistochemistry. All biomarkers rebounded towards baseline levels by the commencement of the next treatment cycle, consistent with release of Aurora B kinase suppression. TAK-901 therapy had no impact on glucose metabolism as assessed by FDG uptake and GLUT1 staining by immunohistochemistry. Conclusions: FLT-PET, but not FDG-PET, is a robust non-invasive imaging biomarker of early HCT116 tumor response to the on-target effects of the multi-targeted Aurora B kinase inhibitor, TAK-901. Advances in knowledge and implications for patient care: This is the first report to demonstrate the impact of the multi-targeted Aurora B kinase inhibitor, TAK-901 on tumor FLT uptake. The findings provide a strong rationale for the evaluation of FLT-PET as an early biomarker of tumor response in the early phase