WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey aurora australis

  1. Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  2. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 1991-09-25 to 1991-10-27 (NODC Accession 0116370)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116370 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 1991-09-25 to...

  3. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using PAR Sensor and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS, NOAA Ship DISCOVERER and others in the Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea and others from 1994-01-28 to 2004-07-02 (NODC Accession 0109923)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109923 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS, NOAA Ship DISCOVERER,...

  4. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  5. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  6. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2003-01-03 to 2003-03-17 (NCEI Accession 0143930)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143930 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South)...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Great Australian Bight, Indian Ocean and others from 1992-10-19 to 2001-12-12 (NODC Accession 0115153)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115153 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Great Australian Bight, Indian...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 2001-10-29 to 2001-12-13 (NODC Accession 0108158)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108158 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 2001-10-29 to...

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Great Australian Bight and Indian Ocean from 1998-02-28 to 1998-04-01 (NODC Accession 0115154)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115154 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Great Australian Bight and Indian Ocean...

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2004-12-23 to 2005-02-17 (NODC Accession 0108076)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108076 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 2006-01-02 to 2006-03-12 (NODC Accession 0109922)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109922 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, meteorological, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean...

  12. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1995-07-17 to 1995-09-02 (NCEI Accession 0144339)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144339 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2011-01-04 to 2011-11-28 (NODC Accession 0115179)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115179 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific...

  14. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, PAR Sensor and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-16 to 2008-01-27 (NCEI Accession 0143932)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143932 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 1993-04-04 to 1993-05-09 (NODC Accession 0115004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115004 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  16. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, PAR Sensor and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-01-05 to 2012-02-12 (NCEI Accession 0143949)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143949 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-12-13 to 1995-02-01 (NODC Accession 0115020)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115020 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2013-01-13 to 2013-03-14 (NODC Accession 0117696)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117696 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean...

  19. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-04 to 2011-02-06 (NCEI Accession 0143947)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143947 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 2008-03-22 to 2008-04-17 (NODC Accession 0109900)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109900 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 2008-03-22...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1996-08-22 to 1996-09-21 (NODC Accession 0113761)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113761 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  2. Nature's Fireworks: The Inner Workings of the Auroras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikoyin, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the great variety of observations surrounding the auroras (both borealis and australis), and provides photographs from the space shuttle, Discovery. Discusses where and when the auroras can be observed, the process that the Earth's magnetic phenomena fulfill in how and why auroras appear, and the effects of solar wind upon auroras. (JJK)

  3. The dynamic aurora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akasofu, Syunichi (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (USA))

    1989-05-01

    Auroral physicists today know that auroras are lights emitted when atoms and molecules in the ionosphere are struck by electrons blowing in from the sun. The apparent motion of the auroral curtain is caused not by atmospheric turbulence but by changes in the electromagnetic conditions that propel the electrons, just as motion on a television screen is an illusion created by changes in the magnetic field that directs electrons from a cathode tube onto the screen. In the case of the aurora, what serves as the cathode tube Where is its power supply Why does that power seem to fluctuate from time to time, causing the aurora to ebb and flow across the polar sky More than 20 years ago it was determined that auroral emissions occur because the ionosphere is bombarded by electron beams generated by a complex interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetic envelope. The geomagnetic nature of the aurora can be seen clearly from outer space. Centered on each of the geomagnetic poles is a great luminous oval that is a permanent feature of the planet. The one around the North Pole is the aurora borealis. Its counterpart in the south is the aurora australis. The authors and his colleagues have now found a numerical relation between the solar wind and the generation of the power that drives the aurora, as well as other disturbances of the geomagnetic field. They are also gaining a better idea of how the sun's activity affects the solar wind. This progress raises the interesting possibility of developing a computer method to predict the intensity of auroral activity. Because auroras can interfere significantly with radio and satellite communications, as well as with power lines and some defense systems, the ability to predict auroral intensity has become increasingly important as human activity expands into polar regions and into space.

  4. An extensive survey of dayside diffuse aurora based on optical observations at Yellow River Station

    CERN Document Server

    Han, De-Sheng; Liu, Jian-Jun; Qiu, Qi; Keika, K; Hu, Ze-Jun; Liu, Jun-Ming; Hu, Hong-Qiao; Yang, Hui-Gen

    2016-01-01

    By using 7 years optical auroral observations obtained at Yellow River Station (magnetic latitude $76.24\\,^{\\circ}{\\rm C}$N) at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, we performed the first extensive survey for the dayside diffuse auroras (DDAs) and acquired observational results as follows. (1) The DDAs can be classified into two broad categories, i.e., unstructured and structured DDAs. The unstructured DDAs are mainly distributed in the morning and afternoon, but the structured DDAs predominantly occurred around the magnetic local noon (MLN). (2) The unstructured DDAs observed in morning and afternoon present obviously different properties. The afternoon ones are much stable and seldom show pulsating property. (3) The DDAs are more easily observed under geomagnetically quiet times. (4) The structured DDAsmainly show patchy, stripy, and irregular forms and are often pulsating and drifting. The drifting directions are mostly westward (with speed $\\sim$5km/s), but there are cases showing eastward or poleward drifting. (5) The ...

  5. Environmental Baseline Survey, Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center, Aurora, Colorado. Volume II - Appendices A-G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    QUENTIN ST 128 F104 80011 1.28 NNW FINDS C00000710681 ALPHA MFG 3250 QUENTIN ST STE 136 F105 80011 1.28 NNW FINDS m 0000902 CHIPS DISTRIBUTING 2290...COD100711514 CRAWFORD ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 1600 FLORENCE ST AURORA 3 80010 COD149382491 DAISY FABRICARE CENTER 9677 MONTVIEW BLVD AURORA 3 80010 C00000077180... FABRICARE CTR 1,3 9677 MONTVIEW BLVD AURORA 80010 COD149382491 ALKE’S LAUNDRY & DRY CLEANING INC. 1,3 8935 E COLFAX AVE AURORA 80010 CO0000077180 DD

  6. A near-infrared survey of the entire R Coronae Australis cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, M.; Heymann, F.; Domke, I.; Drass, H.; Chini, R.; Hoffmeister, V.

    2008-09-01

    deep near-infrared survey of the entire R CrA molecular cloud strengthens the evidence for the Coronet being the region where most of the young stars are found. Our results are consistent with earlier predictions that the R CrA cloud has fragmented into sub-condensations at different star-forming stages. Table A1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/488/987

  7. The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. III. A Multi-Wavelength View of Corona Australis

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Dawn E; Bourke, Tyler L; Forbrich, Jan; Gutermuth, Robert A; Jorgensen, Jes K; Allen, Lori E; Patten, Brian M; Dunham, Michael M; Harvey, Paul M; Merin, Bruno; Chapman, Nicholas L; Cieza, Lucas A; Huard, Tracy L; Knez, Claudia; Prager, Brian; Evans, Neal J

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS observations of a 0.85 deg^2 field including the Corona Australis (CrA) star-forming region. At a distance of 130 pc, CrA is one of the closest regions known to be actively forming stars, particularly within its embedded association, the Coronet. Using the Spitzer data, we identify 51 young stellar objects (YSOs) in CrA which include sources in the well-studied Coronet cluster as well as distributed throughout the molecular cloud. Twelve of the YSOs discussed are new candidates, one of which is located in the Coronet. Known YSOs retrieved from the literature are also added to the list, and a total of 116 candidate YSOs in CrA are compiled. Based on these YSO candidates, the star formation rate is computed to be 12 M_o Myr^-1, similar to that of the Lupus clouds. A clustering analysis was also performed, finding that the main cluster core, consisting of 68 members, is elongated (having an aspect ratio of 2.36), with a circular radius of 0.59 pc and mean surface ...

  8. SURVEY FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN THE SOUTH AMERICAN FUR SEAL (ARCTOCEPHALUS AUSTRALIS) POPULATION AT PUNTA SAN JUAN, PERU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Gwen; Adkesson, Michael J; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Cárdenas-Alayza, Susana; Majluf, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    The Peruvian population of the South American fur seal ( Arctocephalus australis ) is a distinct evolutionarily significant unit that is endangered. One of the largest rookeries for this species in Peru is located within the Punta San Juan marine protected area (15°22'S, 75°12'W). To better understand the current health status of this population, exposure to 10 pinniped pathogens was evaluated in adult female fur seals (n=29) via serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques in November 2010. The results suggest this population is naïve to canine and phocine distemper viruses (serum neutralization test), five Leptospira interrogans serovars (microscopic agglutination test), and Brucella canis (card test). Indirect fluorescent antibody testing for Toxoplasma gondii , Neospora caninum , and Sarcocystis neurona was also uniformly negative. PCR testing of nasal swabs using previously described Mycoplasma spp. primers was positive in 37.9% (11/29) of samples. One animal was positive via card test for Brucella abortus , whereas 53.7% (15/28) were positive or suspect using a marine Brucella competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody to phocine herpesvirus-1 (PHV-1) was identified in 85.7% (24/28) of the sampled population by serum neutralization testing. Overall, exposure to Mycoplasma spp., Brucella spp., and PHV-1 was observed, but results demonstrated low to no exposure to many key pinniped pathogens. The expansion of human populations, agriculture, and industry along the Peruvian coast may lead to increased pathogen exposure from human, domestic, and wild animal sources. The naïve nature of this key population of South American fur seals raises concerns about potential risk for disease outbreaks.

  9. Melkveehouderij in Australië

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Eens per twee jaar organiseert de International Farm Management Association (IFMA) een congres. Dit jaar presenteerde Perth (West-Australië) zich aan ongeveer 250 deelnemers uit 29 landen. De melkveehouderij in West Australië produceert slechts 4 % van de totale melkproductie in Australië. Op dit mo

  10. Aurorae. Firework in the sky. 2. upd. ed.; Polarlichter. Feuerwerk am Himmel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfoser, Andreas; Eklund, Tom

    2013-07-01

    Aurorae are fascinating phenomena. As aurora borealis and aurora australis occurring in the polar regions of both earth hemispheres, their incessant color and shape games put people in wonder. The meteorologist Andreas Pfoser explains the physical connections, which lead to the formation of this natural phenomenon. The link with the activity of the sun and the interaction in the earth atmosphere are explained detailedly and understandably. The fantastic recordings, presented in generous horizontal format has collected the Finnish aurora photographer Tom Eklund over a period of time of 14 years. Thereby it succeeded, to document also some events, the origin of which on our daystar were recorded by solar satellites, so that the sequence of events from the solar eruption until the aurora spectacle can be reproduced. The present 2nd edition contains new scientific findings. Additionally numerous aurora pictures were replaced by more actual photos created with modern technology.

  11. Narcís Vidal i Campderros i l'aurora boreal observada a Barcelona el 1839

    OpenAIRE

    Barca Salom, Francesc Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The aurora borealis is an intense light in latitudes near the poles. It is known as the aurora australis in the southern hemisphere. An aurora is arch-shaped and undergoes intense colour changes. It is often accompanied by a sound resembling that of silk being rubbed and emits an odour characteristic of ozone. Although an aurora usually occurs in high latitudes, it sometimes takes place in lower latitudes. This paper focuses on the report made by Narcís Vidal i Campderrós (1792...

  12. Australis: Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S.H.; Niklaus, T.R.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    The first stage of the development of AUSTRALIS, a microbeam AMS system at the HIGF laboratory at North Ryde, Sydney has been completed. The system is designed to enable in-situ microanalysis of geological samples for ultra-traces and for isotopic data for minerals exploration research. The negative ions for analysis are produced by sputtering with a microbeam of Cs{sup +}from a modified General Ionex model 834 HICONEX ion source. The source features a novel intermediate or `screen` electrode to correct for the effect of the secondary ion extraction field on the trajectory of the primary beam,in order to bring the primary beam to the geometric centre. The high energy analysis system of AUSTRALIS features a pair of deflector systems to permit fast switching of isotopes without altering the magnet setting. The paper describes the initial tests` results showing good agreement with the design parameters. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Saturn's Visible Aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyudina, U.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Wellington, D. F.; Ewald, S.; Porco, C.

    2013-12-01

    Cassini camera's movies show Saturn's aurora in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The color of the aurora changes from pink at a few hundreds of km above the cloud tops to purple at 1000-1500 km above the cloud tops. The spectrum observed in 9 filters spanning wavelengths from 250 nm to 1000 nm has a prominent H-alpha line and roughly agrees with the laboratory simulated auroras by [1]. Auroras in both hemispheres vary dramatically with longitude. Auroras form bright arcs, sometimes a spiral around the pole, and sometimes double arcs. Auroras are observed at 70-75 degrees both north and south latitude. 10,000-km-scale longitudinal brightness structure can persist for more than 3 days. This structure rotates together with Saturn. Besides the steady structure, the auroras brighten suddenly on the timescales of few minutes. 1000-km-scale disturbances may move faster or lag behind Saturn's rotation on timescales of tens of minutes. The stability of the longitudinal structure of the aurora in 2009 allowed us to estimate its period of rotation of about 10.65 h. This is consistent with Voyager System III rotation and with the Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) period detected by Cassini at the time of aurora observations. These periods are also close to the rotation period of the lightning storms on Saturn. We discuss those periodicities and their relevance to Saturn's rotation. In April-May 2013 a multi-instrument campaign using Cassini and Earth-based data was monitoring Saturn's aurora. We will discuss the results of this campaign. [1] Aguilar, A. et al. The Electron-Excited Mid-Ultraviolet to Near-Infrared Spectrum of H2: Cross Sections and Transition Probabilities. Astrophys. J. Supp. Ser. 177, 388-407 (2008).

  14. Look out, aurorae about!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Jim

    2006-02-01

    Myths and legends abound concerning the aurora borealis; observations, at least in the UK, are considerably more rare, yet people continue to be interested in observing them on the few times a year they are visible. AuroraWatch hopes to boost this interest by providing an email alert service that, since 2000, has used real-time information from a network of magnetometers to assess when aurorae might be visible. Alerts can be sent to mobile phones as well as by conventional email, and have already enabled many people to see this beautiful natural phenomenon.

  15. Statistical study of dayside pulsating aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmae, T.; Kadokura, A.; Ogawa, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Motoba, T.; Gerrard, A. J.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    Pulsating aurora normally occurs after a substorm breakup in the midnight sector, often observed to persist through the morning sector and beyond. Indeed, it has also been observed on the dayside; however, the characteristics of the dayside pulsating aurora are poorly known. A handful of observational studies have been reported, but the results are somewhat disputable because most of the studies had non-uniform sampling of the dark dayside region. Furthermore, the previous studies used photometer data, with which the spatial characteristics of the pulsating aurora cannot be examined. To determine both temporal and spatial characteristics of the pulsating aurora, we have studied three years of all-sky image data obtained at the South Pole station. Because of its unique geographical location, the station has 24 hours of darkness during the austral winter from April to August, providing an ideal platform for studying dayside aurora. In a preliminary survey of the data, we have identified the pulsating auroras in 198 days out of 365 days of observations. The magnetic local time (MLT) distribution of the occurrence peaks between 9:00 and 11:00, but shows no or little dependence on the geomagnetic activity. In many events, pulsating patches initially appear as east-west aligned arc segments and later in the afternoon sector develop into large, diffuse patches, which occasionally fill a large part of the field of view. Using the long-term data, we will statistically examine both temporal (occurrence rate, duration and pulsation period) and spatial (sizes and shapes) characteristics of the dayside pulsating aurora.

  16. Aurora final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, Dross; Amedeo, Conti

    2013-12-06

    Final Technical report detailing the work done by Nuvera and its partners to fulfill the goals of the program "Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks" (a.k.a. AURORA)

  17. Aurorae and Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    1 month, and a very high temperature, more than 1000 K (700 °C). However, the Tvashtar outburst is quite anomalous and has lasted more than one year. The temperature has been estimated at about 1000-1300 K (700-1000 °C); this range is typical for silicate-based volcanism observed on the Earth. The Galileo spacecraft observed the onset of this eruption, and twice again this year. Monitoring of this event by means of ground-based telescopes, as here with ISAAC at the VLT or by the ADONIS Adaptive Optics system on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, gives the astronomers a most welcome opportunity to follow more closely the temperature evolution of the eruption and hence provides excellent support to the space observations. The forthcoming arrival on Paranal of NAOS (the adaptive optics system for the VLT) and CONICA (the connected IR camera equipped with an Aladdin detector) will lead to a significant improvement of the achievable image quality. It will be employed for a large variety of astronomical programmes and will, among others, allow the detection and frequent monitoring of a large number of hot spots on the surface of Io . Note [1]: ISAAC registers (infrared) electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths between approx. 1.0 and 5.0 µm which we sense as heat. The human eye registers electromagnetic radiation (light) at shorter wavelengths, from about 0.4 to 0.7 µm. Technical information about the photos PR Photos 21a-d/01 are based on on-target exposures lasting a total of 30 sec (L-band), 44 sec (4.07 µm), 58 sec (3.28 µm) and 58 sec (3.21 µm), respectively. The real observing time is twice as much, with half of the time spent in the off-target chop position. The fields shown measure 72 x 72 arcsec 2 ; 1 pixel = 0.07 arcsec. PR Photo 21e/01 is a colour-coded combination of these four exposures. North is up and East is left. Addendum: About the Jovian aurorae and polar haze Aurorae Borealis and Aurorae Australis ('Northern and Southern Lights') are observed

  18. AuroraMAX!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E. L.; Chicoine, R.; Pugsley, J.; Langlois, P.

    2011-12-01

    AuroraMAX is a public outreach and education initiative that brings auroral images to the public in real time. AuroraMAX utilizes an observing station located just outside Yellowknife, Canada. The station houses a digital All-Sky Imager (ASI) that collects full-colour images of the night sky every six seconds. These images are then transmitted via satellite internet to our web server, where they are made instantly available to the public. Over the last two years this program has rapidly become one of the most successful outreach programs in the history of Space Science in Canada, with hundreds of thousands of distinct visitors to the CSA AuroraMAX website, thousands of followers on social media, and hundreds of newspaper, magazine, radio, and television spots. Over the next few years, the project will expand to include a high-resolution SLR delivering real-time auroral images (also from Yellowknife), as well as a program where astronauts on the ISS will take pictures of the aurora with a handheld SLR. The objectives of AuroraMAX are public outreach and education. The ASI design, operation, and software were based on infrastructure that was developed for the highly successful ASI component of the NASA THEMIS mission as well as the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Canadian GeoSpace Monitoring (CGSM) program. So from an education and public outreach perspective, AuroraMAX is a single camera operating in the Canadian north. On the other hand, AuroraMAX is one of nearly 40 All-Sky Imagers that are operating across North America. The AuroraMAX camera produces data that is seamlessly integrated with the CGSM ASI data, and made widely available to the Space Science community through open-access web and FTP sites. One of our objectives in the next few years is to incorporate some of the data from the THEMIS and CGSM imagers into the AuroraMAX system, to maximize viewing opportunities and generate more real-time data for public outreach. This is an exemplar of a program that

  19. Imaging Sunlit Aurora from Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lummerzheim, D.; Zhou, X.

    2012-12-01

    Since 1892 when aurora was first imaged by Martin Brendel, useful auroral images have been obtained only when the aurora is in darkness. While UV imagers onboard satellite provide global auroral dynamics, the sunlit aurora in the UV band is overwhelmed by the UV airglow that has the same wavelengths with the UV auroral emissions. The visible band imaging is feasible only when the aurora is in darkness to avoid the sunlight contamination. However, sunlit aurora (such as dayside aurora) is closely related to the solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere coupling. In addition, limited land area has badly restricted the capability of imaging dayside aurora from the northern hemisphere and nightside aurora from the southern hemisphere. We have confirmed that sunlit aurora can be imaged using a near-infrared (NIR) camera on board the balloon platform flying in Antarctica or Arctic. This method provides a unique capability for dayside and conjugate auroral investigations. Scientific questions that can be addressed by such observations include how does the dayside aurora respond to solar wind transient variations? Are auroras hemispherically symmetric? Are auroral forms and their variations under sunlight the same as those in darkness? etc. The new method is also cost effective comparing to space-borne imagers, and offers capabilities not obtainable from space and the ground. With the accomplishment of identifying auroral dynamics in sunlight and darkness, in the south and north simultaneously, our knowledge and understanding of auroral phenomenon and its causes will be expanded.

  20. Tabletop Aurora Demonstrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffo, Peter Alfred

    1991-01-01

    A simple apparatus for studying various forms of the aurora borealis on a miniature scale can be constructed from a neon-storage flask, aluminum tape, a cardboard box, and a small piezoelectric ion gun of the type used to neutralize static charges on phonograph records. (PR)

  1. Tabletop Aurora Demonstrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffo, Peter Alfred

    1991-01-01

    A simple apparatus for studying various forms of the aurora borealis on a miniature scale can be constructed from a neon-storage flask, aluminum tape, a cardboard box, and a small piezoelectric ion gun of the type used to neutralize static charges on phonograph records. (PR)

  2. R Coronae Australis: A Cosmic Watercolour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    many star-forming regions. The huge dust cloud in which the reflection nebula is embedded is here shown in impressively fine detail. The subtle colours and varied textures of the dust clouds make this image resemble an impressionist painting. A prominent dark lane crosses the image from the centre to the bottom left. Here the visible light emitted by the stars that are forming inside the cloud is completely absorbed by the dust. These objects could only be detected by observing at longer wavelengths, by using a camera that can detect infrared radiation. R Coronae Australis itself is not visible to the unaided eye, but the tiny, tiara-shaped constellation in which it lies is easily spotted from dark sites due to its proximity on the sky to the larger constellation of Sagittarius and the rich star clouds towards the centre of our own galaxy, the Milky Way. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical

  3. Why Earth aurorae shine?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ By using the data obtained from three satellites of the Cluster mission launched by the European Space Agency (ESA), CAO Jinbin from the CAS Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR) and his US and European co-workers have clarified why Earth's aurorae shine.Their work entitled Joint Observations by Cluster Satellites of Bursty Bulk Flows in the Magnetotail was published in a recent issue of Journal of Geophysical Research.

  4. Earliest Datable Records of Aurora-like Phenomena in the Astronomical Diaries from Babylonia

    CERN Document Server

    Hayakawa, Hisashi; Ebihara, Yusuke; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Miyahara, Hiroko; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Isobe, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The Astronomical Diaries from Babylonia (ADB) are an excellent source of information of natural phenomena, including astronomical ones, in pre-Christ era because it contains the record of highly continuous and systematic observations. In this article we present results of a survey of aurora-like phenomena in ADB, spanning from BCE 652 to BCE 61. We have found 9 records of aurora-like phenomena. Philological and scientific examinations suggest 5 of them can be considered as likely candidate for aurora observations. They provide unique information about the solar and aurora activities in the first millennium BCE.

  5. Earliest datable records of aurora-like phenomena in the astronomical diaries from Babylonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Hisashi; Mitsuma, Yasuyuki; Ebihara, Yusuke; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Miyahara, Hiroko; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Isobe, Hiroaki

    2016-11-01

    The astronomical diaries from Babylonia (ADB) are excellent sources of information of natural phenomena, including astronomical ones, in pre-Christ era because it contains the record of highly continuous and systematic observations. In this article, we present results of a survey of aurora-like phenomena in ADB, spanning from BCE 652 to BCE 61. We have found nine records of aurora-like phenomena. Philological and scientific examinations suggest that five of them can be considered as likely candidate for aurora observations. They provide unique information about the solar and aurora activities in the first millennium BCE. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Temporal variations of potential fecundity of southern blue whiting (Micromesistius australis australis) in the Southeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Andrés; Wiff, Rodrigo; Díaz, Eduardo; Carvajal, Bernardita

    2017-08-01

    Fecundity is a key aspect of fish species reproductive biology because it relates directly to total egg production. Yet, despite such importance, fecundity estimates are lacking or scarce for several fish species. The gravimetric method is the most-used one to estimate fecundity by essentially scaling up the oocyte density to the ovary weight. It is a relatively simple and precise technique, but also time consuming because it requires counting all oocytes in an ovary subsample. The auto-diametric method, on the other hand, is relatively new for estimating fecundity, representing a rapid alternative, because it requires only an estimation of mean oocyte density from mean oocyte diameter. Using the extensive database available from commercial fishery and design surveys for southern blue whiting Micromesistius australis australis in the Southeast Pacific, we compared estimates of fecundity using both gravimetric and auto-diametric methods. Temporal variations in potential fecundity from the auto-diametric method were evaluated using generalised linear models considering predictors from maternal characteristics such as female size, condition factor, oocyte size, and gonadosomatic index. A global and time-invariant auto-diametric equation was evaluated using a simulation procedure based on non-parametric bootstrap. Results indicated there were not significant differences regarding fecundity estimates between the gravimetric and auto-diametric method (p > 0.05). Simulation showed the application of a global equation is unbiased and sufficiently precise to estimate time-invariant fecundity of this species. Temporal variations on fecundity were explained by maternal characteristic, revealing signals of fecundity down-regulation. We discuss how oocyte size and nutritional condition (measured as condition factor) are one of the important factors determining fecundity. We highlighted also the relevance of choosing the appropriate sampling period to conduct maturity studies

  7. The prestellar and protostellar population of R Coronae Australis

    CERN Document Server

    Nutter, D J; André, P; Nutter, David J.

    2004-01-01

    We present 450 and 850 um maps of R Coronae Australis. We compare the maps to previous surveys of the region, and shed new light on the previously unknown nature of the protostellar sources at the centre of the cloud. We clarify the nature of two millimetre sources previously discovered in lower resolution data. We identify one new Class 0 protostar that we label SMM 1B, and we measure the envelope masses of a number of more evolved protostars. We identify two new prestellar cores that we call SMM 1A and SMM 6.

  8. Non-conjugate aurora and inter hemispheric currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reistad, J. P.; Østgaard, N.; Laundal, K. M.; Oksavik, K.

    2012-04-01

    We look at large scale auroral features using global imagers to obtain simultaneous pictures of both the southern and northern auroral ovals in the ultra violet part of the spectra. During the years 2001 and 2002 the IMAGE satellite was in a favourable position for imaging the aurora borealis (Northern Hemisphere) and the POLAR satellite with its large field-of-view VIS Earth camera had a sporadic coverage of the aurora australis (Southern Hemisphere). In total 19 hours of simultaneous global imaging from different seasons are analysed searching for non-conjugacy in the night side sector. By non-conjugate aurora we mean auroral features appearing in one hemisphere only, or significant differences in intensity between the hemispheres for the same auroral feature. We suggest that our observed large scale asymmetries can be explained in terms of inter hemispheric currents (IHC). Coherent with our earlier findings, we list three possible candidates for producing such inter hemispheric currents based on observations. 1) Hemispherical differences in the solar wind dynamo due to IMF Bx and tilt angle producing different strength of region 1 currents in the conjugate he mispheres, 2) Hemispherical differences in conductivity controlled by the tilt angle only giving rise to IHC on closed field lines, and 3) Field-aligned current components induced by the penetration of the IMF By into the closed magnetosphere. Most of the observed non-conjugate aurora in our dataset can be explained by these candidates only. The IMF By penetration candidate is considered closer. We search for evidence in our data that IMF By 0) can induce an IHC producing stronger aurora on the polar boundary in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere. Also a second IHC component are predicted from the theory, mapping to the equatorward part of the oval and opposite directed along the magnetic field lines. Using a much larger dataset for one hemisphere only, we show whether these predicted currents can be

  9. Aurora candidates from the chronicle of Qíng dynasty in several degrees of relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Akito D.; Hayakawa, Hisashi; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Miyahara, Hiroko; Isobe, Hiroaki

    2016-10-01

    We present the result of a survey of sunspots and auroras in Qíngshǐgǎo (清史稿), a draft chronicle of Qíng dynasty, for the period of 1559-1912 CE. This is a sequel to a series of works surveying historical sunspot and aurora records, and providing online data to the scientific community regarding the attained results. In total of this Qíngshǐgǎo survey, we found 111 records of night-sky luminous events with such keywords as vapor (氣, qì), cloud (雲, yún), and light (光, guāng), which may indicate auroras as well as some other phenomena. Similarly, a keyword survey for sunspots was conducted, but no sunspot record was found. In comparison with the aurora records in the western world, we found that 14 of the 111 records have a corresponding record of simultaneous observation in the western world, and hence are very likely to be aurora. In order to investigate the likeliness of the remainder of the record being aurora, we calculated the lunar age and the phase of a solar cycle for each record. After these calculations, a notable fraction of these records clustered near the full moon were to be found statistically doubtful in considerations with atmospheric optics; meanwhile, a few records of observations near the new moon could be more likely interpreted as being auroras, including three records during the Maunder minimum.

  10. Confirmed field hybridization of native and introduced Phragmites australis (Poaceae) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltonstall, Kristin; Castillo, Hilda E; Blossey, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Intraspecific hybridization between native and introduced lineages of a species can increase invasiveness and may lead to the decline of native lineages. The introduction of Eurasian Phragmites australis has caused profound changes to wetland habitats across North America, yet evidence for hybridization between native and introduced Phragmites australis in North America is lacking and has puzzled researchers for over a decade. Here we present the first confirmed field hybridization event between the two lineages. Hybrid plants were initially recognized during field surveys by their intermediate morphology and distinct herbivore community. We verified hybrid status using chloroplast DNA haplotypes and microsatellite markers. Confirmed hybrid stems were restricted to one site and displayed morphological characteristics of both native and introduced P. australis. Based on their microsatellite profiles, all samples likely represent a single clone of a first generation hybrid. Sequencing of cpDNA indicates that the maternal parent is from the introduced lineage. Identification of hybrid P. australis in the field is complex and requires multiple characters. All suspected hybrids should be verified using genetic techniques. Preventing the spread of introduced genes and genotypes through North America will require recognition and rapid management response to hybrid plants.

  11. A Panchromatic View of Brown Dwarf Aurorae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg; Kao, Melodie M.

    2017-09-01

    Stellar coronal activity has been shown to persist into the low-mass star regime, down to late M-dwarf spectral types. However, there is now an accumulation of evidence suggesting that at the end of the main sequence, there is a transition in the nature of the magnetic activity from chromospheric and coronal to planet-like and auroral, from local impulsive heating via flares and MHD wave dissipation to energy dissipation from strong large-scale magnetospheric current systems. We examine this transition and the prevalence of auroral activity in brown dwarfs through a compilation of multiwavelength surveys of magnetic activity, including radio, X-ray, and optical. We compile the results of those surveys and place their conclusions in the context of auroral emission as a consequence of large-scale magnetospheric current systems that accelerate energetic electron beams and drive the particles to impact the cool atmospheric gas. We explore the different manifestations of auroral phenomena, like Hα, in brown dwarf atmospheres and define their distinguishing characteristics. We conclude that large-amplitude photometric variability in the near-infrared is most likely a consequence of clouds in brown dwarf atmospheres, but that auroral activity may be responsible for long-lived stable surface features. We report a connection between auroral Hα emission and quiescent radio emission in electron cyclotron maser instability pulsing brown dwarfs, suggesting a potential underlying physical connection between quiescent and auroral emissions. We also discuss the electrodynamic engines powering brown dwarf aurorae and the possible role of satellites around these systems both to power the aurorae and seed the magnetosphere with plasma.

  12. Significance of Aurora B overexpression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Aurora B Overexpression in HCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhong-Zhe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the significance of Aurora B expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Methods The Aurora B and Aurora A mRNA level was measured in 160 HCCs and the paired nontumorous liver tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mutations of the p53 and β-catenin genes were analyzed in 134 and 150 tumors, respectively, by direct sequencing of exon 2 to exon 11 of p53 and exon 3 of β-catenin. Anticancer effects of AZD1152-HQPA, an Aurora B kinase selective inhibitor, were examined in Huh-7 and Hep3B cell lines. Results Aurora B was overexpressed in 98 (61% of 160 HCCs and in all 7 HCC cell lines examined. The overexpression of Aurora B was associated with Aurora A overexpression (P = 0.0003 and p53 mutation (P = 0.002 and was inversely associated with β-catenin mutation (P = 0.002. Aurora B overexpression correlated with worse clinicopathologic characteristics. Multivariate analysis confirmed that Aurora B overexpression was an independent poor prognostic factor, despite its interaction with Aurora A overexpression and mutations of p53 and β-catenin. In Huh-7 and Hep3B cells, AZD1152-HQPA induced proliferation blockade, histone H3 (Ser10 dephosphorylation, cell cycle disturbance, and apoptosis. Conclusion Aurora B overexpression is an independent molecular marker predicting tumor invasiveness and poor prognosis of HCC. Aurora B kinase selective inhibitors are potential therapeutic agents for HCC treatment.

  13. Morphologies of omega band auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Natsuo; Yukimatu, Akira Sessai; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Hori, Tomoaki

    2017-08-01

    We examined the morphological signatures of 315 omega band aurora events observed using the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorm ground-based all-sky imager network over a period of 8 years. We find that omega bands can be classified into the following three subtypes: (1) classical (O-type) omega bands, (2) torch or tongue (T-type) omega bands, and (3) combinations of classical and torch or tongue (O/T-type) omega bands. The statistical results show that T-type bands occur the most frequently (45%), followed by O/T-type bands (35%) and O-type bands (18%). We also examined the morphologies of the omega bands during their formation, from the growth period to the declining period through the maximum period. Interestingly, the omega bands are not stable, but rather exhibit dynamic changes in shape, intensity, and motion. They grow from small-scale bumps (seeds) at the poleward boundary of preexisting east-west-aligned auroras, rather than via the rotation or shear motion of preexisting east-west-aligned auroras, and do not exhibit any shear motion during the periods of auroral activity growth. Furthermore, the auroral luminosity is observed to increase during the declining period, and the total time from the start of the growth period to the end of the declining period is found to be about 20 min. Such dynamical signatures may be important in determining the mechanism responsible for omega band formation.

  14. Aurora Candidates from the Chronicle of Q\\={i}ng Dynasty in Several Degrees of Relevance

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamura, Akito D; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Miyahara, Hiroko; Isobe, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We present the result of the survey of sunspots and auroras in ${\\it Q\\bar{\\imath}ngsh\\check{\\imath}ga\\check{o}}$, the draft chronicle of ${\\it Q\\bar{\\imath}ng}$ dynasty, for the period of 1559-1912 CE, as a sequel of the series of works surveying historical sunspot and aurora records, and providing online data to the scientific community regarding the attained results. In total of this ${\\it Q\\bar{\\imath}ngsh\\check{\\imath}ga\\check{o}}$ survey, we found 111 records of night-sky luminous events with the keywords such as vapor (${\\it q\\grave{\\imath}}$), cloud (${\\it y\\acute{u}n}$), and light (${\\it gu\\bar{a}ng}$), which may indicate auroras as well as some other phenomena. Similarly keyword survey for sunspots were done, but no sunspot record was found. In comparison with the aurora records in the western world, we found 14 of the 111 records have a corresponding record of simultaneous observation in the western world and hence are very likely to be aurora. In order to investigate the likeliness of the rest of ...

  15. Aurora europe's space exploration programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongaro, F.; Swings, J. P.; Condessa, R.

    2003-04-01

    What will happen after the ISS in terms of space exploration, specifically to the human presence beyond Earth? What will be the role of Europe in the future international venture to explore space? What are the most immediate actions to be undertaken in Europe in order to best profit from the efforts made through the participation in the ISS and to position Europe's capabilities according to its interests? As approved by the Ministers at the Edinburgh Council in November 2001, the European Space Exploration Programme - Aurora - is ESA's programme in charge of defining and implementing the long term plan for human and robotic exploration of the Solar system. The Aurora programme started in 2002 and extends until the end goal of Aurora: the first human mission to Mars, expected in the 2025-2030 time-frame. The approach of Aurora is to implement a robust development of technologies and robotic missions, in parallel to the utilization phase of the ISS, to prepare for a continuous and sustainable future of human space exploration (which shall include the Moon, Mars and the asteroids as targets), in which Europe will be a valuable partner. Two classes of missions are foreseen in the programme's strategy: Flagships, defined as major missions driving to soft landing, in-situ analysis, sample return from other planetary bodies and eventually human missions; and Arrows, defined as cost-capped, short development time missions to demonstrate new technologies or mission approaches, or to exploit opportunities for payloads on European or international missions. So far the participating national delegations have approved two Flagships (ExoMars and Mars Sample Return) and two Arrows (Earth Re-entry and Mars Aerocapture) for phase A industrial studies. Although the last call for ideas of Aurora resulted in the definition of two Flagship missions targeted to Mars, the next one might be aimed to the Moon. At this stage the role of the Moon, on the path of Mars exploration is not

  16. Leaves of Phragmites australis as potential atmospheric biomonitors of Platinum Group Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Pavone, Pietro

    2015-04-01

    The increasing emissions of Platinum Group Elements (PGEs), namely Pt, Pd and Rh, may pose a significant risk to ecosystem processes and human health. A periodic assessment of PGEs distribution in the environment is thus of the utmost importance for the implementation of timely measures of mitigation. Although several studies have quantified PGEs in different life forms such as mammals, birds, fish, crustaceans, algae, mosses and even human beings, data about vascular plants need further surveys. This study aimed to test the suitability of the grass Phragmites australis (common reed) as a biomonitor of PGEs atmospheric pollution. The results showed that Pd and Pt concentrations in leaves are significantly higher in urban areas. In particular, Pd showed the highest range of values in line with current studies that consider palladium as the main element of traffic-related pollution. Overall, the leaves of Phragmites australis reflected the different gradient of PGEs emissions, and may thus be considered as potential biomonitors of atmospheric pollution.

  17. East Asian Observations of Low Latitude Aurora during the Carrington Magnetic Storm

    CERN Document Server

    Hayakawa, Hisashi; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Isobe, Hiroaki; Kataoka, Ryuho; Ebihara, Yusuke; Miyahara, Hiroko; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Shibata, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic storm around 1859 September 2, caused by so-called Carrington flare, was the most intense in the history of modern scientific observations, and hence is considered to be the benchmark event for space weather. The magnetic storm caused worldwide observations of auroras even at very low latitudes such as Hawaii, Panama, or Santiago, and the available magnetic field measurement at Bombay, India, showed two peaks: the main was the Carrington event which occurred in day time in East Asia, and a second storm after the Carrington event which occurred at night in East Asia. In this paper, we present a result from surveys of aurora records in East Asia, which provides new information of the aurora activity of this important event. We found some new East Asian records of low latitude aurora observations caused by the storm which occurred after the Carrington event. The size of the aurora belt of the second peak of the Carrington magnetic storm was even wider than usual low-latitude aurora events.

  18. East Asian observations of low-latitude aurora during the Carrington magnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Hisashi; Iwahashi, Kiyomi; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Isobe, Hiroaki; Kataoka, Ryuho; Ebihara, Yusuke; Miyahara, Hiroko; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Shibata, Kazunari

    2016-10-01

    A magnetic storm around 1859 September 2, caused by a so-called Carrington flare, was the most intense in the history of modern scientific observations, and hence is considered to be a benchmark event concerning space weather. The magnetic storm caused worldwide observations of auroras, even at very low latitudes, such as Hawaii, Panama, or Santiago. Available magnetic-field measurements at Bombay, India, showed two peaks: the main was the Carrington event, which occurred in day time in East Asia; a second storm after the Carrington event occurred at night in East Asia. In this paper, we present results from surveys of aurora records in East Asia, which provide new information concerning the aurora activity of this important event. We found some new East Asian records of low-latitude aurora observations caused by a storm which occurred after the Carrington event. The size of the aurora belt of the second peak of the Carrington magnetic storm was even wider than that of usual low-latitude aurora events.

  19. Aurorae: The earliest datable observation of the aurora borealis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. Richard; Willis, David M.; Hallinan, Thomas J.

    2004-12-01

    The Late Babylonian astronomical texts, discovered at the site of Babylon (32.5°N, 44.4°E) more than a century ago, contain what is probably the earliest reliable account of the aurora borealis. A clay tablet recording numerous celestial observations made by the official astronomers during the 37th year of King Nebuchadnezzar II (568/567 BC) describes an unusual ``red glow'' in the sky at night; the exact date of this observation corresponds to the night of 12/13 March in 567 BC. The most likely interpretation of the phenomenon is an auroral display. This event occurred several centuries before the first clearly identifiable observation of the aurora from elsewhere in the world, namely China in 193 BC. The Babylonian auroral observation is remarkable in the sense that it is one of a series of carefully recorded astronomical observations, for each of which the year, month and day are known precisely. This observation occurred at a time when the geomagnetic (dipole) latitude of Babylon was about 41°N compared with the present value of 27.5°N, suggesting a higher auroral incidence at Babylon in 567 BC than at present.

  20. Control of centrin stability by Aurora A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara B Lukasiewicz

    Full Text Available Aurora A is an oncogenic serine/threonine kinase which can cause cell transformation and centrosome amplification when over-expressed. Human breast tumors show excess Aurora A and phospho-centrin in amplified centrosomes. Here, we show that Aurora A mediates the phosphorylation of and localizes with centrin at the centrosome, with both proteins reaching maximum abundance from prophase through metaphase, followed by their precipitous loss in late stages of mitosis. Over-expression of Aurora A results in excess phospho-centrin and centrosome amplification. In contrast, centrosome amplification is not seen in cells over-expressing Aurora A in the presence of a recombinant centrin mutant lacking the serine phosphorylation site at residue 170. Expression of a kinase dead Aurora A results in a decrease in mitotic index and abrogation of centrin phosphorylation. Finally, a recombinant centrin mutation that mimics centrin phosphorylation increases centrin's stability against APC/C-mediated proteasomal degradation. Taken together, these results suggest that the stability of centrin is regulated in part by Aurora A, and that excess phosphorylated centrin may promote centrosome amplification in cancer.

  1. Occurrence and average behavior of pulsating aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partamies, N.; Whiter, D.; Kadokura, A.; Kauristie, K.; Nesse Tyssøy, H.; Massetti, S.; Stauning, P.; Raita, T.

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by recent event studies and modeling efforts on pulsating aurora, which conclude that the precipitation energy during these events is high enough to cause significant chemical changes in the mesosphere, this study looks for the bulk behavior of auroral pulsations. Based on about 400 pulsating aurora events, we outline the typical duration, geomagnetic conditions, and change in the peak emission height for the events. We show that the auroral peak emission height for both green and blue emission decreases by about 8 km at the start of the pulsating aurora interval. This brings the hardest 10% of the electrons down to about 90 km altitude. The median duration of pulsating aurora is about 1.4 h. This value is a conservative estimate since in many cases the end of event is limited by the end of auroral imaging for the night or the aurora drifting out of the camera field of view. The longest durations of auroral pulsations are observed during events which start within the substorm recovery phases. As a result, the geomagnetic indices are not able to describe pulsating aurora. Simultaneous Antarctic auroral images were found for 10 pulsating aurora events. In eight cases auroral pulsations were seen in the southern hemispheric data as well, suggesting an equatorial precipitation source and a frequent interhemispheric occurrence. The long lifetimes of pulsating aurora, their interhemispheric occurrence, and the relatively high-precipitation energies make this type of aurora an effective energy deposition process which is easy to identify from the ground-based image data.

  2. The emperor of Japan and the aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasofu, S. I.

    On October 3, 1985, I gave a special lecture on the aurora for the Emperor of Japan in his palace in Tokyo. It seems the Emperor, a marine biologist, has an unusual interest in the aurora. After my slide presentation, he asked how we confirm ancient sighting reports of the aurora in Japan. He was not satisfied with my response that anomalous events in the sky were well documented in an ancient publication entitled Japanese Meteorological Data and asked further how one could confirm such sightings as auroral events. He was visibly pleased to learn that the dates of these sightings coincided with those recorded elsewhere in the world.

  3. Diel methane emission patterns from Scirpus lacustris and Phragmites australis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Nat, J.W.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Van Meteren, D.; Wielemaker, A.

    1998-01-01

    In mature Phragmites australis and Scirpus lacustris vegetated sediment methane was emitted almost exclusively by plant- mediated transport, whereas in unvegetated, but otherwise identical sediment, methane was emitted almost exclusively by ebullition. Diel variations in methane emission, with

  4. Diel methane emission patterns from Scirpus lacustris and Phragmites australis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Nat, J.W.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Van Meteren, D.; Wielemaker, A.

    1998-01-01

    In mature Phragmites australis and Scirpus lacustris vegetated sediment methane was emitted almost exclusively by plant- mediated transport, whereas in unvegetated, but otherwise identical sediment, methane was emitted almost exclusively by ebullition. Diel variations in methane emission, with highe

  5. Phytoremediation organischer Schadstoffe mit Hilfe von Phragmites australis

    OpenAIRE

    Neustifter, Juliane Erika

    2007-01-01

    Praxisorientierte Projekte an einer Kläranlage lieferten umfassende Einblicke in einen mit Phragmites australis, dem Schilfrohr, bepflanzten Bodenfilter und seine jahreszeitlichen Rhythmen. Es wurde festgestellt, dass der Filter eine ausgezeichnete Restreinigung und Pufferwirkung hat und sogar verschiedene endokrin wirksame Substanzen zurückhält. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass Phragmites australis organische Schadstoffe aufnehmen kann und wichtige Entgiftungsenzyme für den Abbau dieser Xenobi...

  6. Low Latitude Aurora: Index of Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekli, M. R.; Aissani, D.; Chadou, I.

    2010-10-01

    Observations of aurora borealis at low latitudes are rare, and are clearly associated with high solar activity. In this paper, we analyze some details of the solar activity during the years 1769-1792. Moreover, we describe in detail three low latitude auroras. The first event was reported by ash-Shalati and observed in North Africa (1770 AD). The second and third events were reported by l'Abbé Mann and observed in Europe (1770 and 1777 AD).

  7. Evaluation of the functional roles of fungal endophytes of Phragmites australis from high saline and low saline habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcos Antonio; Li, Hai-Yan; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Bergen, Marshall; Torres, Monica S.; White, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native Phragmites australis decreases biodiversity and produces dense stands in North America. We surveyed the endophyte communities in the stems, leaves and roots of collections of P. australis obtained from two sites with a low and high salt concentration to determine differences in endophyte composition and assess differences in functional roles of microbes in plants from both sites. We found differences in the abundance, richness and diversity of endophytes between the low saline collections (18 species distributed in phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Stramenopiles (Oomycota); from orders Dothideales, Pleosporales, Hypocreales, Eurotiales, Cantharellales and Pythiales; Shannon H = 2.639; Fisher alpha = 7.335) and high saline collections (15 species from phylum Ascomycota; belonging to orders Pleosporales, Hypocreales, Diaporthales, Xylariales and Dothideales; Shannon H = 2.289; Fisher alpha = 4.181). Peyronellaea glomerata, Phoma macrostoma and Alternaria tenuissima were species obtained from both sites. The high salt endophyte community showed higher resistance to zinc, mercury and salt stress compared to fungal species from the low salt site. These endophytes also showed a greater propensity for growth promotion of rice seedlings (a model species) under salt stress. The results of this study are consistent with the ‘habitat-adapted symbiosis hypothesis’ that holds that endophytic microbes may help plants adapt to extreme habitats. The capacity of P. australis to establish symbiotic relationships with diverse endophytic microbes that enhance its tolerance to abiotic stresses could be a factor that contributes to its invasiveness in saline environments. Targeting the symbiotic associates of P. australis could lead to more sustainable control of non-native P. australis.

  8. Collaborations, research, and adaptive management to address nonnative Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.

    2016-06-30

    Phragmites australis, also known as common reed, is a native North American wetland grass that has grown in North America for thousands of years. More recently, a nonnative, invasive variety of Phragmites from Eurasia is rapidly invading wetlands across the continental United States and other parts of North America, where it negatively impacts humans and the environment. U.S. Geological Survey scientists, funded by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, are leading innovative efforts to improve management of nonnative Phragmites in the Great Lakes Basin.

  9. Aurora kinases in childhood acute leukemia: The promise of aurora B as therapeutic target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Hartsink-Segers (S.); C.M. Zwaan (Michel); C. Exalto (Carla); M.W.J. Luijendijk (M. W J); V. Calvert (V.); E.F. Petricoin (Emanuel F.); W.E. Evans (William); D. Reinhardt (Dirk); V. de Haas (Valerie); M. Hedtjärn (M.); B.R. Hansen (B.); T. Koch (T.); H.N. Caron (Huib); R. Pieters (Rob); M.L. den Boer (Monique)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated the effects of targeting the mitotic regulators aurora kinase A and B in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Aurora protein expression levels in pediatric ALL and AML patient samples were determined by western blot and reverse ph

  10. Recognizing blue emission in artificial aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holma, H.; Kaila, K.; Jussila, J.; Kosch, M.; Rietveld, M.

    On 12th November 2001, during the EISCAT UK/GE artificial aurora campaign, the optical group of University of Oulu performed the optical measurements at the EISCAT site in Ramfjordmoen. That campaign was the first successful attempt of inducing blue emission in artificial aurora at high latitudes. Optical instruments were monitoring emis-sions and they included a photometer, a real speed TV camera and a digital camera. The emissions measured by the photometer are 557.7 nm (OI), 630.0 nm (OI) and 427.8 nm (N2+). The threshold energies for these emissions to arise are 2 eV, 4 eV and 19 eV, re-spectively. In the natural aurora the blue emission at around 427 nm is always highly dominated by N2+ 1NG (0,1) rotational band. However, there are two weak emissions lying under this strong emission. These bands are N2 VK(4,15) (threshold energy 6 eV) and N2 2P(1,5) (threshold 11 eV). These energies are remarkably lower and could obviously have stronger intensity in the spectrum of artificial aurora than in natural aurora that is domi-nated by harder electron bombardment. The auroral photometer of the university of Oulu has been designed for investigating natural aurora, which results some limitations regarding the artificial aurora, to the data that has been obtained. The photometer was equipped with two channels measuring two close wavelength bands around 427 nm. These channels were aimed to be used to de-termine rotational temperature from the ratio of the intensities through the channels. Now they will be used to estimate the intensities of the three overlapping emission bands instead.

  11. Spread and genetic relatedness of native vs. introduced Phragmites australis in Utah wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Utah is experiencing a dramatic invasion of an aggressive European subspecies of the common reed (Phragmites australis subsp. australis). This invasion is...

  12. Discrete auroras and magnetotail processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.

    Important information about magnetospheric phenomena associated with auroras and substorms can be inferred from low-altitude auroral observations. Satellite observations have shown that discrete auroral arcs lie within a boundary plasma sheet (BPS) region that is outside the central plasma sheet (CPS). The observations imply that arcs are generated along BPS field lines by magnetospheric processes that form large, perpendicular electric field structures. The BPS and the arc generation processes apparently lie along field lines that are in the vicinity of the boundary between open and closed field lines and cross the tail (or magnetopause) current sheet. Ground-based observations show that the first indication of a substorm onset is the brightening of a quiet, discrete arc. This suggests that substorms are initiated along the BPS field lines associated with arc generation, and not within the CPS. Finally, auroral observations have shown that the area of open, polar-cap field lines varies considerably during periods of geomagnetic activity. Expansion of the polar cap has the potential for releasing trapped plasma sheet particles along freshly open field lines. The resulting evacuation of field lines has the potential for being an important loss process for the plasma sheet and for being a source of tailward flows and energetic particle bursts in the tail.

  13. Atmospheric physics: Chorus keeps the diffuse aurora humming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Patrick T.

    2010-10-01

    The origin of the diffuse aurora, whose beauty and intensity pale beside those of the famous aurora borealis, has remained controversial. A convincing explanation for this auroral display is now at hand. See Letter p.943

  14. Evaluation of the Aurora Application Shade Measurement Accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    Aurora is an integrated, Web-based application that helps solar installers perform sales, engineering design, and financial analysis. One of Aurora's key features is its high-resolution remote shading analysis.

  15. A Cell Biologist's Field Guide to Aurora Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Christian O; Hsia, Judy E; Anzola, John V; Motamedi, Amir; Yoon, Michelle; Wong, Yao Liang; Jenkins, David; Lee, Hyun J; Martinez, Mallory B; Davis, Robert L; Gahman, Timothy C; Desai, Arshad; Shiau, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    Aurora kinases are essential for cell division and are frequently misregulated in human cancers. Based on their potential as cancer therapeutics, a plethora of small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors have been developed, with a subset having been adopted as tools in cell biology. Here, we fill a gap in the characterization of Aurora kinase inhibitors by using biochemical and cell-based assays to systematically profile a panel of 10 commercially available compounds with reported selectivity for Aurora A (MLN8054, MLN8237, MK-5108, MK-8745, Genentech Aurora Inhibitor 1), Aurora B (Hesperadin, ZM447439, AZD1152-HQPA, GSK1070916), or Aurora A/B (VX-680). We quantify the in vitro effect of each inhibitor on the activity of Aurora A alone, as well as Aurora A and Aurora B bound to fragments of their activators, TPX2 and INCENP, respectively. We also report kinome profiling results for a subset of these compounds to highlight potential off-target effects. In a cellular context, we demonstrate that immunofluorescence-based detection of LATS2 and histone H3 phospho-epitopes provides a facile and reliable means to assess potency and specificity of Aurora A versus Aurora B inhibition, and that G2 duration measured in a live imaging assay is a specific readout of Aurora A activity. Our analysis also highlights variation between HeLa, U2OS, and hTERT-RPE1 cells that impacts selective Aurora A inhibition. For Aurora B, all four tested compounds exhibit excellent selectivity and do not significantly inhibit Aurora A at effective doses. For Aurora A, MK-5108 and MK-8745 are significantly more selective than the commonly used inhibitors MLN8054 and MLN8237. A crystal structure of an Aurora A/MK-5108 complex that we determined suggests the chemical basis for this higher specificity. Taken together, our quantitative biochemical and cell-based analyses indicate that AZD1152-HQPA and MK-8745 are the best current tools for selectively inhibiting Aurora B and Aurora A, respectively

  16. Effects of transient Phragmites australis removal on brackish marsh greenhouse gas fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rose M.; Moseman-Valtierra, Serena

    2017-06-01

    Phragmites australis is a common invasive reed of North American coastal marshes, and efforts to control or eradicate it often are included in coastal marsh restoration efforts. While much research has tested impacts of P. australis removal on plant and faunal communities, less is known about biogeochemical responses to P. australis removal. Since coastal marshes are valued for their robust carbon sequestration, understanding the effect of P. australis removal on marsh carbon cycling dynamics is important. Temporary P. australis aboveground biomass clearing conducted as part of a restoration effort provided an opportunity to evaluate changes in fluxes of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) during P. australis removal and recovery. In Experiment 1 (2014 growing season), GHG fluxes were compared between a P. australis stand cleared mechanically and recovered within months of initial removal and an uncleared stand in the same marsh system. CO2 uptake increased dramatically in the cleared stand as P. australis regrew, but CH4 emissions remained unchanged, demonstrating that P. australis did not directly contribute to CH4 emission. In Experiment 2 (2015 manipulations), to test mechanisms of P. australis' impact on GHG fluxes, fluxes (light and dark) were compared between unimpacted P. australis plots, cut P. australis plots with litter, and cleared P. australis plots without litter. P. australis cutting (independent of litter removal) resulted in increased CO2 and CH4 emissions. Recovery of P. australis directly drove the rapid recovery of CO2 uptake, and did not increase (and possibly attenuated) CH4 emissions. Results of this study suggest that at this site, P. australis removal, in the absence of native vegetation recovery, may exacerbate GHG emission of coastal marshes in the short term, and that longer-term impacts warrant investigation.

  17. Discovery of diffuse aurora on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, N M; Deighan, J I; Jain, S K; Stiepen, A; Stewart, A I F; Larson, D; Mitchell, D L; Mazelle, C; Lee, C O; Lillis, R J; Evans, J S; Brain, D; Stevens, M H; McClintock, W E; Chaffin, M S; Crismani, M; Holsclaw, G M; Lefevre, F; Lo, D Y; Clarke, J T; Montmessin, F; Jakosky, B M

    2015-11-01

    Planetary auroras reveal the complex interplay between an atmosphere and the surrounding plasma environment. We report the discovery of low-altitude, diffuse auroras spanning much of Mars' northern hemisphere, coincident with a solar energetic particle outburst. The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph, a remote sensing instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft, detected auroral emission in virtually all nightside observations for ~5 days, spanning nearly all geographic longitudes. Emission extended down to ~60 kilometer (km) altitude (1 microbar), deeper than confirmed at any other planet. Solar energetic particles were observed up to 200 kilo--electron volts; these particles are capable of penetrating down to the 60 km altitude. Given minimal magnetic fields over most of the planet, Mars is likely to exhibit auroras more globally than Earth.

  18. Environmental perspectives of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex. Steudel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Jatin; Kalra, Swinder J. S.; Naraian, Ram

    2014-09-01

    Extensive research is being conducted worldwide to find alternative and efficient systems to lessen the impacts of climate change and reduce environmental pollution. The genus Phragmites has proven ability to mitigate the environmental pollution of its surroundings. Common reed ( Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex. Steudel), a graminaceous plant of cosmopolitan nature, has been extensively studied especially for the mitigation of environmental contamination. The capability of common reed to grow well at extreme environmental conditions such as elevated CO2 and high temperature is conferred by several factors such as change of carbon trapping mechanism (from C3 to C4 and vice versa), microbial association and biochemical adaptations. P. australis has been a most preferred unique plant system, especially in ecological engineering for improving the quality of wastewater. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding the suitability of Phragmites australis for environmental remediation and summarizes recent advancements in our understanding of this grass.

  19. BOOK REVIEW: European Perceptions of Terra Australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, Christiaan

    2012-12-01

    Terra Australis - the southern land - has been one of the most widespread concepts in European geography from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. This book comprises a set of 14 interdisciplinary scholarly contributions that deal with personal perceptions of Terra Australis by cartographers and explorers, and with putting these perceptions in their historical and cultural environments. This book seems, at a first glance, to be very remote from astronomy - and even from the history of astronomy - however, as it also offers an excellent background to Captain James Cook's second voyage to observe the 1769 transit of Venus from Tahiti, it definitely is a work of truly interdisciplinary character. Cook's voyages, in fact, became a model in which key scientists of many nationalities and disciplines traveled together on ships. In these voyages, art, science, technology and political power were centralised and united. The chapters range across history, the visual arts, literature, popular culture, technology, politics and science. Issues of scientific reasoning are raised in the description of how people did think about the south before there even existed a perception of the unknown land - quite comparable to how ancient and early-modern astronomers had their thought about cosmology even before any observational data were available. Several early map systems - like the zonal and T-O maps (medieval world maps with the letter T inside an O representing the lands inside a circle of oceans) - are described, and the description of Roman geography shows the amazing fact that theory and practice were not unified, and existed independently of each other insofar that a real paradox between theory and observation had persisted for a very long time. The maps and charts also exemplify the long-lasting consequences of early modern copy-paste practice: navigators copied original sketch charts of coasts that were previously unknown to them, herewith committing many translation and

  20. The first accurate description of an aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2006-12-01

    As technology has advanced, the scientific study of auroral phenomena has increased by leaps and bounds. A look back at the earliest descriptions of aurorae offers an interesting look into how medieval scholars viewed the subjects that we study.Although there are earlier fragmentary references in the literature, the first accurate description of the aurora borealis appears to be that published by the German Catholic scholar Konrad von Megenberg (1309-1374) in his book Das Buch der Natur (The Book of Nature). The book was written between 1349 and 1350.

  1. High Speed IO using Xilinx Aurora

    OpenAIRE

    Nyman, Jeremia

    2013-01-01

    A VHDL evaluation platform and interface to the Xilinx Aurora 8b/10b IP has been designed, tested and evaluated. The evaluation platform takes an arbitrary amount of data sources and sends the data over 1,2,4 or 8 multi gigabit serial lanes, using the Aurora 8b/10b protocol. A lightweight communications protocol for point-to-point data transfer, error detection and recovery is used to maintain a reliable and efficient transmission scheme. Priority between sources sharing the serial link is al...

  2. Possible Role of Aurora-C in Meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Tai eYang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The meiotic generation of haploid gametes with equal contents of genetic material is important for sexual reproduction in mammals. Errors in the transmission of chromosomes during meiosis may lead to aneuploidy, which is the leading cause of miscarriage and congenital birth defects in humans. The Aurora kinases, which include Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C, are highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that play essential roles in centrosome function, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis during mitosis and meiosis. While Aurora-A and Aurora-B have been extensively studied in mitosis, the role of Aurora-C in meiosis is only now starting to be revealed. For example, the perturbation of Aurora-C kinase activity by microinjection of Aurora-C-kinase-dead mutant mRNAs into mouse oocytes induced multiple defects, including chromosome misalignment, abnormal kinetochore-microtubule attachment, premature chromosome segregation, and failure of cytokinesis during meiotic division. However, the analysis of such defects is complicated by the possibility that Aurora-B may be present in mammalian germ cells. Interestingly, a homozygous mutation of Aurora-C in humans leads to the production of large-headed polyploid spermatozoa and causes male infertility, but homozygous females are fertile. Mouse studies regarding the roles of Aurora-B and Aurora-C in female meiotic divisions have yielded inconsistent results, and it has proven difficult to explain why homozygous human females have no significant clinical phenotype. In this review, we will discuss the controversial status of Aurora-B in oocytes and the possible role of Aurora-C during meiotic division.

  3. Preface: Phragmites australis: A sheep in wolf's clothing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, M.P.; Keough, J.R.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Litvin, S.Y.

    2003-01-01

    A. problem with national priorities for control or prevention of aquatic nuisance species is that we often do not know the full extent of the problem, if there is one. To address this issue, we hosted a technical forum and workshop-Phragmites australis: A Sheep in Wolf's Clothing?--with a focus on new research and critical reviews that address the role of Phragmites as a noxious weed. ... The Workshop helped focus the national effort in new multidisciplinary research to better understand the ecology of P australis and its ecosystem-level effects on the structure and function of coastal wetlands.

  4. CANNONIA AUSTRALIS (ASCOMYCOTA, XYLARIACEAE FOUND IN EQUATORIAL BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Trierveiler-Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannonia es un género xilariáceo originalmente descrito para el hemisferio sur (Argentina y Australia que crece sobre partes muertas de palmeras. Actualmente, el género es considerado monoespecífico y la única especie reconocida es C. australis. Durante viajes de exploraciones micológicas en el estado de Maranhão, Brasil, se coleccionaron especímenes de C. australis sobre el raquis de la inflorescencia y los pedicelos florales de una especie de Syagrus (Arecaceae. Se describe e ilustra esta especie registrada por primera vez para Brasil.

  5. Records of sunspot and aurora during CE 960-1279 in the Chinese chronicle of the Song dynasty

    CERN Document Server

    Hayakawa, Hisashi; Kawamura, Akito D; Isobe, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Records of sunspots and aurora observations in pre-telescopic historical documents can provide useful information about solar activity in the past. This is also true for extreme space weather events, as they may have been recorded as large sunspots observed by the naked eye or as low-latitude auroras. In this paper, we present the results of a comprehensive survey of records of sunspots and auroras in the Songshi, a Chinese formal chronicle spanning the tenth to the thirteenth century. This chronicle contains a record of continuous observations with well-formatted reports conducted as a policy of the government. A brief comparison of the frequency of observations of sunspots and auroras and the observations of radioisotopes as an indicator of the solar activity during corresponding periods is provided. This paper is the first step of our project in which we survey and compile the records of sunspots and aurora in historical documents from various locations and languages, ultimately providing it to the science...

  6. Proyecto Aurora: Building a Community of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Gladys R. Capella

    1997-01-01

    Describes the development of Proyecto Aurora, a program to develop and implement educational, support, and research programs to benefit low-income women in Puerto Rico. Portraits of some clients illustrate the rewards and challenges of working with this community and furthering their educational experiences and opportunities. (SLD)

  7. Proyecto Aurora: Building a Community of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Gladys R. Capella

    1997-01-01

    Describes the development of Proyecto Aurora, a program to develop and implement educational, support, and research programs to benefit low-income women in Puerto Rico. Portraits of some clients illustrate the rewards and challenges of working with this community and furthering their educational experiences and opportunities. (SLD)

  8. Metabolism of ibuprofen by Phragmites australis: uptake and phytodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yujie; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Sutton, Nora B; Rijnaarts, Huub H M; Blokland, Marco H; Chen, Feiran; Huber, Christian; Schröder, Peter

    2017-03-27

    This study explores ibuprofen (IBP) uptake and transformation in the wetland plant species Phragmites australis and the underlying mechanisms. We grew P. australis in perlite under greenhouse conditions and treated plants with 60 µg/l of IBP. Roots and rhizomes (RR), stems and leaves (SL), and liquid samples were collected during 21 days of exposure. Results show that P. australis can take up, translocate, and degrade IBP. IBP was completely removed from the liquid medium after 21 days with a half-life of 2.1 days. IBP accumulated in RR and was partly translocated to SL. Meanwhile, four intermediates were detected in the plant tissues: hydroxy-IBP, 1,2-dihydroxy-IBP, carboxy-IBP and glucopyranosyloxy-hydroxy-IBP. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase was involved in the production of the two hydroxy intermediates. We hypothesize that transformation of IBP was first catalyzed by P450, and then by glycosyltransferase, followed by further storage or metabolism in vacuoles or cell walls. No significant phytotoxicity was observed based on relative growth of plants and stress enzyme activities. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that P. australis degrades IBP from water and is therefore a suitable species for application in constructed wetlands to clean wastewater effluents containing IBP and possibly also other micropollutants.

  9. The very low-mass population of the Corona Australis and Chamaeleon II star forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Martí-Bonmatí, L; Mundt, R; Mart\\'{\\i}, Bel\\'en L\\'opez; Eisl\\"offel, Jochen; Mundt, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a deep optical survey in the Corona Australis and Chamaeleon II star forming regions. Our optical photometry is combined with available near- and mid-infrared photometry to identify very low-mass candidate members in these dark clouds. In our Chamaeleon II field, only one object exhibits clear H-alpha emission, but the discrepancy between its optical and near-infrared colours suggests that it might be a foreground star. We also identify two objects without H-alpha emission that could be planetary mass members of Chamaeleon II. In Corona Australis, we find ten stars and three brown dwarf candidates in the Coronet cluster. Five of our new members are identified with ISOCAM sources. Only two of them have a mid-infrared excess, indicating the presence of an accretion disk. On the other hand, one brown dwarf candidate has a faint close companion, seen only in our deepest I-band image. For many of the candidates in both clouds, membership could not be inferred from their H-alpha emission o...

  10. Aurora A's functions during mitotic exit: the Guess Who game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eReboutier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the knowledge of Aurora A kinase functions during mitosis was limited to pre-metaphase events, particularly centrosome maturation, G2/M transition, and mitotic spindle assembly. However, an involvement of Aurora A in post-metaphase events was also suspected, but not clearly demonstrated due to the technical difficulty to perform the appropriate experiments. Recent developments of both an analog specific version of Aurora A, and of small molecule inhibitors have led to the first demonstration that Aurora A is required for the early steps of cytokinesis. As in pre-metaphase, Aurora A plays diverse functions during anaphase, essentially participating in astral microtubules dynamics and central spindle assembly and functioning. The present review describes the experimental systems used to decipher new functions of Aurora A during late mitosis and situate these functions into the context of cytokinesis mechanisms.

  11. Antioxidant response of Phragmites australis to Cu and Cd contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A Cristina S; Almeida, C Marisa R; Basto, M Clara P; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2014-11-01

    Metals are known to induce oxidative stress in plant cells. Antioxidant thiolic compounds are known to play an important role in plants׳ defence mechanisms against metal toxicity but, regarding salt marsh plants, their role is still very poorly understood. In this work, the involvement of non-protein thiols (NPT), such as cysteine (Cys), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidised glutathione (GSSG) and total acid-soluble SH compounds (total thiols), in the tolerance mechanisms of the marsh plant Phragmites australis against Cu and Cd toxicity was assessed. Specimens of this plant, freshly harvested in an estuarine salt marsh, were exposed, for 7 days, to rhizosediment soaked with the respective elutriate contaminated with Cu (0, 10 and 100 mg/L) or Cd (0, 1, 10 mg/L). In terms of NPT production, Cu and Cd contamination induced different responses in P. australis. The content of Cys increased in plant tissue after plant exposure to Cu, whereas Cd contamination led to a decrease in GSSG levels. In general, metal contamination did not cause a significant variation on GSH levels. Both metals influenced, to some extent, the production of other thiolic compounds. Despite the accumulation of considerable amounts of Cu and Cd in belowground tissues, no visible toxicity signs were observed. So, antioxidant thiolic compounds were probably involved in the mechanisms used by P. australis to alleviate metal toxicity. As P. australis is considered suitable for phytostabilising metal-contaminated sediments, understanding its tolerance mechanisms to toxic metals is important to optimise the conditions for applying this plant in phytoremediation procedures.

  12. Positive Effects of Nonnative Invasive Phragmites australis on Larval Bullfrogs

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Alta Rogalski; David Kiernan Skelly

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonnative Phragmites australis (common reed) is one of the most intensively researched and managed invasive plant species in the United States, yet as with many invasive species, our ability to predict, control or understand the consequences of invasions is limited. Rapid spread of dense Phragmites monocultures has prompted efforts to limit its expansion and remove existing stands. Motivation for large-scale Phragmites eradication programs includes purported negative impacts on na...

  13. The presence of eucalyptol in Artemisia australis validates its use in traditional Hawaiian medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Zant; Daniel A. Gubler

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the major organic compounds of Artemisia australis (A. australis), a plant used in traditional Hawaiian medicine for the treatment of asthma.Methods:The dichloromethane extract of A. australis was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and major compounds were identified by a National Institute of Standards and Technology library search and confirmed by peak enhancement.Results:The major chemical components of A. australis include eucalyptol, borneol, and caryophyllene.Conclusions:The presence and biological activity of eucalyptol correlate very well with the usage of this plant in traditional Hawaiian medicine.

  14. Suppression of native Melaleuca ericifolia by the invasive Phragmites australis through allelopathic root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall William; Caridi, Domenic; Al Harun, Md Abdullah Yousuf

    2014-03-01

    Invasive plants are a great threat to the conservation of natural ecosystems and biodiversity. Allelopathy as a mechanism for invasion of plants such as Phragmites australis, one of the most aggressive invaders, has the potential to suppress neighboring plant species. Allelopathic interference, through root exudates of P. australis on native Melaleuca ericifolia, was investigated to find out the underlying invasion mechanisms. Germination and growth effects of P. australis on M. ericifolia were studied in the greenhouse using potting mix both with and without activated carbon, and a combination of single and repeated cuttings of P. australis as the management tool. P. AUSTRALIS had significant negative effects on germination and growth of M. ericifolia by inhibiting germination percentage, maximum root length and plant height, biomass, stem diameter, and number of growth points with little effect on leaf physiology. Activated carbon (AC) in turn moderately counteracted these effects. The cutting of P. australis shoots significantly reduced the suppressive effects on M. ericifolia compared to the addition of AC to soil. Furthermore, significant changes in soil such as pH, electrical conductivity, osmotic potential, phenolics, and dehydrogenase activity were identified among cutting treatments with little variation between AC treatments. The results demonstrated that allelopathy through root exudates of P. australis had relatively low contribution in suppressing M. ericifolia in comparison to other competitive effects. Management tools combining repeated cutting of P. australis shoots with AC treatments may assist partly in the restoration of native ecosystems invaded by P. australis.

  15. Solar activity around AD 775 from aurorae and radiocarbon

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhaeuser, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    A large variation in 14 C around AD 775 has been considered to be caused by one or more solar super-flares within one year. We critically review all known aurora reports from Europe as well as the Near, Middle, and Far East from AD 731 to 825 and find 39 likely true aurorae plus four more potential aurorae and 24 other reports about halos, meteors, thunderstorms etc., which were previously misinterpreted as aurorae or misdated; we assign probabilities for all events according to five aurora criteria. We find very likely true aurorae in AD 743, 745, 762, 765, 772, 773, 793, 796, 807, and 817. There were two aurorae in the early 770s observed near Amida (now Diyarbakir in Turkey near the Turkish-Syrian border), which were not only red, but also green-yellow - being at a relatively low geo-magnetic latidude, they indicate a relatively strong solar storm. However, it cannot be argued that those aurorae (geo-magnetical latitude 43 to 50 deg, considering five different reconstructions of the geo-magnetic pole) coul...

  16. Source of the dayside cusp aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2016-08-01

    Monochromatic all-sky imagers at South Pole and other Antarctic stations of the Automatic Geophysical Observatory chain recorded the aurora in the region where the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) satellites crossed the dayside magnetopause. In several cases the magnetic field lines threading the satellites when mapped to the atmosphere were inside the imagers' field of view. From the THEMIS magnetic field and the plasma density measurements, we were able to locate the position of the magnetopause crossings and map it to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko-96 field model. Field line mapping is reasonably accurate on the dayside subsolar region where the field is strong, almost dipolar even though compressed. From these coordinated observations, we were able to prove that the dayside cusp aurora of high 630 nm brightness is on open field lines, and it is therefore direct precipitation from the magnetosheath. The cusp aurora contained significant highly structured N2+ 427.8 nm emission. The THEMIS measurements of the magnetosheath particle energy and density taken just outside the magnetopause compared to the intensity of the structured N2+ 427.8 nm emissions showed that the precipitating magnetosheath particles had to be accelerated. The most likely electron acceleration mechanism is by dispersive Alfvén waves propagating along the field line. Wave-accelerated suprathermal electrons were seen by FAST and DMSP. The 427.8 nm wavelength channel also shows the presence of a lower latitude hard-electron precipitation zone originating inside the magnetosphere.

  17. Abundance estimates of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) in Bahía San Antonio, Patagonia, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, E

    2013-01-01

    The abundance of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) was estimated by the means of aerial line-transect surveys for the area of Bahía San Antonio, a bay located in the north-western region of the San Matías Gulf (40°50’S 64°50’W), Rio Negro, Patagonia Argentina. In total, seven aerial surveys were conducted in the first week of August and September 2009, September, October and November 2010, and August, September 2011. Survey effort equalled a total flight time of 12.4h, during which ...

  18. Modeling growth, carbon allocation and nutrient budgets of Phragmites australis in Lake Burullus, Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eid, E.M.; Shaltout, K.H.; Al-Sodany, Y.M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Jensen, K.

    2010-01-01

    Phragmites australis is the major component of reed stands covering some 8200 ha along the shores of Lake Burullus (Egypt). We applied a published temperate zone reed model to assess growth and cycling of C and nutrients among the various organs of P. australis in this sub-tropical lake. We aim to q

  19. Multifunctional human transcriptional coactivator protein PC4 is a substrate of Aurora kinases and activates the Aurora enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, Karthigeyan; Kumari, Sujata; Boopathi, Ramachandran; Shima, Hiroki; Swaminathan, Amrutha; Bachu, Mahesh; Ranga, Udaykumar; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Kundu, Tapas K

    2016-03-01

    Positive coactivator 4 (PC4), a human transcriptional coactivator, is involved in diverse processes like chromatin organization and transcription regulation. It is hyperphosphorylated during mitosis, with unknown significance. For the first time, we demonstrate the function of PC4 outside the nucleus upon nuclear envelope breakdown. A fraction of PC4 associates with Aurora A and Aurora B and undergoes phosphorylation, following which PC4 activates both Aurora A and B to sustain optimal kinase activity to maintain the phosphorylation gradient for the proper functioning of the mitotic machinery. This mitotic role is evident in PC4 knockdown cells where the defects are rescued only by the catalytically active Aurora kinases, but not the kinase-dead mutants. Similarly, the PC4 phosphodeficient mutant failed to rescue such defects. Hence, our observations establish a novel mitotic function of PC4 that might be dependent on Aurora kinase-mediated phosphorylation.

  20. What's so Bor(a)ing about Aurora-A activation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Christiane; O'Brien, Lori L

    2006-08-01

    Aurora-A kinases are highly conserved mitotic kinases required for cell division. The regulation of Aurora-A activity is less highly conserved and currently poorly understood. Work by Knoblich and coworkers in this issue of Developmental Cell identifies the conserved protein, Aurora Borealis (Bora), as a key regulator of Aurora-A activity during mitosis.

  1. Artificial Aurora Generated by HAARP (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Kendall, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present results from the ionospheric heating experiment conducted on March 12, 2013 at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. During the experiment HAARP transmitted X-mode 4.57 MHz waves modulated with the frequency 0.9 mHz and pointed in the direction of the magnetic zenith. The beam was focused to ~20 km spot at the altitude 100 km. The heating produces two effects: First, it generates magnetic field-aligned currents producing D and H components of the magnetic field with frequency 0.9 mHz detected by fluxgate magnetometer in Gakona. Second, the heating produced bright luminous structures in the heated region detected with the SRI telescope in 427.8 nm, 557.7 nm, 630.0 nm wavelengths. We emphasize, that for the best of our knowledge, this is the first experiment where the heating of the ionosphere with X-mode produces luminous structures in the ionosphere. We classify this luminosity as an 'artificial aurora', because it correlate with the intensity of the magnetic field-aligned currents, and such correlation is constantly seen in the natural aurora.

  2. HUBBLE PROVIDES COMPLETE VIEW OF JUPITER'S AURORAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured a complete view of Jupiter's northern and southern auroras. Images taken in ultraviolet light by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) show both auroras, the oval- shaped objects in the inset photos. While the Hubble telescope has obtained images of Jupiter's northern and southern lights since 1990, the new STIS instrument is 10 times more sensitive than earlier cameras. This allows for short exposures, reducing the blurring of the image caused by Jupiter's rotation and providing two to five times higher resolution than earlier cameras. The resolution in these images is sufficient to show the 'curtain' of auroral light extending several hundred miles above Jupiter's limb (edge). Images of Earth's auroral curtains, taken from the space shuttle, have a similar appearance. Jupiter's auroral images are superimposed on a Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 image of the entire planet. The auroras are brilliant curtains of light in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Jovian auroral storms, like Earth's, develop when electrically charged particles trapped in the magnetic field surrounding the planet spiral inward at high energies toward the north and south magnetic poles. When these particles hit the upper atmosphere, they excite atoms and molecules there, causing them to glow (the same process acting in street lights). The electrons that strike Earth's atmosphere come from the sun, and the auroral lights remain concentrated above the night sky in response to the 'solar wind,' as Earth rotates underneath. Earth's auroras exhibit storms that extend to lower latitudes in response to solar activity, which can be easily seen from the northern U. S. But Jupiter's auroras are caused by particles spewed out by volcanoes on Io, one of Jupiter's moons. These charged particles are then magnetically trapped and begin to rotate with Jupiter, producing ovals of auroral light centered on Jupiter's magnetic poles in both the day and night skies

  3. Jovian-like aurorae on Saturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Tom; Miller, Steve; Melin, Henrik; Lystrup, Makenzie; Cowley, Stan W H; Bunce, Emma J; Achilleos, Nicholas; Dougherty, Michele

    2008-06-19

    Planetary aurorae are formed by energetic charged particles streaming along the planet's magnetic field lines into the upper atmosphere from the surrounding space environment. Earth's main auroral oval is formed through interactions with the solar wind, whereas that at Jupiter is formed through interactions with plasma from the moon Io inside its magnetic field (although other processes form aurorae at both planets). At Saturn, only the main auroral oval has previously been observed and there remains much debate over its origin. Here we report the discovery of a secondary oval at Saturn that is approximately 25 per cent as bright as the main oval, and we show this to be caused by interaction with the middle magnetosphere around the planet. This is a weak equivalent of Jupiter's main oval, its relative dimness being due to the lack of as large a source of ions as Jupiter's volcanic moon Io. This result suggests that differences seen in the auroral emissions from Saturn and Jupiter are due to scaling differences in the conditions at each of these two planets, whereas the underlying formation processes are the same.

  4. Effect of Plantago australis leaves on different gastric ulcer models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Bürger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-ulcerogenic effect of the crude ethanolic extract (CEE of Plantago australis leaves was tested against ethanol-, indomethacin-, and cold restrain-induced stress ulcers. The CEE (500 and 1000 mg/kg reduced the lesion index (LI and the ulcer index in ethanol-induced ulcers, and the dose of 1000 mg/kg increased the amount of mucous. The highest dose of the CEE reduced the LI of cold restraint-induced stress ulcers when compared to the control group. The indomethacin-induced ulcers were not affected by this extract.

  5. Comparación anatómica de Nitrophila australis var. australis y Nitrophila occidentalis (Chenopodiaceae: Su importancia taxonómica Anatomic comparison between Nitrophila australis var. australis and Nitrophila occidentalis (Chenopodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Pérez Cuadra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrophila australis es una halófita endémica de la Argentina mientras que Nitrophila occidentalis es una halófita nativa de Norteamérica; ambas pertenecen a las Polycnemoideae (Chenopodiaceae. Su anatomía foliar es similar: epidermis uniestratificada, clorénquima homogéneo, tejido acuífero y un haz vascular central con un número variable de haces menores a cada lado del mismo; la principal diferencia reside en las estrías cuticulares y carenas marginales. El tallo de ambas especies posee una epidermis uniestratificada, colénquima angular subepidérmico y parénquima cortical aerenquimatoso. La estela de N. australis posee cuatro haces vasculares mientras que la de N. occidentalis tiene ocho; ambas especies presentan casquetes de colénquima asociados a los haces vasculares. En el rizoma de la especie argentina el felógeno es superficial mientras que el de la americana se diferencia más profundamente. En ambas especies se observa un número variable de haces vasculares en la estela. Si bien las características morfológicas y anatómicas generales son similares en estas especies, cada una presenta algunas variaciones específicas, por lo cual su estudio anatómico reviste valor taxonómico a nivel de especie.Its taxonomic importance. Nitrophila australis is an endemic halophyte species of Argentina while Nitrophila occidentalis is a native halophyte of North America, both belonging to Polycnemoideae (Chenopodiaceae. They are similar in foliar anatomy: one-layered epidermis, homogeneous chlorenchyma, acqueous tissue and one large central bundle with a variable number of smaller ones on each side of the latter; the main difference stands in the cuticular striae and marginal ribs on each side of the leaf. The stem of both species shows a one-layered epidermis, subepidermic angular collenchyma and a cortical aerenchymatous parenchyma. Four bundles occur in the stele of N. australis while in N. occidentalis there are eight; both show

  6. Saturn's aurora observed by the Cassini camera at visible wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Dyudina, Ulyana A; Ewald, Shawn P; Wellington, Danika

    2015-01-01

    The first observations of Saturn's visible-wavelength aurora were made by the Cassini camera. The aurora was observed between 2006 and 2013 in the northern and southern hemispheres. The color of the aurora changes from pink at a few hundred km above the horizon to purple at 1000-1500 km above the horizon. The spectrum observed in 9 filters spanning wavelengths from 250 nm to 1000 nm has a prominent H-alpha line and roughly agrees with laboratory simulated auroras. Auroras in both hemispheres vary dramatically with longitude. Auroras form bright arcs between 70 and 80 degree latitude north and between 65 and 80 degree latitude south, which sometimes spiral around the pole, and sometimes form double arcs. A large 10,000-km-scale longitudinal brightness structure persists for more than 100 hours. This structure rotates approximately together with Saturn. On top of the large steady structure, the auroras brighten suddenly on the timescales of a few minutes. These brightenings repeat with a period of about 1 hour....

  7. Saturn's Aurora Observed by Cassini Camera in Visible Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyudina, U.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Ewald, S.; Wellington, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    Cassini camera's movies in 2009-2013 show Saturn's aurora in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The color of the aurora changes from pink at a few hundreds of km above the cloud tops to purple at 1000-1500 km above the cloud tops. The spectrum observed in 9 lters spanning wavelengths from 250 nm to 1000 nm has a prominent H-alpha line and roughly agrees with the laboratory simulated auroras [1]. Auroras in both hemispheres vary dramatically with longitude. Auroras form bright arcs, sometimes a spiral around the pole, and sometimes double arcs at 70-75 both north and south latitude. 10,000-km-scale longitudinal brightness structures can persist for more than 100 hours. This structures rotate together with Saturn. Besides the steady structure, the auroras brighten suddenly on the timescales of few minutes. 1000-km-scale disturbances may move faster or lag behind Saturn's rotation on timescales of tens of minutes. The persistence of the longitudinal structure of the aurora in two long observations in 2009 and 2012 allowed us to estimate its period of rotation of 10.65±0.15 h for 2009 and 10.8±0.1 h for 2012. The 2009 north aurora period is close to the north branch of Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) detected at that time. The 2012 south aurora period is longer than the SKR periods detected at the time. These periods are also close to the rotation period of the lightning storms on Saturn. We discuss those periodicities and their relevance to Saturn's internal rotation. [1] Aguilar, A. et al. The Electron-Excited Mid-Ultraviolet to Near-Infrared Spectrum of H2:Cross Sections and Transition Probabilities. Astrophys. J. Supp. Ser. 177, 388-407 (2008).

  8. Positive effects of nonnative invasive Phragmites australis on larval bullfrogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Alta Rogalski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonnative Phragmites australis (common reed is one of the most intensively researched and managed invasive plant species in the United States, yet as with many invasive species, our ability to predict, control or understand the consequences of invasions is limited. Rapid spread of dense Phragmites monocultures has prompted efforts to limit its expansion and remove existing stands. Motivation for large-scale Phragmites eradication programs includes purported negative impacts on native wildlife, a view based primarily on observational results. We took an experimental approach to test this assumption, estimating the effects of nonnative Phragmites australis on a native amphibian. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Concurrent common garden and reciprocal transplant field experiments revealed consistently strong positive influences of Phragmites on Rana catesbeiana (North American bullfrog larval performance. Decomposing Phragmites litter appears to contribute to the effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Positive effects of Phragmites merit further research, particularly in regions where both Phragmites and R. catesbeiana are invasive. More broadly, the findings of this study reinforce the importance of experimental evaluations of the effects of biological invasion to make informed conservation and restoration decisions.

  9. On the low-mass diskless population of Corona Australis

    CERN Document Server

    Martí, Belén López; Merín, Bruno; Morales-Calderón, María; Bouy, Hervé; Barrado, David; Eislöffel, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    We combine published optical and near-infrared photometry to identify new low-mass candidate members in an area of about 0.64 deg^2 in Corona Australis, using the S-parameter method developed by Comer\\'on et al. (2009). Five new candidate members of the region are selected, with estimated ages between 3 and 15 Myr, and masses between 0.05 and 0.15 M_Sun. Using Spitzer photometry, we confirm that these objects are not surrounded by optically thick disks. However, one of them is found to display excess at 24 micron, thus suggesting it harbours a disk with an inner hole. With an estimated mass of 0.07 M_Sun according to the SED fitting, this is one of the lowest-mass objects reported to possess a transitional disk. Including these new members, the fraction of disks is about 50% among the total Corona Australis population selected by the same criteria, lower than the 70% fraction reported by Sicilia-Aguilar et al. (2008) for this region. Even so, we find a ratio of transitional to primordial disks (45%) very simi...

  10. Were Greek temples oriented towards aurorae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liritzis, Ioannis; Vassiliou, Helen

    2006-02-01

    Two ancient Greek temples of Apollo at Bassae (Phigaleia, western Peloponnese, Greece), and Thermon at Aetolia, (Aetoloacarnania, western central Greece), have a north-south orientation of their main entrances. This is a rather rare alignment of temples in general and specifically of Apollo in classical Greece, where most of them have broadly an east-west orientation. Based on historical and mythological accounts, as well as astronomical orientation measurements, the northern direction orientation of these constructions may relate to the rare, albeit impressive, occurrence of aurorae borealis, the northern lights. These strong lights are attributed to god Apollo by the epithet ``hyperborean'', meaning to the northern lands. Attribution is supported by archaeomagnetic directional data accompanied by auroral occurrence during those times.

  11. Hyperspectral all-sky imaging of auroras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigernes, Fred; Ivanov, Yuriy; Chernouss, Sergey; Trondsen, Trond; Roldugin, Alexey; Fedorenko, Yury; Kozelov, Boris; Kirillov, Andrey; Kornilov, Ilia; Safargaleev, Vladimir; Holmen, Silje; Dyrland, Margit; Lorentzen, Dag; Baddeley, Lisa

    2012-12-03

    A prototype auroral hyperspectral all-sky camera has been constructed and tested. It uses electro-optical tunable filters to image the night sky as a function of wavelength throughout the visible spectrum with no moving mechanical parts. The core optical system includes a new high power all-sky lens with F-number equal to f/1.1. The camera has been tested at the Kjell Henriksen Observatory (KHO) during the auroral season of 2011/2012. It detects all sub classes of aurora above ~½ of the sub visual 1kR green intensity threshold at an exposure time of only one second. Supervised classification of the hyperspectral data shows promise as a new method to process and identify auroral forms.

  12. The Phenomenon of the Polar Aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, H. E.

    The eerie flickers of auroras have inspired awe since times immemorial. They kindled the fears and superstitions of people in the prescientific era and the curiosity of inquiring minds since. Yet it is only since the arrival of the space age that a full physical understanding has been reached. This has probably stimulated not only substantial journal literature but a number of books which trace the development of that understanding from the supernatural to phenomenology to a reasonably complete physical model. AGU published the work of Eather [1980], and the Nordic experience and contribution is superbly reflected in the treatise of Brekke and Egeland [1983]. A somewhat more theoretical framework is offered by Volland [1984].

  13. The AURORA initiative for metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardavas, D; Maetens, M; Irrthum, A; Goulioti, T; Engelen, K; Fumagalli, D; Salgado, R; Aftimos, P; Saini, K S; Sotiriou, C; Campbell, P; Dinh, P; von Minckwitz, G; Gelber, R D; Dowsett, M; Di Leo, A; Cameron, D; Baselga, J; Gnant, M; Goldhirsch, A; Norton, L; Piccart, M

    2014-11-11

    Metastatic breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality among women in the Western world. To date most research efforts have focused on the molecular analysis of the primary tumour to dissect the genotypes of the disease. However, accumulating evidence supports a molecular evolution of breast cancer during its life cycle, with metastatic lesions acquiring new molecular aberrations. Recognising this critical gap of knowledge, the Breast International Group is launching AURORA, a large, multinational, collaborative metastatic breast cancer molecular screening programme. Approximately 1300 patients with metastatic breast cancer who have received no more than one line of systemic treatment for advanced disease will, after giving informed consent, donate archived primary tumour tissue, as well as will donate tissue collected prospectively from the biopsy of metastatic lesions and blood. Both tumour tissue types, together with a blood sample, will then be subjected to next generation sequencing for a panel of cancer-related genes. The patients will be treated at the discretion of their treating physicians per standard local practice, and they will be followed for clinical outcome for 10 years. Alternatively, depending on the molecular profiles found, patients will be directed to innovative clinical trials assessing molecularly targeted agents. Samples of outlier patients considered as 'exceptional responders' or as 'rapid progressors' based on the clinical follow-up will be subjected to deeper molecular characterisation in order to identify new prognostic and predictive biomarkers. AURORA, through its innovative design, will shed light onto some of the unknown areas of metastatic breast cancer, helping to improve the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients.

  14. Observation and theory of the radar aurora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahr, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma density irregularities occurring near the Aurora Borealis cause scattering of HF, VHF, and UHF radio waves. Analysis of the resulting radar signal provides great detail about the spatial and temporal characteristics of these auroral E region irregularities. Observations are presented of the radar aurora from recent campaigns in northern Sweden. After reviewing the basic theory and observations of auroral electrojet irregularities, a simple nonlinear fluid theory of electrojet ion-acoustic waves is introduced, and reduced to a form of the three-wave interaction equations. This theory provides a simple mechanism for excitation of linearly stable waves at large aspect and flow angles, as well as a prediction of the power spectra that a coherent scatter radar should observe. In addition, this theory may be able to account for type 3 waves without resorting to ion gyro modes, such as the electrostatic ion-cyclotron wave. During the course of the research a simple new radar transmitting mode and signal processing algorithm was generated which very simply solves a frequency aliasing problem that often occurs in CUPRI auroral radar studies. Several new radar data analysis routines were developed, including the principally cross-beam image and scatter plots of the second versus first moments of the power spectrum of the irregularities. Analysis of vertical interferometer data shows that type 3 waves originate at ordinary electrojet altitudes, not in the upper E region, from which it is concluded that the electrostatic ion-cyclotron mode does not generate type 3 waves. The measured height of type 3 waves and other spectral analyses provide support for the pure ion-acoustic theory of type 3 waves. Suggestions are offered for hardware improvements to the CUPRI radar, new experiments to test new and existing theories.

  15. RadNet Air Data From Aurora, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Aurora, IL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  16. Saturn's aurora observed by the Cassini camera at visible wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Ewald, Shawn P.; Wellington, Danika

    2016-01-01

    The first observations of Saturn's visible-wavelength aurora were made by the Cassini camera. The aurora was observed between 2006 and 2013 in the northern and southern hemispheres. The color of the aurora changes from pink at a few hundred km above the horizon to purple at 1000-1500 km above the horizon. The spectrum observed in 9 filters spanning wavelengths from 250 nm to 1000 nm has a prominent H-alpha line and roughly agrees with laboratory simulated auroras. Auroras in both hemispheres vary dramatically with longitude. Auroras form bright arcs between 70° and 80° latitude north and between 65° and 80° latitude south, which sometimes spiral around the pole, and sometimes form double arcs. A large 10,000-km-scale longitudinal brightness structure persists for more than 100 h. This structure rotates approximately together with Saturn. On top of the large steady structure, the auroras brighten suddenly on the timescales of a few minutes. These brightenings repeat with a period of ∼1 h. Smaller, 1000-km-scale structures may move faster or lag behind Saturn's rotation on timescales of tens of minutes. The persistence of nearly-corotating large bright longitudinal structure in the auroral oval seen in two movies spanning 8 and 11 rotations gives an estimate on the period of 10.65 ± 0.15 h for 2009 in the northern oval and 10.8 ± 0.1 h for 2012 in the southern oval. The 2009 north aurora period is close to the north branch of Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) detected at that time.

  17. The presence of eucalyptol in Artemisia australis validates its use in traditional Hawaiian medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; Zant; Daniel; A.Gubler

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To identify the major organic compounds of Artemisia austeralis(A.australis),a plant used in traditional Hawaiian medicine for the treatment of asthma.Methods:The dichloromethane extract of A.australis was analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectroscopy and major compounds were identified by a National Institute of Standards and Technology library search and confirmed by peak enhancement Results:The major chemical components of A.australis include eucalyptol.borneol,and caryophyllene.Conclusions:The presence and biological activity of eucalyptol correlate very well with the usage of this plant in traditional Hawaiian medicine.

  18. Deregulated Expression of Aurora Kinases Is Not a Prognostic Biomarker in Papillary Thyroid Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzi, Natalie; Sorrenti, Salvatore; Falvo, Laura; De Vito, Corrado; Catania, Antonio; Tartaglia, Francesco; Mocini, Renzo; Coccaro, Carmela; Alessandrini, Stefania; Barollo, Susi; Mian, Caterina; Antonelli, Alessandro; De Antoni, Enrico; D’Armiento, Massimino; Ulisse, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    A number of reports indicated that Aurora-A or Aurora-B overexpression represented a negative prognostic factor in several human malignancies. In thyroid cancer tissues a deregulated expression of Aurora kinases has been also demonstrated, butno information regarding its possible prognostic role in differentiated thyroid cancer is available. Here, weevaluated Aurora-A and Aurora-B mRNA expression and its prognostic relevance in a series of 87 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), with a median follow-up of 63 months. The analysis of Aurora-A and Aurora-B mRNA levels in PTC tissues, compared to normal matched tissues, revealed that their expression was either up- or down-regulatedin the majority of cancer tissues. In particular, Aurora-A and Aurora-B mRNA levels were altered, respectively, in 55 (63.2%) and 79 (90.8%) out of the 87 PTC analyzed.A significant positive correlation between Aurora-A and Aurora-B mRNAswas observed (p=0.001). The expression of both Aurora genes was not affected by the BRAFV600E mutation. Univariate, multivariate and Kaplan-Mayer analyses documented the lack of association between Aurora-A or Aurora-B expression and clinicopathological parameterssuch as gender, age, tumor size, histology, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis and BRAF status as well asdisease recurrences or disease-free interval. Only Aurora-B mRNA was significantly higher in T(3-4) tissues, with respect to T(1-2) PTC tissues. The data reported here demonstrate that the expression of Aurora kinases is deregulated in the majority of PTC tissues, likely contributing to PTC progression. However, differently from other human solid cancers, detection of Aurora-A or Aurora-B mRNAs is not a prognostic biomarker inPTC patients. PMID:25807528

  19. Australis: AMS for ultra sensitive trace element and isotopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1993-12-31

    The accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the CSIRO HIAF laboratory is being upgraded to enable in-situ measurements of ultratraces and isotopic-ratios in mineralogical applications. The upgraded system will include a microbeam Cs ion source which is designed to produce better than 50 micrometre diameter Cs beam to enable analyses of monomineralic grains. The Cs primary beam will be mass analysed in order to minimize contamination of the sample. The detection system will be upgraded to enable analyses of elements up to U, at 2 MV terminal voltage for charge states 4 and 5. The system will be known as AUSTRALIS: A.M.S. for Ultra Sensitive TRAce eLement and Isotopic Studies. An overview of the system and the anticipated applications in minerals exploration and mining research are presented. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  20. The fate of N-15-nitrate in healthy and declining Phragmites australis stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijburg, J.W.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The dissimilatory nitrate-reducing processes, denitrification, and dissimilatory nitrate-reduction to ammonium were studied in freshwater lake sediments within healthy and degrading Phragmites australis (reed) stands. The samples from the healthy vegetation site contained roots and rhizomes. Cores

  1. The fate of 15N-nitrate in healthy and declining Phragmites australis stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijburg, J.W.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The dissimilatory nitrate-reducing processes, denitrification, and dissimilatory nitrate-reduction to ammonium were studied in freshwater lake sediments within healthy and degrading Phragmites australis (reed) stands. The samples from the healthy vegetation site contained roots and rhizomes. Cores

  2. Effect of climatic gradients on the photosynthetic responses of four Phragmites australis populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessmann, J.M.; Brix, H.; Bauer, V.; Clevering, O.A.; Comin, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Four populations of Phragmites australis collected from geographically distinct areas in Europe were propagated in outdoor experimental plots at four sites with dissimilar climate (Denmark, The Netherlands, Spain and Czech Republic). During the second growing season the photosynthetic

  3. Variability of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Streudel in relation to the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, Jaap van der

    1972-01-01

    Een onderzoek werd uitgevoerd naar de variabiliteit van Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex Steudel, het Riet, in Nederland, waarbij werd nagegaan in hoeverre deze in verband staat met het milieu. ... Zie: Samenvatting

  4. Effect of climatic gradients on the photosynthetic responses of four Phragmites australis populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessmann, J.M.; Brix, H.; Bauer, V.; Clevering, O.A.; Comin, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Four populations of Phragmites australis collected from geographically distinct areas in Europe were propagated in outdoor experimental plots at four sites with dissimilar climate (Denmark, The Netherlands, Spain and Czech Republic). During the second growing season the photosynthetic characteristic

  5. A new benzofuranolignan and a new flavonol derivative from the stem of Morus australis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Jian Zhang; Di Zao Li; Ruo Yun Chen; De Quan Yu

    2008-01-01

    A new benzofuranolignan austrafuran A(1)and a new flavonol derivative 5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxyflavone(2)were isolated from the stem of Morus australis.Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidences.

  6. Sense organs in Spongiobranchaea australis d’Orbigny, 1835 (Gastropoda, Pteropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der S.

    1964-01-01

    The sense organs: the labial tentacles, eyes, rhinophores, osphradium and statocysts of Spongiobranchaea australis d’Orbigny, 1835 are described together with their innervation. The descriptions are based on serial sections of three animals.

  7. A translational regulator, PUM2, promotes both protein stability and kinase activity of Aurora-A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yei-Hsuan Huang

    Full Text Available Aurora-A, a centrosomal serine-threonine kinase, orchestrates several key aspects of cell division. However, the regulatory pathways for the protein stability and kinase activity of Aurora-A are still not completely understood. In this study, PUM2, an RNA-binding protein, is identified as a novel substrate and interacting protein of Aurora-A. Overexpression of the PUM2 mutant which fails to interact with Aurora-A, and depletion of PUM2 result in a decrease in the amount of Aurora-A. PUM2 physically binds to the D-box of Aurora-A, which is recognized by APC/C(Cdh1. Overexpression of PUM2 prevents ubiquitination and enhances the protein stability of Aurora-A, suggesting that PUM2 protects Aurora-A from APC/C(Cdh1-mediated degradation. Moreover, association of PUM2 with Aurora-A not only makes Aurora-A more stable but also enhances the kinase activity of Aurora-A. Our study suggests that PUM2 plays two different but important roles during cell cycle progression. In interphase, PUM2 localizes in cytoplasm and plays as translational repressor through its RNA binding domain. However, in mitosis, PUM2 physically associates with Aurora-A to ensure enough active Aurora-A at centrosomes for mitotic entry. This is the first time to reveal the moonlight role of PUM2 in mitosis.

  8. Sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2007-03-01

    aurorae observed in the United States during the interval AD 1880–1940. The localised nature and spatial structure of some sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia is indicated by the use of descriptive terms such as "lightning", "rainbow", "streak" and "grid".

  9. Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis) Reproductive Success is Influenced by Krill (Euphausia superba) Density and Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyboth, Elisa; Groch, Karina R; Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Reid, Keith; Flores, Paulo A C; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive success of southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) depends on body condition and, therefore, on foraging success. This, in turn, might be affected by climatically driven change in the abundance of the species main prey, krill (Euphausia superba), on the feeding grounds. Annual data on southern right whale number of calves were obtained from aerial surveys carried out between 1997 and 2013 in southern Brazil, where the species concentrate during their breeding season. The number of calves recorded each year varied from 7 to 43 ( = 21.11 ± 11.88). Using cross-correlation analysis we examined the response of the species to climate anomalies and krill densities. Significant correlations were found with krill densities (r = 0.69, p = 0.002, lag 0 years), Oceanic Niño Index (r = -0.65, p = 0.03, lag 6 years), Antarctic Oscillation (r = 0.76, p = 0.01, lag 7 years) and Antarctic sea ice area (r = -0.68, p = 0.002, lag 0 years). Our results suggest that global climate indices influence southern right whale breeding success in southern Brazil by determining variation in food (krill) availability for the species. Therefore, increased frequency of years with reduced krill abundance, due to global warming, is likely to reduce the current rate of recovery of southern right whales from historical overexploitation.

  10. Native and European haplotypes of Phragmites Australis (common reed) in the central Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Galatowitsch, S.M.; Larson, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Phragmites australis (common reed) is known to have occurred along the Platte River historically, but recent rapid increases in both distribution and density have begun to impact habitat for migrating sandhill cranes and nesting piping plovers and least terns. Invasiveness in Phragmites has been associated with the incursion of a European genotype (haplotype M) in other areas; determining the genotype of Phragmites along the central Platte River has implications for proper management of the river system. In 2008 we sampled Phragmites patches along the central Platte River from Lexington to Chapman, NE, stratified by bridge segments, to determine the current distribution of haplotype E (native) and haplotype M genotypes. In addition, we did a retrospective analysis of historical Phragmites collections from the central Platte watershed (1902-2006) at the Bessey Herbarium. Fresh tissue from the 2008 survey and dried tissue from the herbarium specimens were classified as haplotype M or E using the restriction fragment length polymorphism procedure. The European haplotype was predominant in the 2008 samples: only 14 Phragmites shoots were identified as native haplotype E; 224 were non-native haplotype M. The retrospective analysis revealed primarily native haplotype individuals. Only collections made in Lancaster County, near Lincoln, NE, were haplotype M, and the earliest of these was collected in 1973. ?? 2011 Copyright by the Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  11. Solar wind influence on Jupiter's aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyalay, Szilard; Vogt, Marissa F.; Withers, Paul; Bunce, Emma J.

    2016-10-01

    Jupiter's main auroral emission is driven by a system of corotation enforcement currents that arises to speed up outflowing Iogenic plasma and is not due to the magnetosphere-solar wind interaction like at Earth. The solar wind is generally expected to have only a small influence on Jupiter's magnetosphere and aurora compared to the influence of rotational stresses due to the planet's rapid rotation. However, there is considerable observational evidence that the solar wind does affect the magnetopause standoff distance, auroral radio emissions, and the position and brightness of the UV auroral emissions. Using the Michigan Solar Wind Model (mSWiM) to predict the solar wind conditions upstream of Jupiter we have identified intervals of high and low solar wind dynamic pressure in the Galileo dataset, and use this information to quantify how a magnetospheric compression affects the magnetospheric field configuration. We have developed separate spatial fits to the compressed and nominal magnetic field data, accounting for variations with radial distance and local time. These two fits can be used to update the flux equivalence mapping model of Vogt et al. (2011), which links auroral features to source regions in the middle and outer magnetosphere. The updated version accounts for changing solar wind conditions and provides a way to quantify the expected solar wind-induced variability in the ionospheric mapping of the main auroral emission, satellite footprints, and other auroral features. Our results are highly relevant to interpretation of the new auroral observations from the Juno mission.

  12. Skp2 is required for Aurora B activation in cell mitosis and spindle checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Huang, Yu-Fan; Zhou, Xin-Ke; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Yi-Fan; Lv, Xiao-Bin; Gao, Xiu-Rong; Lin, Hui-Kuan; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Huang, Jian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The Aurora B kinase plays a critical role in cell mitosis and spindle checkpoint. Here, we showed that the ubiquitin E3-ligase protein Skp2, also as a cell-cycle regulatory protein, was required for the activation of Aurora B and its downstream protein. When we restored Skp2 knockdown Hela cells with Skp2 and Skp2-LRR E3 ligase dead mutant we found that Skp2 could rescue the defect in the activation of Aurora B, but the mutant failed to do so. Furthermore, we discovered that Skp2 could interact with Aurora B and trigger Aurora B Lysine (K) 63-linked ubiquitination. Finally, we demonstrated the essential role of Skp2 in cell mitosis progression and spindle checkpoint, which was Aurora B dependent. Our results identified a novel ubiquitinated substrate of Skp2, and also indicated that Aurora B ubiquitination might serve as an important event for Aurora B activation in cell mitosis and spindle checkpoint.

  13. A Cell Biologist’s Field Guide to Aurora Kinase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eDe Groot

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aurora kinases are essential for cell division and are frequently misregulated in human cancers. Based on their potential as cancer therapeutics, a plethora of small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors have been developed, with a subset having been adopted as tools in cell biology. Here, we fill a gap in the characterization of Aurora kinase inhibitors by using biochemical and cell-based assays to systematically profile a panel of 10 commercially available compounds with reported selectivity for Aurora A (MLN8054, MLN8237, MK-5108, MK-8745, Genentech Aurora Inhibitor 1, Aurora B (Hesperadin, ZM447439, AZD1152-HQPA, GSK1070916 or Aurora A/B (VX-680. We quantify the in vitro effect of each inhibitor on the activity of Aurora A alone, as well as Aurora A and Aurora B bound to fragments of their activators, TPX2 and INCENP, respectively. We also report kinome profiling results for a subset of these compounds to highlight potential off-target effects. In a cellular context, we demonstrate that immunofluorescence-based detection of LATS2 and histone H3 phospho-epitopes provides a facile and reliable means to assess potency and specificity of Aurora A versus Aurora B inhibition, and that G2 duration measured in a live imaging assay is a specific readout of Aurora A activity. Our analysis also highlights variation between HeLa, U2OS and hTERT-RPE1 cells that impacts selective Aurora A inhibition. For Aurora B, all 4 tested compounds exhibit excellent selectivity and do not significantly inhibit Aurora A at effective doses. For Aurora A, MK-5108 and MK-8745 are significantly more selective than the commonly used inhibitors MLN8054 and MLN8237. A crystal structure of an Aurora A/MK-5108 complex that we determined suggests the chemical basis for this higher specificity. Taken together, our quantitative biochemical and cell-based analyses indicate that AZD1152-HQPA and MK-8745 are the best current tools for selectively inhibiting Aurora B and Aurora A

  14. Aurora B interaction of centrosomal Nlp regulates cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie; Jin, Shunqian; Li, Jia; Zhan, Qimin

    2010-12-17

    Cytokinesis is a fundamental cellular process, which ensures equal abscission and fosters diploid progenies. Aberrant cytokinesis may result in genomic instability and cell transformation. However, the underlying regulatory machinery of cytokinesis is largely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that Nlp (Ninein-like protein), a recently identified BRCA1-associated centrosomal protein that is required for centrosomes maturation at interphase and spindle formation in mitosis, also contributes to the accomplishment of cytokinesis. Through immunofluorescent analysis, Nlp is found to localize at midbody during cytokinesis. Depletion of endogenous Nlp triggers aborted division and subsequently leads to multinucleated phenotypes. Nlp can be recruited by Aurora B to the midbody apparatus via their physical association at the late stage of mitosis. Disruption of their interaction induces aborted cytokinesis. Importantly, Nlp is characterized as a novel substrate of Aurora B and can be phosphorylated by Aurora B. The specific phosphorylation sites are mapped at Ser-185, Ser-448, and Ser-585. The phosphorylation at Ser-448 and Ser-585 is likely required for Nlp association with Aurora B and localization at midbody. Meanwhile, the phosphorylation at Ser-185 is vital to Nlp protein stability. Disruptions of these phosphorylation sites abolish cytokinesis and lead to chromosomal instability. Collectively, these observations demonstrate that regulation of Nlp by Aurora B is critical for the completion of cytokinesis, providing novel insights into understanding the machinery of cell cycle progression.

  15. Aurora Borealis, A Painting by Frederic Edwin Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War. In 1865, the same year as the War's end, the great American landscape artist, Frederic Edwin Church, unveiled Aurora Borealis, a painting that depicts a fantastic, far-northern place, an auroral arch stretched across a quiet night-time sky, above dark mountains and a frozen sea. Church was born in Connecticut, lived in New York, and traveled to Labrador; he would have often seen the northern lights. Church might have also been influenced by the spectacular displays of aurora that were caused by some unusually intense magnetic storms in 1859. Aurora Borealis can certainly be interpreted in terms of 19th-century romanticism, scientific philosophy, and Arctic missions of exploration, all subjects of interest to Church. As with so many of his paintings, Church's meticulous attention to detail in Aurora Borealis reveals his deep admiration of nature. But his depiction of auroral light is a curious and possibly intentional departure from natural verisimilitude. Some art historians have suggested that Church painted Aurora Borealis as a subdued tribute to the end of the Civil War, with the drapery of auroral light forming an abstract representation of the American flag. If so, then colors of the flag have been unfurled across a cold and barren landscape, not in extravagant celebration, but in somber recognition of the reality of post-war desolation and an uncertain future.

  16. Identification of Ski as a target for Aurora A kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Jocelyn; Armisen, Ricardo; Zhao, Hongling; Rojas, Diego A; Maldonado, Edio; Tapia, Julio C; Colombo, Alicia; Hayman, Michael J; Marcelain, Katherine

    2011-06-10

    Ski is a negative regulator of the transforming growth factor-β and other signalling pathways. The absence of SKI in mouse fibroblasts leads to chromosome segregation defects and genomic instability, suggesting a role for Ski during mitosis. At this stage, Ski is phosphorylated but to date little is known about the kinases involved in this process. Here, we show that Aurora A kinase is able to phosphorylate Ski in vitro. In vivo, Aurora A and Ski co-localized at the centrosomes and co-immunoprecipitated. Conversely, a C-terminal truncation mutant of Ski (SkiΔ491-728) lacking a coiled-coil domain, displayed decreased centrosomal localization. This mutant no longer co-immunoprecipitated with Aurora-A in vivo, but was still phosphorylated in vitro, indicating that the Ski-Aurora A interaction takes place at the centrosomes. These data identify Ski as a novel target of Aurora A and contribute to an understanding of the role of these proteins in the mitotic process.

  17. Making Sense of the Aurora: A Research Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Marc Friedman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an introduction to a on-going research project based at University of Tromsø that seeks to analyze the history of efforts to make sense of the aurora borealis from the early 1700s through to the Cold War. Following brilliant displays of the northern lights in the early eighteenth century, natural philosophers strove to explain this phenomenon that evoked widespread fear and superstition. It was not until well into the twentieth century that consensual explanation emerged for this, one of the great enigmas in the history of science. From the start, the quest to explain the aurora borealis became enmeshed with patriotic science and nationalist sentiments. The history of efforts to understand the nature and cause of the aurora poses a number of thematic problems. Being a fleeting and at times rapidly changing phenomenon, only occasionally seen south of far-northern latitudes, the aurora needed to be constituted as an object able to be brought into the domain of rational science. Observational accounts of the aurora came most often from by personsliving or travelling in the far north or in the Arctic, but these persons were generally not trained scientists: Whose witnessing counted and how was authority negotiated among professional scientists and amateurs?

  18. Update on Aurora Kinase Targeted Therapeutics in Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Myke R.; Woolery, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mammalian cells contain three distinct serine/threonine protein kinases with highly conserved catalytic domains, including aurora A and B kinases that are essential regulators of mitotic entry and progression. Overexpression of aurora A and/or B kinase is associated with high proliferation rates and poor prognosis, making them ideal targets for anti-cancer therapy. Disruption of mitotic machinery is a proven anti-cancer strategy employed by multiple chemotherapeutic agents. Numerous small molecule inhibitors of the aurora kinases have been discovered and tested in vivo and in vitro, with a few currently in phase II testing. Areas covered This review provides the reader with updated results from both preclinical and human studies for each of the aurora kinase inhibitors (AKI) that are currently being investigated. The paper also covers in detail the late breaking and phase I data presented for AKIs thereby allowing the reader to compare and contrast individual and classrelated effects of AKIs. Expert opinion While the successful development and approval of an AKI for anti-cancer therapy remains unresolved, pre-clinical identification of resistant mechanisms would help design better early phase clinical trials where relevant combinations may be evaluated prior to phase II testing. The authors believe that aurora kinases are important anti-cancer targets that operate in collaboration with other oncogenes intimately involved in uncontrolled tumor proliferation and by providing a unique, targeted and complimentary anti-cancer mechanism, expand the available armamentarium against cancer. PMID:21556291

  19. Applications to particle transport in the Earth`s aurora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasperse, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The visual display of light called the aurora borealis occurs when energetic (1 to 100-keV) electrons, protons, and hydrogen atoms from the Earth`s magnetosphere enter the Earth`s upper atmosphere and collide with the ambient neutral particles. Two kinds of auroras occur in nature: those excited by incident electrons and those excited by incident protons and hydrogen atoms. In this paper, we consider only the latter. The proton-hydrogen aurora may be divided into two altitude regions: high altitudes ({approximately}250 to {approximately}600 km) where charge-changing collisions dominate and energy-loss collisions may be neglected and low altitudes ({approximately}100 to {approximately}250 km) where energy-loss collisions also become important and cause rapid energy degradation. The focus of this review is on the high-altitude region where the one-group approximation is valid.

  20. Aurora Borealis Experiment (ABX): A Planeterrella for Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Michael; Carpe, Andy; Zwicker, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The Planeterrella is an experiment invented by Jean Lilensten of the Laboratoire de Planetologie de Grenoble in France designed to simulate aurorae of various planets. It is done by placing two differently sized aluminum spheres in a bell jar with a pressure of approximately 75 mTorr. Each sphere has magnets inside and is electrically biased. An electrode with the opposite electrical bias is inserted into the bell jar so that the voltage between them is on the order of 300 V. A plasma is then created and an aurora is formed around the magnetic poles of the spheres or near the edge of the electrode. We have made a modified version of the planeterrella, called the Aurora Borealis Experiment (ABX), based upon Lilensten's plans. We will present the technical details of the experiment and preliminary results of its use with a variety of different audiences.

  1. Ionospheric response to particle precipitation within aurora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlund, J.E. (Swedish Inst. of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden))

    1992-03-01

    The aurora is just the visible signature of a large number of processes occurring in a planetary ionosphere as a response to energetic charged particles falling in from the near-empty space far above the planetary atmosphere. This thesis, based on measurements using the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar system in northern Scandinavia, discusses ionospheric response processes and especially a mechanism leading to atmospheric gas escape from a planet. One of the most spectacular events in the high latitude atmosphere on earth are the 'auroral arcs' - dynamic rayed sheets of light. An investigation of the conditions of the ionosphere surrounding auroral arcs shows that strong field-aligned bulk ion outflows appear in the topside ionosphere which account for a large fraction of the escape of atmospheric oxygen from earth. Four different additional ionospheric responses are closely related to this ion outflow; 1. enhanced electron temperatures of several thousand Kelvin above an altitude of about 250 km, 2. enhanced ionization around an altitude of 200 km corresponding to electron precipitation with energies of a few hundred eV, 3. the occurrence of naturally enhanced ion acoustic fluctuations seen in the radar spectrum, most likely produced by an ion-ion two-stream instability, and 4. upward directed field-aligned currents partly carried by the outflowing ions. From these observations, it is suggested that the energy dissipation into the background plasma through Joule heating, the production of a few hundred eV energetic run-away electrons, and strong ion outflows are partly produced by the simultaneous presence of ion acoustic turbulence and field-aligned currents above auroral arcs. (20 refs.) (au).

  2. Ionospheric response to particle precipitation within aurora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlund, J.E. [Swedish Inst. of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1992-03-01

    The aurora is just the visible signature of a large number of processes occurring in a planetary ionosphere as a response to energetic charged particles falling in from the near-empty space far above the planetary atmosphere. This thesis, based on measurements using the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar system in northern Scandinavia, discusses ionospheric response processes and especially a mechanism leading to atmospheric gas escape from a planet. One of the most spectacular events in the high latitude atmosphere on earth are the `auroral arcs` - dynamic rayed sheets of light. An investigation of the conditions of the ionosphere surrounding auroral arcs shows that strong field-aligned bulk ion outflows appear in the topside ionosphere which account for a large fraction of the escape of atmospheric oxygen from earth. Four different additional ionospheric responses are closely related to this ion outflow; 1. enhanced electron temperatures of several thousand Kelvin above an altitude of about 250 km, 2. enhanced ionization around an altitude of 200 km corresponding to electron precipitation with energies of a few hundred eV, 3. the occurrence of naturally enhanced ion acoustic fluctuations seen in the radar spectrum, most likely produced by an ion-ion two-stream instability, and 4. upward directed field-aligned currents partly carried by the outflowing ions. From these observations, it is suggested that the energy dissipation into the background plasma through Joule heating, the production of a few hundred eV energetic run-away electrons, and strong ion outflows are partly produced by the simultaneous presence of ion acoustic turbulence and field-aligned currents above auroral arcs. (20 refs.) (au).

  3. Optical tomography of the aurora and EISCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. U. Frey

    Full Text Available Tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional auroral arc emission is used to obtain vertical and horizontal distributions of the optical auroral emission. Under the given experimental conditions with a very limited angular range and a small number of observers, algebraic reconstruction methods generally yield better results than transform techniques. Different algebraic reconstruction methods are tested with an auroral arc model and the best results are obtained with an iterative least-square method adapted from emission-computed tomography. The observation geometry used during a campaign in Norway in 1995 is tested with the arc model and root-mean-square errors, to be expected under the given geometrical conditions, are calculated. Although optimum geometry was not used, root-mean-square errors of less than 2% for the images and of the order of 30% for the distribution could be obtained. The method is applied to images from real observations. The correspondence of original pictures and projections of the reconstructed volume is discussed, and emission profiles along magnetic field lines through the three-dimensionally reconstructed arc are calibrated into electron density profiles with additional EISCAT measurements. Including a background profile and the temporal changes of the electron density due to recombination, good agreement can be obtained between measured profiles and the time-sequence of calculated profiles. These profiles are used to estimate the conductivity distribution in the vicinity of the EISCAT site. While the radar can only probe the ionosphere along the radar beam, the three-dimensional tomography enables conductivity estimates in a large area around the radar site.

    Key words. Tomography · Aurora · EISCAT · Ionosphere · Conductivity

  4. Monitoring magnetosheath-magnetosphere interconnection topology from the aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    Full Text Available A strong southward rotation of the IMF (BZ from 5 to -6 nT in ~ 20 s on 4 January 1995 caused an abrupt reconfiguration of midday aurorae and plasma convection consisting of the following: (1 the red-line aurora associated with magnetosheath plasma transfer at the low-latitude magnetopause appeared at the same time that (2 the green-line aurora from precipitating energetic plasma sheet particles equatorward of the cusp (near the open-closed field line boundary weakened visibly and shifted equatorward, (3 the high-latitude aurora during the previous northward IMF, which is associated with lobe reconnection, persisted briefly (3 min and brightened, before it disappeared from the field-of-view, (4 the activation of a strong convection bay (DPY current at cusp and sub-cusp latitudes when the field turned strongly south, (5 a distinct wave motion of the plasma sheet outer boundary, as inferred from the aurora, which correlates closely with Pc 5 magnetic pulsations. Our interpretation of the dramatic reconfiguration is that reconnection poleward of the cusp coexisted briefly with reconnection at sub-cusp latitudes. The latter provided a magnetic field connection which enabled, on the one hand, magnetosheath particles to enter and cause the red-line cusp aurora, and on the other hand, allowed for magnetospheric energetic particles to escape and weaken the outer plasma sheet source of the green-line emission. The coexistence of the two cusp auroras reflects the time required for one field line topology to replace another, which, under the prevailing high speed wind ( ~ 650 km/s, lasts ~ 3–4 min. The motion of open flux tubes propagating from equator to pole during this transition is traced in the aurora by a poleward moving form. The waves on the outer boundary of the plasma sheet are most likely due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The study illustrates the ability of local auroral observations to monitor even a global change in

  5. Aurora inertial confinement fusion laser control and data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowling, P.S.; Burczyk, L.; Dingler, R.D.; Shurter, R.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., P.O. Box 1663, AT-8 MS H811, Los Alamos, NM 87545)

    1987-05-01

    Aurora is a complex krypton fluoride excimer research laser supported by a computerized control and data acquisition system. Aurora's requirements for control, data aquisition, and data analysis are met with specific application of minicomputer and microcomputer capabilities coupled with internally developed custom hardware and software. A control system that provides an operator with the ability to charge and fire the integrated laser system safely and remotely is described. A data aquisition system that acquires, stores, and processes laser system data is also described. This data acquisition system provides the experimentalists with support tools for better understanding the laser system.

  6. Heavy metals in sediments and their bioaccumulation in Phragmites australis in the Anzali wetland of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Marjan; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Moattar, Faramarz

    2016-07-01

    Accumulation of metals in both sediments and Phragmites australis organs was studied. Samples were collected from seven stations located in Anzali wetland, Iran. The samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that concentration of the studied metals (except As and Cd) were higher in sediments than in P. australis organs. Metal accumulation was found to be significantly ( P <0.05) higher in roots than in above-ground organs of P. australis. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) and the transfer factor (TF) also verified the highest rate of metal accumulation in roots and their reduced mobility from roots to the above-ground organs. Pearson correlation coefficient showed significant relationships between metal concentrations in sediments and those in plant organs. It should be pointed out that sediment and plant samples exhibited higher metal concentrations in eastern and central parts than in western and southern parts of the wetland. The mean concentrations of all studied elements (except for Fe, V and Al) were higher in these sediment samples than in the Earth's crust and shale. High accumulation of metals in P. australis organs (roots and shoots) is indicative of their high bioavailability in sediments of the wetland. The correlation between metal concentrations in sediments and in P. australis indicates that plant organs are good bioindicators of metal pollution in sediments of Anzali wetland.

  7. Moon phase influences the diet of southern Ray's bream Brama australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, P L; Forman, J S; Dunn, M R

    2013-04-01

    Diet composition of the southern Ray's bream Brama australis was examined from stomach contents of 399 specimens sampled by bottom trawl on Chatham Rise to the east of South Island, New Zealand, over 3 years. Prey items were predominantly mesopelagic fishes and crustaceans. Multivariate analysis indicated that moon phase explained more of the diet variability than any other predictor examined. It appears likely that diet composition is influenced by a combination of changes in both tidal flows and illumination. Different combinations of prey were consumed by B. australis at different times of the lunar cycle. An influence of moon phase on feeding by fishes has rarely been reported, but it is likely that moon phase influences the diets of other species that specialize in mesopelagic prey. The most important prey group by mass for B. australis was Myctophidae (primarily Lampanyctodes hectoris), followed by Stomiiformes (primarily Maurolicus australis) and shrimps (Sergestes spp). An ontogenetic shift in diet was observed, from numerical dominance by small crustaceans including amphipods and euphausiids (with some fishes) in smaller (mass 1440 g) B. australis.

  8. Transcriptome Expression Profiling in Response to Drought Stress in Paulownia australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Dong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The response and adaptation to drought remains poorly understood for Paulownia australis. To investigate this issue, transcriptome profiling of four P. australis accessions (two diploid and the other two autotetraploid under water stress condition were studied using Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx analysis. The current study aimed to identify genes of P. australis metabolism pathways that might be involved in this plant’s response to water deficit. Potted seedlings were subjected to well-watered conditions and drought stress, respectively. More than 290 million raw transcript reads were assembled into 111,660 unigenes, with a mean length of 1013 bp. Clusters of orthologous groups, gene ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations analyses were performed on the unigenes. Many differentially expressed genes and several metabolic pathways were identified. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to verify the expression patterns of 14 genes. Our study identified altered gene expression in P. australis induced by drought stress and provided a comprehensive map of drought-responsive genes and pathways in this species. To our knowledge, this is the first publicly available global transcriptome study of P. australis. This study provides a valuable genetic resource for this species.

  9. Transcriptome expression profiling in response to drought stress in Paulownia australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanpeng; Fan, Guoqiang; Zhao, Zhenli; Deng, Minjie

    2014-03-17

    The response and adaptation to drought remains poorly understood for Paulownia australis. To investigate this issue, transcriptome profiling of four P. australis accessions (two diploid and the other two autotetraploid) under water stress condition were studied using Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx analysis. The current study aimed to identify genes of P. australis metabolism pathways that might be involved in this plant's response to water deficit. Potted seedlings were subjected to well-watered conditions and drought stress, respectively. More than 290 million raw transcript reads were assembled into 111,660 unigenes, with a mean length of 1013 bp. Clusters of orthologous groups, gene ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations analyses were performed on the unigenes. Many differentially expressed genes and several metabolic pathways were identified. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to verify the expression patterns of 14 genes. Our study identified altered gene expression in P. australis induced by drought stress and provided a comprehensive map of drought-responsive genes and pathways in this species. To our knowledge, this is the first publicly available global transcriptome study of P. australis. This study provides a valuable genetic resource for this species.

  10. KNL1 facilitates phosphorylation of outer kinetochore proteins by promoting Aurora B kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Gina V; DeLuca, Keith F; DeLuca, Jennifer G

    2013-12-23

    Aurora B kinase phosphorylates kinetochore proteins during early mitosis, increasing kinetochore–microtubule (MT) turnover and preventing premature stabilization of kinetochore–MT attachments. Phosphorylation of kinetochore proteins during late mitosis is low, promoting attachment stabilization, which is required for anaphase onset. The kinetochore protein KNL1 recruits Aurora B–counteracting phosphatases and the Aurora B–targeting factor Bub1, yet the consequences of KNL1 depletion on Aurora B phospho-regulation remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the KNL1 N terminus is essential for Aurora B activity at kinetochores. This region of KNL1 is also required for Bub1 kinase activity at kinetochores, suggesting that KNL1 promotes Aurora B activity through Bub1-mediated Aurora B targeting. However, ectopic targeting of Aurora B to kinetochores does not fully rescue Aurora B activity in KNL1-depleted cells, suggesting KNL1 influences Aurora B activity through an additional pathway. Our findings establish KNL1 as a requirement for Aurora B activity at kinetochores and for wild-type kinetochore–MT attachment dynamics.

  11. Astronaut Scott Carpenter inserted into Aurora 7 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter, pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 7 space flight, is inserted into Aurora 7 spacecraft during the prelaunch countdown. Carpenter is assisted into the spacecraft by Astronaut John Glenn and Gunter Vendt, McDonnell Douglas pad capsule test conducter.

  12. The grand aurorae borealis seen in Colombia in 1859

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Cárdenas, Freddy; Cristancho Sánchez, Sergio; Vargas Domínguez, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    On Thursday, September 1, 1859, the British astronomer Richard Carrington, for the first time ever, observes a spectacular gleam of visible light on the surface of the solar disk, the photosphere. The Carrington Event, as it is nowadays known by scientists, occurred because of the high solar activity that had visible consequences on Earth, in particular reports of outstanding aurorae activity that amazed thousands of people in the western hemisphere during the dawn of September 2. The geomagnetic storm, generated by the solar-terrestrial event, had such a magnitude that the auroral oval expanded towards the equator, allowing low latitudes, like Panama's 9°N, to catch a sight of the aurorae. An expedition was carried out to review several historical reports and books from the northern cities of Colombia allowed the identification of a narrative from Montería, Colombia (8° 45‧N), that describes phenomena resembling those of an aurorae borealis, such as fire-like lights, blazing and dazzling glares, and the appearance of an immense S-like shape in the sky. The very low latitude of the geomagnetic north pole in 1859, the lowest value in over half a millennia, is proposed to have allowed the observations of auroral events at locations closer to the equator, and supports the historical description found in Colombia. The finding of such chronicle represents one of the most complete descriptions of low-latitude sightings of aurorae caused by the Carrington Event.

  13. Differences in the removal mechanisms of Undaria pinnatifida and Phragmites australis as biomaterials for lead removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Rios, Paula Cecilia; Nakano, Kazunori; Leon-Romero, Marco; Aikawa, Yoshio; Arai, Shigeyuki; Nishimura, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    This study offers the opportunity to utilize Undaria pinnatifida and Phragmites australis to remove lead from water in permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology. Its efficacy was tested using batch experiments and PRB column systems. From the batch experiment results, a higher adsorption capacity was observed for Undaria pinnatifida. Nevertheless, Phragmites australis in the column system efficiently removed lead and the breakthrough occurred at the same time for both biomaterials. To dissipate this difference, a sequential extraction for metal speciation analysis was used for both columns. The results have shown that each biomaterial has a dominant mechanism. Phragmites australis removed lead by physical adsorption, whereas Undaria pinnatifida showed a higher tendency to bind lead due to organic matter, primary and secondary minerals.

  14. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by Phragmites australis cultivated in synthesized substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG He; JIA Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals from various oxides with adsorbed cadmium by wetland plant Phragmites australis was studied to evaluate the fate of heavy metals in the sediment of constructed wetlands.Hoagland solution Was used as nutrition supply,and single metal oxide with adsorbed cadmium was applied as contaminant to study the accumulation characteristics of cadmium and the substrate metals by P. australis.After 45-d treatment,the bioaccumulation degree in root followed the order:Al(OH)3>Al2O3>Fe3O4>MnO2 >FeOOH.Heavy metals absorbed by P. australis were largely immobilized by the roots with little translocation to aboveground Darts.

  15. Accumulation of Metals and Boron in Phragmites australis Planted in Constructed Wetlands Polishing Real Electroplating Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochacki, Adam; Guy, Bernard; Faure, Olivier; Surmacz-Górska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of metals (Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn) and B were determined in the above- and belowground biomass of Phragmites australis collected from the microcosm constructed wetland system used for the polishing of real electroplating wastewater. Translocation factor and bioconcentration factor were determined. Pearson correlation test was used to determine correlation between metal concentration in substrate and above- and belowground parts of Phragmites australis. The obtained results suggested that Phragmites australis did not play a major role as an accumulator of metals. It was observed also that the substrate could have exerted an effect on the translocation of Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn. The analysed concentrations of metals and B in biomass were in the range or even below the concentrations reported in the literature with the exception of Ni. The aboveground biomass was found suitable as a composting input in terms of metals concentrations.

  16. Antioxidant response to metal pollution in Phragmites australis from Anzali wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Marjan; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Bastami, Kazem Darvish

    2017-03-21

    This research was conducted to examine variations of antioxidant enzyme activity in Phragmites australis as a biomarker for metals such as As, Pb, Cu, and Cd. Samples of sediment and plants were collected from 7 stations located in Anzali wetland. Biochemical parameters including Catalase, Peroxidase and Ascorbate Peroxidase activity were analyzed in the roots, stems and leaves of P. australis. The obtained results indicated that there were significant differences among activities of antioxidant enzymes in three organs (p<0.05). Antioxidant enzyme activities in the organs for all studied stations were as the following order: stemaustralis. As a result, it can be concluded from this study that antioxidant enzymes are good biomarkers reflecting metal contamination in sediments of Anzali wetland.

  17. Functional role of bacteria from invasive Phragmites australis in promotion of host growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, M. A.; Li, H-Y; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Bergen, M.; Torres, M. S.; White, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that bacterial endophytes may enhance the competitiveness and invasiveness of Phragmites australis. To evaluate this hypothesis, endophytic bacteria were isolated from P. australis. The majority of the shoot meristem isolates represent species from phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. We chose one species from each phylum to characterize further and to conduct growth promotion experiments in Phragmites. Bacteria tested include Bacillus amyloliquefaciens A9a, Achromobacter spanius B1, and Microbacterium oxydans B2. Isolates were characterized for known growth promotional traits, including indole acetic acid (IAA) production, secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, phosphate solubilization, and antibiosis activity. Potentially defensive antimicrobial lipopeptides were assayed for through application of co-culturing experiments and mass spectrometer analysis. B. amyloliquefaciens A9a and M. oxydans B2 produced IAA. B. amyloliquefaciens A9a secreted antifungal lipopeptides. Capability to promote growth of P. australis under low nitrogen conditions was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. All three isolates were found to increase the growth of P. australis under low soil nitrogen conditions and showed increased absorption of isotopic nitrogen into plants. This suggests that the Phragmites microbes we evaluated most likely promote growth of Phragmites by enhanced scavenging of nitrogenous compounds from the rhizosphere and transfer to host roots. Collectively, our results support the hypothesis that endophytic bacteria play a role in enhancing growth of P. australis in natural populations. Gaining a better understanding of the precise contributions and mechanisms of endophytes in enabling P. australis to develop high densities rapidly could lead to new symbiosis-based strategies for management and control of the host.

  18. Functional Role of Bacteria from Invasive Phragmites australis in Promotion of Host Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, M A; Li, H-Y; Kowalski, K P; Bergen, M; Torres, M S; White, J F

    2016-08-01

    We hypothesize that bacterial endophytes may enhance the competitiveness and invasiveness of Phragmites australis. To evaluate this hypothesis, endophytic bacteria were isolated from P. australis. The majority of the shoot meristem isolates represent species from phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. We chose one species from each phylum to characterize further and to conduct growth promotion experiments in Phragmites. Bacteria tested include Bacillus amyloliquefaciens A9a, Achromobacter spanius B1, and Microbacterium oxydans B2. Isolates were characterized for known growth promotional traits, including indole acetic acid (IAA) production, secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, phosphate solubilization, and antibiosis activity. Potentially defensive antimicrobial lipopeptides were assayed for through application of co-culturing experiments and mass spectrometer analysis. B. amyloliquefaciens A9a and M. oxydans B2 produced IAA. B. amyloliquefaciens A9a secreted antifungal lipopeptides. Capability to promote growth of P. australis under low nitrogen conditions was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. All three isolates were found to increase the growth of P. australis under low soil nitrogen conditions and showed increased absorption of isotopic nitrogen into plants. This suggests that the Phragmites microbes we evaluated most likely promote growth of Phragmites by enhanced scavenging of nitrogenous compounds from the rhizosphere and transfer to host roots. Collectively, our results support the hypothesis that endophytic bacteria play a role in enhancing growth of P. australis in natural populations. Gaining a better understanding of the precise contributions and mechanisms of endophytes in enabling P. australis to develop high densities rapidly could lead to new symbiosis-based strategies for management and control of the host.

  19. Preadaptation and post-introduction evolution facilitate the invasion of Phragmites australis in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wen-Yong; Lambertini, Carla; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Brix, Hans

    2014-12-01

    Compared with non-invasive species, invasive plant species may benefit from certain advantageous traits, for example, higher photosynthesis capacity and resource/energy-use efficiency. These traits can be preadapted prior to introduction, but can also be acquired through evolution following introduction to the new range. Disentangling the origins of these advantageous traits is a fundamental and emerging question in invasion ecology. We conducted a multiple comparative experiment under identical environmental condition with the invasive haplotype M lineage of the wetland grass Phragmites australis and compared the ecophysiological traits of this invasive haplotype M in North America with those of the European ancestor and the conspecific North American native haplotype E lineage, P. australis ssp. americanus. The invasive haplotype M differed significantly from the native North American conspecific haplotype E in several ecophysiological and morphological traits, and the European haplotype M had a more efficient photosynthetic apparatus than the native North American P. australis ssp. americanus. Within the haplotype M lineage, the introduced North American P. australis exhibited different biomass allocation patterns and resource/energy-use strategies compared to its European ancestor group. A discriminant analysis of principal components separated the haplotype M and the haplotype E lineages completely along the first canonical axis, highly related to photosynthetic gas-exchange parameters, photosynthetic energy-use efficiency and payback time. The second canonical axis, highly related to photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and construction costs, significantly separated the introduced P. australis in North America from its European ancestor. Synthesis. We conclude that the European P. australis lineage was preadapted to be invasive prior to its introduction, and that the invasion in North America is further stimulated by rapid post-introduction evolution in

  20. Exposure dose response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Hyridella australis to cadmium spiked sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasinghe Wadige, Chamani P.M., E-mail: chamani.marasinghe.wadige@canberra.edu.au; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • The exposure–dose–response approach was used to assess cadmium exposure and toxicity. • Accumulated cadmium in H. australis reflected the sediment cadmium exposure. • Spill over of cadmium into the biologically active pool was observed. • Increased cadmium resulted in measurable biological effects. • H. australis has the potential to be a cadmium biomonitor in freshwater environments. - Abstract: To understand how benthic biota may respond to the additive or antagonistic effects of metal mixtures in the environment it is first necessary to examine their responses to the individual metals. In this context, laboratory controlled single metal-spiked sediment toxicity tests are useful to assess this. The exposure–dose–response relationships of Hyridella australis to cadmium-spiked sediments were, therefore, investigated in laboratory microcosms. H. australis was exposed to individual cadmium spiked sediments (<0.05 (control), 4 ± 0.3 (low) and 15 ± 1 (high) μg/g dry mass) for 28 days. Dose was measured as cadmium accumulation in whole soft body and individual tissues at weekly intervals over the exposure period. Dose was further examined as sub-cellular localisation of cadmium in hepatopancreas tissues. The biological responses in terms of enzymatic and cellular biomarkers were measured in hepatopancreas tissues at day 28. H. australis accumulated cadmium from spiked sediments with an 8-fold (low exposure organisms) and 16-fold (high exposure organisms) increase at day 28 compared to control organisms. The accumulated tissue cadmium concentrations reflected the sediment cadmium exposure at day 28. Cadmium accumulation in high exposure organisms was inversely related to the tissue calcium concentrations. Gills of H. australis showed significantly higher cadmium accumulation than the other tissues. Accumulated cadmium in biologically active and biologically detoxified metal pools was not significantly different in cadmium exposed

  1. Elevated Aurora B expression contributes to chemoresistance and poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqian; Jiang, Chunling; Li, Huilan; Lv, Feng; Li, Xiaoyan; Qian, Xiaolong; Fu, Li; Xu, Bo; Guo, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Aurora-B is a major kinase responsible for appropriate mitotic progression. Elevated expression of Aurora-B has been frequently associated with several types of cancer, including breast cancer. However, it is not clear whether the alteration contributes to tumor responses to therapies and prognosis. In this study, we conducted immunohistochemistry using antibodies against Aurora-B, S1981p-ATM, Ki67, and p53 in paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from 312 invasive breast cancer patients. The correlation between disease-free-survival (DFS) and Aurora-B expression was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine whether Aurora-B was an independent prognostic factor for breast cancer. We found that Aurora-B expression was correlated with the proliferation index (P breast cancer tissues. Further we found that Aurora-B expression was associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002) and histological grade (P = 0.001). Multivariate analyses indicated that elevated Aurora-B expression predicted a poor survival. In a subgroup of patients that received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we found that elevated Aurora-B contributed to chemoresistance (P = 0.011). In conclusion, elevated Aurora-B expression in breast cancer patients contributes to chemoresistance and predicts poor prognosis.

  2. Microtubules accelerate the kinase activity of Aurora-B by a reduction in dimensionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noujaim, Michael; Bechstedt, Susanne; Wieczorek, Michal; Brouhard, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    Aurora-B is the kinase subunit of the Chromosome Passenger Complex (CPC), a key regulator of mitotic progression that corrects improper kinetochore attachments and establishes the spindle midzone. Recent work has demonstrated that the CPC is a microtubule-associated protein complex and that microtubules are able to activate the CPC by contributing to Aurora-B auto-phosphorylation in trans. Aurora-B activation is thought to occur when the local concentration of Aurora-B is high, as occurs when Aurora-B is enriched at centromeres. It is not clear, however, whether distributed binding to large structures such as microtubules would increase the local concentration of Aurora-B. Here we show that microtubules accelerate the kinase activity of Aurora-B by a "reduction in dimensionality." We find that microtubules increase the kinase activity of Aurora-B toward microtubule-associated substrates while reducing the phosphorylation levels of substrates not associated to microtubules. Using the single molecule assay for microtubule-associated proteins, we show that a minimal CPC construct binds to microtubules and diffuses in a one-dimensional (1D) random walk. The binding of Aurora-B to microtubules is salt-dependent and requires the C-terminal tails of tubulin, indicating that the interaction is electrostatic. We show that the rate of Aurora-B auto-activation is faster with increasing concentrations of microtubules. Finally, we demonstrate that microtubules lose their ability to stimulate Aurora-B when their C-terminal tails are removed by proteolysis. We propose a model in which microtubules act as scaffolds for the enzymatic activity of Aurora-B. The scaffolding activity of microtubules enables rapid Aurora-B activation and efficient phosphorylation of microtubule-associated substrates.

  3. Tomographic Imaging of Water Content and Mine-Induced Stress Distribution in North Aurora, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulemans, A. J.; Fratta, D.; Wang, H. F.

    2013-12-01

    Located in North Aurora, Illinois, the Lafarge-Conco plant is a room-and-pillar mine that is in active production of aggregates, taken from the Galena-Platteville formations. To better understand how stresses are distributed among the pillars over periods of mining production, tomographic images of the interior of the pillar using seismic data collected in November 2012 and March 2013 were created. Seismic tomographic images showed changes in seismic velocity between the two surveys, which is interpreted as change in stress. The southeast corner pillar showed a significant stress increase, and could indicate a possible area of very high stresses within the pillar. While the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) tomographic image was used to assess a very uniform water content and porosity distribution within the pillar. Understanding how stress and moisture distribution changes within pillars during excavation is valuable to mine design and to the maintenance of mine safety.

  4. Aurorasaurus: A citizen science platform for viewing and reporting the aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, E. A.; Case, N. A.; Clayton, J. H.; Hall, M. K.; Heavner, M.; Lalone, N.; Patel, K. G.; Tapia, A.

    2015-09-01

    A new, citizen science-based, aurora observing and reporting platform has been developed with the primary aim of collecting auroral observations made by the general public to further improve the modeling of the aurora. In addition, the real-time ability of this platform facilitates the combination of citizen science observations with auroral oval models to improve auroral visibility nowcasting. Aurorasaurus provides easily understandable aurora information, basic gamification, and real-time location-based notification of verified aurora activity to engage citizen scientists. The Aurorasaurus project is one of only a handful of space weather citizen science projects and can provide useful results for the space weather and citizen science communities. Early results are promising with over 2000 registered users submitting over 1000 aurora observations and verifying over 1700 aurora sightings posted on Twitter.

  5. The CUL3-KLHL18 ligase regulates mitotic entry and ubiquitylates Aurora-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghe, Saili; Jiang, Fei; Miura, Yoshie; Cerny, Ronald L; Tsai, Ming-Ying; Furukawa, Manabu

    2012-02-15

    The cullin-RING family of ubiquitin ligases regulates diverse cellular functions, such as cell cycle control, via ubiquitylation of specific substrates. CUL3 targets its substrates through BTB proteins. Here we show that depletion of CUL3 and the BTB protein KLHL18 causes a delay in mitotic entry. Centrosomal activation of Aurora-A, a kinase whose activity is required for entry into mitosis, is also delayed in depleted cells. Moreover, we identify Aurora-A as a KLHL18-interacting partner. Overexpression of KLHL18 and CUL3 promotes Aurora-A ubiquitylation in vivo, and the CUL3-KLHL18-ROC1 ligase ubiquitylates Aurora-A in vitro. Our study reveals that the CUL3-KLHL18 ligase is required for timely entry into mitosis, as well as for the activation of Aurora-A at centrosomes. We propose that the CUL3-KLHL18 ligase regulates mitotic entry through an Aurora-A-dependent pathway.

  6. The CUL3-KLHL18 ligase regulates mitotic entry and ubiquitylates Aurora-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saili Moghe

    2012-02-01

    The cullin-RING family of ubiquitin ligases regulates diverse cellular functions, such as cell cycle control, via ubiquitylation of specific substrates. CUL3 targets its substrates through BTB proteins. Here we show that depletion of CUL3 and the BTB protein KLHL18 causes a delay in mitotic entry. Centrosomal activation of Aurora-A, a kinase whose activity is required for entry into mitosis, is also delayed in depleted cells. Moreover, we identify Aurora-A as a KLHL18-interacting partner. Overexpression of KLHL18 and CUL3 promotes Aurora-A ubiquitylation in vivo, and the CUL3-KLHL18-ROC1 ligase ubiquitylates Aurora-A in vitro. Our study reveals that the CUL3-KLHL18 ligase is required for timely entry into mitosis, as well as for the activation of Aurora-A at centrosomes. We propose that the CUL3-KLHL18 ligase regulates mitotic entry through an Aurora-A-dependent pathway.

  7. Nueva cita de Utricularia australis R. Br. en el País Vasco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGLESIAS-CARRASCO, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha descubierto una nueva población de la especie Utricularia australis R. Br., catalogada como “en peligro de extinción” en el Catálogo Vasco de Especies Amenazadas. La población, situada en el Alto Nervión, superará, seguramente, el millar de ejemplares.

  8. Seasonal variation in methane oxidation by the rhizosphere of Phragmites australis and Scirpus lacustris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Nat, F.J.; Middelburg, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Methane oxidation in the rhizosphere of two common wetland plants, reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex Steud.) and bulrush (Scirpus lacustris L.), was quantified using the methylfluoride (CH3F) inhibition and anoxic/oxic flux chamber techniques. The similarity of rhizospheric CH4 oxidation

  9. Effect of Salinity on Common Reed (Phragmites australis) in a Restored Salt Marsh in Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidal wetlands have undergone extensive degradation throughout the years because of interference with tidal flow from construction, dredging, and invasion of non-native plants such Phragmites australis. In 1956, a 4-lane highway was constructed in Galilee, Rhode Island, USA, cro...

  10. Hydroponic uptake and distribution of nitrobenzene in Phragmites australis: potential for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanyu; Song, Changchun; Ju, Songbai; Chai, Junhai; Guo, Jun; Zhao, Quandong

    2010-03-01

    Phragmites australis was grown hydroponically in nutrient solutions containing nitrobenzene to examine the potential for treatment of contaminated waters through phytoremediation. The hydroponic solutions and plant tissue were sampled each day during the five day growth period and tested for nitrobenzene. Plant tissue analysis included both rhizome and shoot sections of the plant. The average half lives and disappearance rate of nitrobenzene in the nutrient solution was 1.85 days and 88.10%, respectively. The levels of nitrobenzene in rhizomes and shoots of Phragmites australis increased with higher exogenous concentrations. For the highest treatment, nitrobenzene measurements in the rhizome tissue were much higher than the plant shoots until the third day. Shoot sections initially showed elevated concentrations and then decreased. This variation is presumably due to the translocation of the target compound from the rhizomes to shoots. Our findings indicate that Phragmites australis removed nitrobenzene from the hydroponic solutions and accumulated the compound within the plant tissue. This activity makes Phragmites australis a good candidate species for the phytoremediation of nitrobenzene contaminated waters.

  11. Changes in polyphenols in "Rio Red' grapefruit leaves in response to Elsinoe australis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet orange scab (SOS) is a fungal disease of citrus, which is caused by Elsinoë australis. It affects the aesthetics of the fruit by forming wart-like protruded lesions on the fruit skin, and also affects the leaves, which act as source of inoculum in the orchards. SOS is widespread in the differe...

  12. Primary structure of the oligosaccharide moiety of hemocyanin from the scorpion Androctonus australis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Debeire, P.; Montreuil, J.; Goyffon, M.; Kuik, J.A. van; Halbeek, H. van

    1986-01-01

    Hemocyanin, the copper-containing glycoprotein that serves as an oxygen carrier in the hemolymph of some arthropods and molluscs, was obtained from the blood of the scorpion Androctonus australis. Sugar analysis of the glycoprotein revealed that its carbohydrate moiety is of the N-glycosylic type. T

  13. Identification of clouds and aurorae in optical data images

    CERN Document Server

    Seviour, R; Honary, F

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present an automatic image recognition technique used to identify clouds and aurorae in digital images, taken with a CCD all-sky imager. The image recognition algorithm uses image segmentation to generate a binary block object image. Object analysis is then performed on the binary block image, the results of which are used to assess whether clouds, aurorae and stars are present in the original image. The need for such an algorithm arises because the optical study of particle precipitation into the Earth's atmosphere by the Ionosphere and Radio Propagation Group at Lancaster generates vast data-sets, over 25 000 images/year, making manual classification of all the images impractical.

  14. Using the Aurora to Remote Sense Near-Earth Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Eric

    2012-10-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere is formed by the interaction of the solar wind and Earth's magnetic field. Sitting like a giant wind sock in the solar wind, the magnetosphere is an enormous and dynamic region. The processes at work within the magnetosphere serve as exemplars of phenomena that happen throughout the cosmos, and have consequences in the upper atmosphere. One of those is the aurora, a truly global and multi-scale phenomenon that we are only beginning to understand. Of all the countries on Earth, Canada has the largest region of land under the auroral zone, something Canadian scientists have capitalized on for more than fifty years. In this talk, I will outline how we use observations of the aurora to remote sense the magnetosphere, focusing on Canadian ground-based and space-based programs that provide remarkable images of this beautiful natural phenomenon.

  15. Aurora-A regulates MCRS1 function during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Sylvain; Timón, Krystal; Vernos, Isabelle

    2016-07-02

    The mitotic spindle is made of microtubules (MTs) nucleated through different pathways involving the centrosomes, the chromosomes or the walls of pre-existing MTs. MCRS1 is a RanGTP target that specifically associates with the chromosome-driven MTs protecting them from MT depolymerases. MCRS1 is also needed for the control of kinetochore fiber (K-fiber) MT minus-ends dynamics in metaphase. Here, we investigated the regulation of MCRS1 activity in M-phase. We show that MCRS1 is phosphorylated by the Aurora-A kinase in mitosis on Ser35/36. Although this phosphorylation has no role on MCRS1 localization to chromosomal MTs and K-fiber minus-ends, we show that it regulates MCRS1 activity in mitosis. We conclude that Aurora-A activity is particularly important in the tuning of K-fiber minus-ends dynamics in mitosis.

  16. Planetary protection in the framework of the Aurora exploration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, G.

    The Aurora Exploration Program will give ESA new responsibilities in the field of planetary protection. Until now, ESA had only limited exposure to planetary protection from its own missions. With the proposed ExoMars and MSR missions, however, ESA will enter the realm of the highest planetary protection categories. As a consequence, the Aurora Exploration Program has initiated a number of activities in the field of planetary protection. The first and most important step was to establish a Planetary Protection Working Group (PPWG) that is advising the Exploration Program Advisory Committee (EPAC) on all matters concerning planetary protection. The main task of the PPWG is to provide recommendations regarding: Planetary protection for robotic missions to Mars; Planetary protection for a potential human mission to Mars; Review/evaluate standards & procedures for planetary protection; Identify research needs in the field of planetary protection. As a result of the PPWG deliberations, a number of activities have been initiated: Evaluation of the Microbial Diversity in SC Facilities; Working paper on legal issues of planetary protection and astrobiology; Feasibility study on a Mars Sample Return Containment Facility; Research activities on sterilization procedures; Training course on planetary protection (May, 2004); Workshop on sterilization techniques (fall 2004). In parallel to the PPWG, the Aurora Exploration Program has established an Ethical Working Group (EWG). This working group will address ethical issues related to astrobiology, planetary protection, and manned interplanetary missions. The recommendations of the working groups and the results of the R&D activities form the basis for defining planetary protection specification for Aurora mission studies, and for proposing modification and new inputs to the COSPAR planetary protection policy. Close cooperation and free exchange of relevant information with the NASA planetary protection program is strongly

  17. "Making Sense of the Aurora: A Research Project"

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Marc Friedman

    2012-01-01

    The article provides an introduction to a on-going research project based at University of Tromsø that seeks to analyze the history of efforts to make sense of the aurora borealis from the early 1700s through to the Cold War. Following brilliant displays of the northern lights in the early eighteenth century, natural philosophers strove to explain this phenomenon that evoked widespread fear and superstition. It was not until well into the twentieth century that consensual explanation emerged ...

  18. Evolutionary relationships of Aurora kinases: Implications for model organism studies and the development of anti-cancer drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Denis R

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As key regulators of mitotic chromosome segregation, the Aurora family of serine/threonine kinases play an important role in cell division. Abnormalities in Aurora kinases have been strongly linked with cancer, which has lead to the recent development of new classes of anti-cancer drugs that specifically target the ATP-binding domain of these kinases. From an evolutionary perspective, the species distribution of the Aurora kinase family is complex. Mammals uniquely have three Aurora kinases, Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C, while for other metazoans, including the frog, fruitfly and nematode, only Aurora-A and Aurora-B kinases are known. The fungi have a single Aurora-like homolog. Based on the tacit assumption of orthology to human counterparts, model organism studies have been central to the functional characterization of Aurora kinases. However, the ortholog and paralog relationships of these kinases across various species have not been rigorously examined. Here, we present comprehensive evolutionary analyses of the Aurora kinase family. Results Phylogenetic trees suggest that all three vertebrate Auroras evolved from a single urochordate ancestor. Specifically, Aurora-A is an orthologous lineage in cold-blooded vertebrates and mammals, while structurally similar Aurora-B and Aurora-C evolved more recently in mammals from a duplication of an ancestral Aurora-B/C gene found in cold-blooded vertebrates. All so-called Aurora-A and Aurora-B kinases of non-chordates are ancestral to the clade of chordate Auroras and, therefore, are not strictly orthologous to vertebrate counterparts. Comparisons of human Aurora-B and Aurora-C sequences to the resolved 3D structure of human Aurora-A lends further support to the evolutionary scenario that vertebrate Aurora-B and Aurora-C are closely related paralogs. Of the 26 residues lining the ATP-binding active site, only three were variant and all were specific to Aurora-A. Conclusions In

  19. Phragmites australis and Typha orientalis in removal of pollutant in Taihu Lake, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Ziqiang; ZHENG Binghui; LIU Meizhen; ZHANG Zhenyu

    2009-01-01

    Two plant populations of Phragmites australis and Typha orientalis grown in gravel and sediment substrate were studied to assess their capabilities for purifying polluted water in Taihu Lake, China. The substrate displayed most significant effects on the suspended matter (P < 0.01), with the reduction of 76%-87% and 52%-63% for P. australis, and 83%-86% and 45%-62% for T. orientalis in gravel substrate and sediment substrate, respectively. Both species and substrates significantly decreased the N and P concentrations of water body (P < 0.01). P. australis showed higher total N and P concentrations in tissues than T. orientalis and had greater potential to remove nutrients from the lake. Phosphate was easily to concentrate in the belowground tissues, while nitrate concentration was higher in leaf and stalk. Therefore, harvesting the aboveground tissues could take most of nitrate out of the sediment. The saturate photosynthetic rate (Asat) of P. australis was higher than that of T. orientalis when grown in sediment substrate. But instance water use efficiency (WUEi) and intrinsic water use efficiency (A/gs) showed the maximum values of two species grown in river water. With significant difference in gs, however, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) had no obvious difference in two species which indicated that high Asat value of P. australis might result from the increased carboxylation capacity of the mesophyll, because of the central role of N in photosynthetic enzymes. Our findings suggest that the plants could absorb most of nitrogen in polluted water, while gravel displayed high capacity for absorbing the suspended matters and phosphate salts. Therefore, biological and physiological pathways for pollutant removal should be integrated.

  20. Evaluating the phytoremediation potential of Phragmites australis grown in pentachlorophenol and cadmium co-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechmi, Nejla; Aissa, Nadhira Ben; Abdenaceur, Hassen; Jedidi, Naceur

    2014-01-01

    Pot-culture experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of a wetland plant species, Phragmites australis in cadmium (Cd) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) co-contaminated soil under glasshouse conditions for 70 days. The treatments included Cd (0, 5 and 50 mg kg(-1)) without or with PCP (50 and 250 mg kg(-1)). The results showed that growth of P. australis was significantly influenced by interaction of Cd and PCP, decreasing with either Cd or PCP additions. Plant biomass was inhibited and reduced by the rate of 89 and 92% in the low and high Cd treatments and by 20 and 40% in the low and high PCP treatments compared to the control. The mixture of low Cd and low PCP lessened Cd toxicity to plants, resulting in improved plant growth (by 144%). Under the joint stress of the two contaminants, the ability of Cd uptake and translocation by P. australis was weak, and the BF and TF values were inferior to 1.0. A low proportion of the metal is found aboveground in comparison to roots, indicating a restriction on transport upwards and an excluding effect on Cd uptake. Thus, P. australis cannot be useful for phytoextraction. The removal rate of PCP increased significantly (70%) in planted soil. Significant positive correlations were found between the DHA and the removal of PCP in planted soils which implied that plant root exudates promote the rhizosphere microorganisms and enzyme activity, thereby improving biodegradation of PCP. Based on results, P. australis cannot be effective for phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with Cd and PCP. Further, high levels of pollutant hamper and eventually inhibit plant growth. Therefore, developing supplementary methods (e.g. exploring the partnership of plant-microbe) for either enhancing (phytoextraction) or reducing the bioavailability of contaminants in the rhizosphere (phytostabilization) as well as plant growth promoting could significantly improve the process of phytoremediation in co-contaminated soil.

  1. Is diffuse aurora driven from above or below?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Zesta, E.

    2017-01-01

    In the diffuse aurora, magnetospheric electrons, initially precipitated from the inner plasma sheet via wave-particle interaction processes, degrade in the atmosphere toward lower energies, and produce secondary electrons via impact ionization of the neutral atmosphere. These initially precipitating electrons of magnetospheric origin can also be additionally reflected back into the magnetosphere, leading to a series of multiple reflections by the two magnetically conjugate atmospheres that can greatly impact the initially precipitating flux at the upper ionospheric boundary (700-800 km). The resultant population of secondary and primary electrons cascades toward lower energies and escape back to the magnetosphere. Escaping upward electrons traveling from the ionosphere can be trapped in the magnetosphere, as they travel inside the loss cone, via Coulomb collisions with the cold plasma, or by interactions with various plasma waves. Even though this scenario is intuitively transparent, this magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling element is not considered in any of the existing diffuse aurora research. Nevertheless, as we demonstrate in this letter, this process has the potential to dramatically affect the formation of electron precipitated fluxes in the regions of diffuse auroras.

  2. The Grand Aurorae Borealis Seen in Colombia in 1859

    CERN Document Server

    Cárdenas, Freddy Moreno; Domínguez, Santiago Vargas

    2015-01-01

    On Thursday, September 1, 1859, the British astronomer Richard Carrington, for the first time ever, observes a spectacular gleam of visible light on the surface of the solar disk, the photosphere. The Carrington Event, as it is nowadays known by scientists, occurred because of the high solar activity that had visible consequences on Earth, in particular reports of outstanding aurorae activity that amazed thousands of people in the western hemisphere during the dawn of September 2. The geomagnetic storm, generated by the solar-terrestrial event, had such a magnitude that the auroral oval expanded towards the equator, allowing low latitudes, like Panama's 9$^\\circ$ N, to catch a sight of the aurorae. An expedition was carried out to review several historical reports and books from the northern cities of Colombia, allowing the identification of a narrative from Monter\\'ia, Colombia (8$^\\circ$ 45' N), that describes phenomena resembling those of an aurorae borealis, such as fire-like lights, blazing and dazzling ...

  3. The Jovian UV aurorae as seen by Juno-UVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfond, Bertrand; Gladstone, Randy; Grodent, Denis; Hue, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Claude; Versteeg, Maarten; Greathouse, Thomas; Davis, Michael; Bolton, Scott; Levin, Steven; Connerney, John; Bagenal, Fran

    2017-04-01

    The Juno spacecraft was inserted in orbit around Jupiter on July 4th 2016. Its highly elongated polar orbit brings it tops every 53,5 days, allowing spectacular and unprecedented views of its polar aurorae. The Juno-UVS instrument is an imaging spectrograph observing perpendicularly to the Juno spin axis. It is equipped with a moving scan mirror at the entrance of the instrument that allows the field of view to be directed up to +/-30° away from the spin plane. The 70-205 nm bandpass comprises key UV auroral emissions such as the H2 bands and the H Lyman alpha line, as well as hydrocarbon absorption bands. We present polar maps of the aurorae at Jupiter for the first three first few periapses. These maps offer the first high resolution observations of the night-side aurorae. We will discuss the observed auroral morphology, including the satellite footprints, the outer emissions, the main emission and the polar emissions. We will also show maps of the color ratio, comparing the relative intensity of wavelengths subject to different degrees of absorption by CH4. Such measurements directly relate to the energy of the precipitating particles, since the more energetic the particles, the deeper they penetrate and the stronger the resulting methane absorption. For example, we will show evidence of longitudinal shifts between the brightness peaks and color ratio peaks in several auroral features. Such shifts may be interpreted as the result of the differential particle drift in plasma injection signatures.

  4. Meso-scale aurora within the expansion phase bulge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Partamies

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We present ground-based optical, riometer and magnetometer recordings together with Polar UVI and GOES magnetic field observations of a substorm that occurred over Canada on 24 November 1997. This event involved a clear optical onset followed by poleward motion of the aurora as a signature of an expanding auroral bulge. During the expansion phase, there were three distinct types of meso-scale (10–1000 km auroral structures embedded in the bulge: at first a series of equatorward moving auroral arcs, followed by a well-defined spiral pair, and finally north-south directed aurora (a streamer. The spirals occurred several minutes after the onset, and indicate a shear in the field-aligned current. The north-south aligned aurora that formed about 10 min after the onset suggest bursty bulk flow type flows taking place in the central plasma sheet. Polar UVI observations of the polar cap location indicate that the southward drifting arcs were associated with magnetospheric activity within closed field lines, while the auroral streamer was launched by the bulge reaching the polar cap boundary, i.e. the mid-tail reconnection starting on the open field lines. The riometer data imply high energy electron precipitation in the vicinity of the the poleward moving edge of the auroral bulge, starting at the onset and continuing until the formation of the north-south structure. In this paper, we examine this evolving auroral morphology within the context of substorm theories.

  5. Ground Observations of Post-Noon Aurora :a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of the post-noon aurora observed at Antarctic Zhongshan station on June 12, 1999, were discussed and analyzed. In the condition of the magnetic activity is not large(Kp≈l), for post-noon 630. 0 nm emissions, the total fluxes of soft precipitating particles were increasing from 10:50 UT to 13:35 UT and were decreasing from 13 :35 UT to 18 :00 UT in almost monotonous way. Away from noon, the 557. 7 nm emissions increased gradually from 10 :50 UT to 17 :10 UT. The behaviors of the precipitat- ing particles for exciting 630. 0 nm aurora and 557. 7 nm aurora were quite different. The peak intensity of 630. 0 nm and 557. 7 nm emissions appeared at about 13:35 UT and 15:40 UT respectively, the time differ- ence of two peaks is about 2 h. The energy of precipitating electrons remained fairly steady until 15:00 UT when it rose dramatically.

  6. Ancient writings reveal presence of aurora in 13th-century Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Sam

    Modern Norway, Iceland, and Greenland are subject to frequent displays of the aurora borealis. The aurora can be viewed on almost every clear night in the northern part of Iceland and southern Greenland, which lie in or near the auroral oval. Thus, it is surprising to find almost no mention of the aurora in medieval Norse chronicles or in the extensive Icelandic saga literature. Only one paragraph, in the "King's Mirror," a Norwegian writing dating to about 1250 C.E., notes the occurrence of the aurora in Greenland. The author reports this as hearsay and not from personal knowledge. For a fuller discussion of the Norse literature, see Brekke and Egeland [1983].

  7. Essential Roles of mTOR/Akt Pathway in Aurora-A Cell Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Taga, Eiji Hirooka, Toru Ouchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently demonstrated that Aurora-A kinase is a potential oncogene to develop mammary gland tumors in mice, when expressed under MMTV promoter. These tumors contain phosphorylated forms of Akt and mTOR, suggesting that Akt-mTOR pathway is involved in transformed phenotype induced by Aurora-A. In the present studies, we discovered that stable cell lines expressing Aurora-A contain phosphorylation of Akt Ser473 after prolonged passages of cell culture, not in cells of the early period of cell culture. Levels of PTEN tumor suppressor are significantly reduced in these late passage cells at least in part due to increased poly ubiquitination of the protein. Akt-activated Aurora-A cells formed larger colonies in soft agar and are resistant to UV-induced apoptosis. Aurora-A inhibitor, VX-680, can cause cell death of Aurora-A cells in which Akt is not activated. siRNA-mediated depletion of mTOR in those cells resulted in decreased phosphorylation of Akt Ser473, suggesting that TORC2 complex phosphorylates Akt in Aurora-A cells. Treatment of late-passage Aurora-A cells with mTOR inhibitor reduced colony formation in soft agar. These results strongly suggest that commitment of cell transformation by Aurora-A is determined by at least co-activation of Akt/mTOR pathway.

  8. Phosphorylation of MAP65-1 by Arabidopsis Aurora Kinases Is Required for Efficient Cell Cycle Progression1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Annika K.; Stoppin-Mellet, Virginie; Kosetsu, Ken; Cedeño, Cesyen; Jaquinod, Michel; Njo, Maria; De Milde, Liesbeth; Tompa, Peter; Inzé, Dirk; Beeckman, Tom; Vantard, Marylin

    2017-01-01

    Aurora kinases are key effectors of mitosis. Plant Auroras are functionally divided into two clades. The alpha Auroras (Aurora1 and Aurora2) associate with the spindle and the cell plate and are implicated in controlling formative divisions throughout plant development. The beta Aurora (Aurora3) localizes to centromeres and likely functions in chromosome separation. In contrast to the wealth of data available on the role of Aurora in other kingdoms, knowledge on their function in plants is merely emerging. This is exemplified by the fact that only histone H3 and the plant homolog of TPX2 have been identified as Aurora substrates in plants. Here we provide biochemical, genetic, and cell biological evidence that the microtubule-bundling protein MAP65-1—a member of the MAP65/Ase1/PRC1 protein family, implicated in central spindle formation and cytokinesis in animals, yeasts, and plants—is a genuine substrate of alpha Aurora kinases. MAP65-1 interacts with Aurora1 in vivo and is phosphorylated on two residues at its unfolded tail domain. Its overexpression and down-regulation antagonistically affect the alpha Aurora double mutant phenotypes. Phospho-mutant analysis shows that Aurora contributes to the microtubule bundling capacity of MAP65-1 in concert with other mitotic kinases. PMID:27879390

  9. AURORA on MEGSAT 1 a photon counting observatory for the Earth UV night-sky background and Aurora emission

    CERN Document Server

    Monfardini, A; Stalio, R; Mahne, N; Battiston, R; Menichelli, M; Mazzinghi, P

    2001-01-01

    A low-mass, low-cost photon-counting scientific payload has been developed and launched on a commercial microsatellite in order to study the near-UV night-sky background emission with a telescope nicknamed 'Notte' and the Aurora emission with 'Alba'. AURORA, this is the name of the experiment, will determine, with the 'Notte' channel, the overall night-side photon background in the 300-400 nm spectral range, together with a particular 2 sup + N sub 2 line (lambda sub c =337 nm). The 'Alba' channel, on the other hand, will study the Aurora emissions in four different spectral bands (FWHM=8.4-9.6 nm) centered on: 367 nm (continuum evaluation), 391 nm (1 sup - N sup + sub 2), 535 nm (continuum evaluation), 560 nm (OI). The instrument has been launched on the 26 September, 2000 from the Baikonur cosmodrome on a modified SS18 Dnepr-1 'Satan' rocket. The satellite orbit is nearly circular (h sub a sub p sub o sub g sub e sub e =648 km, e=0.0022), and the inclination of the orbital plane is 64.56 deg. An overview of...

  10. Experimental and Clinical Evaluation of Plantago australis Extract as an Anti-Inflammatory Agent to Treat Oral Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Plantago australis is a native plant from Southern Brazil used to reduce inflammation. Interestingly, there are no previous studies evaluating its use to treat oral lesions. Objectives The study aimed to investigate in vivo the anti-inflammatory activity of 10% ethanol extract of P. australis in recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS, erosive lichen planus (ELP and actinic cheilitis (AC. Methods Thirty patients with RAS, ELP and AC were treated topically with 10% P. australis solution-based or cream. Results In the comparison of in vivo data before and after the treatment and between different lesions, all P values were less than 0.05. Conclusions The pharmaceutical formulation of 10% P. australis was therapeutically effective in the subjects with inflammatory oral lesions of RAS, ELP and AC.

  11. Two TPX2-dependent switches control the activity of Aurora A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Xu

    Full Text Available Aurora A is an important oncogenic kinase for mitotic spindle assembly and a potentially attractive target for human cancers. Its activation could be regulated by ATP cycle and its activator TPX2. To understand the activation mechanism of Aurora A, a series of 20 ns molecular dynamics (MD simulations were performed on both the wild-type kinase and its mutants. Analyzing the three dynamic trajectories (Aurora A-ATP, Aurora A-ADP, and Aurora A-ADP-TPX2 at the residue level, for the first time we find two TPX2-dependent switches, i.e., switch-1 (Lys-143 and switch-2 (Arg-180, which are tightly associated with Aurora A activation. In the absence of TPX2, Lys-143 exhibits a "closed" state, and becomes hydrogen-bonded to ADP. Once TPX2 binding occurs, switch-1 is forced to "open" the binding site, thus pulling ADP away from Aurora A. Without facilitation of TPX2, switch-2 exits in an "open" conformation which accompanies the outward-flipping movement of P·Thr288 (in an inactive conformation, leading to the crucial phosphothreonine exposed and accessible for deactivation. However, with the binding of TPX2, switch-2 is forced to undergo a "closed" movement, thus capturing P·Thr288 into a buried position and locking its active conformation. Analysis of two Aurora A (K143A and R180A mutants for the two switches further verifies their functionality and reliability in controlling Aurora activity. Our systems therefore suggest two switches determining Aurora A activation, which are important for the development of aurora kinase inhibitors.

  12. 78 FR 52758 - Foreign-Trade Zone 123-Denver, Colorado; Application for Subzone, Pillow Kingdom, Inc., Aurora...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... Kingdom, Inc., Aurora, Colorado An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board... Pillow Kingdom, Inc. (Pillow Kingdom), located in Aurora, Colorado. The application was...

  13. Drilling Polar Oceans with the European Research Icebreaker AURORA BOREALIS: the IODP Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke-Jene, Lester; Wolff-Boenisch, Bonnie; Azzolini, Roberto; Thiede, Joern; Biebow, Nicole; Eldholm, Olav; Egerton, Paul

    2010-05-01

    scientific communities a preferential focus in non-drilling expedition planning could be established e.g. for dedicated geophysical pre-site survey works in areas inaccessible by other vessels to secure critical data needed for later drilling expeditions. Based on ongoing expert consultations, it is safe to assume that the average costs for an Arctic or polar drilling expedition will be considerably lower than with an otherwise necessary multi-ship setup based on modelled expedition scenarios and annual operational cost calculations. Still, AURORA BOREALIS shall provide substantially enhanced scientific, operational, personnel and technical capacities offshore.

  14. Interspecific interactions between Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora along a tidal gradient in the Dongtan wetland, Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yuan

    Full Text Available The invasive species Spartina alterniora Loisel was introduced to the eastern coast of China in the 1970s and 1980s for the purposes of land reclamation and the prevention of soil erosion. The resulting interspecific competition had an important influence on the distribution of native vegetation, which makes studying the patterns and mechanisms of the interactions between Spartina alterniora Loisel and the native species Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin ex Steud in this region very important. There have been some researches on the interspecific interactions between P. australis and S. alterniora in the Dongtan wetland of Chongming, east China, most of which has focused on the comparison of their physiological characteristics. In this paper, we conducted a neighbor removal experiment along a tidal gradient to evaluate the relative competitive abilities of the two species by calculating their relative neighbor effect (RNE index. We also looked at the influence of environmental stress and disturbance on the competitive abilities of the two species by comparing interaction strength (I among different tidal zones both for P. australis and S. alterniora. Finally, we measured physiological characteristics of the two species to assess the physiological mechanisms behind their different competitive abilities. Both negative and positive interactions were found between P. australis and S. alterniora along the environmental gradient. When the direction of the competitive intensity index for P. australis and S. alterniora was consistent, the competitive or facilitative effect of S. alterniora on P. australis was stronger than that of P. australis on S. alterniora. The interspecific interactions of P. australis and S. alterniora varied with environmental conditions, as well as with the method used, to measure interspecific interactions.

  15. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  16. Therapeutic potential of mitotic interaction between the nucleoporin Tpr and aurora kinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Akiko; Hashizume, Chieko; Dowaki, Takayuki; Wong, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Spindle poles are defined by centrosomes; therefore, an abnormal number or defective structural organization of centrosomes can lead to loss of spindle bipolarity and genetic integrity. Previously, we showed that Tpr (translocated promoter region), a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), interacts with Mad1 and dynein to promote proper chromosome segregation during mitosis. Tpr also associates with p53 to induce autophagy. Here, we report that Tpr depletion induces mitotic catastrophe and enhances the rate of tetraploidy and polyploidy. Mechanistically, Tpr interacts, via its central domain, with Aurora A but not Aurora B kinase. In Tpr-depleted cells, the expression levels, centrosomal localization and phosphorylation of Aurora A were all reduced. Surprisingly, an Aurora A inhibitor, Alisertib (MLN8237), also disrupted centrosomal localization of Tpr and induced mitotic catastrophe and cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Strikingly, over-expression of Aurora A disrupted Tpr centrosomal localization only in cells with supernumerary centrosomes but not in bipolar cells. Our results highlight the mutual regulation between Tpr and Aurora A and further confirm the importance of nucleoporin function in spindle pole organization, bipolar spindle assembly, and mitosis; functions that are beyond the conventional nucleocytoplasmic transport and NPC structural roles of nucleoporins. Furthermore, the central coiled-coil domain of Tpr binds to and sequesters extra Aurora A to safeguard bipolarity. This Tpr domain merits further investigation for its ability to inhibit Aurora kinase and as a potential therapeutic agent in cancer treatment.

  17. Polo-Like Kinase-1 Controls Aurora A Destruction by Activating APC/C-Cdh1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leuken, Renske; Clijsters, Linda; van Zon, Wouter; Lim, Dan; Yao, XueBiao; Wolthuis, Rob M. F.; Yaffe, Michael B.; Medema, Rene H.; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1) is activated before mitosis by Aurora A and its cofactor Bora. In mitosis, Bora is degraded in a manner dependent on Plk1 kinase activity and the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF-beta TrCP. Here, we show that Plk1 is also required for the timely destruction of its activator Aurora A

  18. Proteomic analysis of human metaphase chromosomes reveals Topoisomerase II alpha as an Aurora B substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ciaran; Henzing, Alexander J; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2002-01-01

    The essential Aurora B kinase is a chromosomal passenger protein that is required for mitotic chromosome alignment and segregation. Aurora B function is dependent on the chromosome passenger, INCENP. INCENP, in turn, requires sister chromatid cohesion for its appropriate behaviour. Relatively few...

  19. 76 FR 65216 - Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, CO; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, CO; Notice of Negative... apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of Beacon Medical Services, LLC, Aurora, Colorado (Beacon Medical Services). The negative determination was issued on June 22...

  20. 78 FR 64196 - Approval of Subzone Status: Pillow Kingdom, Inc., Aurora, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Subzone Status: Pillow Kingdom, Inc., Aurora, Colorado On August 21... existing activation limit of FTZ 123, on behalf of Pillow Kingdom, Inc., in Aurora, Colorado....

  1. Bora and Aurora-A continue to activate Plk1 in mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Wytse; Macurek, Libor; Freire, Raimundo; Lindqvist, Arne; Medema, René H

    2014-02-15

    Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1) is required for proper cell division. Activation of Plk1 requires phosphorylation on a conserved threonine in the T-loop of the kinase domain (T210). Plk1 is first phosphorylated on T210 in G2 phase by the kinase Aurora-A, in concert with its cofactor Bora. However, Bora was shown to be degraded prior to entry into mitosis, and it is currently unclear how Plk1 activity is sustained in mitosis. Here we show that the Bora-Aurora-A complex remains the major activator of Plk1 in mitosis. We show that a small amount of Aurora-A activity is sufficient to phosphorylate and activate Plk1 in mitosis. In addition, a fraction of Bora is retained in mitosis, which is essential for continued Aurora-A-dependent T210 phosphorylation of Plk1. We find that once Plk1 is activated, minimal amounts of the Bora-Aurora-A complex are sufficient to sustain Plk1 activity. Thus, the activation of Plk1 by Aurora-A may function as a bistable switch; highly sensitive to inhibition of Aurora-A in its initial activation, but refractory to fluctuations in Aurora-A activity once Plk1 is fully activated. This provides a cell with robust Plk1 activity once it has committed to mitosis.

  2. Proteomic analysis of human metaphase chromosomes reveals Topoisomerase II alpha as an Aurora B substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ciaran; Henzing, Alexander J; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard;

    2002-01-01

    The essential Aurora B kinase is a chromosomal passenger protein that is required for mitotic chromosome alignment and segregation. Aurora B function is dependent on the chromosome passenger, INCENP. INCENP, in turn, requires sister chromatid cohesion for its appropriate behaviour. Relatively few...

  3. Depletion of Aurora-A in zebrafish causes growth retardation due to mitotic delay and p53-dependent cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hee-Yeon; Lee, Hyunsook

    2013-03-01

    Aurora-A is a serine/threonine mitotic kinase that is required for centrosome maturation. Many cancer cells over-express Aurora-A, and several reports have suggested that Aurora-A has prognostic value in the clinical treatment of cancer. Therefore, inhibitors for Aurora-A kinase have been developed. However, studies on Aurora-A are largely performed in cancer cell lines and are sometimes controversial. For effective evaluation of Aurora-A inhibitors in cancer treatment, it is essential to understand its function at the organism level. Here, we report the crucial functions of Aurora-A in homeostasis of spindle organization in mitosis using zebrafish embryogenesis as a model system. Using morpholino technology, we show that depletion of Aurora-A in zebrafish embryogenesis results in short bent trunks, accompanied by growth retardation and eventual cell death. Live-imaging and immunofluorescence analyses of the embryos revealed that the developmental defects are due to problems in mitosis, manifested through monopolar and disorganized spindle formation. Aurora-A-depleted cells exhibited mitotic arrest with congression failure, leading to activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint. Cell death in the absence of Aurora-A was partially rescued by co-injection of the p53 morpholino, suggesting that apoptosis after Aurora-A depletion is p53-dependent. The clinical implications of these results relate to the indication that Aurora-A inhibitors may be effective towards cancers with intact p53.

  4. The dawn of Aurora kinase research: from fly genetics to the clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar eCarmena

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aurora kinases comprise a family of highly conserved serine-threonine protein kinases that play a pivotal role in the regulation of cell cycle. Aurora kinases are not only involved in the control of multiple processes during cell division but also coordinate chromosomal and cytoskeletal events, contributing to the regulation of checkpoints and ensuring the smooth progression of the cell cycle.Because of their fundamental contribution to cell cycle regulation, Aurora kinases were originally identified in independent genetic screens designed to find genes involved in the regulation of cell division. The first aurora mutant was part of a collection of mutants isolated in C. Nusslein-Volhard’s laboratory. This collection was screened in D. M. Glover’s laboratory in search for mutations disrupting the centrosome cycle in embryos derived from homozygous mutant mothers. The mutants identified were given names related to the polar regions, and included not only aurora but also the equally famous polo. Ipl1, the only Aurora in yeast, was identified in a genetic screen looking for mutations that caused chromosome segregation defects. The discovery of a second Aurora-like kinase in mammals opened a new chapter in the research of Aurora kinases. The rat kinase AIM was found to be highly homologous to the fly and yeast proteins, but localised at the midzone and midbody and was proposed to have a role in cytokinesis. Homologs of the equatorial Aurora (Aurora B were identified in metazoans ranging from flies to humans. Xenopus Aurora B was found to be in a complex with the chromosomal passenger INCENP, and both proteins were shown to be essential in flies for chromosome structure, segregation, central spindle formation and cytokinesis. Fifteen years on, Aurora kinase research is an active field of research. After the successful introduction of the first anti-mitotic agents in cancer therapy, both Auroras have become the focus of attention as targets for

  5. Model of the Crustal Magnetic Field in the Martian Aurora Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Dong-Sheng; CHEN Chu-Xin

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that aurorae are prominent on planets with a global magnetic field and occur where open magnetic Geld lines converge. The UV spectrometer used for investigating the characteristics of the atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) on board the Mars Express made the first observation of auroral-type emission in the cusp region of the strong crustal magnetic field on Mars and found that the arc of the Martian aurora zone is very narrow in width, which obviously differs from that of other planets. Based on the observation, we put forward a model of a crustal magnetic field on the Martian aurora zone through the morphology of Martian aurorae. In the model, equivalent currents are proposed; the topology and magnitude of the magnetic field generated by these equivalent currents are consistent with that of the crustal magnetic field in the Martian aurora zone. The morphology of the Martian aurora zone generated through the model matches well with the observations made by the Mars Express orbiter.%It is well known that aurorae are prominent on planets with a global magnetic field and occur where open magnetic field lines converge.The UV spectrometer used for investigating the characteristics of the atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) on board the Mars Express made the first observation of auroral-type emission in the cusp region of the strong crustal magnetic field on Mars and found that the arc of the Martian aurora zone is very narrow in width,which obviously differs from that of other planets.Based on the observation,we put forward a model of a crustal magnetic field on the Martian aurora zone through the morphology of Martian aurorae.In the model,equivalent currents are proposed;the topology and magnitude of the magnetic field generated by these equivalent currents are consistent with that of the crustal magnetic field in the Martian aurora zone.The morphology of the Martian aurora zone generated through the model matches well with the observations made by the Mars Express

  6. Records of sunspot and aurora activity during 581-959 CE in Chinese official histories concerning the periods of Suí, Táng, and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamazawa, Harufumi; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Hayakawa, Hisashi; Tsukamoto, Asuka; Isobe, Hiroaki; Ebihara, Yusuke

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies concerning radioisotopes in tree rings or ice cores suggest that extreme space weather events occurred during the pre-telescope age. Observational records of naked-eye sunspots and low-latitude auroras in historical documents during this age can provide useful information about past solar activity. In this paper, we present the results of a comprehensive survey of records of sunspots and auroras in Chinese official histories from the 6th century to the 10th century, in the period of Suí, Táng, the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. These official histories contain records of continuous observations with well-formatted reports conducted under the policy of the governments. A brief comparison of the frequency of observations of sunspots and auroras based on observations of radioisotopes as an indicator of solar activity during the corresponding periods is provided. Using our data, we surveyed and compiled the records of sunspots and auroras in historical documents from various locations and in several languages, and ultimately provide these as open data to the scientific community.

  7. Records of sunspot and aurora activity during 581-959 CE in Chinese official histories concerning the periods of Suí, Táng, and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamazawa, Harufumi; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Hayakawa, Hisashi; Tsukamoto, Asuka; Isobe, Hiroaki; Ebihara, Yusuke

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies concerning radioisotopes in tree rings or ice cores suggest that extreme space weather events occurred during the pre-telescope age. Observational records of naked-eye sunspots and low-latitude auroras in historical documents during this age can provide useful information about past solar activity. In this paper, we present the results of a comprehensive survey of records of sunspots and auroras in Chinese official histories from the 6th century to the 10th century, in the period of Suí, Táng, the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. These official histories contain records of continuous observations with well-formatted reports conducted under the policy of the governments. A brief comparison of the frequency of observations of sunspots and auroras based on observations of radioisotopes as an indicator of solar activity during the corresponding periods is provided. Using our data, we surveyed and compiled the records of sunspots and auroras in historical documents from various locations and in several languages, and ultimately provide these as open data to the scientific community.

  8. Spiral structures and regularities in magnetic field variations and auroras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Feldstein

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The conception of spiral shaped precipitation regions, where solar corpuscles penetrate the upper atmosphere, was introduced into geophysics by C. Störmer and K. Birkeland at the beginning of the last century. Later, in the course of the XX-th century, spiral distributions were disclosed and studied in various geophysical phenomena. Most attention was devoted to spiral shapes in the analysis of regularities pertaining to the geomagnetic activity and auroras.

    We review the historical succession of perceptions about the number and positions of spiral shapes, that characterize the spatial-temporal distribution of magnetic disturbances. We describe the processes in the upper atmosphere, which are responsible for the appearance of spiral patterns. We considered the zones of maximal aurora frequency and of maximal particle precipitation intensity, as offered in the literature, in their connection with the spirals.

    We discuss the current system model, that is closely related to the spirals and that appears to be the source for geomagnetic field variations during magnetospheric substorms and storms. The currents in ionosphere and magnetosphere constitute together with field-aligned (along the geomagnetic field lines currents (FACs a common 3-D current system. At ionospheric heights, the westward and eastward electrojets represent characteristic elements of the current system. The westward electrojet covers the longitudinal range from the morning to the evening hours, while the eastward electrojet ranges from afternoon to near-midnight hours. The polar electrojet is positioned in the dayside sector at cusp latitudes. All these electrojets map along the magnetic field lines to certain plasma structures in the near-Earth space. The first spiral distribution of auroras was found based on observations in Antarctica for the nighttime-evening sector (N-spiral, and later in the nighttime-evening (N-spiral and morning (M-spiral sectors both in

  9. Localized Aurora B activity spatially controls non-kinetochore microtubules during spindle assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Marvin E; Medema, René H

    2011-12-01

    Efficient spindle assembly involves the generation of spatial cues around chromosomes that locally stabilize microtubule (MT) plus-ends. In addition to the small GTPase Ran, there is evidence that Aurora B kinase might also generate a spatial cue around chromosomes but direct proof for this is still lacking. Here, we find that the Aurora B substrate MCAK localizes to MT plus-ends throughout the mitotic spindle, but its accumulation is strongly reduced on MT plus-ends near chromatin, suggesting that a signal emanating from chromosomes negatively regulates MCAK plus-end binding. Indeed, we show that Aurora B is the kinase responsible for producing this chromosome-derived signal. These results are the first to visualize spatially restricted Aurora B kinase activity around chromosomes on an endogenous substrate and explain how Aurora B could spatially control the dynamics of non-kinetochore MTs during spindle assembly.

  10. Expression of Aurora-B and FOXM1 predict poor survival in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Pei-Yu; Luo, Dong-Hua; Mai, Hai-Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Guangzhou (China); Li, Yan; Zeng, Ting-Ting; Li, Meng-Qing [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Hou, Xue; Zhang, Li [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Medical Oncology, Guangzhou (China)

    2015-08-15

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between Aurora-B, FOXM1, and clinical outcomes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who were treated with a combination of induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The expression of Aurora-B and FOXM1 were investigated by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray (TMA) containing samples from 166 NPC patients who were treated with cisplatin (DDP) + fluorouracil (5-FU) induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy between 1999 and 2005. The relationship of Aurora-B, FOXM1, and survival of these NPC patients was analyzed. Informative TMA results were obtained in 91 tumor cases for Aurora-B and 93 tumor cases for FOXM1. The 8-year failure-free survival rate (FFS) for the Aurora-B-negative and Aurora-B-positive group was 65.6 and 37.3 %, respectively (p = 0.024), and the 8-year distant FFS (D-FFS) rate was 65.6 and 41.5 %, respectively (p = 0.047). The 8-year overall survival (OS) in the FOXM1-negative group was moderately higher than in the FOXM1-positive group (58.4 vs 39.1 %, p = 0.081). Cox regression analysis revealed that for FFS, Aurora-B expression was a significant prognostic factor (p = 0.025), while for D-FFS, Aurora-B expression was a marginally significant prognostic factor (p = 0.056). When FOXM1 expression was analyzed, the Cox regression analyses showed that FOXM1 expression was a marginally significant prognostic factor (p = 0.056) for OS. Correlation analysis showed that Aurora-B and FOXM1 expression had no significant correlation. Aurora-B and FOXM1 were both adverse prognostic markers for NPC patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. However, the two markers had no significant correlation. (orig.) [German] Ziel war die Untersuchung der Beziehung zwischen Aurora-B, FOXM1 und den klinischen Ergebnissen bei Patienten mit nasopharyngealem Karzinom (NPC), die mit einer Kombinationstherapie aus Induktionschemotherapie und Radiotherapie behandelt wurden. Die Expression von Aurora-B und

  11. Evolution of the Global Aurora During Positive IMP Bz and Varying IMP By Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumnock, J. A.; Sharber, J. R.; Heelis. R. A.; Hairston, M. R.; Carven, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    The DE 1 imaging instrumentation provides a full view of the entire auroral oval every 12 min for several hours during each orbit. We examined five examples of global evolution of the aurora that occurred during the northern hemisphere winter of 1981-1982 when the z component of the interplanetary magnetic field was positive and the y component was changing sign. Evolution of an expanded auroral emission region into a theta aurora appears to require a change in the sign of By during northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Theta aurora are formed both from expanded duskside emission regions (By changes from positive to negative) and dawnside emission regions (By changes from negative to positive), however the dawnside-originating and duskside-originating evolutions are not mirror images. The persistence of a theta aurora after its formation suggests that there may be no clear relationship between the theta aurora pattern and the instantaneous configuration of the IMF.

  12. The Aurora B kinase in chromosome biorientation and spindle checkpoint signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eKrenn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aurora B, a member of the Aurora family of serine/threonine protein kinases, is a key player in chromosome segregation. As part of a macromolecular complex known as the chromosome passenger complex, Aurora B concentrates early during mitosis in the proximity of centromeres and kinetochores, the sites of attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules. There, it contributes to a number of processes that impart fidelity to cell division, including kinetochore stabilization, kinetochore-microtubule attachment, and the regulation of a surveillance mechanism named the spindle assembly checkpoint. In the regulation of these processes, Aurora B is the fulcrum of a remarkably complex network of interactions that feed back on its localization and activation state. In this review we discuss the multiple roles of Aurora B during mitosis, focusing in particular on its role at centromeres and kinetochores. Many details of the network of interactions at these locations remain poorly understood, and we focus here on several crucial outstanding questions.

  13. Analysis of Aurora's Performance Simulation Engine for Three Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Janine [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simon, Joseph [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-07

    Aurora Solar Inc. is building a cloud-based optimization platform to automate the design, engineering, and permit generation process of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. They requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validate the performance of the PV system performance simulation engine of Aurora Solar’s solar design platform, Aurora. In previous work, NREL performed a validation of multiple other PV modeling tools 1, so this study builds upon that work by examining all of the same fixed-tilt systems with available module datasheets that NREL selected and used in the aforementioned study. Aurora Solar set up these three operating PV systems in their modeling platform using NREL-provided system specifications and concurrent weather data. NREL then verified the setup of these systems, ran the simulations, and compared the Aurora-predicted performance data to measured performance data for those three systems, as well as to performance data predicted by other PV modeling tools.

  14. Observations sur Saprolegnia australis Elliott, agent pathogène de la saprolegniose des poissons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAPATHEODOROU B. T.

    1981-10-01

    Full Text Available Saprolegnia australis n'a jamais été rapporté comme cause primaire de la Saprolegniose chez les poissons et son pouvoir pathogène n'a jamais été vérifié par inoculation expérimentale. Nous l'avons isolé sur des gardons (Rutilus rutilus L. atteints d'une mycose et nous l'avons inoculé avec succès à des poissons exotiques. Nous avons ainsi vérifié le potentiel pathogène de cette espèce de champignon et pu établir avec certitude une causalité entre la seule présence de S. australis et la Saprolegniose observée.

  15. Isolation and characterization of collagen from the skin of Brama australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sionkowska, Alina; Kozłowska, Justyna; Skorupska, Małgorzata; Michalska, Marta

    2015-09-01

    Collagen was extracted from the skin of Brama australis, the fish from warm-water sea. The yield of collagen from skin of B. australis was about 1.5% on a wet weight basis of raw material. The isolated protein was confirmed as collagen by different physico-chemical techniques such as: FTIR, SDS-PAGE, and amino acid analysis. The denaturation temperature (T(d)) of obtained collagen was found to be 24°C, what is promising as an advantage for cosmetic application. According to the electrophoretic pattern, collagen consisted of two different α-chains (α1 and α2) and was classified as type I collagen. Although T(d) of obtained collagen is higher than 20 °C it is still far from T(d) of mammalian collagen.

  16. Jupiter's Mid-Infrared Aurora: Solar Connection and Minor Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodore; Livengood, T.A.; Fast, K.E.; Hewagama, T.; Schmilling, F.; Sonnabend, G.; Delgado, J.

    2009-01-01

    High spectral resolution in the 12 pin region of the polar regions of Jupiter reveal unique information on auroral phenomena and upper stratospheric composition. Polar aurorae in Jupiter's atmosphere radiate; throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X-ray through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 5 - 20 micron wavelength). Voyager IRIS data and ground-based. spectroscopic measurements of Jupiter's northern mid-IR aurora acquired since 1982, reveal a correlation between auroral brightness and solar activity that has not been observed in Jovian aurora at other wavelengths. Over nearly three solar cycles, Jupiter auroral ethane, emission brightness and solar 10.7-cm radar flux and sunspot number are positively correlated with high confidence. Ethane line emission intensity varies over tenfold between low and high scalar activity periods. Detailed measurements have been made using the GSFC HIPWAC spectrometer at the NASA IRTF since the last solar maximum, following the mid-IR emission through the declining phase toward solar minimum. An even more convincing correlation with solar activity is evident in these data. The spectra measured contain features that cannot be attributed to ethane and are most likely spectra of minor constituents whose molecular bands overlap the v9 band of ethane. Possible candidates are allene, propane, and other higher order hydrocarbons. These features appear to be enhanced in the active polar regions. Laboratory measurements at comparable spectral resolution of spectra of candidate molecules will be used to identify the constituents. Current analyses of these results will be described, including planned measurements on polar ethane line emission scheduled through the rise of the next solar maximum beginning in 2009, with a steep gradient to a maximum in 2012. This work is relevant to the Juno mission and to the development of the NASA/ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission.

  17. AURORA BOREALIS - European Research Icebreaker With Drilling Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Thiede, J.

    2008-12-01

    The polar oceans are the least known areas of the globe, in although they hold the key to many of our climate´s secrets. How does the sea ice coverage and the sea water properties change? How do plants and animals survive under the most extreme conditions of the earth? Which information of past climate change can be read from the sediments at the sea-floor and how can the future changing climate be predicted? In order to answer such and further questions, for the moment a hypermodern research vessel, the AURORA BOREALIS, is planned, which can handle the cool summers and freezing winters of the polar oceans and which can drill deep into the sea floor. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced Research Icebreaker in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate/environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments for the next 35-40 years. It will have a high icebreaking capacity to penetrate autonomously (single ship operation) into the central Arctic Ocean with more than 2.5 meters of ice cover, during all seasons of the year. The new technological features will include dynamic positioning in closed sea- ice cover, satellite navigation and ice-management support and the deployment and operation of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) from the twin moon-pools. A unique feature of the vessel is the deep-sea drilling rig, which will enable sampling of the ocean floor and sub-sea up to 5000 m water and 1000 m penetration at the most inhospitable places on earth. The drilling capability will be deployed in both Polar Regions on the long run and AURORA BOREALIS will be the only vessel worldwide that could undertake this type of scientific investigation.

  18. Portable parallel portfolio optimization in the Aurora Financial Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laure, Erwin; Moritsch, Hans

    2001-07-01

    Financial planning problems are formulated as large scale, stochastic, multiperiod, tree structured optimization problems. An efficient technique for solving this kind of problems is the nested Benders decomposition method. In this paper we present a parallel, portable, asynchronous implementation of this technique. To achieve our portability goals we elected the programming language Java for our implementation and used a high level Java based framework, called OpusJava, for expressing the parallelism potential as well as synchronization constraints. Our implementation is embedded within a modular decision support tool for portfolio and asset liability management, the Aurora Financial Management System.

  19. Aurora-A Oncogene in Human Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    in Human Ovarian Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05-1-0021 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Jin Q. Cheng, M.D...this project : 1) examine the clinicalpathological significance and the mechanism of Aurora-A overexpression/activation in ovarian cancer; 2) determine...kinase is required to localize D-TACC to centro- somes and to regulate astral microtubules. J Cell Biol 2002;156:437–51. 33. Castro A, Mandart E, Lorca T

  20. Using transcriptomics to identify differential gene expression in response to salinity among Australian Phragmites australis clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Donald Holmes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Common Reed (Phragmites australis is a frequent component of inland, and coastal, wetlands in temperate zones worldwide. Ongoing environmental changes have resulted in the decline of this species in many areas and invasive expansion in others. In the Gippsland Lakes coastal waterway system in south-eastern Australia, increasing salinity is thought to have contributed to the loss of fringing P. australis reed beds leading to increased shoreline erosion. A major goal of restoration in this waterway is to address the effect of salinity by planting a genetically-diverse range of salt-tolerant P. australis lineages. This has prompted an interest in examining the variation in salinity tolerance among lineages and the underlying basis of this variation. Transcriptomics is an approach for identifying variation in genes and their expression levels associated with the exposure of plants to environmental stressors. In this paper we present initial results of the first comparative culm transcriptome analysis of P. australis clones. After sampling plants from sites of varied surface water salinity across the Gippsland Lakes, replicates from three clones from highly saline sites (>18 g L-1 TDS and three from low salinity sites (<6 g L-1 were grown in containers irrigated with either fresh (<0.1 g L-1 or saline water (16 g L-1. An RNA-Seq protocol was used to generate sequence data from culm tissues from the 12 samples allowing an analysis of differential gene expression. Among the key findings, we identified several genes uniquely up- or down-regulated in clones from highly saline sites when irrigated with saline water relative to clones from low salinity sites. These included the relative higher expression levels of genes associated with photosynthesis and lignan biosynthesis indicative of a greater ability of these clones to maintain growth under saline conditions. Combined with growth data from a parallel study, our data suggests local adaptation of

  1. Efficiency of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia for heavy metal removal from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Menka; Tripathi, B D

    2015-02-01

    A cost-effective and promising technology has been demonstrated for the removal of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) from urban sewage mixed with industrial effluents within 14 days. With the help of P. australis and T. latifolia grown alone and in combination batch experiments were designed to assess the removal of heavy metals from the wastewater collected from 5 sampling stations. The results revealed that P. australis performed better than T. latifolia for Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn removal, while mixing of the plant species further enhanced the removal of Cu to 78.0±1.2%, Cd to 60.0±1.2%, Cr to 68.1±0.4%, Ni to 73.8±0.6%, Fe to 80.1±0.3%, Pb to 61.0±1.2% and Zn to 61.0±1.2% for wastewater samples from Raj Ghat. Negative correlation coefficients of Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn concentrations in wastewater with the retention time revealed that there was an increase in the heavy metal removal rate with retention time. P. australis showed higher accumulative capacities for Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni and Fe than T. latifolia. P. australis and T. latifolia grown in combination can be used for the removal of Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn from the urban sewage mixed with industrial effluents within 14 days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In situ experimental decomposition studies in estuaries: A comparison of Phragmites australis and Fucus vesiculosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marta Lobão; Martins, Patrícia; Ricardo, Fernando; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor

    2011-05-01

    The decomposition rates of Phragmites australis and Fucus vesiculosus were experimentally determined in an estuarine system using the leaf-bag technique. The study was conducted in fifteen sites arranged in five areas, extending from freshwater, outside the tidal range, to the marine environment, near the mouth of the estuary. The leaf-bags (5 mm mesh), were set up with 3.0 g of dried substrate, submerged in the experimental sites at day 0 and collected at days 3, 7, 15, 30 and 60, to follow biomass loss. The biomass loss through the leaching phase (day 3) was about 16% for Phragmites australis and 33% for Fucus vesiculosus and was independent of salinity for both substrates. The difference in the remaining biomass between the two species increased with time and the decomposition rates differed along the salinity gradient. For F. vesiculosus, the decomposition rate was highest near the mouth of the estuary, corresponding to the preferential distribution area of the algae, and decreased towards freshwater. For Phragmites australis, the fastest decay was observed in the mid estuary, where Phragmites australis occurs naturally, confirming previous studies. The decomposition rates measured at different time intervals (0-15, 0-30 and 0-60 days) were always higher for the algae and decreased with time for both species. These results indicate that the use of decomposition rates as a measure of ecosystem integrity or quality status in transitional waters will not be straightforward and must take into account, among others, the test species, the study area positioning along the estuarine gradient, and the time interval for the calculation of the decomposition rate.

  3. Distribution and Drivers of a Widespread, Invasive Wetland Grass, Phragmites australis, in Great Salt Lake Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Arin Lexine

    2014-01-01

    Non-native invasive plant species can often have negative effects on native ecosystems, such as altered nutrient cycling, decreased habitat for wildlife, and outcompeting native plants. Around the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, the invasive wetland grass Phragmites australis has become abundant in wetlands around the lake. Phragmites is replacing many native wetland plants provide important waterfowl habitat around the GSL. For successful management of Phragmites in GSL wetlands, it is importan...

  4. Energy and water balance response of a vegetated wetland to herbicide treatment of invasive Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykleby, Phillip M.; Lenters, John D.; Cutrell, Gregory J.; Herrman, Kyle S.; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Scott, Durelle T.; Twine, Tracy E.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Awada, Tala; Soylu, Mehmet E.; Dong, Bo

    2016-08-01

    The energy and water balance of a Phragmites australis dominated wetland in south central Nebraska was analyzed to assess consumptive water use and the potential for "water savings" as a result of vegetation eradication via herbicide treatment. Energy balance measurements were made at the field site for two growing seasons (treated and untreated), including observations of net radiation, heat storage, and sensible heat flux, which was measured using a large-aperture scintillometer. Latent heat flux was calculated as a residual of the energy balance, and comparisons were made between the two growing seasons and with model simulations to examine the relative impacts of vegetation removal and climate variability. Observed ET rates dropped by roughly 32% between the two growing seasons, from a mean of 4.4 ± 0.7 mm day-1 in 2009 (with live vegetation) to 3.0 ± 0.8 mm day-1 in 2010 (with dead P. australis). These results are corroborated by the Agro-IBIS model simulations, and the reduction in ET implies a total "water savings" of 245 mm over the course of the growing season. The significant decreases in ET were accompanied by a more-than-doubling of sensible heat flux, as well as a ∼60% increase in heat storage due to decreased LAI. Removal of P. australis was also found to cause measurable changes in the local micrometeorology at the wetland. Consistent with the observed increase in sensible heat flux during 2010, warmer, drier, windier conditions were observed in the dead, P. australis section of the wetland, compared to an undisturbed section of live, native vegetation. Modeling results suggest that the elimination of transpiration in 2010 was partially offset by an increase in surface evaporation, thereby reducing the subsequent water savings by roughly 60%. Thus, the impact of vegetation removal depends on the local climate, depth to groundwater, and management decisions related to regrowth of vegetation.

  5. Using Transcriptomics to Identify Differential Gene Expression in Response to Salinity among Australian Phragmites australis Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Gareth D; Hall, Nathan E; Gendall, Anthony R; Boon, Paul I; James, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Common Reed (Phragmites australis) is a frequent component of inland and coastal wetlands in temperate zones worldwide. Ongoing environmental changes have resulted in the decline of this species in many areas and invasive expansion in others. In the Gippsland Lakes coastal waterway system in south-eastern Australia, increasing salinity is thought to have contributed to the loss of fringing P. australis reed beds leading to increased shoreline erosion. A major goal of restoration in this waterway is to address the effect of salinity by planting a genetically diverse range of salt-tolerant P. australis plants. This has prompted an interest in examining the variation in salinity tolerance among clones and the underlying basis of this variation. Transcriptomics is an approach for identifying variation in genes and their expression levels associated with the exposure of plants to environmental stressors. In this paper we present initial results of the first comparative culm transcriptome analysis of P. australis clones. After sampling plants from sites of varied surface water salinity across the Gippsland Lakes, replicates from three clones from highly saline sites (>18 g L(-1) TDS) and three from low salinity sites (<6 g L(-1)) were grown in containers irrigated with either fresh (<0.1 g L(-1)) or saline water (16 g L(-1)). An RNA-Seq protocol was used to generate sequence data from culm tissues from the 12 samples allowing an analysis of differential gene expression. Among the key findings, we identified several genes uniquely up- or down-regulated in clones from highly saline sites when irrigated with saline water relative to clones from low salinity sites. These included the higher relative expression levels of genes associated with photosynthesis and lignan biosynthesis indicative of a greater ability of these clones to maintain growth under saline conditions. Combined with growth data from a parallel study, our data suggests local adaptation of certain clones to

  6. [Effects of Cuscuta australis parasitism on the growth, reproduction and defense of Solidago canadensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei-fen; Du, Le-shan; Li, Jun-min

    2015-11-01

    In order to find out how parasitic Cuscuta australis influences the growth and reproduction of Solidago canadensis, the effects of the parasitism of C. australis on the morphological, growth and reproductive traits of S. canadensis were examined and the relationships between the biomass and the contents of the secondary metabolites were analyzed. The results showed that the parasitism significantly reduced the plant height, basal diameter, root length, root diameter, root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, total biomass, number of inflorescences branches, axis length of inflorescence, and number of inflorescence. In particular, plant height, number of inflorescence and the stem biomass of parasitized S. canadensis were only 1/2, 1/5 and 1/8 of non-parasitized plants, respectively. There was no significant difference of plant height, root length, stem biomass and total biomass between plants parasitized with high and low intensities. But the basal diameter, root volume, leaf biomass, root biomass, the number of inflorescences branches, axis length of inflorescence and number of inflorescence of S. canadensis parasitized with high intensity were significantly lower than those of plants parasitized with low intensity. The parasitism of C. australis significantly increased the tannins content in the root and the flavonoids content in the stem of S. canadensis. The biomass of S. canadensis was significantly negatively correlated with the tannin content in the root and the flavonoids content in the stem. These results indicated that the parasitism of C. australis could inhibit the growth of S. canadensis by changing the resources allocation patterns as well as reducing the resources obtained by S. canadensis.

  7. Anatomy of nasal complex in the southern right whale, Eubalaena australis (Cetacea, Mysticeti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Mónica R; Fernández, Marta S; Fordyce, R Ewan; Reidenberg, Joy S

    2015-01-01

    The nasal region of the skull has undergone dramatic changes during the course of cetacean evolution. In particular, mysticetes (baleen whales) conserve the nasal mammalian pattern associated with the secondary function of olfaction, and lack the sound-producing specializations present in odontocetes (toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises). To improve our understanding of the morphology of the nasal region of mysticetes, we investigate the nasal anatomy, osteology and myology of the southern right whale, Eubalaena australis, and make comparisons with other mysticetes. In E. australis external deflection surfaces around the blowholes appear to divert water off the head, and differ in appearance from those observed in balaenopterids, eschrichtiids and cetotherids. In E. australis the blowholes are placed above hypertrophied nasal soft tissues formed by fat and nasal muscles, a pattern also observed in balaenopterids (rorqual mysticetes) and a cetotherid (pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata). Blowhole movements are due to the action of five nasofacial muscles: dilator naris superficialis, dilator naris profundus, depressor alae nasi, constrictor naris, and retractor alae nasi. The dilator naris profundus found in E. australis has not been previously reported in balaenopterids. The other nasofacial muscles have a similar arrangement in balaenopterids, with minor differences. A novel structure, not reported previously in any mysticete, is the presence of a vascular tissue (rete mirabile) covering the lower nasal passage. This vascular tissue could play a role in warming inspired air, or may engorge to accommodate loss of respiratory space volume due to gas compression from increased pressure during diving.

  8. Basal aurora kinase B activity is sufficient for histone H3 phosphorylation in prophase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ly-Thuy-Tram Le

    2013-02-01

    Histone H3 phosphorylation is the hallmark of mitosis deposited by aurora kinase B. Benzo[e]pyridoindoles are a family of potent, broad, ATP-competitive aurora kinase inhibitors. However, benzo[e]pyridoindole C4 only inhibits histone H3 phosphorylation in prophase but not in metaphase. Under the C4 treatment, the cells enter into mitosis with dephosphorylated histone H3, assemble chromosomes normally and progress to metaphase, and then to anaphase. C4 also induces lagging chromosome in anaphase but we demonstrated that these chromosome compaction defects are not related to the absence of H3 phosphorylation in prophase. As a result of C4 action, mitosis lasts longer and the cell cycle is slowed down. We reproduced the mitotic defects with reduced concentrations of potent pan aurora kinase as well as with a specific aurora B ATP-competitive inhibitor; we therefore propose that histone H3 phosphorylation and anaphase chromosome compaction involve the basal activity of aurora kinase B. Our data suggest that aurora kinase B is progressively activated at mitosis entry and at anaphase onset. The full activation of aurora kinase B by its partners, in prometaphase, induces a shift in the catalytic domain of aurora B that modifies its affinity for ATP. These waves of activation/deactivation of aurora B correspond to different conformations of the chromosomal complex revealed by FRAP. The presence of lagging chromosomes may have deleterious consequences on the daughter cells and, unfortunately, the situation may be encountered in patients receiving treatment with aurora kinase inhibitors.

  9. Genital morphology of the male South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis and biological implications

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    Alex Sander D. Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Male capacity for spreading genes to a great number of descendents and to determine population dynamics depend directly on the genital organs. Morphological studies in pinnipeds are scarce and the functional meaning of some characteristics has never been discussed. We hypothesized that Arctocephalus australis (A. australis shows morphophysiological adaptations in order to guarantee the perpetuation of the species in the unique annual mating season. Seven males, dead from natural causes, had their genital organs collected and fixed for morphological description. Some features differ from other described mammalian males and are closely related to the biology and reproductive cycle of this species, as the scrotal epidermis, absence of glandular portion in the ductus deferens and spermatogenic epithelium suggest a recrudescent testis period. The corona glandis exhibits a singular arrangement: its erectile border looks like a formation of petals and its association with the os penis gives a "lily-flower" form to this region. We propose the name margo petaliformis to this particular erectile border of the corona glandis because of its similarity to a flower corola. The male genital organs of A. australis show morphological features compatible with adaptation to environment requirements and reproductive efficiency.

  10. Intraspecific N and P stoichiometry of Phragmites australis: geographic patterns and variation among climatic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-Kun; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Liu, Guo-Fang; Pan, Xu; Yang, Xuejun; Li, Wen-Bing; Dai, Wen-Hong; Tang, Shuang-Li; Xiao, Tao; Chen, Ling-Yun; Xiong, Wei; Song, Yao-Bin; Dong, Ming

    2017-02-24

    Geographic patterns in leaf stoichiometry reflect plant adaptations to environments. Leaf stoichiometry variations along environmental gradients have been extensively studied among terrestrial plants, but little has been known about intraspecific leaf stoichiometry, especially for wetland plants. Here we analyzed the dataset of leaf N and P of a cosmopolitan wetland species, Phragmites australis, and environmental (geographic, climate and soil) variables from literature and field investigation in natural wetlands distributed in three climatic regions (subtropical, temperate and highland) across China. We found no clear geographic patterns in leaf nutrients of P. australis across China, except for leaf N:P ratio increasing with altitude. Leaf N and N:P decreased with mean annual temperature (MAT), and leaf N and P were closely related to soil pH, C:N ratio and available P. Redundancy analysis showed that climate and soil variables explained 62.1% of total variation in leaf N, P and N:P. Furthermore, leaf N in temperate region and leaf P in subtropical region increased with soil available P, while leaf N:P in subtropical region decreased with soil pH. These patterns in P. australis different from terrestrial plants might imply that changes in climate and soil properties can exert divergent effects on wetland and terrestrial ecosystems.

  11. Structure and biomechanics of culms of Phragmites australis used for reeds of Japanese wind instrument "hichiriki".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nobuchi, Tadashi; Nakafushi, Yuta; Nose, Masateru; Shiojiri, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Hichiriki is a traditional Japanese double-reed wind instrument used in Japanese ancient imperial court music, gagaku, which has been performed since the 7th century. The best reeds for hichiriki have been made of culms or stems of Phragmites australis (P. australis) that are harvested from only a limited reed bed at Udono near Kyoto. The aim of this study is to elucidate why the stems from Udono are the best materials for hichiriki reeds. Plant anatomy was examined for choice stems of P. australis grown in different reed beds in Japan as well as morphology, and the local indentation hardness and Young's modulus of tissues on the cross-sections of some representatives of hichiriki reeds were measured. It is concluded that the good stems for hichiriki reeds have an outer diameter of about 11 mm, a wall thickness of about 1 mm and comparatively homogeneous structure where harder materials, such as epidermis, hypodermis, sclerenchymatous cells, and vascular bundle sheaths with hard walls, are orderly deployed with softer materials such as parenchyma cells and vascular bundles. This structure has smaller differences of hardness and Young's modulus between the hard and soft materials in the reed, providing the best music performance.

  12. Role of Phragmites australis (common reed) for heavy metals phytoremediation of estuarine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero-Fernández, Diego; Peña-Fernández, Manuel; Expósito-Camargo, Jose A; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Phragmites australis to take up heavy metals (Co, Ni, Mo, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Hg) and other trace elements (As, Se, Ba), from estuarine sediments was investigated using a pilot plant experimental approach. Bioaccumulation (BCF) and translocation factors (TF) were calculated in vegetative and senescence periods for two populations of P. australis, from contaminated (MIC) and non-contaminated (GAL) estuarine sediments, respectively, both growing in estuarine contaminated sediment (RIA) from ría del Carmen y Boo, Santander Bay, Spain. The highest BCF values were obtained for Ni (0.43), Ba (0.43) Mo (0.36), Cr (0.35), and Cd (0.31) for plants collected from site GAL following the senescence period. The highest BCF values recorded for plants collected from MIC following the senescence period were for Mo (0.22) and Cu (0.22). Following senescence, plants collected from GAL and MIC presented TF>1 for Ni, Mo, Se, and Zn, and in addition plants collected from MIC presented TF>1 for Ba, Cr, and Mn. A substantial increase of Micedo's rhizosphere, six times higher than Galizano's rhizosphere, suggested adaptation to contaminated sediment. The evaluated communities of P. australis demonstrated their suitability for phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated estuarine sediments.

  13. SEMI-BATCH OPERATED CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS PLANTED WITH PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS FOR TREATMENT OF DYEING WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOON-AN ONG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study is to evaluate the using of constructed wetland under semi-batch operation for the treatment of azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7 containing wastewater. The emergent plant selected in our study was Phragmites australis. Toxic signs were observed at the Phragmites australis after the addition of AO7 into the wetland reactors but it can adapt to the wastewater as shown in the increase of stem as the operation continue. Our result shows that the artificial aeration and the presence of Phragmites australis had a significant impact on the removal of organic matters, AO7, aromatic amines and NH4-N. The COD removal efficiency in the aerated and non-aerated wetland reactors was 95 and 62%, respectively. The NH4-N removal efficiency in the aerated wetland reactor (86% was significantly higher than the non-aerated wetland reactor (14 %. All wetland reactors show high removal efficiency of AO7 (> 94% but only the aerated wetland reactor perform better in the removal of aromatic amines.

  14. Mycorrhizal compatibility and symbiotic reproduction of Gavilea australis, an endangered terrestrial orchid from south Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracchia, Sebastián; Aranda-Rickert, Adriana; Flachsland, Eduardo; Terada, Graciela; Sede, Silvana

    2014-11-01

    Gavilea australis is a terrestrial orchid endemic from insular south Argentina and Chile. Meeting aspects of mycorrhizal fungi identity and compatibility in this orchid species is essential for propagation and conservation purposes. These knowledge represent also a first approach to elucidate the mycorrhizal specificity of this species. In order to evaluate both the mycorrhizal compatibility and the symbiotic seed germination of G. australis, we isolated and identified its root endophytic fungal strains as well as those from two sympatric species: Gavilea lutea and Codonorchis lessonii. In addition, we tested two other strains isolated from allopatric terrestrial orchid species from central Argentina. All fungal strains formed coilings and pelotons inside protocorms and promoted, at varying degrees, seed germination, and protocorm development until seedlings had two to three leaves. These results suggest a low mycorrhizal specificity of G. australis and contribute to a better knowledge of the biology of this orchid as well as of other sympatric Patagonian orchid species, all of them currently under serious risk of extinction.

  15. Arsenic-induced Aurora-A activation contributes to chromosome instability and tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Han; Tseng, Ya-Shih; Yang, Chao-Chun; Kao, Yu-Ting; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic may cause serious environmental pollution and is a serious industrial problem. Depending on the dosage, arsenic may trigger the cells undergoing either proliferation or apoptosis-related cell death. Because of lack of the proper animal model to study arsenic induced tumorigenesis, the accurate risk level of arsenic exposure has not been determined. Arsenic shows genotoxic effect on human beings who uptake water contaminated by arsenic. Chromosome aberration is frequently detected in arsenic exposure-related diseases and is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased DNA repairing activity, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Aurora-A is a mitotic kinase, over-expression of Aurora-A leads to centrosome amplification, chromosomal instability and cell transformation. We revealed that Aurora-A is over-expressed in the skin and bladder cancer patients from blackfoot-disease endemic areas. Our cell line studies reveal that arsenic exposure between 0.5 μM and 1 μM for 2-7 days are able to induce Aurora-A expression and activation based on promoter activity, RNA and protein analysis. Aurora-A overexpression further increases the frequency of unsymmetrical chromosome segregation through centrosome amplification followed by cell population accumulated at S phase in immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) and uroepithelial cells (E7). Furthermore, Aurora-A over-expression was sustained for 1-4 weeks by chronic treatment of immortalized bladder and skin cells with NaAsO2. Aurora-A promoter methylation and gene amplification was not detected in the long-term arsenic treated E7 cells. Furthermore, the expression level of E2F1 transcription factor (E2F1) is increased in the presence of arsenic, and arsenic-related Aurora-A over-expression is transcriptionally regulated by E2F1. We further demonstrated that overexpression of Aurora-A and mutant Ha-ras or Aurora-A and mutant p53 may act additively to trigger arsenic-related bladder and skin cancer

  16. Preservation of minimally processed 'aurora-1' peaches using additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramilo Nogueira Martins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 'Aurora-1' peaches establishes an interesting alternative as a minimally processed product, due to its characteristics like flavor, color, smell, and also because of its handling resistance. However, it has a short shelf life after a fresh-cut due to enzymatic browning and stone cavity collapse. The main purpose of this research was to test the additive with antioxidant effect to prevent browning in minimally processed 'Aurora-1' peaches. The minimal processing consists of washing, sanitizing, peelings and fruit stone extraction. After that, longitudinal cuts were made to obtain eight segments per fruit. The slices were immersed into the following treatment solutions: control (immersion in 2% ascorbic acid; 2% ascorbic acid + 2% calcium chloride; 1% sodium isoascorbate; 1% citric acid; 1% L-cysteine hydrochloride. The products were placed into rigid polystyrene trays branded MEIWA M-54, covered with 14 µm PVC film (OmnifilmTM and kept in cold storage at 3ºC ± 2ºC and 65% RH for twelve days, and evaluated each three days. Appraised variables were appearance, soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble carbohydrates and reducing sugars, total and soluble pectin, ascorbic acid, and peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity. L-cysteine gave to the minimally processed products a shelf life of twelve days, limmited by off-flavor. The treatment with ascorbic acid was efficient to maintainthe ascorbic acid content, with a shelf-life of nine days, limited by enzymatic browning.

  17. Small-scale characteristics of extremely high latitude aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cumnock

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine 14 cases of an interesting type of extremely high latitude aurora as identified in the precipitating particles measured by the DMSP F13 satellite. In particular we investigate structures within large-scale arcs for which the particle signatures are made up of a group of multiple distinct thin arcs. These cases are chosen without regard to IMF orientation and are part of a group of 87 events where DMSP F13 SSJ/4 measures emissions which occur near the noon-midnight meridian and are spatially separated from both the dawnside and duskside auroral ovals by wide regions with precipitating particles typical of the polar cap. For 73 of these events the high-latitude aurora consists of a continuous region of precipitating particles. We focus on the remaining 14 of these events where the particle signatures show multiple distinct thin arcs. These events occur during northward or weakly southward IMF conditions and follow a change in IMF By. Correlations are seen between the field-aligned currents and plasma flows associated with the arcs, implying local closure of the FACs. Strong correlations are seen only in the sunlit hemisphere. The convection associated with the multiple thin arcs is localized and has little influence on the large-scale convection. This also implies that the sunward flow along the arcs is unrelated to the overall ionospheric convection.

  18. Dynamic rayed aurora and enhanced ion-acoustic radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Blixt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation mechanism for naturally enhanced ion-acoustic echoes is still debated. One important issue is how these enhancements are related to auroral activity. All events of enhanced ion-acoustic echoes observed simultaneously with the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR and with high-resolution narrow field-of-view auroral imagers have been collected and studied. Characteristic of all the events is the appearance of very dynamic rayed aurora, and some of the intrinsic features of these auroral displays are identified. Several of these identified features are directly related to the presence of low energy (10-100eV precipitating electrons in addition to the higher energy population producing most of the associated light. The low energy contribution is vital for the formation of the enhanced ion-acoustic echoes. We argue that this type of aurora is sufficient for the generation of naturally enhanced ion-acoustic echoes. In one event two imagers were used to observe the auroral rays simultaneously, one from the radar site and one 7km away. The data from these imagers shows that the auroral rays and the strong backscattering filaments (where the enhanced echoes are produced are located on the same field line, which is in contrast to earlier statements in the litterature that they should be separated.

  19. p53 deficiency enhances mitotic arrest and slippage induced by pharmacological inhibition of Aurora kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marxer, M; Ma, H T; Man, W Y; Poon, R Y C

    2014-07-01

    A number of small-molecule inhibitors of Aurora kinases have been developed and are undergoing clinical trials for anti-cancer therapies. Different Aurora kinases, however, behave as very different targets: while inhibition of Aurora A (AURKA) induces a delay in mitotic exit, inhibition of Aurora B (AURKB) triggers mitotic slippage. Furthermore, while it is evident that p53 is regulated by Aurora kinase-dependent phosphorylation, how p53 may in turn regulate Aurora kinases remains mysterious. To address these issues, isogenic p53-containing and -negative cells were exposed to classic inhibitors that target both AURKA and AURKB (Alisertib and ZM447439), as well as to new generation of inhibitors that target AURKA (MK-5108), AURKB (Barasertib) individually. The fate of individual cells was then tracked with time-lapse microscopy. Remarkably, loss of p53, either by gene disruption or small interfering RNA-mediated depletion, sensitized cells to inhibition of both AURKA and AURKB, promoting mitotic arrest and slippage respectively. As the p53-dependent post-mitotic checkpoint is also important for preventing genome reduplication after mitotic slippage, these studies indicate that the loss of p53 in cancer cells represents a major opportunity for anti-cancer drugs targeting the Aurora kinases.

  20. Response of experimental malignant melanoma models to the pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor VE-465.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirker, Christine; Lötsch, Daniela; Spiegl-Kreinecker, Sabine; Jantscher, Florian; Sutterlüty, Hewig; Micksche, Michael; Grusch, Michael; Berger, Walter

    2010-12-01

    Aurora kinases represent promising novel cancer therapy targets. Genomic analyses of human cutaneous melanoma (CMM) models (N = 51, low passage) by classical and/or array CGH revealed frequent gains at chromosome 20q (65%, amplifications in 45%) repeatedly including the Aurora A gene locus. Accordingly, the majority of CMM cell cultures overexpressed Aurora A when compared to proliferating non-malignant cells. Moreover, CMM cells even when arrested in G1/S cell cycle phase contained readily detectable levels of Aurora A indicating incomplete degradation during mitosis. Already at low concentrations (10-100 nm), long-term (7-10 days) application of the pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor VE-465 completely prevented colony formation in all CMM models tested. In contrast, blockade of cell survival/proliferation and DNA synthesis as well as the induction of apoptosis by VE-465 distinctly differed in short-term experiments (up to 72 h exposure). Both cell cycle arrest and DNA synthesis blockade depended on the level of VE-465-mediated p53/p21 activation while p53/p21 unresponsiveness led to repetitive endoreduplication (>8n DNA content). In contrast, apoptosis induction by VE-465 and Aurora A siRNA did not correlate with p53/p21 responsiveness and DNA synthesis blockade. Moreover, application of the Aurora B-specific inhibitor ZM447439 and siRNA was less efficient to induce CMM cell death proofing that apoptosis induction by VE-465 depended predominantly on Aurora A targeting. In combination experiments with chemotherapeutic agents, VE-465 acted additive to antagonistic when applied concomitantly but in several cases even synergistic when applied consecutively. In summary, we suggest that the Aurora A kinase might represent a promising target of well-designed novel antimelanoma strategies. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Disease associated with integumentary and cloacal parasites in tadpoles of northern red-legged frog Rana aurora aurora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Nathan C; Camann, Michael A; Foley, Janet E; Reiss, John O

    2007-10-31

    A total of 6830 northern red-legged frog Rana aurora aurora tadpoles were examined under a dissecting microscope for oral disc, integumentary, and cloacal abnormalities in 13 ponds in and near Redwood National Park in northern California. Of these, 163 tadpoles were collected for histopathological investigation, including 115 randomly collected individuals, 38 collected with oral disc abnormalities, and 10 collected due to severe morbidity of unknown etiology. The tadpoles were infected with 8 parasites, including Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (the amphibian chytrid), trematodes, leeches, and protozoa. Chytridiomycosis was detected at an overall prevalence of 6.4%, but prevalence was higher in tadpoles with oral disc lesions than in those with normal oral discs (43.5% versus 6.1%). Interestingly, infection was associated with some environmental and co-infection risk factors. Individual tadpoles possessed 0 to 5 species of parasites in varying intensities. Apiosoma sp. was the most prevalent (66%) and widespread. Tadpoles infected with B. dendrobatidis had a lower diversity of oral parasites than those uninfected. During the field portion of the study, a large number (approximately 500) of moribund and dead tadpoles was seen occurring at multiple locations within and surrounding Redwood National Park. Ten animals were collected for histological examination and a diverse protozoal infection was discovered, including some known pathogens of fish. This study is the first reporting parasitism and disease in natural populations of northern red-legged frogs.

  2. Arsenic treatment increase Aurora-A overexpression through E2F1 activation in bladder cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Ting; Wu, Chin-Han; Wu, Shan-Ying; Lan, Sheng-Hui; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Tseng, Ya-Shih

    2017-04-18

    Arsenic is a widely distributed metalloid compound that has biphasic effects on cultured cells. In large doses, arsenic can be toxic enough to trigger cell death. In smaller amounts, non-toxic doses may promote cell proliferation and induces carcinogenesis. Aberration of chromosome is frequently detected in epithelial cells and lymphocytes of individuals from arsenic contaminated areas. Overexpression of Aurora-A, a mitotic kinase, results in chromosomal instability and cell transformation. We have reported that low concentration (≦1 μM) of arsenic treatment increases Aurora-A expression in immortalized bladder urothelial E7 cells. However, how arsenic induces carcinogenesis through Aurora-A activation remaining unclear. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) staining, MTT assay, and flow cytometry assay were conducted to determine cell proliferation. Messenger RNA and protein expression levels of Aurora-A were detected by reverse transcriptional-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Centrosome of cells was observed by immunofluorescent staining. The transcription factor of Aurora-A was investigated by promoter activity, chromosome immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and small interfering RNA (shRNA) assays. Mouse model was utilized to confirm the relationship between arsenic and Aurora-A. We reveal that low dosage of arsenic treatment increased cell proliferation is associated with accumulated cell population at S phase. We also detected increased Aurora-A expression at mRNA and protein levels in immortalized bladder urothelial E7 cells exposed to low doses of arsenic. Arsenic-treated cells displayed increased multiple centrosome which is resulted from overexpressed Aurora-A. Furthermore, the transcription factor, E2F1, is responsible for Aurora-A overexpression after arsenic treatment. We further disclosed that Aurora-A expression and cell proliferation were increased in bladder and uterus tissues of the BALB/c mice after long-term arsenic (1 mg/L) exposure for 2 months. We

  3. An investigation into the effects of nitrogen on growth and morphology of stable and die-back populations of Phragmites australis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevering, O.A.

    1998-01-01

    In many European countries a strong decline of Phragmites australis (common reed) populations has been observed during the past two decades. This has become known as die-back or reed regression. A greenhouse growth experiment was performed with P. australis cuttings from stable and die-back populati

  4. Archaeal rhizosphere communities differ between the native and invasive lines of the wetland plant phragmites australis (common reed) in a Chesapeake Bay subestuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phragmites australis, a common wetland plant species worldwide, is best known in North America as persistent invasive species. Only in recent decades was a native line, Phragmites australis subsp. americanus, confirmed in North American wetlands. This study investigated whether the two lines suppo...

  5. The charge spectrum of positive ions in a hydrogen aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J.; Pulliam, D.; Leach, R.; Scherb, F.

    1976-01-01

    An auroral ion charge spectrometer was flown into a hydrogen aurora on a Javelin sounding rocket launched from Churchill, Manitoba. The instrument contained an electrostatic analyzer which selected particles with incident energy per unit charge up to 20 keV/charge and an 80-kV power supply which accelerated these ions onto an array of solid state detectors. Ions tentatively identified as H(+), He(+2), and O(+) were detected from 225 to 820 km in altitude. The experiment did not discriminate between H(+) and He(+), or between O(+), N(+), and C(+). Upper limits of highly charged heavy ion abundances have been set at 20% of the He(+2) and 0.15% of the H(+). It is concluded that both terrestrial and solar wind sources play significant roles in auroral ion precipitation.

  6. Exploring the Secrets of the Aurora Second Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Akasofu, Syun-Ichi

    2007-01-01

    This new edition of Exploring the Secrets of the Aurora is based on the author's own experiences as a scientist. It describes the history of progress made in auroral science and magnetospheric physics by providing examples of ideas, controversies, struggles, acceptance, and success. Although no general methodologies are mentioned, the hope is that the reader will learn about the history of progress in auroral science and examples of dealing with the many controversies. This book aims to help young scientific researchers learn how to persevere during periods of controversy and struggles for acceptance. In this second edition, by utilizing multiple examples, Akasofu is successful in demonstrating the importance and usefulness of Synthesis. "Probably the book's most valuable contribution to the history of space physics is precisely the narration of the discovery of substorms.---The book has special features.---Akasofu's coverage of the history of pre-space age solar-terrestrial relations is the most comprehensiv...

  7. The charge spectrum of positive ions in a hydrogen aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J.; Pulliam, D.; Leach, R.; Scherb, F.

    1976-01-01

    An auroral ion charge spectrometer was flown into a hydrogen aurora on a Javelin sounding rocket launched from Churchill, Manitoba. The instrument contained an electrostatic analyzer which selected particles with incident energy per unit charge up to 20 keV/charge and an 80-kV power supply which accelerated these ions onto an array of solid state detectors. Ions tentatively identified as H(+), He(+2), and O(+) were detected from 225 to 820 km in altitude. The experiment did not discriminate between H(+) and He(+), or between O(+), N(+), and C(+). Upper limits of highly charged heavy ion abundances have been set at 20% of the He(+2) and 0.15% of the H(+). It is concluded that both terrestrial and solar wind sources play significant roles in auroral ion precipitation.

  8. Forecasting auroras from regional and global magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauristie, Kirsti; Myllys, Minna; Partamies, Noora; Viljanen, Ari; Peitso, Pyry; Juusola, Liisa; Ahmadzai, Shabana; Singh, Vikramjit; Keil, Ralf; Martinez, Unai; Luginin, Alexej; Glover, Alexi; Navarro, Vicente; Raita, Tero

    2016-06-01

    We use the connection between auroral sightings and rapid geomagnetic field variations in a concept for a Regional Auroral Forecast (RAF) service. The service is based on statistical relationships between near-real-time alerts issued by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center and magnetic time derivative (dB/dt) values measured by five MIRACLE magnetometer stations located in Finland at auroral and sub-auroral latitudes. Our database contains NOAA alerts and dB/dt observations from the years 2002-2012. These data are used to create a set of conditional probabilities, which tell the service user when the probability of seeing auroras exceeds the average conditions in Fennoscandia during the coming 0-12 h. Favourable conditions for auroral displays are associated with ground magnetic field time derivative values (dB/dt) exceeding certain latitude-dependent threshold values. Our statistical analyses reveal that the probabilities of recording dB/dt exceeding the thresholds stay below 50 % after NOAA alerts on X-ray bursts or on energetic particle flux enhancements. Therefore, those alerts are not very useful for auroral forecasts if we want to keep the number of false alarms low. However, NOAA alerts on global geomagnetic storms (characterized with Kp values > 4) enable probability estimates of > 50 % with lead times of 3-12 h. RAF forecasts thus rely heavily on the well-known fact that bright auroras appear during geomagnetic storms. The additional new piece of information which RAF brings to the previous picture is the knowledge on typical storm durations at different latitudes. For example, the service users south of the Arctic Circle will learn that after a NOAA ALTK06 issuance in night, auroral spotting should be done within 12 h after the alert, while at higher latitudes conditions can remain favourable during the next night.

  9. Multispectral simultaneous diagnosis of Saturn's aurorae throughout a planetary rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, L.; Prangé, R.; Pryor, W.; Gustin, J.; Badman, S. V.; Melin, H.; Stallard, T.; Mitchell, D.-G.; Brandt, P. C.

    2013-08-01

    From 27 to 28 January 2009, the Cassini spacecraft remotely acquired combined observations of Saturn's southern aurorae at radio, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, while monitoring ion injections in the middle magnetosphere from energetic neutral atoms. Simultaneous measurements included the sampling of a full planetary rotation, a relevant timescale to investigate auroral emissions driven by processes internal to the magnetosphere. In addition, this interval coincidentally matched a powerful substorm-like event in the magnetotail, which induced an overall dawnside intensification of the magnetospheric and auroral activity. We comparatively analyze this unique set of measurements to reach a comprehensive view of kronian auroral processes over the investigated timescale. We identify three source regions for the atmospheric aurorae, including a main oval associated with the bulk of Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR), together with polar and equatorward emissions. These observations reveal the coexistence of corotational and subcorototational dynamics of emissions associated with the main auroral oval. Precisely, we show that the atmospheric main oval hosts short-lived subcorotating isolated features together with a bright, longitudinally extended, corotating region locked at the southern SKR phase. We assign the substorm-like event to a regular, internally driven, nightside ion injection possibly triggered by a plasmoid ejection. We also investigate the total auroral energy budget, from the power input to the atmosphere, characterized by precipitating electrons up to 20 keV, to its dissipation through the various radiating processes. Finally, through simulations, we confirm the search-light nature of the SKR rotational modulation and we show that SKR arcs relate to isolated auroral spots. We characterize which radio sources are visible from the spacecraft and we estimate the fraction of visible southern power to a few percent. The resulting findings are discussed

  10. Realidad, mito y deseo. La mirada grecolatina de Aurora Luque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virtanen, Ricardo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aurora Luque’s poetry is one of the most representative of contemporary poetry, located within a Greek culturalism, where myth and reality blend into everyday life. Luque’s poetry is characterized by irony, nonchalance, frivolity and dedramatization. The article presents a series of poems where one can find a demystification of the classical element. A poetry stressed by some topoi such as carpe diem or Catullus’ odio et amo, which have been always represented from a light-hearted glance ruled by the spirit of Eros. The article also emphasizes the play on intertextuality –following Catullus– as well as the epicurean inclination/spirit/passion of the autor.

    La poesía de Aurora Luque representa una de las poéticas más representativas de nuestra contemporaneidad, ubicada dentro de un culturalismo grecista, donde mito y realidad se conjugan dentro de la cotidianidad. La poesía de Luque se caracteriza por su ironía, desenfado, frivolidad y desdramatización. El artículo presenta una serie de poemas donde se produce una desmitificación del elemento clásico. Una poesía marcada por algunos topoi como el carpe diem o el odio et amo catuliano, siempre representados desde una mirada desenfada y dominada por el espíritu del Eros. El artículo destaca además el juego de intertextualidad –en seguimiento de Catulo– así como la vocación epicúrea de la autora.

  11. Jupiter's magnetosphere and aurorae observed by the Juno spacecraft during its first polar orbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Adriani, Alberto; Allegrini, F.

    2017-01-01

    for Juno's passage over the poles and traverse of Jupiter's hazardous inner radiation belts. Juno's energetic particle and plasma detectors measured electrons precipitating in the polar regions, exciting intense aurorae, observed simultaneously by the ultraviolet and infrared imaging spectrographs. Juno...

  12. Aurora A kinase activates YAP signaling in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S-S; Yamaguchi, H; Xia, W; Lim, S-O; Khotskaya, Y; Wu, Y; Chang, W-C; Liu, Q; Hung, M-C

    2017-03-02

    The Yes-associated protein (YAP) is an effector that transduces the output of the Hippo pathway to transcriptional modulation. Considering the role of YAP in cancers, this protein has emerged as a key node in malignancy development. In this study, we determined that Aurora A kinase acts as a positive regulator for YAP-mediated transcriptional machinery. Specifically, YAP associates with Aurora A predominantly in the nucleus. Activation of Aurora A can impinge on YAP activity through direct phosphorylation. Moreover, aberrant expression of YAP and Aurora A signaling is highly correlated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We herein provide evidence to establish the functional relevance of this newly discovered regulatory axis in TNBC.

  13. Auroras Observed in Portugal in Late 18th Century Obtained from Printed and Manuscript Meteorological Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, José M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2005-09-01

    We present a new catalogue of observations of the aurora borealis at Lisbon, i.e., at low-latitudes, in the late 18th century by Jacob Præ torius and Henrique Schulze, two German artillery officers. Dates of 18 auroras compiled by Præ torius and Schulze are compared with those published in other catalogues for that period. The number of annual auroras observed by the two Germans is then compared with two indices of solar activity showing a very good level of consistency between all time series. Finally, we have assessed the number of auroras observed taking into consideration the phase of the lunar cycle and the geomagnetic latitude of Lisbon.

  14. Identification of Ustilago maydis Aurora kinase as a novel antifungal target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tückmantel, Sandra; Greul, Jörg N; Janning, Petra; Brockmeyer, Andreas; Grütter, Christian; Simard, Jeffrey R; Gutbrod, Oliver; Beck, Michael E; Tietjen, Klaus; Rauh, Daniel; Schreier, Peter H

    2011-09-16

    Infestation of crops by pathogenic fungi has continued to have a major impact by reducing yield and quality, emphasizing the need to identify new targets and develop new agents to improve methods of crop protection. Here we present Aurora kinase from the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis as a novel target for N-substituted diaminopyrimidines, a class of small-molecule kinase inhibitors. We show that Aurora kinase is essential in U. maydis and that diaminopyrimidines inhibit its activity in vitro. Furthermore, we observed an overall good correlation between in vitro inhibition of Aurora kinase and growth inhibition of diverse fungi in vivo. In vitro inhibition assays with Ustilago and human Aurora kinases indicate that some compounds of the N-substituted diaminopyrimidine class show specificity for the Ustilago enzyme, thus revealing their potential as selective fungicides.

  15. Recent advances in the development of Aurora kinases inhibitors in hematological malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudary, Iqra; Barr, Paul M.; Friedberg, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, since the discovery of Drosophila mutants in 1995, much effort has been made to understand Aurora kinase biology. Three mammalian subtypes have been identified thus far which include the Aurora A, B and C kinases. These regulatory proteins specifically work at the cytoskeleton and chromosomal structures between the kinetochores and have vital functions in the early phases of the mitotic cell cycle. Today, there are multiple phase I and phase II clinical trials as well as numerous preclinical studies taking place looking at Aurora kinase inhibitors in both hematologic and solid malignancies. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical development of Aurora kinase inhibitors in hematological malignancy and discusses their therapeutic potential. PMID:26622997

  16. Design and synthesis of novel benzoxazole analogs as Aurora B kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ying; Lee, Eun; Yu, Yeongji; Yun, Jieun; Lee, Myeong Youl; Kang, Jong Soon; Kim, Woo-Young; Jeon, Raok

    2016-07-01

    A novel series of benzoxazole analogs was designed and synthesized, and their inhibitory activities against Aurora kinases were evaluated. Some of the tested compounds exhibited a promising activity with respect to the inhibition of Aurora B kinase. A structure-activity relationship study indicated that linker length, regiochemistry, and halogen substitution play important roles in kinase inhibitory potency. The binding modes between representative compounds and Aurora kinases were interpreted through a molecular docking study to explain the inhibitory activity and selectivity for Aurora A and B kinases. Compounds 13l and 13q also show an antiproliferative effect on the human tumor cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. The most potent 13q demonstrated good efficacy in the prostate cancer PC-3 tumor xenograft model.

  17. Bioavailability of cadmium adsorbed on various oxides minerals to wetland plant species Phragmites australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang He, E-mail: he.wangworld@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jia Yongfeng, E-mail: yongfeng.jia@iae.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang Shaofeng [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhu Huijie; Wu Xing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-08-15

    The bioavailability of heavy metals strongly depends on their speciation in the environment. The effect of different chemical speciations of cadmium ions (i.e. adsorbed on different oxide minerals) on its bioavailability to wetland plant Phragmites australis was studied. Goethite, magnetite, gibbsite, alumina, and manganese oxide were chosen as representatives of metal (hydr)oxides commonly present in sediment. The cultivar system with Hoagland solution as nutrition supply, and single metal oxide with adsorbed Cd as contaminant was applied to study Cd accumulation by P. australis. The bioaccumulation degree in root after the 45-day treatment followed the order: Al(OH){sub 3} > Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} > MnO{sub 2} > FeOOH. The concentration of Cd in stem and leaf followed a similar order although it was considerably lower than that in root. Low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs), acetic acid, malic acid and citric acid were used to evaluate the desorbability of Cd from different oxides, which can be indicative of Cd-oxide bonding strength and Cd bioavailability. Desorption of Cd by acetic acid and malic acid followed the order: Al(OH){sub 3} > Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} > Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > FeOOH > MnO{sub 2}, while by citric acid: Al(OH){sub 3} {>=} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} > FeOOH > MnO{sub 2}. This was consistent with the Cd accumulation degree in the plant. Cd adsorbed on Al(OH){sub 3} was the most easily desorbable species and most bioavailable to P. australis among the oxide minerals, whereas MnO{sub 2} adsorbed Cd was least desorbable by LMWOAs hence constituted the least bioavailable Cd species adsorbed on the oxide minerals.

  18. Phytoextraction of chloride from a cement kiln dust (CKD) contaminated landfill with Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, Kaitlin; Rutter, Allison; Cumming, Robert; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2016-05-01

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a globally produced by-product from cement manufacturing that is stockpiled or landfilled. Elevated concentrations of chloride pose toxic threats to plants and aquatic communities, as the anion is highly mobile in water and can leach into surrounding water sources. Re-vegetation and in situ phytoextraction of chloride from a CKD landfill in Bath, ON, Canada, was investigated with the resident invasive species Phragmites australis (haplotype M). Existing stands of P. australis were transplanted from the perimeter of the site into the highest areas of contamination (5.9×10(3)μg/g). Accumulation in the shoots of P. australis was quantified over one growing season by collecting samples from the site on a bi-weekly basis and analyzing for chloride. Concentrations decreased significantly from early May (24±2.2×10(3)μg/g) until mid-June (15±2.5×10(3)μg/g), and then remained stable from June to August. Shoot chloride accumulation was not significantly affected by water level fluctuations at the site, however elevated potassium concentrations in the soil may have contributed to uptake. Based on shoot chloride accumulation and total biomass, it was determined that phytoextraction from the CKD landfill can remove 65±4kg/km(2) of chloride per season. Based on this extraction rate, removal of chloride present in the highly contaminated top 10cm of soil can be achieved in 3-9years. This is the first study to apply phytotechnologies at a CKD landfill, and to successfully demonstrate in situ phytoextraction of chloride.

  19. Vegetation persistence and carbon storage: Implications for environmental water management for Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Kai; Rogers, Kerrylee; Saintilan, Neil; Mazumder, Debashish; Wen, Li; Morrison, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    Environmental water allocations are used to improve the ecological health of wetlands. There is now increasing demand for allocations to improve ecosystem productivity and respiration, and enhance carbon sequestration. Despite global recognition of wetlands as carbon sinks, information regarding carbon dynamics is lacking. This is the first study estimating carbon sequestration for semiarid Phragmites australis reedbeds. The study combined aboveground biomass assessments with stable isotope analyses of soils and modeling of biomass using Normalized Digital Vegetation Index (NDVI) to investigate the capacity of environmental water allocations to improve carbon storage. The study considered relationships between soil organic carbon (SOC), carbon sources, and reedbed persistence in the Macquarie Marshes, a regulated semiarid floodplain of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. SOC storage levels to 1 m soil depth were higher in persistent reedbeds (167 Mg ha-1) than ephemeral reedbeds (116-138 Mg ha-1). In situ P. australis was the predominant source of surface SOC at persistent reedbeds; mixed sources of surface SOC were proposed for ephemeral reedbeds. 13C enrichment with increasing soil depth occurred in persistent and ephemeral reedbeds and may not relate to flow characteristics. Despite high SOC at persistent reedbeds, differences in the rate of accretion contributed to significantly higher rates of carbon sequestration at ephemeral reedbeds (approximately 554 and 465 g m-2 yr-1) compared to persistent reedbeds (5.17 g m-2 yr-1). However, under current water regimes, rapid accretion at ephemeral reedbeds cannot be maintained. Effective management of persistent P. australis reedbeds may enhance carbon sequestration in the Macquarie Marshes and floodplain wetlands more generally.

  20. [Bud population dynamics of Phragmites australis in heterogeneous habitats of Northeast grassland, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    To adapt ecological environment, typical clonal plants can occur continuously by means of buds. The changes in the bud bank and bud flow in the heterogeneous habitats become the foundation for deep understanding the characteristics of vegetative propagation. By sampling soil from the unit area, a comparative analysis was performed for rhizome bud population dynamics of Phragmites australis community in both meadow soil and saline-alkali soil habitats in meadow grassland of Northeast China. The one-age class rhizome buds formed in the current year were used as input, with the other age classes rhizome buds as output, counting the dormancy buds and death buds. The results showed that the storage, input, output, dormancy, death and the input rates of P. australis rhizome bud populations in meadow soil habitat were significantly higher than that in saline-alkali habitat. There was no significant difference in output rate between the two habitats. The dormant rate in saline-alkali habitat was significantly greater than that in meadow soil habitat. The death rates remained at relatively low levels in both, less than 2%. With the going of growing season, the input buds and input rate of bud bank increased in the two habitats, while the output buds remained relatively stable. The output rate increased first and decreased later, the dormancy buds and dormant rate decreased. Bud bank and bud flow were positively related to soil moisture, soil organic matter and soil available nitrogen content. However, they were negatively related to soil pH value and soil available phosphorus content. Bud bank and bud flow had a similar seasonal variation. Constantly for both habitats, P. australis populations generated new rhizome buds supplied to the bud bank and kept a stable output to maintain their vegetative propagation.

  1. Evapotranspiration from pilot-scale constructed wetlands planted with Phragmites australis in a Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Mirco; Toscano, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of evapotranspiration (ET) experiments carried out in Southern Italy (Sicily) in a pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) made of a combination of vegetated (Phragmites australis) and unvegetated sub-surface flow beds. Domestic wastewater from a conventional wastewater treatment plant was used to fill the beds. Microclimate data was gathered from an automatic weather station close to the experimental plant. From June to November 2009 and from April to November 2010, ET values were measured as the amount of water needed to restore the initial volume in the beds after a certain period. Cumulative reference evapotranspiration (ET(0)) was similar to the cumulative ET measured in the beds without vegetation (ET(con)), while the Phragmites ET (ET (phr) ) was significantly higher underlining the effect of the vegetation. The plant coefficient of P. australis (K(p)) was very high (up to 8.5 in August 2009) compared to the typical K(c) for agricultural crops suggesting that the wetland environment was subjected to strong "clothesline" and "oasis" effects. According to the FAO 56 approach, K(p) shows different patterns and values in relation to growth stages correlating significantly to stem density, plant height and total leaves. The mean Water Use Efficiency (WUE) value of P. australis was quite low, about 2.27 g L(-1), probably due to the unlimited water availability and the lack of the plant's physiological adaptations to water conservation. The results provide useful and valid information for estimating ET rates in small-scale constructed wetlands since ET is a relevant issue in arid and semiarid regions. In these areas CW feasibility for wastewater treatment and reuse should also be carefully evaluated for macrophytes in relation to their WUE values.

  2. Allelopathy and resource competition: the effects of Phragmites australis invasion in plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall William

    2017-12-01

    Phragmites australis, a ubiquitous wetland plant, has been considered one of the most invasive species in the world. Allelopathy appears to be one of the invasion mechanisms, however, the effects could be masked by resource competition among target plants. The difficulty of distinguishing allelopathy from resource competition among plants has hindered investigations of the role of phytotoxic allelochemicals in plant communities. This has been addressed via experiments conducted in both the greenhouse and laboratory by growing associated plants, Melaleuca ericifolia, Rumex conglomeratus, and model plant, Lactuca sativa at varying densities with the allelopathic plant, P. australis, its litter and leachate of P. australis litter. This study investigated the potential interacting influences of allelopathy and resource competition on plant growth-density relationships. In greenhouse, the root exudates mediated effects showed the strongest growth inhibition of M. ericifolia at high density whereas litter mediated results revealed increased growth at medium density treatments compared to low and high density. Again, laboratory experiments related to seed germination and seedling growth of L. sativa and R. conglomeratus exhibited phytotoxicity decreased showing positive growth as plant density increased and vice versa. Overall, the differential effects were observed among experiments but maximum individual plant biomass and some other positive effects on plant traits such as root and shoot length, chlorophyll content occurred at an intermediate density. This was attributed to the sharing of the available phytotoxin among plants at high densities which is compatible to density-dependent phytotoxicity model. The results demonstrated that plant-plant interference is the combined effect of allelopathy and resource competition with many other factors but this experimental design, target-neighbor mixed-culture in combination of plant grown at varying densities with varying

  3. Long-term (two annual cycles) phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated estuarine sediments by Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero-Fernández, Diego; Peña-Fernández, Manuel; Expósito-Camargo, Jose A; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2016-07-20

    The long-term (i.e., two consecutive annual cycles) ability of Phragmites australis to remediate estuarine sediments contaminated with heavy metals (Co, Ni, Mo, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Hg) and trace elements of concern (As, Se, Ba) was investigated using an experimental approach on a pilot plant scale. The accumulation of these elements on belowground and aboveground tissues was monitored during vegetative and senescence periods for two populations of P. australis, originally from contaminated (MIC) and non-contaminated (GAL) estuaries, respectively. The initial concentration of the elements in the contaminated estuarine sediment decreased in the following order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Pb>Ba>Cr>As>Cu>Ni>Co>Mo>Cd>Se>Hg. A similar trend was recorded in the belowground biomass following remediation, suggesting the potential role of P. australis as an effective biomonitoring tool. Hg was not detected in any plant tissue. An overall annual increase of concentration levels in belowground tissue was observed. Overall, this study suggested that P. australis populations from GAL were substantially more efficient in taking up Ni, Mo and Cr during the second annual cycle in both belowground and aboveground tissue than P. australis populations from MIC. Calculated bio-concentration factors (BCF) suggested a clear metal excluder strategy for Co, Cd, Pb, Cu and Fe, with accumulation and stabilisation belowground, with limited translocation into aerial tissues observed during the length of this study. An excluder behaviour for Zn, Ba and Mn was detected during the second annual cycle, coinciding with a substantial increase of concentration levels belowground. This study demonstrated for the first time the long term efficacy of P. australis for phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated estuarine sediments.

  4. Potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sambucus australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides Bahiense, Jhéssica; Marques, Franciane Martins; Figueira, Mariana Moreira; Vargas, Thais Souza; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; Scherer, Rodrigo; Fronza, Marcio

    2017-12-01

    Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. (Adoxaceae) is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat inflammatory disorders. To evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of S. australis. The anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extracts of the leaf and bark of S. australis (1-100 μg/mL) were studied in lipopolysaccharide/interferon γ stimulated murine macrophages RAW 264.7 cells (24 h incubation) by investigating the release of nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and in the TNF-α-induced nuclear factor kappa (NF-κB) assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution test (24 h incubation). Antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the NO scavenging assays. Chemical composition was assessed by LC-MS/MS. Antioxidant activities in the DPPH (IC50 43.5 and 66.2 μg/mL), FRAP (IC50 312.6 and 568.3 μg/mL) and NO radical scavenging assays (IC50 285.0 and 972.6 μg/mL) were observed in the leaf and bark ethanol extracts, respectively. Solely the leaf extract showed significant inhibition of NO and TNF-α production in RAW264.7 cells at concentrations of 2 and 100 μg/mL, respectively, and suppression of TNF-α inhibition of NF-κB by 12.8 and 20.4% at concentrations of 50 and 100 μg/mL, respectively. The extract also exhibited antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 250 μg/mL) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC 250 μg/mL). LC-MS/MS revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid and rutin as major compounds. The results indicate that the ethanol leaf extract of S. australis exhibit prominent anti-inflammatory effects.

  5. Conditions for selective degradation of lignin by the fungus Ganoderma australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, S.; Eyzaguirre, J. (Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Lab. de Bioquimica)

    1992-08-01

    The white-rot fungus Ganoderma australis selectively degrades lignin in the ecosystem 'palo podrido'. Using conditions that simulate those of 'palo podrido' in the laboratory, it was found that low nitrogen content and low O{sub 2} tension stimulate the production of manganese peroxidase and lignin degradation, and depress cellulose degradation and cellulase production. The inverse is found at high nitrogen concentration and high O{sub 2} tension. This agrees with previous results indicating that low O{sub 2} tension and low nitrogen stimulate selective lignin degradation by this fungus. (orig.).

  6. Alpha Trianguli Australis (K2 II-III) - Hybrid or composite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, T. R.

    1985-01-01

    The prototype hybrid-spectrum giant Alpha Trianguli Australis exhibits a far-ultraviolet continuum which is considerably bluer than would be expected of a star of its optical colors, suggesting the presence of a previously unrecognized companion. If the K-type primary is as luminous as indicated by the widths of its Ca II and H-alpha lines, the companion could be an early F-type dwarf that only recently has arrived on the main sequence. Indeed, the flux of C IV from Alpha TrA - an important measure of hybridness - would not be inconsistent with that expected from a very young chromospherically active F star.

  7. Identifying, Developing and Releasing Insect Biocontrol Agents for the Management of Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    lurida X X Cortaderia selloana + + Cyperus haspan X X Dactylis glomerata X X Danthonia spicata X O Distichlis spicata X X Elymus virginicus X X...Muhlenbergia racemosa X X Oryza sativa + X Panicum virgatum X X Phalaris arundinacea + + Pontederia cordata X X Saccharum officinarum X...introduced grasses (R2adj=0.22, F1,34=10.79, P=0.0024, Figure 6), but not with the native P. australis cover (R2adj=0.06, F1,54=3.53, P=0.0656, data not

  8. Geographic variation in apparent competition between native and invasive Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Ganesh P; Meyerson, Laura A; Cronin, James T

    2017-02-01

    Apparent competition, the negative interaction between species mediated by shared natural enemies, is thought to play an important role in shaping the structure and dynamics of natural communities. However, its importance in driving species invasions, and whether the strength of this indirect interaction varies across the latitudinal range of the invasion, has not been fully explored. We performed replicated field experiments at four sites spanning 900 km along the Atlantic Coast of the United States to assess the presence and strength of apparent competition between sympatric native and invasive lineages of Phragmites australis. Four herbivore guilds were considered: stem-feeders, leaf-miners, leaf-chewers and aphids. We also tested the hypothesis that the strength of this interaction declines with increasing latitude. Within each site, native and invasive plants of P. australis were cross-transplanted between co-occurring native and invasive patches in the same marsh habitat and herbivore damage was evaluated at the end of the growing season. Apparent competition was evident for both lineages and involved all but the leaf-chewer guild. For native plants, total aphids per plant was 296% higher and the incidence of stem-feeding and leaf-mining herbivores was 34% and 221% higher, respectively, when transplanted into invasive than native patches. These data suggest that invasive P. australis has a negative effect on native P. australis via apparent competition. Averaged among herbivore types, the indirect effects of the invasive lineage on the native lineage was 57% higher than the reverse situation, suggesting that apparent competition was asymmetric. We also found that the strength of apparent competition acting against the native lineage was comparable to the benefits to the invasive lineage from enemy release (i.e., proportionately lower mean herbivory of the invasive relative to the native taxa). Finally, we found the first evidence that the strength of

  9. Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus australis abundance in poorly known sites: a spatial expansion of colonies?

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Szteren

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe establishment of new pinniped colonies is a consequence of complex dynamics in which some colonies may transform from haul-outs into breeding sites. The aim of this article was to estimate the abundance of Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus australis at two poorly known sites of Uruguay, the easternmost “Isla Verde-Islote Coronilla” (IV-IC) and the westernmost “Las Pipas” (LP). From June 2008 to June 2009 count from boats were conducted at LP, and aerial c...

  10. Botanical and genetic characteristics of Celtis australis L. and Celtis occidentalis L. grown in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Shahat M.A. El-Alfy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Celtis australis L. and Celtis occidentalis L. are deciduous ornamental trees, grown in Egypt. This study presents a comparative investigation of the botanical features of the stems, stem barks and leaves of both plants. Furthermore, the DNA of both plants was extracted from leaf samples and analyzed using 10 decamer random primers. A total of 159 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were identified. Seed protein profiling was also performed and revealed low variation in both plants’ SDS–PAGE profiles.

  11. Increased Wounding of Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis Calves by Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus at Peninsula Valdes, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina F Marón

    Full Text Available At least 626 southern right whale (Eubalaena australis calves died at the Península Valdés calving ground, Argentina, between 2003 and 2014. Intense gull harassment may have contributed to these deaths. In the 1970s, Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus began feeding on skin and blubber pecked from the backs of living right whales at Valdés. The frequency of gull attacks has increased dramatically over the last three decades and mother-calf pairs are the primary targets. Pairs attacked by gulls spend less time nursing, resting and playing than pairs not under attack. In successive attacks, gulls open new lesions on the whales' backs or enlarge preexisting ones. Increased wounding could potentially lead to dehydration, impaired thermoregulation, and energy loss to wound healing. The presence, number and total area of gull-inflicted lesions were assessed using aerial survey photographs of living mother-calf pairs in 1974-2011 (n = 2680 and stranding photographs of dead calves (n = 192 in 2003-2011. The percentage of living mothers and calves with gull lesions increased from an average of 2% in the 1970s to 99% in the 2000s. In the 1980s and 1990s, mothers and calves had roughly equal numbers of lesions (one to five, but by the 2000s, calves had more lesions (nine or more covering a greater area of their backs compared to their mothers. Living mother-calf pairs and dead calves in Golfo Nuevo had more lesions than those in Golfo San José in the 2000s. The number and area of lesions increased with calf age during the calving season. Intensified Kelp Gull harassment at Península Valdés could be compromising calf health and thereby contributing to the high average rate of calf mortality observed in recent years, but it cannot explain the large year-to-year variance in calf deaths since 2000.

  12. Regulation of AURORA B function by mitotic checkpoint protein MAD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandilya, Jayasha; Medler, Kathryn F; Roberts, Stefan G E

    2016-08-17

    Cell cycle checkpoint signaling stringently regulates chromosome segregation during cell division. MAD2 is one of the key components of the spindle and mitotic checkpoint complex that regulates the fidelity of cell division along with MAD1, CDC20, BUBR1, BUB3 and MAD3. MAD2 ablation leads to erroneous attachment of kinetochore-spindle fibers and defective chromosome separation. A potential role for MAD2 in the regulation of events beyond the spindle and mitotic checkpoints is not clear. Together with active spindle assembly checkpoint signaling, AURORA B kinase activity is essential for chromosome condensation as cells enter mitosis. AURORA B phosphorylates histone H3 at serine 10 and serine 28 to facilitate the formation of condensed metaphase chromosomes. In the absence of functional AURORA B cells escape mitosis despite the presence of misaligned chromosomes. In this study we report that silencing of MAD2 results in a drastic reduction of metaphase-specific histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 and serine 28. We demonstrate that this is due to mislocalization of AURORA B in the absence of MAD2. Conversely, overexpression of MAD2 concentrated the localization of AURORA B at the metaphase plate and caused hyper-phosphorylation of histone H3. We find that MAD1 plays a minor role in influencing the MAD2-dependent regulation of AURORA B suggesting that the effects of MAD2 on AURORA B are independent of the spindle checkpoint complex. Our findings reveal that, in addition to its role in checkpoint signaling, MAD2 ensures chromosome stability through the regulation of AURORA B.

  13. The aurora sign in a patient with type B Niemann-Pick disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa e. Silva, Eduardo J. da [Instituto Materno Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira, Departamento de Radiologia, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); IMIP, Departamento de Radiologia-Rua dos Coelhos, Recife, PE (Brazil); Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Silvio; Queiroz Praxedes, Eduardo L. de; Amaral, Fernando J. do [Instituto Materno Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira, Departamento de Radiologia, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    The aurora sign, a sonographic sign found on the sagittal and transverse view, refers to multiple bands of ring-down artifacts posterior to the right hemidiaphragm. Parenchymal lung disease should be suspected when this is present. We report a case of type B Niemann-Pick disease with pulmonary involvement and the aurora sign on abdominal sonography. High-resolution CT of the chest showed corresponding thickened interlobular septa. (orig.)

  14. Aurora B prevents chromosome arm separation defects by promoting telomere dispersion and disjunction

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Céline; Serrurier, Céline; Gauthier, Tiphaine; Gachet, Yannick; Tournier, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of centromeres and telomeres at mitosis is coordinated at multiple levels to prevent the formation of aneuploid cells, a phenotype frequently observed in cancer. Mitotic instability arises from chromosome segregation defects, giving rise to chromatin bridges at anaphase. Most of these defects are corrected before anaphase onset by a mechanism involving Aurora B kinase, a key regulator of mitosis in a wide range of organisms. Here, we describe a new role for Aurora B in telomer...

  15. Cell cycle-dependent regulation of Aurora kinase B mRNA by the Microprocessor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eunsun; Seong, Youngmo; Seo, Jae Hong; Kwon, Young-Soo; Song, Hoseok

    2014-03-28

    Aurora kinase B regulates the segregation of chromosomes and the spindle checkpoint during mitosis. In this study, we showed that the Microprocessor complex, which is responsible for the processing of the primary transcripts during the generation of microRNAs, destabilizes the mRNA of Aurora kinase B in human cells. The Microprocessor-mediated cleavage kept Aurora kinase B at a low level and prevented premature entrance into mitosis. The cleavage was reduced during mitosis leading to the accumulation of Aurora kinase B mRNA and protein. In addition to Aurora kinase B mRNA, the processing of other primary transcripts of miRNAs were also decreased during mitosis. We found that the cleavage was dependent on an RNA helicase, DDX5, and the association of DDX5 and DDX17 with the Microprocessor was reduced during mitosis. Thus, we propose a novel mechanism by which the Microprocessor complex regulates stability of Aurora kinase B mRNA and cell cycle progression.

  16. Aurora A regulates expression of AR-V7 in models of castrate resistant prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dominic; Noble, Martin; Wedge, Steve R.; Robson, Craig N.; Gaughan, Luke

    2017-01-01

    Androgen receptor variants (AR-Vs) provide a mechanism of therapy evasion in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), yet mechanisms of regulation remain largely unknown. Here we investigate the role of Aurora A kinase on AR-Vs in models of CRPC and show depletion of Aurora A reduces AR-V target gene expression. Importantly, knockdown of Aurora A reconfigures splicing of AR pre-mRNA to discriminately down-regulate synthesis of AR-V transcripts, including AR-V7, without effecting full-length AR mRNA; and as a consequence, AR-V-driven proliferation and survival of CRPC cells is markedly reduced. Critically, these effects are reproduced by Aurora A inhibition. We show that Aurora A levels increase in advanced disease and AURKA is an AR-V target gene demonstrating a positive feedback mechanism of androgenic signalling in CRPC. In all, our data suggests that Aurora A plays a pivotal role in regulation of AR-V7 expression and represents a new therapeutic target in CRPC. PMID:28205582

  17. Evidence that Aurora B is implicated in spindle checkpoint signalling independently of error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaguida, Stefano; Vernieri, Claudio; Villa, Fabrizio; Ciliberto, Andrea; Musacchio, Andrea

    2011-04-20

    Fidelity of chromosome segregation is ensured by a tension-dependent error correction system that prevents stabilization of incorrect chromosome-microtubule attachments. Unattached or incorrectly attached chromosomes also activate the spindle assembly checkpoint, thus delaying mitotic exit until all chromosomes are bioriented. The Aurora B kinase is widely recognized as a component of error correction. Conversely, its role in the checkpoint is controversial. Here, we report an analysis of the role of Aurora B in the spindle checkpoint under conditions believed to uncouple the effects of Aurora B inhibition on the checkpoint from those on error correction. Partial inhibition of several checkpoint and kinetochore components, including Mps1 and Ndc80, strongly synergizes with inhibition of Aurora B activity and dramatically affects the ability of cells to arrest in mitosis in the presence of spindle poisons. Thus, Aurora B might contribute to spindle checkpoint signalling independently of error correction. Our results support a model in which Aurora B is at the apex of a signalling pyramid whose sensory apparatus promotes the concomitant activation of error correction and checkpoint signalling pathways.

  18. Targeting the interaction of Aurora kinases and SIRT1 mediated by Wnt signaling pathway in colorectal cancer: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniyan, Boopathi; Jagadeesan, Kaviya; Ramakrishnan, Sabitha; Mathan, Ganeshan

    2016-08-01

    The Aurora kinases belong to the family of serine/threonine kinase, a central regulator of mitosis and their expression increased during G2/M phase. It is classified into Aurora A, B and C, each has distinct roles in cellular processes, which includes regulation of spindle assembly, function of centrosomes, cytoskeleton and cytokinesis. During cancer growth, their rapid increase makes most attractive marker for cancer treatment at present. However Aurora A kinase is known to be a marker for cancer therapy, the most important serine/threonine kinase of Aurora B kinase involvement in cancer is still inadequate. Subsequently, the recent findings revealed that the class III histone deacetylase of SIRT1 is a key regulator to activate Aurora kinases from S phase damaged DNA through Wnt signaling pathway. Even if both Aurora A kinase and SIRT1 serve as a marker for cancer therapy, the present review reveals it is interaction in Wnt signaling pathway that solely for colorectal cancer.

  19. Discovery of novel inhibitors of Aurora kinases with indazole scaffold: In silico fragment-based and knowledge-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Feng; Lin, Wen-Hsing; Ke, Yi-Yu; Lin, Yih-Shyan; Wang, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Hwa; Kuo, Po-Chu; Hsu, John T A; Uang, Biing-Jiun; Hsieh, Hsing-Pang

    2016-11-29

    Aurora kinases have emerged as important anticancer targets so that there are several inhibitors have advanced into clinical study. Herein, we identified novel indazole derivatives as potent Aurora kinases inhibitors by utilizing in silico fragment-based approach and knowledge-based drug design. After intensive hit-to-lead optimization, compounds 17 (dual Aurora A and B), 21 (Aurora B selective) and 30 (Aurora A selective) possessed indazole privileged scaffold with different substituents, which provide sub-type kinase selectivity. Computational modeling helps in understanding that the isoform selectivity could be targeted specific residue in the Aurora kinase binding pocket in particular targeting residues Arg220, Thr217 or Glu177.

  20. Short term uptake and transport process for metformin in roots of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H; Hense, B A; Müller, J; Schröder, P

    2015-09-01

    Metformin (MET) as an emerging contaminant has been detected in surface water and wastewater in numerous countries, due to insufficient retention in classical waste water treatment plants. In order to characterize the uptake of the compound during phytotreatment of waste water, a short term Pitman chamber experiment was carried out to assess the characteristics of MET uptake and transport by roots. Three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mmol L(-)(1)) were applied to cattail (Typha latifolia) and reed (Phragmites australis) roots which were used to investigate the uptake mechanism because they are frequently utilized in phytoremediation. In addition, quinidine was used as an inhibitor to assess the role of organic cation transporters (OCTs) in the uptake of MET by T. latifolia. The transport process of MET is different from carbamazepine (CBZ) and caffeine (CFN). In both T. latifolia and P. australis, the uptake processes were independent of initial concentrations. Quinidine, a known inhibitor of organic cation transporters, can significantly affect MET uptake by T. latifolia roots with inhibition ratios of 70-74%. Uptake into the root could be characterized by a linear model with R(2) values in the range of 0.881-0.999. Overall, the present study provides evidence that MET is taken up by plant roots and has the potential for subsequent translocation. OCTs could be one of the important pathways for MET uptake into the plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on toxicity and immunogenicity of Androctonus australis hector venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abib, L. [Univ. des Sciences et de la Technologie, Lab. de Biologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Faculte des Sciences Biologiques, Houari Boumedienne, Bab Ezzouar (Algeria); Laraba-Djebari, F. [Univ. des Sciences et de la Technologie, Lab. de Biologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Faculte des Sciences Biologiques, Houari Boumedienne, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Institut Pasteur d' Algerie, Lab. de Recherche et de Developpement sur les Venins, Alger (Algeria); E-mail: flaraba@ibnsina.ands.dz

    2003-12-01

    An investigation was made of the radiosensitivity of the toxic and immunological properties of Androctonus australis hector venom. This venom was irradiated with two doses of gamma rays (1 and 2 kGy) from a {sup 60}Co source. The results showed that venom toxicity was abolished for the two radiation doses (1 and 2 kGy) with, respectively, 10 and 25 times its initial LD50 value. However, irradiated venoms were immunogenic, and the antibodies elicited by them were able to recognize the native venom by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antisera raised against these toxoids (1 and 2 kGy) had a higher neutralizing capacity and immunoreactivity against all components of native venom than did the antiserum produced against the native venom. The antiserum of rabbits immunized with 2-kGy-irradiated venom was more efficient than 1-kGy-irradiated toxoid antiserum. Indeed, in vivo protection assays showed that the mice immunized with 2-kGy-irradiated venom resisted lethal doses (i.p.) of A. australis hector venom. (author)

  2. Phosphate and ammonium adsorption of the modified biochar based on Phragmites australis after phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yu-Peng; Ni, Zhi-Yi; Xiong, Zhao-Zhao; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xin-Hua

    2017-02-04

    To effectively remove N and P from eutrophic water, the Phragmites australis after phytoremediation was harvested for preparation of modified biochar. The MgCl2-modified biochar (MPB) was successfully synthesized at 600 °C under N2 circumstance. The physiochemical characteristics, the adsorption capacity for N and P in the simulated solution, and their adsorption mechanism of MPB were then determined, followed by the treatment of eutrophic water of Tai lake and its inflow river from agricultural source. The results demonstrated that the MPB presented high adsorption capacity to both simulated NH4-N and PO4-P with the maximum adsorption capacity exceeding 30 and 100 mg g(-1), respectively. The entire ammonium adsorption process could be described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model whereas the phosphate adsorption process could be divided into three phases, as described by both intra-particle diffusion model and the pseudo-first-order kinetic. It was further found that the dominant mechanism for ammonium adsorption was Mg(2+) exchange instead of functional groups and surface areas and the Mg-P precipitation was the main mechanism for phosphate adsorption. The MPB also showed high removal ratio of practical TP which reached nearly 90% for both the water in Tai lake and its agricultural source. It suggested that MPB based on harvested P. australis was a promising composite for eutrophic water treatment and it could deliver multiple benefits. Graphic abstract.

  3. The potential for constructed wetlands to treat alkaline bauxite-residue leachate: Phragmites australis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, D; Curtin, T; Pawlett, M; Courtney, R

    2016-12-01

    High alkalinity (pH > 12) of bauxite-residue leachates presents challenges for the long-term storage and managements of the residue. Recent evidence has highlighted the potential for constructed wetlands to effectively buffer the alkalinity, but there is limited evidence on the potential for wetland plants to establish and grow in soils inundated with residue leachate. A pot-based trial was conducted to investigate the potential for Phragmites australis to establish and grow in substrate treated with residue leachate over a pH range of 8.6-11.1. The trial ran for 3 months, after which plant growth and biomass were determined. Concentrations of soluble and exchangeable trace elements in the soil substrate and also in the aboveground and belowground biomass were determined. Residue leachate pH did not affect plant biomass or microbial biomass. With the exception of Na, there was no effect on exchangeable trace elements in the substrate; however, increases in soluble metals (As, Cd and Na) were observed with increasing leachate concentration. Furthermore, increases in Al, As and V were observed in belowground biomass and for Cd and Cr in aboveground biomass. Concentrations within the vegetation biomass were less than critical phytotoxic levels. Results demonstrate the ability for P. australis to grow in bauxite-residue leachate-inundated growth media without adverse effects.

  4. Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus australis abundance in poorly known sites: a spatial expansion of colonies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Szteren

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe establishment of new pinniped colonies is a consequence of complex dynamics in which some colonies may transform from haul-outs into breeding sites. The aim of this article was to estimate the abundance of Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus australis at two poorly known sites of Uruguay, the easternmost “Isla Verde-Islote Coronilla” (IV-IC and the westernmost “Las Pipas” (LP. From June 2008 to June 2009 count from boats were conducted at LP, and aerial censuses at Isla Verde. At LP both pinniped species were recorded, and the abundance was maximum in July with a total of 202 animals.O. flavescens was present throughout the year, mainly adult males, while A. australis was only observed from June to October. LP is defined as a haul-out structure used as resting area, especially for O. flavescens. At IV-IC between 225 and 521 O. flavescens were recorded. The number of animals increased in Spring and Summer. Females were the most abundant category and pups were recorded in March. According to the age structure and the presence of pups, we propose it would have and incipient reproductive activity. This colony should be monitored in relation with its category as a marine protected area.

  5. Tripolin A, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of aurora A kinase, reveals new regulation of HURP's distribution on microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana A Kesisova

    Full Text Available Mitotic regulators exhibiting gain of function in tumor cells are considered useful cancer therapeutic targets for the development of small-molecule inhibitors. The human Aurora kinases are a family of such targets. In this study, from a panel of 105 potential small-molecule inhibitors, two compounds Tripolin A and Tripolin B, inhibited Aurora A kinase activity in vitro. In human cells however, only Tripolin A acted as an Aurora A inhibitor. We combined in vitro, in vivo single cell and in silico studies to demonstrate the biological action of Tripolin A, a non-ATP competitive inhibitor. Tripolin A reduced the localization of pAurora A on spindle microtubules (MTs, affected centrosome integrity, spindle formation and length, as well as MT dynamics in interphase, consistent with Aurora A inhibition by RNAi or other specific inhibitors, such as MLN8054 or MLN8237. Interestingly, Tripolin A affected the gradient distribution towards the chromosomes, but not the MT binding of HURP (Hepatoma Up-Regulated Protein, a MT-associated protein (MAP and substrate of the Aurora A kinase. Therefore Tripolin A reveals a new way of regulating mitotic MT stabilizers through Aurora A phosphorylation. Tripolin A is predicted to bind Aurora A similarly but not identical to MLN8054, therefore it could be used to dissect pathways orchestrated by Aurora kinases as well as a scaffold for further inhibitor development.

  6. Tripolin A, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of aurora A kinase, reveals new regulation of HURP's distribution on microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesisova, Iliana A; Nakos, Konstantinos C; Tsolou, Avgi; Angelis, Dimitrios; Lewis, Joe; Chatzaki, Aikaterini; Agianian, Bogos; Giannis, Athanassios; Koffa, Maria D

    2013-01-01

    Mitotic regulators exhibiting gain of function in tumor cells are considered useful cancer therapeutic targets for the development of small-molecule inhibitors. The human Aurora kinases are a family of such targets. In this study, from a panel of 105 potential small-molecule inhibitors, two compounds Tripolin A and Tripolin B, inhibited Aurora A kinase activity in vitro. In human cells however, only Tripolin A acted as an Aurora A inhibitor. We combined in vitro, in vivo single cell and in silico studies to demonstrate the biological action of Tripolin A, a non-ATP competitive inhibitor. Tripolin A reduced the localization of pAurora A on spindle microtubules (MTs), affected centrosome integrity, spindle formation and length, as well as MT dynamics in interphase, consistent with Aurora A inhibition by RNAi or other specific inhibitors, such as MLN8054 or MLN8237. Interestingly, Tripolin A affected the gradient distribution towards the chromosomes, but not the MT binding of HURP (Hepatoma Up-Regulated Protein), a MT-associated protein (MAP) and substrate of the Aurora A kinase. Therefore Tripolin A reveals a new way of regulating mitotic MT stabilizers through Aurora A phosphorylation. Tripolin A is predicted to bind Aurora A similarly but not identical to MLN8054, therefore it could be used to dissect pathways orchestrated by Aurora kinases as well as a scaffold for further inhibitor development.

  7. Specific small-molecule activator of Aurora kinase A induces autophosphorylation in a cell-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, A Hari; Vedamurthy, B M; Mantelingu, K; Agrawal, Shipra; Reddy, B A Ashok; Roy, Siddhartha; Rangappa, K S; Kundu, Tapas K

    2008-02-28

    Aurora kinases are essential for chromosomal segregation and cell division and thereby important for maintaining the proper genomic integrity. There are three classes of aurora kinases in humans: A, B, and C. Aurora kinase A is frequently overexpressed in various cancers. The link of the overexpression and tumorigenesis is yet to be understood. By employing virtual screening, we have found that anacardic acid, a pentadecane aliphatic chain containing hydroxylcarboxylic acid, from cashew nut shell liquid could be docked in Aurora kinases A and B. Remarkably, we found that anacardic acid could potently activate the Aurora kinase A mediated phosphorylation of histone H3, but at a similar concentration the activity of aurora kinase B remained unaffected in vitro. Mechanistically, anacardic acid induces the structural changes and also the autophosphorylation of the aurora kinase A to enhance the enzyme activity. This data thus indicate anacardic acid as the first small-molecule activator of Aurora kinase, which could be highly useful for probing the function of hyperactive (overexpressed) Aurora kinase A.

  8. A statistical study of dayside diffuse aurora observed at Yellow River Station in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D.; Hu, Z.; Hu, H.; Yang, H.; Huang, D. H.; Chen, X.

    2014-12-01

    Chinese Yellow River Station (YRS), at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard is one of the few stations that can make longtime optical auroral observation at the cusp latitude in the dayside during the boreal winter season on the Earth. Since November 2003, an optical observation system consisting of three identical all-sky imagers supplied with the narrow band filters centered at 427.8, 557.5 and 630.0nm, has been installed at YRS, and the continuous observations providing us with an unprecedented opportunity to investigate some new properties of dayside aurora. Optical diffuse auroras are normally observed at the sub-aurora latitude in nightside on the ground. However, by using 7-year continuous observations obtained at YRS, we found that the diffuse auroras are very frequently observed on the dayside at the high latitude, i.e., near the cusp. We classified the dayside diffuse aurora into four primary categories. They are (1) Veiling Diffuse Aurora, which has no obvious morphological structure and clear boundaries, sometimes likes a thick cloud cover the entire sky, (2) Patch Diffuse Aurora, which is an aurora patch normally in ~10-100km in width and usually owns pulsating property; (3) Diffuse Arcs, which looks like an arc but is apparently different from the discrete auroral arcs in morphology, and (4) Pulsating Aurora, occurring with sparkling forms. We statistical studied how the occurrence of the four types of dayside diffuse auroras depends on the local time, magnetic activity, and solar wind conditions. We found that the occurrence of each type of dayside diffuse aurora shows a unimodal distribution with magnetic local time and their peaks are mostly appeared near the magnetic local noon. We also noted that ~92.2% of the dayside diffuse auroras is observed under low magnetic activity, i.e., Kp ≤ 3, and the dayside diffuse auroras prefer to be observed under IMF By0. Although previous studies suggested that the dayside diffuse aurora should be caused by wave scattering of

  9. Indomethacin promotes apoptosis in gastric cancer cells through concomitant degradation of Survivin and Aurora B kinase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shiun-Kwei; Hoa, Neil; Hodges, Amy; Ge, Lishen; Jadus, Martin R

    2014-09-01

    Regular usage of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with reduced incidence of a variety of cancers. The molecular mechanisms underlying these chemopreventive effects remain poorly understood. This current investigation showed that in gastric cancer cells: (1) Indomethacin treatment enhanced the degradation of chromosomal passenger proteins, Survivin and Aurora B kinase; (2) Indomethacin treatment down-regulated Aurora B kinase activity in a cell cycle-independent fashion; (3) siRNA knockdown of Survivin level promoted Aurora B kinase protein degradation, and vice versa; (4) ectopic overexpression of Survivin blocked reduction of Aurora B kinase level and activity by indomethacin treatment, and vice versa; (5) siRNA knockdown of Aurora B kinase level and AZD1152 inhibition of its activity induced apoptosis, and overexpression of Aurora B kinase inhibited indomethacin-induced apoptosis; (6) indomethacin treatment reduced Aurora B kinase level, coinciding with reduction of Survivin level and induction of apoptosis, in KATO III and HT-29 cells, and in mouse gastric mucosa. A role for Aurora B kinase function in NSAID-induced apoptosis was not previously explored. Thus this report provides better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effect of NSAIDs by elucidating a significant role for Aurora B kinase in indomethacin-induced apoptosis.

  10. Salt tolerance and osmotic adjustment of Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) and the invasive M haplotype of Phragmites australis (Poaceae) along a salinity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Edward A.; Glenn, Edward P.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Brown, J. Jed; Nelson, Stephen G.

    2006-01-01

    An invasive variety of Phragmites australis (Poaceae, common reed), the M haplotype, has been implicated in the spread of this species into North American salt marshes that are normally dominated by the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae, smooth cordgrass). In some European marshes, on the other hand, Spartina spp. derived from S. alterniflora have spread into brackish P. australis marshes. In both cases, the non-native grass is thought to degrade the habitat value of the marsh for wildlife, and it is important to understand the physiological processes that lead to these species replacements. We compared the growth, salt tolerance, and osmotic adjustment of M haplotype P. australis and S. alterniflora along a salinity gradient in greenhouse experiments. Spartina alterniflora produced new biomass up to 0.6 M NaCl, whereas P. australis did not grow well above 0.2 M NaCl. The greater salt tolerance of S. alterniflora compared with P. australis was due to its ability to use Na+ for osmotic adjustment in the shoots. On the other hand, at low salinities P. australis produced more shoots per gram of rhizome tissue than did S. alterniflora. This study illustrates how ecophysiological differences can shift the competitive advantage from one species to another along a stress gradient. Phragmites australis is spreading into North American coastal marshes that are experiencing reduced salinities, while Spartina spp. are spreading into northern European brackish marshes that are experiencing increased salinities as land use patterns change on the two continents.

  11. Overview of the Cassini in-situ magnetosphere measurements and solar wind modelling during the 2013 Saturn Aurora Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, E. J.; Badman, S. V.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Jinks, S. L.; Provan, G.; Burton, M.; Crary, F. J.; Dougherty, M. K.; Kurth, W. S.; Luhmann, J.; Mitchell, D. G.; Zheng, Y.

    2013-09-01

    The Saturn Aurora Campaign 2013 is a coordinated effort to provide a clearer understanding of Saturn's auroral emissions at multiple wavelengths in the upper atmosphere, and their associated magnetospheric signatures and dynamics. In addition, modelling and Earth-based observations of the solar wind conditions throughout the campaign provide an important insight to the way in which Saturn's magnetosphere responds to the changing conditions in interplanetary space. Structures such as Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are thought to play a significant role in the modulation of Saturn's auroral emissions via abrupt changes in the dynamic pressure associated with forward shocks at the start of the CIR compression regions. Recent observations from the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn have also taught us that the "magnetosphere oscillations" observed in magnetic field perturbations in the northern and southern hemispheres, which are associated with the SKR modulations in each hemisphere, significantly affect the magnetosphere and auroral emissions. During April and May 2013 a combination of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ultraviolet (UV) instrument the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), and ground-based infrared (IR) telescopes observed the northern hemisphere auroras, whilst the Cassini spacecraft's remote sensing instruments (the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph-UVIS, the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer-VIMS, and the Imaging Science SubSystem-ISS) made simultaneous (or near-simultaneous) observations of the UV, IR and visible auroras respectively, in one or other hemisphere. At the same time, the "in situ" instruments on board Cassini measured the magnetic field, plasma populations, and radio plasma wave emissions in Saturn's magnetosphere. Here we present an overview of the in situ magnetosphere measurements during the campaign, along with an overview of the predicted solar wind conditions upstream of Saturn from modeling work. We will discuss the evidence

  12. AURORA BOREALIS: a polar-dedicated European Research Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff-Boenisch, Bonnie; Egerton, Paul; Thiede, Joern; Roberto, Azzolini; Lembke-Jene, Lester

    2010-05-01

    Polar research and in particular the properties of northern and southern high latitude oceans are currently a subject of intense scientific debate and investigations, because they are subject to rapid and dramatic climatic variations. Polar regions react more rapidly and intensively to global change than other regions of the earth. A shrinking of the Arctic sea-ice cover, potentially leading to an opening of sea passages to the north of North America and Eurasia, on the long to a "blue" Arctic Ocean would additionally have a strong impact on transport, commerce and tourism bearing potential risk for humans and complex ecosystems in the future. In spite of their critical role processes and feedbacks, especially in winter but not exclusively, are virtually unknown: The Arctic Ocean for example, it is the only basin of the world's oceans that has essentially not been sampled by the drill ships of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) or the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and its long-term environmental history and tectonic structure is therefore poorly known. Exceptions are the ODP Leg 151 and the more recent very successful ACEX-expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) in 2004. To help to address the most pressing questions regarding climate change and related processes, a Pan-European initiative in the field of Earth system science has been put in place: AURORA BOREALIS is the largest environmental research infrastructure on the ESFRI roadmap of the European Community. AURORA BOREALIS is a very powerful research icebreaker, which will enable year-round operations in the Arctic and the Antarctic as well as in the adjacent ocean basins. Equipped with its drilling rig, the vessel is also capable to explore the presently completely unknown Arctic deep-sea floor. Last but not least, the ship is a floating observatory and mobile monitoring platform that permits to measure on a long-term basis comprehensive time series in all research fields relevant to

  13. Characteristics of north jovian aurora from STIS FUV spectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustin, J.; Grodent, D.; Ray, L. C.; Bonfond, B.; Bunce, E. J.; Nichols, J. D.; Ozak, N.

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed two observations obtained in Jan. 2013, consisting of spatial scans of the jovian north ultraviolet aurora with the HST Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) in the spectroscopic mode. The color ratio (CR) method, which relates the wavelength-dependent absorption of the FUV spectra to the mean energy of the precipitating electrons, allowed us to determine important characteristics of the entire auroral region. The results show that the spatial distribution of the precipitating electron energy is far from uniform. The morning main emission arc is associated with mean energies of around 265 keV, the afternoon main emission (kink region) has energies near 105 keV, while the 'flare' emissions poleward of the main oval are characterized by electrons in the 50-85 keV range. A small scale structure observed in the discontinuity region is related to electrons of 232 keV and the Ganymede footprint shows energies of 157 keV. Interestingly, each specific region shows very similar behavior for the two separate observations. The Io footprint shows a weak but undeniable hydrocarbon absorption, which is not consistent with altitudes of the Io emission profiles (∼900 km relative to the 1 bar level) determined from HST-ACS observations. An upward shift of the hydrocarbon homopause of at least 100 km is required to reconcile the high altitude of the emission and hydrocarbon absorption. The relationship between the energy fluxes and the electron energies has been compared to curves obtained from Knight's theory of field-aligned currents. Assuming a fixed electron temperature of 2.5 keV, an electron source population density of ∼800 m-3 and ∼2400 m-3 is obtained for the morning main emission and kink regions, respectively. Magnetospheric electron densities are lowered for the morning main emission (∼600 m-3) if the relativistic version of Knight's theory is applied. Lyman and Werner H2 emission profiles, resulting from secondary electrons produced by

  14. Phragmites australis + Typha latifolia Community Enhanced the Enrichment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in the Soil of Qin Lake Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic plants play an essential role and are effective in mitigating lake eutrophication by forming complex plant-soil system and retaining total nitrogen (TN and phosphorus (TP in soils to ultimately reduce their quantities in aquatic systems. Two main vegetation types (Phragmites australis community and P. australis + Typha latifolia community of Qin Lake wetland were sampled in this study for the analysis of TN and TP contents and reserves in the wetland soils. The results showed that (1 the consumption effect of Qin Lake wetland on soluble N was much more significant than on soluble P. (2 The efficiency of TN enrichment in wetland soil was enhanced by vegetation covering of P. australis and T. latifolia. (3 Wetland soil P was consumed by P. australis community and this pattern was relieved with the introduction of T. latifolia. (4 According to the grey relativity analysis, the most intensive interaction between plants and soil occurred in summer. In addition, the exchange of N in soil-vegetation system primarily occurred in the 0–15 cm soil layer. Our results indicated that vegetation covering was essential to the enrichment of TN and TP, referring to the biology-related fixation in the wetland soil.

  15. Comparing the efficiency of Cyperus alternifolius and Phragmites australis in municipal wastewater treatment by subsurface constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Davod Hossein; Eslami, Hadi; Ehrampoosh, Mohamad Hasan; Ebrahimi, Asghar; Ghaneian, Mohamad Taghy; Ayatollah, Shirin; Mozayan, Mohamad Reza

    2013-04-15

    Nowadays, application of natural wastewater treatment systems such as wetland not only reduces economic costs and energy consumption, but also decreases environmental pollution. This study aimed to compare efficiency of Cyperus alternifolius and Phragmites australis in Municipal wastewater treatment by Subsurface Constructed Wetland Method. This is an applied-interventionnal study in which three reactors (control pilot, Cyperus alternifolius (umbrella palm) plant pilot and Phragmites australis (reed) plant pilot were designed by subsurface constructed wetland method. Then 90 samples were taken from input and output of reactors with four-day retention time. These samples were tested and finally the data were analyzed by Paired Sample Test statistical analysis. The results showed that removal efficiency of the parameters such as COD, BOD5, TSS, NO3-N, NH3-N, PO4-P, total coliform and fecal coliform was 74, 73, 84, 40, 36, 70, 33 and 38% in Cyperus alternifolius plant wetland, 44, 34, 77, 15, 0.3, 1, 17 and 26% in control wetland and 59, 54, 73, 6, 3, 10, 93 and 50 in Phragmites australis plant wetland, respectively. This reduction rate in all parameters- except fecal coliform- was statistically significant (p = 0.05). The results of this study showed that Cyperus alternifolius plant had higher efficiency in the removal of chemical parameters, whereas Phragmites australis plant had appropriate efficiency in the removal of microbiological parameters. Therefore, it can be concluded that application of these two plants can be effective in wastewater treatment.

  16. Soil as levels and bioaccumulation in Suaeda salsa and Phragmites australis wetlands of the Yellow River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjing; Bai, Junhong; Gao, Zhaoqin; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on As contamination dynamics in the soil-plant systems of wetlands. Total arsenic (As) in soil and plant samples from Suaeda salsa and Phragmites australis wetlands was measured in the Yellow River Estuary (YRE) in summer and autumn of 2007 to investigate the seasonal changes in As concentrations in different wetlands. The results showed that soil As levels greatly exceeded the global and regional background values. As levels in soil and the roots and stems of both types of plants were much higher in summer than in autumn, whereas leaf As showed higher level in autumn. Soil sulfur was the main factor influencing As levels in Suaeda salsa wetlands, whereas soil porosity was the most important factor for Phragmites australis wetlands. The contamination factor (CF) showed moderately to considerably polluted levels of As in both wetland soils. Plant roots and leaves of Suaeda salsa had higher As concentrations and biological concentration factors (BCFs) than stems, while the leaves and stems of Phragmites australis showed higher As levels and BCFs than roots. Compared to Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa generally showed higher translocation factor (TF), while TF values for both plant species were higher in summer than in autumn.

  17. Phragmites australis + Typha latifolia Community Enhanced the Enrichment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in the Soil of Qin Lake Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhiwei; An, Ran; Fang, Shuiyuan; Lin, Pengpeng; Li, Chuan; Xue, Jianhui; Yu, Shuiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic plants play an essential role and are effective in mitigating lake eutrophication by forming complex plant-soil system and retaining total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) in soils to ultimately reduce their quantities in aquatic systems. Two main vegetation types (Phragmites australis community and P. australis + Typha latifolia community) of Qin Lake wetland were sampled in this study for the analysis of TN and TP contents and reserves in the wetland soils. The results showed that (1) the consumption effect of Qin Lake wetland on soluble N was much more significant than on soluble P. (2) The efficiency of TN enrichment in wetland soil was enhanced by vegetation covering of P. australis and T. latifolia. (3) Wetland soil P was consumed by P. australis community and this pattern was relieved with the introduction of T. latifolia. (4) According to the grey relativity analysis, the most intensive interaction between plants and soil occurred in summer. In addition, the exchange of N in soil-vegetation system primarily occurred in the 0-15 cm soil layer. Our results indicated that vegetation covering was essential to the enrichment of TN and TP, referring to the biology-related fixation in the wetland soil.

  18. Genome Sequence of Photobacterium halotolerans MELD1, with Mercury Reductase (merA), Isolated from Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Dony Chacko; Mathew, Gincy Marina; Gicana, Ronnie Gicaraya; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2015-06-04

    Here, we present the whole-genome sequence of Photobacterium halotolerans strain, MELD1, isolated from the roots of a terrestrial plant Phragmites australis grown in soil heavily contaminated with mercury and dioxin. The genome provides further insight into the adaptation of bacteria to the toxic environment from where it was isolated.

  19. The Effect of Artificial Mowing on the Competition of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora in the Yangtze Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Spartina alterniflora Loisel. is one of the most invasive species in the world. However, little is known about the role of artificial mowing in its invasiveness and competiveness. In this work, we studied the effect of mowing on its interspecific interactions with native species Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex Steud of the Yangtze Estuary, China. We calculated their relative neighbor effect (RNE) index, effect of relative crowding (Dr) index, and interaction strength (I) index. The results showed that the RNE of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora was 0.354 and 0.619, respectively, and they have competitive interactions. The mowing treatments can significantly influence the RNE of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora on each other. Concretely, the RNE of Spartina alterniflora in the removal treatments was significantly higher than the value in the controls. But the RNE of Phragmites australis in the removal treatments was significantly lower than the value in the controls. Meanwhile, Dr of the two species on the targets was higher in the removal treatments than that in the controls, and the opposite was for I. We concluded that artificial mowing could promote the invasion of Spartina alterniflora by increasing its competitive performance compared with native species.

  20. ERRATUM to: Taxonomy, chromosome numbers, clonal diversity and population dynamics of Phragmites australis (vol 64, pg 185, 1999)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevering, O.A.; Lissner, J.

    2000-01-01

    Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (common reed) is one of the most widespread plant species in the world. The species has a high phenotypic variation in morphology and life-history traits. This high phenotypic variation can be related to variance in chromosome numbers, clonal diversity, pl

  1. Between- and within-population differences in Phragmites australis - 1. The effects of nutrients on seedling growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevering, O.A.

    1999-01-01

    Phragmites australis (common reed) is a dominant clonal species in the interface between land and water in many European wetlands. Along the land-water gradient, strong consistently different selective forces might operate to give rise to genetic substructuring. I have investigated the occurrence of

  2. Acaricide activity of leaves extracts of Sambucus australis Schltdl. (Caprifoliaceae at 2% on engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe da Silva Krawczak

    Full Text Available Parasite infections caused by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus are responsible for the most of economic losses in producing-cattle countries in tropical and subtropical areas. Indiscriminate uses of chemical acaricides have contributed with the appearance of tick resistance to many drugs available in the marketplace, and it is a serious problem in the tick control. Flowers of Sambucus australis (South America, called "sabugueiro-from-Brazil", are used on infusions or decoctions forms in the folk medicine with diuretic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and laxative purpose, also employed for treating respiratory diseases in human. The main goal of this study was to evaluate in vitro potential of S. australis leaves extracts as an acaricide agent. Ethanol extract at 70% has been dehydrated and a fraction was suspended in 70% ethanol or in distillated water at final concentration of 2% (0.2mg-1. Using the immersion test of engorged females the efficiency results were obtained in 34% and 66% with the leaves extract diluted in water and 70% ethanol, respectively. This study is the first report on acaricidal activity of S. australis against cattle tick. Further studies to determine the active metabolites in different stages of S. australis could aid to identify suitable extracts to be tested in the R. (B. microplus control.

  3. Phragmites australis + Typha latifolia Community Enhanced the Enrichment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in the Soil of Qin Lake Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ran; Fang, Shuiyuan; Lin, Pengpeng; Xue, Jianhui; Yu, Shuiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic plants play an essential role and are effective in mitigating lake eutrophication by forming complex plant-soil system and retaining total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) in soils to ultimately reduce their quantities in aquatic systems. Two main vegetation types (Phragmites australis community and P. australis + Typha latifolia community) of Qin Lake wetland were sampled in this study for the analysis of TN and TP contents and reserves in the wetland soils. The results showed that (1) the consumption effect of Qin Lake wetland on soluble N was much more significant than on soluble P. (2) The efficiency of TN enrichment in wetland soil was enhanced by vegetation covering of P. australis and T. latifolia. (3) Wetland soil P was consumed by P. australis community and this pattern was relieved with the introduction of T. latifolia. (4) According to the grey relativity analysis, the most intensive interaction between plants and soil occurred in summer. In addition, the exchange of N in soil-vegetation system primarily occurred in the 0–15 cm soil layer. Our results indicated that vegetation covering was essential to the enrichment of TN and TP, referring to the biology-related fixation in the wetland soil.

  4. Effects of planting Phragmites australis on nitrogen removal, microbial nitrogen cycling, and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing and denitrifying microorganisms in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Tadashi; Nishimura, Yoshiko; Ogata, Yuka; Sei, Kazunari; Mori, Kazuhiro; Ike, Michihiko

    2015-10-21

    We examined the effect of planting an emergent aquatic plant (Phragmites australis) on nitrogen removal from sediments using a 42-d pot experiment. The experimental pot systems comprised two types of sediments planted with and without young P. australis. Total nitrogen (total N), total dissolved N, and NH4-N in the sediments decreased markedly after planting. In contrast, those levels decreased only slightly in the unplanted sediments. The decrease in total N in the P. australis-planted sediments was 7-20 times those in the unplanted sediments. Abundances of bacterial 16S rRNA, archaeal 16S rRNA, ammonia-oxidizing bacterial ammonia monooxygenase (amoA), ammonia-oxidizing archaeal amoA, and denitrifying bacterial nitrite reductase (nirK) genes increased significantly in sediments after planting. Phragmites australis appears to have released oxygen and created a repeating cycle of oxidizing and reducing conditions in the sediments. These conditions should promote mineralization of organic N, nitrification, and denitrification in the sediments. Phragmites australis absorbed bioavailable nitrogen generated by microbial nitrogen metabolism. During the 42-d period after planting, 31-44% of total N was removed by microbial nitrogen cycling, and 56-69% was removed via absorption by P. australis. These results suggest that planting P. australis can increase microbial populations and their activities, and that nitrogen removal can be accelerated by the combined functions of P. australis and microorganisms in the sediment. Thus, planting P. australis has considerable potential as an effective remediation technology for eutrophic sediments.

  5. Antineoplastic effects of an Aurora B kinase inhibitor in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velazquez-Torres Guermarie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aurora B kinase is an important mitotic kinase involved in chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. It is overexpressed in many cancers and thus may be an important molecular target for chemotherapy. AZD1152 is the prodrug for AZD1152-HQPA, which is a selective inhibitor of Aurora B kinase activity. Preclinical antineoplastic activity of AZD1152 against acute myelogenous leukemia, multiple myeloma and colorectal cancer has been reported. However, this compound has not been evaluated in breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Results The antineoplastic activity of AZD1152-HQPA in six human breast cancer cell lines, three of which overexpress HER2, is demonstrated. AZD1152-HQPA specifically inhibited Aurora B kinase activity in breast cancer cells, thereby causing mitotic catastrophe, polyploidy and apoptosis, which in turn led to apoptotic death. AZD1152 administration efficiently suppressed the tumor growth in a breast cancer cell xenograft model. In addition, AZD1152 also inhibited pulmonary metastatic nodule formation in a metastatic breast cancer model. Notably, it was also found that the protein level of Aurora B kinase declined after inhibition of Aurora B kinase activity by AZD1152-HQPA in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Investigation of the underlying mechanism suggested that AZD1152-HQPA accelerated protein turnover of Aurora B via enhancing its ubiquitination. Conclusions It was shown that AZD1152 is an effective antineoplastic agent for breast cancer, and our results define a novel mechanism for posttranscriptional regulation of Aurora B after AZD1152 treatment and provide insight into dosing regimen design for this kinase inhibitor in metastatic breast cancer treatment.

  6. A comparison of trace metal bioaccumulation and distribution in Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis: implication for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    The aims of the present investigation were to reveal various trace metal accumulation abilities of two common helophytes Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis and to investigate their potential use in the phytoremediation of environmental metal pollution. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Ni were determined in roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves of both species studied as well as in corresponding water and bottom sediments from 19 sites selected within seven lakes in western Poland (Leszczyńskie Lakeland). The principal component and classification analysis showed that P. australis leaves were correlated with the highest Mn, Fe and Cd concentrations, but T. latifolia leaves with the highest Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations. However, roots of the P. australis were correlated with the highest Mn, Fe and Cu concentrations, while T. latifolia roots had the highest Pb, Zn and Cd concentrations. Despite the differences in trace metal accumulation ability between the species studied, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni concentrations in the P. australis and T. latifolia exhibited the following accumulation scheme: roots > rhizomes > leaves > stems, while Mn decreased in the following order: root > leaf > rhizome > stem. The high values of bioaccumulation factors and low values of translocation factors for Zn, Mn, Pb and Cu indicated the potential application of T. latifolia and P. australis in the phytostabilisation of contaminated aquatic ecosystems. Due to high biomass of aboveground organs of both species, the amount of trace metals stored in these organs during the vegetation period was considerably high, despite of the small trace metals transport.

  7. Aurora 7 the Mercury space flight of M. Scott Carpenter

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Colin

    2016-01-01

    TO A NATION enthralled by the heroic exploits of the Mercury astronauts, the launch of Lt. Cmdr. Scott Carpenter on NASA’s second orbital space flight was a renewed cause for pride, jubilation and celebration. Within hours, that excitement had given way to stunned disbelief and anxiety as shaken broadcasters began preparing the American public for the very real possibility that an American astronaut and his spacecraft may have been lost at sea. In fact, it had been a very close call. Completely out of fuel and forced to manually guide Aurora 7 through the frightening inferno of re-entry, Carpenter brought the Mercury spacecraft down to a safe splashdown in the ocean. In doing so, he controversially overshot the intended landing zone. Despite his efforts, Carpenter’s performance on the MA-7 mission was later derided by powerful figures within NASA. He would never fly into space again. Taking temporary leave of NASA, Carpenter participated in the U.S. Navy’s pioneering Sealab program. For a record 30 days...

  8. A study of Jupiter's aurorae with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Branduardi-Raymont, G; Elsner, R F; Gladstone, G R; Ramsay, G; Rodríguez, P; Soria, R; Cravens, T E

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of Jupiter's X-ray (0.2-10 keV) auroral emissions as observed by XMM-Newton in Nov. 2003 and compare it with that of an Apr. 2003 observation. We discover the existence of an electron bremsstrahlung component in the aurorae, which accounts for essentially all the X-ray flux above 2 keV: its presence had been predicted but never detected for lack of sensitivity of previous X-ray missions. This bremsstrahlung component varied significantly in strength and spectral shape over the 3.5 days covered by the Nov. 2003 observation, displaying substantial hardening of the spectrum with increasing flux. This variability may be linked to the strong solar activity taking place at the time, and may be induced by changes in the acceleration mechanisms inside Jupiter's magnetosphere. As in Apr. 2003, the auroral spectra below 2 keV are best fitted by a superposition of line emission most likely originating from ion charge exchange, with OVII playing the dominant role. We still cannot resolve co...

  9. Characterization of cadmium uptake by the water lily Nymphaea aurora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor-Fumbarov, Tamar; Keilin, Zvika; Tel-Or, Elisha

    2003-01-01

    This study characterizes cadmium (Cd) uptake by the waterlily Nymphaea aurora, (Nymphaeaceae) in two systems: a model hydroponic Cd solution and heavily polluted sludge from two sites in Israel. The uptake of Cd from hydroponic solution resulted in Cd storage in petioles and laminae of Nymphaea, as well as in the roots. The pH of the solution affected Cd solubility and availability, with pH 5.5 yielding maximum Cd content in the plant (140 mg Cd per g DW). Cd uptake was reduced by the addition of EDTA to the hydroponic growth medium, although EDTA enhanced heavy metal uptake by terrestrial plants. Nymphaea efficiently reduced the concentration of Cd in heavy metal polluted urban and industrial sludge and the amount of Cd uptake was enhanced by the addition of KCl to the sludge and by adjustment of the pH to 5.5. The inherent growth patterns of Nymphaea plants allowed Cd uptake by the shoot and root, and resulted in maximum contact between the various plant parts and the growth media. Thus, Nymphaea has potential as an optimal, highly effective phytoremediation tool for the removal of Cd from polluted waste sources.

  10. Cosmic ray secular variations in terrestrial records and aurorae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attolini, M. R.; Castagnoli, G. C.; Bonino, G.; Galli, M.; Nanni, T.

    1985-01-01

    The rediscovery that the Sun and the solar wind can undergo important changes on historical time scales has brought into question the stability of the cyclic behavior of past time series of solar and solar-terrestrial origin. It was found by Vector Fourier analysis that the solar 11 year cycle is present in the series of 10Be, delta 180, in ice cores and of thermoluminescence (TL) in sea sediments during the last Millennia with a frequency modulation, related to the Sun behavior, as tested by comparison with the Sunspot number R sub z series. It was shown that the cyclogram of the series of yearly Aurorae from 1721 to 1979 linear-regression-corrected-for-R sub z is straight for the periodicity zeta=11,1y, which indicates that such periodicity is constant in time corresponding to the only line present in the 11y band. The maxima of this component appear at the same time together with the high speed solar wind streams taking place in coronal holes situated in high heliolatitudes. It is evidenced that the 11 year cycle has undergone frequency oscillations on a time scale of two centuries, although it is very difficult to determine the periodicities with high accuracy.

  11. Ezekiel and the Northern Lights: Biblical aurora seems plausible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siscoe, George L.; Silverman, Samuel M.; Siebert, Keith D.

    Auroral specialists have suggested that in the Bible's Old Testament book of Ezekiel, the opening vision of a "storm cloud out of the north" depicts imagery inspired by a low-latitude auroral display [Link, 1967; Eather, 1980; Silverman, 1998]. Naturally, other interpretations have been suggested, including a true epiphany, a sandstorm, a thunderstorm, a tornado, a solar halo, a hallucination, and a UFO. Biblical scholars place the site of the Ezekiel's vision about 100 km south of Babylon near Nippur, latitude ˜32°, longitude ˜45°, and the date is within a year or two of 593 B.C., or about 2600 years ago.An auroral interpretation of the vision is subject to possible refutation due to several geophysical considerations. Can auroras be seen at Ezekiel's latitude? More important, can they reach a coronal stage of development, which is what the vision requires? Was the tilt of the dipole axis favorable? Was the general level of solar activity favorable? And finally, What effect does a larger dipole moment in Ezekiel's time have on the question? All but the last question could have been answered on the basis of geophysical data a decade ago or earlier.

  12. Aurora B suppresses microtubule dynamics and limits central spindle size by locally activating KIF4A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes Bastos, Ricardo; Gandhi, Sapan R.; Baron, Ryan D.; Gruneberg, Ulrike; Nigg, Erich A.

    2013-01-01

    Anaphase central spindle formation is controlled by the microtubule-stabilizing factor PRC1 and the kinesin KIF4A. We show that an MKlp2-dependent pool of Aurora B at the central spindle, rather than global Aurora B activity, regulates KIF4A accumulation at the central spindle. KIF4A phosphorylation by Aurora B stimulates the maximal microtubule-dependent ATPase activity of KIF4A and promotes its interaction with PRC1. In the presence of phosphorylated KIF4A, microtubules grew more slowly and showed long pauses in growth, resulting in the generation of shorter PRC1-stabilized microtubule overlaps in vitro. Cells expressing only mutant forms of KIF4A lacking the Aurora B phosphorylation site overextended the anaphase central spindle, demonstrating that this regulation is crucial for microtubule length control in vivo. Aurora B therefore ensures that suppression of microtubule dynamic instability by KIF4A is restricted to a specific subset of microtubules and thereby contributes to central spindle size control in anaphase. PMID:23940115

  13. Specific immune responses against epitopes derived from Aurora kinase A and B in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Vanessa; Egenrieder, Stephanie; Götz, Marlies; Herbst, Cornelia; Greiner, Jochen; Hofmann, Susanne

    2013-07-01

    Aurora kinases are serine/threonine kinases which play an important role in the process of mitosis and cell cycle regulation. Aurora kinase inhibitors are described to sensitize malignant cells to cytosine arabinoside and specific antibodies by mediating apoptosis. Aurora kinases are overexpressed in most acute leukemias but also in solid tumors. In this study we investigated whether epitopes derived from Aurora kinase A and B are able to elicit cellular immune responses in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to investigate their role as potential targets for specific immunotherapy. Samples of eight patients with AML were analyzed in enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays and compared with immune responses of nine healthy volunteers (HVs). Specific CD8 + T cell responses were detected against the epitopes Aura A1, A2, B1, B2, B3, B4 and B5. Immune responses for epitopes derived from Aura B were induced more frequently compared to Aura A. The antigens with the most frequent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses were Aura B3, B4 and B5, although the number of patients tested for these antigens was low. Aura B5 did not elicit specific CTL responses in HVs. For epitope Aura B6 no immune response was detected in HVs or patients. Taken together, with the combination of Aurora kinase inhibitors and an immunotherapeutic approach, an effective blast and minimal residual disease elimination might be achieved.

  14. A comprehensive review on Aurora kinase: Small molecule inhibitors and clinical trial studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisa, Ankit C; Bhatt, Hardik G

    2017-08-24

    Aurora kinase belongs to serine/threonine kinase family which controls cell division. Therapeutic inhibition of Aurora kinase showed great promise as probable anticancer regime because of its important role during cell division. Here, in this review, we have carried out exhaustive study of various synthetic molecules reported as Aurora kinase inhibitors and developed as lead molecule at various stages of clinical trials from its discovery in 1995 to till date. We reported details of small molecules, specifically inhibiting all 3 types of Aurora kinases, which includes extensive literature search in various database like various scientific journals, patents, scifinder and PubMed database, internet resources, books, etc. IC50 values of tumor growth inhibition, in-vitro and in-vivo activity along with clinical trial data. Here, we took efforts to describe essence of Aurora kinase and its inhibition which could be used to develop anti-mitotic drug for the treatment of cancer. In conclusion, we also discuss future perspectives for development of novel inhibitors and their scope in drug development process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined cisplatin and aurora inhibitor treatment increase neuroblastoma cell death but surviving cells overproduce BDNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacchini, Alessio; Albani, Clara; Baj, Gabriele; Colliva, Andrea; Carpinelli, Patrizia; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2016-07-15

    Drug-resistance to chemotherapics in aggressive neuroblastoma (NB) is characterized by enhanced cell survival mediated by TrkB and its ligand, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); thus reduction in BDNF levels represent a promising strategy to overcome drug-resistance, but how chemotherapics regulate BDNF is unknown. Here, cisplatin treatment in SK-N-BE neuroblastoma upregulated multiple BDNF transcripts, except exons 5 and 8 variants. Cisplatin increased BDNF mRNA and protein, and enhanced translation of a firefly reporter gene flanked by BDNF 5'UTR exons 1, 2c, 4 or 6 and 3'UTR-long. To block BDNF translation we focused on aurora kinases inhibitors which are proposed as new chemotherapeutics. NB cell survival after 24 h treatment was 43% with cisplatin, and 22% by cisplatin+aurora kinase inhibitor PHA-680632, while the aurora kinases inhibitor alone was less effective; however the combined treatment induced a paradoxical increase of BDNF in surviving cells with strong translational activation of exon6-3'UTR-long transcript, while translation of BDNF transcripts 1, 2C and 4 was suppressed. In conclusion, combined cisplatin and aurora kinase inhibitor treatment increases cell death, but induces BDNF overproduction in surviving cells through an aurora kinase-independent mechanism.

  16. Aurora B kinase and protein phosphatase 1 have opposing roles in modulating kinetochore assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Michael J; Lan, Weijie; Jwa, Miri; Miller, Stephanie A; Chan, Clarence S M; Stukenberg, P Todd

    2008-04-21

    The outer kinetochore binds microtubules to control chromosome movement. Outer kinetochore assembly is restricted to mitosis, whereas the inner kinetochore remains tethered to centromeres throughout the cell cycle. The cues that regulate this transient assembly are unknown. We find that inhibition of Aurora B kinase significantly reduces outer kinetochore assembly in Xenopus laevis and human tissue culture cells, frog egg extracts, and budding yeast. In X. leavis M phase extracts, preassembled kinetochores disassemble after inhibiting Aurora B activity with either drugs or antibodies. Kinetochore disassembly, induced by Aurora B inhibition, is rescued by restraining protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) activity. PP1 is necessary for kinetochores to disassemble at the exit from M phase, and purified enzyme is sufficient to cause disassembly on isolated mitotic nuclei. These data demonstrate that Aurora B activity is required for kinetochore maintenance and that PP1 is necessary and sufficient to disassemble kinetochores. We suggest that Aurora B and PP1 coordinate cell cycle-dependent changes in kinetochore assembly though phosphorylation of kinetochore substrates.

  17. Aurora A phosphorylates MCAK to control ran-dependent spindle bipolarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Ems-McClung, Stephanie C; Walczak, Claire E

    2008-07-01

    During mitosis, mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK) localizes to chromatin/kinetochores, a cytoplasmic pool, and spindle poles. Its localization and activity in the chromatin region are regulated by Aurora B kinase; however, how the cytoplasmic- and pole-localized MCAK are regulated is currently not clear. In this study, we used Xenopus egg extracts to form spindles in the absence of chromatin and centrosomes and found that MCAK localization and activity are tightly regulated by Aurora A. This regulation is important to focus microtubules at aster centers and to facilitate the transition from asters to bipolar spindles. In particular, we found that MCAK colocalized with NuMA and XMAP215 at the center of Ran asters where its activity is regulated by Aurora A-dependent phosphorylation of S196, which contributes to proper pole focusing. In addition, we found that MCAK localization at spindle poles was regulated through another Aurora A phosphorylation site (S719), which positively enhances bipolar spindle formation. This is the first study that clearly defines a role for MCAK at the spindle poles as well as identifies another key Aurora A substrate that contributes to spindle bipolarity.

  18. Validation of Aurora Solar Inc.'s Envision Software Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-03

    As part of the Department of Energy's SunShot Incubator program, Aurora has worked to develop a web-based application that quickly and precisely calculates the solar potential of a building's roof. The Aurora Envision platform utilizes Google StreetView photos as a basis for measuring roof slope and linear measurements of determining the proper inputs into an eventual shade model. The stated accuracy by Aurora Solar to be tested is lengths within 1.5 feet and slope measurements within 5 degrees. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), in partnership with Aurora and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) SunShot Technology to Market Incubator program, independently verified the accuracy of Aurora's Envision measurements on 15 unique roofs throughout the Denver, Colorado region. NREL measured 60 measurements: 27 of 28 slope measurements were within the stated accuracy, 32 of 32 distance measurements were within the stated accuracy.

  19. Urochordate ascidians possess a single isoform of Aurora kinase that localizes to the midbody via TPX2 in eggs and cleavage stage embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Hebras

    Full Text Available Aurora kinases are key proteins found throughout the eukaryotes that control mitotic progression. Vertebrate Aurora-A and B kinases are thought to have evolved from a single Aurora-kinase isoform closest to that found in present day urochordates. In urochordate ascidians Aurora binds both TPX2 (a vertebrate AURKA partner and INCENP (a vertebrate AURKB partner and localizes to centrosomes and spindle microtubules as well as chromosomes and midbody during both meiosis and mitosis. Ascidian Aurora also displays this localization pattern during mitosis in echinoderms, strengthening the idea that non-vertebrate deuterostomes such as the urochordates and echinoderms possess a single form of Aurora kinase that has properties of vertebrate Aurora-kinase A and B. In the ascidian, TPX2 localizes to the centrosome and the spindle poles also as in vertebrates. However, we were surprised to find that TPX2 also localized strongly to the midbody in ascidian eggs and embryos. We thus examined more closely Aurora localization to the midbody by creating two separate point mutations of ascidian Aurora predicted to perturb binding to TPX2. Both forms of mutated Aurora behaved as predicted: neither localized to spindle poles where TPX2 is enriched. Interestingly, neither form of mutated Aurora localized to the midbody where TPX2 is also enriched, suggesting that ascidian Aurora midbody localization required TPX2 binding in ascidians. Functional analysis revealed that inhibition of Aurora kinase with a pharmacological inhibitor or with a dominant negative kinase dead form of Aurora caused cytokinesis failure and perturbed midbody formation during polar body extrusion. Our data support the view that vertebrate Aurora-A and B kinases evolved from a single non-vertebrate deuterostome ancestor. Moreover, since TPX2 localizes to the midbody in ascidian eggs and cleavage stage embryos it may be worthwhile re-assessing whether Aurora A kinase or TPX2 localize to the midbody

  20. Phragmites australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Truong Tho; Sorrell, Brian K.; Lambertini, Carla

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that in plant invasions, species may develop intrinsically higher gas exchange and growth rates, and greater nitrogen uptake and allocation to shoots, in their invasive range than in their native habitat under excess nutrients. In this study, native populations of two old wo......, however the ecophysiological processes leading to these changes can be different and depend on the evolutionary history of the genotypes...

  1. Selective disruption of aurora C kinase reveals distinct functions from aurora B kinase during meiosis in mouse oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Z Balboula

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aurora B kinase (AURKB is the catalytic subunit of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC, an essential regulator of chromosome segregation. In mitosis, the CPC is required to regulate kinetochore microtubule (K-MT attachments, the spindle assembly checkpoint, and cytokinesis. Germ cells express an AURKB homolog, AURKC, which can also function in the CPC. Separation of AURKB and AURKC function during meiosis in oocytes by conventional approaches has not been successful. Therefore, the meiotic function of AURKC is still not fully understood. Here, we describe an ATP-binding-pocket-AURKC mutant, that when expressed in mouse oocytes specifically perturbs AURKC-CPC and not AURKB-CPC function. Using this mutant we show for the first time that AURKC has functions that do not overlap with AURKB. These functions include regulating localized CPC activity and regulating chromosome alignment and K-MT attachments at metaphase of meiosis I (Met I. We find that AURKC-CPC is not the sole CPC complex that regulates the spindle assembly checkpoint in meiosis, and as a result most AURKC-perturbed oocytes arrest at Met I. A small subset of oocytes do proceed through cytokinesis normally, suggesting that AURKC-CPC is not the sole CPC complex during telophase I. But, the resulting eggs are aneuploid, indicating that AURKC is a critical regulator of meiotic chromosome segregation in female gametes. Taken together, these data suggest that mammalian oocytes contain AURKC to efficiently execute meiosis I and ensure high-quality eggs necessary for sexual reproduction.

  2. Metazoan parasites of Brama australis from southern Chile: a tool for stock discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M E; Espinola, J F; Ñacari, L A

    2016-03-01

    The metazoan parasites of 403 specimens of the southern ray's bream Brama australis from three localities in southern Chile (Lebu 36° 70' S; 73° 40' W, Calbuco 41° 50' S; 73° 08' W and Punta Arenas 53° 10' S; 70° 50' W) were recorded. More than 23 400 parasite specimens belonging to 12 taxa were registered. Metazoan parasites were dominated by the copepod Hatschekia conifera, constituting 97% of the total number of parasites; the larval cestode Hepatoxylon trichiuri was the second most important parasite (2·1% of the total number of parasites). The remaining 10 species constituted parasites. Parasitological evidence, based on univariate and multivariate analysis, does not support the existence of discrete stocks in the studied zone.

  3. Crassulacean acid metabolism enhances underwater photosynthesis and diminishes photorespiration in the aquatic plant Isoetes australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Rich, S.M.; Pulido Pérez, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Underwater photosynthesis by aquatic plants is often limited by low availability of CO2, and photorespiration can be high. Some aquatic plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis. The benefits of CAM for increased underwater photosynthesis and suppression of photorespiration...... were evaluated for Isoetes australis, a submerged plant that inhabits shallow temporary rock pools. • Leaves high or low in malate were evaluated for underwater net photosynthesis and apparent photorespiration at a range of CO2 and O2 concentrations. • CAM activity was indicated by 9.7-fold higher leaf...... malate at dawn, compared with at dusk, and also by changes in the titratable acidity (lmol H+ equivalents) of leaves. Leaves high in malate showed not only higher underwater net photosynthesis at low external CO2 concentrations but also lower apparent photorespiration. Suppression by CAM of apparent...

  4. Ailanthus Altissima and Phragmites Australis for chromium removal from a contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Fratino, Umberto; Petrella, Andrea; Torretta, Vincenzo; Rada, Elena Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The comparative effectiveness for hexavalent chromium removal from irrigation water, using two selected plant species (Phragmites australis and Ailanthus altissima) planted in soil contaminated with hexavalent chromium, has been studied in the present work. Total chromium removal from water was ranging from 55 % (Phragmites) to 61 % (Ailanthus). After 360 days, the contaminated soil dropped from 70 (initial) to 36 and 41 mg Cr/kg (dry soil), for Phragmites and Ailanthus, respectively. Phragmites accumulated the highest amount of chromium in the roots (1910 mg Cr/kg(dry tissue)), compared with 358 mg Cr/kg(dry tissue) for Ailanthus roots. Most of chromium was found in trivalent form in all plant tissues. Ailanthus had the lowest affinity for Cr(VI) reduction in the root tissues. Phragmites indicated the highest chromium translocation potential, from roots to stems. Both plant species showed good potentialities to be used in phytoremediation installations for chromium removal.

  5. Palatability and chemical defense of Phragmites australis to the marsh periwinkle snail Littoraria irrorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Lindsey G; Mossop, Hannah E; Kicklighter, Cynthia E

    2011-08-01

    Coastal marsh habitats are impacted by many disturbances, including habitat destruction, pollution, and the introduction of invasive species. The common reed, Phragmites australis, has been particularly invasive in the mesohaline regions of the Chesapeake Bay, but few studies have investigated its role in trophic interactions with North American marsh consumers. The marsh periwinkle snail Littoraria irrorata is a common grazer in marshes and grazes on the native grass Spartina alterniflora. Whether this snail grazes on Phragmites has not been addressed. We found Spartina leaves to be tougher than those of Phragmites, but despite this, snails consumed significantly more Spartina than Phragmites. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that Phragmites is chemically deterrent to snails by an unknown, moderately polar, compound. Further studies are required to more fully understand the interactions between Phragmites, herbivores, and Spartina, and how they may impact marsh ecosystems.

  6. Preparation and Adsorption Performances of Phragmites australis Activated Carbon with High Acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Cheng-kai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For removal of heavy metals from wastewater and recycling the wetland plants, the present study investigated the viability of using silage of Phragmites australis (PA to prepare activated carbons (ACs with high acidity. BET surface area, porous texture and surface functional characteristics of ACs were analyzed by N2 adsorption/desorption, elemental analysis and Boehm titration method. ACs presented well-developed micro-porosity and favorable surface acidity. The sorption equilibrium data for Ni (Ⅱ and Cd (Ⅱ sorption onto ACs were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Langmuir model was fitted well to the adsorption behavior. The properties of high surface acidity promoted the adsorption of heavy metals by the silage-treated ACs and the chemical sorption played the key role in the sorption process.

  7. Pathology in skeletons of Peale's dolphin Lagenorhynchus australis from southern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín, Analía A; Macnie, Silvina V; Goodall, R Natalie P; Boy, Claudia C

    2016-06-15

    Peale's dolphin Lagenorhynchus australis is frequently seen off the coast of southern South America, where it feeds among coastal kelp beds and occasionally strands. We searched for macroscopic evidence of skeletal lesions in 78 specimens of Peale's dolphin from 2 museum collections, which contain almost all of the species' skeletons known in collections worldwide. Thirty-two specimens (41%) had some type of osteological abnormalities. In 21 cases (66%), congenital deformations were the most predominant abnormality found. Acquired lesions included (1) induced trauma: abnormal curvature (n=5 specimens) and fractures (n=2); (2) infectious diseases: spondylo-osteomyelitis (n=3); and (3) degenerative diseases: exostoses (n=8) and spondylosis deformans (n=4). It is noteworthy that all of these animals died incidentally in gillnet entanglement and were presumably healthy at the time of death. The effect that different osseous lesions may have on an animal's quality of life may depend on the area of the spine affected and the number of vertebrae involved.

  8. Mapping the change of Phragmites australis live biomass in the lower Mississippi River Delta marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina

    2017-07-28

    Multiyear remote sensing mapping of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was carried out as an indicator of live biomass composition of the Phragmites australis (hereafter Phragmites) marsh in the lower Mississippi River Delta (hereafter delta) from 2014 to 2017. Maps of NDVI change showed that the Phragmites condition was fairly stable between May 2014 and July 2015. From July 2015 to April 2016 NDVI change indicated Phragmites suffered a widespread decline in the live biomass proportion.  Between April and September 2016, most marsh remained unchanged from the earlier period or showed improvement; although there were pockets of continued decline scattered throughout the lower delta. From September 2016 to May 2017 a pronounced and widely exhibited decline in the condition of Phragmites marsh again occurred throughout the lower delta. This final NDVI change mapping supported field observations of Phragmites decline during the same period.

  9. A comparison of the impact of 'seagrass-friendly' boat mooring systems on Posidonia australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Marie-Claire A; Davis, Andrew R; Knott, Nathan A

    2013-02-01

    Permanent boat moorings have contributed to the decline of seagrasses worldwide, prompting the development of 'seagrass-friendly' moorings. We contrasted seagrass cover and density (predominantly Posidonia australis) in the vicinity of three mooring types and nearby reference areas lacking moorings in Jervis Bay, Australia. We examined two types of 'seagrass-friendly' mooring and a conventional 'swing' mooring. 'Swing' moorings produced significant seagrass scour, denuding patches of ~9 m radius. Seagrass-friendly 'cyclone' moorings produced extensive denuded patches (average radius of ~18 m). Seagrass-friendly 'screw' moorings, conversely, had similar seagrass cover to nearby reference areas. Our findings reinforce previous work highlighting the negative effects of 'swing' and 'cyclone' moorings. In contrast, the previously unstudied 'screw' moorings were highly effective. We conclude that regular maintenance of moorings and the monitoring of surrounding seagrass are required to ensure that 'seagrass-friendly' moorings are operating effectively. This is important, as following damage Posidonia will take many decades to recover.

  10. Aurora-A induces cell survival and chemoresistance by activation of Akt through a p53-dependent manner in ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; He, Lili; Kruk, Patricia; Nicosia, Santo V; Cheng, Jin Q

    2006-11-15

    Aurora-A is frequently altered in epithelial malignancies. Overexpressing Aurora-A induces centrosome amplification and G2/M cell cycle progression. We have previously shown elevated level of Aurora-A in ovarian cancer and activation of telomerase by Aurora-A in human mammary and ovarian epithelia. Here we report that Aurora-A protects ovarian cancer cells from apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agent and activates Akt pathway in a p53-dependent manner. Ectopic expression of Aurora-A renders cells resistant to cisplatin (CDDP), etoposide and paclitaxel-induced apoptosis and stimulates Akt1 and Akt2 activity in wild-type p53 but not p53-null ovarian cancer cells. Aurora-A inhibits cytochrome C release and Bax conformational change induced by CDDP. Knockdown of Aurora-A by RNAi sensitizes cells to CDDP-induced apoptosis and decreases phospho-Akt level in wild-type p53 cells. Reintroduction of p53 decreases Akt1 and Akt2 activation and restores CDDP sensitivity in p53-null but not p53-null-Aurora-A cells. Inhibition of Akt by small molecule inhibitor, API-2, overcomes the effects of Aurora-A-on cell survival and Bax mitochondrial translocation. Taken collectively, these data indicate that Aurora-A activates Akt and induces chemoresistance in a p53-dependent manner and that inhibition of Akt may be an effective means of overcoming Aurora-A-associated chemoresistance in ovarian cancer cells expressing wild-type p53.

  11. Uptake of carbamazepine by rhizomes and endophytic bacteria of Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvêtre, Andrés; Schröder, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Carbamazepine is an antiepileptic and mood-stabilizing drug which is used widely in Europe and North America. In the environment, it is found as a persistent and recalcitrant contaminant, being one of the most prominent hazardous pharmaceuticals and personal care products in effluents of wastewater treatment plants. Phragmites australis is one of the species with both, the highest potential of detoxification and phytoremediation. It has been used successfully in the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Recently, the identification of endophytic microorganisms from different plant species growing in contaminated sites has provided a list of candidates which could be used as bio-inoculants for bioremediation of difficult compounds. In this study, Phragmites australis plants were exposed to 5 mg/L of carbamazepine. After 9 days the plants had removed 90% of the initial concentration. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from these plants and further characterized. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the majority of these isolates belong to three groups: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Carbamazepine uptake and plant growth promoting (PGP) traits were analyzed among the isolates. Ninety percent of the isolates produce indole acetic acid (IAA) and all of them possess at least one of the PGP traits tested. One isolate identified as Chryseobacterium taeanense combines good carbamazepine uptake and all of the PGP traits. Rhizobium daejeonense can remove carbamazepine and produces 23 μg/mL of IAA. Diaphorobacter nitroreducens and Achromobacter mucicolens are suitable for carbamazepine removal while both, Pseudomonas veronii and Pseudomonas lini show high siderophore production and phosphate solubilization. Alone or in combination, these isolates might be applied as inoculates in constructed wetlands in order to enhance the phytoremediation of carbamazepine during wastewater treatment.

  12. Decomposition of Phragmites australis rhizomes in artificial land-water transitional zones (ALWTZs) and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhen; Cui, Baoshan; Zhang, Yongtao

    2015-09-01

    Rhizomes are essential organs for growth and expansion of Phragmites australis. They function as an important source of organic matter and as a nutrient source, especially in the artificial land-water transitional zones (ALWTZs) of shallow lakes. In this study, decomposition experiments on 1- to 6-year-old P. australis rhizomes were conducted in the ALWTZ of Lake Baiyangdian to evaluate the contribution of the rhizomes to organic matter accumulation and nutrient release. Mass loss and changes in nutrient content were measured after 3, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days. The decomposition process was modeled with a composite exponential model. The Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationships between mass loss and litter quality factors. A multiple stepwise regression model was utilized to determine the dominant factors that affect mass loss. Results showed that the decomposition rates in water were significantly higher than those in soil for 1- to 6-year-old rhizomes. However, the sequence of decomposition rates was identical in both water and soil. Significant relationships between mass loss and litter quality factors were observed at a later stage, and P-related factors proved to have a more significant impact than N-related factors on mass loss. According to multiple stepwise models, the C/P ratio was found to be the dominant factor affecting the mass loss in water, and the C/N and C/P ratios were the main factors affecting the mass loss in soil. The combined effects of harvesting, ditch broadening, and control of water depth should be considered for lake administrators.

  13. Uptake of Carbamazepine by rhizomes and endophytic bacteria of Phragmites australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres eSauvetre

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazepine is an antiepileptic and mood-stabilizing drug which is used widely in Europe and North America. In the environment, it is found as a persistent and recalcitrant conta¬mi-nant, being one of the most prominent hazardous pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs in effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. Phragmites australis is one of the species with both, the highest potential of detoxification and phytoremediation. It has been used successfully in the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Recently, the identification of endophytic micro¬organisms from different plant species growing in contaminated sites has provided a list of candidates which could be used as bio-inoculants for bioremediation of difficult compounds. In this study, Phragmites australis plants were exposed to 5 mg/L of carbamazepine. After 9 days the plants had removed 90% of the initial concentration. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from these plants and further characterized. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the majority of these isolates belong to three groups: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Carbamazepine uptake and plant growth promoting (PGP traits were analyzed among the isolates. Ninety percent of the isolates produce indole acetic acid (IAA and all of them possess at least one of the PGP traits tested. One isolate identified as Chryseobacterium taeanense combines good carbamazepine uptake and all of the PGP traits. Rhizobium daejeonense can remove carbamazepine and produces 23 µg/mL of IAA. Diaphorobacter nitroreducens and Achromobacter mucicolens are suitable for carbamazepine removal while both, Pseudomonas veronii and Pseudomonas lini show high siderophore production and phosphate solubilization. Alone or in combination, these isolates might be applied as inoculates in constructed wetlands in order to enhance the phyto-remediation of carbamazepine during wastewater

  14. Macroinvertebrates communities associated with the decomposition of Phragmites australis and Fucus vesiculosus in transitional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marta Lobão; Martins, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor

    2013-10-01

    The decomposition rates of a macrophyte (Phragmites australis) and an alga (Fucus vesiculosus) and the associated macrofauna communities were studied along a full salinity gradient, using the leaf-bag technique and four sampling times (days 3, 7, 15 and 30). A control was set up using an artificial substrate. A subsequent study conducted in the mesohaline part of the salinity gradient also included empty bags as procedure control. The decay rates of the alga and the macrophyte were significantly different, the alga decaying faster, and presented an opposite trend along the salinity gradient, with the faster decay rate for reed in the less saline areas and for the alga in the euhaline part of the gradient. The fauna associated with the decaying and the artificial substrate showed equally well the benthic succession from the marine to the freshwater areas, in all sampling times. Arthropods were dominant in all substrates along the estuarine gradient and replaced by annelids in freshwater. No significant differences were found between the benthic communities associated with P. australis and F. vesiculosus, despite the strong differences in the decay rates, suggesting that these do not seem to be primarily related to the benthic colonizers. Although the organic substrates sustained a more abundant fauna, the benthic communities did not show significant differences between the organic and the artificial substrates, especially at the level of the species composition, suggesting that the macroinvertebrates may colonize both substrates to feed on the biofilm and/or to seek shelter. The strongly impoverished benthic community sampled by the empty bags reinforced this idea.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the myotoxic venom of Pseudechis australis (mulga snake) in the anesthetised rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, A J; Hodgson, W C; O'Leary, M; Isbister, G K

    2014-07-01

    Myotoxicity is a common clinical effect of snake envenoming and results from either local or systemic myotoxins in snake venoms. Although numerous myotoxins have been isolated from snake venoms, there has been limited study on the relationship between the time course of venom concentrations (pharmacokinetics) and the time course of muscle injury measured as a rise in creatine kinase (CK) (pharmacodynamics). The aim of this study was to develop an in vivo model of myotoxicity to investigate the time course of myotoxicity and the effect of antivenom. Anesthetised rats were administered Pseudechis australis (mulga snake) venom either through i.v., i.m. or s.d. route, including a range of doses (5-100 μg/kg). Serial blood samples were collected for measurement of venom using enzyme immunoassay and measurement of CK and creatinine. Antivenom was administered before, 1 and 6 h after venom administration to investigate its effect on muscle injury. Plots of venom and CK versus time were made and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. There was a significant dose-dependent increase in CK concentration after administration of P. australis venom, which was greatest for i.v. administration. Timed measurement of venom concentrations showed a rapid absorption through s.d. and i.m. routes and a delayed rise in CK concentrations following any route. Antivenom prevented myotoxicity shown by a decrease in the CK AUC, which was most effective if given earliest. There was a rise in creatinine following i.v. venom administration. The study shows the delayed relationship between venom absorption and the rise in CK, consistent with the delayed onset of myotoxicity in human envenoming. Antivenom prevented myotoxicity more effectively if given earlier.

  16. Sustainable Ethanol Production from Common Reed (Phragmites australis through Simultaneuos Saccharification and Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cotana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phragmites australis (common reed is a perennial grass that grows in wetlands or near inland waterways. Due to its fast-growing properties and low requirement in nutrients and water, this arboreal variety is recognized as a promising source of renewable energy although it is one of the least characterized energy crops. In this experiment, the optimization of the bioethanol production process from Phragmites australis was carried out. Raw material was first characterized according to the standard procedure (NREL to evaluate its composition in terms of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content. Common reed was pretreated by steam explosion process at three different severity factor (R0 values. The pretreatment was performed in order to reduce biomass recalcitrance and to make cellulose more accessible to enzymatic attack. After the pretreatment, a water insoluble substrate (WIS rich in cellulose and lignin and a liquid fraction rich in pentose sugars (xylose and arabinose and inhibitors were collected and analyzed. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF of the WIS was performed at three different solid loadings (SL 10%, 15%, 20% (w/w. The same enzyme dosage, equal to 20% (g enzyme/g cellulose, was used for all the WIS loadings. The efficiency of the whole process was evaluated in terms of ethanol overall yield (g ethanol/100 g raw material. The maximum ethanol overall yields achieved were 16.56 and 15.80 g ethanol/100 g RM dry basis for sample AP10 and sample AP4.4, respectively. The yields were reached working at lower solid loading (10% and at the intermediate LogR0 value for the former and at intermediate solid loading (15% and high LogR0 value for the latter, respectively.

  17. Edge Effects along a Seagrass Margin Result in an Increased Grazing Risk on Posidonia australis Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statton, John; Gustin-Craig, Samuel; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Kendrick, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    A key issue in habitat restoration are the changes in ecological processes that occur when fragments of habitat are lost, resulting in the persistence of habitat-degraded margins. Margins often create or enhance opportunities for negative plant-herbivore interactions, preventing natural or assisted re-establishment of native vegetation into the degraded area. However, at some distance from the habitat margin these negative interactions may relax. Here, we posit that the intensity of species interactions in a fragmented Posidonia australis seagrass meadow may be spatially dependent on proximity to the seagrass habitat edge, whereby the risk of grazing is high and the probability of survival of seagrass transplants is low. To test this, transplants were planted 2 m within the meadow, on the meadow edge at 0m, and at 2m, 10m, 30m, 50m and 100m distance from the edge of the seagrass meadow into the unvegetated sand sheet. There was an enhanced grazing risk 0-10m from the edge, but decreased sharply with increasing distances (>30m). Yet, the risk of grazing was minimal inside the seagrass meadow, indicating that grazers may use the seagrass meadow for refuge but are not actively grazing within it. The relationship between short-term herbivory risk and long-term survival was not straightforward, suggesting that other environmental filters are also affecting survival of P. australis transplants within the study area. We found that daily probability of herbivory was predictable and operating over a small spatial scale at the edge of a large, intact seagrass meadow. These findings highlight the risk from herbivory can be high, and a potential contributing factor to seagrass establishment in restoration programs. PMID:26465926

  18. Otolith shape analysis as a tool for stock identification of the southern blue whiting, Micromesistius australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Leguá

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The southern blue whiting, Micromesistius australis (Norman, 1937, is an important demersal resource associated with the slope and continental shelf of southern Chile, Argentina and the Malvinas/Falkland Islands. Recent studies have reported schools of adult fish from Atlantic waters migrating along the southern Chilean coast in mid-winter, moving northwards to spawn in August (47°-51°S, and then returning to Atlantic waters, presumably to feed. The migratory pattern suggests the presence of one or more stock units associated with the South American coast. In the present study, "otolith morphometry" is used to determine the stock structure of M. australis based on applications of basic size descriptors (SDs (area, perimeter and otolith size, shape indices (SIs (circularity, squareness, shape factor, roundness, ellipticity, and normalised elliptical Fourier descriptors (NEFDs. Samples were collected during the winter and spring of 2010, during the reproductive period, in the economic zone of southern Chile (36°-57°S, in the Pacific Ocean and around the Falkland Islands economic zone (50°-52°S in the Atlantic Ocean. Analyses were conducted to include the effects of size, sex and age. A stepwise canonical discriminant analysis showed that fish were successfully discriminated with SDs, SIs and NEFDs. In this analysis, 86.4% and 70.1% of the fish were correctly classified as belonging to the Atlantic and Pacific stocks, respectively. A multivariate analysis of variance showed that the mean values of the NEFDs, SDs, and SIs did not vary significantly between sexes within areas (P > 0.05, but varied significantly between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans (P < 0.05. These results highlighted that otolith shape analysis can be a useful tool to evaluate the potential level of mixing in feeding areas where both stocks, the Pacific and Atlantic units, are expected to co-occur.

  19. Edge Effects along a Seagrass Margin Result in an Increased Grazing Risk on Posidonia australis Transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statton, John; Gustin-Craig, Samuel; Dixon, Kingsley W; Kendrick, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    A key issue in habitat restoration are the changes in ecological processes that occur when fragments of habitat are lost, resulting in the persistence of habitat-degraded margins. Margins often create or enhance opportunities for negative plant-herbivore interactions, preventing natural or assisted re-establishment of native vegetation into the degraded area. However, at some distance from the habitat margin these negative interactions may relax. Here, we posit that the intensity of species interactions in a fragmented Posidonia australis seagrass meadow may be spatially dependent on proximity to the seagrass habitat edge, whereby the risk of grazing is high and the probability of survival of seagrass transplants is low. To test this, transplants were planted 2 m within the meadow, on the meadow edge at 0m, and at 2m, 10m, 30m, 50m and 100m distance from the edge of the seagrass meadow into the unvegetated sand sheet. There was an enhanced grazing risk 0-10m from the edge, but decreased sharply with increasing distances (>30m). Yet, the risk of grazing was minimal inside the seagrass meadow, indicating that grazers may use the seagrass meadow for refuge but are not actively grazing within it. The relationship between short-term herbivory risk and long-term survival was not straightforward, suggesting that other environmental filters are also affecting survival of P. australis transplants within the study area. We found that daily probability of herbivory was predictable and operating over a small spatial scale at the edge of a large, intact seagrass meadow. These findings highlight the risk from herbivory can be high, and a potential contributing factor to seagrass establishment in restoration programs.

  20. Invasion of Old World Phragmites australis in the New World: precipitation and temperature patterns combined with human influences redesign the invasive niche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Wen-Yong; Lambertini, Carla; Li, Xiu-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    After its introduction into North America, Euro-Asian Phragmites australis became an aggressive invasive wetland grass along the Atlantic coast of North America. Its distribution range has since expanded to the middle, south and southwest of North America, where invasive P. australis has replaced...... millions of hectares of native plants in inland and tidal wetlands. Another P. australis invasion from the Mediterranean region is simultaneously occurring in the Gulf region of the USA and some countries in South America. Here, we analysed the occurrence records of the two Old World invasive lineages of P....... australis (Haplotype M and Med) in both their native and introduced ranges using environmental niche models (ENMs) to assess (i) whether a niche shift accompanied the invasions in the New World; (ii) the role of biologically relevant climatic variables and human influence in the process of invasion...

  1. Impacts of Macondo oil from Deepwater Horizon spill on the growth response of the common reed Phragmites australis: a mesocosm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Chad R; Graham, Sean A; Lin, Qianxin; Hou, Aixin; Mendelssohn, Irving A

    2014-02-15

    We investigated impacts of Macondo MC252 oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill on the common reed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud., a dominant species of the Mississippi River Delta. In greenhouse experiments, we simulated the most common DWH oiling scenarios by applying weathered and emulsified Macondo oil to aboveground shoots at varying degrees of coverage (0-100%) or directly to marsh soil at different dosages (0-16 Lm(-)(2)). P. australis exhibited strong resistance to negative impacts when oil was applied to shoots alone, while reductions in above- and belowground plant growth were apparent when oil was applied to the soil or with repeated shoot-oiling. Although soil-oiling compromised plant function, mortality of P. australis did not occur. Our results demonstrate that P. australis has a high tolerance to weathered and emulsified Macondo oil, and that mode of exposure (aboveground versus belowground) was a primary determinant of impact severity.

  2. Function and regulation of Aurora/Ipl1p kinase family in cell division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    During mitosis, the parent cell distributes its genetic materials equally into two daughter cells through chromosome segregation, a complex movements orchestrated by mitotic kinases and its effector proteins.Faithful chromosome segregation and cytokinesis ensure that each daughter cell receives a full copy of genetic materials of parent cell. Defects in these processes can lead to aneuploidy or polyploidy. Aurora/Ipl1p fanily,a class of conserved serine/threonine kinases, plays key roles in chromosome segregation and cytokinesis.This article highlights the function and regulation of Aurora/Ipl1p family in mitosis and provides potential links between aberrant regulation of Aurora/Ipl1p kinases and pathogenesis of human cancer.

  3. Dispensability of the SAC Depends on the Time Window Required by Aurora B to Ensure Chromosome Biorientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Muñoz-Barrera

    Full Text Available Aurora B and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC collaborate to ensure the proper biorientation of chromosomes during mitosis. However, lack of Aurora B activity and inactivation of the SAC have a very different impact on chromosome segregation. This is most evident in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, since in this organism the lack of Aurora B is lethal and leads to severe aneuploidy problems, while the SAC is dispensable under normal growth conditions and mutants in this checkpoint do not show evident chromosome segregation defects. We demonstrate that the efficient repair of incorrect chromosome attachments by Aurora B during the initial stages of spindle assembly in budding yeast determines the lack of chromosome segregation defects in SAC mutants, and propose that the differential time window that Aurora B kinase requires to establish chromosome biorientation is the key factor that determines why some cells are more dependent on a functional SAC than others.

  4. Discovery of a Previously Unrecognised Allusion to the Aurora Borealis in Paradise Lost, and Implications for Edmund Halley Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    2014-11-01

    This research reveals that John Milton employed an allusion to the aurora borealis in the epic poem Paradise Lost which has not been recognised in more than three centuries of scholarly analysis. It further disproves the long-held belief, made popular by the astronomer Edmund Halley, that no notable aurora was visible in England in the seventeenth century. A study of the personal Latin diary of the Elizabethan historian William Camden shows that the famous aurora of 1621 was visible in England. While Pierre Gassendi has been credited with creation of the term 'aurora borealis' based on his report of the 1621 aurora, this study reaffirms a neglected analysis from 1986 that established the term originated with Galileo in 1619.

  5. Benzimidazole-Based Quinazolines: In Vitro Evaluation, Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship, and Molecular Modeling as Aurora Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alka; Luxami, Vijay; Saxena, Sanjai; Paul, Kamaldeep

    2016-03-01

    A series of benzimidazole-based quinazoline derivatives with different substitutions of primary and secondary amines at the C2 position (1-12) were evaluated for their Aurora kinase inhibitory activities. All compounds except for 3 and 6 showed good activity against Aurora kinase inhibitors, with IC50 values in the range of 0.035-0.532 μM. The ligand efficiency (LE) of the compounds with Aurora A kinase was also determined. The structure-activity relationship and the quantitative structure-activity relationship revealed that the Aurora inhibitory activities of these derivatives primarily depend on the different substitutions of the amine present at the C2 position of the quinazoline core. Molecular docking studies in the active binding site also provided theoretical support for the experimental biological data acquired. The current study identifies a novel class of Aurora kinase inhibitors, which can further be used for the treatment of cancer.

  6. Dispensability of the SAC Depends on the Time Window Required by Aurora B to Ensure Chromosome Biorientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje-Casas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Aurora B and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) collaborate to ensure the proper biorientation of chromosomes during mitosis. However, lack of Aurora B activity and inactivation of the SAC have a very different impact on chromosome segregation. This is most evident in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, since in this organism the lack of Aurora B is lethal and leads to severe aneuploidy problems, while the SAC is dispensable under normal growth conditions and mutants in this checkpoint do not show evident chromosome segregation defects. We demonstrate that the efficient repair of incorrect chromosome attachments by Aurora B during the initial stages of spindle assembly in budding yeast determines the lack of chromosome segregation defects in SAC mutants, and propose that the differential time window that Aurora B kinase requires to establish chromosome biorientation is the key factor that determines why some cells are more dependent on a functional SAC than others. PMID:26661752

  7. Identification, SAR studies, and X-ray co-crystallographic analysis of a novel furanopyrimidine aurora kinase A inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumar, Mohane Selvaraj; Tsai, Ming-Tsung; Chu, Chang-Ying; Uang, Biing-Jiun; Lin, Wen-Hsing; Chang, Chun-Yu; Chang, Teng-Yuan; Leou, Jiun-Shyang; Teng, Chi-Huang; Wu, Jian-Sung; Fang, Ming-Yu; Chen, Chun-Hwa; Hsu, John T-A; Wu, Su-Ying; Chao, Yu-Sheng; Hsieh, Hsing-Pang

    2010-02-01

    Herein we reveal a simple method for the identification of novel Aurora kinase A inhibitors through substructure searching of an in-house compound library to select compounds for testing. A hydrazone fragment conferring Aurora kinase activity and heterocyclic rings most frequently reported in kinase inhibitors were used as substructure queries to filter the in-house compound library collection prior to testing. Five new series of Aurora kinase inhibitors were identified through this strategy, with IC(50) values ranging from approximately 300 nM to approximately 15 microM, by testing only 133 compounds from a database of approximately 125,000 compounds. Structure-activity relationship studies and X-ray co-crystallographic analysis of the most potent compound, a furanopyrimidine derivative with an IC(50) value of 309 nM toward Aurora kinase A, were carried out. The knowledge gained through these studies could help in the future design of potent Aurora kinase inhibitors.

  8. Phosphorylation of multifunctional nucleolar protein nucleophosmin (NPM1) by aurora kinase B is critical for mitotic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandilya, Jayasha; Senapati, Parijat; Dhanasekaran, Karthigeyan; Bangalore, Suma S; Kumar, Manoj; Kishore, A Hari; Bhat, Akshay; Kodaganur, Gopinath S; Kundu, Tapas K

    2014-06-27

    The functional association of NPM1 with Aurora kinases is well documented. Surprisingly, although NPM1 is a well characterized phosphoprotein, it is unknown whether it is a substrate of Aurora kinases. We have found that Aurora kinases A and B can phosphorylate NPM1 at a single serine residue, Ser125, in vitro and in vivo. Phosphorylated-S125-NPM1 (pS125-NPM1) localizes to the midbody region during late cytokinesis where it colocalizes with Aurora B. The overexpression of mutant (S125A) NPM1 resulted in the deregulation of centrosome duplication and mitotic defects possibly due to cytokinesis failure. These data suggest that Aurora kinase B-mediated phosphorylation of NPM1 plays a critical role during mitosis, which could have wider implications in oncogenesis.

  9. Aurora kinase A controls meiosis I progression in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saskova, Adela; Solc, Petr; Baran, Vladimir; Kubelka, Michal; Schultz, Richard M; Motlik, Jan

    2008-08-01

    Aurora kinase A (AURKA), which is a centrosome-localized serine/threonine kinase crucial for cell cycle control, is critically involved in centrosome maturation and spindle assembly in somatic cells. Active T288 phosphorylated AURKA localizes to the centrosome in the late G(2) and also spreads to the minus ends of mitotic spindle microtubules. AURKA activates centrosomal CDC25B and recruits cyclin B1 to centrosomes. We report here functions for AURKA in meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes, which is a model system to study the G(2) to M transition. Whereas AURKA is present throughout the entire GV-stage oocyte with a clear accumulation on microtubule organizing centers (MTOC), active AURKA becomes entirely localized to MTOCs shortly before germinal vesicle breakdown. In contrast to somatic cells in which active AURKA is present at the centrosomes and minus ends of microtubules, active AURKA is mainly located on MTOCs at metaphase I (MI) in oocytes. Inhibitor studies using Roscovitine (CDK1 inhibitor), LY-294002 (PI3K inhibitor) and SH-6 (PKB inhibitor) reveal that activation of AURKA localized on MTOCs is independent on PI3K-PKB and CDK1 signaling pathways and MOTC amplification is observed in roscovitine- and SH-6-treated oocytes that fail to undergo nuclear envelope breakdown. Moreover, microinjection of Aurka mRNA into GV-stage oocytes cultured in 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine (IBMX)-containing medium to prevent maturation also results in MOTC amplification in the absence of CDK1 activation. Overexpression of AURKA also leads to formation of an abnormal MI spindle, whereas RNAi-mediated reduction of AURKA interferes with resumption of meiosis and spindle assembly. Results of these experiments indicate that AURKA is a critical MTOC-associated component involved in resumption of meiosis, MTOC multiplication, proper spindle formation and the metaphase I-metaphase II transition.

  10. Aurora B regulates spindle bipolarity in meiosis in vertebrate oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hua; Ma, Chunqi; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Ruizhen; Miller, Ann L; Bement, William M; Liu, X Johné

    2012-07-15

    Aurora B (Aur-B) plays multiple roles in mitosis, of which the best known are to ensure bi-orientation of sister chromatids by destabilizing incorrectly attached kinetochore microtubules and to participate in cytokinesis. Studies in Xenopus egg extracts, however, have indicated that Aur-B and the chromosome passenger complex play an important role in stabilizing chromosome-associated spindle microtubules. Aur-B stabilizes spindle microtubules in the egg extracts by inhibiting the catastrophe kinesin MCAK. Whether or not Aur-B plays a similar role in intact oocytes remains unknown. Here we have employed a dominant-negative Aur-B mutant (Aur-B122R, in which the ATP-binding lysine(122) is replaced with arginine) to investigate the function of Aur-B in spindle assembly in Xenopus oocytes undergoing meiosis. Overexpression of Aur-B122R results in short bipolar spindles or monopolar spindles, with higher concentrations of Aur-B122R producing mostly the latter. Simultaneous inhibition of MCAK translation in oocytes overexpressing Aur-B122R results in suppression of monopolar phenotype, suggesting that Aur-B regulates spindle bipolarity by inhibiting MCAK. Furthermore, recombinant MCAK-4A protein, which lacks all four Aur-B phosphoryaltion sites and is therefore insensitive to Aur-B inhibition but not wild-type MCAK, recapitulated the monopolar phenotype in the oocytes. These results suggest that in vertebrate oocytes that lack centrosomes, one major function of Aur-B is to stabilize chromosome-associated spindle microtubules to ensure spindle bipolarity.

  11. [A Contrastive Study on Salt-alkaline Resistance and Removal Efficiency of Nitrogen and Phosphorus by Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia in Coastal Estuary Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You-yuan; Sun, Ping; Chen, Guang-lin; Wang, Ning-ning

    2015-04-01

    The salt and alkali contents were so high that the ecological landscape was depressed in water body of a coastal estuary area. Screening some plants which could not only tolerate saline-alkaline but also effectively remove nitrogen and phosphorus was therefore in urgent need. The tolerance range and removal rate of nitrogen and phosphorus by Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia under salt and pH stress were investigated by hydroponic experiments. The results showed that Phragmites australis could tolerate at least 10 per thousand salinity and pH 8.5, while Typha angustifolia tolerated 7.5 per thousand salinity and pH 8.0. Combined with the change of the growth and physiological indexes (relative conductivity, proline, chlorophyll and root activity), the salt resistance of Phragmites australis was stronger than that of Typha angustifolia. Under salt stress, the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen of Phragmites australis was higher. The removal rates of nitrate nitrogen and phosphorus of Typha angustifolia were 2.5% and 7.3% higher than those of Phragmites australis in average, respectively, because of the high biomass of Typha angustifolias. The total nitrogen removal rate was equivalent. Under pH stress, the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus of Phragmites australis was a little higher than that of Typha angustifolia. However, Typha angustifolia had a higher removal rate of total nitrogen, which was 8.2% higher than that of Phragmites australis. All the analysis showed that both Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia could be used as alternative plants to grow and remove nitrogen and phosphorus in the high salt-alkaline water body in coastal estuary area.

  12. A review of East Asian reports of aurorae and comets circa AD 775

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J.; Neuhäuser, D. L.; Neuhäuser, R.; Csikszentmihalyi, M.

    2015-08-01

    Given that a strong 14C variation in AD 775 has recently been suggested to be due to the largest solar flare ever recorded in history, it is relevant to investigate whether celestial events observed around that time may have been aurorae, possibly even very strong aurorae, or otherwise related to the 14C variation (e.g. a suggested comet impact with Earth's atmosphere). We critically review several celestial observations from AD 757 to the end of the 770s, most of which were previously considered to be true, and in some cases, strong aurorae; we discuss in detail the East Asian records and their wording. We conclude that probably none among the events after AD 770 was actually an aurora, including the event in AD 776 Jan, which was misdated for AD 774 or 775; the observed white qi phenomenon that happened above the moon in the south-east was most probably a halo effect near the full Moon - too late in any case to be related to the 14C variation in AD 774/5. There is another report of a similar (or identical) white qi phenomenon above the moon, reported just before a comet observation and dated to AD 776 Jan; the reported comet observed by the Chinese was misdated to AD 776, but actually sighted in AD 767. Our critical review of East Asian reports of aurorae circa AD 775 shows some very likely true Chinese auroral displays observed and reported for AD 762; there were also several events prior to AD 771 that may have been aurorae but are questionable.

  13. Aurora-A controls cancer cell radio- and chemoresistance via ATM/Chk2-mediated DNA repair networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huizhen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Ziliang; Meng, Jiao; Qi, Zihao; Yang, Gong

    2014-05-01

    High expression of Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A) has been found to confer cancer cell radio- and chemoresistance, however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, by using Aurora-A cDNA/shRNA or the specific inhibitor VX680, we show that Aurora-A upregulates cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and anchorage-independent growth to enhance cell resistance to cisplatin and X-ray irradiation through dysregulation of DNA damage repair networks. Mechanistic studies showed that Aurora-A promoted the expression of ATM/Chk2, but suppressed the expression of BRCA1/2, ATR/Chk1, p53, pp53 (Ser15), H2AX, γH2AX (Ser319), and RAD51. Aurora-A inhibited the focus formation of γH2AX in response to ionizing irradiation. Treatment of cells overexpressing Aurora-A and ATM/Chk2 with the ATM specific inhibitor KU-55933 increased the cell sensitivity to cisplatin and irradiation through increasing the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 and inhibiting the expression of Chk2, γH2AX (Ser319), and RAD51. Further study revealed that BRCA1/2 counteracted the function of Aurora-A to suppress the expression of ATM/Chk2, but to activate the expression of ATR/Chk1, pp53, γH2AX, and RAD51, leading to the enhanced cell sensitivity to irradiation and cisplatin, which was also supported by the results from animal assays. Thus, our data provide strong evidences that Aurora-A and BRCA1/2 inversely control the sensitivity of cancer cells to radio- and chemotherapy through the ATM/Chk2-mediated DNA repair networks, indicating that the DNA repair molecules including ATM/Chk2 may be considered for the targeted therapy against cancers with overexpression of Aurora-A.

  14. Intestinal helminth fauna of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and fur seal Arctocephalus australis from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, J S; Montero, F E; Juan-García, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 56 South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, and 5 South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 97,325 helminth specimens were collected from sea lions. Gravid individuals were represented by 6 species of parasites: 1 digenean (Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis), 1 cestode (Diphyllobothrium spp.), 3 nematodes (Uncinaria hamiltoni, Contracaecum ogmorhini s.s., Pseudoterranova cattani) and 1 acanthocephalan (Corynosoma australe). In addition, third-stage larvae of 2 nematodes (Contracaecum sp. and Anisakis sp. type I) and 3 juvenile acanthocephalans (Andracantha sp., Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Corynosoma cetaceum) were also collected. Andracantha sp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and P. chasmagnathi represent new host records. A total of 1516 helminth specimens were collected from fur seals. Gravid individuals were represented by three species of parasites, namely, Diphyllobothrium spp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and C. australe. In addition, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and P. cattani, juveniles of C. cetaceum and immature cestodes (Tetrabothriidae gen. sp.) were also collected. Corynosoma australe was the most prevalent and abundant parasite in both hosts, accounting for >90% of all specimens. Sea lions and furs seals from northern Patagonia harbour the intestinal helminth communities that could be predicted for otariids, i.e. the combination of species of the genera Corynosoma, Diphyllobothrium, Pseudoterranova, Contracaecum and, in pups, Uncinaria. Additionally, both species of otariid are apparently unsuitable hosts (i.e. non-hosts) for as many as five parasite taxa. The inclusion or exclusion of these species affects estimation of species richness at both component community (11 versus 6 species in sea lions; 7 versus 3 species in fur seals) and infracommunity (mean: 3.1 versus 2.6 in sea lions; 2.2 versus 1.7 species) levels. Information about the reproductive status of

  15. Transient internally driven aurora at Jupiter discovered by Hisaki and the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, T.; Badman, S. V.; Tao, C.; Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Yamazaki, A.; Tsuchiya, F.; Bonfond, B.; Steffl, A. J.; Masters, A.; Kasahara, S.; Hasegawa, H.; Yoshikawa, I.; Fujimoto, M.; Clarke, J. T.

    2015-03-01

    Jupiter's auroral emissions reveal energy transport and dissipation through the planet's giant magnetosphere. While the main auroral emission is internally driven by planetary rotation in the steady state, transient brightenings are generally thought to be triggered by compression by the external solar wind. Here we present evidence provided by the new Hisaki spacecraft and the Hubble Space Telescope that shows that such brightening of Jupiter's aurora can in fact be internally driven. The brightening has an excess power up to ~550 GW. Intense emission appears from the polar cap region down to latitudes around Io's footprint aurora, suggesting a rapid energy input into the polar region by the internal plasma circulation process.

  16. An Electron Sensor for the Pulsating Aurora 2 (Pulsaur 2) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, J. R.; Sharber, J. R.; Frahm, R. A.; Piepgrass, B.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to provide a low-energy electron detector to be flown on the PULSAUR 2 rocket payload for investigation of the pulsating aurora. In the course of this grant, the instrument, a tophat analyzer, was built and calibrated by the combined efforts of Southwest Research Institute, Mullard Space Sciences Laboratory, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and Goddard Space Flight Center, and successfully flown into an active, early morning, pulsating aurora over Andoya, Norway, on February 9, 1994. This report provides a description of the instrument and its calibration and gives examples of data obtained on the flight.

  17. Monitoring Phragmites australis increases from 1937 to 1976 in the Siyai Lagoon (Natal, South Africa by means of air photo interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Weisser

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available The colonization o f the Siyai Lagoon on the north coast of Natal by Phragmites australis was studied by means of  air photo interpretation. It was possible to locate and estimate P. australis areas for 1957 (0,74 ha, 1965 (1,65 ha, 1969 (1,93 ha and 1976 (2,94 ha. Phragmites australis first inhabited the shores of the middle section o f the lagoon followed by rapid expansion in the lower section. The upper section was colonized only at its lower end by expansion from the middle section. It is suggested that P. australis was unsuccessful in this section because of competition by the  Hibiscus tiliaceus—Barringtonia racemosa  Lagoon Fringe Forest. This same community is shading out  P. australis in some places. The notable increase in the rate of advance of land and littoral vegetation into the Siyai Lagoon was caused by sugar farming activities leading to erosion and sedimentation in the lagoon. A vegetation age gradient was observed from the upper section to the mouth region. The colonization of most of the Siyai Lagoon except the immediate mouth zone by  P. australis Reedswamp and  Hibiscus tiliaceus—Barringtonia racemosa Lagoon Fringe Forest, can be expected before the turn of the century. Dredging and mechanical control of vegetation will become necessary if major open water spaces are to be maintained.

  18. Monitoring Phragmites australis increases from 1937 to 1976 in the Siyai Lagoon (Natal, South Africa by means of air photo interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Weisser

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available The colonization o f the Siyai Lagoon on the north coast of Natal by Phragmites australis was studied by means of  air photo interpretation. It was possible to locate and estimate P. australis areas for 1957 (0,74 ha, 1965 (1,65 ha, 1969 (1,93 ha and 1976 (2,94 ha. Phragmites australis first inhabited the shores of the middle section o f the lagoon followed by rapid expansion in the lower section. The upper section was colonized only at its lower end by expansion from the middle section. It is suggested that P. australis was unsuccessful in this section because of competition by the  Hibiscus tiliaceus—Barringtonia racemosa  Lagoon Fringe Forest. This same community is shading out  P. australis in some places. The notable increase in the rate of advance of land and littoral vegetation into the Siyai Lagoon was caused by sugar farming activities leading to erosion and sedimentation in the lagoon. A vegetation age gradient was observed from the upper section to the mouth region. The colonization of most of the Siyai Lagoon except the immediate mouth zone by  P. australis Reedswamp and  Hibiscus tiliaceus—Barringtonia racemosa Lagoon Fringe Forest, can be expected before the turn of the century. Dredging and mechanical control of vegetation will become necessary if major open water spaces are to be maintained.

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Electron acceleration in the aurora and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, K. G.

    1999-08-01

    Duncan Bryant is a retired space plasma physicist who spent most of his career at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire, England. For many years he has been challenging a widely accepted theory, that auroral electrons are accelerated by double layers, on the grounds that it contains a fundamental error (allegedly, an implicit assumption that charged particles can gain energy from conservative fields). It is, of course, right that models of particle acceleration in natural plasmas should be scrutinized carefully in terms of their consistency with basic physical principles, and I believe that Dr Bryant has performed a valuable service by highlighting this issue. He maintains that auroral electron acceleration by double layers is fundamentally untenable, and that acceleration takes place instead via resonant interactions with lower hybrid waves. In successive chapters, he asserts that essentially the same process can account for electron acceleration observed at the Earth's bow shock, in the neighbourhood of an `artificial comet' produced as part of the Active Magnetospheric Particle Explorers (AMPTE) space mission in 1984/85, in the solar wind, at the Earth's magnetopause, and in the Earth's magneto- sphere. The evidence for this is not always convincing: waves with frequencies of the order of the lower hybrid resonance are often observed in these plasma environments, but in general it is difficult to identify clearly which wave mode is being observed (whistlers, for example, have frequencies in approximately the same range as lower hybrid waves). Moreover, it is not at all clear that the waves which are observed, even if they were of the appropriate type, would have sufficient intensity to accelerate electrons to the extent observed. The author makes a persuasive case, however, that acceleration in the aurora, and in other plasma environments accessible to in situ measurements, involves some form of wave turbulence. In Chapter 2 it is pointed out that

  20. Synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence measurement of metal distributions in Phragmites australis root system in the Yangtze River intertidal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huan; Zhang, Weiguo; Qian, Yu; Liu, Wenliang; Yu, Lizhong; Yoo, Shinjae; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jia Jun; Eng, Christopher; Liu, Chang Jun; Tappero, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the distributions of Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, K, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ti, V and Zn in Phragmites australis root system and the function of Fe nanoparticles in scavenging metals in the root epidermis using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence, synchrotron transmission X-ray microscope measurement and synchrotron X-ray absorption near-edge structure techniques. The purpose of this study is to understand the mobility of metals in wetland plant root systems after their uptake from rhizosphere soils. Phragmites australis samples were collected in the Yangtze River intertidal zone in July 2013. The results indicate that Fe nanoparticles are present in the root epidermis and that other metals correlate significantly with Fe, suggesting that Fe nanoparticles play an important role in metal scavenging in the epidermis.

  1. The variability of reed [Phragmites australis (cav. Trin. ex Steud. (Poaceae] populations expressed in morphological traits of panicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Krzakowa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a transect technique, each of 12 reed Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin ex Steud. populations collected in middle part of Odra River-basin, represented by more than 30 plants, were compared with 3 populations from other part of the country and 1 from France. Each panicle was examined according to 15 morphological traits. Results of measurements were subjected to multivariate analysis of variance, to analysis of canonical variables and used for construction of a minimum spanning tree (= dendrite on the basis of the shortest Mahalanobis distances. The obtained results indicate that populations are generally similar. One population from France (Orleans shows visible separateness. It may suggest that morphological traits of panicles may be useful in investigations of the reed P. australis populations of a larger geographical distribution.

  2. Feasibility of Treatment of the Waters of a Wadi Charged in Iron by Filters Planted of Macrophytes (Phragmites australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semadi Faten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The context is summarized by the presence of important Steel manufactory close to the wadi Meboudja and its effluents rejected into the wadi which contaminate the water used for irrigation by the local farmer. Approach: The goal is to determine the usefulness of Macrophytes (Phragmites australis to filter some specific industrial effluents (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn and Cr present into water of wadi Meboudja. The use of Reeds (Phragmites australis can be considered as a biologic and an economic solution to minimize the concentration of some industrial effluent, especially Iron which is highlighted in this article. An experimental device was built, and considered as pilot, formed of three basins plus reservoir. We use the water of Wadi to irrigate the "Phragmites australis" which are initially appropriated from Oubaiira Lake in a natural medium. Water and Reeds samples are selected for analyses. Results: Iron is found in important concentration compared to the other Elements Metal Traces (ETM. Such a variation seems to be directly related to the rate of industrial production, fluctuations of the climatic factors and the capacities of assimilation of the plants crop. It is essentially concentrated into the roots of Reeds compared to stems and leafs. For example, in one repetition we found difference between the exit sample and the entry one in basin-1of (60-23= 37 mg g-1 into roots. Conclusion: Plantation of Reeds (Phragmites australis seems a natural solution to reduce elements metal traces, in particularly Iron, into water of wadi Meboudja. Other analysis on the garden products of local farmers should be conducted in order to quantify possible hazards on the health of consumers.

  3. Testing two potential fates for coastal marshes: Greenhouse gas emissions from native, Phragmites australis-invaded, and permanently inundated zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Martin, R.; Tang, J.; Morkeski, K.; China, I.; Brannon, E.; Watson, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    Global changes such as biological invasions and sea level rise can significantly affect GHG emissions from coastal wetlands by changing plant community composition and/or environmental conditions. To first characterize GHG fluxes across major plant-defined marsh zones, CO2, N2O, and CH4 fluxes were compared between S. patens- dominated high marsh and S. alterniflora low marsh during 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in 3 New England marshes. To test how these fluxes may change in response to biological invasions and sea level rise, GHG fluxes were then compared between native, P.australis- invaded, and permanently inundated marsh zones at these sites in 2013 and 2014. GHG emissions were analyzed simultaneously from marsh ecosystems using infrared-based spectrometers connected to static flux chambers. Daytime CO2 uptake rates (ranging on average between -2 and -21 μmol CO2 m-2s-1) were generally greater in S. alterniflora low marsh zones than in S. patens high marsh among all 3 sites. Methane fluxes were generally low in both native marsh zones (< 50 μmol CH4 m-2 h-1) and N2O emissions were rare. However, CO2 uptake and CH4 emissions from P. australis zones were typically more than an order of magnitude greater than those of either native marsh zone. In contrast, permanently inundated marsh soils had similar GHG emissions to native marsh zones. . Though large, the P. australis CH4 emissions are estimated to offset less than 5% of observed CO2 uptake rates based on a global warming potential of 25 (100 years). These results suggest that two alternative fates for coastal marshes in the future- conversion to P. australis marshes or to standing water with sea level rise- will substantially affect CO2 and CH4 emissions. Net impacts on climatic forcing of these ecosystems will depend on how long term C sequestration is affected as these emissions shift.

  4. Jack-and-master trait responses to elevated CO2 and N: a comparison of native and introduced Phragmites australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Mozdzer

    Full Text Available Global change is predicted to promote plant invasions world-wide, reducing biodiversity and ecosystem function. Phenotypic plasticity may influence the ability of introduced plant species to invade and dominate extant communities. However, interpreting differences in plasticity can be confounded by phylogenetic differences in morphology and physiology. Here we present a novel case investigating the role of fitness trait values and phenotypic plasticity to global change factors between conspecific lineages of Phragmites australis. We hypothesized that due to observed differences in the competitive success of North American-native and Eurasian-introduced P. australis genotypes, Eurasian-introduced P. australis would exhibit greater fitness in response to global change factors. Plasticity and plant performance to ambient and predicted levels of carbon dioxide and nitrogen pollution were investigated to understand how invasion pressure may change in North America under a realistic global change scenario. We found that the introduced Eurasian genotype expressed greater mean trait values in nearly every ecophysiological trait measured--aboveground and belowground--to elevated CO(2 and nitrogen, outperforming the native North American conspecific by a factor of two to three under every global change scenario. This response is consistent with "jack and master" phenotypic plasticity. We suggest that differences in plant nitrogen productivity, specific leaf area, belowground biomass allocation, and inherently higher relative growth rate are the plant traits that may enhance invasion of Eurasian Phragmites in North America. Given the high degree of genotypic variability within this species, and our limited number of genotypes, our results must be interpreted cautiously. Our study is the first to demonstrate the potential importance of jack-and-master phenotypic plasticity in plant invasions when facing imminent global change conditions. We suggest that

  5. Intracellular Distribution of Free Amino Acids between the Vacuolar and Extravacuolar Compartments in Internodal Cells of Chara australis

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuhiro, Sakano; Masashi, Tazawa; Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Kyoto University

    1984-01-01

    Distribution of free amino acids between the vacuolar and extra-vacuolar (cytoplasmic) compartments in internodal cells of Chara australis was studied. Under the control conditions (14-h light : 10-h dark), nlost (90%) of the cellular free amino acids were found in the extra-vacuolar compartment. The reverse was true for am-monia. The major amino acids were isoasparagine, alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, serine and glycine. The contents ofhydrophobic and basic amino acids were minor and...

  6. Voyage of discovery? A comment on Koch et al. "A voyage to Terra Australis: human-mediated dispersal of cats".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rose L; Smith, Deane; Gorrell, Jamieson C; Janes, Jasmine K

    2016-12-07

    The origins of feral cats in Australia may be understood with the help of molecular studies, but it is important that hypotheses be tested with appropriate sampling and methodology. We point out several shortcomings in the analysis by Koch et al. (BMC Evol Biol 15:262, 2015; A voyage to Terra Australis: human-mediated dispersal of cats. Dryad Digital Repository, 2015), present a reanalysis of part of the study and discuss the challenges of elucidating the early history of feral cats.

  7. Seasonal modulation of testosterone during breeding of the rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis australis) in Southern Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, Elizabeth A; Clark, Aaron D; Vasquez, Rodrigo A; Wingfield, John C

    2013-01-01

    The roles of testosterone (T) during reproduction are often complex and vary among and within vertebrate taxa and locations, making general hypotheses relating T to breeding behavior and success difficult to integrate. In birds, T is thought to influence degrees of territoriality and associated aggression in males to maximize breeding success. Importantly, most work supporting these ideas has been conducted in the Northern Hemisphere. However, accumulating work on tropical species has shown divergent patterns of T in association with breeding behavior. The compilation of work from northern temperate and tropical species suggests that the function of T in relation to breeding behavior varies across latitude and environmental conditions. We investigate the patterns of T in relation to breeding behavior in a subspecies of the rufous-collared sparrow Zonotrichia capensis australis breeding at high latitude in the Southern Hemisphere (55°S). We then compare the T profiles and breeding behaviors of male Z. c. australis to conspecifics breeding in the tropics and congeners in North America to test the hypothesis that environments with breeding seasons of similar lengths will drive similar patterns of T in relation to breeding behavior. We found that Z. c. australis have high levels of T during the early-breeding periods when territories are being established and low levels of T during the parental phase of breeding, similar to temperate and Arctic birds in the Northern Hemisphere but unlike tropical Zonotrichia capensis costaricensis. In contrast, we found that Z. c. australis also exhibit similar aggressive behaviors in early breeding and midbreeding, unlike many birds in the Northern Hemisphere.

  8. Removal of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cr from Yangtze Estuary Using the Phragmites australis Artificial Floating Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Feng; Yu, Gao; Song, Chao; Geng, Zhi; Zhuang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Contamination of heavy metals would threaten the water and soil resources; phytoremediation can be potentially used to remediate metal contaminated sites. We constructed the Phragmites australis artificial floating wetlands outside the Qingcaosha Reservoir in the Yangtze Estuary. Water characteristic variables were measured in situ by using YSI Professional Pro Meter. Four heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead, and chromium) in both water and plant tissues were determined. Four heavy metals in estuary water were as follows: 0.03 mg/Kg, 0.016 mg/Kg, 0.0015 mg/Kg, and 0.004 mg/Kg. These heavy metals were largely retained in the belowground tissues of P. australis. The bioaccumulation (BAF) and translation factor (TF) value of four heavy metals were affected by the salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. The highest BAF of each metal calculated was as follows: Cr (0.091 in winter) > Cu (0.054 in autumn) > Pb (0.016 in summer) > Zn (0.011 in summer). Highest root-rhizome TF values were recorded for four metals: 6.450 for Cu in autumn, 2.895 for Zn in summer, 7.031 for Pb in autumn, and 2.012 for Cr in autumn. This indicates that the P. australis AFW has potential to be used to protect the water of Qingcaosha Reservoir from heavy metal contamination.

  9. Removal of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cr from Yangtze Estuary Using the Phragmites australis Artificial Floating Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Yu, Gao; Song, Chao; Geng, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Contamination of heavy metals would threaten the water and soil resources; phytoremediation can be potentially used to remediate metal contaminated sites. We constructed the Phragmites australis artificial floating wetlands outside the Qingcaosha Reservoir in the Yangtze Estuary. Water characteristic variables were measured in situ by using YSI Professional Pro Meter. Four heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead, and chromium) in both water and plant tissues were determined. Four heavy metals in estuary water were as follows: 0.03 mg/Kg, 0.016 mg/Kg, 0.0015 mg/Kg, and 0.004 mg/Kg. These heavy metals were largely retained in the belowground tissues of P. australis. The bioaccumulation (BAF) and translation factor (TF) value of four heavy metals were affected by the salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. The highest BAF of each metal calculated was as follows: Cr (0.091 in winter) > Cu (0.054 in autumn) > Pb (0.016 in summer) > Zn (0.011 in summer). Highest root-rhizome TF values were recorded for four metals: 6.450 for Cu in autumn, 2.895 for Zn in summer, 7.031 for Pb in autumn, and 2.012 for Cr in autumn. This indicates that the P. australis AFW has potential to be used to protect the water of Qingcaosha Reservoir from heavy metal contamination. PMID:28717650

  10. Removal of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cr from Yangtze Estuary Using the Phragmites australis Artificial Floating Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of heavy metals would threaten the water and soil resources; phytoremediation can be potentially used to remediate metal contaminated sites. We constructed the Phragmites australis artificial floating wetlands outside the Qingcaosha Reservoir in the Yangtze Estuary. Water characteristic variables were measured in situ by using YSI Professional Pro Meter. Four heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead, and chromium in both water and plant tissues were determined. Four heavy metals in estuary water were as follows: 0.03 mg/Kg, 0.016 mg/Kg, 0.0015 mg/Kg, and 0.004 mg/Kg. These heavy metals were largely retained in the belowground tissues of P. australis. The bioaccumulation (BAF and translation factor (TF value of four heavy metals were affected by the salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. The highest BAF of each metal calculated was as follows: Cr (0.091 in winter > Cu (0.054 in autumn > Pb (0.016 in summer > Zn (0.011 in summer. Highest root-rhizome TF values were recorded for four metals: 6.450 for Cu in autumn, 2.895 for Zn in summer, 7.031 for Pb in autumn, and 2.012 for Cr in autumn. This indicates that the P. australis AFW has potential to be used to protect the water of Qingcaosha Reservoir from heavy metal contamination.

  11. Preliminary Results from a Coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton Study of the Jovian Aurora and Io Plasma Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Ralph; Kimura, Tomoki; Elsner, Ronald; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Gladstone, Randy; Badman, Sarah Victoria; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Murakami, Go; Murray, Stephen S.; Roediger, Elke; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Yoshioka, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton observational campaign of the Jovian aurora and Io plasma torus. The data were taken over a three week period in April, 2014. Jupiter was observed continuously with Hisaki, six times with the Chandra/HRC instrument for roughly 12 hours per observation, and twice by XMM-Newton. The goal of this observational campaign was to understand how energy and matter are exchanged between the Jovian aurora, the IPT, and the Solar wind. X-ray observations provide key diagnostics on highly stripped ions and keV electrons in the Jovian magnetosphere. We use the temporal, spatial, and spectral capabilities of the three instruments to search for correlated variability between the Solar wind, the EUV-emitting plasma of the IPT and UV aurora, and the ions responsible for the X-ray aurora. Preliminary analysis suggests a strong 45 min periodicity in the EUV emission from the electron aurora. There is some evidence for complex variability of the X-ray auroras on scales of tens of minutes. There is also clear morphological changes in the X-ray aurora that do not appear to be correlated with either variations in the IPT or Solar wind.

  12. Allosteric inhibition of Aurora-A kinase by a synthetic vNAR domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Selena G; Oleksy, Arkadiusz; Cavazza, Tommaso; Richards, Mark W; Vernos, Isabelle; Matthews, David; Bayliss, Richard

    2016-07-01

    The vast majority of clinically approved protein kinase inhibitors target the ATP-binding pocket directly. Consequently, many inhibitors have broad selectivity profiles and most have significant off-target effects. Allosteric inhibitors are generally more selective, but are difficult to identify because allosteric binding sites are often unknown or poorly characterized. Aurora-A is activated through binding of TPX2 to an allosteric site on the kinase catalytic domain, and this knowledge could be exploited to generate an inhibitor. Here, we generated an allosteric inhibitor of Aurora-A kinase based on a synthetic, vNAR single domain scaffold, vNAR-D01. Biochemical studies and a crystal structure of the Aurora-A/vNAR-D01 complex show that the vNAR domain overlaps with the TPX2 binding site. In contrast with the binding of TPX2, which stabilizes an active conformation of the kinase, binding of the vNAR domain stabilizes an inactive conformation, in which the αC-helix is distorted, the canonical Lys-Glu salt bridge is broken and the regulatory (R-) spine is disrupted by an additional hydrophobic side chain from the activation loop. These studies illustrate how single domain antibodies can be used to characterize the regulatory mechanisms of kinases and provide a rational basis for structure-guided design of allosteric Aurora-A kinase inhibitors.

  13. Polo-like kinase-1 controls Aurora A destruction by activating APC/C-Cdh1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske van Leuken

    Full Text Available Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1 is activated before mitosis by Aurora A and its cofactor Bora. In mitosis, Bora is degraded in a manner dependent on Plk1 kinase activity and the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF-betaTrCP. Here, we show that Plk1 is also required for the timely destruction of its activator Aurora A in late anaphase. It has been shown that Aurora A destruction is controlled by the auxiliary subunit Cdh1 of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C. Remarkably, we found that Plk1-depletion prevented the efficient dephosphorylation of Cdh1 during mitotic exit. Plk1 mediated its effect on Cdh1, at least in part, through direct phosphorylation of the human phosphatase Cdc14A, controlling the phosphorylation state of Cdh1. We conclude that Plk1 facilitates efficient Aurora A degradation through APC/C-Cdh1 activation after mitosis, with a potential role for hCdc14A.

  14. The Martian diffuse aurora: Monte Carlo simulations and comparison with IUVS-MAVEN observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, J. C. M. C.; Soret, L.; Schneider, N. M.; Shematovich, V.; Bisikalo, D.; Bougher, S. W.; Jain, S.; Lillis, R. J.; Mitchell, D. L.; Jakosky, B. M.; Deighan, J.; Larson, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    A new type of Martian aurora, characterized by an extended spatial distribution, an altitude lower than the discrete aurora and electron precipitation up to 200 keV has been observed following solar activity on several occasions with the IUVS on board the MAVEN spacecraft. We describe the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the production of several ultraviolet and visible auroral emissions for initial electron energies from 0.1 to 200 keV. These include the CO2+ ultraviolet doublet (UVD) at 288.3 and 289.6 nm and the Fox-Duffendack-Barker (FDB) bands, CO Cameron and Fourth Positive bands, OI 130.4 and 297.2 nm and CI 156.1 nm and 165.7 nm multiplets. We calculate the nadir and limb intensities of several of these emissions for a unit precipitated energy flux. Our results indicate that electrons in the range 100-200 keV produce maximum CO2+ UVD emission near 75 km. We combine SWEA and SEP electron energy spectra measured during diffuse aurora to calculate the volume emission rates and compare with IUVS observations of the emission limb profiles. The strongest predicted emissions are the CO2+ FDB, UVD and the CO Cameron bands. The metastable a 3Π state which radiates the Cameron bands is deactivated by collisions below 110 km. As a consequence, we show that the CO2+ UVD to the Cameron bands ratio increases at low altitude in the energetic diffuse aurora.

  15. Magnetospherically driven optical and radio aurorae at the end of the stellar main sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, G; Littlefair, S P; Cotter, G; Bourke, S; Harding, L K; Pineda, J S; Butler, R P; Golden, A; Basri, G; Doyle, J G; Kao, M M; Berdyugina, S V; Kuznetsov, A; Rupen, M P; Antonova, A

    2015-07-30

    Aurorae are detected from all the magnetized planets in our Solar System, including Earth. They are powered by magnetospheric current systems that lead to the precipitation of energetic electrons into the high-latitude regions of the upper atmosphere. In the case of the gas-giant planets, these aurorae include highly polarized radio emission at kilohertz and megahertz frequencies produced by the precipitating electrons, as well as continuum and line emission in the infrared, optical, ultraviolet and X-ray parts of the spectrum, associated with the collisional excitation and heating of the hydrogen-dominated atmosphere. Here we report simultaneous radio and optical spectroscopic observations of an object at the end of the stellar main sequence, located right at the boundary between stars and brown dwarfs, from which we have detected radio and optical auroral emissions both powered by magnetospheric currents. Whereas the magnetic activity of stars like our Sun is powered by processes that occur in their lower atmospheres, these aurorae are powered by processes originating much further out in the magnetosphere of the dwarf star that couple energy into the lower atmosphere. The dissipated power is at least four orders of magnitude larger than what is produced in the Jovian magnetosphere, revealing aurorae to be a potentially ubiquitous signature of large-scale magnetospheres that can scale to luminosities far greater than those observed in our Solar System. These magnetospheric current systems may also play a part in powering some of the weather phenomena reported on brown dwarfs.

  16. Aurora A kinase regulates proper spindle positioning in C. elegans and in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotak, Sachin; Afshar, Katayon; Busso, Coralie; Gönczy, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Accurate spindle positioning is essential for error-free cell division. The one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryo has proven instrumental for dissecting mechanisms governing spindle positioning. Despite important progress, how the cortical forces that act on astral microtubules to properly position the spindle are modulated is incompletely understood. Here, we report that the PP6 phosphatase PPH-6 and its associated subunit SAPS-1, which positively regulate pulling forces acting on spindle poles, associate with the Aurora A kinase AIR-1 in C. elegans embryos. We show that acute inactivation of AIR-1 during mitosis results in excess pulling forces on astral microtubules. Furthermore, we uncover that AIR-1 acts downstream of PPH-6-SAPS-1 in modulating spindle positioning, and that PPH-6-SAPS-1 negatively regulates AIR-1 localization at the cell cortex. Moreover, we show that Aurora A and the PP6 phosphatase subunit PPP6C are also necessary for spindle positioning in human cells. There, Aurora A is needed for the cortical localization of NuMA and dynein during mitosis. Overall, our work demonstrates that Aurora A kinases and PP6 phosphatases have an ancient function in modulating spindle positioning, thus contributing to faithful cell division.

  17. Inter-domain Cooperation in INCENP Promotes Aurora B Relocation from Centromeres to Microtubules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Armando; Vromans, Martijn J M; Bouwman, Kim; van der Waal, Maike S; Hadders, Michael A; Lens, Susanne M A; Lens, SMA

    2015-01-01

    The chromosomal passenger complex is essential for error-free chromosome segregation and proper execution of cytokinesis. To coordinate nuclear division with cytoplasmic division, its enzymatic subunit, Aurora B, relocalizes from centromeres in metaphase to the spindle midzone in anaphase. In buddin

  18. Tension sensing by Aurora B kinase is independent of survivin-based centromere localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christopher S; Desai, Arshad

    2013-05-01

    Accurate segregation of the replicated genome requires chromosome biorientation on the spindle. Biorientation is ensured by Aurora B kinase (Ipl1), a member of the four-subunit chromosomal passenger complex (CPC). Localization of the CPC to the inner centromere is central to the current model for how tension ensures chromosome biorientation: kinetochore-spindle attachments that are not under tension remain close to the inner centromere and are destabilized by Aurora B phosphorylation, whereas kinetochores under tension are pulled away from the influence of Aurora B, stabilizing their microtubule attachments. Here we show that an engineered truncation of the Sli15 (known as INCENP in humans) subunit of budding yeast CPC that eliminates association with the inner centromere nevertheless supports proper chromosome segregation during both mitosis and meiosis. Truncated Sli15 suppresses the deletion phenotypes of the inner-centromere-targeting proteins survivin (Bir1), borealin (Nbl1), Bub1 and Sgo1 (ref. 6). Unlike wild-type Sli15, truncated Sli15 localizes to pre-anaphase spindle microtubules. Premature targeting of full-length Sli15 to microtubules by preventing Cdk1 (also known as Cdc28) phosphorylation also suppresses the inviability of Bir1 deletion. These results suggest that activation of Aurora B kinase by clustering either on chromatin or on microtubules is sufficient for chromosome biorientation.

  19. Ionospheric characteristics of the dusk-side branch of the two-cell aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-H. Shue

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The two-cell aurora is characterized by azimuthally elongated regions of enhanced auroral brightness over extended local times in the dawn and dusk sectors. Its association with the convection, particle precipitation, and field-aligned currents under various phases of substorms has not been fully understood. With Polar Ultraviolet Imager auroral images in conjunction with Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F12 spacecraft on the dusk-side branch of the two-cell aurora, we are able to investigate an association of the auroral emissions with the electric fields, field-aligned currents, and energy flux of electrons. Results show that the substorm expansion onset does not significantly change the orientation of the dusk-side branch of the two-cell aurora. Also, the orientation of the magnetic deflection vector produced by the region 1 field-aligned current changed from 73±1° to the DMSP trajectory during the substorm growth phase, to 44±6° to the DMSP trajectory during the substorm expansion phase. With a comparison between the orientation of the dusk-side branch of the two-cell aurora and the orientation of the magnetic deflection vector, it is found that the angular difference between the two orientations is 28±5° during the substorm growth phase, and 13±6° during the substorm expansion phase.

  20. Discovery of Salamandra atra aurorae (Trevisan, 1982 on the Altopiano di Vezzena, Trentino (Northeastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Beukema

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Aurora’s Alpine Salamander is a limited distributed subspecies endemic to the Altopiano di Asiago, Veneto. In the current paper the occurrence of Salamandra atra aurorae is described for the Altopiano di Vezzena, Trentino. The aim of this paper is to review the distribution as well as to comment on the conservational status of the subspecies in Trentino.

  1. A review of East Asian reports of aurorae and comets circa AD 775

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Jesse; Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Csikszentmihalyi, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Given that a strong 14C variation in AD 775 has recently been suggested to be due to the largest solar flare ever recorded in history, it is relevant to investigate whether celestial events observed around that time may have been aurorae, possibly even very strong aurorae, or otherwise related to the 14C variation (e.g. a suggested comet impact with Earth's atmosphere). We critically review several celestial observations from AD 757 to the end of the 770s, most of which were previously considered to be true, and in some cases, strong aurorae; we discuss in detail the East Asian records and their wording. We conclude that probably none among the events after AD 770 was actually an aurora, including the event in AD 776 Jan, which was misdated for AD 774 or 775; the observed white qi phenomenon that happened "above the moon" in the south-east was most probably a halo effect near the full moon - too late in any case to be related to the 14C variation in AD 774/5. There is another report of a similar (or identical...

  2. [Suppression of Aurora-A by RNA interference inhibits laryngeal cancer Hep-2 cell growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Xue-hua; Cai, Chang-ping; Wang, Shi-li; Liu, Bing-ya; Zhou, Liang

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of knockdown of Aurora-A by RNA interference on laryngeal cancer Hep-2 cell growth in vitro and in vivo. A plasmid containing siRNA against Aurora-A was constructed and transfected into human laryngeal cancer cell line Hep-2. Measurements included the CCK-8 assay for viability and proliferation, Transwell assay for invasion, colony formation assay for cell anchorage-independent growth. Western blot and immunohistochemistry assay for protein expression. Tumorigenicity was observed in vivo. In Hep-2 cells transfected by Aurora-A siRNA (designated as siRNA-3), protein expression of Aurora-A was suppressed by 52%. In CCK-8 assay, absorbance value of siRNA-3 cells (3.268 ± 0.106, (x(-) ± s)) was lower than that of Hep-2 cells (3.722 ± 0.152, F = 17.634, P Hep-2 cells (236.0 ± 26.0, F = 26.462, P Hep-2 cells (104.0 ± 14.0). The average tumor size in siRNA-3 group was (127.77 ± 174.83) mm(3), which was less than Hep-2 cell group (837.26 ± 101.80) mm(3), (F = 28.187, P Hep-2 cells in vitro and in vivo, which may be a promising therapeutic strategy for LSCC.

  3. Facile identification of dual FLT3-Aurora A inhibitors: a computer-guided drug design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Hsu, Yung; Ke, Yi-Yu; Shiao, Hui-Yi; Lee, Chieh-Chien; Lin, Wen-Hsing; Chen, Chun-Hwa; Yen, Kuei-Jung; Hsu, John T-A; Chang, Chungming; Hsieh, Hsing-Pang

    2014-05-01

    Computer-guided drug design is a powerful tool for drug discovery. Herein we disclose the use of this approach for the discovery of dual FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3)-Aurora A inhibitors against cancer. An Aurora hit compound was selected as a starting point, from which 288 virtual molecules were screened. Subsequently, some of these were synthesized and evaluated for their capacity to inhibit FLT3 and Aurora kinase A. To further enhance FLT3 inhibition, structure-activity relationship studies of the lead compound were conducted through a simplification strategy and bioisosteric replacement, followed by the use of computer-guided drug design to prioritize molecules bearing a variety of different terminal groups in terms of favorable binding energy. Selected compounds were then synthesized, and their bioactivity was evaluated. Of these, one novel inhibitor was found to exhibit excellent inhibition of FLT3 and Aurora kinase A and exert a dramatic antiproliferative effect on MOLM-13 and MV4-11 cells, with an IC50 value of 7 nM. Accordingly, it is considered a highly promising candidate for further development.

  4. Aurora B kinase controls the separation of centromeric and telomeric heterochromatin

    OpenAIRE

    Gachet, Yannick; Reyes, Celine; Tournier, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of chromosomes is coordinated at multiple levels to prevent chromosome loss, a phenotype frequently observed in cancers. We recently described an essential role for telomeres in the physical separation of chromosomes and identified Aurora B kinase as a double agent involved in the separation of centromeric and telomeric heterochromatin.

  5. Aurora B kinase controls the separation of centromeric and telomeric heterochromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachet, Yannick; Reyes, Celine; Tournier, Sylvie

    2016-03-01

    The segregation of chromosomes is coordinated at multiple levels to prevent chromosome loss, a phenotype frequently observed in cancers. We recently described an essential role for telomeres in the physical separation of chromosomes and identified Aurora B kinase as a double agent involved in the separation of centromeric and telomeric heterochromatin.

  6. GATEWAY Demonstrations: OLED Lighting in the Offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    At the offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc., in Grayslake, IL, the GATEWAY program conducted its first investigation involving OLED lighting. The project experienced several challenges, but also highlighted a number of promising attributes – which indicate that with continued improvements in efficacy, longevity, size, and flexibility, OLEDs could provide a new tool for creative and effective lighting.

  7. Antiparallel magnetic merging signatures during IMF BY>>0: longitudinal and latitudinal cusp aurora bifurcations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Massetti

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A prominent dayside auroral event, occurred during an IMF BY-dominated time interval, and characterized by the contemporaneous longitudinal and latitudinal cusp bifurcations, is reported. The event was recorded the 19 December 2002, between about 09:30–10:45 UT, by the ITACA2 twin auroral monitors system, in the Greenland-Svalbard zone. The splitting of the ionospheric footprint of the geomagnetic cusp, traced by the dayside auroral activity, was recently identified with the signatures of antiparallel reconnection episodes ongoing at different magnetopause locations, during large IMF BY periods. The first part of the event showed a broad longitudinal bifurcation of the red-dominated cusp aurora, displaced in the prenoon and postnoon, with a separation up to ~1800 km, during northeast directed IMF (clock-angle rotating from 45° to 90°. This observation widens the range of IMF regimes that are known to drive a longitudinal bifurcation of the cusp, since previous case-studies reported these events to occur during southeast/southwest oriented IMF (clock-angle ≈135°. The second part of the event, developed when the IMF turned to a nearly horizontal orientation (BY>>0, BZ~0, clock-angle ~90°, and exhibited the simultaneous activation of the cusp auroras in three distinct areas: i two of them associated to the above-mentioned longitudinally bifurcated cusp (~73°–75° CGM latitude, type 1 cusp aurora, and linked to (nearantiparallel magnetic reconnection patches equatorward the northern and the southern cusp, ii the other one characterized by isolated high-latitude (~76°–77° CGM latitude, type 2 cusp aurora rayed arc(s with intense green emission, and triggered by (nearantiparallel merging at the northern lobe (usually observed during positive IMF BZ, poleward the local cusp. During this phase, the longitudinal separation of the low-latitude type~1 cusp aurora was about 1000 km wide, with a 500 km gap, while the latitudinal separation

  8. Genital morphology of the male South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis and biological implications Morfologia dos órgãos genitais do macho do Lobo marinho (Arctocephalus australis e implicações biológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sander D. Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Male capacity for spreading genes to a great number of descendents and to determine population dynamics depend directly on the genital organs. Morphological studies in pinnipeds are scarce and the functional meaning of some characteristics has never been discussed. We hypothesized that Arctocephalus australis (A. australis shows morphophysiological adaptations in order to guarantee the perpetuation of the species in the unique annual mating season. Seven males, dead from natural causes, had their genital organs collected and fixed for morphological description. Some features differ from other described mammalian males and are closely related to the biology and reproductive cycle of this species, as the scrotal epidermis, absence of glandular portion in the ductus deferens and spermatogenic epithelium suggest a recrudescent testis period. The corona glandis exhibits a singular arrangement: its erectile border looks like a formation of petals and its association with the os penis gives a "lily-flower" form to this region. We propose the name margo petaliformis to this particular erectile border of the corona glandis because of its similarity to a flower corola. The male genital organs of A. australis show morphological features compatible with adaptation to environment requirements and reproductive efficiency.A capacidade do macho de espalhar seus genes a um grande número de descendentes e determinar a dinâmica populacional depende diretamente dos seus órgãos genitais. Estudos morfológicos em pinípedes são escassos e o significado funcional de algumas de suas características ecológicas ainda foi pouco discutido. Nossa hipótese é que Arctocephalus australis (A. australis apresenta adaptações morfofisiológicas em seus órgãos genitais capazes de interagir com o meio e garantir a perpetuação da espécie que apresenta apenas uma época de acasalamento que ocorre uma vez a cada ano. Sete A. australis machos, mortos recentes por causas

  9. Detecting and Mapping Invasive Phragmites australis in the coastal Great Lakes with ALOS PALSAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeau-chavez, L. L.; Scarbrough, K.; Jenkins, L. K.; Riordan, K.; Powell, R. B.; Brooks, C.; Kowalski, K.; Carlson Mazur, M.; Huberty, B.

    2011-12-01

    Phragmites australis is a non-native invasive plant that can form dense monocultures, causing negative impacts on coastal Great Lakes wetlands by reducing ecosystem services including habitat and therefore, biological diversity. Through Great Lakes Restoration Initiative funding, ALOS PALSAR imagery is being used to map the invasive plant as it occurs in monoculture stands of the U.S. coastal Great Lakes wetlands. These invasive Phragmites maps are being used as part of a USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) and US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) program to identify major environmental drivers of invasive Phragmites distribution, to assess areas vulnerable to new invasion, and to provide this information to regional stakeholders through a decision support tool. The invasive Phragmites map is the first U.S. basin-wide map to be produced on the distribution of this species. Methods include maximum likelihood classification of multi-season ALOS PALSAR HH and HV polarization data. PALSAR is an L-band (23 cm wavelength) imaging radar sensor which is sensitive to differences in plant biomass and inundation patterns, allowing for the extraction of these tall (up to 15 m), high-density, high-biomass Phragmites wetland stands. To improve discrimination of Phragmites australis, the three date (spring, summer, fall) dataset is being used, which takes advantage of phenological changes in vegetation and inundation patterns over the seasons. Field collections of training and randomly selected validation data were conducted in spring summer and fall of 2010-11 to aid in the mapping and for accuracy assessment. The minimum mapping unit is 1/2 acre and thus all field sites were sampled at 1/2 acre units. All map products and field validation data will be complete by December 2011. Maps are being completed on a Lake basin basis. The first final map product was delivered for Lake Erie coastal wetlands to 10 km inland, with an overall map accuracy

  10. CO2 and CH4 exchange by Phragmites australis under different climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Ortiz, Penélope; Chojnickic, Bogdan H.; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Kowalska, Natalia; López-Ballesteros, Ana; Fernández, Néstor; Urbaniak, Marek; Olejnik, Janusz; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2015-04-01

    The key role of wetlands regarding global warming is the resulting balance between net CO2 assimilation, via photosynthesis, and CO2 and CH4 emissions, given the potential to release stored carbon, because of the high temperature sensitivity of heterotrophic soil respiration and anoxic conditions. However, it is still unknown whether wetlands will convert from long-term carbon sinks to sources as a result of climate change and other anthropogenic effects such as land use changes. Phragmites australis is one of the most common species found in wetlands and is considered the most globally widespread and productive plant species in this type of ecosystem. In this context, the main objective of this study is to analyse the GHG exchange (CO2 and CH4) of two wetlands with Phragmites australis as the dominant species under different climates using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. The first site, Padul, is located in southern Spain, with a sub-humid warm climate, characterised by a mean annual temperature of 16°C and annual precipitation of ca. 470 mm, with a very dry summer. The second site, Rzecin is located in Poland with a mean annual temperature of 8°C, and annual precipitation around 600mm with no dry season. The Padul EC station is equipped with two infrared gas analysers to measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes (LI-7200 and LI-7700 respectively) while the Rzecin EC station has the same CH4 sensor as Padul, but also a sensor measuring both GHG fluxes (DLT-100 Fast Methane Analyser, Los Gatos). In this study, we present: i) the results of a CH4 analyser inter-comparison campaign (LI-7700 vs. Los Gatos), ii) a comparative analysis of the functional behaviour of respiration and photosynthesis in both sites testing relationships between CO2 fluxes measured with the EC technique and meteorological variables such as temperature and direct or diffuse radiation and iii) the CH4 dynamicsat both sites by identifying, when possible, annual, seasonal and diurnal patterns.

  11. Dispersal and population structure at different spatial scales in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittlein Marcelo J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population genetic structure of subterranean rodent species is strongly affected by demographic (e.g. rates of dispersal and social structure and stochastic factors (e.g. random genetic drift among subpopulations and habitat fragmentation. In particular, gene flow estimates at different spatial scales are essential to understand genetic differentiation among populations of a species living in a highly fragmented landscape. Ctenomys australis (the sand dune tuco-tuco is a territorial subterranean rodent that inhabits a relatively secure, permanently sealed burrow system, occurring in sand dune habitats on the coastal landscape in the south-east of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Currently, this habitat is threatened by urban development and forestry and, therefore, the survival of this endemic species is at risk. Here, we assess population genetic structure and patterns of dispersal among individuals of this species at different spatial scales using 8 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Furthermore, we evaluate the relative importance of sex and habitat configuration in modulating the dispersal patterns at these geographical scales. Results Our results show that dispersal in C. australis is not restricted at regional spatial scales (~ 4 km. Assignment tests revealed significant population substructure within the study area, providing support for the presence of two subpopulations from three original sampling sites. Finally, male-biased dispersal was found in the Western side of our study area, but in the Eastern side no apparent philopatric pattern was found, suggesting that in a more continuous habitat males might move longer distances than females. Conclusions Overall, the assignment-based approaches were able to detect population substructure at fine geographical scales. Additionally, the maintenance of a significant genetic structure at regional (~ 4 km and small (less than 1 km spatial scales despite apparently

  12. The first scientific description of aurora borealis: the 10 September 1580 event in Transylvania, recorded by Marcello Squarcialupi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kázmér, Miklós; Timár, Gábor

    2016-12-01

    The first scientific treatise on aurora borealis was published by Marcello Squarcialupi, an Italian medical doctor working in the court of the Hungarian Prince of Transylvania. His book, De coelo ardore, described the aurora of 10 September 1580 in great detail, providing exact data from his personal observations on the time, direction, shape, colour, and variability. He invoked a rational explanation, bringing up only natural causes, and confronted these with the ruling Aristotelian view. The original Latin text describing the aurora is provided, with an English translation.

  13. Ewing sarcoma EWS protein regulates midzone formation by recruiting Aurora B kinase to the midzone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyewon; Turkalo, Timothy K; Nelson, Kayla; Folmsbee, Stephen Sai; Robb, Caroline; Roper, Brittany; Azuma, Mizuki

    2014-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a malignant bone cancer that primarily occurs in children and adolescents. Eighty-five percent of Ewing sarcoma is characterized by the presence of the aberrant chimeric EWS/FLI1 fusion gene. Previously, we demonstrated that an interaction between EWS/FLI1 and wild-type EWS led to the inhibition of EWS activity and mitotic dysfunction. Although defective mitosis is considered to be a critical step in cancer initiation, it is unknown how interference with EWS contributes to Ewing sarcoma formation. Here, we demonstrate that EWS/FLI1- and EWS-knockdown cells display a high incidence of defects in the midzone, a midline structure located between segregating chromatids during anaphase. Defects in the midzone can lead to the failure of cytokinesis and can result in the induction of aneuploidy. The similarity among the phenotypes of EWS/FLI1- and EWS siRNA-transfected HeLa cells points to the inhibition of EWS as the key mechanism for the induction of midzone defects. Supporting this observation, the ectopic expression of EWS rescues the high incidence of midzone defects observed in Ewing sarcoma A673 cells. We discovered that EWS interacts with Aurora B kinase, and that EWS is also required for recruiting Aurora B to the midzone. A domain analysis revealed that the R565 in the RGG3 domain of EWS is essential for both Aurora B interaction and the recruitment of Aurora B to the midzone. Here, we propose that the impairment of EWS-dependent midzone formation via the recruitment of Aurora B is a potential mechanism of Ewing sarcoma development.

  14. Constraints on photoevaporation models from (lack of) radio emission in the Corona Australis protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Manara, Carlo Felice; Forbrich, Jan; Pascucci, Ilaria; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Goddi, Ciriaco; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Takami, Michihiro; Testi, Leonardo; .,

    2014-01-01

    Photoevaporation due to high-energy stellar photons is thought to be one of the main drivers of protoplanetary disk dispersal. The fully or partially ionized disk surface is expected to produce free-free continuum emission at centimeter (cm) wavelengths that can be routinely detected with interferometers such as the upgraded Very Large Array (VLA). We use deep (rms noise down to 8 $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ in the field of view center) 3.5 cm maps of the nearby (130 pc) Corona Australis (CrA) star formation (SF) region to constrain disk photoevaporation models. We find that the radio emission from disk sources in CrA is surprisingly faint. Only 3 out of 10 sources within the field of view are detected, with flux densities of order $10^2$ $\\mu$Jy. However, a significant fraction of their emission is non-thermal. Typical upper limits for non-detections are $3\\sigma\\sim 60~\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$. Assuming analytic expressions for the free-free emission from extreme-UV (EUV) irradiation, we derive stringent upper limits to ...

  15. The removal of heavy metals by iron mine drainage sludge and Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang Ha, Nguyen Thi; Anh, Bui Thi Kim

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the removal of heavy metals from solutions by the combination of modified iron mine drainage sludge (sorbent column) and surface and subsurface flow constructed wetlands using the common reed (Phragmites australis) during 30 days of experiment. The results of this study demonstrated that the average removal rates of Zn, Pb, Mn, and As by sorbent column were 59.0, 55.1, 38.7, and 42.4%, respectively. The decreasing trend of removal rates of metals by sorbent column was obtained during the experiment. The average removal rates of Zn, Pb, Mn, and As by sorbent column-surface constructed wetland were 78.9, 73.5, 91.2, and 80.5%, respectively; those by sorbent column-subsurface flow constructed wetland were 81.7, 81.1, 94.1, and 83.1% which reflected that subsurface flow constructed wetland showed higher removal rate than the surface system. Concentrations of heavy metals in the outlet water were lower than the Vietnamese standard limits regulated for industrial wastewater. The results indicate the feasibility of integration of iron mine drainage sludge and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment.

  16. Resting metabolic rate and heat increment of feeding in juvenile South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassis, M; Rodríguez, D H; Ieno, E N; Denuncio, P E; Loureiro, J; Davis, R W

    2014-02-01

    Bio-energetic models used to characterize an animal's energy budget require the accurate estimate of different variables such as the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the heat increment of feeding (HIF). In this study, we estimated the in air RMR of wild juvenile South American fur seals (SAFS; Arctocephalus australis) temporarily held in captivity by measuring oxygen consumption while at rest in a postabsorptive condition. HIF, which is an increase in metabolic rate associated with digestion, assimilation and nutrient interconversion, was estimated as the difference in resting metabolic rate between the postabsorptive condition and the first 3.5h postprandial. As data were hierarchically structured, linear mixed effect models were used to compare RMR measures under both physiological conditions. Results indicated a significant increase (61%) for the postprandial RMR compared to the postabsorptive condition, estimated at 17.93±1.84 and 11.15±1.91mL O2 min(-1)kg(-1), respectively. These values constitute the first estimation of RMR and HIF in this species, and should be considered in the energy budgets for juvenile SAFS foraging at-sea.

  17. An exploration of common reed (Phragmites australis bioenergy potential in North America

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    R. Vaičekonytė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In North America, reed (Phragmites australis is typically considered to be a weed although it provides important ecosystem services. Small, sparse, patchy or mixed reedbeds are more suitable as habitat for many species than extensive dense reedbeds, whose habitat functions can be enhanced by the selective removal of biomass. We propose that above-ground reed biomass could be harvested for bioenergy, at the same time improving habitat for biodiversity by thinning or fragmenting the more extensive reedbeds. Biofuel pellets manufactured from reeds harvested at Montréal (Canada had moisture content 6.4 %, energy content 16.9 kJ g-1 (dry mass, ash content 3.44 %, and chloride content 1962 ppm. Thus, reed as a material for fuel pellet manufacture is similar to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, which is commonly cultivated for that purpose and requires higher inputs than harvested wild reed. We discuss these findings in the context of environmental considerations and conclude that the bioenergy potential of reed could most expediently be realised in North America by combining material harvested from the widespread spontaneously occurring reedbeds with organic waste from other sources to create mixed biofuels. However, reeds with high levels of chlorine, sulphur or metals should not be burned to avoid air pollution or equipment damage unless these problems are mitigated by means of appropriate season of harvest, equipment, combustion regime, or use of a mixed feedstock.

  18. Myoglobins of cartilaginous fishes III. Amino acid sequence of myoglobin of the shark Galeorhinus australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W K; Koureas, D D; Thompson, E O

    1981-01-01

    Myoglobin isolated from the red muscle of the school shark Galeorhinus australis was purified by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The amino acid sequence was determined following digestion with trypsin and purification of the peptides by paper ionophoresis and chromatography. Sequences of purified peptides were determined by the dansyl-Edman procedure and the peptides aligned by homology with the sequence of the myoglobin of the gummy shark Mustelus antarcticus. The two myoglobin sequences showed a marked similarity (16 differences), but both sequences showed approximately the same number of differences (68) from myoglobin of the Port Jackson shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni. There are 19 residues unique to three shark myoglobin sequences. As found with other fish myoglobins there are 148 residues with deletions of four residues at the amino terminal end as well as one residue in the CD region. The amino terminal residue is acetylated. The distal E7 histidine residue was found to be replaced by glutamine, as only previously reported for the myoglobin sequence of gummy shark.

  19. Studying the molecular gas towards the R Coronae Australis dark cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Paron, S; Ortega, M E; Cunningham, M; Jones, P A; Rubio, M

    2016-01-01

    The R Coronae Australis dark cloud is one of the closest star-forming regions to the Sun. The cloud is known to be very active in star formation, harboring many Herbig-Haro objects (HHs) and Molecular Hydrogen emission-line Objects (MHOs). In this work we present results from molecular observations (a $5.5^{'}\\times5.5^{'}$ map of $^{12}$CO J$=3-2$ and HCO$^{+}$ J$=4-3$, and a single spectrum of N$_{2}$H$^{+}$ J$=4-3$) obtained with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) towards the R CrA dark cloud with an angular and spectral resolution of 22$^{"}$ and 0.11 km s$^{-1}$, respectively. From the $^{12}$CO J$=3-2$ line we found kinematical spectral features strongly suggesting the presence of outflows towards a region populated by several HHs and MHOs. Moreover, most of these objects lie within an HCO$^{+}$ maximum, suggesting that its emission arises from an increasement of its abundance due to the chemistry triggered by the outflow activity. Additionally, we are presenting the first reported de...

  20. Invading Phragmites australis stimulates methane emissions from North American tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Peter; Meschter, Justin E.; Hager, Rachel N.; Mozdzer, Thomas J.; Jensen, Kai; Langley, J. Adam; Baldwin, Andrew; Megonigal, J. Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Most studies concerned with invasive plant species focus on effects on biodiversity, while only few have investigated how the greenhouse gas balance of an ecosystem or, in particular, how methane emissions are affected by invasion driven shifts in plant species composition. In this study, conducted in brackish marsh sites of the Chesapeake Bay, United States, we investigated the effect of the none-native grass Phragmites australis invading native shortgrass communities on methane emissions. In situ gas flux measurements using static chambers were used to quantify methane emissions along transects of progressive invasion by Phragmites. Methane emissions were several fold higher in Phragmites stands than in adjacent native communities and increased with progressive invasion of Phragmites. Results of a mesocosm experiment support our field observations and show consistently higher methane emissions from mesocoms planted with Phragmites even at different hydrological conditions. Because tidal marshes, as blue carbon ecosystems, sequester soil carbon rapidly and emit methane slowly compared to other wetland ecosystems, they are increasingly recognized as having a high carbon value. Our results indicate that the replacement of native marsh communities by Phragmites may considerably change the green house gas balance of these ecosystems and thus lower their carbon sequestration value.

  1. Impact of harvesting and fire on Phragmites australis reed quality in Tembe Elephant Park, Maputaland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. van Rooyen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In Maputaland, South Africa, the common reed (Phragmites australis is used extensively for hut building, fencing, craftwork and thatching. As a result of over-harvestingmost reed beds in communal areas have been degraded and are no longer producing reeds of the desired quality. At present the most productive reed beds are all found inconservation areas. The KwaMsomi area of the Muzi Swamp in the Tembe Elephant Park has been allocated to the Sibonisweni community for harvesting purposes. Thiscommunity has recently requested Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife for additional areas for harvesting on the grounds that the current site was no longer yielding reeds of suitable quality. The main objective of this study was therefore to determine whether there was a decline in reed quality in the KwaMsomi harvested area. The results of thisstudy suggest that harvested areas contained more thin, short reeds than unharvested areas. Fire can be used to increase reed diameter in harvested areas, but will not significantly affect reed height. Ideally, reeds should only be harvested after the active growth period, when most of the nutrient reserves have been translocated to the rhizomes andthe buds are still dormant. To improve reed quality a three-year rotational harvesting programme should be implemented to allow the reeds to recover fully before being harvested again.

  2. Sustainable biodegradation of phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemicals by Phragmites australis-rhizosphere bacteria association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, T; Ojima, T; Tanaka, Y; Mori, K; Morikawa, M

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of two rhizobacteria (Sphingobium fuliginis TIK1 and Sphingobium sp. IT4) of Phragmites australis for the sustainable treatment of water polluted with phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) was investigated. Strains TIK1 and IT4 have recently been isolated from Phragmites rhizosphere and shown to degrade various 4-alkylphenols-TIK1 via phenolic ring hydroxylation and meta-cleavage and IT4 via ipso-hydroxylation. The two strains also degraded bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol B, bisphenol E, bisphenol F, bisphenol P and bisphenol S (BPS). Thus, strains TIK1 and IT4 have wide degradation spectra for phenolic EDCs. The two strains utilized Phragmites root extracts as a sole carbon source and sustainably colonized Phragmites roots, where they degraded phenolic EDCs. In sequencing batch reactor experiments using Phragmites in association with TIK1 or IT4, both associations repeatedly removed phenolic EDCs from polluted secondary effluent water (BPA, BPS, 4-tert-butylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol) from polluted secondary effluent water. The results suggest that hydroponic systems using Phragmites-TIK and Phragmites-IT4 associations would be useful for sustainable treatment of polluted waters containing various phenolic EDCs.

  3. Silicon supply modifies C:N:P stoichiometry and growth of Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, J; Brackhage, C; Gessner, M O; Bäuker, E; Gert Dudel, E

    2012-03-01

    Silicon is a non-essential element for plant growth. Nevertheless, it affects plant stress resistance and in some plants, such as grasses, it may substitute carbon (C) compounds in cell walls, thereby influencing C allocation patterns and biomass production. How variation in silicon supply over a narrow range affects nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake by plants has also been investigated in some detail. However, little is known about effects on the stoichiometric relationships between C, N and P when silicon supply varies over a broader range. Here, we assessed the effect of silicon on aboveground biomass production and C:N:P stoichiometry of common reed, Phragmites australis, in a pot experiment in which three widely differing levels of silicon were supplied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that elevated silicon supply promoted silica deposition in the epidermis of Phragmites leaves. This resulted in altered N:P ratios, whereas C:N ratios changed only slightly. Plant growth was slightly (but not significantly) enhanced at intermediate silicon supply levels but significantly decreased at high levels. These findings point to the potential of silicon to impact plant growth and elemental stoichiometry and, by extension, to affect biogeochemical cycles in ecosystems dominated by Phragmites and other grasses and sedges.

  4. Archaeal communities associated with roots of the common reed (Phragmites australis) in Beijing Cuihu Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Li, Hong; Liu, Qun Fang; Li, Yan Hong

    2015-05-01

    The richness, phylogeny and composition of archaeal community associated with the roots of common reed (Phragmites australis) growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China was investigated using a 16S rDNA library. In total, 235 individual sequences were collected, and a phylogenetic analysis revealed that 69.4 and 11.5 % of clones were affiliated with the Euryarchaeota and the Crenarchaeota, respectively. In Euryarchaeota, the archaeal community was dominated by species in following genera: Methanobacterium in the order Methanobacteriales (60.7 %); Methanoregula and Methanospirillum in the order Methanomicrobiales (20.2 %), and Methanomethylovorans, Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in the order Methanosarcinales (17.2 %). Of 27 sequences assigned to uncultured Crenarchaeota, 22 were grouped into Group 1.3, and five grouped into Group 1.1b. Hence, the archaeal communities associated with reed roots are largely involved in methane production, and, to a lesser extent, in ammonia oxidization. Quantification of the archaeal amoA gene indicated that ammonia oxidizing archaea were more numerous in the rhizosphere soil than in the root tissue or surrounding water. A total of 19.1 % of the sequences were unclassified, suggesting that many unidentified archaea are probably involved in the reed wetland ecosystem.

  5. Phragmites australis expansion in a restored brackish marsh: documentation at different time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Turluck, Theodore D.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive plants in restored habitats can alter the system such that restoration goals are not met. Non-native lineages of Phragmites australis (hereafter Phragmites) are invasive in North American wetlands, and their presence can be problematic because of decreased species diversity and altered physicochemical processes. Phragmites is a challenging species for restoration because both native and non-native lineages can co-occur. We documented Phragmites expansion in a brackish marsh in Louisiana, USA that was restored with dredged sediments. Invasive Phragmites clones were inadvertently planted at the site. Phragmites expansion was documented through field measurements and aerial imagery. No growth differences were apparent between lineages during the first growing season. Horizontal expansion of 2.27 ± 0.15 m (mean ± 1SE) 5 months after planting occurred through rhizome growth. Seven years after planting, three patches with a combined aerial cover of about 0.7 ha were delineated. The study verified that Phragmites can grow relatively rapidly and persist on dredged sediments. Long-term rapid growth of invasive Phragmites may be a positive attribute in areas subject to high erosion and subsidence rates, despite reductions in species diversity. Acceptability of the presence of invasive Phragmites will depend on restoration goals.

  6. Identification and quantification of phenolics in Australian native mint (Mentha australis R. Br.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kitty S C; Konczak, Izabela; Zhao, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Australian native mints have traditionally been used by the aboriginal people for natural remedies; however, their bioactive components have not been studied. Antioxidant capacity and composition of phenolic compounds of Mentha australis R. Br., Lamiaceae were investigated for the first time. Phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC photodiode array detector, liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Aqueous methanolic extract of the mint exhibited comparable antioxidant capacity to the common spearmint. Major compounds identified in the extract were rosmarinic acid (160.4 ± 0.85 μg mg(-1)purified extract), neoponcirin (145.0 ± 0.42 μg gallic acid equivalent(GAE) mg(-1)), narirutin (30.3 ± 0.02 μg GAE mg(-1)), chlorogenic acid (15.4 ± 0.05 μg mg(-1)) and biochanin A (9.6 ± 0.06 μg GAE mg(-1)), while minor compounds were caffeic acid, apigenin, hesperetin and naringenin. Neoponcirin and biochanin A were identified for the first time in the Mentha genus.

  7. Cellular and ultrastructural characterization of the grey-morph phenotype in southern right whales (Eubalaena australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroh, Guy D; Clayton, Fred C; Florell, Scott R; Cassidy, Pamela B; Chirife, Andrea; Marón, Carina F; Valenzuela, Luciano O; Campbell, Michael S; Seger, Jon; Rowntree, Victoria J; Leachman, Sancy A

    2017-01-01

    Southern right whales (SRWs, Eubalena australis) are polymorphic for an X-linked pigmentation pattern known as grey morphism. Most SRWs have completely black skin with white patches on their bellies and occasionally on their backs; these patches remain white as the whale ages. Grey morphs (previously referred to as partial albinos) appear mostly white at birth, with a splattering of rounded black marks; but as the whales age, the white skin gradually changes to a brownish grey color. The cellular and developmental bases of grey morphism are not understood. Here we describe cellular and ultrastructural features of grey-morph skin in relation to that of normal, wild-type skin. Melanocytes were identified histologically and counted, and melanosomes were measured using transmission electron microscopy. Grey-morph skin had fewer melanocytes when compared to wild-type skin, suggesting reduced melanocyte survival, migration, or proliferation in these whales. Grey-morph melanocytes had smaller melanosomes relative to wild-type skin, normal transport of melanosomes to surrounding keratinocytes, and normal localization of melanin granules above the keratinocyte nuclei. These findings indicate that SRW grey-morph pigmentation patterns are caused by reduced numbers of melanocytes in the skin, as well as by reduced amounts of melanin production and/or reduced sizes of mature melanosomes. Grey morphism is distinct from piebaldism and albinism found in other species, which are genetic pigmentation conditions resulting from the local absence of melanocytes, or the inability to synthesize melanin, respectively.

  8. Reproductive behavior in the squid Sepioteuthis australis from South Australia: ethogram of reproductive body patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, Troy M; Havenhand, Jon N

    2003-06-01

    Squids use a diverse range of body patterns for communication. Each pattern consists of a series of chromatic, postural, and locomotor components that are under neural control and can change within fractions of a second. Here we describe an ethogram of 48 body pattern components from in situ observations of reproductively active Sepioteuthis australis. In addition, we identify the total time and average duration that each component is shown, to a resolution of 1 s. Our results suggest that only a few components (e.g., "Golden epaulettes," "Stitchwork fins," and "Rigid arms") are temporally common, that is, shown for more than 80% of the time. In contrast to the component classification reported for other species of squid, for this species we suggest a classification system consisting of "short acute" (lasting for 60 s). Several body patterning components were previously unreported, as were some of the combinations observed. The significance of these patterning components is discussed within the context of the associated behaviors of the squid on the spawning grounds.

  9. No allocation trade-offs between flowering and sproutingin the lignotuberous, Mediterranean shrub Erica australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Alberto; Moreno, José M.

    2001-04-01

    Trade-offs between allocation to sexual or vegetative regeneration capacity are well established as a driving force in the life history patterns of plants in fire-prone environments. However, it is not known whether such trade-offs exist in plants which after aboveground removing disturbances, such as fire, may regenerate by sexual (seeding) or asexual (sprouting) mechanisms. We evaluated whether in the fire-recruiting resprouter Erica australis, which after fire can regenerate by seedling establishment or resprouting, a larger investment in flowers and seeds prior to being disturbed by clipping its aboveground parts would decrease subsequent sprouting, that is, its vegetative regeneration capacity. We analysed the relationships between flower and seed production and the ensuing production and growth of sprouts of six plants from thirteen different sites in central-western Spain. We found no significant relationships between measures of sexual reproductive effort and resprout production and growth 6 months after clipping the aboveground parts of the plants. No evidence of trade-offs between sexual and asexual efforts was found. Furthermore, no significant relationship was found between lignotuber total non-structural carbohydrates and sexual reproductive effort. In addition, 2 years after the disturbance, resprout biomass was positively and significantly correlated with sexual reproductive effort prior to the disturbance. This indicates that growth of resprouts was higher at the sites where plants made a greater reproductive effort. The sites that were more favourable to producing flowers and seeds could also be more favourable to resprouting.

  10. Cellular and ultrastructural characterization of the grey-morph phenotype in southern right whales (Eubalaena australis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroh, Guy D.; Clayton, Fred C.; Florell, Scott R.; Cassidy, Pamela B.; Chirife, Andrea; Marón, Carina F.; Valenzuela, Luciano O.; Campbell, Michael S.; Seger, Jon; Rowntree, Victoria J.; Leachman, Sancy A.

    2017-01-01

    Southern right whales (SRWs, Eubalena australis) are polymorphic for an X-linked pigmentation pattern known as grey morphism. Most SRWs have completely black skin with white patches on their bellies and occasionally on their backs; these patches remain white as the whale ages. Grey morphs (previously referred to as partial albinos) appear mostly white at birth, with a splattering of rounded black marks; but as the whales age, the white skin gradually changes to a brownish grey color. The cellular and developmental bases of grey morphism are not understood. Here we describe cellular and ultrastructural features of grey-morph skin in relation to that of normal, wild-type skin. Melanocytes were identified histologically and counted, and melanosomes were measured using transmission electron microscopy. Grey-morph skin had fewer melanocytes when compared to wild-type skin, suggesting reduced melanocyte survival, migration, or proliferation in these whales. Grey-morph melanocytes had smaller melanosomes relative to wild-type skin, normal transport of melanosomes to surrounding keratinocytes, and normal localization of melanin granules above the keratinocyte nuclei. These findings indicate that SRW grey-morph pigmentation patterns are caused by reduced numbers of melanocytes in the skin, as well as by reduced amounts of melanin production and/or reduced sizes of mature melanosomes. Grey morphism is distinct from piebaldism and albinism found in other species, which are genetic pigmentation conditions resulting from the local absence of melanocytes, or the inability to synthesize melanin, respectively. PMID:28170433

  11. Crassulacean acid metabolism enhances underwater photosynthesis and diminishes photorespiration in the aquatic plant Isoetes australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ole; Rich, Sarah Meghan; Pulido, Cristina; Cawthray, Gregory Robert; Colmer, Timothy David

    2011-04-01

    • Underwater photosynthesis by aquatic plants is often limited by low availability of CO(2), and photorespiration can be high. Some aquatic plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis. The benefits of CAM for increased underwater photosynthesis and suppression of photorespiration were evaluated for Isoetes australis, a submerged plant that inhabits shallow temporary rock pools. • Leaves high or low in malate were evaluated for underwater net photosynthesis and apparent photorespiration at a range of CO(2) and O(2) concentrations. • CAM activity was indicated by 9.7-fold higher leaf malate at dawn, compared with at dusk, and also by changes in the titratable acidity (μmol H(+) equivalents) of leaves. Leaves high in malate showed not only higher underwater net photosynthesis at low external CO(2) concentrations but also lower apparent photorespiration. Suppression by CAM of apparent photorespiration was evident at a range of O(2) concentrations, including values below air equilibrium. At a high O(2) concentration of 2.2-fold the atmospheric equilibrium concentration, net photosynthesis was reduced substantially and, although it remained positive in leaves containing high malate concentrations, it became negative in those low in malate. • CAM in aquatic plants enables higher rates of underwater net photosynthesis over large O(2) and CO(2) concentration ranges in floodwaters, via increased CO(2) fixation and suppression of photorespiration.

  12. Discovery of Extremely Embedded X-ray Sources in the R Coronae Australis Star Forming Core

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, K; Petre, R; White, N E; Stelzer, B; Nedachi, K; Kobayashi, N; Tokunaga, A T; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Petre, Rob; White, Nicholas E.; Stelzer, Beate; Nedachi, Ko; Kobayashi, Naoto; Tokunaga, Alan T.

    2005-01-01

    With the XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories, we detected two extremely embedded X-ray sources in the R Corona Australis (R CrA) star forming core, near IRS 7. These sources, designated as XB and XA, have X-ray absorption columns of ~3e23 cm-2 equivalent to AV ~180 mag. They are associated with the VLA centimeter radio sources 10E and 10W, respectively. XA is the counterpart of the near-infrared source IRS 7, whereas XB has no K-band counterpart above 19.4 mag. This indicates that XB is younger than typical Class I protostars, probably a Class 0 protostar or in an intermediate phase between Class 0 and Class I. The X-ray luminosity of XB varied between 29

  13. Assessment of suitable habitat for Phragmites australis (common reed) in the Great Lakes coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Galbraith, David

    2014-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the invasive form of Phragmites australis (common reed) poses a threat to highly productive coastal wetlands and shorelines by forming impenetrable stands that outcompete native plants. Large, dominant stands can derail efforts to restore wetland ecosystems degraded by other stressors. To be proactive, landscape-level management of Phragmites requires information on the current spatial distribution of the species and a characterization of areas suitable for future colonization. Using a recent basin-scale map of this invasive plant’s distribution in the U.S. coastal zone of the Great Lakes, environmental data (e.g., soils, nutrients, disturbance, climate, topography), and climate predictions, we performed analyses of current and predicted suitable coastal habitat using boosted regression trees, a type of species distribution modeling. We also investigated differential influences of environmental variables in the upper lakes (Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron) and lower lakes (Lakes St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario). Basin-wide results showed that the coastal areas most vulnerable to Phragmites expansion were in close proximity to developed lands and had minimal topographic relief, poorly drained soils, and dense road networks. Elevated nutrients and proximity to agriculture also influenced the distribution of Phragmites. Climate predictions indicated an increase in suitable habitat in coastal Lakes Huron and Michigan in particular. The results of this study, combined with a publicly available online decision support tool, will enable resource managers and restoration practitioners to target and prioritize Phragmites control efforts in the Great Lakes coastal zone.

  14. Effects of sediment burial disturbance on macro and microelement dynamics in decomposing litter of Phragmites australis in the coastal marsh of the Yellow River estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhigao; Mou, Xiaojie

    2016-03-01

    From April 2008 to November 2009, a field decomposition experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sediment burial on macro (C, N) and microelement (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Mn) variations in decomposing litter of Phragmites australis in the coastal marsh of the Yellow River estuary. Three one-off sediment burial treatments [no sediment burial (0 mm year(-1), S0), current sediment burial (100 mm year(-1), S10), and strong sediment burial (200 mm year(-1), S20)] were laid in different decomposition sites. Results showed that sediment burials showed significant influence on the decomposition rate of P. australis, in the order of S10 (0.001990 day(-1)) ≈ S20 (0.001710 day(-1)) > S0 (0.000768 day(-1)) (p  0.05). With increasing burial depth, N, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Mn concentrations generally increased, while C, Pb, and Zn concentrations varied insignificantly. Sediment burial was favorable for C and N release from P. australis, and, with increasing burial depth, the C release from litter significantly increased, and the N in litter shifted from accumulation to release. With a few exceptions, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Mn stocks in P. australis in the three treatments evidenced the export of metals from litter to environment, and, with increasing burial depth, the export amounts increased greatly. Stocks of Cu and Ni in P. australis in the S10 and S20 treatments were generally positive, evidencing incorporation of the two metals in most sampling times. Except for Ni, the variations of C, N, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Mn stocks in P. australis in the S10 and S20 treatments were approximated, indicating that the strong burial episodes (S20) occurred in P. australis marsh in the future would have little influence on the stocks of these elements. With increasing burial depths, the P. australis was particularly efficient in binding Cu and Ni and releasing C, N, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Mn, implying that the potential eco-toxic risk of Pb, Cr, Zn, and Mn exposure might be very

  15. The Composition and The Content of The Main Pigments on Dodders Plant Cuscuta australis R.Br. and Cassytha filiformis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriyanto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on dodders plant Cuscuta australis R.Br. and Cassytha filiformis L was done to analyze their pigment composition and content. The pigment composition was analyzed by the use of thin layer chromatography (TLC method based on spot color and retardation factor. The water content was measured according to Sudarmadji et. al. The chlorophylls and carotenoid contents were calculated by Porra et. al. and Gross equation, respectively. Result showed that Cuscuta australis R.Br. (green yellowish and orange and Cassytha filiformis L. (green and brown reddish had similar pigment composition consist of carotene, pheophytin a, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and xanthophyll. The average of the chlorophyll content from the highest to the lowest one was Cassytha filiformis L. green followed by Cuscuta australis R.Br. green yellowish and orange, while the total chlorophyll of Cassytha filiformis L. brown reddish was relatively similar with other dodders plant. The average of the carotenoid content from the highest to the lowest was Cuscuta australis R.Br. orange followed by Cuscuta australis R.Br. green yellowish. The pigment content of Cassytha filiformis L. was relatively similar to Cassytha filiformis L. brown reddish.

  16. Melliferous flora and pollen characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 in apiaries in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora, PR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Elizabete S; Toledo, Vagner A A; Caxambu, Marcelo G; Chmura, Suzane; Takashiba, Eliza H; Sereia, Maria Josiane; Marchini, Luís C; Moreti, Augusta C C C

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean) and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies.

  17. Melliferous flora and pollen characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 in apiaries in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZABETE S. SEKINE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies.

  18. New historical records and relationships among 14C production rates, abundance and color of low latitude auroras and sunspot abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Dallas; Juhl, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Incursions of high-energy particles from space, specifically solar energetic particles and galactic cosmic rays, have significant effects on the Earth, including disruption of the Earth's magnetic field, generation of electric fields strong enough to damage electronic devices as well as the production of auroras at low-latitudes, within 45° of the magnetic equator. We examine the relationships among 14C production, auroral abundance, auroral color and sunspot abundance using existing data supplemented by a new dataset. The new dataset, based on Chinese and Korean records from A.D. 1100-1700, includes 46 new or revised records of sunspots and 279 records of low-latitude auroras. Low-latitude auroras are predominantly red (66%, 835 events) with lesser proportions of white (20%, 253 events) and black auroras (6%, 67 events). All other auroral colors (green, yellow, multicolored, blue and purple) aggregate to a total of 100 events (8%). Overall, white auroras are more frequent during times of higher 14C production. We use two empirical methods of evaluating the flux of high-energy particles: modeled peaks and lows in 14C production and peaks and lows in the 14C calibration curve. We find that comparison to modeled 14C production gives significant results. White auroras are significantly more abundant (98% probability) at times of high production of 14C. Red auroras are somewhat more abundant (88% probability) at times of low production of 14C. The abundances of black, multicolored, green, yellow, and blue auroras between times of low and high 14C production are not significantly different. Violet/purple auroras are significantly more abundant (98% probability) at times of low 14C production. The positive correlation of violet/purple auroras with times of low14C production rate and the lack of correlation of blue auroras with times of high14C production is surprising, for this portion of the visible spectrum contains strong emission lines and some lines with high

  19. Antitumor Activity of KW-2450 Against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer by Inhibiting Aurora A and B Kinases

    OpenAIRE

    Kai, Kazuharu; Kondo, Kimie; Wang, Xiaoping; Xie, Xuemei; Pitner, Mary K.; Reyes, Monica E.; Torres-Adorno, Angie M.; Masuda,Hiroko; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Saya, Hideyuki; Tripathy, Debu; Sen, Subrata; Ueno, Naoto T

    2015-01-01

    Currently, no targeted drug is available for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive breast cancer that does not express estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, or HER2. TNBC has high mitotic activity, and since Aurora A and B mitotic kinases drive cell division and are overexpressed in tumors with a high mitotic index, we hypothesized that inhibiting Aurora A and B produces a significant antitumor effect in TNBC. We tested this hypothesis by determining the antitumor effects of...

  20. Rapid growth of a Eurasian haplotype of Phragmites australis in a restored brackish marsh in Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R.J.; Travis, S.E.; Sikes, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    While numerous studies have documented patterns of invasion by non-indigenous plant species, few have considered the invasive properties of non-native genotypes of native species. Characteristics associated with specific genotypes, such as tolerance to disturbance, may mistakenly be applied to an entire species in the absence of genetic information, which consequently may affect management decisions. We report here on the incidence and growth of an introduced lineage of Phragmites australis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal zone of Louisiana. P. australis was collected from nine separate locations for inclusion in a series of growth experiments. Chloroplast DNA analysis indicated that specimens collected from four locations in the Mississippi River Delta represented the introduced Eurasian haplotype; the remainder represented the gulf coast haplotype. Three distinct genotypes, or clones, were identified within each haplotype via analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which also revealed reduced genetic diversity of the gulf coast clones compared to the Eurasian clones. Clones of each haplotype were planted along with three other native macrophytes at similar densities in a restored brackish marsh and monitored for growth. After 14 months, the Eurasian haplotype had spread vegetatively to cover about 82% of the experimental plots, more than four times the coverage (18%) of the gulf coast haplotype. Thus, the use of P. australis plantings for wetland restoration should consider the genetic lineage of plants used since our results indicate the potential of the Eurasian haplotype to grow rapidly at newly restored sites. This rapid growth may limit the establishment of more slowly growing native species. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. Phragmites australis response to Cu in terms of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) exudation: Influence of the physiological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2014-06-01

    Plant roots have the ability to produce and secrete substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere for several purposes, including in response to metal contamination. Despite this, little is yet known about the exudation of such substances from marsh plants roots in response to metal exposure. This work aimed at assessing the influence of the physiological cycle of marsh plants on the exudation of ALMWOAs in response to Cu contamination. In vitro experiments were carried out with Phragmites australis specimens, collected in different seasons. Plant roots were exposed to freshwater contaminated with two different Cu concentrations (67 μg/L and 6.9 mg/L), being the ALMWOAs released by the roots measured. Significant differences (both qualitative and quantitative) were observed during the Phragmites australis life cycle. At growing stage, Cu stimulated the exudation of oxalic and formic acids but no significant stimulation was observed for citric acid. At developing stage, exposure to Cu caused inhibition of oxalic acid exudation whereas citric acid liberation was stimulated but only in the media spiked with the lowest Cu concentration tested. At the decaying stage, no significant variation on oxalic acid was observed, whereas the citric and formic acids release increased as a consequence of the plant exposure to Cu. The physiological cycle of Phragmites australis, and probably also of other marsh plants, is therefore an important feature conditioning plants response to Cu contamination, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation. Hence this aspect should be considered when conducting studies on rhizodeposition involving marsh plants exposed to metals and in the event of using marsh plants for phytoremediation purposes in contaminated estuarine areas.

  2. Partitioning of heavy metals in the surface sediments of Quanzhou Bay wetland and its availability to Suaeda australis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate distributions of heavy metal pollution in Quanzhou Bay wetland, the total concentration and chemical partitioning of a number of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Hg) in sediments of three sampling sites of Quanzhou Bay wetland and their availability to Suaeda australis were analyzed. The Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) values reveal that the sediments of three sampling sites may all be considered as moderately contaminated for Pb and Zn, and all sediments might be strongly contaminated with cadmium. The partitioning analyses revealed the measured heavy metals in three sites are bound to the exchangeable fraction at lower concentrations. The measured metals in a considerable amount are bound to the reducible and oxidizable fractions, and a high proportion of the measured heavy metals were distributed in the residual fraction in the sediment samples. The concentrations of Cd in each chemical phase extracted from the sediments are above natural global background levels and should be further investigated because of its toxicity. Suaeda australis has different accumulation abilities for the measured heavy metals. For the root and stem, the bioaccumulation ability assessed by bioaccumulation factor (BA F) for the measured heavy metals follows the decreasing order as: Cu>Cr> Zn>Cd, Pb, Hg. In the leaf, stronger bioaccumulation ability for Hg is exhibited. The heavy metal concentrations in Suaeda australis roots have positive correlations with their available fractions, while the exchangeable fraction of Cu and Cd might have be more important to both mature plant roots and seedling roots uptake than other fractions; as for Cr, the oxidizable fraction might make a greater contribution to the plant root uptake; as for Zn, the reducible fraction might make so contribution; and for Pb, the oxidizable fraction might make a significant contribution to the mature plant root uptake, however, the exchangeable fraction might have a significant

  3. Transcriptome/Degradome-wide discovery of microRNAs and transcript targets in two Paulownia australis genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyan Niu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are involved in plant growth, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of the miRNAs that have been identified in model plants are well characterized, but till now, no reports have previously been published concerning miRNAs in Paulownia australis. In order to investigate miRNA-guided transcript target regulation in P. australis, small RNA libraries from two P. australis (diploids, PA2; and autotetraploids, PA4 genotypes were subjected to Solexa sequencing. As a result, 10,691,271 (PA2 and 10,712,733 (PA4 clean reads were obtained, and 45 conserved miRNAs belonging to 15 families, and 31 potential novel miRNAs candidates were identified. Compared with their expression levels in the PA2 plants, 26 miRNAs were up-regulated and 15 miRNAs were down-regulated in the PA4 plants. The relative expressions of 12 miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Using the degradome approach, 53 transcript targets were identified and annotated based on Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis. These targets were associated with development, stimulus response, metabolism, signaling transduction and biological regulation. Among them, 11 targets, including TCP transcription factors, auxin response factors, squamosa promoter-binding-like proteins, scarecrow-like proteins, L-type lectin-domain containing receptor kinases and zinc finger CCCH domain-containing protein, cleaved by four known miRNA family and two potentially novel miRNAs were found to be involved in regulating plant development, biotic and abiotic stresses. The findings will be helpful to facilitate studies on the functions of miRNAs and their transcript targets in Paulownia.

  4. Transcriptome/Degradome-wide discovery of microRNAs and transcript targets in two Paulownia australis genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Suyan; Fan, Guoqiang; Xu, Enkai; Deng, Minjie; Zhao, Zhenli; Dong, Yanpeng

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in plant growth, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Most of the miRNAs that have been identified in model plants are well characterized, but till now, no reports have previously been published concerning miRNAs in Paulownia australis. In order to investigate miRNA-guided transcript target regulation in P. australis, small RNA libraries from two P. australis (diploids, PA2; and autotetraploids, PA4) genotypes were subjected to Solexa sequencing. As a result, 10,691,271 (PA2) and 10,712,733 (PA4) clean reads were obtained, and 45 conserved miRNAs belonging to 15 families, and 31 potential novel miRNAs candidates were identified. Compared with their expression levels in the PA2 plants, 26 miRNAs were up-regulated and 15 miRNAs were down-regulated in the PA4 plants. The relative expressions of 12 miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Using the degradome approach, 53 transcript targets were identified and annotated based on Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis. These targets were associated with development, stimulus response, metabolism, signaling transduction and biological regulation. Among them, 11 targets, including TCP transcription factors, auxin response factors, squamosa promoter-binding-like proteins, scarecrow-like proteins, L-type lectin-domain containing receptor kinases and zinc finger CCCH domain-containing protein, cleaved by four known miRNA family and two potentially novel miRNAs were found to be involved in regulating plant development, biotic and abiotic stresses. The findings will be helpful to facilitate studies on the functions of miRNAs and their transcript targets in Paulownia.

  5. MI Coupling Processes in the Regions of Diffuse Aurora: Magnetospheric Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, George V.; Glocer, Alex; Sibeck, David

    2016-04-01

    In this talk we present the solution of the Boltzmann-Landau kinetic equation that uniformly describes the entire electron distribution function in the diffuse aurora. The calculation includes the affiliated production of secondary electrons and their energy interplay in the magnetosphere and two conjugated ionospheres. This solution starts with the primary injection of plasma sheet electrons via both electron cyclotron harmonic waves and whistler mode chorus waves to the loss cone, and includes their subsequent multiple atmospheric reflections between the two magnetically conjugated ionospheres. It is demonstrated that magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is the key element in the formation of electron distribution function in the region of diffuse aurora at the magnetospheric altitudes.

  6. Phosphorylation of EB2 by Aurora B and CDK1 ensures mitotic progression and genome stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimori, Makoto; Watanabe, Sugiko; Kiyonari, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Kazuaki; Sakasai, Ryo; Saeki, Hiroshi; Oki, Eiji; Kitao, Hiroyuki; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2016-03-31

    Temporal regulation of microtubule dynamics is essential for proper progression of mitosis and control of microtubule plus-end tracking proteins by phosphorylation is an essential component of this regulation. Here we show that Aurora B and CDK1 phosphorylate microtubule end-binding protein 2 (EB2) at multiple sites within the amino terminus and a cluster of serine/threonine residues in the linker connecting the calponin homology and end-binding homology domains. EB2 phosphorylation, which is strictly associated with mitotic entry and progression, reduces the binding affinity of EB2 for microtubules. Expression of non-phosphorylatable EB2 induces stable kinetochore microtubule dynamics and delays formation of bipolar metaphase plates in a microtubule binding-dependent manner, and leads to aneuploidy even in unperturbed mitosis. We propose that Aurora B and CDK1 temporally regulate the binding affinity of EB2 for microtubules, thereby ensuring kinetochore microtubule dynamics, proper mitotic progression and genome stability.

  7. On the Connection Between Solar Activity and Low-Latitude Aurorae in the Period 1715 - 1860

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M.; Vaquero, J. M.; Curto, J. J.

    2006-11-01

    Observations of aurorae borealis at low latitudes are very rare and are clearly associated with strong geomagnetic storms. Morphologically, they are characterized by a diffuse red colour with no rapid motions. The main aim of this paper is to analyse two hitherto ignored aurorae that were observed at two low-latitude sites, Tenerife (28°N 18°W) and Mexico City (19°N 99°W), in 1770 and 1789, respectively. These observations can give supplementary information about the level of solar activity at those times where direct solar observations were rather scarce. Studying also the behaviour of the heliosphere during this period using different proxies, we find that the open magnetic field better describes auroral occurrences. The variation over time in geomagnetic latitude at the two sites is also calculated.

  8. Feedback control of chromosome separation by a midzone Aurora B gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, António J.; Aguiar, Paulo; Lampson, Michael A.; Maiato, Helder

    2017-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis requires the physical separation of sister chromatids before nuclear envelope reassembly (NER). However, how these two processes are coordinated remains unknown. Here, we identified a conserved feedback control mechanism that delays chromosome decondensation and NER in response to incomplete chromosome separation during anaphase. A midzone-associated Aurora B gradient was found to monitor chromosome position along the division axis and to prevent premature chromosome decondensation by retaining Condensin I. PP1/PP2A phosphatases counteracted this gradient and promoted chromosome decondensation and NER. Thus, an Aurora B gradient appears to mediate a surveillance mechanism that prevents chromosome decondensation and NER until effective separation of sister chromatids is achieved. This allows the correction and reintegration of lagging chromosomes in the main nuclei before completion of NER. PMID:24925910

  9. Long-Term Trends and Gleissberg Cycles in Aurora Borealis Records (1600 - 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.; Roca Cortés, T.; Pallé, P. L.

    2016-02-01

    The long-term spatial and temporal variation of aurora borealis events from 1600 to the present were studied using catalogues and other records of these phenomena. Geographic and geomagnetic coordinates were assigned to approximately 45 000 auroral events with more than 160 000 observations. They were analysed separately for three large-scale areas: i) Europe and North Africa, ii) North America, and iii) Asia. Variations in the cumulative numbers of auroral events with latitude (in both geographic and geomagnetic coordinates) were used to distinguish between the two main solar sources: coronal mass ejections and high-speed streams from coronal holes. We find significant long-term variations in the space-time distribution of auroras. We mainly identify these with four Gleissberg solar activity cycles whose overall characteristics we examine. The Asian observations are crucial in this context, and therefore merit further studies and verifications.

  10. 安捷伦与Aurora SFC合作开发HPLC/SFC复合系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    安捷伦科技公司和Aurora SFC系统公司近日宣布,安捷伦将为Aurora SFC Fusion A5Tm的开发提供技术支持,将现有的HPLC系统转换成SFC系统。SFC Fusion A5支持安捷伦1100和1200系列液相色谱系统,以及1200系列RRLC系统。安捷伦液相色谱高级市场部经理Stefan Schuette表示:“随着药物开发法规要求日益严格,

  11. Magnetospherically driven optical and radio aurorae at the end of the stellar main sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Hallinan, G; Cotter, G; Bourke, S; Harding, L K; Pineda, J S; Butler, R P; Golden, A; Basri, G; Doyle, J G; Kao, M M; Berdyugina, S V; Kuznetsov, A; Rupen, M P; Antonova, A

    2015-01-01

    Aurorae are detected from all the magnetized planets in our Solar System, including Earth. They are powered by magnetospheric current systems that lead to the precipitation of energetic electrons into the high-latitude regions of the upper atmosphere. In the case of the gas-giant planets, these aurorae include highly polarized radio emission at kilohertz and megahertz frequencies produced by the precipitating electrons, as well as continuum and line emission in the infrared, optical, ultraviolet and X-ray parts of the spectrum, associated with the collisional excitation and heating of the hydrogen-dominated atmosphere. Here we report simultaneous radio and optical spectroscopic observations of an object at the end of the stellar main sequence, located right at the boundary between stars and brown dwarfs, from which we have detected radio and optical auroral emissions both powered by magnetospheric currents. Whereas the magnetic activity of stars like our Sun is powered by processes that occur in their lower a...

  12. Dynamic phosphorylation of Histone Deacetylase 1 by Aurora kinases during mitosis regulates zebrafish embryos development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loponte, Sara; Segré, Chiara V.; Senese, Silvia; Miccolo, Claudia; Santaguida, Stefano; Deflorian, Gianluca; Citro, Simona; Mattoscio, Domenico; Pisati, Federica; Moser, Mirjam A.; Visintin, Rosella; Seiser, Christian; Chiocca, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the removal of acetyl molecules from histone and non-histone substrates playing important roles in chromatin remodeling and control of gene expression. Class I HDAC1 is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression, cellular proliferation and differentiation during development; it is also regulated by many post-translational modifications (PTMs). Herein we characterize a new mitosis-specific phosphorylation of HDAC1 driven by Aurora kinases A and B. We show that this phosphorylation affects HDAC1 enzymatic activity and it is critical for the maintenance of a proper proliferative and developmental plan in a complex organism. Notably, we find that Aurora-dependent phosphorylation of HDAC1 regulates histone acetylation by modulating the expression of genes directly involved in the developing zebrafish central nervous system. Our data represent a step towards the comprehension of HDAC1 regulation by its PTM code, with important implications in unravelling its roles both in physiology and pathology. PMID:27458029

  13. Multi-spectral simultaneous diagnosis of Saturns aurorae throughout a planetary rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamy, L; Pryor, W; Gustin, J; Badman, S V; Melin, H; Stallard, T; Mitchell, D G; Brandt, P C

    2013-01-01

    From the 27th to the 28th January 2009, the Cassini spacecraft remotely acquired combined observations of Saturns southern aurorae at radio, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, while monitoring ion injections in the middle magnetosphere from energetic neutral atoms. Simultaneous measurements included the sampling of a full planetary rotation, a relevant timescale to investigate auroral emissions driven by processes internal to the magnetosphere. In addition, this interval coincidently matched a powerful substorm-like event in the magnetotail, which induced an overall dawnside intensification of the magnetospheric and auroral activity. We comparatively analyze this unique set of measurements to reach a comprehensive view of kronian auroral processes over the investigated timescale. We identify three source regions in atmospheric aurorae, including a main oval associated with the bulk of Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR), together with polar and equatorward emissions. These observations reveal the co-existenc...

  14. The Mars aurora: UV detections and in situ electron flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, J.-C.; Soret, L.; Lundin, R.; Libert, L.; Stiepen, A.; Radioti, A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Shematovich, V. I.; Bisikalo, D.

    2015-10-01

    A detailed search through the database of the SPICAM instrument on board Mars Express made it possible to identify 16 signatures of the CO Cameron and CO2+ doublet auroral emissions. These auroral UV signatures are all located in the southern hemisphere in the vicinity of the statistical boundary between open and closed field lines. The energy spectrum of the energetic electrons was simultaneously measured by ASPERA-3/ELS at higher altitude. The UV aurora is generally shifted from the region of enhanced downward electron energy flux by a few to several tens of degrees of latitude, suggesting that precipitation occurs in magnetic cusp like structures along inclined magnetic field lines. The ultraviolet brightness shows no proportionality with the electron flux measured at the spacecraft altitude. The Mars aurora appears as a sporadic short-lived feature. Results of Monte Carlo simulations will be compared with the observed brightness of the Cameron and CO2+ bands.

  15. Aurora kinase inhibitors: which role in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia patients resistant to imatinib?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Martinelli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are no compounds in clinical development in the field of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML or Philadelphia-positive (Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL that have been documented to harbor significant activity against the imatinib-resistant T315I mutation. Recent reports on the pre-clinical activity of some emerging tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as ON012380, VX-680 and PHA-739358 promise possible clinical efficacy against this specific Bcr-Abl mutant form. Here, we focus on the role of aurora kinase inhibitor VX-680 and PHA-739358 in blocking the leukemogenic pathways driven by wild-type and T315I-Bcr-Abl in CML or Ph+ ALL by reviewing recent research evidence. We also discuss the possibility of employing aurora kinase inhibitors as a promising new therapeutic approach in the treatment of CML and Ph+ ALL patients resistant to first and second generation TK inhibitors.

  16. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen pools and surface flux under different brackish marsh vegetation types, common reed (Phragmites australis) and salt hay (Spartina patens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, L.

    2005-01-01

    The current expansion of Phragmites australis into the high marsh shortgrass (Spartina patens, Distichlis spicata) communities of eastern U.S. salt marshes provided an opportunity to identify the influence of vegetation types on pools and fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). Two brackish tidal marshes of the National Estuarine Research Reserve system were examined, Piermont Marsh of the Hudson River NERR in New York and Hog Island in the Jacques Coustaeu NERR of New Jersey. Pools of DIN in porewater and rates of DIN surface flux were compared in replicated pairs of recently-expanded P. australis and neighboring S. patens-dominated patches on the high marsh surface. Both marshes generally imported nitrate (NO3-) and exported ammonium (NH4+), such that overall DIN was exported. No differences in surface exchange of NO3- or NH4+ were observed between vegetation types. Depth-averaged porewater NH4+ concentrations over the entire growing season were 56% lower under P. australis than under S. patens (average 1.4 vs. 3.2 mg NH4+ L-1) with the most profound differences in November. Porewater profiles showed an accumulation of NH4+ at depth in S. patens and constant low concentrations in P. australis from the soil surface to 50 cm depth, with no significant differences in porewater salinity. Despite these profound differences in porewater, NH 4+ diffusion from soils of P. australis and S. patens were not measurably different, were similar to other published rates, and were well below estimated rates based on passive diffusion alone. Rapid adsorption and uptake by litter and microbes in surface soils of both communities may buffer NH4+ loss to flooding tides in both communities, thereby reducing the impact of P. australis invasion on NH4+ flux to flooding waters. ?? Springer 2005.

  17. Stable Isotopes Indicate Population Structuring in the Southwest Atlantic Population of Right Whales (Eubalaena australis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vighi, Morgana; Borrell, Asunción; Crespo, Enrique A.; Oliveira, Larissa R.; Simões-Lopes, Paulo C.; Flores, Paulo A. C.; García, Néstor A.; Aguilar, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    From the early 17th century to the 1970s southern right whales, Eubalaena australis, were subject to intense exploitation along the Atlantic coast of South America. Catches along this coast recorded by whalers originally formed a continuum from Brazil to Tierra del Fuego. Nevertheless, the recovery of the population has apparently occurred fragmentarily, and with two main areas of concentration, one off southern Brazil (Santa Catarina) and another off central Argentina (Peninsula Valdés). This pattern suggests some level of heterogeneity amongst the population, which is apparently contradicted by records that traced individuals moving throughout the whole geographical extension covered by the species in the Southwest Atlantic. To test the hypothesis of the potential occurrence of discrete subpopulations exploiting specific habitats, we investigated N, C and O isotopic values in 125 bone samples obtained from whaling factories operating in the early 1970s in southern Brazil (n = 72) and from contemporary and more recent strandings occurring in central Argentina (n = 53). Results indicated significant differences between the two sampling areas, being δ13C and δ18O values significantly higher in samples from southern Brazil than in those from central Argentina. This variation was consistent with isotopic baselines from the two areas, indicating the occurrence of some level of structure in the Southwest Atlantic right whale population and equally that whales more likely feed in areas commonly thought to exclusively serve as nursing grounds. Results aim at reconsidering of the units currently used in the management of the southern right whale in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. In the context of the current die-off affecting the species in Peninsula Valdés, these results also highlight the necessity to better understand movements of individuals and precisely identify their feeding areas. PMID:24598539

  18. Freshwater wetlands: fertile grounds for the invasive Phragmites australis in a climate change context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougas-Tellier, Marie-Andrée; Morin, Jean; Hatin, Daniel; Lavoie, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will likely affect flooding regimes, which have a large influence on the functioning of freshwater riparian wetlands. Low water levels predicted for several fluvial systems make wetlands especially vulnerable to the spread of invaders, such as the common reed (Phragmites australis), one of the most invasive species in North America. We developed a model to map the distribution of potential germination grounds of the common reed in freshwater wetlands of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada) under current climate conditions and used this model to predict their future distribution under two climate change scenarios simulated for 2050. We gathered historical and recent (remote sensing) data on the distribution of common reed stands for model calibration and validation purposes, then determined the parameters controlling the species establishment by seed. A two-dimensional model and the identified parameters were used to simulate the current (2010) and future (2050) distribution of germination grounds. Common reed stands are not widespread along the St. Lawrence River (212 ha), but our model suggests that current climate conditions are already conducive to considerable further expansion (>16,000 ha). Climate change may also exacerbate the expansion, particularly if river water levels drop, which will expose large bare areas propitious to seed germination. This phenomenon may be particularly important in one sector of the river, where existing common reed stands could increase their areas by a factor of 100, potentially creating the most extensive reedbed complex in North America. After colonizing salt and brackishwater marshes, the common reed could considerably expand into the freshwater marshes of North America which cover several million hectares. The effects of common reed expansion on biodiversity are difficult to predict, but likely to be highly deleterious given the competitiveness of the invader and the biological richness of freshwater

  19. Vegetation recovery in an oil-impacted and burned Phragmites australis tidal freshwater marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengel, Scott; Weaver, Jennifer; Wilder, Susan L; Dauzat, Jeff; Sanfilippo, Chris; Miles, Martin S; Jellison, Kyle; Doelling, Paige; Davis, Adam; Fortier, Barret K; Harris, James; Panaccione, James; Wall, Steven; Nixon, Zachary

    2017-08-26

    In-situ burning of oiled marshes is a cleanup method that can be more effective and less damaging than intrusive manual and mechanical methods. In-situ burning of oil spills has been examined for several coastal marsh types; however, few published data are available for Phragmites australis marshes. Following an estimated 4200gallon crude oil spill and in-situ burn in a Phragmites tidal freshwater marsh at Delta National Wildlife Refuge (Mississippi River Delta, Louisiana), we examined vegetation impacts and recovery across 3years. Oil concentrations in marsh soils were initially elevated in the oiled-and-burned sites, but were below background levels within three months. Oiling and burning drastically affected the marsh vegetation; the formerly dominant Phragmites, a non-native variety in our study sites, had not fully recovered by the end of our study. However, overall vegetation recovery was rapid and local habitat quality in terms of native plants, particularly Sagittaria species, and wildlife value was enhanced by burning. In-situ burning appears to be a viable response option to consider for future spills in marshes with similar plant species composition, hydrogeomorphic settings, and oiling conditions. In addition, likely Phragmites stress from high water levels and/or non-native scale insect damage was also observed during our study and has recently been reported as causing widespread declines or loss of Phragmites stands in the Delta region. It remains an open question if these stressors could lead to a shift to more native vegetation, similar to what we observed following the oil spill and burn. Increased dominance by native plants may be desirable as local patches, but widespread loss of Phragmites, even if replaced by native species, could further acerbate coastal erosion and wetland loss, a major concern in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of rhizospheric culturable bacteria of Phragmites australis and Juncus effusus from polluted sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sofia I A; Pires, Carlos; Henriques, Isabel; Correia, António; Magan, Naresh; Castro, Paula M L

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at the isolation and characterization of metal(loid)-tolerant bacteria from the rhizosphere of Phragmites australis and Juncus effusus plants growing in two long-term contaminated sites in Northern Portugal. Site 1 had higher contamination than Site 3. Bacteria were isolated using metal(loid)-supplemented (Cd, Zn, and As) media. Isolates were grouped by random amplified polymorphic DNA and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Strains were also examined for their metal(loid) tolerance. The counts of metal(loid)-tolerant bacteria were higher in Site 1 and ranged between log 7.17 CFU g(-1) soil in As-containing medium and log 7.57 CFU g(-1) soil in Zn-containing medium, while counts at Site 3 varied between log 5.33 CFU g(-1) soil in Cd-containing medium and log 6.97 CFU g(-1) soil in As-containing medium. The composition of bacterial populations varied between locations. In Site 1, the classes Actinobacteria (36%) and Bacilli (24%) were well represented, while in Site 3 strains were mainly affiliated to classes Actinobacteria (35%), γ-Proteobacteria (35%), and β-Proteobacteria (12%). The order of metal(loid) toxicity for the isolated strains was Cd > As > Zn. Overall, 10 strains grew at 500 mg Cd L(-1) , 1000 mg Zn L(-1) , and 500 mg As L(-1) , being considered the most metal(loid)-tolerant bacteria. These strains belonged to genera Cupriavidus, Burkholderia, Novosphingobium, Sphingobacterium, Castellaniella, Mesorhizobium, Chryseobacterium, and Rhodococcus and were mainly retrieved from Site 1. The multiple metal(loid)-tolerant strains isolated in this study have potential to be used in bioremediation/phytoremediation.

  1. Freshwater wetlands: fertile grounds for the invasive Phragmites australis in a climate change context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougas-Tellier, Marie-Andrée; Morin, Jean; Hatin, Daniel; Lavoie, Claude

    2015-08-01

    Climate change will likely affect flooding regimes, which have a large influence on the functioning of freshwater riparian wetlands. Low water levels predicted for several fluvial systems make wetlands especially vulnerable to the spread of invaders, such as the common reed (Phragmites australis), one of the most invasive species in North America. We developed a model to map the distribution of potential germination grounds of the common reed in freshwater wetlands of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada) under current climate conditions and used this model to predict their future distribution under two climate change scenarios simulated for 2050. We gathered historical and recent (remote sensing) data on the distribution of common reed stands for model calibration and validation purposes, then determined the parameters controlling the species establishment by seed. A two-dimensional model and the identified parameters were used to simulate the current (2010) and future (2050) distribution of germination grounds. Common reed stands are not widespread along the St. Lawrence River (212 ha), but our model suggests that current climate conditions are already conducive to considerable further expansion (>16,000 ha). Climate change may also exacerbate the expansion, particularly if river water levels drop, which will expose large bare areas propitious to seed germination. This phenomenon may be particularly important in one sector of the river, where existing common reed stands could increase their areas by a factor of 100, potentially creating the most extensive reedbed complex in North America. After colonizing salt and brackishwater marshes, the common reed could considerably expand into the freshwater marshes of North America which cover several million hectares. The effects of common reed expansion on biodiversity are difficult to predict, but likely to be highly deleterious given the competitiveness of the invader and the biological richness of freshwater

  2. Quantification of environment-driven changes in epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities associated to Phragmites australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel CAÑEDO-ARGÜELLES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities associated with the Common Reed, Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steudel, were examined seasonally from summer 2004 to spring 2005 in eleven coastal lagoons of the Llobregat Delta (NE Spain following the method proposed by Kornijów & Kairesalo (1994. The aims of the study were to: 1 characterise and quantify changes in epiphytic macroinvertebrate communities along environmental gradients; 2 assess the contribution of elements of the epiphytic compartment to structuring the community; 3 define the optima and tolerances of selected epiphytic macroinvertebrate taxa for the most relevant ecological factors responsible for assemblage composition; and 4 identify possible epiphytic species assemblages that would allow a lagoon’s typology to be established, as well as their representative indicator species. Communities showed statistically significant seasonal variation, with two faunal peaks: one in summer, with high chironomid densities, and the other in winter, with high naidid densities. These peaks showed a clear response to the influence of environmental factors. Salinity explained the highest percentage of total variance (36%, while trophic variables (nutrients, phytoplanktonic chlorophyll-a, and total organic carbon and epiphyton biomass (19.2 and 4% of total variance explained, respectively were secondary. Three different epiphytic macroinvertebrate species assemblages could be defined. These assemblages were directly linked to conductivity conditions, which determined the rate of survival of certain taxa, and to the existence of a direct connection with the sea, which permitted the establishment of "brackish-water" species. In spite of the existence of these species assemblages, the species composition and biomass of epiphytic macroinvertebrates and epiphyton differed substantially between lagoons; both elements were subject to changes in the environment, which finally determined the site

  3. Diversity of fungal endophytes in non-native Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Keith; Shearin, Zachery; Bourke, Kimberly; Bickford, Wesley A.; Kowalski, Kurt P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant–microbial interactions may play a key role in plant invasions. One common microbial interaction takes place between plants and fungal endophytes when fungi asymptomatically colonize host plant tissues. The objectives of this study were to isolate and sequence fungal endophytes colonizing non-native Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes region to evaluate variation in endophyte community composition among three host tissue types and three geographical regions. We collected entire ramets from multiple clones and populations, surface sterilized plant tissues, and plated replicate tissue samples from leaves, stems, and rhizomes on corn meal agar plates to culture and isolate fungal endophytes. Isolates were then subjected to Sanger sequencing of the ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Sequences were compared to fungal databases to define operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were analyzed statistically for community composition. In total, we obtained 173 endophyte isolates corresponding to 55 OTUs, 39 of which were isolated only a single time. The most common OTU corresponded most closely to Sarocladium strictum and comprised 25 % of all fungal isolates. More OTUs were found in stem tissues, but endophyte diversity was greatest in rhizome tissues. PERMANOVA analyses indicated significant differences in endophyte communities among tissue types, geographical regions, and the interaction between those factors, but no differences among individual ramets were detected. The functional role of the isolated endophytes is not yet known, but one genus isolated here (Stagonospora) has been reported to enhance Phragmites growth. Understanding the diversity and functions of Phragmites endophytes may provide targets for control measures based on disrupting host plant/endophyte interactions.

  4. Mapping an invasive plant, Phragmites australis, in coastal wetlands using the EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengra, B.W.; Johnston, C.A.; Loveland, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    Mapping tools are needed to document the location and extent of Phragmites australis, a tall grass that invades coastal marshes throughout North America, displacing native plant species and degrading wetland habitat. Mapping Phragmites is particularly challenging in the freshwater Great Lakes coastal wetlands due to dynamic lake levels and vegetation diversity. We tested the applicability of Hyperion hyperspectral satellite imagery for mapping Phragmites in wetlands of the west coast of Green Bay in Wisconsin, U.S.A. A reference spectrum created using Hyperion data from several pure Phragmites stands within the image was used with a Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM) algorithm to create a raster map with values ranging from 0 to 1, where 0 represented the greatest similarity between the reference spectrum and the image spectrum and 1 the least similarity. The final two-class thematic classification predicted monodominant Phragmites covering 3.4% of the study area. Most of this was concentrated in long linear features parallel to the Green Bay shoreline, particularly in areas that had been under water only six years earlier when lake levels were 66??cm higher. An error matrix using spring 2005 field validation points (n = 129) showed good overall accuracy-81.4%. The small size and linear arrangement of Phragmites stands was less than optimal relative to the sensor resolution, and Hyperion's 30??m resolution captured few if any pure pixels. Contemporary Phragmites maps prepared with Hyperion imagery would provide wetland managers with a tool that they currently lack, which could aid attempts to stem the spread of this invasive species. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparative study on the uptake and translocation of organochlorines by Phragmites australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Miguel, Angélique; Ravanel, Patrick [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS n°5553, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Raveton, Muriel, E-mail: muriel.raveton@ujf-grenoble.fr [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS n°5553, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► This study compares uptake/translocation of organochlorine congeners in macrophytes. ► First, root OC uptake was strongly linked with the partitioning/diffusion process. ► With time exposure, bioconcentration increased with OC solubility and volatility. ► Translocation was linked to the combination of water flow and vapor flux transfers. ► The most volatile OCs might be phytovolatilized from foliar surfaces. -- Abstract: Organochlorines (OCs) are persistent chemicals found in various environmental compartments. The differences in the uptake of {sup 14}C-labeled 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γHCH) by Phragmites australis were investigated under hydroponic conditions. The first step in sorption appears to be correlated with the hydrophobic nature of the compounds, since log-linear correlations were obtained between root concentration factor and partition coefficient (LogK{sub ow}). After 7 days of exposure, plant uptake of DCB, TCB, γHCH was significant with bioconcentration factors reaching 14, 19 and 15, respectively. Afterwards, uptake and translocation were seen to be more complex, with a loss of the simple relationship between uptake and LogK{sub ow}. Linear correlations between the bioconcentration/translocation factors and the physico-chemical properties of OCs were shown, demonstrating that translocation from roots to shoots increases with solubility and volatility of the OCs. This suggests that OC-translocation inside plants might result from the combination of two processes, xylem sap flow and vapor fluxes. {sup 14}C-phytovolatilization was measured and was correlated with the volatility of the compounds; the more volatile OCs being most the likely to be phytovolatilized from foliar surfaces (p = 0.0008). Thus, OC-uptake/translocation appears to proceed at a rate that depends mostly on the OCs hydrophobicity, solubility and volatility.

  6. Comparison of mercury contamination in live and dead dolphins from a newly described species, Tursiops australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Monk

    Full Text Available Globally it is estimated that up to 37% of all marine mammals are at a risk of extinction, due in particular to human impacts, including coastal pollution. Dolphins are known to be at risk from anthropogenic contaminants due to their longevity and high trophic position. While it is known that beach-cast animals are often high in contaminants, it has not been possible to determine whether levels may also be high in live animals from the same populations. In this paper we quantitatively assess mercury contamination in the two main populations of a newly described dolphin species from south eastern Australia, Tursiops australis. This species appear to be limited to coastal waters in close proximity to a major urban centre, and as such is likely to be vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution. For the first time, we were able to compare blubber mercury concentrations from biopsy samples of live individuals and necropsies of beach-cast animals and show that beach-cast animals were highly contaminated with mercury, at almost three times the levels found in live animals. Levels in live animals were also high, and are attributable to chronic low dose exposure to mercury from the dolphin's diet. Measurable levels of mercury were found in a number of important prey fish species. This illustrates the potential for low dose toxins in the environment to pass through marine food webs and potentially contribute to marine mammal deaths. This study demonstrates the potential use of blubber from biopsy samples to make inferences about the health of dolphins exposed to mercury.

  7. Reproductive Tract Histology in South American Fur Seal Pups (Arctophoca australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Helena; Johansson, Olle

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, a detailed histological description of the female reproductive tract of South American fur seal (Arctophoca australis) pups has been conducted. The uterine tube was covered by cuboidal to columnar epithelium; nerve fibers were present in the mesosalpinx and beneath the muscular layer. The uterus was bipartitus; the endometrial surface of the horns was lined by a simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium with deep tubular glands; caudally ("the transition area"), the epithelium changed to pseudostratified columnar, few tubular glands were present and the myometrium increased in width. A bistratified epithelium internally coated the uterine body, whereas it changed to cylindrical stratified epithelium with a highly vascularized lamina propria and a strong muscular layer in the cervix; no endometrial glands were observed in this region. From the transition area of the uterus to the vagina there were several nerve fibers and ganglia belonging to the uterovaginalis plexus. In the vestibule, hymenal folds were poorly developed; adnexa structures included the major vestibular glands and a neurovascular structure similar to the vestibular bulb. Minor vestibular glands were associated with the clitoris. The skin of the perineum was lined by a keratinized stratified epithelium, pigmented, with sebaceous glands, sweat glands and hair follicles. This is the first detailed histological description of the reproductive tract of South American fur seal pups, including the glandular adnexa and nerve structures. These results contribute to the reproductive biology in Pinniped species, and give a better understanding of the utero-placental perfusion mechanism during diving. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:600-613, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Stable isotopes indicate population structuring in the southwest Atlantic population of right whales (Eubalaena australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Vighi

    Full Text Available From the early 17th century to the 1970s southern right whales, Eubalaena australis, were subject to intense exploitation along the Atlantic coast of South America. Catches along this coast recorded by whalers originally formed a continuum from Brazil to Tierra del Fuego. Nevertheless, the recovery of the population has apparently occurred fragmentarily, and with two main areas of concentration, one off southern Brazil (Santa Catarina and another off central Argentina (Peninsula Valdés. This pattern suggests some level of heterogeneity amongst the population, which is apparently contradicted by records that traced individuals moving throughout the whole geographical extension covered by the species in the Southwest Atlantic. To test the hypothesis of the potential occurrence of discrete subpopulations exploiting specific habitats, we investigated N, C and O isotopic values in 125 bone samples obtained from whaling factories operating in the early 1970s in southern Brazil (n=72 and from contemporary and more recent strandings occurring in central Argentina (n=53. Results indicated significant differences between the two sampling areas, being δ13C and δ18O values significantly higher in samples from southern Brazil than in those from central Argentina. This variation was consistent with isotopic baselines from the two areas, indicating the occurrence of some level of structure in the Southwest Atlantic right whale population and equally that whales more likely feed in areas commonly thought to exclusively serve as nursing grounds. Results aim at reconsidering of the units currently used in the management of the southern right whale in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. In the context of the current die-off affecting the species in Peninsula Valdés, these results also highlight the necessity to better understand movements of individuals and precisely identify their feeding areas.

  9. Selected biometric and mechanical properties of the common reed Phragmites australis and the reed sweet grass Glyceria maxima rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik Weronika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results on the selected biometric and mechanical properties of common reed Phragmites australis and reed sweet grass Glyceria maxima were presented. The experiments were conducted with the help of the universal testing machine Instron 5966. The underground biomasses, diameters, tensile forces, displacements and tensile strengths for summer and winter rhizomes of both species were assessed and compared. The final results indicate that rhizomes of common reed had higher values of the studied parameters of biometric and stretching than sweet reed grass rhizomes. Therefore, there are more opportunities to use them to protect the coastline.

  10. A Corona Australis cloud filament seen in NIR scattered light II: Comparison with sub-millimeter data

    OpenAIRE

    Juvela, Mika; Pelkonen, Veli-Matti; Porceddu, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    We study a northern part of the Corona Australis molecular cloud that consists of a filament and a dense sub-millimetre core inside the filament. Our aim is to measure dust temperature and sub-mm emissivity within the region. We also look for confirmation that near-infrared (NIR) surface brightness can be used to study the structure of even very dense clouds. We extend our previous NIR mapping south of the filament. The dust colour temperatures are estimated using Spitzer 160um and APEX/Laboc...

  11. Entanglements of right whales, Eubalaena australis (Cetacea, Mysticeti, in the 2010 breeding season in Santa Catarina state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Pontalti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Right whales (Eubalaena australis have been suffering with anthropogenic activities such as pollution, marine traffic and entanglement in fishing nets. The entanglement of right whales grows each breeding season on the southern coast of Santa Catarina state, and can cause strands and even death. During the 2010 breeding season, six entanglements among immature and adult whales were recorded. In most of the cases, the whales kept swimming slowly and didn’t want to approximate the whale watching boat. Fishing activities in the area during the right whale breeding season need to be regularized to avoid conflicts and injuries to the whales.

  12. Evidence that Aurora B is implicated in spindle checkpoint signalling independently of error correction

    OpenAIRE

    Santaguida, Stefano; Vernieri, Claudio; Villa, Fabrizio; Ciliberto, Andrea; Musacchio, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Fidelity of chromosome segregation is ensured by a tension-dependent error correction system that prevents stabilization of incorrect chromosome–microtubule attachments. Unattached or incorrectly attached chromosomes also activate the spindle assembly checkpoint, thus delaying mitotic exit until all chromosomes are bioriented. The Aurora B kinase is widely recognized as a component of error correction. Conversely, its role in the checkpoint is controversial. Here, we report an analysis of the...

  13. Localization of Aurorae with 10 m High Power Radar Technique, using a Rotating Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Hellgren, Gösta; Meos, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the 10 m high power recorder with a rotating antenna that is used since May 1951 for the localization of aurorae at the Radio Wave Propagation Laboratory of the Kiruna Geophysical Observatory (67.8° N, 20.5° E). Continuous observations during the time May 1951–March 1952 have disclosed periods of auroral activity. The preliminary results from these observations indicate that there is a good correlation between the auroral activity, the magnetic activity, and ...

  14. Low latitude aurorae as a diagnostic for energetic particle injections and their environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, S. A.; Wygant, J. R.; Dai, L.; Dombeck, J. P.; Cattell, C. A.; Mozer, F.; Russell, C. T.; Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.

    2012-12-01

    The region between the inner magnetosphere and the geomagnetic tail/plasma sheet is highly dynamic during geomagnetic storms and hosts many important magnetospheric phenomenon and structures, including particle injections and the outer radiation belt. The energy transport mechanisms in this region during major storms are not yet fully understood, however there is increasing evidence that in the range of invariant latitudes (ILAT) mapping to this dipole-tail boundary region, Alfven waves are an important energy source for the aurora. This range of latitudes, which is roughly 50 to 68 degrees ILAT varying somewhat on the level of magnetospheric disturbance, is low latitude for the aurora. We present a study of intense earthward Alfvenic Poynting flux at the location of, and concomitant with, energetic electron injections during dipolarizations, on field lines mapping to low latitude aurorae. The Poynting flux, when mapped to an ionospheric altitude of 100km, is of sufficient intensity to power the magnetically conjugate auroral luminosities. The preliminary results suggest that wave Poynting flux is an important link between injection events and low latitude aurorae. Thus the observation of the intensification and dynamic behavior of low latitude auroral arcs, i.e. those on field lines that during storms map to the near- tail boundary where particle injections are observed, are an important diagnostic for the occurrence, location, and plasma dynamics associated with energetic particle injections. This has important implications for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission. The data gathered by RBSP can be used in conjunction with auroral data from the THEMIS all-sky imaging array in Canada, providing a richer context for the study of radiation belt physics.

  15. Magnetospheric source region of discrete auroras inferred from their relationship with isotropy boundaries of energetic particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Yahnin

    Full Text Available According to observations, the discrete auroral arcs can sometimes be found, either deep inside the auroral oval or at the poleward border of the wide (so-called double auroral oval, which map to very different regions of the magnetotail. To find common physical conditions for the auroral-arc generation in these magnetotail regions, we study the spatial relationship between the diffuse and discrete auroras and the isotropic boundaries (IBs of the precipitating energetic particles which can be used to characterise locally the equatorial magnetic field in the tail. From comparison of ground observation of auroral forms with meridional profiles of particle flux measured simultaneously by the low-altitude NOAA satellites above the ground observation region, we found that (1 discrete auroral arcs are always situated polewards from (or very close to the IB of >30-keV electrons, whereas (2 the IB of the >30-keV protons is often seen inside the diffuse aurora. These relationships hold true for both quiet and active (substorm conditions in the premidnight-nightside (18-01-h MLT sector considered. In some events the auroral arcs occupy a wide latitudinal range. The most equatorial of these arcs was found at the poleward edge of the diffuse auroras (but anyway in the vicinity of the electron IB, the most poleward arcs were simultaneously observed on the closed field lines near the polar-cap boundary. These observations disagree with the notion that the discrete aurora originate exclusively in the near-Earth portion of plasma sheet or exclusively on the PSBL field lines. Result (1 may imply a fundamental feature of auroral-arc formation: they originate in the current-sheet regions having very curved and tailward-stretched magnetic field lines.

  16. GATEWAY Report Brief: OLED Lighting in the Offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-05-31

    Summary of a GATEWAY report evaluation at the offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc., in Grayslake, IL, where the GATEWAY program conducted its first investigation involving OLED lighting. The project experienced several challenges, but also highlighted a number of promising attributes – which indicate that with continued improvements in efficacy, longevity, size, and flexibility, OLEDs could provide a new tool for creative and effective lighting.

  17. Fast earthward flows, electron cyclotron harmonic waves, and diffuse auroras: Conjunctive observations and a synthesized scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Ni, B.; Spanswick, E.; Kubyshkina, M.; Donovan, E. F.; Uritsky, V. M.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2011-12-01

    We present in this paper multi-instrumental observations and analyses of fast earthward flows, electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves, and diffuse auroras, during 8-9 UT on February 5, 2009. The event began with a series of fast earthward flows detected on mid-tail probe THEMIS-C. Subsequently, magnetic dipolarizations and strong ECH wave intensifications were observed on THEMIS-D/E probes at L ˜ 11 in the equatorial plasma sheet. Concurrently, Ground optical instruments detected diffuse auroral intensifications in the region surrounding the ionospheric footprints of the THEMIS probes. Together with the theoretical simulation performed by Ni et al. (2011e), we establish a causal conjunction between the ECH waves and diffuse auroras for the reported event. We also propose that the ECH wave and diffuse auroral intensification were likely triggered by the fast flow activity from the mid-tail and its resulting magnetic dipolarization. We discuss possible mechanisms linking the fast flow and its associated dipolarization to the intensification of ECH wave and diffuse aurora in the outer magnetosphere.

  18. Aurora B regulates formin mDia3 in achieving metaphase chromosome alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lina; Zhang, Jiayin; Ahmad, Sana; Rozier, Lorene; Yu, Haiqian; Deng, Haiteng; Mao, Yinghui

    2011-03-15

    Proper bipolar attachment of sister kinetochores to the mitotic spindle is critical for accurate chromosome segregation in mitosis. Here we show an essential role of the formin mDia3 in achieving metaphase chromosome alignment. This function is independent of mDia3 actin nucleation activity, but is attributable to EB1-binding by mDia3. Furthermore, the microtubule binding FH2 domain of mDia3 is phosphorylated by Aurora B kinase in vitro, and cells expressing the nonphosphorylatable mDia3 mutant cannot position chromosomes at the metaphase plate. Purified recombinant mDia3 phosphorylated by Aurora B exhibits reduced ability to bind microtubules and stabilize microtubules against cold-induced disassembly in vitro. Cells expressing the phosphomimetic mDia3 mutant do not form stable kinetochore microtubule fibers; despite they are able to congress chromosomes to the metaphase plate. These findings reveal a key role for mDia3 and its regulation by Aurora B phosphorylation in achieving proper stable kinetochore microtubule attachment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aurora B is required for mitotic chromatin-induced phosphorylation of Op18/Stathmin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadea, Bedrick B; Ruderman, Joan V

    2006-03-21

    Oncoprotein 18/Stathmin (Op18) is a microtubule-destabilizing protein that is inhibited by phosphorylation in response to many types of signals. During mitosis, phosphorylation of Op18 by cdc2 is necessary but not sufficient for Op18 inhibition. The presence of mitotic chromosomes is additionally required and involves phosphorylation of Ser-16 in Xenopus Op18 (and/or Ser-63 in human). Given that Ser-16 is an excellent Aurora A (Aur-A) kinase consensus phosphorylation site and the Aurora kinase inhibitor ZM447439 (ZM) blocks phosphorylation in the activation loop of Aur-A, we asked whether either Aur-A or Aurora B (Aur-B) might regulate Op18. We find that ZM blocks the ability of mitotic chromatin to induce Op18 hyperphosphorylation in Xenopus egg extracts. Depletion of Aur-B, but not Aur-A, blocks hyperphosphorylation of Op18, and chromatin assembled in the absence of Aur-B fails to induce hyperphosphorylation. These results suggest that Aur-B, which concentrates at centromeres of metaphase chromosomes, contributes to localized regulation of Op18 during the process of spindle assembly.

  20. A low latitude Auroras catalogue from 1766 to 1797 (Padua, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Guía, M. C.; Dominguez-Castro, F.; Vaquero, J. M.; Bertolin, C.; Gallego, M. C.; Camuffo, D.

    2015-12-01

    It is presented a long term catalogue of aurorae from the observations done by Joseph Toaldo between 1766-1797 at La Specola (the Observatory) in Padua (Italy, 45º24'07.5''N, 11º52'06.8''E). Toaldo was interested in astrometeorology and was the prime mover and the first director of the Astronomic Observatory where he carried out valuable daily observations on both fields. He also taught astronomy and meteorology at the University of Padua. The data was collected from different historical document sources including the original manuscripts made by Toaldo which also contain meteorological readings. A total of 148 aurorae events were recovered from Toaldo's manuscripts. The data reliability was validated using time and season, percentage of the moon illuminated and aurorae directionality. The data shows a secular maximum of the auroral activity around 1780 that occurred at planetary scale. From 1789 onwards there is a sharp decrease of this activity marking the onset of the Dalton Minimum although the solar activity decreases less rapidly. It has also been collected geomagnetic declination measurements taken in Padua between 1725-1799. These geomagnetic observations are consistent with the geomagnetic model gufm1.

  1. Solar wind dynamic pressure and electric field as the main factors controlling Saturn's aurorae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, F J; Clarke, J T; Dougherty, M K; Hanlon, P G; Hansen, K C; Steinberg, J T; Barraclough, B L; Coates, A J; Gérard, J-C; Grodent, D; Kurth, W S; Mitchell, D G; Rymer, A M; Young, D T

    2005-02-17

    The interaction of the solar wind with Earth's magnetosphere gives rise to the bright polar aurorae and to geomagnetic storms, but the relation between the solar wind and the dynamics of the outer planets' magnetospheres is poorly understood. Jupiter's magnetospheric dynamics and aurorae are dominated by processes internal to the jovian system, whereas Saturn's magnetosphere has generally been considered to have both internal and solar-wind-driven processes. This hypothesis, however, is tentative because of limited simultaneous solar wind and magnetospheric measurements. Here we report solar wind measurements, immediately upstream of Saturn, over a one-month period. When combined with simultaneous ultraviolet imaging we find that, unlike Jupiter, Saturn's aurorae respond strongly to solar wind conditions. But in contrast to Earth, the main controlling factor appears to be solar wind dynamic pressure and electric field, with the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field playing a much more limited role. Saturn's magnetosphere is, therefore, strongly driven by the solar wind, but the solar wind conditions that drive it differ from those that drive the Earth's magnetosphere.

  2. Presumable European aurorae in the mid AD 770s were halo displays

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhaeuser, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    The interpretation of the strong 14-C variation around AD 775 as one (or several) solar super-flare(s) by, e.g., Usoskin et al. (2013) is based on alleged aurora sightings in the mid AD 770s in Europe: A "red cross/crucifix" in AD 773/4/6 from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, "inflamed shields" in AD 776 (both listed in the aurora catalogue of Link 1962), and "riders on white horses" in AD 773 (newly proposed as aurora in Usoskin et al. 2013), the two latter from the Royal Frankish Annals. We discuss the reports about these three sightings in detail here. We can show that all three were halo displays: The "red cross" or "crucifix" is formed by the horizontal arc and a vertical pillar of light (either with the Sun during sunset or with the moon after sunset); the "inflamed shields" and the "riders on white horses" were both two mock suns, especially the latter narrated in form of a Christian adaptation of the antique dioscuri motive. While the latter event took place early in AD 774 (dated AD 773 in Usoskin et al. 2...

  3. Inter-domain Cooperation in INCENP Promotes Aurora B Relocation from Centromeres to Microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando van der Horst

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The chromosomal passenger complex is essential for error-free chromosome segregation and proper execution of cytokinesis. To coordinate nuclear division with cytoplasmic division, its enzymatic subunit, Aurora B, relocalizes from centromeres in metaphase to the spindle midzone in anaphase. In budding yeast, this requires dephosphorylation of the microtubule-binding (MTB domain of the INCENP analog Sli15. The mechanistic basis for this relocalization in metazoans is incompletely understood. We demonstrate that the putative coiled-coil domain within INCENP drives midzone localization of Aurora B via a direct, electrostatic interaction with microtubules. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the CPC multimerizes via INCENP’s centromere-targeting domain (CEN box, which increases the MTB affinity of INCENP. In (prometaphase, the MTB affinity of INCENP is outcompeted by the affinity of its CEN box for centromeres, while at anaphase onset—when the histone mark H2AT120 is dephosphorylated—INCENP and Aurora B switch from centromere to microtubule localization.

  4. The color ratio-intensity relation in the Jovian aurora: Hubble observations of auroral components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, J.-C.; Bonfond, B.; Grodent, D.; Radioti, A.

    2016-10-01

    Spectral observations made with the long slit of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on board Hubble have been used to construct spectral maps of the FUV Jovian aurora. They reveal that the amount of absorption by overlying methane shows significant spatial variations. In this report, we examine the relationship between the auroral brightness of the unabsorbed H2 emission that is proportional to the precipitated electron energy flux, and the ultraviolet color ratio, a proxy of the mean electron energy. We find that it varies significantly between the different components of the aurora and in the polar region. Although no global dependence can be found, we show that the two quantities are better organized in some auroral components such as regions of the main aurororal emission. By contrast, the dependence of the electron characteristic energy in high-latitude and diffuse aurora regions on the auroral energy input is generally more scattered. We conclude that the various auroral components are associated with different electron acceleration processes, some of which are not governed by a simple relation linking the value of a field-aligned acceleration potential with the parallel currents flowing from the ionosphere.

  5. Ground-based Optical Observations of Geophysical Phenomena: Aurora Borealis and Meteors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Marilia

    2010-10-01

    Advances in low-light level imaging technology have enabled significant improvements in the ground based study of geophysical phenomena. In this talk we focus on two such phenomena that occur in the Earth's ionosphere: aurorae and meteors. Imaging the aurora which is created by the interplay of the Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere, provides a tool for remote sensing physical processes that are otherwise very difficult to study. By quantifying the intensities, scale sizes and lifetimes of auroral structures, we can gain significant insight into the physics behind the generation of the aurora and the interaction of the magnetosphere with the solar wind. Additionally, the combination of imaging with radars provides complimentary data and therefore more information than either method on its own. Meteor observations are a perfect example of this because the radar can accurately determine only the line-of-sight component of velocity, while imaging provides the direction of motion, the perpendicular velocity and brightness (a proxy for mass), therefore enabling a much more accurate determination of the full velocity vector and mass.

  6. Phosphorylation of CPAP by Aurora-A Maintains Spindle Pole Integrity during Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, En-Ju; Hung, Liang-Yi; Tang, Chieh-Ju C; Hsu, Wen-Bin; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Liao, Pao-Chi; Tang, Tang K

    2016-03-29

    CPAP is required for centriole elongation during S/G2 phase, but the role of CPAP in mitosis is incompletely understood. Here, we show that CPAP maintains spindle pole integrity through its phosphorylation by Aurora-A during mitosis. Depletion of CPAP induced a prolonged delay in mitosis, pericentriolar material (PCM) dispersion, and multiple mitotic abnormalities. Further studies demonstrated that CPAP directly interacts with and is phosphorylated by Aurora-A at serine 467 during mitosis. Interestingly, the dispersal of the PCM was effectively rescued by ectopic expression of wild-type CPAP or a phospho-mimic CPAP-S467D mutant, but not a non-phosphorylated CPAP-S467A mutant. Finally, we found that CPAP-S467D has a low affinity for microtubule binding but a high affinity for PCM proteins. Together, our results support a model wherein CPAP is required for proper mitotic progression, and phosphorylation of CPAP by Aurora-A is essential for maintaining spindle pole integrity.

  7. The Aurora radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of reionization: calibration and first results

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlik, Andreas H; Schaye, Joop; Jeon, Myoungwon; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new suite of radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation and reionization called Aurora. The Aurora simulations make use of a spatially adaptive radiative transfer technique that lets us accurately capture the small-scale structure in the gas at the resolution of the hydrodynamics, in cosmological volumes. In addition to ionizing radiation, Aurora includes galactic winds driven by star formation and the enrichment of the universe with metals synthesized in the stars. Our reference simulation uses 2x512^3 dark matter and gas particles in a box of size 25 comoving Mpc/h with a force softening scale of at most 0.28 kpc/h. It is accompanied by simulations in larger and smaller boxes and at higher and lower resolution, employing up to 2x1024^3 particles, to investigate numerical convergence. All simulations are calibrated to yield simulated star formation rate (SFR) functions in close agreement with observational constraints at redshift z = 7 and to achieve reionization at z = 8.3, whic...

  8. ICIS and Aurora B coregulate the microtubule depolymerase Kif2a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Anne L; Vorozhko, Valeriya V; Lan, Weijie; Gorbsky, Gary J; Stukenberg, P Todd

    2009-05-12

    Kinesins in the mitotic spindle play major roles in determining spindle shape, size, and bipolarity, although specific regulation of these kinesins at distinct locations on the spindle is poorly understood. So that the forces that are required for spindle bipolarity are balanced, microtubule-depolymerizing kinesins are tightly regulated. Aurora B kinase phosphorylates the neck regions of the kinesin-13 family microtubule depolymerases Kif2a and mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK) and inhibits their depolymerase activities. How they are reactivated and how this is controlled independently on different kinetochore fibers is unknown. We show that inner centromere Kin-I stimulator (ICIS), which stimulates the related depolymerase MCAK, can reactivate Kif2a after Aurora B inhibition. When antibodies that block the ability of ICIS to activate Kif2a are injected into cells, monopolar spindles are generated. This phenotype is rescued by coinjection of anti-Nuf2 antibodies. We have performed a structure-function analysis of the ICIS protein and find that the N terminus of ICIS binds Aurora B and its regulators INCENP and TD60, whereas a central region binds MCAK, Kif2a, and microtubules, suggesting a scaffold function for ICIS. These data argue that ICIS and the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) regulate Kif2a depolymerase activity.

  9. Concurrent observations of ultraviolet aurora and energetic electron precipitation with Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, J.-C.; Soret, L.; Libert, L.; Lundin, R.; Stiepen, A.; Radioti, A.; Bertaux, J.-L.

    2015-08-01

    The database of the Spectroscopy for the Investigation of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) instrument between late January 2004 and Mars 2014 has been searched to identify signatures of CO Cameron and CO2+ doublet ultraviolet auroral emissions. This study has almost doubled the number of auroral detections based on SPICAM spectra. Auroral emissions are located in the vicinity of the statistical boundary between open and closed field lines. From a total of 113 nightside orbits with SPICAM pointing to the nadir in the region of residual magnetic field, only nine nightside orbits show confirmed auroral signatures, some with multiple detections along the orbital track, leading to a total of 16 detections. The mean energy of the electron energy spectra measured during concurrent Analyzer of Space Plasma and Energetic Atoms/Electron Spectrometer observations ranges from 150 to 280 eV. The ultraviolet aurora may be displaced poleward or equatorward of the region of enhanced downward electron energy flux by several tens of seconds and shows no proportionality with the electron flux at the spacecraft altitude. The absence of further UV auroral detection in regions located along crustal magnetic field structures where occasional aurora has been observed indicates that the Mars aurora is a time-dependent feature. These results are consistent with the scenario of acceleration of electrons by transient parallel electric field along semiopen magnetic field lines.

  10. Sgo1 regulates both condensin and Ipl1/Aurora B to promote chromosome biorientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Peplowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Correct chromosome segregation is essential in order to prevent aneuploidy. To segregate sister chromatids equally to daughter cells, the sisters must attach to microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles. This so-called biorientation manifests itself by increased tension and conformational changes across kinetochores and pericentric chromatin. Tensionless attachments are dissolved by the activity of the conserved mitotic kinase Aurora B/Ipl1, thereby promoting the formation of correctly attached chromosomes. Recruitment of the conserved centromeric protein shugoshin is essential for biorientation, but its exact role has been enigmatic. Here, we identify a novel function of shugoshin (Sgo1 in budding yeast that together with the protein phosphatase PP2A-Rts1 ensures localization of condensin to the centromeric chromatin in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Failure to recruit condensin results in an abnormal conformation of the pericentric region and impairs the correction of tensionless chromosome attachments. Moreover, we found that shugoshin is required for maintaining Aurora B/Ipl1 localization on kinetochores during metaphase. Thus, shugoshin has a dual function in promoting biorientation in budding yeast: first, by its ability to facilitate condensin recruitment it modulates the conformation of the pericentric chromatin. Second, shugoshin contributes to the maintenance of Aurora B/Ipl1 at the kinetochore during gradual establishment of bipolarity in budding yeast mitosis. Our findings identify shugoshin as a versatile molecular adaptor that governs chromosome biorientation.

  11. Aurora B prevents chromosome arm separation defects by promoting telomere dispersion and disjunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Céline; Serrurier, Céline; Gauthier, Tiphaine; Gachet, Yannick; Tournier, Sylvie

    2015-03-16

    The segregation of centromeres and telomeres at mitosis is coordinated at multiple levels to prevent the formation of aneuploid cells, a phenotype frequently observed in cancer. Mitotic instability arises from chromosome segregation defects, giving rise to chromatin bridges at anaphase. Most of these defects are corrected before anaphase onset by a mechanism involving Aurora B kinase, a key regulator of mitosis in a wide range of organisms. Here, we describe a new role for Aurora B in telomere dispersion and disjunction during fission yeast mitosis. Telomere dispersion initiates in metaphase, whereas disjunction takes place in anaphase. Dispersion is promoted by the dissociation of Swi6/HP1 and cohesin Rad21 from telomeres, whereas disjunction occurs at anaphase after the phosphorylation of condensin subunit Cnd2. Strikingly, we demonstrate that deletion of Ccq1, a telomeric shelterin component, rescued cell death after Aurora inhibition by promoting the loading of condensin on chromosome arms. Our findings reveal an essential role for telomeres in chromosome arm segregation.

  12. Strong Solar Control of Infrared Aurora on Jupiter: Correlation Since the Last Solar Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Hewagama, T.

    2009-01-01

    Polar aurorae in Jupiter's atmosphere radiate throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X ray through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 5 - 20 micron wavelength). Voyager IRIS data and ground-based spectroscopic measurements of Jupiter's northern mid-IR aurora, acquired since 1982, reveal a correlation between auroral brightness and solar activity that has not been observed in Jovian aurora at other wavelengths. Over nearly three solar cycles, Jupiter auroral ethane emission brightness and solar 10.7 cm radio flux and sunspot number are positively correlated with high confidence. Ethane line emission intensity varies over tenfold between low and high solar activity periods. Detailed measurements have been made using the GSFC HIPWAC spectrometer at the NASA IRTF since the last solar maximum, following the mid-IR emission through the declining phase toward solar minimum. An even more convincing correlation with solar activity is evident in these data. Current analyses of these results will be described, including planned measurements on polar ethane line emission scheduled through the rise of the next solar maximum beginning in 2009, with a steep gradient to a maximum in 2012. This work is relevant to the Juno mission and to the development of the Europa Jupiter System Mission. Results of observations at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) operated by the University of Hawaii under Cooperative Agreement no. NCC5-538 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Science Mission Directorate, Planetary Astronomy Program. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program.

  13. Phosphorylation of CPAP by Aurora-A Maintains Spindle Pole Integrity during Mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Ju Chou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CPAP is required for centriole elongation during S/G2 phase, but the role of CPAP in mitosis is incompletely understood. Here, we show that CPAP maintains spindle pole integrity through its phosphorylation by Aurora-A during mitosis. Depletion of CPAP induced a prolonged delay in mitosis, pericentriolar material (PCM dispersion, and multiple mitotic abnormalities. Further studies demonstrated that CPAP directly interacts with and is phosphorylated by Aurora-A at serine 467 during mitosis. Interestingly, the dispersal of the PCM was effectively rescued by ectopic expression of wild-type CPAP or a phospho-mimic CPAP-S467D mutant, but not a non-phosphorylated CPAP-S467A mutant. Finally, we found that CPAP-S467D has a low affinity for microtubule binding but a high affinity for PCM proteins. Together, our results support a model wherein CPAP is required for proper mitotic progression, and phosphorylation of CPAP by Aurora-A is essential for maintaining spindle pole integrity.

  14. Characterization of aurora-a in porcine oocytes and early embryos implies its functional roles in the regulation of meiotic maturation, fertilization and cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li-Juan; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2005-02-01

    Aurora-A is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays important regulatory roles during mitotic cell cycle progression. In this study, Aurora-A expression, subcellular localization, and possible functions during porcine oocyte meiotic maturation, fertilization and early embryonic cleavage were studied by using Western blot, confocal microscopy and drug treatments. The quantity of Aurora-A protein remained stable during porcine oocyte meiotic maturation. Confocal microscopy revealed that Aurora-A distributed abundantly in the nucleus at the germinal vesicle stage. After germinal vesicle breakdown, Aurora-A concentrated around the condensed chromosomes and the metaphase I spindle, and finally, Aurora-A was associated with spindle poles during the formation of the metaphase II spindle. Aurora-A concentrated in the pronuclei in fertilized eggs. Aurora-A was not found in the spindle region when colchicine or staurosporine was used to inhibit microtubule organization, while it accumulated as several dots in the cytoplasm after taxol treatment. In conclusion, Aurora-A may be a multifunctional kinase that plays pivotal regulatory roles in microtubule assembly during porcine oocyte meiotic maturation, fertilization and early embryonic mitosis.

  15. Ortografía y fonética en la Aurora de Chile Orthography and phonetics in the Aurora de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Almau Almau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan los aspectos ortográficos y fonéticos más significativos del periódico “ministerial y político” la Aurora de Chile, dirigido por Camilo Henríquez y redactado por numerosos colaboradores, que apareció semanalmente en 1812 y 1813. Dicho periódico posee un indudable valor documental no solo por ser el primer impreso relevante de Chile, sino por tratarse de un corpus amplio, compuesto por noticias nacionales e internacionales de diversa índole, que refleja perfectamente las preocupaciones ideológicas del movimiento independentista.This paper analyses the most significant orthographic and phonetic aspects of Aurora de Chile, a ministerial and political newspaper published weekly during 1812-1813, which was directed by Camilo Henríquez and written by many contributors. This newspaper has an enormous documentary value, not only because it is the first relevant newspaper in Chile, but also because it constitutes a large corpus, which is made up of national and international news of various kinds, and which clearly reflects the independence movement ideological concerns.

  16. Injúrias mecânicas e seus efeitos em pêssegos 'Aurora-1' Effect of mechanical injuries on 'Aurora-1' peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Fernanda Kasat

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos das injúrias mecânicas por corte, compressão e impacto na qualidade pós-colheita de pêssegos 'Aurora-1'. Na injúria por impacto, os pêssegos foram deixados cair duas vezes de uma altura de 1,20 m. Por compressão, os frutos foram colocados sob um bloco exercendo um peso constante de 3 kg por 10 minutos. Para a injúria por corte, promoveram-se três incisões longitudinalmente. Manteve-se, ainda, um lote de pêssegos intactos, correspondente ao controle. Após esses tratamentos, os frutos foram armazenados a 10±1,5 °C e 85±2% UR por 8 dias. Avaliaram-se o teor de sólidos solúveis (SS, de acidez titulável (AT e a relação SS/AT, a perda de massa fresca, a aparência, a coloração, a firmeza e o conteúdo de carboidratos solúveis. As injúrias mecânicas promoveram marcas nos pêssegos 'Aurora-1', afetando a aparência dos mesmos, que obtiveram nota ruim a partir do sexto dia de armazenamento. Esses pêssegos, quando submetidos à injúria de impacto, apresentaram maior perda de massa fresca que os do controle, da compressão e do corte. As áreas lesionadas apresentaram-se mais escurecidas, menos amareladas, com menor cromaticidade e menos firmes que as áreas dos frutos não-submetidas às injúrias. Esse efeito deletério também foi verificado quando os frutos eram submetidos à injúria por Impacto, quando comparado com os demais tratamentos. As injúrias mecânicas promoveram um amadurecimento mais rápido dos frutos, verificado pelos maiores valores da relação SS/AT.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical injuries, impact, compression and cut on the postharvest quality of peaches cv. Aurora-1. Impact injury was obtained dropping fruit, twice, from a height of 1.20 m. Compression injury was performed with the fruit submitted to weight (3 kg for 10 minutes. Cut injury was obtained cutting fruits, three times, in the longitudinal direction. after these treatments

  17. Parasite body volume and infracommunity patterns in the southern pomfret Brama australis (Pisces: Bramidae Volumen corporal del parásito y patrones infracomunitarios en la reineta Brama australis (Pisces: Bramidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The patterns of infracommunity descriptors (diversity, dominance, abundance are compared when calculated with the number and body volume of the parasites in a sample of 26 southern pomfrets Brama australis collected in the area off Talcahuano, Chile. No numerical infracommunity descriptor was correlated with its corresponding volumetric descriptor. This single result casts doubts about the general validity of the infracommunity patterns described in the literature so far, because they are almost exclusively based on the number of parasite individuals per individual host, restricting communication with ecologists that use density or other measures of ecological abundanceLos patrones de los descriptores infracomunitarios (diversidad, dominancia, abundancia son comparados cuando son calculados en base a los números o al volumen corporal de los parásitos en una muestra de 26 reinetas Brama australis recolectadas en el área de Talcahuano, Chile. Ningún descriptor infracomunitario calculado con el número de parásitos estuvo correlacionado con los basados en el volumen corporal de los parásitos. Este resultado siembra dudas acerca de la validez general que pueden tener los patrones infracomunitarios registrados en la literatura ya que están casi exclusivamente calculados con el número de parásitos por individuo hospedador, lo que dificulta aún más la comunicación con los ecólogos, que usan la densidad u otras medidas de abundancia ecológica

  18. Efectos del fuego sobre un bosquecillo de Polylepis australis (Rosaceae en las montañas de Córdoba, Argentina Effects of fire on a Polylepis australis (Rosaceae woodland in the mountains of Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL RENISON

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El fuego es usado para transformar bosques en pastizales y estimular el rebrote de los pastos para aumentar su valor forrajero. Según algunos autores, este uso del fuego ha provocado una retracción de los bosques de Polylepis a sitios rocosos inaccesibles al fuego, mientras que otros autores postulan que su distribución es debida al ambiente favorable en las rocas y no a la acción del fuego. Aquí evaluamos el efecto relativo del fuego y el ambiente sobre la supervivencia, producción de semillas y crecimiento de Polylepis australis Bitter (Rosaceae en un bosquecillo de las montañas de C��rdoba. Realizamos un seguimiento de 74 individuos quemados y controles durante 3,5 años. La presencia de rocas tuvo una fuerte influencia en el porcentaje en que se quemaron los individuos. A su vez, el porcentaje en que se quemaron se relacionó negativamente con la supervivencia, producción de semillas y el crecimiento en altura. La producción de biomasa fue mayor cuando se quemaron en un porcentaje intermedio. Exceptuando la protección al fuego, la roca no tuvo ningún efecto positivo sobre las variables medidas. Estos resultados sugieren que la distribución actual de P. australis es al menos en parte debida al fuego. Para su conservación sugerimos minimizar los fuegos, desarrollar actividades con alto riesgo de incendio en sitios con alta proporción de roca y, si es posible, proteger los ejemplares expuestos al fuego con piedras.Fire is used to transform woodlands into grasslands and to promote the regrowth of grasses to increase their forage value. According to some authors, this use of fire has caused a retraction of Polylepis woodlands to rock outcrops inaccessible to fire, while other authors postulate that their distribution is due to the favorable environment they find on rocks and not due to the influence of fire. We evaluated the relative effects of fire and environment on survival, seed production and growth of Polylepis australis

  19. Antitumor Activity of KW-2450 against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer by Inhibiting Aurora A and B Kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Kazuharu; Kondo, Kimie; Wang, Xiaoping; Xie, Xuemei; Pitner, Mary K; Reyes, Monica E; Torres-Adorno, Angie M; Masuda, Hiroko; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Saya, Hideyuki; Tripathy, Debu; Sen, Subrata; Ueno, Naoto T

    2015-12-01

    Currently, no targeted drug is available for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive breast cancer that does not express estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, or HER2. TNBC has high mitotic activity, and, because Aurora A and B mitotic kinases drive cell division and are overexpressed in tumors with a high mitotic index, we hypothesized that inhibiting Aurora A and B produces a significant antitumor effect in TNBC. We tested this hypothesis by determining the antitumor effects of KW-2450, a multikinase inhibitor of both Aurora A and B kinases. We observed significant inhibitory activities of KW-2450 on cell viability, apoptosis, colony formation in agar, and mammosphere formation in TNBC cells. The growth of TNBC xenografts was significantly inhibited with KW-2450. In cell-cycle analysis, KW-2450 induced tetraploid accumulation followed by apoptosis or surviving octaploid (8N) cells, depending on dose. These phenotypes resembled those of Aurora B knockdown and complete pharmaceutical inhibition of Aurora A. We demonstrated that 8N cells resulting from KW-2450 treatment depended on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) for their survival. When treated with the MEK inhibitor selumetinib combined with KW-2450, compared with KW-2450 alone, the 8N cell population was significantly reduced and apoptosis was increased. Indeed, this combination showed synergistic antitumor effect in SUM149 TNBC xenografts. Collectively, Aurora A and B inhibition had a significant antitumor effect against TNBC, and this antitumor effect was maximized by the combination of selumetinib with Aurora A and B inhibition.

  20. Antitumor Activity of KW-2450 Against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer by Inhibiting Aurora A and B Kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Kazuharu; Kondo, Kimie; Wang, Xiaoping; Xie, Xuemei; Pitner, Mary K.; Reyes, Monica E.; Torres-Adorno, Angie M.; Masuda, Hiroko; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Saya, Hideyuki; Tripathy, Debu; Sen, Subrata; Ueno, Naoto T.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, no targeted drug is available for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive breast cancer that does not express estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, or HER2. TNBC has high mitotic activity, and since Aurora A and B mitotic kinases drive cell division and are overexpressed in tumors with a high mitotic index, we hypothesized that inhibiting Aurora A and B produces a significant antitumor effect in TNBC. We tested this hypothesis by determining the antitumor effects of KW-2450, a multikinase inhibitor of both Aurora A and B kinases. We observed significant inhibitory activities of KW-2450 on cell viability, apoptosis, colony formation in agar, and mammosphere formation in TNBC cells. The growth of TNBC xenografts was significantly inhibited with KW-2450. In cell cycle analysis, KW-2450 induced tetraploid accumulation followed by apoptosis or surviving octaploid (8N) cells, depending on dose. These phenotypes resembled those of Aurora B knockdown and complete pharmaceutical inhibition of Aurora A. We demonstrated that 8N cells resulting from KW-2450 treatment depended on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) for their survival. When treated with the MEK inhibitor selumetinib combined with KW-2450, compared with KW-2450 alone, the 8N cell population was significantly reduced and apoptosis was increased. Indeed this combination showed synergistic antitumor effect in SUM149 TNBC xenografts. Collectively, Aurora A and B inhibition had a significant antitumor effect against TNBC, and this antitumor effect was maximized by the combination of selumetinib with Aurora A and B inhibition. PMID:26443806

  1. Diagnosis of Auroral Dynamics Using Global Auroral Imaging with Emphasis on Large-Scale Evolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Figures 1 and 2. These false-colar images of the aurora borealis (Figure 1) and the aurora australis (Figure 2), with overlays of the coastlines, show...1985]. A coastline map is superposed on this false-color image of the aurora borealis at ultraviolet wavelengths 123-155 nm (filter 2). Principal...polar regions: The aurora borealis at northern latitudes and aurora australis at southern latitudes. Earth’s limb and coastal outlines are overlaid on

  2. Desenvolvimento dos frutos de pêssego 'Aurora' e nectarina 'Sunraycer' no sul de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Della Bruna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento do fruto de pessegueiro é resultado da diferenciação e do crescimento das paredes do ovário após a fecundação. A persistência e o crescimento do fruto na planta dependem das relações exatas entre os hormônios auxina, giberelina e citocinina que condicionam o desenvolvimento dos frutos, caracterizado por uma curva dupla sigmoide, com três estádios distintos. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo conhecer o comportamento dos frutos e das sementes do pêssego Aurora e da Nectarina Sunraycer durante todo o seu ciclo de desenvolvimento. O crescimento dos frutos e das sementes durante o ciclo foi determinado semanalmente, coletando-se 30 frutos de dez diferentes plantas em ramos previamente identificados. As sementes foram separadas do fruto para a determinação do peso fresco (PF e do peso seco (PS. O crescimento dos frutos da variedade Sunraycer dá-se de forma contínua e acelerada desde a floração até a maturação, sugerindo um curto período ou a inexistência do Estágio II de crescimento. Para a variedade Aurora, a curva de crescimento é diferenciada nos três estádios (I, II e III. O raleio dos frutos deve ser feito até o início do estádio II, para a variedade Aurora e Sunraycer. As sementes das variedades Aurora e Sunraycer atingem seu tamanho máximo no estágio I de crescimento do fruto. O aumento de peso seco na semente, para a variedade Sunraycer, é praticamente inexistente no estádio III, enquanto para a variedade Aurora ocorre o maior aumento de peso seco que vai até a maturação do fruto.

  3. Effects of sorption, sulphate reduction, and Phragmites australis on the removal of heavy metals in subsurface flow constructed wetland microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, E; Rousseau, D P L; Van de Moortel, A; Tack, F M G; De Pauw, N; Verloo, M G

    2007-01-01

    The removal of Co, Ni, Cu and Zn from synthetic industrial wastewater was studied in subsurface flow constructed wetland microcosms filled with gravel or a gravel/straw mixture. Half of the microcosms were planted with Phragmites australis and half were left unplanted. All microcosms received low-strength wastewater (1 mg L(-1) of Co, Ni, and Zn, 0.5 mg L(-1) Cu, 2,000mg L(-1) SO4) during seven 14-day incubation batches. The pore water was regularly monitored at two depths for heavy metals, sulphate, organic carbon and redox potential. Sorption properties of gravel and straw were assessed in a separate experiment. A second series of seven incubation batches with high-strength wastewater (10 mg L(-1) of each metal, 2,000 mg L(-1) SO4) was then applied to saturate the substrate. Glucose was added to the gravel microcosms together with the high-strength wastewater. Sorption processes were responsible for metal removal during start-up, with the highest removal efficiencies in the gravel microcosms. The lower initial efficiencies in the gravel/straw microcosms were presumably caused by the decomposition of straw. However, after establishment of anaerobic conditions (Eh approximately -200 mV), precipitation as metal sulphides provided an additional removal pathway in the gravel/straw microcosms. The addition of glucose to gravel microcosms enhanced sulphate reduction and metal removal, although Phragmites australis negatively affected these processes in the top-layer of all microcosms.

  4. Treatment of industrial wastewater with two-stage constructed wetlands planted with Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calheiros, Cristina S C; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2009-07-01

    Industrial wastewater treatment comprises several processes to fulfill the discharge permits or to enable the reuse of wastewater. For tannery wastewater, constructed wetlands (CWs) may be an interesting treatment option. Two-stage series of horizontal subsurface flow CWs with Phragmites australis (UP series) and Typha latifolia (UT series) provided high removal of organics from tannery wastewater, up to 88% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) (from an inlet of 420 to 1000 mg L(-1)) and 92% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (from an inlet of 808 to 2449 mg L(-1)), and of other contaminants, such as nitrogen, operating at hydraulic retention times of 2, 5 and 7 days. No significant (P<0.05) differences in performance were found between both the series. Overall mass removals of up to 1294 kg COD ha(-1)d(-1) and 529 kg BOD(5)ha(-1)d(-1) were achieved for a loading ranging from 242 to 1925 kg COD ha(-1)d(-1) and from 126 to 900 kg BOD(5)ha(-1)d(-1). Plants were resilient to the conditions imposed, however P. australis exceeded T. latifolia in terms of propagation.

  5. Comparison of the diversity of root-associated bacteria in Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia L. in artificial wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan Hong; Zhu, Jing Nan; Liu, Qun Fang; Liu, Yin; Liu, Min; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-08-01

    Common reed (Phragmites australis) and narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) are two plant species used widely in artificial wetlands constructed to treat wastewater. In this study, the community structure and diversity of root-associated bacteria of common reed and narrow-leaved cattail growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China, were investigated using 16S rDNA library and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods. Root-associated bacterial diversity was higher in common reed than in narrow-leaved cattail. In both plant species, the dominant root-associated bacterial species were Alpha, Beta and Gamma Proteobacteria, including the genera Aeromonas, Hydrogenophaga, Ideonella, Uliginosibacterium and Vogesella. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae and Spirochaetes were only found in the roots of common reed. Comparing the root-associated bacterial communities of reed and cattail in our system, many more species of bacteria related involved in the total nitrogen cycle were observed in reed versus cattail, while species involved in total phosphorus and organic matter removal were mainly found in cattail. Although we cannot determine their nutrient removal capacity separately, differences in the root-associated bacterial communities may be an important factor contributing to the differing water purification effects mediated by T. angustifolia and P. australis wetlands. Thus, further work describing the ecosystem functions of these bacterial species is needed, in order to fully understand how effective common reed- and narrow-leaved cattail-dominated wetlands are for phytoremediation.

  6. Estimation of chlorophyll content of Phragmites australis based on PROSPECT and DART models in the saltmarsh of Yangtze Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuyan; Shi, Runhe; Liu, Pudong; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Jiapeng; Liu, Chaoshun; Chen, Maosi

    2016-09-01

    Phragmites australis is a native dominant specie in the Yangtze Estuary, which plays a key role in the structure and function of wetland ecosystem. One key question is how to estimate the Chlorophyll content quickly and effectively at large scales, which could be used to reflect the growth condition and calculate the vegetation productivity. The aim of this work was to estimate Chlorophyll content of P. australis based on the PROSPECT and DART (Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer) model. A total of 6 widely used Vegetation indices (VIs) were chosen (i.e., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Structure Insensitive Pigment Index (SIPI), Colouration Index (COI), Simple Ratio Index (SR), Cater Index (CAI), and Red-edge Position Linear Interpolation (REP_Li)) and calculated, and then the relationship between VIs and Cab were analyzed. Results showed that COI and SIPI were sensitive to the leaf chlorophyll content as the chlorophyll content changes at the leaf scale. Meanwhile, no obvious saturation phenomenon was observed for these two indices compared to other indices.

  7. Maghemite nanoparticles and ferrous sulfate for the stimulation of iron plaque formation and arsenic immobilization in Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Tania; Martínez-Fernández, Domingo; de la Fuente, Carlos; Clemente, Rafael; Komárek, Michael; Bernal, M Pilar

    2016-12-01

    Wetland plants are considered as suitable biofilters for the removal of metal(loid)s and other contaminants from waters and wastewaters, due to their ability to accumulate and retain the contaminants in their roots. The iron plaque (IP) on the root surface influences the metal(loid)s retention processes. The stimulation of the IP development on roots of Phragmites australis by the external supply of a novel synthetic nanomaterial (nanomaghemite, nFe2O3) and FeSO4 (alone or in combination) was studied. An hydroponic experiment was carried out to evaluate the iron plaque formation after external iron addition, as well as their influence on arsenic immobilization capacity. Microscopic and spectroscopic techniques were utilized to assess the distribution of Fe and As in the roots. The addition of Fe stimulated the generation of the IP, especially when FeSO4 was involved. The nanoparticles alone were not efficient with regard to IP formation or As adsorption, even though they adhered to the root surface and did not enter into epithelial root cells. The combination of FeSO4 and nFe2O3 was the most effective treatment for improving the As removal capacity, and it seems to be an effective way to enhance the rhizofiltration potential of P. australis in As contaminated (waste)waters.

  8. Uptake and Bioaccumulation of Pentachlorophenol by Emergent Wetland Plant Phragmites australis (Common Reed) in Cadmium Co-contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechmi, Nejla; Ben Aissa, Nadhira; Abdenaceur, Hassen; Jedidi, Naceur

    2015-01-01

    Despite many studies on phytoremediation of soils contaminated with either heavy metals or organics, little information is available on the effectiveness of phytoremediation of co-occurring metal and organic pollutants especially by using wetland species. Phragmites australis is a common wetland plant and its potential for phytoremediation of cadmium pentachlorophenol (Cd-PCP) co-contaminated soil was investigated. A greenhouse study was executed to elucidate the effects of Cd (0, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1)) without or with PCP (0, 50, and 250 mg kg(-1)) on the growth of the wetland plant P. australis and its uptake, accumulation and removal of pollutant from soils. After 75 days, plant biomass was significantly influenced by interaction of Cd and PCP and the effect of Cd on plant growth being stronger than that of PCP. Coexistence of PCP at low level lessened Cd toxicity to plants, resulting in improved plant growth and increased Cd accumulation in plant tissues. The dissipation of PCP in soils was significantly influenced by interactions of Cd, PCP and plant presence or absence. As an evaluation of soil biological activities after remediation soil enzyme was measured.

  9. Role of Rhizophagus irregularis in alleviating cadmium toxicity via improving the growth, micro- and macroelements uptake in Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Huang, Xiaochen; Ma, Fang; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Wu, Jieting; Zhu, Shishu

    2017-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been used to alleviate heavy metal stress on plant growth and uptake of micro- and macroelements. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to verify the effects of AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis on the growth, physiological characteristics, total Cd, and element uptake of Phragmites australis under different Cd stress (in the range of 0-20 mg L(-1)). The results showed that the symbiosis could effectively alleviate Cd toxicity with greater root biomass, higher photosynthesis rate, and lower levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and proline than non-mycorrhizal plants could. However, reduced transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (g s) indicated R. irregularis protected host plants from Cd stress (≥5 mg L(-1)) via the stomatal closure. Although micro- and macroelements displayed differently in the presence of Cd, higher concentrations were still detected in mycorrhizal plants in contrast to non-mycorrhizal plants. Moreover, step multiple regression significantly demonstrated Pnmax, stem diameter (Sd), and g s were the important factors with regard to total Cd uptake in the symbiosis, but Mn affected to non-mycorrhizal plants. These results suggested R. irregularis could alleviate the competition between Mn and Cd by altering plant physiology. This work clearly demonstrated that R. irregularis can be able to support P. australis growth better even though under high Cd stress (>1 mg L(-1)), suggesting its good potential for practical use in high Cd-contaminated areas.

  10. Cutting of Phragmites australis as a lake restoration technique:Productivity calculation and nutrient removal in Wuliangsuhai Lake, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Felix Kbbing; Niels Thevs; Stefan Zerbe

    2016-01-01

    Reed is one of the most frequent and dominant species in wetlands all over the world, with common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) as the most widely distributed species. In many wetlands, P. australis plays a highly ambivalent role. On the one hand, in many wetlands it purifies wastewater, provides habitat for numerous species, and is a potentially valuable raw material, while on the other hand it is an invasive species which expands aggressively, prevents fishing, blocks ditches and waterways, and builds monospecies stands. This paper uses the eutrophic reed-swamp of Wuliangsuhai Lake in Inner Mongolia, northern China, as a case to present the multiple benefits of regular reed cutting. The reed area and aboveground biomass production are calculated based on field data. Combined with data about water and reed nutrient content, the impact of reed cutting on the lake nutrient budget (N and P) is investigated. Currently, at this lake around 100,000 tons of reed are harvested in winter annually, removing 16%and 8%of the total nitrogen and phosphorus influx, respectively. Harvesting all available winter reed could increase the nutrient removal rates to 48%and 24%, respectively. We also consider the effects of summer harvesting, in which reed biomass removal could overcompensate for the nutrient influx but could potentially reduce reed regrowth.

  11. The parasitic plant Cuscuta australis is highly insensitive to abscisic acid-induced suppression of hypocotyl elongation and seed germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    Full Text Available Around 1% of angiosperms are parasitic plants. Their growth and development solely or partly depend on host plants from which they extract water, nutrients, and other molecules using a parasitic plant-specific organ, the haustorium. Strong depletion of nutrients can result in serious growth retardation and in some cases, death of the hosts. The genus Cuscuta (dodder comprises about 200 holoparasitic species occurring on all continents. Their seedlings have no roots and cotyledons but are only string-like hypocotyls. When they contact suitable host plants, haustoria are formed and thereafter seedlings rapidly develop into vigorously growing branches without roots and leaves. This highly specialized lifestyle suggests that Cuscuta plants likely have unique physiology in development and stress responses. Using germination and seedling growth assays, we show that C. australis seeds and seedlings are highly insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA. Transcriptome analysis and protein sequence alignment with Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice homologs revealed that C. australis most likely consists of only four functional ABA receptors. Given that Cuscuta plants are no longer severely challenged by drought stress, we hypothesize that the ABA-mediated drought resistance pathway in Cuscuta spp. might have had degenerated over time during evolution.

  12. The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. III. A Multi-wavelength View of Corona Australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Dawn E.; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Bourke, Tyler L.

    2011-01-01

    . Using the Spitzer data, we identify 51 young stellar objects (YSOs) in CrA which include sources in the well-studied Coronet cluster as well as sources distributed throughout the molecular cloud. Twelve of the YSOs discussed are new candidates, one of which is located in the Coronet. Known YSOs...... retrieved from the literature are also added to the list, and a total of 116 candidate YSOs in CrA are compiled. Based on these YSO candidates, the star formation rate is computed to be 12 M sun Myr-1, similar to that of the Lupus clouds. A clustering analysis was also performed, finding that the main...... cluster core, consisting of 68 members, is elongated (having an aspect ratio of 2.36), with a circular radius of 0.59 pc and mean surface density of 150 pc-2. In addition, we analyze outflows and jets in CrA by means of new CO and H2 data. We present 1.3 mm interferometric continuum observations made...

  13. Density-dependent role of an invasive marsh grass, Phragmites australis, on ecosystem service provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Brandon J.; Theuerkauf, Kathrynlynn W.; Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Eggleston, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species can positively, neutrally, or negatively affect the provision of ecosystem services. The direction and magnitude of this effect can be a function of the invaders’ density and the service(s) of interest. We assessed the density-dependent effect of an invasive marsh grass, Phragmites australis, on three ecosystem services (plant diversity and community structure, shoreline stabilization, and carbon storage) in two oligohaline marshes within the North Carolina Coastal Reserve and National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NCNERR), USA. Plant species richness was equivalent among low, medium and high Phragmites density plots, and overall plant community composition did not vary significantly by Phragmites density. Shoreline change was most negative (landward retreat) where Phragmites density was highest (-0.40 ± 0.19 m yr-1 vs. -0.31 ± 0.10 for low density Phragmites) in the high energy marsh of Kitty Hawk Woods Reserve and most positive (soundward advance) where Phragmites density was highest (0.19 ± 0.05 m yr-1 vs. 0.12 ± 0.07 for low density Phragmites) in the lower energy marsh of Currituck Banks Reserve, although there was no significant effect of Phragmites density on shoreline change. In Currituck Banks, mean soil carbon content was approximately equivalent in cores extracted from low and high Phragmites density plots (23.23 ± 2.0 kg C m-3 vs. 22.81 ± 3.8). In Kitty Hawk Woods, mean soil carbon content was greater in low Phragmites density plots (36.63 ± 10.22 kg C m-3) than those with medium (13.99 ± 1.23 kg C m-3) or high density (21.61 ± 4.53 kg C m-3), but differences were not significant. These findings suggest an overall neutral density-dependent effect of Phragmites on three ecosystem services within two oligohaline marshes in different environmental settings within a protected reserve system. Moreover, the conceptual framework of this study can broadly inform an ecosystem services-based approach to invasive species management

  14. Density-dependent role of an invasive marsh grass, Phragmites australis, on ecosystem service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuerkauf, Seth J; Puckett, Brandon J; Theuerkauf, Kathrynlynn W; Theuerkauf, Ethan J; Eggleston, David B

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species can positively, neutrally, or negatively affect the provision of ecosystem services. The direction and magnitude of this effect can be a function of the invaders' density and the service(s) of interest. We assessed the density-dependent effect of an invasive marsh grass, Phragmites australis, on three ecosystem services (plant diversity and community structure, shoreline stabilization, and carbon storage) in two oligohaline marshes within the North Carolina Coastal Reserve and National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NCNERR), USA. Plant species richness was equivalent among low, medium and high Phragmites density plots, and overall plant community composition did not vary significantly by Phragmites density. Shoreline change was most negative (landward retreat) where Phragmites density was highest (-0.40 ± 0.19 m yr-1 vs. -0.31 ± 0.10 for low density Phragmites) in the high energy marsh of Kitty Hawk Woods Reserve and most positive (soundward advance) where Phragmites density was highest (0.19 ± 0.05 m yr-1 vs. 0.12 ± 0.07 for low density Phragmites) in the lower energy marsh of Currituck Banks Reserve, although there was no significant effect of Phragmites density on shoreline change. In Currituck Banks, mean soil carbon content was approximately equivalent in cores extracted from low and high Phragmites density plots (23.23 ± 2.0 kg C m-3 vs. 22.81 ± 3.8). In Kitty Hawk Woods, mean soil carbon content was greater in low Phragmites density plots (36.63 ± 10.22 kg C m-3) than those with medium (13.99 ± 1.23 kg C m-3) or high density (21.61 ± 4.53 kg C m-3), but differences were not significant. These findings suggest an overall neutral density-dependent effect of Phragmites on three ecosystem services within two oligohaline marshes in different environmental settings within a protected reserve system. Moreover, the conceptual framework of this study can broadly inform an ecosystem services-based approach to invasive species management.

  15. Isolation of a Seawater Tolerant Leptospira spp. from a Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Grune Loffler

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonotic disease in the world. It is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira spp. and is maintained in nature through chronic renal infection of carrier animals. Rodents and other small mammals are the main reservoirs. Information on leptospirosis in marine mammals is scarce; however, cases of leptospirosis have been documented in pinniped populations from the Pacific coast of North America from southern California to British Columbia. We report the isolation of a Leptospira spp. strain, here named Manara, from a kidney sample obtained from a Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis calf, which stranded dead in Playa Manara, Península Valdés, Argentina. This strain showed motility and morphology typical of the genus Leptospira spp. under dark-field microscopy; and grew in Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris (EMJH medium and Fletcher medium after 90 days of incubation at 28°C. Considering the source of this bacterium, we tested its ability to grow in Fletcher medium diluted with seawater at different percentages (1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% v/v. Bacterial growth was detected 48 h after inoculation of Fletcher medium supplemented with 5% sea water, demonstrating the halophilic nature of the strain Manara. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences placed this novel strain within the radiation of the pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira spp., with sequence similarities within the range 97-100%, and closely related to L. interrogans. Two different PCR protocols targeting genus-specific pathogenic genes (G1-G2, B64I-B64II and LigB gave positive results, which indicates that the strain Manara is likely pathogenic. Further studies are needed to confirm this possibility as well as determine its serogroup. These results could modify our understanding of the epidemiology of this zoonosis. Until now, the resistance and ability to grow in seawater for long periods of time had been proven

  16. Growth and Physiological Response of Organs of Phragmites australis to Different Water Compensation in Degraded Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIXiaoyu; LIUXingtu; LIXiujun; LINJixiang; WENBolong

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of different water compensation on growth and physiology of reed in degraded wetlands,three water treatments in the field were conducted to test the height and photosynthesis of reed,the ions and soluble sugar contents of different organs.In the controls (without extra water compensation for 10 years),the height of reed was only 50 cm,the net photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance,the intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate were very low.The contents of Na + and Cl- in rhizome were higher than those in other organs.Discontinuous water compensation (continuous for 8 years,then stopped for 2 years) increased the height (2.1-fold),the net photosynthetic rate (41.8%),stomatal conductance (1.8-fold),transpiration rate (1.3-fold) of reed (Phragmites australis),and decreased the content of Na+ (62.3%) and Cl- (71.1%) of rhizome significantly.Continuous water compensation (continuous for 10 years) increased the height (3.2-fold),the net photosynthetic rate (104%),stomatal conductance (2.4-fold),transpiration rate (1.5-fold) of reed,and decreased Na+ (82.5%) and Cl- (64.7%) contents in rhizome,then accumulated the K+,H2PO4,SO42- and soluble sugar contents significantly in rhizome.Interrupting water compensation led to the decrease of height (25.3%),the net photosynthetic rate (30.7%),stomatal conductance (17.3%)and increase of Na+ (1.16-fold) in rhizome when comparing to the continuous water compensation.These results showed that recovering the degraded reed wetlands needed continuous water compensation yearly to promote reed growth.The organs of reed had corresponding physiological response characteristic to the different water compensation condition.Under long-time dry and waterlogging condition,the rhizomes both helped reed to adapt located environment,by enriching the ions such as Na+,Cl-,and K+,H2PO4,SO42-,respectively.

  17. Evolution of the Global Aurora During Positive IMF B(sub z) and Varying IMF B(sub y) Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumnock, J. A.; Sharber, J. A.; Heelis, R. A.; Hairston, M. R.; Craven, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    The DE 1 imaging instrumentation provides a full view of the entire auroral oval every 12 min for several hours during each orbit. We examined five examples of global evolution of the aurora that occurred during the northern hemisphere winter of 1981-1982 when the z component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was positive and the y component was changing sign. Evolution of an expanded auroral emission region into a theta aurora appears to require a change in the sign of B(sub y) during northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field. Theta aurora are formed both from expanded duskside emission regions (B(sub y) changes from positive to negative) and dawnside emission regions (B(sub y) changes from negative to positive), however the dawnside-originating and duskside-originating evolutions are not mirror images. The persistence of a theta aurora after its formation suggests that there may be no clear relationship between the theta aurora pattern and the instantaneous configuration of the IMF.

  18. Stereoscopic determination of all-sky altitude map of aurora using two ground-based Nikon DSLR cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kataoka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new stereoscopic measurement technique is developed to obtain an all-sky altitude map of aurora using two ground-based digital single-lens reflex (DSLR cameras. Two identical full-color all-sky cameras were set with an 8 km separation across the Chatanika area in Alaska (Poker Flat Research Range and Aurora Borealis Lodge to find localized emission height with the maximum correlation of the apparent patterns in the localized pixels applying a method of the geographical coordinate transform. It is found that a typical ray structure of discrete aurora shows the broad altitude distribution above 100 km, while a typical patchy structure of pulsating aurora shows the narrow altitude distribution of less than 100 km. Because of its portability and low cost of the DSLR camera systems, the new technique may open a unique opportunity not only for scientists but also for night-sky photographers to complementarily attend the aurora science to potentially form a dense observation network.

  19. Stereoscopic determination of all-sky altitude map of aurora using two ground-based Nikon DSLR cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, R.; Miyoshi, Y.; Shigematsu, K.; Hampton, D.; Mori, Y.; Kubo, T.; Yamashita, A.; Tanaka, M.; Takahei, T.; Nakai, T.; Miyahara, H.; Shiokawa, K.

    2013-09-01

    A new stereoscopic measurement technique is developed to obtain an all-sky altitude map of aurora using two ground-based digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. Two identical full-color all-sky cameras were set with an 8 km separation across the Chatanika area in Alaska (Poker Flat Research Range and Aurora Borealis Lodge) to find localized emission height with the maximum correlation of the apparent patterns in the localized pixels applying a method of the geographical coordinate transform. It is found that a typical ray structure of discrete aurora shows the broad altitude distribution above 100 km, while a typical patchy structure of pulsating aurora shows the narrow altitude distribution of less than 100 km. Because of its portability and low cost of the DSLR camera systems, the new technique may open a unique opportunity not only for scientists but also for night-sky photographers to complementarily attend the aurora science to potentially form a dense observation network.

  20. Egg discrimination in the Australian reed warbler (Acrocephalus australis) : rejection response toward model and conspecific eggs depending on timing and mode of artificial parasitism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welbergen, J; Komdeur, J; Kats, R; Berg, M

    2001-01-01

    In a coevolutionary arms race between an interspecific brood parasite and its host species, bath are expected to evolve adaptations and counteradaptations. We studied egg discrimination in the Australian warbler (Acrocephalus australis). This species is currently not significantly parasitized by the