WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey assessed parameters

  1. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Swains, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  2. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Guguan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  3. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Maui, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  4. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Aguijan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  5. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Hawaii, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  6. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Johnston, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  7. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Niihau, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  8. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Saipan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  9. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Ofu & Olosega, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  10. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Palmyra, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  11. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Jarvis, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  12. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kingman, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  13. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kauai, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  14. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Farallon de Pajaros, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  15. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Tau, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  16. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Pearl & Hermes, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  17. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Guam, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  18. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Lanai, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  19. Robustness of Adaptive Survey Designs to Inaccuracy of Design Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger Joep

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive survey designs (ASDs optimize design features, given 1 the interactions between the design features and characteristics of sampling units and 2 a set of constraints, such as a budget and a minimum number of respondents. Estimation of the interactions is subject to both random and systematic error. In this article, we propose and evaluate four viewpoints to assess robustness of ASDs to inaccuracy of design parameter estimates: the effect of both imprecision and bias on both ASD structure and ASD performance. We additionally propose three distance measures to compare the structure of ASDs. The methodology is illustrated using a simple simulation study and a more complex but realistic case study on the Dutch Travel Survey. The proposed methodology can be applied to other ASD optimization problems. In our simulation study and case study, the ASD was fairly robust to imprecision, but not to realistic dynamics in the design parameters. To deal with the sensitivity of ASDs to changing design parameters, we recommend to learn and update the design parameters.

  20. Assessment Matters: Moving beyond Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Vicki L.; Barham, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    The August 16, 2011, "Chronicle of Higher Education" article "Want Data? Ask Students. Again and Again" by Sara Lipka posits that in higher education there is a culture of oversurveying students and too often relying on surveys as the main, or only, way of assessing the impact of programs and services on student satisfaction and learning. Because…

  1. Models and parameters for environmental radiological assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    This article reviews the forthcoming book Models and Parameters for Environmental Radiological Assessments, which presents a unified compilation of models and parameters for assessing the impact on man of radioactive discharges, both routine and accidental, into the environment. Models presented in this book include those developed for the prediction of atmospheric and hydrologic transport and deposition, for terrestrial and aquatic food-chain bioaccumulation, and for internal and external dosimetry. Summaries are presented for each of the transport and dosimetry areas previously for each of the transport and dosimetry areas previously mentioned, and details are available in the literature cited. A chapter of example problems illustrates many of the methodologies presented throughout the text. Models and parameters presented are based on the results of extensive literature reviews and evaluations performed primarily by the staff of the Health and Safety Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  2. Models and parameters for environmental radiological assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents a unified compilation of models and parameters appropriate for assessing the impact of radioactive discharges to the environment. Models examined include those developed for the prediction of atmospheric and hydrologic transport and deposition, for terrestrial and aquatic food-chain bioaccumulation, and for internal and external dosimetry. Chapters have been entered separately into the data base

  3. Models and parameters for environmental radiological assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C W [ed.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents a unified compilation of models and parameters appropriate for assessing the impact of radioactive discharges to the environment. Models examined include those developed for the prediction of atmospheric and hydrologic transport and deposition, for terrestrial and aquatic food-chain bioaccumulation, and for internal and external dosimetry. Chapters have been entered separately into the data base. (ACR)

  4. Bayesian parameter estimation in probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, Nathan O.; Kelly, Dana L.

    1998-01-01

    Bayesian statistical methods are widely used in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) because of their ability to provide useful estimates of model parameters when data are sparse and because the subjective probability framework, from which these methods are derived, is a natural framework to address the decision problems motivating PRA. This paper presents a tutorial on Bayesian parameter estimation especially relevant to PRA. It summarizes the philosophy behind these methods, approaches for constructing likelihood functions and prior distributions, some simple but realistic examples, and a variety of cautions and lessons regarding practical applications. References are also provided for more in-depth coverage of various topics

  5. Identification of variables for site calibration and power curve assessment in complex terrain. Task 8, a literature survey on theory and practice of parameter identification, specification and estimation (ISE) techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, J.P.; Leendertse, G.P. [ECN Wind, Petten (Netherlands)

    2001-04-01

    This document presents the literature survey results on Identification, Specification and Estimation (ISE) techniques for variables within the SiteParIden project. Besides an overview of the different general techniques also an overview is given on EU funded wind energy projects where some of these techniques have been applied more specifically. The main problem in applications like power performance assessment and site calibration is to establish an appropriate model for predicting the considered dependent variable with the aid of measured independent (explanatory) variables. In these applications detailed knowledge on what the relevant variables are and how their precise appearance in the model would be is typically missing. Therefore, the identification (of variables) and the specification (of the model relation) are important steps in the model building phase. For the determination of the parameters in the model a reliable variable estimation technique is required. In EU funded wind energy projects the linear regression technique is the most commonly applied tool for the estimation step. The linear regression technique may fail in finding reliable parameter estimates when the model variables are strongly correlated, either due to the experimental set-up or because of their particular appearance in the model. This situation of multicollinearity sometimes results in unrealistic parameter values, e.g. with the wrong algebraic sign. It is concluded that different approaches, like multi-binning can provide a better way of identifying the relevant variables. However further research in these applications is needed and it is recommended that alternative methods (neural networks, singular value decomposition etc.) should also be tested on their usefulness in a succeeding project. Increased interest in complex terrains, as feasible locations for wind farms, has also emphasised the need for adequate models. A common standard procedure to prescribe the statistical

  6. Caribbean Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in Caribbean waters conducted during 2000-2001. These surveys were...

  7. Quality assessment for radiological model parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funtowicz, S.O.

    1989-01-01

    A prototype framework for representing uncertainties in radiological model parameters is introduced. This follows earlier development in this journal of a corresponding framework for representing uncertainties in radiological data. Refinements and extensions to the earlier framework are needed in order to take account of the additional contextual factors consequent on using data entries to quantify model parameters. The parameter coding can in turn feed in to methods for evaluating uncertainties in calculated model outputs. (author)

  8. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  9. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Data (BASE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) study was a five year study to characterize determinants of indoor air quality and occupant perceptions in...

  10. Analysis and Assessment of Parameters Shaping Methane Hazard in Longwall Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Krause

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing coal production concentration and mining in coal seams of high methane content contribute to its growing emission to longwall areas. In this paper, analysis of survey data concerning the assessment of parameters that influence the level of methane hazard in mining areas is presented. The survey was conducted with experts on ventilation and methane hazard in coal mines. The parameters which influence methane hazard in longwall areas were assigned specific weights (numerical values. The summary will show which of the assessed parameters have a strong, or weak, influence on methane hazard in longwall areas close to coal seams of high methane content.

  11. Survey on the parameters influencing X-ray picture quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stender, H.S.

    1985-01-01

    Survey on factors influencing X-ray picture quality: 1) identification of patient and imaged body part. 2) Object properties - thickness, density, built; spatial expansion and arrangement of anatomical parts; object parts in a homogenic and an inhomogenic environment; object movements. 3) Examination technique - matching to medical issue; positioning and adjustment; projection; picture format in keeping with the medical issue; object-related fade-in; distance ratios; contrast medium distribution or deposition; compression. 4) Technical factors of picture production - radiation quality tube voltage; reproducible mAs and mR/mAs; automatic exposure equipment; focal spot size; scattered radiation grid; image intensifier and indirect radiography system; exposure time, dose-to-exposure-time ratio; film-screen combination; cassette with uniform pressure contact; film processing system; radiation safety and light safety. 5) Physical imaging parameters - mean optical density; resolution capacity; contrast reproduction; noise; modulation transmission function. 6) Perceptible picture properties - luminance density; picture contrast; recognizability of details; impression of grain structure; blurred picture structure; visually conspicuous elements. 7) Requirements on picture viewing - viewing device with high luminance density and equalized illumination; possible modification of brilliance; possible fade-in operations and prevention of ambient glare; spot light with iris diaphragm; possible viewing by magnifying lens; selection of correct viewing distances; repeated picture viewing or evaluation by two or more viewers. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Howard Hughes Medical Institute dose assessment survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, S.L.; McDougall, M.M.; Barkley, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Biomedical science researchers often express frustration that health physics practices vary widely between individual institutions. A survey examining both internal and external dose assessment practices was devised and mailed to fifty institutions supporting biomedical science research. The results indicate that health physics dose assessment practices and policies are highly variable. Factors which may contribute to the degree of variation are discussed. 2 tabs

  13. Security assessment in harbours: parameters to be considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Faz, D.; Camarero Orive, A.

    2016-07-01

    The ports are the main node in the supply chain and freight transportation. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 marked a turning point in global security. Following this event, and from then on, there is a widespread fear of an attack on commercial ports. The development of the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), and the implementation of the measures derived from it, have significantly improved security at port facilities. However, the experience in recent decades indicates the need for adjustments in the security assessment, in order to improve risk assessment, which is sometimes either underestimated or overestimated. As a first result of the investigation, new parameters for assessing security are proposed considering new aspects on the basis of an analysis of the main methodologies specific to port facilities, the analysis of surveys of the responsible managers for the security of the Spanish port system, and the analysis of the security statistics obtained through security forces. (Author)

  14. Multi-temporal Assessment of Forest Cover, Stocking parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The study assessed forest cover, stocking parameters and above-ground tree .... deration new emerging ideas on REDD+, this study .... representing areas of change and zero values representing no ..... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York.

  15. Assessment of the water quality parameters in relation to fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical indices of water body changed seasonally and this necessitated an investigation to assess the water quality parameters of Osinmo reservoir in relation to its fish species. The water quality parameters were measured using standard methods. Results obtained show that the reservoir is alkaline in nature with ...

  16. Survey to assess Persian Gulf spill effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that an international group is poised for an extensive survey of the Persian Gulf, including an assessment of the long term effects of last year's oil spill, a legacy of the Persian Gulf war. Saudi Arabia plans a $450 million cleanup program on beaches fouled by the massive spill. Plans for the survey were disclosed by the United National Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco). It is to be carried out under the auspices of the Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (Ropme), Unesco's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Ropme member countries are Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates

  17. A survey on the autotuning of PID parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Ha, Jae Hong; Sin, Hae Kon; Kim, Dong Wan; Nam, Sang Ku

    1996-06-01

    A significant advance in science and technology during the last few decades has resulted in the evolution and use of automatic control equipment in various areas of industry. The automatic control equipment monitor various parameters associated with the process and make decisions accordingly. In the area of process control, extensive research has been carried out for PID parameter auto-tunig techniques since the middle of 1980's. This paper covers two auto-tuning techniques namely system transient response performance and experimental method to analyze dynamic characteristics of process systems. In this paper auto-tunig technology used in commercial models is analyzed in detail. It is reported by industry that by optimum application of the auto-tuning controller, the operator load is significantly reduced while the reliability of process control is greatly enhanced. It is recommended that the application of auto-tuning controller should be evaluated for automatic process control in nuclear plant. 4 tabs., 12 figs., 21 refs. (Author)

  18. Alternative analysis of airborne laser data collected within conventional multi-parameter airborne geophysical surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, Andreas; Supper, R.; Motschka, K.; Schattauer, I.

    2010-05-01

    For the interpretation of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry as well as airborne electromagnetics it is of great importance to determine the distance between the geophysical sensor and the ground surface. Since radar altimeters do not penetrate vegetation, laser altimeters became popular in airborne geophysics over the past years. Currently the airborne geophysical platform of the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) is equipped with a Riegl LD90-3800VHS-FLP high resolution laser altimeter, measuring the distances according to the first and the last reflected pulse. The goal of the presented study was to explore the possibilities of deriving additional information about the survey area from the laser data and to determine the accuracy of such results. On one hand the difference between the arrival time of the first and the last reflected pulse can be used to determine the height of the vegetation. This parameter is for example important for the correction of damping effects on airborne gamma-ray measurements caused by vegetation. Moreover especially for groundwater studies at catchment scale, this parameter can also be applied to support the spatial assessment of evapotranspiration. In combination with the altitude above geoid, determined by a GPS receiver, a rough digital elevation model of the survey area can be derived from the laser altimetry. Based on a data set from a survey area in the northern part of Austria, close to the border with the Czech Republic, the reliability of such a digital elevation model and the calculated vegetation height was tested. In this study a mean deviation of -1.4m, with a standard deviation of ±3.4m, between the digital elevation model from Upper Austria (25m spatial resolution) and the determined elevation model was determined. We also found an obvious correlation between the calculated vegetation heights greater 15m and the mapped forest published by the ‘Department of Forest Inventory' of the ‘Federal Forest Office' of Austria

  19. Improving fault image by determination of optimum seismic survey parameters using ray-based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarzadeh, Sadegh; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Hasani, Hossein; Talebi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-06-01

    In complex structures such as faults, salt domes and reefs, specifying the survey parameters is more challenging and critical owing to the complicated wave field behavior involved in such structures. In the petroleum industry, detecting faults has become crucial for reservoir potential where faults can act as traps for hydrocarbon. In this regard, seismic survey modeling is employed to construct a model close to the real structure, and obtain very realistic synthetic seismic data. Seismic modeling software, the velocity model and parameters pre-determined by conventional methods enable a seismic survey designer to run a shot-by-shot virtual survey operation. A reliable velocity model of structures can be constructed by integrating the 2D seismic data, geological reports and the well information. The effects of various survey designs can be investigated by the analysis of illumination maps and flower plots. Also, seismic processing of the synthetic data output can describe the target image using different survey parameters. Therefore, seismic modeling is one of the most economical ways to establish and test the optimum acquisition parameters to obtain the best image when dealing with complex geological structures. The primary objective of this study is to design a proper 3D seismic survey orientation to achieve fault zone structures through ray-tracing seismic modeling. The results prove that a seismic survey designer can enhance the image of fault planes in a seismic section by utilizing the proposed modeling and processing approach.

  20. Assessment of Physicochemical and Major Chemical Parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to assess the physicochemical and major chemical parameters of water springs in Iddo Wara Wale area of Dale Sadi district of Kellem Wollega, Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 20 L samples were collected from five densely populated springs, namely: Ittisa, Abba Moga, Kersa, Ele Gonda and Merfata ...

  1. Morphology parameters for intracranial aneurysm rupture risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Sujan; Tremmel, Markus; Mocco, J; Kim, Minsuok; Yamamoto, Junichi; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Hopkins, L Nelson; Meng, Hui

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study is to identify image-based morphological parameters that correlate with human intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture. For 45 patients with terminal or sidewall saccular IAs (25 unruptured, 20 ruptured), three-dimensional geometries were evaluated for a range of morphological parameters. In addition to five previously studied parameters (aspect ratio, aneurysm size, ellipticity index, nonsphericity index, and undulation index), we defined three novel parameters incorporating the parent vessel geometry (vessel angle, aneurysm [inclination] angle, and [aneurysm-to-vessel] size ratio) and explored their correlation with aneurysm rupture. Parameters were analyzed with a two-tailed independent Student's t test for significance; significant parameters (P 41; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.92) and undulation index (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.11) had the strongest independent correlation with ruptured IA. From the receiver operating characteristic analysis, size ratio and aneurysm angle had the highest area under the curve values of 0.83 and 0.85, respectively. Size ratio and aneurysm angle are promising new morphological metrics for IA rupture risk assessment. Because these parameters account for vessel geometry, they may bridge the gap between morphological studies and more qualitative location-based studies.

  2. Wind Climate Parameters for Wind Turbine Fatigue Load Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Site-specific assessment of wind turbine design requires verification that the individual wind turbine components can survive the site-specific wind climate. The wind turbine design standard, IEC 61400-1 (third edition), describes how this should be done using a simplified, equivalent wind climate...... climate required by the current design standard by comparing damage equivalent fatigue loads estimated based on wind climate parameters for each 10 min time-series with fatigue loads estimated based on the equivalent wind climate parameters. Wind measurements from Boulder, CO, in the United States...

  3. Atlantic Protected Species Assessment Aerial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of aerial line-transect surveys conducted over continental shelf waters of the southeastern U.S. Surveys have been conducted...

  4. Incorporating attitudinal parameter in assessing sustainability of Malaysia manufacturing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanang, Wan Nurul Syahirah Wan; Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina

    2018-04-01

    Numerous companies are accepting sustainability as an organizational peremptory. There is, however, little convergence on how organizations become sustainable. The previous study suggests that a paradigm shift is necessary to incorporate more sustainable ways of thinking, while others advocate that sustainability requires only moderate behavioural changes as in attitude. In addition, it is also suggesting that sustainability develops most effectively when a singular view of sustainability is applied throughout the company; others contend that differentiated views of sustainability emerge within the various subcultures of an organization. The aim of this paper is to analyse the aftermath of considering attitudinal parameter into the initial data, portraying the true nature of personality during the survey. The research presented was carried out with employees from various manufacturing companies with different branches of knowledge and attitude. Survey methodology was employed by building a questionnaire combining Likert-type items, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Green Project Management (GPM) P5 Integration and multiple-option items. The results allow identifying the knowledges and attitudes of the employees in Malaysia context, contributing relevant data in regard to future engagement relating to sustainability and attitudinal parameter.

  5. Parameters for assessing the aquatic environmental impact of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, N A; Brohem, C A; Canavez, A D P M; Oliveira, C F S; Kruger, O; Lorencini, M; Carvalho, C M

    2018-05-01

    The cosmetic industry's growing concern about the impact of its supply chain on the environment, sustainability of raw materials, and biodiversity increases the need to ensure that the final product has a lower environmental impact. The objective of this review is to summarize and compare the information available from international organizations and legislation regarding the main criteria used to assess raw materials for aquatic toxicity, as well as the most suitable alternative methods for obtaining assessment parameters. Using the literature available in databases, a review of the scientific literature and international legislation, this work discusses and compares the parameters established by international organizations such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Cradle to Cradle (C2C), as well as European legislation, namely, European Regulation 1272/2008, for assessing environmental impact. Defining the ecotoxicity parameters of the main classes of raw materials in rinse-off cosmetic products can enable the development of products that are more environmentally sustainable, prioritizing substances with less environmental impact. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CTER—Rapid estimation of CTF parameters with error assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penczek, Pawel A., E-mail: Pawel.A.Penczek@uth.tmc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin MSB 6.220, Houston, TX 77054 (United States); Fang, Jia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical School, 6431 Fannin MSB 6.220, Houston, TX 77054 (United States); Li, Xueming; Cheng, Yifan [The Keck Advanced Microscopy Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States); Loerke, Justus; Spahn, Christian M.T. [Institut für Medizinische Physik und Biophysik, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    In structural electron microscopy, the accurate estimation of the Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) parameters, particularly defocus and astigmatism, is of utmost importance for both initial evaluation of micrograph quality and for subsequent structure determination. Due to increases in the rate of data collection on modern microscopes equipped with new generation cameras, it is also important that the CTF estimation can be done rapidly and with minimal user intervention. Finally, in order to minimize the necessity for manual screening of the micrographs by a user it is necessary to provide an assessment of the errors of fitted parameters values. In this work we introduce CTER, a CTF parameters estimation method distinguished by its computational efficiency. The efficiency of the method makes it suitable for high-throughput EM data collection, and enables the use of a statistical resampling technique, bootstrap, that yields standard deviations of estimated defocus and astigmatism amplitude and angle, thus facilitating the automation of the process of screening out inferior micrograph data. Furthermore, CTER also outputs the spatial frequency limit imposed by reciprocal space aliasing of the discrete form of the CTF and the finite window size. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of CTER using a data set collected on a 300 kV Tecnai Polara (FEI) using the K2 Summit DED camera in super-resolution counting mode. Using CTER we obtained a structure of the 80S ribosome whose large subunit had a resolution of 4.03 Å without, and 3.85 Å with, inclusion of astigmatism parameters. - Highlights: • We describe methodology for estimation of CTF parameters with error assessment. • Error estimates provide means for automated elimination of inferior micrographs. • High computational efficiency allows real-time monitoring of EM data quality. • Accurate CTF estimation yields structure of the 80S human ribosome at 3.85 Å.

  7. Assessment of printability for printed electronics patterns by measuring geometric dimensions and defining assessment parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Sung Woong; Kim, Cheol; Kim, Chung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The printability of patterns for printed electronic devices determines the performance, yield rate, and reliability of the devices; therefore, it should be assessed quantitatively. In this paper, parameters for printability assessment of printed patterns for width, pinholes, and edge waviness are suggested. For quantitative printability assessment, printability grades for each parameter are proposed according to the parameter values. As examples of printability assessment, printed line patterns and mesh patterns obtained using roll-to-roll gravure printing are used. Both single-line patterns and mesh patterns show different levels of printability, even in samples obtained using the same printing equipment and conditions. Therefore, for reliable assessment, it is necessary to assess the printability of the patterns by enlarging the sampling area and increasing the number of samples. We can predict the performance of printed electronic devices by assessing the printability of the patterns that constitute them

  8. Assessment of printability for printed electronics patterns by measuring geometric dimensions and defining assessment parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Sung Woong [Dept. of Robotics Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheol; Kim, Chung Hwan [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The printability of patterns for printed electronic devices determines the performance, yield rate, and reliability of the devices; therefore, it should be assessed quantitatively. In this paper, parameters for printability assessment of printed patterns for width, pinholes, and edge waviness are suggested. For quantitative printability assessment, printability grades for each parameter are proposed according to the parameter values. As examples of printability assessment, printed line patterns and mesh patterns obtained using roll-to-roll gravure printing are used. Both single-line patterns and mesh patterns show different levels of printability, even in samples obtained using the same printing equipment and conditions. Therefore, for reliable assessment, it is necessary to assess the printability of the patterns by enlarging the sampling area and increasing the number of samples. We can predict the performance of printed electronic devices by assessing the printability of the patterns that constitute them.

  9. [Role of aerodynamic parameters in voice function assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong-qing; Lin, Sheng-zhi; Xu, Xin-lin; Zhou, Li; Zhuang, Pei-yun; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the application and significance of aerodynamic parameters in voice function assessment. The phonatory aerodynamic system (PAS) was used to collect aerodynamic parameters from subjects with normal voice, vocal fold polyp, vocal fold cyst, and vocal fold immobility. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to compare measurements across groups. Phonation threshold flow (PTF), mean flow rate (MFR), maximum phonation time (MPT), and glottal resistance (GR) in one hundred normal subjects were significantly affected by sex (P efficiency (VE) were not (P > 0.05). PTP, PTF, MFR, SGP, and MPT were significantly different between normal voice and voice disorders (P 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis found that PTP, PTF, SGP, MFR, MPT, and VE in one hundred thirteen voice dis orders had similar diagnostic utility (P aerodynamic parameters of the three degrees of voice dysfunction due to vocal cord polyps were compared and found to have no significant differences (P > 0.05). PTP, PTF, MFR, SGP and MPT in forty one patients with vocal polyps were significantly different after surgical resection of vocal cord polyps (P aerodynamic parameters can objectively and effectively evaluate the variations of vocal function, and have good auxiliary diagnostic value.

  10. Assessment of clay stiffness and strength parameters using index properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Ahmed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A new approach is developed to determine the shear wave velocity in saturated soft to firm clays using measurements of the liquid limit, plastic limit, and natural water content with depth. The shear wave velocity is assessed using the site-specific variation of the natural water content with the effective mean stress. Subsequently, an iterative process is envisaged to obtain the clay stiffness and strength parameters. The at-rest earth pressure coefficient, as well as bearing capacity factor and rigidity index related to the cone penetration test, is also acquired from the analyses. Comparisons are presented between the measured clay parameters and the results of corresponding analyses in five different case studies. It is demonstrated that the presented approach can provide acceptable estimates of saturated clay stiffness and strength parameters. One of the main privileges of the presented methodology is the site-specific procedure developed based on the relationships between clay strength and stiffness parameters, rather than adopting direct correlations. Despite of the utilized iterative processes, the presented approach can be easily implemented using a simple spreadsheet, benefiting both geotechnical researchers and practitioners. Keywords: Soft to firm clays, Atterberg limits, Shear wave velocity, Small-strain shear modulus, Constrained modulus, Undrained shear strength, Effective friction angle, Cone penetration test

  11. Parameter assessment for virtual Stackelberg game in aerodynamic shape optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Xie, Fangfang; Zheng, Yao; Zhang, Jifa

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, parametric studies of virtual Stackelberg game (VSG) are conducted to assess the impact of critical parameters on aerodynamic shape optimization, including design cycle, split of design variables and role assignment. Typical numerical cases, including the inverse design and drag reduction design of airfoil, have been carried out. The numerical results confirm the effectiveness and efficiency of VSG. Furthermore, the most significant parameters are identified, e.g. the increase of design cycle can improve the optimization results but it will also add computational burden. These studies will maximize the productivity of the effort in aerodynamic optimization for more complicated engineering problems, such as the multi-element airfoil and wing-body configurations.

  12. Foot length is a functional parameter for assessment of height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2013-03-01

    Stature estimation is considered as an important parameter in the examination of unknown human remains and during the analysis of evidence in crime scene investigations. During mass disasters isolated foot can be found enclosed in the shoes while footprints may be recovered at the crime scenes. Foot length and footprint length can provide valuable estimates of stature. The present communication makes a few pertinent observations on a recently published article in 'The Foot' entitled 'Foot length-a functional parameter for assessment of height, The Foot 2012, 22(1):31-34' and presents an insight into the literature available on the subject which is likely to be of value to future researchers in the field of Forensic Podiatry. The foot length and the footprint length of individuals differ from each other and hence, the research observations made in a study on foot prints cannot be applied to foot dimensions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Kona Integrated Ecosystem Assessment Survey (SE1606, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During this cruise, small-boat surveys were conducted of surface slicks in order to assess their ecological relevance and underlying physical derivers. To assess the...

  14. Do subjective assessments of running patterns reflect objective parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussiana, Thibault; Gindre, Cyrille; Mourot, Laurent; Hébert-Losier, Kim

    2017-08-01

    Running patterns are often categorized into subgroups according to common features before data analysis and interpretation. The Volodalen ® method is a simple field-based tool used to classify runners into aerial or terrestrial using a 5-item subjective rating scale. We aimed to validate the Volodalen ® method by quantifying the relationship between its subjective scores and 3D biomechanical measures. Fifty-four runners ran 30 s on a treadmill at 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 km h -1 while their kinematics were assessed subjectively using the Volodalen ® method and objectively using 3D motion capture. For each runner and speed, two researchers scored the five Volodalen ® items on a 1-to-5 scale, which addressed vertical oscillation, upper-body motion, pelvis and foot position at ground contact, and footstrike pattern. Seven 3D biomechanical parameters reflecting the subjective items were also collected and correlated to the subjective scores. Twenty-eight runners were classified as aerial and 26 as terrestrial. Runner classification did not change with speed, but the relative contribution of the biomechanical parameters to the subjective classification was speed dependent. The magnitude of correlations between subjective and objective measures ranged from trivial to very large. Five of the seven objective parameters significantly differed between aerial and terrestrial runners, and these parameters demonstrated the strongest correlations to the subjective scores. Our results support the validity of the Volodalen ® method, whereby the visual appreciation of running gait reflected quantifiable objective parameters. Two minor modifications to the method are proposed to simplify its use and improve agreement between subjective and objective measures.

  15. Improved sampling for airborne surveys to estimate wildlife population parameters in the African Savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaemba, W.; Stein, A.

    2002-01-01

    Parameter estimates, obtained from airborne surveys of wildlife populations, often have large bias and large standard errors. Sampling error is one of the major causes of this imprecision and the occurrence of many animals in herds violates the common assumptions in traditional sampling designs like

  16. Assessing risk of draft survey by AHP method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangcheng; Zhao, Kuimin; Zuo, Zhaoying; Liu, Gang; Jian, Binguo; Lin, Yan; Fan, Yukun; Wang, Fei

    2018-04-01

    The paper assesses the risks of vessel floating in the seawater for draft survey by using the analytic hierarchy process. On this basis, the paper established draft survey risk index from the view of draft reading, ballast water, fresh water, and calculation process and so on. Then the paper proposes the method to deal with risk assessment using one concrete sample.

  17. Self-Assessment of Distance Education Institutions: Identification of Parameters for Programme Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausaria, R. R.; Lele, Nalini A.

    2002-01-01

    Identifies and explains the parameters relevant for self-assessment and accreditation of programs in distance mode institutions. Discusses general perspectives on quality; defining quality in higher education and in open learning and distance education modes; organization structure of open universities; measurement of quality; parameters for…

  18. A Protocol for Advanced Psychometric Assessment of Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Janet E.; Hayduk, Leslie; Hutchinson, Alison M.; Cranley, Lisa A.; Gierl, Mark; Cummings, Greta G.; Norton, Peter G.; Estabrooks, Carole A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose. In this paper, we present a protocol for advanced psychometric assessments of surveys based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. We use the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) as an exemplar survey to which this protocol can be applied. Methods. Data mapping, acceptability, reliability, and validity are addressed. Acceptability is assessed with missing data frequencies and the time required to complete the survey. Reliability is assessed with internal consistency coefficients and information functions. A unitary approach to validity consisting of accumulating evidence based on instrument content, response processes, internal structure, and relations to other variables is taken. We also address assessing performance of survey data when aggregated to higher levels (e.g., nursing unit). Discussion. In this paper we present a protocol for advanced psychometric assessment of survey data using the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) as an exemplar survey; application of the protocol to the ACT survey is underway. Psychometric assessment of any survey is essential to obtaining reliable and valid research findings. This protocol can be adapted for use with any nursing survey. PMID:23401759

  19. Accurate Atmospheric Parameters at Moderate Resolution Using Spectral Indices: Preliminary Application to the MARVELS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, Luan; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Santiago, Basílio X.; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian L.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Wisniewski, John P.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Fleming, Scott W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Cargile, Phillip; Ge, Jian; Pepper, Joshua; Wang, Ji; Paegert, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Studies of Galactic chemical, and dynamical evolution in the solar neighborhood depend on the availability of precise atmospheric parameters (effective temperature T eff, metallicity [Fe/H], and surface gravity log g) for solar-type stars. Many large-scale spectroscopic surveys operate at low to moderate spectral resolution for efficiency in observing large samples, which makes the stellar characterization difficult due to the high degree of blending of spectral features. Therefore, most surveys employ spectral synthesis, which is a powerful technique, but relies heavily on the completeness and accuracy of atomic line databases and can yield possibly correlated atmospheric parameters. In this work, we use an alternative method based on spectral indices to determine the atmospheric parameters of a sample of nearby FGK dwarfs and subgiants observed by the MARVELS survey at moderate resolving power (R ~ 12,000). To avoid a time-consuming manual analysis, we have developed three codes to automatically normalize the observed spectra, measure the equivalent widths of the indices, and, through a comparison of those with values calculated with predetermined calibrations, estimate the atmospheric parameters of the stars. The calibrations were derived using a sample of 309 stars with precise stellar parameters obtained from the analysis of high-resolution FEROS spectra, permitting the low-resolution equivalent widths to be directly related to the stellar parameters. A validation test of the method was conducted with a sample of 30 MARVELS targets that also have reliable atmospheric parameters derived from the high-resolution spectra and spectroscopic analysis based on the excitation and ionization equilibria method. Our approach was able to recover the parameters within 80 K for T eff, 0.05 dex for [Fe/H], and 0.15 dex for log g, values that are lower than or equal to the typical external uncertainties found between different high-resolution analyses. An additional test was

  20. Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) for Hanford Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Nichols, William E.; Kincaid, Charles T.

    2006-06-01

    This data package was originally prepared to support a 2004 composite analysis (CA) of low-level waste disposal at the Hanford Site. The Technical Scope and Approach for the 2004 Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal at the Hanford Site (Kincaid et. al. 2004) identified the requirements for that analysis and served as the basis for initial preparation of this data package. Completion of the 2004 CA was later deferred, with the 2004 Annual Status Report for the Composite Analysis of Low-Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site (DOE 2005) indicating that a comprehensive update to the CA was in preparation and would be submitted in 2006. However, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recently decided to further defer the CA update and will use the cumulative assessment currently under preparation for the environmental impact statement (EIS) being prepared for tank closure and other site decisions as the updated CA. Submittal of the draft EIS is currently planned for FY 2008. This data package describes the facility-specific parameters (e.g. location, operational dates, etc.) used to numerically simulate contaminant flow and transport in large-scale Hanford assessments. Kincaid et al. (2004) indicated that the System Assessment Capability (SAC) (Kincaid et al. 2000; Bryce et al. 2002; Eslinger 2002a, 2002b) would be used to analyze over a thousand different waste sites. A master spreadsheet termed the Geographic and Operational Site Parameters List (GOSPL) was assembled to facilitate the generation of keyword input files containing general information on each waste site/facility, its operational/disposal history, and its environmental settings (past, current, and future). This report briefly describes each of the key data fields, including the source(s) of data, and provides the resulting inputs to be used for large-scale Hanford assessments.

  1. CTER-rapid estimation of CTF parameters with error assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penczek, Pawel A; Fang, Jia; Li, Xueming; Cheng, Yifan; Loerke, Justus; Spahn, Christian M T

    2014-05-01

    In structural electron microscopy, the accurate estimation of the Contrast Transfer Function (CTF) parameters, particularly defocus and astigmatism, is of utmost importance for both initial evaluation of micrograph quality and for subsequent structure determination. Due to increases in the rate of data collection on modern microscopes equipped with new generation cameras, it is also important that the CTF estimation can be done rapidly and with minimal user intervention. Finally, in order to minimize the necessity for manual screening of the micrographs by a user it is necessary to provide an assessment of the errors of fitted parameters values. In this work we introduce CTER, a CTF parameters estimation method distinguished by its computational efficiency. The efficiency of the method makes it suitable for high-throughput EM data collection, and enables the use of a statistical resampling technique, bootstrap, that yields standard deviations of estimated defocus and astigmatism amplitude and angle, thus facilitating the automation of the process of screening out inferior micrograph data. Furthermore, CTER also outputs the spatial frequency limit imposed by reciprocal space aliasing of the discrete form of the CTF and the finite window size. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of CTER using a data set collected on a 300kV Tecnai Polara (FEI) using the K2 Summit DED camera in super-resolution counting mode. Using CTER we obtained a structure of the 80S ribosome whose large subunit had a resolution of 4.03Å without, and 3.85Å with, inclusion of astigmatism parameters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrient adequacy: assessment using food consumption surveys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    ... of Food Consumption Surveys Food and Nutrition Board Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1986 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this ...

  3. Accurate atmospheric parameters at moderate resolution using spectral indices: Preliminary application to the marvels survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezzi, Luan; Da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Santiago, Basílio X.; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian L.; Ge, Jian; Wisniewski, John P.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip; Pepper, Joshua; Fleming, Scott W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Wang, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Studies of Galactic chemical, and dynamical evolution in the solar neighborhood depend on the availability of precise atmospheric parameters (effective temperature T eff , metallicity [Fe/H], and surface gravity log g) for solar-type stars. Many large-scale spectroscopic surveys operate at low to moderate spectral resolution for efficiency in observing large samples, which makes the stellar characterization difficult due to the high degree of blending of spectral features. Therefore, most surveys employ spectral synthesis, which is a powerful technique, but relies heavily on the completeness and accuracy of atomic line databases and can yield possibly correlated atmospheric parameters. In this work, we use an alternative method based on spectral indices to determine the atmospheric parameters of a sample of nearby FGK dwarfs and subgiants observed by the MARVELS survey at moderate resolving power (R ∼ 12,000). To avoid a time-consuming manual analysis, we have developed three codes to automatically normalize the observed spectra, measure the equivalent widths of the indices, and, through a comparison of those with values calculated with predetermined calibrations, estimate the atmospheric parameters of the stars. The calibrations were derived using a sample of 309 stars with precise stellar parameters obtained from the analysis of high-resolution FEROS spectra, permitting the low-resolution equivalent widths to be directly related to the stellar parameters. A validation test of the method was conducted with a sample of 30 MARVELS targets that also have reliable atmospheric parameters derived from the high-resolution spectra and spectroscopic analysis based on the excitation and ionization equilibria method. Our approach was able to recover the parameters within 80 K for T eff , 0.05 dex for [Fe/H], and 0.15 dex for log g, values that are lower than or equal to the typical external uncertainties found between different high-resolution analyses. An additional test

  4. Assessing the importance of terrain parameters on glide avalanche release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, Erich H.; Hendrikx, Jordy; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Glide snow avalanches are dangerous and difficult to predict. Despite recent research there is still a lack of understanding regarding the controls of glide avalanche release. Glide avalanches often occur in similar terrain or the same locations annually and observations suggest that topography may be critical. Thus, to gain an understanding of the terrain component of these types of avalanches we examined terrain parameters associated with glide avalanche release as well as areas of consistent glide crack formation but no subsequent avalanches. Glide avalanche occurrences visible from the Going-to-the-Sun Road corridor in Glacier National Park, Montana from 2003-2013 were investigated using an avalanche database derived of daily observations each year from April 1 to June 15. This yielded 192 glide avalanches in 53 distinct avalanche paths. Each avalanche occurrence was digitized in a GIS using satellite, oblique, and aerial imagery as reference. Topographical parameters such as area, slope, aspect, elevation and elevation were then derived for the entire dataset utilizing GIS tools and a 10m DEM. Land surface substrate and surface geology were derived from National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring maps and U.S. Geological Survey surface geology maps, respectively. Surface roughness and glide factor were calculated using a four level classification index. . Then, each avalanche occurrence was aggregated to general avalanche release zones and the frequencies were compared. For this study, glide avalanches released in elevations ranging from 1300 to 2700 m with a mean aspect of 98 degrees (east) and a mean slope angle of 38 degrees. The mean profile curvature for all glide avalanches was 0.15 and a plan curvature of -0.01, suggesting a fairly linear surface (i.e. neither convex nor concave). The glide avalanches occurred in mostly bedrock made up of dolomite and limestone slabs and talus deposits with very few occurring in alpine meadows. However, not all glide

  5. Assessing the importance of terrain parameters on glide avalanche release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, E.; Hendrikx, J.; Fagre, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Glide snow avalanches are dangerous and difficult to predict. Despite recent research there is still a lack of understanding regarding the controls of glide avalanche release. Glide avalanches often occur in similar terrain or the same locations annually and observations suggest that topography may be critical. Thus, to gain an understanding of the terrain component of these types of avalanches we examined terrain parameters associated with glide avalanche release as well as areas of consistent glide crack formation but no subsequent avalanches. Glide avalanche occurrences visible from the Going-to-the-Sun Road corridor in Glacier National Park, Montana from 2003-2013 were investigated using an avalanche database derived of daily observations each year from April 1 to June 15. This yielded 192 glide avalanches in 53 distinct avalanche paths. Each avalanche occurrence was digitized in a GIS using satellite, oblique, and aerial imagery as reference. Topographical parameters such as area, slope, aspect, elevation and elevation were then derived for the entire dataset utilizing GIS tools and a 10m DEM. Land surface substrate and surface geology were derived from National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring maps and U.S. Geological Survey surface geology maps, respectively. Surface roughness and glide factor were calculated using a four level classification index. . Then, each avalanche occurrence was aggregated to general avalanche release zones and the frequencies were compared. For this study, glide avalanches released in elevations ranging from 1300 to 2700 m with a mean aspect of 98 degrees (east) and a mean slope angle of 38 degrees. The mean profile curvature for all glide avalanches was 0.15 and a plan curvature of -0.01, suggesting a fairly linear surface (i.e. neither convex nor concave). The glide avalanches occurred in mostly bedrock made up of dolomite and limestone slabs and talus deposits with very few occurring in alpine meadows. However, not all glide

  6. Atmospheric stellar parameters for large surveys using FASMA, a new spectral synthesis package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsantaki, M.; Andreasen, D. T.; Teixeira, G. D. C.; Sousa, S. G.; Santos, N. C.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Bruzual, G.

    2018-02-01

    In the era of vast spectroscopic surveys focusing on Galactic stellar populations, astronomers want to exploit the large quantity and good quality of data to derive their atmospheric parameters without losing precision from automatic procedures. In this work, we developed a new spectral package, FASMA, to estimate the stellar atmospheric parameters (namely effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity) in a fast and robust way. This method is suitable for spectra of FGK-type stars in medium and high resolution. The spectroscopic analysis is based on the spectral synthesis technique using the radiative transfer code, MOOG. The line list is comprised of mainly iron lines in the optical spectrum. The atomic data are calibrated after the Sun and Arcturus. We use two comparison samples to test our method, (i) a sample of 451 FGK-type dwarfs from the high-resolution HARPS spectrograph; and (ii) the Gaia-ESO benchmark stars using both high and medium resolution spectra. We explore biases in our method from the analysis of synthetic spectra covering the parameter space of our interest. We show that our spectral package is able to provide reliable results for a wide range of stellar parameters, different rotational velocities, different instrumental resolutions and for different spectral regions of the VLT-GIRAFFE spectrographs, used amongst others for the Gaia-ESO survey. FASMA estimates stellar parameters in less than 15 m for high-resolution and 3 m for medium-resolution spectra. The complete package is publicly available to the community.

  7. Fisher matrix forecast on cosmological parameters from the dark energy survey 2-point angular correlation function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobreira, F.; Rosenfeld, R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (IFT/UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. Fisica Teorica; Simoni, F. de; Costa, L.A.N. da; Gaia, M.A.G.; Ramos, B.; Ogando, R.; Makler, M. [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: We study the cosmological constraints expected for the upcoming project Dark Energy Survey (DES) with the full functional form of the 2-point angular correlation function. The angular correlation function model applied in this work includes the effects of linear redshift-space distortion, photometric redshift errors (assumed to be Gaussian) and non-linearities prevenient from gravitational infall. The Fisher information matrix is constructed with the full covariance matrix, which takes the correlation between nearby redshift shells in a proper manner. The survey was sliced into 20 redshift shells in the range 0:4 {<=} z {<=} 1:40 with a variable angular scale in order to search only the scale around the signal from the baryon acoustic oscillation, therefore well within the validity of the non-linear model employed. We found that under those assumptions and with a flat {Lambda}CDM WMAP7 fiducial model, the DES will be able to constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter w with a precision of {approx} 20% and the cold dark matter with {approx} 11% when marginalizing over the other 25 parameters (bias is treated as a free parameter for each shell). When applying WMAP7 priors on {Omega}{sub baryon}, {Omega} c{sub dm}, n{sub s}, and HST priors on the Hubble parameter, w is constrained with {approx} 9% precision. This shows that the full shape of the angular correlation function with DES data will be a powerful probe to constrain cosmological parameters. (author)

  8. Survey of Codes Employing Nuclear Damage Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-01

    surveyed codes were com- DO 73Mu 1473 ETN OF 1NOVSSSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED 1 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS f AGE (Wh*11 Date Efntered)S<>-~C. I UNCLASSIFIED...level and above) TALLEY/TOTEM not nuclear TARTARUS too highly aggregated (battalion level and above) UNICORN highly aggregated force allocation code...vulnerability data can bq input by the user as he receives them, and there is the abil ’ity to replay any situation using hindsight. The age of target

  9. Digital Heart-Rate Variability Parameter Monitoring and Assessment ASIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massagram, W; Hafner, N; Mingqi Chen; Macchiarulo, L; Lubecke, V M; Boric-Lubecke, O

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes experimental results for an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), designed for digital heart rate variability (HRV) parameter monitoring and assessment. This ASIC chip measures beat-to-beat (RR) intervals and stores HRV parameters into its internal memory in real time. A wide range of short-term and long-term ECG signals obtained from Physionet was used for testing. The system detects R peaks with millisecond accuracy, and stores up to 2 min of continuous RR interval data and up to 4 min of RR interval histogram. The prototype chip was fabricated in a 0.5 ¿m complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology on a 3×3 mm(2) die area, with a measured dynamic power consumption of 10 ¿W and measured leakage current of 2.62 nA. The HRV monitoring system including this HRV ASIC, an analog-to-digital converter, and a low complexity microcontroller was estimated to consume 32.5 ¿V, which is seven times lower power than a stand-alone microcontroller performing the same functions. Compact size, low cost, and low power consumption make this chip suitable for a miniaturized portable HRV monitoring system.

  10. Parameters for assessing recycled aggregate and their correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Tam, C M

    2009-02-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste has consumed a large portion of the landfill areas in Hong Kong. Among them, concrete occupies more than 70% of the total C&D waste by volume. Thus it is necessary to recycle concrete waste to preserve landfill areas. Various governmental departments of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) are encouraging the use of recycled aggregate (RA) in the Hong Kong construction industry by issuing various guidelines and specifications. Owing to uncertainty in their properties, however, practitioners are sceptical in using it as a substitute. In this study, an attempt has been made to look at relations among six main parameters that describe the behaviour of RA: (1) particle size distribution; (2) particle density; (3) porosity and absorption; (4) particle shape; (5) strength and toughness; and (6) chloride and sulphate contents. RA samples were obtained from nine demolition sites with service lives ranging from 10 to 40 years and another set of samples was collected from the Tuen Mun Area 38 recycling plant. The behaviour of these samples was compared with that of normal aggregate samples. This study revealed that there is a strong correlation among various parameters, and by measuring three of them: either 'particle density' or 'porosity and absorption' or 'particle shape', and 'strength and toughness', and 'chloride and sulphate contents', it is possible to assess the behaviour of RA. This can significantly help by reducing RA testing time and cost before using it as recycled aggregate concrete.

  11. Assessing biodiesel quality parameters for wastewater grown Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagul, Samadhan Yuvraj; K Bharti, Randhir; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2017-07-01

    Microalgae are reported as the efficient source of renewable biodiesel which should be able to meet the global demand of transport fuels. Present study is focused on assessment of wastewater grown indigenous microalga Chlorella sp. for fuel quality parameters. This was successfully grown in secondary treated waste water diluted with tap water (25% dilution) in glass house. The microalga showed a dry weight of 0.849 g L -1 with lipid content of 27.1% on dry weight basis on 21st day of incubation. After transesterification, the yield of fatty acid methyl ester was 80.64% with major fatty acids as palmitic, linoleic, oleic and linolenic. The physical parameters predicted from empirical equations in the biodiesel showed cetane number as 56.5, iodine value of 75.5 g I 2 100 g -1 , high heating value 40.1 MJ kg -1 , flash point 135 °C, kinematic viscosity 4.05 mm 2 s -1 with density of 0.86 g cm 3 and cold filter plugging point as 0.7 °C. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), 1 H, 13 C NMR spectrum confirmed the chemical nature of biodiesel. The results indicated that the quality of biodiesel was almost as per the criterion of ASTM standards; hence, wastewater grown Chlorella sp. can be used as a promising strain for biodiesel production.

  12. Assigning probability distributions to input parameters of performance assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Srikanta [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    2002-02-01

    This study presents an overview of various approaches for assigning probability distributions to input parameters and/or future states of performance assessment models. Specifically,three broad approaches are discussed for developing input distributions: (a) fitting continuous distributions to data, (b) subjective assessment of probabilities, and (c) Bayesian updating of prior knowledge based on new information. The report begins with a summary of the nature of data and distributions, followed by a discussion of several common theoretical parametric models for characterizing distributions. Next, various techniques are presented for fitting continuous distributions to data. These include probability plotting, method of moments, maximum likelihood estimation and nonlinear least squares analysis. The techniques are demonstrated using data from a recent performance assessment study for the Yucca Mountain project. Goodness of fit techniques are also discussed, followed by an overview of how distribution fitting is accomplished in commercial software packages. The issue of subjective assessment of probabilities is dealt with in terms of the maximum entropy distribution selection approach, as well as some common rules for codifying informal expert judgment. Formal expert elicitation protocols are discussed next, and are based primarily on the guidance provided by the US NRC. The Bayesian framework for updating prior distributions (beliefs) when new information becomes available is discussed. A simple numerical approach is presented for facilitating practical applications of the Bayes theorem. Finally, a systematic framework for assigning distributions is presented: (a) for the situation where enough data are available to define an empirical CDF or fit a parametric model to the data, and (b) to deal with the situation where only a limited amount of information is available.

  13. Assigning probability distributions to input parameters of performance assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Srikanta

    2002-02-01

    This study presents an overview of various approaches for assigning probability distributions to input parameters and/or future states of performance assessment models. Specifically,three broad approaches are discussed for developing input distributions: (a) fitting continuous distributions to data, (b) subjective assessment of probabilities, and (c) Bayesian updating of prior knowledge based on new information. The report begins with a summary of the nature of data and distributions, followed by a discussion of several common theoretical parametric models for characterizing distributions. Next, various techniques are presented for fitting continuous distributions to data. These include probability plotting, method of moments, maximum likelihood estimation and nonlinear least squares analysis. The techniques are demonstrated using data from a recent performance assessment study for the Yucca Mountain project. Goodness of fit techniques are also discussed, followed by an overview of how distribution fitting is accomplished in commercial software packages. The issue of subjective assessment of probabilities is dealt with in terms of the maximum entropy distribution selection approach, as well as some common rules for codifying informal expert judgment. Formal expert elicitation protocols are discussed next, and are based primarily on the guidance provided by the US NRC. The Bayesian framework for updating prior distributions (beliefs) when new information becomes available is discussed. A simple numerical approach is presented for facilitating practical applications of the Bayes theorem. Finally, a systematic framework for assigning distributions is presented: (a) for the situation where enough data are available to define an empirical CDF or fit a parametric model to the data, and (b) to deal with the situation where only a limited amount of information is available

  14. Developing an International Survey of Teachers' Assessment Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renken, Maggie; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Cowie, Bronwen

    teacher education into the first years as teachers across six countries. We target the nature of programmes and changes in understanding assessment purposes, practices, principles and policy. This project builds on the ACT survey of student-teacher understandings of assessment conducted over three years......Professional standards require teachers to be assessment literate - to construct, administer, and score reliable, valid assessments, communicate interpretations and use evidence to adjust teaching to support students. This project investigates student-teachers’ assessment literacy throughout...

  15. Radiographers' professional knowledge regarding parameters and safety issues in plain radiography: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajollahi, A R; Fouladi, D F; Ghojazadeh, M; Movafaghi, A

    2014-08-01

    To review the knowledge of radiographers and examine the possible sociodemographic and situational contributors to this knowledge. A questionnaire survey was devised and distributed to a cohort of 120 radiographers. Each questionnaire contained two sections. In the first section, background data, including sex, age, highest academic level, grade point average (GPA), length of time from graduation, work experience as a radiographer and the status of previous refresher course(s), were collected. The second section contained 17 multiple-choice questions concerning radiographic imaging parameters and safety issues. The response rate was 63.8%. In univariate analytic model, higher academic degree (p workplace (p = 0.04) and taking previous refresher course(s) (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with higher knowledge score. In multivariate analytic model, however, higher academic degree (B = 1.62; p = 0.01), higher GPA (B = 0.50; p = 0.01) and taking previous refresher course(s) (B = -1.26; p = 0.03) were independently associated with higher level of knowledge. Age, sex, length of time from graduation and work experience were not associated with the respondents' knowledge score. Academic background is a robust indicator of a radiographer's professional knowledge. Refresher courses and regular knowledge assessments are highly recommended. This is the first study in the literature that examines professional knowledge of radiographers in terms of technical and safety issues in plain radiography. Academic degree, GPA and refresher courses are independent predictors of this knowledge. Regular radiographer professional knowledge checks may be recommended.

  16. Using Online Surveys to Promote and Assess Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura; Doehler, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the use of online survey software to collect data from students during class to efficiently use class time. Several example activities for an introductory statistics classroom are considered. We also discuss utilization of online survey software for other purposes such as collecting assessment information and student…

  17. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Assessment Aerial Surveys - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys were conducted during the spring-summer of 2010 and seasonally during 2011-2012 to assess the abundance and spatial distribution of marine mammals and...

  18. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in the Gulf of Mexico from 1991 to the present. These are designed as...

  19. Optimizing Methods of Obtaining Stellar Parameters for the H3 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, KeShawn; Conroy, Charlie; Cargile, Phillip

    2018-01-01

    The Stellar Halo at High Resolution with Hectochelle Survey (H3) is in the process of observing and collecting stellar parameters for stars in the Milky Way's halo. With a goal of measuring radial velocities for fainter stars, it is crucial that we have optimal methods of obtaining this and other parameters from the data from these stars.The method currently developed is The Payne, named after Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, a code that uses neural networks and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to utilize both spectra and photometry to obtain values for stellar parameters. This project was to investigate the benefit of fitting both spectra and spectral energy distributions (SED). Mock spectra using the parameters of the Sun were created and noise was inserted at various signal to noise values. The Payne then fit each mock spectrum with and without a mock SED also generated from solar parameters. The result was that at high signal to noise, the spectrum dominated and the effect of fitting the SED was minimal. But at low signal to noise, the addition of the SED greatly decreased the standard deviation of the data and resulted in more accurate values for temperature and metallicity.

  20. Relationship between anthropometric parameters and open angle glaucoma: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Yeun Lee

    Full Text Available To evaluate the relationships between open-angle glaucoma (OAG and various anthropometric measurements.Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, a population-based cross-sectional study using a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey.A total of 5,255 participants including 247 glaucoma patients, aged ≥ 19 years were included from the KNHANES V database. Glaucoma diagnosis was based on International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Various anthropometric data regarding obesity were analyzed including body mass index (BMI, total body fat mass, total body muscle mass (lean body mass, non-bone lean body mass, and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM mass, and waist circumference (WC. The differences in OAG prevalence with respect to anthropometric parameter quartiles were examined.In males, the multivariate general linear model adjusted for age, alcohol, smoking, exercise, systemic hypertension, diabetes, and intraocular pressure (IOP showed the quartiles for the anthropometric parameters BMI, fat mass/weight ratio and fat mass/muscle mass ratio were negatively associated with OAG. However, muscle mass parameter/BMI ratio was significantly positively associated with OAG (P for trend<0.05. In females, height and fat mass/BMI showed a significant relationship with the risk of OAG. (P value<0.05.In the present study, high fat mass was associated with low OAG risk. Body composition seemed to affect the prevalence of OAG, but further evaluation is needed.

  1. Relationship between anthropometric parameters and open angle glaucoma: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Yeun; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Hyun Tae; Lee, Mi Yeon; Min, Hye Won; Won, Yu Sam; Kwon, Hyun Seok; Park, Ki Ho; Kim, Joon Mo

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the relationships between open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and various anthropometric measurements. Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a population-based cross-sectional study using a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey. A total of 5,255 participants including 247 glaucoma patients, aged ≥ 19 years were included from the KNHANES V database. Glaucoma diagnosis was based on International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Various anthropometric data regarding obesity were analyzed including body mass index (BMI), total body fat mass, total body muscle mass (lean body mass, non-bone lean body mass, and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass), and waist circumference (WC). The differences in OAG prevalence with respect to anthropometric parameter quartiles were examined. In males, the multivariate general linear model adjusted for age, alcohol, smoking, exercise, systemic hypertension, diabetes, and intraocular pressure (IOP) showed the quartiles for the anthropometric parameters BMI, fat mass/weight ratio and fat mass/muscle mass ratio were negatively associated with OAG. However, muscle mass parameter/BMI ratio was significantly positively associated with OAG (P for trend<0.05). In females, height and fat mass/BMI showed a significant relationship with the risk of OAG. (P value<0.05). In the present study, high fat mass was associated with low OAG risk. Body composition seemed to affect the prevalence of OAG, but further evaluation is needed.

  2. A review of Environmental Impact Assessment parameters required for set up of a hydropower project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Pankaj Kumar; Mazumdar, Asis

    2013-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment in general, hydro-meteorological conditions, topography, hydrology, water availability analysis of a river system, importance of hydropower and feasibility study of Environmental Impact assessment due to the construction of the hydropower plant have been discussed in this research work. The site selection is one of the major components so far the hydropower is concerned and also the minimum flow should have known to us so that the capacity of a hydropower plant can be predicted. The sustainable flow, which refers the flow is available throughout the year, has been calculated based on flow duration curve. This study highlights the environmental impact assessment particularly related to hydropower project. Here the study area a district town located in the eastern region of India on the banks of river Kosi has been considered. The historical rainfall and the river discharge data have been collected from various organizations. The stage-discharge correlation and hydrological parameters related to hydropower have been analyzed and also to discuss the review of environmental impact assessment in hydropower project. The EIA analysis can be also carried out by using fuzzy logic wherein the EIA parameters can be given different weight-age based on the various survey reports that have been carried out at different places at different time. Such analysis has also been provided below based on the various data obtained.

  3. Cognitive Assessment Practices: A Survey of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Dixon, Shauna G.

    2014-01-01

    The present article describes an exploratory study regarding the preferred cognitive assessment practices of current school psychologists. Three hundred and twenty-three school psychologists participated in the survey. The results suggest that the majority of school psychologists endorsed that they base their assessment practices on an underlying…

  4. A Survey to Assess Barriers to Urban Teaching Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, Gary; Mays, Jennifer; Lee, Robert; D'Santiago, Verenice

    2016-01-01

    The "Urban Teaching Barriers" survey was created to assess barriers to urban teaching careers. Pre-service teachers (N = 377) completed this instrument, along with questionnaires that assessed urban teaching intentions and urban teaching self-efficacy. Six barrier domains were identified that tapped concerns over (a) lack of resources,…

  5. Study and survey of assembling parameters to a radioactive source production laboratory used to verify equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglitz, Erica; Nagatomy, Helio Rissei; Moura, Eduardo S.; Zeituni, Carlos Alberto; Hilario, Katia A. Fonseca; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Karam Junior, Dib

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the survey of parameters for the installation and implementation of a laboratory for radioactive sources production at immobilized resin. These sources are used in nuclear medicine for verification of dose calibrators, as the standard guidelines of the National Commission of Nuclear CNEN-NE-3.05 'Radioprotection and safety requirements for nuclear medicine services.' The radioisotopes used for this purpose are: Co-57, Cs-137 and Ba-133, with activities of 185 MBq, 9.3 MBq and 5.4 MBq, respectively. The parameters for the assembly of the laboratory shall be defined according to guidelines that guide the deployment of radiochemical laboratories and standards of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy. (author)

  6. Study and survey of assembling parameters to a radioactive source production laboratory used to verify equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Erica; Nagatomy, Helio Rissei; Moura, Eduardo S.; Zeituni, Carlos Alberto; Hilario, Katia A. Fonseca; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M., E-mail: egauglitz@ipen.b, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam Junior, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the survey of parameters for the installation and implementation of a laboratory for radioactive sources production at immobilized resin. These sources are used in nuclear medicine for verification of dose calibrators, as the standard guidelines of the National Commission of Nuclear CNEN-NE-3.05 'Radioprotection and safety requirements for nuclear medicine services.' The radioisotopes used for this purpose are: Co-57, Cs-137 and Ba-133, with activities of 185 MBq, 9.3 MBq and 5.4 MBq, respectively. The parameters for the assembly of the laboratory shall be defined according to guidelines that guide the deployment of radiochemical laboratories and standards of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy. (author)

  7. Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P

    2008-11-01

    This survey of biomass resource assessments and assessment capabilities in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies considered various sources: academic and government publications, media reports, and personal communication with contacts in member economies.

  8. Assessment of morphological and hydrological parameters of Oyun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study involves evaluation of basin area, slopes, shape of the basin as morphological parameters and analysis of flow frequencies for flood and low flows, developing unit hydrograph and analysis of rainfall intensity distribution in the study area as hydrological parameters. The morphological analysis of the basin yielded ...

  9. ASSESSING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION BASED ON QoS PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alem Čolaković

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of customer sastisfaction is an efficient tool to detect problems in SP (Services Provider and their relationship with customers. Based on this measurement a relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty can be established. It can determine the influence of key parameters on the number of users of services. The parameters of customer satisfaction and loyalty are numerous and depend on the network (network quality of services parameters, the client (the perception, expectations, beliefs, etc., employees (implementation of activities, technological developments, organizational structure, etc. This paper aims to show the way to identify key indicators and their weighted factors that affect customer satisfaction. This paper intends to emphasize relationship between quality of services, customer perception and loyalty and to present a model for examining the key parameters that significantly influence customer satisfaction and how these parameters influence customer loyalty.

  10. Assessment of health surveys: fitting a multidimensional graded response model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaoli, Sarah; Tiemensma, Jitske; Felt, John M

    The multidimensional graded response model, an item response theory (IRT) model, can be used to improve the assessment of surveys, even when sample sizes are restricted. Typically, health-based survey development utilizes classical statistical techniques (e.g. reliability and factor analysis). In a review of four prominent journals within the field of Health Psychology, we found that IRT-based models were used in less than 10% of the studies examining scale development or assessment. However, implementing IRT-based methods can provide more details about individual survey items, which is useful when determining the final item content of surveys. An example using a quality of life survey for Cushing's syndrome (CushingQoL) highlights the main components for implementing the multidimensional graded response model. Patients with Cushing's syndrome (n = 397) completed the CushingQoL. Results from the multidimensional graded response model supported a 2-subscale scoring process for the survey. All items were deemed as worthy contributors to the survey. The graded response model can accommodate unidimensional or multidimensional scales, be used with relatively lower sample sizes, and is implemented in free software (example code provided in online Appendix). Use of this model can help to improve the quality of health-based scales being developed within the Health Sciences.

  11. Biochemical parameters in Tubifex tubifex as an integral part of complex sediment toxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smutna, M.; Hilscherova, K.; Paskova, V. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (CZ). RECETOX (Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology); Marsalek, B [Czech Academy of Science, Brno (Czech Republic). Centre for Cyanobacteria and their Toxins

    2008-06-15

    Background, aim, and scope Restoration of lakes and reservoirs with extensive cyanobacterial water bloom often requires evaluation of the sediment quality. Next to the chemical analysis of known pollutants, sediment bioassays should be employed to assess toxicity of the present contaminants and to make predictions of associated risk. Brno reservoir in the Czech Republic is a typical example of water bodies with long-term problems concerning cyanobacterial water blooms. Comprehensive assessment of reservoir sediment quality was conducted since successful reservoir restoration might require sediment removal. An important part of this survey focused on an examination of the utility of Tubifex tubifex and its sublethal biochemical markers for the assessment of direct sediment toxicity. Materials and methods This complex study included chemical analysis of contaminants (heavy metals, organic pollutants), ecotoxicity testing of sediment elutriates (tests with Daphnia magna, Pseudomonas putida, Sinapis alba, Scenedesmus subspicatus), and other parameters. We have tested in more detail the applicability of T. tubifex as a test organism for direct evaluation of contact sediment toxicity. Survival tests after 14 days of exposure were complemented by an assessment of parameters serving as biomarkers for sublethal effects [such as total glutathione content (GSH), activities of the enzymes glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR)]. The data matrix was subjected to multivariate analysis to interpret relationships between different parameters and possible differences among locations. Results The multivariate statistical techniques helped to clearly identify the more contaminated upstream sites and separate them from the less contaminated and reference samples. The data document closer relationships of the detected sediment contamination with results of direct sediment exposure in the T. tubifex test regarding mortality but namely

  12. An iterative hyperelastic parameters reconstruction for breast cancer assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, Hatef; Samani, Abbas

    2008-03-01

    In breast elastography, breast tissues usually undergo large compressions resulting in significant geometric and structural changes, and consequently nonlinear mechanical behavior. In this study, an elastography technique is presented where parameters characterizing tissue nonlinear behavior is reconstructed. Such parameters can be used for tumor tissue classification. To model the nonlinear behavior, tissues are treated as hyperelastic materials. The proposed technique uses a constrained iterative inversion method to reconstruct the tissue hyperelastic parameters. The reconstruction technique uses a nonlinear finite element (FE) model for solving the forward problem. In this research, we applied Yeoh and Polynomial models to model the tissue hyperelasticity. To mimic the breast geometry, we used a computational phantom, which comprises of a hemisphere connected to a cylinder. This phantom consists of two types of soft tissue to mimic adipose and fibroglandular tissues and a tumor. Simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed method in reconstructing the hyperelastic parameters of the tumor tissue.

  13. Assessment of thermodynamic parameters of plasma shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasileva, O V; Isaev, Yu N; Budko, A A; Filkov, A I

    2014-01-01

    The work is devoted to the solution of the one-dimensional equation of hydraulic gas dynamics for the coaxial magneto plasma accelerator by means of Lax-Wendroff modified algorithm with optimum choice of the regularization parameter artificial viscosity. Replacement of the differential equations containing private derivatives is made by finite difference method. Optimum parameter of regularization artificial viscosity is added using the exact known decision of Soda problem. The developed algorithm of thermodynamic parameter calculation in a braking point is proved. Thermodynamic parameters of a shock wave in front of the plasma piston of the coaxial magneto plasma accelerator are calculated on the basis of the offered algorithm. Unstable high-frequency fluctuations are smoothed using modeling and that allows narrowing the ambiguity area. Results of calculation of gas dynamic parameters in a point of braking coincide with literary data. The chart 3 shows the dynamics of change of speed and thermodynamic parameters of a shock wave such as pressure, density and temperature just before the plasma piston

  14. Survey Procedures Manual for the Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP). Revision 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) conducts radiological survey activities under a contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ORISE and its programs are operated by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) through a contract with DOE. The purpose of this Procedures Manual is to provide a standardized set of procedures that document activities of the program in an auditable manner. These procedures are applicable to both DOE and NRC operations. Procedures presented in this manual are limited to those associated with site survey activities

  15. Assessment of performance parameters for EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Fattibene, P.; Shishkina, E.A.; Ivanov, D.V.; De Coste, V.; Guettler, A.; Onori, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of a comparison between three laboratories, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal-to-dose response curves were measured for sets of 30 tooth enamel samples and the variance of EPR measurements in dependence on absorbed dose was evaluated, in nine combinations of laboratory of sample preparation and EPR evaluation, respectively. As a test for benchmarking of EPR evaluation, the parameters 'critical dose' and 'limit of detection' were proposed as performance parameters following definitions from chemical-metrology, and a model function was suggested for analytical formulation of the dependence of the variance of EPR measurement on absorbed dose. First estimates of limits of detection by weighted and unweighted fitting resulted in the range 101-552 and 67-561 mGy, respectively, and were generally larger with weighted than with unweighted fitting. Indication was found for the influence of methodology of sample preparation and applied EPR measurement parameters on performance of EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel

  16. MicroCT parameters for multimaterial elements assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Olga M. O.; Silva Bastos, Jaqueline; Machado, Alessandra S.; dos Santos, Thaís M. P.; Ferreira, Cintia G.; Rosifini Alves Claro, Ana Paula; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2018-03-01

    Microtomography is a non-destructive testing technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis. The investigation of multimaterial elements with great difference of density can result in artifacts that degrade image quality depending on combination of additional filter. The aim of this study is the selection of parameters most appropriate for analysis of bone tissue with metallic implant. The results show the simulation with MCNPX code for the distribution of energy without additional filter, with use of aluminum, copper and brass filters and their respective reconstructed images showing the importance of the choice of these parameters in image acquisition process on computed microtomography.

  17. MicroCT parameters for multi material elements assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araújo, Olga M.O. de; Machado, Alessandra S.; Santos, Thaís M.P. dos; Ferreira, Cintia G.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: olgaufrjlin@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Bastos, Jaqueline Silva [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Microtomography is a non-destructive testing technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis. The investigation of multi material elements with great difference of density can result in artifacts that degrade image quality depending on combination of additional filter. The aim of this study is the selection of parameters most appropriate for analysis of bone tissue with metallic implant. The results show the simulation with MCNPX code for the distribution of energy without additional filter, with use of aluminum, copper and brass filters and their respective reconstructed images showing the importance of the choice of these parameters in image acquisition process on computed microtomography. (author)

  18. Surveying Assessment in Experiential Learning: A Single Campus Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Yates

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the methods of experiential assessment in use at a Canadian university and the extent to which they are used. Exploring experiential assessment will allow identification of commonly used methods and facilitate the development of best practices of assessment in the context of experiential learning (EL at an institutional level. The origins of EL are found in the work of Dewey (1938, later modified by Kolb and Fry (1975. Experiential methods include: experiential education, service learning problem-based learning and others such as action learning, enquiry-based learning, and case studies. Faculty currently involved in EL at the participating university were invited to complete an online survey about their teaching and assessment methods. This paper will share the results and analysis of the EL inventory survey.

  19. Comparisons of criteria in the assessment model parameter optimizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhe; Zhang Yongxing

    1993-01-01

    Three criteria (chi square, relative chi square and correlation coefficient) used in model parameter optimization (MPO) process that aims at significant reduction of prediction uncertainties were discussed and compared to each other with the aid of a well-controlled tracer experiment

  20. Assessment Of Some Physicochemical Parameters Levels In Sachet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Natural and Applied Science, Umaru Musa Yar'adua ... appearance of Physicochemical parameters; pH, Electric ... should provide a scientifically equipped laboratory for .... of sachet water quality on human health in the study area. Fig. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... line in this case is actually the Product of the molar.

  1. Unconstrained parameter estimation for assessment of dynamic cerebral autoregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacón, M; Nuñez, N; Henríquez, C; Panerai, R B

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA), the transient response of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP), has been performed with an index of autoregulation (ARI), related to the parameters of a second-order differential equation model, namely gain (K), damping factor (D) and time constant (T). Limitations of the ARI were addressed by increasing its numerical resolution and generalizing the parameter space. In 16 healthy subjects, recordings of ABP (Finapres) and CBF velocity (ultrasound Doppler) were performed at rest, before, during and after 5% CO 2 breathing, and for six repeated thigh cuff maneuvers. The unconstrained model produced lower predictive error (p < 0.001) than the original model. Unconstrained parameters (K'–D'–T') were significantly different from K–D–T but were still sensitive to different measurement conditions, such as the under-regulation induced by hypercapnia. The intra-subject variability of K' was significantly lower than that of the ARI and this parameter did not show the unexpected occurrences of zero values as observed with the ARI and the classical value of K. These results suggest that K' could be considered as a more stable and reliable index of dynamic autoregulation than ARI. Further studies are needed to validate this new index under different clinical conditions

  2. Accelerometry based assessment of gait parameters in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Herre; Hoeven, H. vd; Ipenburg, S. van; Lummel, Robert C. van R.C. van Rob C. Van R.C. van; Blockhuis, Nancy; Nienhuis, B.; Heikens, Sander S.C.; Brandes, Mirko; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Rosenbaum, Dieter; Terwee, C.B. Caroline B.; Slikke, R.M.A. van der Rienk M.A. vam der; Benink, Rob J. R.J.; Meijers, Wil G.H W.G.H.; de Vet, H.C.W. Henrica C W; Pitta, Fabio; Troosters, Thierry; Spruit, Martijn A.; Decramer, Marc; Gosselink, Rik; Thoumie, P.; Forward, M.J.; Plasschaert, F.S.; Burdorf, Lex; Windhorst, Judith; Beek, Allard J. van der; Molen, Henk F. van der; Swuste, Paul H.J.J.; Janssen, Maurice M.J.A.; Pas, Rianne; Aarts, Jos; Janssen-Potten, Yvonne; Vles, Johan; Pinxteren, S.A.T.v. Sjors van; Stokroos, R.J. Robert; Kingma, Herman; Pas, A.J.; Aarts, A.F.J.; Nabuurs, C.I.H.C.; Janssen, Y.; Mokkink, Lidwine B.; van der Slikke, Rienk M.A.; van Lummel, Rob C R.C.; Bouter, L.M. Lex M; de Vet, H.C.W. Henrica C W; de Witte, S.J.; Wetzels, L.; Probst, Vanessa S.; Peijl, I.D. van der; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M.; Versteegh, M.I.M.; Lok, J.J.; Munneke, M.; Dion, R.A.E.; Bulthuis, Y.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M.; Hermens, H.J.; Vendrig, L.; Roozenburg, B.; Wal, M. van der; Lisowski, A.E.; Murray, D.W.; Lisowski, L.A.; Creusen, H.; Witvrouw, E.; Victor, J.; Bellemans, J.; Rock, B.; Verdonk, R.; Spenkelink, C.D.; Hutten, M.M.R.; Greitemann, B.O.L.; Schillemans, P.F.; Meijer, O.G.; Dikkenberg, N. van den; Dieën, Jaap H van J.H. van; Pijls, B.; Wuisman, P.I.J.M.; Uiterwaal, M.; Dam, M.S. van; Kok, G.J.; Vogelaar, F.J.; Taminiau, A.H.M.; Derycke, P.; Vilella, P.; Loonbeek, S.; Schuffelers, K.; Jong, Z. de; Zwinderman, A.H.; Tijhuis, G.J.; Hazes, J.M.W.; Glerum, E.B.C.; Busser, H.J. J.; Ott, J.; Blank, R.; de Korte, W.G.; Veltink, Peter H. P.H.; Bussmann, Hans B.J.; de Vries, W.; Martens, W.I.J. Wim L.J.; Kerkhof, G. A.; Koelma, Frank; Franken, Henry M.; Kim, Tea-Woo; Kim, Yong-Wook; Abrahin, O.; Rodrigues, R. P.; Nascimento, V.C.; Silva-Grigoletto, M.E. Da; Sousa, E.C.; Marçal, A.C.; Van Remoortel, Hans; Raste, Yogini; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Giavedoni, Santiago; Burtin, Chris; Langer, Daniel; Wilson, Frederick; Rabinovich, Roberto; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Schooten, Kimberley S.; Rispens, Sietse M; Elders, Petra J M; Lips, Paul; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Andersson, M.; Janson, C.; Emtner, M.; Sena, R.; Holt, Nicole E.; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Kurlinski, Laura A.; Thomas Julia, C.; Landry, Paige M.; Campbell, Braidie; Latham, Nancy; Ni, Pengsheng; Jette, Alan; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Bean, Johnathan F.; Bisi, Maria Cristina; Riva, Federico; Stagni, Rita; Altuğ, Filiz; Acar, Feridun; Acar, Göksemin; Cavlak, Uğur; Choi, Ho-Chun; Son, Ki Young; Cho, Belong; Park, Sang Min; Cho, Sung-Il

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine if spatio-temporal gait parameters in healthy children can be determined from accelerations measured at the lower trunk as has been demonstrated in adults, previously. Twenty children aged 3-16 years, participated in a protocol that involved repeated walks

  3. Assessment of some physicochemical parameters levels in sachet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sachet drinking water in Katsina Urban Area unfortunately, is not quite safe, because some of the parameters analysed were above the maximum permissible limit set by the WHO in drinking water. It is noted that, the treatment process in Sachet water in the study area is done by "experience" and not by scientific method.

  4. Research Note Pilot survey to assess sample size for herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot survey to determine sub-sample size (number of point observations per plot) for herbaceous species composition assessments, using a wheel-point apparatus applying the nearest-plant method, was conducted. Three plots differing in species composition on the Zululand coastal plain were selected, and on each plot ...

  5. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study Summarized Data - HVAC Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues was acquired by examining the building plans, conducting a building walk-through, and speaking with the building owner, manager, and/or operator.

  6. Effectiveness, Teaching, and Assessments: Survey Evidence from Finance Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ming Ming; Kwan, Jing Hui; Kadir, Hazlina Abdul; Abdullah, Mahdhir; Yap, Voon Choong

    2010-01-01

    The present article examines the effectiveness, teaching, assessment methods, and the importance of finance concepts in three undergraduate finance courses in a private university in Malaysia. Approximately 224 undergraduates (finance majors) were surveyed and demonstrated positive attitudes toward the effectiveness of the finance subjects. The…

  7. Damage assessment in structure from changes in static parameter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    damage assessment methodology will be a valuable tool in timely ... of the numerical model to the physical system are prerequisites for success. Wu et al ... The objective of the present paper is to locate and assess the damage occurring at any posi- ... This method leads to the recent very popular neural network learning.

  8. Assessment of calibration parameters for an aerial gamma spectrometry system using Monte-Carlo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, P.; Raman, Anand; Sharma, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    Aerial gamma spectrometry is a very effective method for quickly surveying a large area, which might get contaminated following a nuclear accident, or due to nuclear weapon fallout. The technique not only helps in identifying the contaminating radionuclide but also in assessing the magnitude and the extent of contamination. These two factors are of importance for the authorities to quickly plan and execute effective counter measures and controls if required. The development of Airborne gamma ray spectrometry systems have been reported by different institutions. The application of these systems have been reported by different authors. Radiation Safety Systems Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has developed an Aerial Gamma Spectrometry System (AGSS) and the surveying methodology. For an online assessment of the contamination levels, it is essential to calibrate the system (AGSS) either flying it over a known contaminated area or over a simulated contaminated surface by deploying sealed sources on the ground. AGSS has been calibrated for different detectors in aerial exercises using such simulated contamination on the ground. The calibration methodology essentially needs net photo-peak counts in selected energy windows to finally arrive at the Air to Ground Correlation Factors at selected flight parameters such as altitude, speed of flight and the time interval at which each spectrum is acquired. This paper describes the methodology to predict all the necessary parameters like photon fluence at various altitudes, the photo-peak counts in different energy windows, Air to Ground Correlation Factors(AGCF), the dose rate at any height due to air scattered gamma ray photons etc. These parameters are predicted for a given source deployment matrix, detector and altitude of flying using the Monte-Carlo code MCNP (Monte Carlo Neutron and Photon Transport Code.CCC-200, RSIC, ORNL, Tennessee, USA). A methodology to generate the completely folded gamma ray count

  9. New quality assessment procedure for exchange area cable transmission parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, P. A.

    To best represent the customers' needs, a method of evaluating the transmission quality of exchange area cable must have representative requirements, a statistically powerful method of evaluating the conformance of cables to the requirements and a means of combining the results in a fashion that reflects the end use of the product. The method described herein utilizes a requirement structure containing nominal and maximum requirements to define a desirable distribution for each parameter.

  10. Violence Risk Assessment Practices in Denmark: A Multidisciplinary National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Louise Hjort

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With a quadrupling of forensic psychiatric patients in Denmark over the past 20 years, focus on violence risk assessment practices across the country has increased. However, information is lacking regarding Danish risk assessment practice across professional disciplines and clinical settings; little is known about how violence risk assessments are conducted, which instruments are used for what purposes, and how mental health professionals rate their utility and costs. As part of a global survey exploring the application of violence risk assessment across 44 countries, the current study investigated Danish practice across several professional disciplines and settings in which forensic and high-risk mental health patients are assessed and treated. In total, 125 mental health professionals across the country completed the survey. The five instruments that respondents reported most commonly using for risk assessment, risk management planning and risk monitoring were Broset, HCR-20, the START, the PCL-R, and the PCL:SV. Whereas the HCR-20 was rated highest in usefulness for risk assessment, the START was rated most useful for risk management and risk monitoring. No significant differences in utility were observed across professional groups. Unstructured clinical judgments were reported to be faster but more expensive to conduct than using a risk assessment instrument. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  11. Efficiency as a parameter for assessing the Polish healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bogdan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Efficacy is defined as one of the most valid parameters of health system evaluation. It should be said that there is no consistent definition of the concept of effectiveness in health care, which would allow for the evaluation and comparison of health systems in the world. One can not point to the best or even near ideal of the health system. However, you can rank individual health systems with respect to the evaluation of individual parameters or groups of parameters. One of the possibilities is to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Aim of the study. The aim of the article is to define and analyze particular types of system effectiveness in the context of the Polish health system. Description of knowledge. The literature on the subject is divided into operational and dynamic efficiency. Dynamic efficiency is divided into adaptive and innovative. The Polish health system is characterized by high operational efficiency. Operational efficiency determines the intensity of the system. The key factor for improving the health of the Polish society, as a factor of socio-economic development of the country is to improve the dynamic efficiency of the system. Conclusions. Health care in Poland has high operational efficiency while low dynamic efficiency, both adaptive and innovative, which clearly demonstrates the existence of a paradox of the overall effectiveness of the health care system in Poland.

  12. Radiological Risk Assessment and Survey of Radioactive Contamination for Foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.R.; Lee, C.W.; Choi, K.S.

    2007-11-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs have been investigated by many countries such as EU, Japan, USA. In the case of Japan which is similar to our country for the imported regions of foodstuffs, there were some instances of the excess for regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination among some imported foodstuffs. Concerns about the radioactive contamination of foodstuffs are increased because of the recently special situation (Nuclear test of North Korea). The purpose of this study is a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Analytical results of the collected samples are below MDA. In this project, the model of radiological dose assessment via the food chain was also developed and radiological dose assessment was conducted based on surveys results of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in the Korean open markets since 2002. The results of radiological dose assessment are far below international reference level. It shows that public radiation exposure via food chain is well controlled within the international guide level. However, the radioactive contamination research of imported foodstuffs should be continuous considering the special situation(nuclear test of North Korea). These results are used to manage the radioactive contamination of the imported foodstuffs and also amend the regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs

  13. THE ACS SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. IX. HORIZONTAL BRANCH MORPHOLOGY AND THE SECOND PARAMETER PHENOMENON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotter, Aaron; Sarajedini, Ata; Anderson, Jay; Bedin, Luigi R.; Paust, Nathaniel; Reid, I. Neill; Aparicio, Antonio; MarIn-Franch, A.; Rosenberg, Alfred; Chaboyer, Brian; Majewski, Steven; Milone, Antonino; Piotto, Giampaolo; Siegel, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The horizontal branch (HB) morphology of globular clusters (GCs) is most strongly influenced by metallicity. The second parameter phenomenon, first described in the 1960s, acknowledges that metallicity alone is not enough to describe the HB morphology of all GCs. In particular, astronomers noticed that the outer Galactic halo contains GCs with redder HBs at a given metallicity than are found inside the solar circle. Thus, at least a second parameter was required to characterize HB morphology. While the term 'second parameter' has since come to be used in a broader context, its identity with respect to the original problem has not been conclusively determined. Here we analyze the median color difference between the HB and the red giant branch, hereafter denoted as Δ(V - I), measured from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) photometry of 60 GCs within ∼20 kpc of the Galactic center. Analysis of this homogeneous data set reveals that, after the influence of metallicity has been removed from the data, the correlation between Δ(V - I) and age is stronger than that of any other parameter considered. Expanding the sample to include HST ACS and Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 photometry of the six most distant Galactic GCs lends additional support to the correlation between Δ(V - I) and age. This result is robust with respect to the adopted metallicity scale and the method of age determination, but must bear the caveat that high-quality, detailed abundance information is not available for a significant fraction of the sample. Furthermore, when a subset of GCs with similar metallicities and ages is considered, a correlation between Δ(V - I) and central luminosity density is exposed. With respect to the existence of GCs with anomalously red HBs at a given metallicity, we conclude that age is the second parameter and central density is most likely the third. Important problems related to HB morphology in GCs, notably multi-modal distributions

  14. A survey of ecological risk assessment at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Bascietto, J.; Joseph, T.; Bilyard, G.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Risk-Based Standards Working Group is studying standard-setting and remedial action based on realistic estimates of human health and ecological risks. Federal and state regulations require DOE to assess ecological risks due to present and past operation of DOE facilities and ecological damage caused by remedial actions. Unfortunately, little technical guidance has been provided by regulatory agencies about how these assessments should be performed or what constitutes an adequate assessment. Active ecological research, environmental characterization, and ecological risk assessment programs are already underway at many locations. Some of these programs were established more than 30 years ago. Because of the strength of its existing programs and the depth of expertise available within the DOE complex, the agency is in a position to lead in developing ecological risk assessment procedures that are fully consistent with the general principles defined by EPA and that will ensure environmentally sound and cost-effective restoration of its sites. As a prelude to guidance development, the working group conducted a survey of ecological risk assessment activities at a subset of major DOE facilities. The survey was intended to (1) identify approaches now being used in ecological risk assessments performed by DOE staff and contractors at each site, (2) record successes and failures of these approaches, (3) identify new technical developments with potential for general application to many DOE facilities, and (4) identify major data needs, data resources, and methodological deficiencies

  15. Gestational Age Assessment with Anthropometric Parameters in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloy Kumar Das1,

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to evaluate the relationship between gestational age (GA and neonatal anthropometric parameters, namely head circumference (HC and crown-heel length (CHL. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care hospital with 530 consecutively live-born newborns of 28–41 weeks gestation. Anthropometric parameters were measured after three days of life. We summarized the variables using descriptive statistics, including percentile values, and the strength of association was determined through correlation analysis. The correlation was strong for HC and CHL, and linear regression analysis was done to develop predictive equations. Results: HC and CHL correlated well with GA with r-values of 0.863 and 0.859, respectively. The regression equations derived were GA (week = 9.2671 + [0.8616 × HC (cm] and GA (weeks = 7.2489 + [0.621 × CHL (cm]. Multiple regression gave the relationship as GA (weeks = 4.0244 + [0.4058 × HC (cm] + [0.4249× CHL (cm]. Application of this multiple regression equation to a test cohort of 30 babies for prediction of GA gave a mean margin of error of 2.9%, indicating that it is a satisfactory tool for prediction. Conclusions: HC and CHL can be used as simple tools for predicting GA in babies when this is in doubt. This can help in identification of high-risk newborns at primary care level without recourse to imaging modalities.

  16. Technology assessments in transportation: survey of recent literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S.J.

    1980-03-01

    A survey and an evaluation of recent studies of transportation systems done in a technology-assessment framework were undertaken as the basis for a detailed statement of work for a US Department of Energy technology assessment of transportation energy-conservation strategies. Several bibliographies were searched and numerous professionals in the field of technology assessment were contacted regarding current work. Detailed abstracts were prepared for studies judged to be sufficiently broad in coverage of impacts assessed, yet detailed in coverage of all or part of the nation's transportation systems. Some studies were rich in data but not comprehensive in their analytical approach; brief abstracts were prepared for these. An explanation of the criteria used to screen the studies, as well as abstracts of 37 reports, are provided in this compendium of transportation-technology-assessment literature.

  17. Parameters affecting of Akkuyu's safety assessment for severe core damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavun, Yusuf; Karasulu, Muzaffer

    2015-07-01

    We have looked at all past core meltdowns (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents) and postulated the fourth one might be taking place in the future most probably in a newly built reactors anywhere of the earth in any type of NPP. The probability of this observation is high considering the nature of the machine and human interaction. Operation experience is a very significant parameter as well as the safety culture of the host nation. The concerns is not just a lack of experience with industry with the new comers, but also the infrastructure and established institutions who will be dealing with the Emergencies. Lack of trained and educated Emergency Response Organizations (ERO) is a major concern. The culture on simple fire drills even makes the difference when a severe condition occurs in the industry. The study assumes the fourth event will be taking place at the Akkuyu NGS and works backwards as required by the "what went wrong " scenarios and comes up with interesting results. The differences studied in depth to determine the impact to the severe accidents. The all four design have now core catchers. We have looked at the operator errors'like in TMI); Operator errors combined with design deficiencies(like in Chernobyl) and natural disasters( like in Fukushima) and found operator errors to be more probable event on the Akkuyu's postulated next incident. With respect to experiences of the operators we do not have any data except for long and successful operating history of the Soviet design reactors up until the Chernobyl incident. Since the Akkuyu will be built, own and operated by the Russians we have found no alarming concerns at the moment. At the moment, there is no body be able to operate those units in Turkey. Turkey is planning to build the required manpower during the transition period. The resolution of the observed parameters lies to work and educate, train of the host nation and exercise together.

  18. An Analysis Report of 2014 CALA Self-Assessment Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Anna Xiong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of CALA’s 40th anniversary in 2014, the 2013 Board of Directors appointed a Self-Assessment Task Force to conduct an assessment survey with special focuses on members’ awareness of CALA’s organizational structure and policies, its services to members, the extent of participation in events sponsored by CALA, and the level of satisfaction with CALA leadership. Although only one-fifth of the active members responded to the survey, the answers and feedback have identified areas for organizational improvement and have shown how active members view the current state of CALA. Some essential findings from the survey include: 1 the growth of overseas membership as a demographic trend, 2 a need to recruit student members, 3 a high percentage of CALA members not aware of CALA’s Mission/Vision/Goal, 4 conflicting data on CALA’s leadership, 5 discovery of low ratings (10-30% of respondents on eleven out of twelve rating questions, and 6 strong support for CALA as a representative organization of Chinese American librarians in North America. The findings of the survey will serve as a valuable reference for future strategic planning and for carrying out CALA’s long term goals.

  19. Information sensitivity functions to assess parameter information gain and identifiability of dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Sanjay

    2018-05-01

    A new class of functions, called the 'information sensitivity functions' (ISFs), which quantify the information gain about the parameters through the measurements/observables of a dynamical system are presented. These functions can be easily computed through classical sensitivity functions alone and are based on Bayesian and information-theoretic approaches. While marginal information gain is quantified by decrease in differential entropy, correlations between arbitrary sets of parameters are assessed through mutual information. For individual parameters, these information gains are also presented as marginal posterior variances, and, to assess the effect of correlations, as conditional variances when other parameters are given. The easy to interpret ISFs can be used to (a) identify time intervals or regions in dynamical system behaviour where information about the parameters is concentrated; (b) assess the effect of measurement noise on the information gain for the parameters; (c) assess whether sufficient information in an experimental protocol (input, measurements and their frequency) is available to identify the parameters; (d) assess correlation in the posterior distribution of the parameters to identify the sets of parameters that are likely to be indistinguishable; and (e) assess identifiability problems for particular sets of parameters. © 2018 The Authors.

  20. Recommended parameters for effect assessment of radioactive airborne effluents under normal condition of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Fang Dong; Sun Chengzhi; Xiao Naihong

    2003-01-01

    A set of models and default parameters are recommended for effect assessment of radioactive airborne effluents under normal condition of nuclear facilities in order to standardize the environmental effect assessment of nuclear facilities, and to simplify the observation and investigation in early phase. The paper introduces the input data and default parameters used in the model

  1. Alternative parameters for echocardiographic assessment of fetal diastolic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielinsky P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to assess ventricular diastolic function in the fetus are proposed. Fetal myocardial hypertrophy in maternal diabetes was used as a model of decreased left ventricular compliance (LVC, and fetal respiratory movements as a model of increased LVC. Comparison of three groups of fetuses showed that, in 10 fetuses of diabetic mothers (FDM with septal hypertrophy (SH, the mean excursion index of the septum primum (EISP (ratio between the linear excursion of the flap valve and the left atrial diameter was 0.36 ± 0.09, in 8 FDM without SH it was 0.51 ± 0.09 (P = 0.001, and in the 8 normal control fetuses (NCF it was 0.49 ± 0.12 (P = 0.003. In another study, 28 fetuses in apnea had a mean EISP of 0.39 ± 0.05 which increased to 0.57 ± 0.07 during respiration (P < 0.001. These two studies showed that the mobility of the septum primum was reduced when LVC was decreased and was increased when LVC was enhanced. Mean pulmonary vein pulsatility was higher in 14 FDM (1.83 ± 1.21 than in 26 NCF (1.02 ± 0.31; P = 0.02. In the same fetuses, mean left atrial shortening was decreased (0.40 ± 0.11 in relation to NCF (0.51 ± 0.09; P = 0.011. These results suggest that FDM may have a higher preload than normal controls, probably as a result of increased myocardial mass and LV hypertrophy. Prenatal assessment of LV diastolic function by fetal echocardiography should include analysis of septum primum mobility, pulmonary vein pulsatility, and left atrial shortening.

  2. Study and survey of assembling parameters to a radioactive source production laboratory used to verify equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglitz, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of parameters for the proper and safe flooring, doors, windows, fume hoods and others, in a radiochemical laboratory. The layout of each item follows guidelines and national standards of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), aiming to ensure the radiological protection of workers and environment. The adequate items arrangement in the radiochemical laboratory ensures quality and safety in the production of 57 Co 137 Cs and 133 Ba radioactive sealed sources, with activities 185, 9.3 and 5.4 MBq, respectively. These sources are used to verify meter activity equipment and should be available throughout the Nuclear Medicine Center, following the recommendations of CNEN-NN-3.05 standard R equirements for Radiation Protection and Safety Services for Nuclear Medicine , to verify the activity of radiopharmaceuticals that are administered in patients, for diagnosis and therapy. Verification of measuring activity equipment will be used to perform accuracy, reproducibility and linearity tests, which should show results within the limits specified in the standard CNEN-NN-3.05. (author)

  3. FORECASTING COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETER CONSTRAINTS FROM NEAR-FUTURE SPACE-BASED GALAXY SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, Anatoly; Ratra, Bharat; Samushia, Lado

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of space-based galaxy surveys is expected to measure the growth rate of structure to a level of about one percent over a range of redshifts. The rate of growth of structure as a function of redshift depends on the behavior of dark energy and so can be used to constrain parameters of dark energy models. In this work, we investigate how well these future data will be able to constrain the time dependence of the dark energy density. We consider parameterizations of the dark energy equation of state, such as XCDM and ωCDM, as well as a consistent physical model of time-evolving scalar field dark energy, φCDM. We show that if the standard, specially flat cosmological model is taken as a fiducial model of the universe, these near-future measurements of structure growth will be able to constrain the time dependence of scalar field dark energy density to a precision of about 10%, which is almost an order of magnitude better than what can be achieved from a compilation of currently available data sets.

  4. Overall strategy for management of parameters and data in the biosphere assessment portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjerpe, T.

    2006-12-01

    Throughout the biosphere assessment, the parameters selected to represent the present and future biosphere and choices of data values are crucial issues, greatly affecting the end result. The necessity of clear strategy for managing parameters and data is obvious; how to handle the variability of parameters as such, the selection from different sources, the derivation of values of model parameters not readily available, storage of the data in a proper manner, and assuring the quality throughout the whole assessment programme. In this working report a proposed set of broad guidelines for the overall strategy for the management of parameters and data in the biosphere assessment strategy is first presented. Thereafter, a scheme is proposed for assuring the knowledge quality of data. Finally, a proposal for requirements and management of the biosphere assessment database and the current status of the on-going work building the biosphere assessment database and interfaces to other tools are presented. (orig.)

  5. Ground-based infrared surveys: imaging the thermal fields at volcanoes and revealing the controlling parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Michele; Walter, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Temperature monitoring is a widespread procedure in the frame of volcano hazard monitoring. Indeed temperature changes are expected to reflect changes in volcanic activity. We propose a new approach, within the thermal monitoring, which is meant to shed light on the parameters controlling the fluid pathways and the fumarole sites by using infrared measurements. Ground-based infrared cameras allow one to remotely image the spatial distribution, geometric pattern and amplitude of fumarole fields on volcanoes at metre to centimetre resolution. Infrared mosaics and time series are generated and interpreted, by integrating geological field observations and modeling, to define the setting of the volcanic degassing system at shallow level. We present results for different volcano morphologies and show that lithology, structures and topography control the appearance of fumarole field by the creation of permeability contrasts. We also show that the relative importance of those parameters is site-dependent. Deciphering the setting of the degassing system is essential for hazard assessment studies because it would improve our understanding on how the system responds to endogenous or exogenous modification.

  6. Normalisation of body composition parameters for nutritional assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Normalisation of body composition parameters to an index of body size facilitates comparison of a subject’s measurements with those of a population. There is an obvious focus on indexes of obesity, but first it is informative to consider Fat Free Mass (FFM) in the context of common anthropometric measures of body size namely, height and weight. The contention is that FFM is a more physiological measure of body size than body mass. Many studies have shown that FFM relates to height ^p. Although there is debate over the appropriate exponent especially in early life, it appears to lie between 2 and 3. If 2, then FFM Index (FFMI; kg/m2) and Fat Mass Index (FMI; kg/m2) can be summed to give BMI. If 3 were used as exponent, then FFMI (kg/m3) plus FMI (kg/m3) gives the Ponderal Index (PI; weight/height3). In 2013, Burton argued that that a cubic exponent is appropriate for normalisation as it is a dimensionless quotient. In 2012, Wang and co-workers repeated earlier observations showing a strong linear relationship between FFM and height3. The importance of the latter study comes from the fact that a 4 compartment body composition model was used, which is recognised as the most accurate means of describing FFM. Once the basis of a FFMI has been defined it can be used to compare measurements with those of a population, either directly, as a ratio to a norm or as a Z-score. FFMI charts could be developed for use in child growth. Other related indexes can be determined for use in specific circumstances such as: body cell mass index (growth and wasting); skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI) or appendicular SMMI (growth and sarcopenia); bone mineral mass index (osteoporosis); extracellular fluid index (hydration). Finally, it is logical that the same system is used to define an adiposity index, so Fat Mass Index (FMI; kg/height3) can be used as it is consistent with FFMI (kg/height3) and PI. It should also be noted that the index FM/FFM, describes an individual

  7. Health impact assessment – A survey on quantifying tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.fehr@uni-bielefeld.de [Fakultaet fuer Gesundheitswissenschaften, Universitaet Bielefeld, Universitaetsstr. 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Mekel, Odile C.L., E-mail: odile.mekel@lzg.nrw.de [Gesundheitsdaten und analysen, Versorgungsstrukturen, Landeszentrum Gesundheit Nordrhein-Westfalen (LZG.NRW), Westerfeldstr. 35-37, 33611 Bielefeld (Germany); Fintan Hurley, J., E-mail: fintan.hurley@iom-world.org [Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mackenbach, Johan P., E-mail: j.mackenbach@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Integrating human health into prospective impact assessments is known to be challenging. This is true for both approaches: dedicated health impact assessments (HIA) as well as inclusion of health into more general impact assessments. Acknowledging the full range of participatory, qualitative, and quantitative approaches, this study focuses on the latter, especially on computational tools for quantitative health modelling. We conducted a survey among tool developers concerning the status quo of development and availability of such tools; experiences made with model usage in real-life situations; and priorities for further development. Responding toolmaker groups described 17 such tools, most of them being maintained and reported as ready for use and covering a wide range of topics, including risk & protective factors, exposures, policies, and health outcomes. In recent years, existing models have been improved and were applied in new ways, and completely new models emerged. There was high agreement among respondents on the need to further develop methods for assessment of inequalities and uncertainty. The contribution of quantitative modeling to health foresight would benefit from building joint strategies of further tool development, improving the visibility of quantitative tools and methods, and engaging continuously with actual and potential users. - Highlights: • A survey investigated computational tools for health impact quantification. • Formal evaluation of such tools has been rare. • Handling inequalities and uncertainties are priority areas for further development. • Health foresight would benefit from tool developers and users forming a community. • Joint development strategies across computational tools are needed.

  8. Health impact assessment – A survey on quantifying tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, Rainer; Mekel, Odile C.L.; Fintan Hurley, J.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Integrating human health into prospective impact assessments is known to be challenging. This is true for both approaches: dedicated health impact assessments (HIA) as well as inclusion of health into more general impact assessments. Acknowledging the full range of participatory, qualitative, and quantitative approaches, this study focuses on the latter, especially on computational tools for quantitative health modelling. We conducted a survey among tool developers concerning the status quo of development and availability of such tools; experiences made with model usage in real-life situations; and priorities for further development. Responding toolmaker groups described 17 such tools, most of them being maintained and reported as ready for use and covering a wide range of topics, including risk & protective factors, exposures, policies, and health outcomes. In recent years, existing models have been improved and were applied in new ways, and completely new models emerged. There was high agreement among respondents on the need to further develop methods for assessment of inequalities and uncertainty. The contribution of quantitative modeling to health foresight would benefit from building joint strategies of further tool development, improving the visibility of quantitative tools and methods, and engaging continuously with actual and potential users. - Highlights: • A survey investigated computational tools for health impact quantification. • Formal evaluation of such tools has been rare. • Handling inequalities and uncertainties are priority areas for further development. • Health foresight would benefit from tool developers and users forming a community. • Joint development strategies across computational tools are needed.

  9. CRED REA Benthic Parameter Assessment at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Point-count surveys at 50-cm intervals were conducted along 2 consecutively placed, 25m line transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14...

  10. CRED REA Benthic Parameter Assessment at Swains Island, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Point-count surveys at 50-cm intervals were conducted along 2 consecutively placed, 25m line transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8...

  11. Survey of selected pathogens and blood parameters of northern yellowstone elk: Wolf sanitation effect implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, S. M.; White, P.J.; Mech, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    The restoration or conservation of predators could reduce seroprevalences of certain diseases in prey if predation selectively removes animals exhibiting clinical signs. We assessed disease seroprevalences and blood parameters of 115 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) wintering on the northern range of Yellowstone National Park [YNP] during 2000-2005 and compared them to data collected prior to wolf (Canis lupus) restoration (WR) in 1995 and to two other herds in Montana to assess this prediction. Blood parameters were generally within two standard deviations of the means observed in other Montana herds (Gravelly-Snowcrest [GS] and Garnet Mountain [GM]), but Yellowstone elk had higher seroprevalences of parainfluenza-3 virus (95% CI YNP = 61.1-78.6, GS = 30.3-46.5) and bovine-virus-diarrhea virus type 1 (95% CI YNP = 15.9-31.9, GM = 0). In comparisons between pre-wolf restoration [pre-WR] (i.e., prior to 1995) seroprevalences with those post-wolf restoration [post-WR] in Yellowstone, we found lower seroprevalences for some disease-causing agents post-wolf restoration (e.g., bovine-virus-diarrhea virus type-1 [95% CI pre-WR = 73.1-86.3, post-WR = 15.9-31.9] and bovine-respiratory syncytial virus [95% CI pre-WR = 70.0-83.8, post-WR = 0]), but similar (e.g., Brucella abortus [95% CI pre-WR = 0-4.45, post-WR = 0-4.74] and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus [95% CI pre-WR = 0, post-WR = 0]) or higher for others (e.g., Anaplasma marginale [95% CI pre-WR = 0, post-WR = 18.5-38.7] and Leptospira spp. [95% CI pre-WR = 0.5-6.5, post-WR = 9.5-23.5]). Though we did not detect an overall strong predation effect through reduced disease seroprevalence using retrospective comparisons with sparse data, our reference values will facilitate future assessments of this issue.

  12. Thyroid hormones and electrocardiographic parameters: findings from the third national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyi Zhang

    Full Text Available Altered thyroid status exerts a major effect on the heart. Individuals with hypo- or hyperthyroidism showed various changes in electrocardiograms. However, little is known about how variations in thyroid hormone levels within the normal range affect electrical activities of the heart in the general population.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 5,990 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Serum total T4 was measured by immunoassay and TSH was measured by chemiluminescent assay. We categorized T4 and TSH into 7 groups with cut-offs at the 5(th, 20(th, 40(th, 60(th, 80(th, and 95(th percentiles of the weighted population distribution. Electrocardiographic parameters were measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. We found a positive linear association between serum total T4 level and heart rate in men, and a U-shape association between T4 and PR interval in men and women. TSH level was positively associated with QRS interval in men, while a U-shape association between TSH and QRS was observed in women. No clear graded association between thyroid hormones and corrected QT or JT was found, except that men in the highest category of T4 levels appeared to have longer corrected QT and JT, and men in the lowest category of T4 appeared to have shorter corrected QT and JT.Variation in thyroid hormone levels in the general population, even within the normal range, was associated with various ECG changes.

  13. SWFSC/MMTD/PI: Hawaiian Islands Cetacean and Ecosystem Assessment Survey (HICEAS) 2002, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaiian Islands Cetacean and Ecosystem Assessment Survey, called HICEAS, is a marine mammal assessment survey of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Hawaiian...

  14. Assessment of residency program outcomes via alumni surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüer, Sonja; Aebi, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    One trend in medical education is outcomes-oriented training. Outcomes usually refer to individuals' acquisition of competencies, for example, during training in residency programs. However, little is known about outcomes of these programs. In order to fill this gap, human resource (HR) data were analyzed and alumni of a pediatric residency program were surveyed at the Department of Pediatrics, Bern University Hospital, Switzerland. Residency program outcomes (demographics, career choices, part-time or full-time work status, competencies, feedback) were assessed through in-house HR databases, publicly available data on the Internet (physician directory and practice homepages), and 2 alumni surveys (S1, S2). In all, 109 alumni met the inclusion criteria. Retention rate at the hospital was low (14%). Forty-six alumni (42%) in private practice were eligible for alumni surveys. Response rates were 87% (S1) and 61% (S2). Time intervals between 2 career decisions (selecting specialty of pediatrics vs selecting setting of private practice) varied widely (late-training decision to enter private practice). Mean employment level in private practice was 60% (range 20%-100%). Most valued rotation was emergency medicine; most desired competencies in future colleagues were the ability to work in a team, proficiency in pediatrics, and working economically. A broadened view on outcomes - beyond individuals' competency acquisition - provides informative insights into a training program, can allow for informed program updates, and guide future program development.

  15. A synthesis of mathematics writing: Assessments, interventions, and surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Powell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics standards in the United States describe communication as an essential part of mathematics. One outlet for communication is writing. To understand the mathematics writing of students, we conducted a synthesis to evaluate empirical research about mathematics writing. We identified 29 studies that included a mathematics-writing assessment, intervention, or survey for students in 1st through 12th grade. All studies were published between 1991 and 2015. The majority of assessments required students to write explanations to mathematical problems, and fewer than half scored student responses according to a rubric. Approximately half of the interventions involved the use of mathematics journals as an outlet for mathematics writing. Few intervention studies provided explicit direction on how to write in mathematics, and a small number of investigations provided statistical evidence of intervention efficacy. From the surveys, the majority of students expressed enjoyment when writing in mathematics settings but teachers reported using mathematics writing rarely. Across studies, findings indicate mathematics writing is used for a variety of purposes, but the quality of the studies is variable and more empirical research is needed.

  16. Practice Parameter for the Psychiatric Assessment and Management of Physically Ill Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2009

    2009-01-01

    An introduction for any medical health clinician on the knowledge and skills that are needed for the psychiatric assessment and management of physically ill children and adolescents is presented. These parameters are presented to assist clinicians in psychiatric decision making.

  17. Parameters for Pyrethroid Insecticide QSAR and PBPK/PD Models for Human Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This pyrethroid insecticide parameter review is an extension of our interest in developing quantitative structure–activity relationship–physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (QSAR-PBPK/PD) models for assessing health risks, which interest started with the organoph...

  18. Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Bukstein, Oscar; Walter, Heather; Benson, R. Scott; Chrisman, Allan; Farchione, Tiffany R.; Hamilton, John; Keable, Helene; Kinlan, Joan; Schoettle, Ulrich; Siegel, Matthew; Stock, Saundra; Medicus, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This Practice Parameter reviews the evidence from research and clinical experience and highlights significant advances in the assessment and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder since the previous Parameter was published in 1998. It highlights the importance of early identification of posttraumatic stress disorder, the importance of…

  19. Recommendations concerning models and parameters best suited to breeder reactor environmental radiological assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Recommendations are presented concerning the models and parameters best suited for assessing the impact of radionuclide releases to the environment by breeder reactor facilities. These recommendations are based on the model and parameter evaluations performed during this project to date. Seven different areas are covered in separate sections

  20. Assessment on Evaluating Parameters of Rice Core Collections Constructed by Genotypic Values and Molecular Marker Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-cheng WANG

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Eleven evaluating parameters for rice core collection were assessed based on genotypic values and molecular marker information. Monte Carlo simulation combined with mixed linear model was used to eliminate the interference from environment in order to draw more reliable results. The coincidence rate of range (CR was the optimal parameter. Mean Simpson index (MD, mean Shannon-Weaver index of genetic diversity (MI and mean polymorphism information content (MPIC were important evaluating parameters. The variable rate of coefficient of variation (VR could act as an important reference parameter for evaluating the variation degree of core collection. Percentage of polymorphic loci (p could be used as a determination parameter for the size of core collection. Mean difference percentage (MD was a determination parameter for the reliability judgment of core collection. The effective evaluating parameters for core collection selected in the research could be used as criteria for sampling percentage in different plant germplasm populations.

  1. Assessing parameter importance of the Common Land Model based on qualitative and quantitative sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Proper specification of model parameters is critical to the performance of land surface models (LSMs. Due to high dimensionality and parameter interaction, estimating parameters of an LSM is a challenging task. Sensitivity analysis (SA is a tool that can screen out the most influential parameters on model outputs. In this study, we conducted parameter screening for six output fluxes for the Common Land Model: sensible heat, latent heat, upward longwave radiation, net radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture. A total of 40 adjustable parameters were considered. Five qualitative SA methods, including local, sum-of-trees, multivariate adaptive regression splines, delta test and Morris methods, were compared. The proper sampling design and sufficient sample size necessary to effectively screen out the sensitive parameters were examined. We found that there are 2–8 sensitive parameters, depending on the output type, and about 400 samples are adequate to reliably identify the most sensitive parameters. We also employed a revised Sobol' sensitivity method to quantify the importance of all parameters. The total effects of the parameters were used to assess the contribution of each parameter to the total variances of the model outputs. The results confirmed that global SA methods can generally identify the most sensitive parameters effectively, while local SA methods result in type I errors (i.e., sensitive parameters labeled as insensitive or type II errors (i.e., insensitive parameters labeled as sensitive. Finally, we evaluated and confirmed the screening results for their consistency with the physical interpretation of the model parameters.

  2. Technology assessment of multileaf collimation: a North American users survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Eric E.; Tepper, Joel; Sontag, Mark; Franklin, Michael; Ling, Clifton; Kubo, Dale

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) initiated an Assessment of Technology Subcommittee (ATS) to help the radiotherapy community evaluate emerging technologies. The ATS decided to first address multileaf collimation (MLC) by means of a North American users survey. The survey attempted to address issues such as MLC utility, efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and customer satisfaction. Methods and Materials: The survey was designed with 38 questions, with cross-tabulation set up to decipher a particular clinic's perception of MLC. The surveys were coded according to MLC types, which were narrowed to four: Elekta, Siemens, Varian 52-leaf, and Varian 80-leaf. A 40% return rate was desired. Results: A 44% (108 of 250) return was achieved. On an MLC machine, 76.5% of photon patients are being treated with MLC. The main reasons for not using MLC were stair stepping, field size limitation, and physician objection. The most common sites in which MLC is being used are lung, pelvis, and prostate. The least used sites are head and neck and mantle fields. Of the facilities, 31% claimed an increase in number of patients being treated since MLC was installed, and 44% claimed an increase in the number of fields. Though the staffing for block cutting has decreased, therapist staffing has not. However, 91% of the facilities claimed a decreased workload for the therapists, despite the increase in daily treated patients and fields. Of the facilities that justified MLC purchase for more daily patients, 63% are actually treating more patients. Only 26% of the facilities that justified an MLC purchase for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) are currently using it for that purpose. The satisfaction rating (1 = low to 5 = high) for department groups averaged 4.0. Therapists ranked MLC as 4.6. Conclusions: Our survey shows that most users have successfully introduced MLC into the clinic as a block replacement. Most have found MLC to be cost-effective and

  3. Geochemical parameters of radioelements applied to assess uranium prospects in geological formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongxiang.

    1988-01-01

    Based on geochemical characteristics of radioelements and the theory of facieology, the author describes the characteristics of the distribution of U, Th and K in sedimentary formation and the relationship between their combined parameters MA and MB and uranium mineralization in geological formation. The ranges of MA and MB in uraniferous geological formation used to assess four different levels of uranium mineralization in regional investigation are obtained from the comparision of combined parameters MA and MB in the geological formation with different levels of mineralization and the experience is provided for quantitatively assessing uranium prospects in geological by multi-parameter model of radioelements

  4. Precast concrete unit assessment through GPR survey and FDTD modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Precast concrete elements are widely used within United Kingdom house building offering ease in assembly and added values as structural integrity, sound and thermal insulation; most common concrete components include walls, beams, floors, panels, lintels, stairs, etc. The lack of respect of the manufacturer instruction during assembling, however, may induce cracking and short/long term loss of bearing capacity. GPR is a well-established not destructive technique employed in the assessment of structural elements because of real-time imaging, quickness of data collecting and ability to discriminate finest structural details. In this work, GPR has been used to investigate two different precast elements: precast reinforced concrete planks constituting the roof slab of a school and precast wood-cement blocks with insulation material pre-fitted used to build a perimeter wall of a private building. Visible cracks affected both constructions. For the assessment surveys, a GSSI 2.0 GHz GPR antenna has been used because of the high resolution required and the small size of the antenna case (155 by 90 by 105mm) enabling scanning up to 45mm from any obstruction. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) numerical modelling was also performed to build a scenario of the expected GPR signal response for a preliminary real-time interpretation and to help solve uncertainties due to complex reflection patterns: simulated radargrams were built using Reflex Software v. 8.2, reproducing the same GPR pulse used for the surveys in terms of wavelet, nominal frequency, sample frequency and time window. Model geometries were derived from the design projects available both for the planks and the blocks; the electromagnetic properties of the materials (concrete, reinforcing bars, air-filled void, insulation and wooden concrete) were inferred from both values reported in literature and a preliminary interpretation of radargrams where internal layer interfaces were clearly recognizable and

  5. Analysis of Parameters Assessment on Laminated Rubber-Metal Spring for Structural Vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, M.A.; Putra, A.; Mansor, M.R.; Musthafah, M.T.; Akop, M.Z.; Abdullah, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of parameter assessment on laminated rubber-metal spring (LR-MS) for vibrating structure. Three parameters were selected for the assessment which are mass, Young's modulus and radius. Natural rubber materials has been used to develop the LR-MS model. Three analyses were later conducted based on the selected parameters to the LR-MS performance which are natural frequency, location of the internal resonance frequency and transmissibility of internal resonance. Results of the analysis performed were plotted in frequency domain function graph. Transmissibility of laminated rubber-metal spring (LR-MS) is changed by changing the value of the parameter. This occurrence was referred to the theory from open literature then final conclusion has been make which are these parameters have a potential to give an effects and trends for LR-MS transmissibility. (paper)

  6. Assessment of residency program outcomes via alumni surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lüer S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sonja Lüer, Christoph Aebi Department of Pediatrics, Bern University Hospital, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Background: One trend in medical education is outcomes-oriented training. Outcomes usually refer to individuals’ acquisition of competencies, for example, during training in residency programs. However, little is known about outcomes of these programs. In order to fill this gap, human resource (HR data were analyzed and alumni of a pediatric residency program were surveyed at the Department of Pediatrics, Bern University Hospital, Switzerland.Methods: Residency program outcomes (demographics, career choices, part-time or full-time work status, competencies, feedback were assessed through in-house HR databases, publicly available data on the Internet (physician directory and practice homepages, and 2 alumni surveys (S1, S2. Results: In all, 109 alumni met the inclusion criteria. Retention rate at the hospital was low (14%. Forty-six alumni (42% in private practice were eligible for alumni surveys. Response rates were 87% (S1 and 61% (S2. Time intervals between 2 career decisions (selecting specialty of pediatrics vs selecting setting of private practice varied widely (late-training decision to enter private practice. Mean employment level in private practice was 60% (range 20%–100%. Most valued rotation was emergency medicine; most desired competencies in future colleagues were the ability to work in a team, proficiency in pediatrics, and working economically.Conclusion: A broadened view on outcomes – beyond individuals’ competency acquisition – provides informative insights into a training program, can allow for informed program updates, and guide future program development. Keywords: medical education, career choice, pediatrics, private practice

  7. Sensitivity analysis of specific activity model parameters for environmental transport of 3H and dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, S.; Mishra, D.G.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is one of the radionuclides likely to get released to the environment from Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors. Environmental models are extensively used to quantify the complex environmental transport processes of radionuclides and also to assess the impact to the environment. Model parameters exerting the significant influence on model results are identified through a sensitivity analysis (SA). SA is the study of how the variation (uncertainty) in the output of a mathematical model can be apportioned, qualitatively or quantitatively, to different sources of variation in the input parameters. This study was designed to identify the sensitive model parameters of specific activity model (TRS 1616, IAEA) for environmental transfer of 3 H following release to air and then to vegetation and animal products. Model includes parameters such as air to soil transfer factor (CRs), Tissue Free Water 3 H to Organically Bound 3 H ratio (Rp), Relative humidity (RH), WCP (fractional water content) and WEQp (water equivalent factor) any change in these parameters leads to change in 3 H level in vegetation and animal products consequently change in dose due to ingestion. All these parameters are function of climate and/or plant which change with time, space and species. Estimation of these parameters at every time is a time consuming and also required sophisticated instrumentation. Therefore it is necessary to identify the sensitive parameters and freeze the values of least sensitive parameters at constant values for more accurate estimation of 3 H dose in short time for routine assessment

  8. Survey and evaluation of aging risk assessment methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzo, D.; Kvam, P.; Apostolakis, G.; Wu, J.; Milici, T.; Ghoniem, N.; Guarro, S.

    1994-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission initiated the nuclear power plant aging research program about 6 years ago to gather information about nuclear power plant aging. Since then, this program has collected a significant amount of information, largely qualitative, on plant aging and its potential effects on plant safety. However, this body of knowledge has not yet been integrated into formalisms that can be used effectively and systematically to assess plant risk resulting from aging, although models for assessing the effect of increasing failure rates on core damage frequency have been proposed. This report surveys the work on the aging of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) of nuclear power plants, as well as associated data bases. We take a critical look at the need to revise probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) so that they will include the contribution to risk from plant aging, the adequacy of existing methods for evaluating this contribution, and the adequacy of the data that have been used in these evaluation methods. We identify a preliminary framework for integrating the aging of SSCs into the PRA and include the identification of necessary data for such an integration

  9. [A self administered survey to assess bullying in schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecannelier, Felipe; Varela, Jorge; Rodríguez, Jorge; Hoffmann, Marianela; Flores, Fernanda; Ascanio, Lorena

    2011-04-01

    Bullying is common in schools and has negative consequences. It can be assessed using a self-reported instrument. To validate a Spanish self-reporting tool called "Survey of High School Bullying Abuse of Power" (MIAP). The instrument has 13 questions, of which 7 are multiple choice, rendering a total of 49 items. It was applied to 2.341 children of seventh and eighth grade attending private, subsidized and municipal schools in the city of Concepción, Chile. Expert judge analysis and estimated reliability using the Cronbach Alpha were used to validate the survey. The instrument obtained a Cronbach Alpha coefficient of 0.8892, classified as good. This analysis generated four scales that explained 30.9% of the variance. They were called "Witness Bullying" with 18 items, accounting for 11.4% of the variance, "Bullying Victim" with 12 items, accounting for 7.5% of the variance, "Bullying Perpetrator and Severe bullying Victim", with 10 items explaining 6.4% of the variance and "Aggressor Bullying" with 6 items accounting for 5.7% of the variance. The MIAP can recognize four basic factors that facilitate the analysis and understanding of bullying, with good levels of reliability and validity. The remaining questions also deliver valuable information.

  10. Effects of self-calibration of intrinsic alignment on cosmological parameter constraints from future cosmic shear surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Ji; Ishak, Mustapha; Lin, Weikang; Troxel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsic alignments (IA) of galaxies have been recognized as one of the most serious contaminants to weak lensing. These systematics need to be isolated and mitigated in order for ongoing and future lensing surveys to reach their full potential. The IA self-calibration (SC) method was shown in previous studies to be able to reduce the GI contamination by up to a factor of 10 for the 2-point and 3-point correlations. The SC method does not require the assumption of an IA model in its working and can extract the GI signal from the same photo-z survey offering the possibility to test and understand structure formation scenarios and their relationship to IA models. In this paper, we study the effects of the IA SC mitigation method on the precision and accuracy of cosmological parameter constraints from future cosmic shear surveys LSST, WFIRST and Euclid. We perform analytical and numerical calculations to estimate the loss of precision and the residual bias in the best fit cosmological parameters after the self-calibration is performed. We take into account uncertainties from photometric redshifts and the galaxy bias. We find that the confidence contours are slightly inflated from applying the SC method itself while a significant increase is due to the inclusion of the photo-z uncertainties. The bias of cosmological parameters is reduced from several-σ, when IA is not corrected for, to below 1-σ after SC is applied. These numbers are comparable to those resulting from applying the method of marginalizing over IA model parameters despite the fact that the two methods operate very differently. We conclude that implementing the SC for these future cosmic-shear surveys will not only allow one to efficiently mitigate the GI contaminant but also help to understand their modeling and link to structure formation.

  11. Effects of self-calibration of intrinsic alignment on cosmological parameter constraints from future cosmic shear surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Ji; Ishak, Mustapha; Lin, Weikang [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75080 (United States); Troxel, Michael, E-mail: jxy131230@utdallas.edu, E-mail: mxi054000@utdallas.edu, E-mail: wxl123830@utdallas.edu, E-mail: michael.a.troxel@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Intrinsic alignments (IA) of galaxies have been recognized as one of the most serious contaminants to weak lensing. These systematics need to be isolated and mitigated in order for ongoing and future lensing surveys to reach their full potential. The IA self-calibration (SC) method was shown in previous studies to be able to reduce the GI contamination by up to a factor of 10 for the 2-point and 3-point correlations. The SC method does not require the assumption of an IA model in its working and can extract the GI signal from the same photo-z survey offering the possibility to test and understand structure formation scenarios and their relationship to IA models. In this paper, we study the effects of the IA SC mitigation method on the precision and accuracy of cosmological parameter constraints from future cosmic shear surveys LSST, WFIRST and Euclid. We perform analytical and numerical calculations to estimate the loss of precision and the residual bias in the best fit cosmological parameters after the self-calibration is performed. We take into account uncertainties from photometric redshifts and the galaxy bias. We find that the confidence contours are slightly inflated from applying the SC method itself while a significant increase is due to the inclusion of the photo-z uncertainties. The bias of cosmological parameters is reduced from several-σ, when IA is not corrected for, to below 1-σ after SC is applied. These numbers are comparable to those resulting from applying the method of marginalizing over IA model parameters despite the fact that the two methods operate very differently. We conclude that implementing the SC for these future cosmic-shear surveys will not only allow one to efficiently mitigate the GI contaminant but also help to understand their modeling and link to structure formation.

  12. The use of test scores from large-scale assessment surveys: psychometric and statistical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Braun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economists are making increasing use of measures of student achievement obtained through large-scale survey assessments such as NAEP, TIMSS, and PISA. The construction of these measures, employing plausible value (PV methodology, is quite different from that of the more familiar test scores associated with assessments such as the SAT or ACT. These differences have important implications both for utilization and interpretation. Although much has been written about PVs, it appears that there are still misconceptions about whether and how to employ them in secondary analyses. Methods We address a range of technical issues, including those raised in a recent article that was written to inform economists using these databases. First, an extensive review of the relevant literature was conducted, with particular attention to key publications that describe the derivation and psychometric characteristics of such achievement measures. Second, a simulation study was carried out to compare the statistical properties of estimates based on the use of PVs with those based on other, commonly used methods. Results It is shown, through both theoretical analysis and simulation, that under fairly general conditions appropriate use of PV yields approximately unbiased estimates of model parameters in regression analyses of large scale survey data. The superiority of the PV methodology is particularly evident when measures of student achievement are employed as explanatory variables. Conclusions The PV methodology used to report student test performance in large scale surveys remains the state-of-the-art for secondary analyses of these databases.

  13. National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey of the Nation's Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey presents the results of an unprecedented assessment of the nation’s wetlands. This report is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys, a series of statistically based surveys designed to provide the publi...

  14. Survey and review of near-field performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reactions control the performance, stability, and rate of degradation of natural and engineered barriers to waste repositories of the near field. Chemical processes are overviewed in this context. Temperature, and associated temperature gradients, are also important parameters in near-field performance assessment. The mechanical conditions of the near-field rock will be perturbed by construction of the underground repository. Mechanical analysis in the near field is further complicated by the introduction of HLW canisters and associated engineered barrier materials. Hydrological processes important to near-field performance include those associated with fluid transport. Considerable discussions and studies have been conducted on the issue of coupling among chemical-thermal-mechanical-hydrological processes; they are overviewed. (R.P.) 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Coherent Power Analysis in Multi-Level Studies Using Design Parameters from Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Current practice for conducting power analyses in hierarchical trials using survey based ICC and effect size estimates may be misestimating power because ICCs are not being adjusted to account for treatment effect heterogeneity. Results presented in Table 1 show that the necessary adjustments can be quite large or quite small. Furthermore, power…

  16. Task-based assessment of breast tomosynthesis: Effect of acquisition parameters and quantum noise1

    OpenAIRE

    Reiser, I.; Nishikawa, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Tomosynthesis is a promising modality for breast imaging. The appearance of the tomosynthesis reconstructed image is greatly affected by the choice of acquisition and reconstruction parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the limitations of tomosynthesis breast imaging due to scan parameters and quantum noise. Tomosynthesis image quality was assessed based on performance of a mathematical observer model in a signal-known exactly (SKE) detection task.

  17. Quantitative ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging for the assessment of vascular parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Meiburger, Kristen M

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the development of quantitative techniques for ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging in the assessment of architectural and vascular parameters. It presents morphological vascular research based on the development of quantitative imaging techniques for the use of clinical B-mode ultrasound images, and preclinical architectural vascular investigations on quantitative imaging techniques for ultrasounds and photoacoustics. The book is divided into two main parts, the first of which focuses on the development and validation of quantitative techniques for the assessment of vascular morphological parameters that can be extracted from B-mode ultrasound longitudinal images of the common carotid artery. In turn, the second part highlights quantitative imaging techniques for assessing the architectural parameters of vasculature that can be extracted from 3D volumes, using both contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging and photoacoustic imaging without the addition of any contrast agent. Sharing and...

  18. SWFSC/MMTD/PI: Pacific Islands Cetacean Ecosystem Assessment Survey (PICEAS) 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PICEAS (Pacific Islands Cetacean Ecosystem Assessment Survey) 2005 was an ecosystem survey in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) waters of Palmyra and Johnston...

  19. Updating Parameters for Volcanic Hazard Assessment Using Multi-parameter Monitoring Data Streams And Bayesian Belief Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odbert, Henry; Aspinall, Willy

    2014-05-01

    Evidence-based hazard assessment at volcanoes assimilates knowledge about the physical processes of hazardous phenomena and observations that indicate the current state of a volcano. Incorporating both these lines of evidence can inform our belief about the likelihood (probability) and consequences (impact) of possible hazardous scenarios, forming a basis for formal quantitative hazard assessment. However, such evidence is often uncertain, indirect or incomplete. Approaches to volcano monitoring have advanced substantially in recent decades, increasing the variety and resolution of multi-parameter timeseries data recorded at volcanoes. Interpreting these multiple strands of parallel, partial evidence thus becomes increasingly complex. In practice, interpreting many timeseries requires an individual to be familiar with the idiosyncrasies of the volcano, monitoring techniques, configuration of recording instruments, observations from other datasets, and so on. In making such interpretations, an individual must consider how different volcanic processes may manifest as measureable observations, and then infer from the available data what can or cannot be deduced about those processes. We examine how parts of this process may be synthesised algorithmically using Bayesian inference. Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) use probability theory to treat and evaluate uncertainties in a rational and auditable scientific manner, but only to the extent warranted by the strength of the available evidence. The concept is a suitable framework for marshalling multiple strands of evidence (e.g. observations, model results and interpretations) and their associated uncertainties in a methodical manner. BBNs are usually implemented in graphical form and could be developed as a tool for near real-time, ongoing use in a volcano observatory, for example. We explore the application of BBNs in analysing volcanic data from the long-lived eruption at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat. We discuss

  20. Specification of indoor climate design parameters at the assessment of moisture protective properties of enclosing structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornienko Sergey Valer’evich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to wide implementation of enveloping structures with increased heat-insulation properties in modern construction here appeared a necessity to assess their moisture conditions. Assessment of moisture conditions of enveloping structures is carried out according to maximum allowable moisture state basing on determining the surface of maximum damping. In relation to it the necessity of additional vapour barrier is checked using moisture balance equation. Though the change of indoor climate parameters in premises is not taken into account in moisture balance equations defined for different seasons. The author improves the method of calculating moisture protective parameters of enclosing structures according to the maximum allowable damping state for a year and a period of moisture accumulation. It is shown in this article that accounting of temperature and relative humidity change of inside air allows specifying calculated parameters of indoor climate in residential and office rooms in assessment of moisture protective properties of enclosing structures for the case of an effective enclosing structure with a façade heat-insulation composite system. Coordinates of the maximum moistened surface of the envelope depends on indoor climate design parameters. It is concluded that the increase of requirements for moisture protection of enclosing structures when using design values of temperature and relative humidity of internal air according to the Russian regulation (SP 50.13330.2012 is not always reasonable. Accounting of changes of indoor climate parameters allows more precise assessment of moisture protective properties of enclosing structures during their design.

  1. A selection of hot subluminous stars in the GALEX survey - II. Subdwarf atmospheric parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Németh, Péter; Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 427, č. 3 (2012), s. 2180-2211 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300030908; GA AV ČR IAA301630901; GA ČR GAP209/10/0967 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : catalogues * surveys * abundance Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.521, year: 2012

  2. A survey of indicator parameters to monitor regrowth in unchlorinated drinking water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielen, P.W.J.J. van der; Bakker, G.; Atsma, A.; Lut, M.; Roeselers, G.; Graaf, B. de

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to explore microbiological parameters that are suitable as indicators for regrowth in distribution systems that receive unchlorinated drinking water in the Netherlands. Treated water and distributed water at two locations in the distribution system of 28 treatment

  3. A statistical survey of heat input parameters into the cusp thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, J. I.; Skjaeveland, A.; Carlson, H. C.

    2017-12-01

    Based on three winters of observational data, we present those ionosphere parameters deemed most critical to realistic space weather ionosphere and thermosphere representation and prediction, in regions impacted by variability in the cusp. The CHAMP spacecraft revealed large variability in cusp thermosphere densities, measuring frequent satellite drag enhancements, up to doublings. The community recognizes a clear need for more realistic representation of plasma flows and electron densities near the cusp. Existing average-value models produce order of magnitude errors in these parameters, resulting in large under estimations of predicted drag. We fill this knowledge gap with statistics-based specification of these key parameters over their range of observed values. The EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) tracks plasma flow Vi , electron density Ne, and electron, ion temperatures Te, Ti , with consecutive 2-3 minute windshield-wipe scans of 1000x500 km areas. This allows mapping the maximum Ti of a large area within or near the cusp with high temporal resolution. In magnetic field-aligned mode the radar can measure high-resolution profiles of these plasma parameters. By deriving statistics for Ne and Ti , we enable derivation of thermosphere heating deposition under background and frictional-drag-dominated magnetic reconnection conditions. We separate our Ne and Ti profiles into quiescent and enhanced states, which are not closely correlated due to the spatial structure of the reconnection foot point. Use of our data-based parameter inputs can make order of magnitude corrections to input data driving thermosphere models, enabling removal of previous two fold drag errors.

  4. Building damage assessment from PolSAR data using texture parameters of statistical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Liu, Xiuguo; Chen, Qihao; Yang, Shuai

    2018-04-01

    Accurate building damage assessment is essential in providing decision support for disaster relief and reconstruction. Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) has become one of the most effective means of building damage assessment, due to its all-day/all-weather ability and richer backscatter information of targets. However, intact buildings that are not parallel to the SAR flight pass (termed oriented buildings) and collapsed buildings share similar scattering mechanisms, both of which are dominated by volume scattering. This characteristic always leads to misjudgments between assessments of collapsed buildings and oriented buildings from PolSAR data. Because the collapsed buildings and the intact buildings (whether oriented or parallel buildings) have different textures, a novel building damage assessment method is proposed in this study to address this problem by introducing texture parameters of statistical models. First, the logarithms of the estimated texture parameters of different statistical models are taken as a new texture feature to describe the collapse of the buildings. Second, the collapsed buildings and intact buildings are distinguished using an appropriate threshold. Then, the building blocks are classified into three levels based on the building block collapse rate. Moreover, this paper also discusses the capability for performing damage assessment using texture parameters from different statistical models or using different estimators. The RADARSAT-2 and ALOS-1 PolSAR images are used to present and analyze the performance of the proposed method. The results show that using the texture parameters avoids the problem of confusing collapsed and oriented buildings and improves the assessment accuracy. The results assessed by using the K/G0 distribution texture parameters estimated based on the second moment obtain the highest extraction accuracies. For the RADARSAT-2 and ALOS-1 data, the overall accuracy (OA) for these three types of

  5. Peer Assessment for Construction Management and Quantity Surveying Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia McLaughlin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Students undertaking the Bachelor of ConstructionManagement degree course at RMIT University, Melbourne,qualify for registration with the Australian Institute ofQuantity Surveyors (AIQS and the Australian Institute ofBuilding (AIB upon graduation. Over the past decade thedegree course has been constantly upgraded and altered inline with recommendations from professional bodies such asthese and other industry partners. In 1994 the Departmentof Building and Construction Economics re-assesseda range of subjects including the first year technologysubjects. Out of the review a problem-based integratedlearning unit was developed and tested. This unit has nowbeen in place for ten years.Quantity surveying and construction management likemost other professions in the construction industryrequire teamwork and advanced consultation skills. Theseskills may be learnt through experience but there isconsiderable evidence that these skills can be taught in theundergraduate years. Therefore in line with team-basedapproaches used in industry and professional constructionsettings, this year a new assessment model - peerassessment - will be applied to the problem-based learningunit. This paper describes the procedures and processesused to introduce the change and examines the theoreticalbase upon which the model was developed.

  6. Survey and assessment of conventional software verification and validation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.; Groundwater, E.; Mirsky, S.M.

    1993-04-01

    By means of a literature survey, a comprehensive set of methods was identified for the verification and validation of conventional software. The 134 methods so identified were classified according to their appropriateness for various phases of a developmental lifecycle -- requirements, design, and implementation; the last category was subdivided into two, static testing and dynamic testing methods. The methods were then characterized in terms of eight rating factors, four concerning ease-of-use of the methods and four concerning the methods' power to detect defects. Based on these factors, two measurements were developed to permit quantitative comparisons among methods, a Cost-Benefit metric and an Effectiveness Metric. The Effectiveness Metric was further refined to provide three different estimates for each method, depending on three classes of needed stringency of V ampersand V (determined by ratings of a system's complexity and required-integrity). Methods were then rank-ordered for each of the three classes in terms of their overall cost-benefits and effectiveness. The applicability was then assessed of each method for the four identified components of knowledge-based and expert systems, as well as the system as a whole

  7. An assessment of incentive versus survey length trade-offs in a Web survey of radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenfuss, Jeanette Y; Niederhauser, Blake D; Kallmes, David; Beebe, Timothy J

    2013-03-20

    It is generally understood that shorter Web surveys and use of incentives result in higher response rates in Web surveys directed to health care providers. Less is known about potential respondent preference for reduced burden as compared to increased reward. To help elicit preference for minimized burden compared to reward for completion of a survey, we observed physician preferences for shorter Web surveys compared to incentives as well as incentive preference (small guaranteed incentive compared to larger lottery incentive) accompanying an electronic request to complete a survey. This was an observational study that accompanied a large Web survey study of radiology staff, fellows, and residents at select academic medical centers in the United States. With the request to complete the survey, potential respondents were offered three options: (1) a 10-minute Web survey with the chance to win an iPad, (2) a 10-minute Web survey with a guaranteed nominal incentive ($5 amazon.com gift card), or (3) a shorter (5-7 minute) Web survey with no incentive. A total of 254 individuals responded to the Web survey request. Overwhelmingly, individuals chose a longer survey accompanied by an incentive compared to a shorter survey with no incentive (85% compared to 15%, P<.001). Of those opting for an incentive, a small, but not significant majority chose the chance to win an iPad over a guaranteed $5 gift card (56% compared to 44%). When given the choice, radiologists preferred a reward (either guaranteed or based on a lottery) to a less burdensome survey, indicating that researchers should focus more attention at increasing perceived benefits of completing a Web survey compared to decreasing perceived burden.

  8. Control of deterministic and stochastic systems with several small parameters - A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dragan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The past three decades of research on multiparametric singularly perturbed systems are reviewed, including recent results. Particular attention is paid to stability analysis, control, filtering problems and dynamic games. First, a parameter-independent design methodology is summarized, which employs a two-time-scale and descriptor system approach without information on the small parameters. Further, variational computational algorithms are included to avoid ill-conditioned systems : the exact slow-fast decomposition method, the recursive algorithm and Newton's method are considered in particular. Convergence results are presented and the existence and uniqueness of the solutions are discussed. Second, the new results obtained via the stochastic approach are presented. Finally, the results of a simulation of a practical power system are presented to validate the efficiency of the considered design methods.

  9. Neutrino masses and cosmological parameters from a Euclid-like survey: Markov Chain Monte Carlo forecasts including theoretical errors

    CERN Document Server

    Audren, Benjamin; Bird, Simeon; Haehnelt, Martin G.; Viel, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    We present forecasts for the accuracy of determining the parameters of a minimal cosmological model and the total neutrino mass based on combined mock data for a future Euclid-like galaxy survey and Planck. We consider two different galaxy surveys: a spectroscopic redshift survey and a cosmic shear survey. We make use of the Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMC) technique and assume two sets of theoretical errors. The first error is meant to account for uncertainties in the modelling of the effect of neutrinos on the non-linear galaxy power spectrum and we assume this error to be fully correlated in Fourier space. The second error is meant to parametrize the overall residual uncertainties in modelling the non-linear galaxy power spectrum at small scales, and is conservatively assumed to be uncorrelated and to increase with the ratio of a given scale to the scale of non-linearity. It hence increases with wavenumber and decreases with redshift. With these two assumptions for the errors and assuming further conservat...

  10. Assessment of epidemiological parameters and their use in epidemiological and forecasting models of cereal airborne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallavieille-Pope, C. de; Giosue, S.; Munk, L.

    2000-01-01

    Assessments of epidemiological parameters (e.g. infection efficiency, latent period, spore production) are required for the prediction of epidemic progress, for the estimation of components of partial resistance for different host plant cultivars and for the estimation of fitness components of pa...

  11. Assessment of Wind Parameter Sensitivity on Extreme and Fatigue Wind Turbine Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Amy N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Wind turbines are designed using a set of simulations to ascertain the structural loads that the turbine could encounter. While mean hub-height wind speed is considered to vary, other wind parameters such as turbulence spectra, sheer, veer, spatial coherence, and component correlation are fixed or conditional values that, in reality, could have different characteristics at different sites and have a significant effect on the resulting loads. This paper therefore seeks to assess the sensitivity of different wind parameters on the resulting ultimate and fatigue loads on the turbine during normal operational conditions. Eighteen different wind parameters are screened using an Elementary Effects approach with radial points. As expected, the results show a high sensitivity of the loads to the turbulence standard deviation in the primary wind direction, but the sensitivity to wind shear is often much greater. To a lesser extent, other wind parameters that drive loads include the coherence in the primary wind direction and veer.

  12. Assessment of Wind Parameter Sensitivity on Ultimate and Fatigue Wind Turbine Loads: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Amy N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    Wind turbines are designed using a set of simulations to ascertain the structural loads that the turbine could encounter. While mean hub-height wind speed is considered to vary, other wind parameters such as turbulence spectra, sheer, veer, spatial coherence, and component correlation are fixed or conditional values that, in reality, could have different characteristics at different sites and have a significant effect on the resulting loads. This paper therefore seeks to assess the sensitivity of different wind parameters on the resulting ultimate and fatigue loads on the turbine during normal operational conditions. Eighteen different wind parameters are screened using an Elementary Effects approach with radial points. As expected, the results show a high sensitivity of the loads to the turbulence standard deviation in the primary wind direction, but the sensitivity to wind shear is often much greater. To a lesser extent, other wind parameters that drive loads include the coherence in the primary wind direction and veer.

  13. Changes of peritoneal transport parameters with time on dialysis: assessment with sequential peritoneal equilibration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waniewski, Jacek; Antosiewicz, Stefan; Baczynski, Daniel; Poleszczuk, Jan; Pietribiasi, Mauro; Lindholm, Bengt; Wankowicz, Zofia

    2017-10-27

    Sequential peritoneal equilibration test (sPET) is based on the consecutive performance of the peritoneal equilibration test (PET, 4-hour, glucose 2.27%) and the mini-PET (1-hour, glucose 3.86%), and the estimation of peritoneal transport parameters with the 2-pore model. It enables the assessment of the functional transport barrier for fluid and small solutes. The objective of this study was to check whether the estimated model parameters can serve as better and earlier indicators of the changes in the peritoneal transport characteristics than directly measured transport indices that depend on several transport processes. 17 patients were examined using sPET twice with the interval of about 8 months (230 ± 60 days). There was no difference between the observational parameters measured in the 2 examinations. The indices for solute transport, but not net UF, were well correlated between the examinations. Among the estimated parameters, a significant decrease between the 2 examinations was found only for hydraulic permeability LpS, and osmotic conductance for glucose, whereas the other parameters remained unchanged. These fluid transport parameters did not correlate with D/P for creatinine, although the decrease in LpS values between the examinations was observed mostly for patients with low D/P for creatinine. We conclude that changes in fluid transport parameters, hydraulic permeability and osmotic conductance for glucose, as assessed by the pore model, may precede the changes in small solute transport. The systematic assessment of fluid transport status needs specific clinical and mathematical tools beside the standard PET tests.

  14. Classical algorithms for automated parameter-search methods in compartmental neural models - A critical survey based on simulations using neuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.; Cicuttin, A.

    2001-09-01

    Parameter-search methods are problem-sensitive. All methods depend on some meta-parameters of their own, which must be determined experimentally in advance. A better choice of these intrinsic parameters for a certain parameter-search method may improve its performance. Moreover, there are various implementations of the same method, which may also affect its performance. The choice of the matching (error) function has a great impact on the search process in terms of finding the optimal parameter set and minimizing the computational cost. An initial assessment of the matching function ability to distinguish between good and bad models is recommended, before launching exhaustive computations. However, different runs of a parameter search method may result in the same optimal parameter set or in different parameter sets (the model is insufficiently constrained to accurately characterize the real system). Robustness of the parameter set is expressed by the extent to which small perturbations in the parameter values are not affecting the best solution. A parameter set that is not robust is unlikely to be physiologically relevant. Robustness can also be defined as the stability of the optimal parameter set to small variations of the inputs. When trying to estimate things like the minimum, or the least-squares optimal parameters of a nonlinear system, the existence of multiple local minima can cause problems with the determination of the global optimum. Techniques such as Newton's method, the Simplex method and Least-squares Linear Taylor Differential correction technique can be useful provided that one is lucky enough to start sufficiently close to the global minimum. All these methods suffer from the inability to distinguish a local minimum from a global one because they follow the local gradients towards the minimum, even if some methods are resetting the search direction when it is likely to get stuck in presumably a local minimum. Deterministic methods based on

  15. Stellar parameters and H α line profile variability of Be stars in the BeSOS survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos, C.; Kanaan, S.; Chávez, J.; Vanzi, L.; Araya, I.; Curé, M.

    2018-03-01

    The Be phenomenon is present in about 20 per cent of B-type stars. Be stars show variability on a broad range of time-scales, which in most cases is related to the presence of a circumstellar disc of variable size and structure. For this reason, a time-resolved survey is highly desirable in order to understand the mechanisms of disc formation, which are still poorly understood. In addition, a complete observational sample would improve the statistical significance of the study of stellar and disc parameters. The `Be Stars Observation Survey' (BeSOS) is a survey containing reduced spectra obtained using the Pontifica Universidad Católica High Echelle Resolution Optical Spectrograph (PUCHEROS) with a spectral resolution of 17 000 in the range 4260-7300 Å. BeSOS's main objective is to offer consistent spectroscopic and time-resolved data obtained with one instrument. The user can download or plot the data and obtain stellar parameters directly from the website. We also provide a star-by-star analysis based on photometric, spectroscopic and interferometric data, as well as general information about the whole BeSOS sample. Recently, BeSOS led to the discovery of a new Be star HD 42167 and facilitated study of the V/R variation of HD 35165 and HD 120324, the steady disc of HD 110335 and the Be shell status of HD 127972. Optical spectra used in this work, as well as the stellar parameters derived, are available online at http://besos.ifa.uv.cl.

  16. Study and parameters survey for iodine-125 source dosimetry to be applied in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Eduardo Santana de

    2011-01-01

    The use of brachytherapy technique with iodine-125 seeds to prostate cancer treatment has been used for decades with good clinical outcomes. To aim the Brazilian population necessities, IPEN-CNEN/SP developed the iodine-125 seed prototype with national technology. The objectives of this work are the development and the study of dosimetric procedures associates with the experimental acquisition of the useful parameters for the iodine-125 dosimetric characterization and to evaluate if the developed procedures, in this work, have the basic conditions to determinate the dosimetric analysis, that are fundamental for clinical procedures. The dosimeters selected for the analysis are the TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti), initially these dosimeters were submitted for two selection steps to choose the dosimeters more reproducible for the dosimetric analysis. The two steps were the selection by the mass of the dosimeters and the reproducibility after four irradiation series in a Cobalt-60 irradiator (CTR-IPEN). Afterwards these steps, the dosimeters were irradiated in linear accelerator with 6 MV energy (Service of Radiotherapy - Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein) to yield the individual calibration factors to each dosimeter. After, the dosimeters were used to the irradiations with iodine-125 seed, 6711 model, (GE-Healthcare). The irradiations and others analysis with iodine-125 seeds yield the useful values for the determination of the parameters suggested by the AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine): constant of dose rate, geometry function, dose radial function and anisotropy function. The results showed good agreement with the values published by the literature, for the same iodine- 125 model, this fact confirms that the realized parameters will be able to be used for the IPEN-CNEN iodine-125 seeds dosimetry and quality control. (author)

  17. APPLICATION OF PARAMETER CONTINUATION METHOD FOR INVESTIGATION OF VIBROIMPACT SYSTEMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR. PROBLEM STATE. SHORT SURVEY OF WORLD SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Bazhenov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors in their works study vibroimpact system dynamic behaviour by numerical parametric continuation technique combined with shooting and Newton-Raphson’s methods. The technique is adapted to two-mass two-degree-of-freedom vibroimpact system under periodic excitation. Impact is simulated by nonlinear contact interaction force based on Hertz’s contact theory. Stability or instability of obtained periodic solutions is determined by monodromy matrix eigenvalues (multipliers based on Floquet’s theory. In the present paper we describe the state of problem of parameter continuation method using for nonlinear tasks solution. Also we give the short survey of numerous contemporary literature in English and Russian about parameter continuation method application for nonlinear problems. This method is applied for vibroimpact problem solving more rarely because of the difficulties connected with repeated impacts.

  18. Cybersecurity Assessment Parameter Profile (CAPP). A Tool for Making Sense of Cybersecurity Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-28

    statistical, mathematical , or computational techniques. Utility and limitations: The primary strength of qualitative analysis is the ability to...cybersecurity as “the prevention of damage to, protection of, and restoration of computers , electronic communications systems, electronic...lower. Modeled/Simulated assessment settings use tools like computer models or other stand-ins for live settings, and evaluate how that simulated

  19. Fast dose assessment models, parameters and code under accident conditions for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.Y.; Hu, E.B.; Meng, X.C.; Zhang, Y.; Yao, R.T.

    1993-01-01

    According to requirement of accident emergency plan for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, a Gaussian straight-line model was adopted for estimating radionuclide concentration in surface air. In addition, the effects of mountain body on atmospheric dispersion was considered. By combination of field atmospheric dispersion experiment and wind tunnel modeling test, necessary modifications have been done for some models and parameters. A computer code for assessment was written in Quick BASIC (V4.5) language. The radius of assessment region is 10 km and the code is applicable to early accident assessment. (1 tab.)

  20. A simple assessment scheme for severe accident consequences using release parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Kampanart, E-mail: kampanarts@tint.or.th [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, 16 Vibhavadi-Rangsit Rd., Latyao, Chatuchak, 10900 (Thailand); Okamoto, Koji [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear accident consequence index can assess overall consequences of an accident. • Correlations between the index and release parameters are developed. • Relation between the index and release amount follows power function. • The exponent of the power function is the key to the relation. - Abstract: Nuclear accident consequence index (NACI) which can assess the overall consequences of a severe accident on people and the environment is developed based on findings from previous studies. It consists of three indices: radiation effect index, relocation index and decontamination index. Though the NACI can cover large range of consequences, its assessment requires extensive resources. The authors then attempt to simplify the assessment, by investigating the relations between the release parameters and the NACI, in order to use the release parameters for severe accident consequence assessment instead of the NACI. NACI and its components increase significantly when the release amount is increased, while the influences of the release period and the release starting time on the NACI are nearly negligible. Relations between the release amount and the NACI and its components follow simple power functions (y = ax{sup b}). The exponent of the power functions seems to be the key to the relations. The exponent of the relation between the release amount and the NACI was around 0.8–1.0 when the release amount is smaller than 100 TBq, and it increased to around 1.3–1.4 when the release amount is equal to or larger than 100 TBq.

  1. Assessment of Tooth Wear Among Glass Factory Workers: WHO 2013 Oral Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Pulkit; Bhat, Nagesh; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Bapat, Salil; Gupta, Vivek Vardhan

    2015-08-01

    Glass factory workers are often exposed to the hazardous environment that leads to deleterious oral health and subsequently, general health. We planned to determine the effects of the particulates present in the milieu on the tooth wear among workers. To assess tooth wear among glass factory workers in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 936 glass workers in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India from January-June 2014. A survey proforma was designed for tooth wear evaluation with the help of WHO Oral Health Assessment form 2013 (for adults). Information regarding oral health practices, adverse habits and dietary habits, demographic details was gathered and clinical parameters were recorded. The Chi-square test, t-test, One-way Analysis of Variance and a Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. The most prevalent form of erosion was enamel erosion (589, 62.93%) with few subjects of deeper dentinal erosion and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.001). Dental erosion was found to be higher among males compared to females. Years of experience and educational status were identified as best predictors for dental erosion. It was concluded that there was considerable evidence of dental erosion found among the factory workers. Due to ignorance on social, cultural and health aspects, professional approach with regular dental care services for detection of early symptoms and planning of preventive strategies is warranted.

  2. Parameters on the radionuclide transfer in crop plants for Korean food chain dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lim, K. M.; Cho, Y. H.

    2001-12-01

    For more realistic assessment of Korean food chain radiation doses due to the operation of nuclear facilities, it is required to use domestically produced data for radionuclide transfer parameters in crop plants. In this report, results of last about 15 years' studies on radionuclide transfer parameters in major crop plants by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, were summarized and put together. Soil-to-plant transfer factors, parameters quantifying the root uptake of radionuclides, were measured through greenhouse experiments and field studies. In addition to traditional transfer factors, which are based on the activity in unit weight of soil, those based on the activity applied to unit area of soil surface were also investigated. Interception factors, translocation factors and weathering half lives, parameters in relation to direct plant contamination, were investigated through greenhouse experiments. The levels of initial plant contamination with HTO and I2 vapor were described with absorption factors. Especially for HTO vapor, 3H levels in crop plants at harvest were expressed with TFWT (tissue free water tritium) reduction factors and OBT (organically bound tritium) production factors. The above-mentioned parameters generally showed great variations with soils, crops and radionuclide species and application times. On the basis of summarized results, the points to be amended or improved in food chain dose assessment models were discussed both for normal operation and for accidental release

  3. Survey of Saccadic Parameters Using Videonystagmography in Patients with Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease and Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hosseinabadi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Patients with Parkinson’s disease manifest oculomotor abnormalities. This is the consequence of basal ganglia impairment. The most common abnormalities include increased saccade latency, hypometric saccades and decreased saccade velocity. The purpose of this study was comparison of saccadic parameters using videonystagmography in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and normal subjects.Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, saccadic movements were investigated in thirty patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and thirty age matched subjects were 35-70 years old. Saccade latency, velocity and accuracy were quantitatively analyzed. Results: Results of this study indicated increased saccade latency, reduction of saccade velocity and accuracy in patients with Parkinson’s disease(P<0.001.Conclusion: This study showed that patients with Parkinson’s disease manifest saccadic deficits. This suggests dopaminergic control of these ocular movements.

  4. A Comparative Survey on Parameters Influencing on Hexavalent Chromium Measurement as an Occupational Carcinogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tirgar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Hexavalent chromium, Cr+6, is a very harmful pollutant and a relatively unstable compound that is present in many industries. It is a known human respiratory carcinogen and occupational exposure to this chemical is associated with different health hazards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four parameters including: type of sampling head, sampling height from the surface of electroplating solution, sampling duration, and sample storage duration on Cr+6 mist monitoring.Materials & Methods: To evaluate the influence of the main parameters as an experimental study, the 24 factorial design was applied at constant electroplating condition. A chromium electroplating bath with the ability to produce homogenous mist was used to create Cr+6 mist in laboratory setting. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH method 7600 was used to determine the Cr+6 concentration. Results: The results of 48 Cr+6 mist samples showed that Cr+6 concentration was higher: (1 for sampling by closed-face filter cassettes than for sampling by open-face filter cassettes (P<0.001; (2 for samples collected at 35 cm above the electroplating solution surface than for samples collected at 50 cm (P <0.001; (3 for sampling duration of 30 minutes than for sampling duration of 180 minutes (P <0.001; and, (4 for samples extracted immediately after sampling than for samples with delayed extraction (24 hours after sampling (P <0.001. Conclusion: It is concluded that the accuracy of Cr+6 mist sampling in electroplating shops will be enhanced when: (1 a closed-face filter cassette is used to prevent liquid splash contamination; (2 the sampling height is suitable as determined by further research; (3 the sampling duration is short (approximately 30 minutes; and, (4 the extraction of the Cr+6 sample is performed as soon as the sampling is completed.

  5. A systematic review of childhood maltreatment assessments in population-representative surveys since 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovdestad, Wendy; Campeau, Aimée; Potter, Dawn; Tonmyr, Lil

    2015-01-01

    Population-representative surveys that assess childhood maltreatment and health are a valuable resource to explore the implications of child maltreatment for population health. Systematic identification and evaluation of such surveys is needed to facilitate optimal use of their data and to inform future research. To inform researchers of the existence and nature of population-representative surveys relevant to understanding links between childhood maltreatment and health; to evaluate the assessment of childhood maltreatment in this body of work. We included surveys that: 1) were representative of the non-institutionalized population of any size nation or of any geopolitical region ≥ 10 million people; 2) included a broad age range (≥ 40 years); 3) measured health; 4) assessed childhood maltreatment retrospectively; and 5) were conducted since 1990. We used Internet and database searching (including CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Social Policy and Practice: January 1990 to March 2014), expert consultation, and other means to identify surveys and associated documentation. Translations of non-English survey content were verified by fluent readers of survey languages. We developed checklists to abstract and evaluate childhood maltreatment content. Fifty-four surveys from 39 countries met inclusion criteria. Sample sizes ranged from 1,287-51,945 and response rates from 15%-96%. Thirteen surveys assessed neglect, 15 emotional abuse; 18 exposure to family violence; 26 physical abuse; 48 sexual abuse. Fourteen surveys assessed more than three types; six of these were conducted since 2010. In nine surveys childhood maltreatment assessments were detailed (+10 items for at least one type of maltreatment). Seven surveys' assessments had known reliability and/or validity. Data from 54 surveys can be used to explore the population health relevance of child maltreatment. Assessment of childhood maltreatment is not comprehensive but there is

  6. Quantitatively assessed CT imaging measures of pulmonary interstitial pneumonia: Effects of reconstruction algorithms on histogram parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Hisanobu; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Yamazaki, Youichi; Nogami, Munenobu; Kusaka, Akiko; Murase, Kenya; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed the influences of reconstruction algorithm for quantitative assessments in interstitial pneumonia patients. A total of 25 collagen vascular disease patients (nine male patients and 16 female patients; mean age, 57.2 years; age range 32-77 years) underwent thin-section MDCT examinations, and MDCT data were reconstructed with three kinds of reconstruction algorithm (two high-frequencies [A and B] and one standard [C]). In reconstruction algorithm B, the effect of low- and middle-frequency space was suppressed compared with reconstruction algorithm A. As quantitative CT parameters, kurtosis, skewness, and mean lung density (MLD) were acquired from a frequency histogram of the whole lung parenchyma in each reconstruction algorithm. To determine the difference of quantitative CT parameters affected by reconstruction algorithms, these parameters were compared statistically. To determine the relationships with the disease severity, these parameters were correlated with PFTs. In the results, all the histogram parameters values had significant differences each other (p < 0.0001) and those of reconstruction algorithm C were the highest. All MLDs had fair or moderate correlation with all parameters of PFT (-0.64 < r < -0.45, p < 0.05). Though kurtosis and skewness in high-frequency reconstruction algorithm A had significant correlations with all parameters of PFT (-0.61 < r < -0.45, p < 0.05), there were significant correlations only with diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLco) and total lung capacity (TLC) in reconstruction algorithm C and with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), DLco and TLC in reconstruction algorithm B. In conclusion, reconstruction algorithm has influence to quantitative assessments on chest thin-section MDCT examination in interstitial pneumonia patients.

  7. Quantitatively assessed CT imaging measures of pulmonary interstitial pneumonia: Effects of reconstruction algorithms on histogram parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Hisanobu [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Kaibara Hospital, 5208-1 Kaibara, Kaibara-cho, Tanba 669-3395 (Japan)], E-mail: hisanobu19760104@yahoo.co.jp; Ohno, Yoshiharu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan)], E-mail: yosirad@kobe-u.ac.jp; Yamazaki, Youichi [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Faculty of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 1-7 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: y.yamazk@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nogami, Munenobu [Division of PET, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2 MInamimachi, Minatojima, Chu0-ku, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan)], E-mail: aznogami@fbri.org; Kusaka, Akiko [Division of Radiology, Kobe University Hospital, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan)], E-mail: a.kusaka@hosp.kobe-u.ac.jp; Murase, Kenya [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Faculty of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 1-7 Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: murase@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan)], E-mail: sugimura@med.kobe-u.ac.jp

    2010-04-15

    This study aimed the influences of reconstruction algorithm for quantitative assessments in interstitial pneumonia patients. A total of 25 collagen vascular disease patients (nine male patients and 16 female patients; mean age, 57.2 years; age range 32-77 years) underwent thin-section MDCT examinations, and MDCT data were reconstructed with three kinds of reconstruction algorithm (two high-frequencies [A and B] and one standard [C]). In reconstruction algorithm B, the effect of low- and middle-frequency space was suppressed compared with reconstruction algorithm A. As quantitative CT parameters, kurtosis, skewness, and mean lung density (MLD) were acquired from a frequency histogram of the whole lung parenchyma in each reconstruction algorithm. To determine the difference of quantitative CT parameters affected by reconstruction algorithms, these parameters were compared statistically. To determine the relationships with the disease severity, these parameters were correlated with PFTs. In the results, all the histogram parameters values had significant differences each other (p < 0.0001) and those of reconstruction algorithm C were the highest. All MLDs had fair or moderate correlation with all parameters of PFT (-0.64 < r < -0.45, p < 0.05). Though kurtosis and skewness in high-frequency reconstruction algorithm A had significant correlations with all parameters of PFT (-0.61 < r < -0.45, p < 0.05), there were significant correlations only with diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLco) and total lung capacity (TLC) in reconstruction algorithm C and with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), DLco and TLC in reconstruction algorithm B. In conclusion, reconstruction algorithm has influence to quantitative assessments on chest thin-section MDCT examination in interstitial pneumonia patients.

  8. Assessment of wear dependence parameters in complex model of cutting tool wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsev, A. V.; Pasko, N. I.; Antseva, N. V.

    2018-03-01

    This paper addresses wear dependence of the generic efficient life period of cutting tools taken as an aggregate of the law of tool wear rate distribution and dependence of parameters of this law's on the cutting mode, factoring in the random factor as exemplified by the complex model of wear. The complex model of wear takes into account the variance of cutting properties within one batch of tools, variance in machinability within one batch of workpieces, and the stochastic nature of the wear process itself. A technique of assessment of wear dependence parameters in a complex model of cutting tool wear is provided. The technique is supported by a numerical example.

  9. Comparison between femoral bone mineral parameters assessed by QCT and dual X-ray densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeiseth, A.; Stroemsoee, K.; Alho, A.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between different femoral bone mineral measures and their agreement with some biomechanical parameters. By means of quantitative CT (QCT) and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), measurements were made in different locations of 33 pairs of human femur specimens. There was a principal distinction between bone density as measured by QCT and bone mass as measured by QCT and DXA. Bone mass measured by QCT and the bone mineral content (BMC) measured by DXA are true mass parameters. However, bone mineral density (BMD) as measured by DXA agreed substantially better with the mass measures than with the densities. The mass measures, including the BMD, had good agreements with each other, with a common reference parameter and with the biomechanical parameters. The QCT densities had, on the average, poor agreements with each other, with the other bone mineral measures (including the MBDs), and with the mechanical parameters. The gender differences were less for the QCT densities than for the mass parameters, whereas in this regard the BMDs were intermediate. All measures had approximately similar reproducibilities. (orig.)

  10. Accuracy of self-reported survey data on assisted reproductive technology treatment parameters and reproductive history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judy E; McLain, Alexander C; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Luke, Barbara; Yeung, Edwina H

    2016-08-01

    It is unknown whether data obtained from maternal self-report for assisted reproductive technology treatment parameters and reproductive history are accurate for use in research studies. We evaluated the accuracy of self-reported in assisted reproductive technology treatment and reproductive history from the Upstate KIDS study in comparison with clinical data reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System. Upstate KIDS maternal questionnaire data from deliveries between 2008 and 2010 were linked to data reported to Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System. The 617 index deliveries were compared as to treatment type (frozen embryo transfer and donor egg or sperm) and use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection and assisted hatching. Use of injectable medications, self-report for assisted reproductive technology, or frozen embryo transfer prior to the index deliveries were also compared. We report agreement in which both sources had yes or both no and sensitivity of maternal report using Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System as the gold standard. Significance was determined using χ(2) at P < 0.05. Universal agreement was not reached on any parameter but was best for treatment type of frozen embryo transfer (agreement, 96%; sensitivity, 93%) and use of donor eggs (agreement, 97%; sensitivity, 82%) or sperm (agreement, 98%; sensitivity, 82%). Use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (agreement, 78%: sensitivity, 78%) and assisted hatching (agreement, 57%; sensitivity, 38%) agreed less well with self-reported use (P < .0001). In vitro fertilization (agreement, 82%) and frozen embryo transfer (agreement, 90%) prior to the index delivery were more consistently reported than was use of injectable medication (agreement, 76%) (P < .0001). Women accurately report in vitro fertilization treatment but are less accurate about procedures handled in the

  11. Gulf of Mexico Protected Species Assessment Aerial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of aerial line-transect surveys conducted over continental shelf waters of the Gulf of Mexico since 1992. The majority of these...

  12. Precision in systematic trawl surveys as assessed from replicate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local variability was analysed as random noise, modelled and later reapplied ... The main statistical techniques applied were less susceptible to outlier catches ... be used to estimate the vessel factor when intercalibrating trawl survey vessels.

  13. Accessing camera trap survey feasibility for estimating Blastocerus dichotomus (Cetartiodactyla, Cervidae demographic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique F. Peres

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Demographic information is the basis for evaluating and planning conservation strategies for an endangered species. However, in numerous situations there are methodological or financial limitations to obtain such information for some species. The marsh deer, an endangered Neotropical cervid, is a challenging species to obtain biological information. To help achieve such aims, the study evaluated the applicability of camera traps to obtain demographic information on the marsh deer compared to the traditional aerial census method. Fourteen camera traps were installed for three months on the Capão da Cruz floodplain, in state of São Paulo, and ten helicopter flyovers were made along a 13-kilometer trajectory to detect resident marsh deer. In addition to counting deer, the study aimed to identify the sex, age group and individual identification of the antlered males recorded. Population estimates were performed using the capture-mark-recapture method with the camera trap data and by the distance sampling method for aerial observation data. The costs and field efforts expended for both methodologies were calculated and compared. Twenty independent photographic records and 42 sightings were obtained and generated estimates of 0.98 and 1.06 ind/km², respectively. In contrast to the aerial census, camera traps allowed us to individually identify branch-antlered males, determine the sex ratio and detect fawns in the population. The cost of camera traps was 78% lower but required 20 times more field effort. Our analysis indicates that camera traps present a superior cost-benefit ratio compared to aerial surveys, since they are more informative, cheaper and offer simpler logistics. Their application extends the possibilities of studying a greater number of populations in a long-term monitoring.

  14. Review and analysis of parameters for assessing transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Shor, R.W.

    1984-09-01

    Most of the default parameters incorporated into the TERRA computer code are documented including a literature review and systematic analysis of element-specific transfer parameters B/sub v/, B/sub r/, F/sub m/, F/sub f/, and K/sub d/. This review and analysis suggests default values which are consistent with the modeling approaches taken in TERRA and may be acceptable for most assessment applications of the computer code. However, particular applications of the code and additional analysis of elemental transport may require alternative default values. Use of the values reported herein in other computer codes simulating terrestrial transport is not advised without careful interpretation of the limitations and scope these analyses. An approach to determination of vegetation-specific interception fractions is also discussed. The limitations of this approach are many, and its use indicates the need for analysis of deposition, interception, and weathering processes. Judgement must be exercised in interpretation of plant surface concentrations generated. Finally, the location-specific agricultural, climatological, and population parameters in the default SITE data base documented. These parameters are intended as alternatives to average values currently used. Indeed, areas in the United States where intensive crop, milk, or beef production occurs will be reflected in the parameter values as will areas where little agricultural activity occurs. However, the original information sources contained some small error and the interpolation and conversion methods used will add more. Parameters used in TERRA not discussed herein are discussed in the companion report to this one - ORNL-5785. In the companion report the models employed in and the coding of TERRA are discussed. These reports together provide documentation of the TERRA code and its use in assessments. 96 references, 78 figures, 21 tables

  15. Review and analysis of parameters for assessing transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Shor, R.W.

    1984-09-01

    Most of the default parameters incorporated into the TERRA computer code are documented including a literature review and systematic analysis of element-specific transfer parameters B/sub v/, B/sub r/, F/sub m/, F/sub f/, and K/sub d/. This review and analysis suggests default values which are consistent with the modeling approaches taken in TERRA and may be acceptable for most assessment applications of the computer code. However, particular applications of the code and additional analysis of elemental transport may require alternative default values. Use of the values reported herein in other computer codes simulating terrestrial transport is not advised without careful interpretation of the limitations and scope these analyses. An approach to determination of vegetation-specific interception fractions is also discussed. The limitations of this approach are many, and its use indicates the need for analysis of deposition, interception, and weathering processes. Judgement must be exercised in interpretation of plant surface concentrations generated. Finally, the location-specific agricultural, climatological, and population parameters in the default SITE data base documented. These parameters are intended as alternatives to average values currently used. Indeed, areas in the United States where intensive crop, milk, or beef production occurs will be reflected in the parameter values as will areas where little agricultural activity occurs. However, the original information sources contained some small error and the interpolation and conversion methods used will add more. Parameters used in TERRA not discussed herein are discussed in the companion report to this one - ORNL-5785. In the companion report the models employed in and the coding of TERRA are discussed. These reports together provide documentation of the TERRA code and its use in assessments. 96 references, 78 figures, 21 tables.

  16. Surgeon Reported Outcome Measure for Spine Trauma an International Expert Survey Identifying Parameters Relevant for The Outcome of Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadiqi, Said; Verlaan, Jorrit Jan; Lehr, A. M.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Kandziora, Frank; Rajasekaran, S.; Schnake, Klaus J.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Oner, F. C.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN.: International web-based survey OBJECTIVE.: To identify clinical and radiological parameters that spine surgeons consider most relevant when evaluating clinical and functional outcomes of subaxial cervical spine trauma patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: While an outcome instrument

  17. A Solution to Modeling Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis with Data Obtained from Complex Survey Sampling to Avoid Conflated Parameter Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Yu Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of equality in the between-and within-level structures in Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MCFA models has been influential for obtaining unbiased parameter estimates and statistical inferences. A commonly seen condition is the inequality of factor loadings under equal level-varying structures. With mathematical investigation and Monte Carlo simulation, this study compared the robustness of five statistical models including two model-based (a true and a mis-specified models, one design-based, and two maximum models (two models where the full rank of variance-covariance matrix is estimated in between level and within level, respectively in analyzing complex survey measurement data with level-varying factor loadings. The empirical data of 120 3rd graders' (from 40 classrooms perceived Harter competence scale were modeled using MCFA and the parameter estimates were used as true parameters to perform the Monte Carlo simulation study. Results showed maximum models was robust to unequal factor loadings while the design-based and the miss-specified model-based approaches produced conflated results and spurious statistical inferences. We recommend the use of maximum models if researchers have limited information about the pattern of factor loadings and measurement structures. Measurement models are key components of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; therefore, the findings can be generalized to multilevel SEM and CFA models. Mplus codes are provided for maximum models and other analytical models.

  18. Development of integrated parameter database for risk assessment at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamauchi, Yoshikazu

    2011-01-01

    A study to develop a parameter database for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for the application of risk information on plant operation and maintenance activity is important because the transparency, consistency, and traceability of parameters are needed to explanation adequacy of the evaluation to third parties. Application of risk information for the plant operation and maintenance activity, equipment reliability data, human error rate, and 5 factors of 'five-factor formula' for estimation of the amount of radioactive material discharge (source term) are key inputs. As a part of the infrastructure development for the risk information application, we developed the integrated parameter database, 'R-POD' (Rokkasho reprocessing Plant Omnibus parameter Database) on the trial basis for the PSA of the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. This database consists primarily of the following 3 parts, 1) an equipment reliability database, 2) a five-factor formula database, and 3) a human reliability database. The underpinning for explaining the validity of the risk assessment can be improved by developing this database. Furthermore, this database is an important tool for the application of risk information, because it provides updated data by incorporating the accumulated operation experiences of the Rokkasho reprocessing plant. (author)

  19. Additional components of risk assessment and their impact on the probability parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Saja

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article raises the issue of risk assessment and its impact on the quality and safety of work. During the assessment of the turning lathe position additional components associated with the jobs personalization were taken into account. Paragraph 2 item 7 of the Regulation of the Minister of Laborr and Social Policy of 26 September 1997 on general safety regulations defines occupational risk as the likelihood of an adverse event. The authors drew attention to the reality of the accident, which sometimes depends on the predisposition of the employee. It turns out that a correct estimation of the probability of occurrence of the accident to be able to react in a timely way seems extremely important.. This parameter will be assessed more accurately if we take into account a number of additional components resulting from the characteristics of the employee. The results of the personalized assessment of risk may allow appropriate planning of corrective and preventive actions.

  20. Automatic limb identification and sleeping parameters assessment for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran Pouyan, Maziyar; Birjandtalab, Javad; Nourani, Mehrdad; Matthew Pompeo, M D

    2016-08-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are common among vulnerable patients such as elderly, bedridden and diabetic. PUs are very painful for patients and costly for hospitals and nursing homes. Assessment of sleeping parameters on at-risk limbs is critical for ulcer prevention. An effective assessment depends on automatic identification and tracking of at-risk limbs. An accurate limb identification can be used to analyze the pressure distribution and assess risk for each limb. In this paper, we propose a graph-based clustering approach to extract the body limbs from the pressure data collected by a commercial pressure map system. A robust signature-based technique is employed to automatically label each limb. Finally, an assessment technique is applied to evaluate the experienced stress by each limb over time. The experimental results indicate high performance and more than 94% average accuracy of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. STUDY OF POND WATER QUALITY BY THE ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND WATER QUALITY INDEX

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Jena; Satish Dixit; Ravi ShrivastavaSapana Gupta; Sapana Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Water quality index (WQI) is a dimensionless number that combines multiple water quality factors into a single number by normalizing values to subjective rating curves. Conventionally it has been used for evaluating the quality of water for water resources suchas rivers, streams and lakes, etc. The present work is aimed at assessing the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I) ofpond water and the impact of human activities on it. Physicochemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of W.Q.I for ...

  2. A polynomial chaos ensemble hydrologic prediction system for efficient parameter inference and robust uncertainty assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Huang, G. H.; Baetz, B. W.; Huang, W.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a polynomial chaos ensemble hydrologic prediction system (PCEHPS) for an efficient and robust uncertainty assessment of model parameters and predictions, in which possibilistic reasoning is infused into probabilistic parameter inference with simultaneous consideration of randomness and fuzziness. The PCEHPS is developed through a two-stage factorial polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) framework, which consists of an ensemble of PCEs to approximate the behavior of the hydrologic model, significantly speeding up the exhaustive sampling of the parameter space. Multiple hypothesis testing is then conducted to construct an ensemble of reduced-dimensionality PCEs with only the most influential terms, which is meaningful for achieving uncertainty reduction and further acceleration of parameter inference. The PCEHPS is applied to the Xiangxi River watershed in China to demonstrate its validity and applicability. A detailed comparison between the HYMOD hydrologic model, the ensemble of PCEs, and the ensemble of reduced PCEs is performed in terms of accuracy and efficiency. Results reveal temporal and spatial variations in parameter sensitivities due to the dynamic behavior of hydrologic systems, and the effects (magnitude and direction) of parametric interactions depending on different hydrological metrics. The case study demonstrates that the PCEHPS is capable not only of capturing both expert knowledge and probabilistic information in the calibration process, but also of implementing an acceleration of more than 10 times faster than the hydrologic model without compromising the predictive accuracy.

  3. The development of a postal method to assess X-ray beam parameters and image quality in dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, D.M.

    1994-10-01

    Intraoral radiographs are an extremely valuable diagnostic tool in dentistry. Radiography permits the early detection and diagnosis of dental disease and consequently is used extensively. However, public concern about radiation exposure has increased in recent times. This concern is reflected in national and international law, to the extent that, the basic principles of radiological protection, that is, justification, optimisation and dose limitation are written into law. Furthermore, in Ireland, the regulations, as outlined in the Code of Practice for Radiological Protection in Dentistry, require intraoral dental X-ray machines to perform to certain standards. A report of a direct survey of 164 intraoral dental X-ray machines is given in this study. The survey covered mechanical, electrical as well as radiation safety. Inadequacies with respect to focus to skin distance and timer accuracy were found in 45% and 42% of the machines surveyed. Ninety eight machines were assessed for electrical safety in which 48% were found to be unsafe. The results indicate that a complete assessment of the performance of dental X-ray units in Ireland is required. However, as there are in excess of 800 dental X-ray machines located throughout the country, such an assessment would be very costly for the regulatory authority. The development of a postal method for the assessment of the performance of dental X-ray machines is described in this study. This postal method provides information on the kV, total filtration, beam width and timer linearity and is undertaken by means of a penetrameter and film envelopes for exposure to the X-ray set under examination, together with a questionnaire that requests information on environment in which the machine is located. Using this method an accuracy of +-5% of the actual value was achieved in the measurement of kVp. The penetrameter was also used to assess whether or not the filtration of a particular machine complies with the regulations. This

  4. Safety analysis methodology with assessment of the impact of the prediction errors of relevant parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galia, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    The best estimate plus uncertainty approach (BEAU) requires the use of extensive resources and therefore it is usually applied for cases in which the available safety margin obtained with a conservative methodology can be questioned. Outside the BEAU methodology, there is not a clear approach on how to deal with the issue of considering the uncertainties resulting from prediction errors in the safety analyses performed for licensing submissions. However, the regulatory document RD-310 mentions that the analysis method shall account for uncertainties in the analysis data and models. A possible approach is presented, that is simple and reasonable, representing just the author's views, to take into account the impact of prediction errors and other uncertainties when performing safety analysis in line with regulatory requirements. The approach proposes taking into account the prediction error of relevant parameters. Relevant parameters would be those plant parameters that are surveyed and are used to initiate the action of a mitigating system or those that are representative of the most challenging phenomena for the integrity of a fission barrier. Examples of the application of the methodology are presented involving a comparison between the results with the new approach and a best estimate calculation during the blowdown phase for two small breaks in a generic CANDU 6 station. The calculations are performed with the CATHENA computer code. (author)

  5. Tree survey and allometric models for tiger bush in northern Senegal and comparison with tree parameters derived from high resolution satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mads Olander; Goettsche, Frank-M.; Diop, Doudou

    2011-01-01

    A tree survey and an analysis of high resolution satellite data were performed to characterise the woody vegetation within a 10 x 10 km(2) area around a site located close to the town of Dahra in the semiarid northern part of Senegal. The surveyed parameters were tree species, height, tree crown...

  6. Assessment of parameter regionalization methods for modeling flash floods in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, Silvan; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Haijing

    2017-04-01

    Rainstorm flash floods are a common and serious phenomenon during the summer months in many hilly and mountainous regions of China. For this study, we develop a modeling strategy for simulating flood events in small river basins of four Chinese provinces (Shanxi, Henan, Beijing, Fujian). The presented research is part of preliminary investigations for the development of a national operational model for predicting and forecasting hydrological extremes in basins of size 10 - 2000 km2, whereas most of these basins are ungauged or poorly gauged. The project is supported by the China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research within the framework of the national initiative for flood prediction and early warning system for mountainous regions in China (research project SHZH-IWHR-73). We use the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) as implemented in the Java modeling framework Object Modeling System (OMS). PRMS can operate at both daily and storm timescales, switching between the two using a precipitation threshold. This functionality allows the model to perform continuous simulations over several years and to switch to the storm mode to simulate storm response in greater detail. The model was set up for fifteen watersheds for which hourly precipitation and runoff data were available. First, automatic calibration based on the Shuffled Complex Evolution method was applied to different hydrological response unit (HRU) configurations. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) was used as assessment criteria, whereas only runoff data from storm events were considered. HRU configurations reflect the drainage-basin characteristics and depend on assumptions regarding drainage density and minimum HRU size. We then assessed the sensitivity of optimal parameters to different HRU configurations. Finally, the transferability to other watersheds of optimal model parameters that were not sensitive to HRU configurations was evaluated. Model calibration for the 15

  7. Assessing response to therapy in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension: a consensus survey of Canadian pulmonary hypertension physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrie, Adrienne E; Ostrow, David N; Levy, Robert D; Swiston, John R

    2011-01-01

    Many treatment options are now available for patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Data regarding the optimal combination of therapies are lacking, as is consensus on how to assess response to therapy and when to change therapeutic regimens. To gather the opinions of Canadian pulmonary hypertension (PH) experts regarding standard practice in the care of IPAH patients after therapy is initiated. Canadian PH physicians were surveyed using short questionnaires to assess their opinions and practices in the care of IPAH patients. A Delphi forecasting approach was used to gain consensus among Canadian physicians on the most important clinical parameters to consider when assessing patients after the initiation of therapy. Twenty-six of 37 Canadian PH experts who were invited to participate completed the study. All endorsed the use of combination therapy for IPAH patients despite the lack of universal provincial coverage for this approach. By consensus, WHO functional class, 6 min walk distance and hospitalization for right heart failure were the most important clinical parameters. The most highly rated physical examination parameters were jugular venous pressure, peripheral edema, the presence of ascites and body weight. The overall approach to care of IPAH patients is similar across PH centres in Canada. A limited number of clinical and physical examination parameters were considered to be most important to reassess patients after therapy is initiated. These parameters, along with definition of threshold values, will facilitate the development of standard practice guidelines for IPAH patients in Canada.

  8. Consumer behaviour survey for assessing exposure from consumer products: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Klaus; Recke, Selina; Kaiser, Eva; Götte, Sebastian; Berkefeld, Henrike; Lässig, Juliane; Rüdiger, Thomas; Lindtner, Oliver; Oltmanns, Jan

    2018-05-23

    Evaluating chemical exposures from consumer products is an essential part of chemical safety assessments under REACH and may also be important to demonstrate compliance with consumer product legislation. Modelling of consumer exposure needs input information on the substance (e.g. vapour pressure), the product(s) containing the substance (e.g. concentration) and on consumer behaviour (e.g. use frequency and amount of product used). This feasibility study in Germany investigated methods for conducting a consumer survey in order to identify and retrieve information on frequency, duration, use amounts and use conditions for six example product types (four mixtures, two articles): hand dishwashing liquid, cockpit spray, fillers, paints and lacquers, shoes made of rubber or plastic, and ball-pens/pencils. Retrospective questionnaire methods (Consumer Product Questionnaire (CPQ), and Recall-Foresight Questionnaire (RFQ)) as well as protocol methods (written reporting by participants and video documentation) were used. A combination of retrospective questionnaire and written protocol methods was identified to provide valid information in a resource-efficient way. Relevant information, which can readily be used in exposure modelling, was obtained for all parameters and product types investigated. Based on the observations in this feasibility study, recommendations are given for designing a large consumer survey.

  9. Reliability, precision, and measurement in the context of data from ability tests, surveys, and assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, W P Jr; Elbaum, B; Coulter, A

    2010-01-01

    Reliability coefficients indicate the proportion of total variance attributable to differences among measures separated along a quantitative continuum by a testing, survey, or assessment instrument. Reliability is usually considered to be influenced by both the internal consistency of a data set and the number of items, though textbooks and research papers rarely evaluate the extent to which these factors independently affect the data in question. Probabilistic formulations of the requirements for unidimensional measurement separate consistency from error by modelling individual response processes instead of group-level variation. The utility of this separation is illustrated via analyses of small sets of simulated data, and of subsets of data from a 78-item survey of over 2,500 parents of children with disabilities. Measurement reliability ultimately concerns the structural invariance specified in models requiring sufficient statistics, parameter separation, unidimensionality, and other qualities that historically have made quantification simple, practical, and convenient for end users. The paper concludes with suggestions for a research program aimed at focusing measurement research more on the calibration and wide dissemination of tools applicable to individuals, and less on the statistical study of inter-variable relations in large data sets.

  10. Evaluating survey quality in health services research: a decision framework for assessing nonresponse bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Whitman, Marilyn V

    2013-06-01

    To address the issue of nonresponse as problematic and offer appropriate strategies for assessing nonresponse bias. A review of current strategies used to assess the quality of survey data and the challenges associated with these strategies is provided along with appropriate post-data collection techniques that researchers should consider. Response rates are an incomplete assessment of survey data quality, and quick reactions to response rate should be avoided. Based on a five-question decision making framework, we offer potential ways to assess nonresponse bias, along with a description of the advantages and disadvantages to each. It is important that the quality of survey data be considered to assess the relative contribution to the literature of a given study. Authors and funding agencies should consider the potential effects of nonresponse bias both before and after survey administration and report the results of assessments of nonresponse bias in addition to response rates. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  11. Preventing intentional food contamination: a survey to assess restaurant preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Kanwat, C P; Qu, Haiyan; Smith, Lillian U; Patterson, Nathaniel J; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    In the age of preparedness, public health agencies are concerned with intentional acts of food contamination in restaurants, in addition to food safety. Food safety consists of applying standard norms of practice and infrastructure, which, if violated, cause food-borne illness. In contrast, food defense requires an institutionalized mindset of informed alertness to unusual variations from the norms, combined with preemptive practices best suited to each restaurant. Therefore, while food safety lends itself to regulation to ensure standard practices, food defense is best served by advisory guidelines for autonomous application, preserving the restaurant industry's core values of hospitality and customer service. To address this challenge, public health agencies need survey tools that can yield action-relevant data on the knowledge and practice gaps in food defense preparedness and on educational messages and support services to be developed for maximum impact potential. This article presents a mail survey instrument, developed using qualitative research to ensure content and face validity. Instrument development involved drafting the survey on the basis of expert consultations, validating its content by using focus groups (representing all restaurant categories and geographic regions), and ensuring face validity through cognitive interviews. The resulting survey remains sensitive to the hospitality industry while encompassing all vulnerable points.

  12. Estimation of Fracture Parameters for Leak-before-Break Assessment on Elevated Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. Y.; Kim, N. H.; Koo, G. H.; Kim, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    When the liquid sodium leaks this interaction may cause the fire that is harmful to safety of the reactor. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent against sodium fire in SFRs. Leak-before-Break(LBB) concept, had been devised for this purpose and has following advantage than Double-ended Guillotine Break(DEGB) design. If DEGB is excluded, the number of extinguish facilities and firewalls against the sodium fire can be minimize. LBB concept, has been well established and had many experience in regard of light water reactors(LWRs). But LBB assessment to SFRs is more complicated because SFRs is operated on elevated temperature region. On this region, because creep damage occurs to material and grows defects LBB assessment to SFRs should be considering creep effects. The procedure and method for this purpose are provided RCC-MRx A16 that is France code. To calculate fracture parameters such as K and J are required to some coefficients and equations which have been limited in RCC-MRx A16. Thus, in this study obtained K and J using finite element analysis for the sub-model including the crack. In this study, fracture parameters for LBB assessment were estimated by finite element analysis. This result will be applicable to LBB assessment of PGSFR

  13. A survey of short-term and long-term stability of tube parameters in a mammography unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praskalo Jovica Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to set up a successful mammography screening program in the Republic of Srpska, a Siemens Mammomat 1000 X-ray machine was selected for analysis as the said mammography system is widely used in clinical practice. The variations in tube parameters (specific air kerma, high-voltage accuracy and reproducibility, linearity between exposure and dose exposure time were monitored over a five-year period, from 2008 to 2012. In addition, due to observed daily fluctuations for chosen parameters, a series of measurements were performed three times a day within a single-month period (mainly October 2012. The goal of such an experimental set up is to assess short-term and long-term stability of tube parameters in the given mammography unit and to make a comparison between them. The present paper shows how an early detection of significant parameter fluctuations can help eliminate irregularities and optimize the performance of mammography systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171007

  14. Aquatic environmental assessment of Lake Balaton in the light of physical-chemical water parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebestyén, Vitkor; Németh, József; Juzsakova, Tatjana; Domokos, Endre; Kovács, Zsófia; Rédey, Ákos

    2017-11-01

    One of the issues of the Hungarian Water Management Strategy is the improvement and upgrading of the water of Lake Balaton. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) specifies and sets forth the achievement of the good ecological status. However, the assessment of the water quality of the lake as a complex system requires a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation procedure. Measurements were carried out around the Lake Balaton at ten different locations/sites and 13 physical-chemical parameters were monitored at each measurement site.For the interpretation of the water chemistry parameters the Aquatic Environmental Assessment (AEA) method devised by authors was used for the water body of the Lake Balaton. The AEA method can be used for all types of the water bodies since it is flexible and using individual weighting procedure for the water chemistry parameters comprehensive information can be obtain. The AEA method was compared with existing EIA methods according to a predefined criterion system and proved to be the most suitable tool for evaluating the environmental impacts in our study.On the basis of the results it can be concluded that the status of the quality of studied area on the Lake Balaton can be categorized as proper quality (from the outcome of the ten measurement sites this conclusion was reached at seven sites).

  15. Assessment of physico-chemical parameters of Tsaeda Agam River in Mekelle City, Tigray, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mezgebe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to assess the physico-chemical parameters of Tsada Agam River found in Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia and determine its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes. Water samples were collected monthly for two consecutive months (February to March, 2013 at four sampling sites and analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters. The study indicated that the mean value of studied parameters, except electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, total alkalinity, calcium ion, sulphate ion, and total phosphorus of the river water samples were within the permissible limit of WHO for drinking water. The findings also showed the mean value of studied parameters, except sulphate ion concentration, were within the permissible limit of FAO for irrigation water. Therefore, the river water was found to be unfit for human consumption and was found to be safe and utilizable for irrigation purposes. If the quality management was properly maintained, the Tsaeda Agam River water could be utilized for a wide range of applications such as drinking and irrigation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i3.5

  16. An Assessment of Physicochemical Parameters of Selected Industrial Effluents in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinay Man Shrestha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the effluents released from the industries and environmental degradation go hand in hand. With the ongoing global industrialization this problem has been further aggravated. As such, Nepal is no exception. Hundreds of industries are being registered in the country annually which inevitably brings the issues regarding environmental pollution. This study has been conducted with samples of wastewater from 5 different industrial sites in 4 districts of Nepal, namely, Makwanpur, Sunsari, Morang, and Kathmandu, among which two were Waste Water Treatment Plants which treated the combined effluents collected from various sources. The other three sites were from wires and cables industry, paint manufacturing industry, and plastic cutting industry. The physicochemical parameters analysed were pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and Cu, Cr, SO42-, and PO43- levels. Possible onsite measurements were recorded using portable, handheld devices whereas other parameters were assessed in the laboratory. The observed parameter levels in the collected samples were compared against the available Nepal national standards for industrial effluents and in the absence of standards for industrial effluents, with other relevant standard levels. Most of the parameters analysed were within the permissible limits with the exception of pH and Cr levels in some sites.

  17. Merging physical parameters and laboratory subjective ratings for the soundscape assessment of urban squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Giovanni; Maffei, Luigi; Di Gabriele, Maria; Gallo, Veronica

    2013-07-01

    An experimental study was carried out in 20 squares in the center of Rome, covering a wide range of different uses, sonic environments, geometry, and architectural styles. Soundwalks along the perimeter of each square were performed during daylight and weekdays taking binaural and video recordings, as well as spot measurements of illuminance. The cluster analysis performed on the physical parameters, not only acoustic, provided two clusters that are in satisfactory agreement with the "a priori" classification. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to five physical parameters, two main components were obtained which might be associated to two environmental features, namely, "chaotic/calm" and "open/enclosed." On the basis of these two features, six squares were selected for the laboratory audio-video tests where 32 subjects took part filling in a questionnaire. The PCA performed on the subjective ratings on the sonic environment showed two main components which might be associated to two emotional meanings, namely, "calmness" and "vibrancy." The linear regression modeling between five objective parameters and the mean value of subjective ratings on chaotic/calm and enclosed/open attributes showed a good correlation. Notwithstanding these interesting results being limited to the specific data set, it is worth pointing out that the complexity of the soundscape quality assessment can be more comprehensively examined merging the field measurements of physical parameters with the subjective ratings provided by field and/or laboratory tests.

  18. Summative clinical competency assessment: A survey of ultrasound practitioners' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gill

    2015-02-01

    Clinical competency and the assessment of core skills is a crucial element of any programme leading to an award with a clinical skills component. This has become a more prominent feature of current reports on quality health care provision. This project aimed to determine ultrasound practitioners' opinions about how best to assess clinical competency. An on-line questionnaire was sent to contacts from the Consortium for the Accreditation of Sonographic Education and details distributed at the British Medical Ultrasound Society conference in 2011. One hundred and sixteen responses were received from a range of clinical staff with an interest in ultrasound assessment. The majority of respondents suggested that competency assessments should take place in the clinical departments with or without an element of assessment at the education centre. Moderation was an important area highlighted by respondents, with 84% of respondents suggesting that two assessors were required and 66% of those stating some element of external moderation should be included. The findings suggest that respondents' preference is for some clinical competency assessments to take place on routine lists within the clinical department, assessed by two people one of which would be an external assessor. In view of recent reports relating to training and assessment of health care professionals, the ultrasound profession needs to begin the debate about how best to assess clinical competence and ensure appropriate first post-competency of anyone undertaking ultrasound examinations.

  19. Assessment of changes in gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal objectives of arthroplasty are relief of pain and enhancement of range of motion. Currently, postoperative pain and functional capacity are assessed largely on the basis of subjective evaluation scores. Because of the lack of control inherent in this method it is often difficult to interpret data presented by different observers in the critical evaluation of surgical method, new components and modes of rehabilitation. Gait analysis is a rapid, simple and reliable method to assess functional outcome. This study was undertaken in an effort to evaluate the gait characteristics of patients who underwent arthroplasty, using an Ultraflex gait analyzer. Materials and Methods: The study was based on the assessment of gait and weight-bearing pattern of both hips in patients who underwent total hip replacement and its comparison with an age and sex-matched control group. Twenty subjects of total arthroplasty group having unilateral involvement, operated by posterior approach at our institution with a minimum six-month postoperative period were selected. Control group was age and sex-matched, randomly selected from the general population. Gait analysis was done using Ultraflex gait analyzer. Gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces assessment was done by measuring the gait cycle properties, step time parameters and VGRF variables. Data of affected limb was compared with unaffected limb as well as control group to assess the weight-bearing pattern. Statistical analysis was done by′t′ test. Results: Frequency is reduced and gait cycle duration increased in total arthroplasty group as compared with control. Step time parameters including Step time, Stance time and Single support time are significantly reduced ( P value < .05 while Double support time and Single swing time are significantly increased ( P value < .05 in the THR group. Forces over each sensor are increased more on the unaffected limb of the THR group as compared to

  20. The Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: Data and dose assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Conrado, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests, especially from those conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds between 1946 and 1958, contaminated areas of the Northern Marshall Islands. A radiological survey at some Northern Marshall Islands was conducted from September through November 1978 to evaluate the extent of residual radioactive contamination. The atolls included in the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS) were Likiep, Ailuk, Utirik, Wotho, Ujelang, Taka, Rongelap, Rongerik, Bikar, Ailinginae, and Mejit and Jemo Islands. The original test sites, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, were also visited on the survey. An aerial survey was conducted to determine the external gamma exposure rate. Terrestrial (soil, food crops, animals, and native vegetation), cistern and well water samples, and marine (sediment, seawater, fish and clams) samples were collected to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in the atoll environment. Samples were processed and analyzed for 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am. The dose from the ingestion pathway was calculated using the radionuclide concentration data and a diet model for local food, marine, and water consumption. The ingestion pathway contributes 70% to 90% of the estimated dose. Approximately 95% of the dose is from 137 Cs accounts for about 10% to 30% of the dose. 239+240 Pu and 241 Am are the major contributors to dose via the inhalation pathway; however, inhalation accounts for only about 1% of the total estimated dose, based on surface soil levels and resuspension studies. All doses are computed for concentrations decay corrected to 1996. The maximum annual effective dose from manmade radionuclides at these atolls ranges from .02 mSv y -1 . The background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 2.4 mSv y -1 to 4.5 mSv y -1 . The 50-y integral dose ranges from 0.5 to 65 mSv. 35 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  1. Life cycle assessment in green chemistry: overview of key parameters and methodological concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Linda M.; Tufvesson, Pär; Woodley, John

    2013-01-01

    assessment (LCA) is a valuable methodology. However, on the planning stage, a full-scale LCA is considered to be too time consuming and complicated. Two reasons for this have been recognised, the method is too comprehensive and it is hard to find inventory data. In this review, key parameters are presented...... with the purpose to reduce the time-consuming steps in LCA.In this review, several LCAs of so-called ‘green chemicals’ are analysed and key parameters and methodological concerns are identified. Further, some conclusions on the environmental performance of chemicals were drawn.For fossil-based platform chemicals...... chemicals was identified. The environmental performance of bulk chemicals are closely connected to the production of the raw material and thereby different land use aspects. Here, a lot can be learnt from biofuel LCAs. In many of the reviewed articles focusing on bulk chemicals a comparison regarding fossil...

  2. Estimation of geochemical parameters for assessing subsurface transport at the Savannah River Plant: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.; Grant, M.W.; King, C.M.

    1987-03-01

    Geochemical parameter estimates to be used in assessing the subsurface transport of chemicals from Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste sites are presented. Specifically, reference values for soil-solution distribution coefficients, solubility, leach rates, and retardation coefficients are estimated for 31 inorganic chemicals (assuming speciation is governed by reasonable assumptions about controlling variables such as Eh and pH) and 36 organic compounds. Additionally, facilitated transport (the association of chemicals with inorganic and organic ligands or colloids resulting in relatively high mobility) was estimated using field data to derive a fraction of the disposal mass which was assumed to be mobile. Hydrologic parameters such as dispersion coefficient, average moisture content in vadose zone, bulk density, and effective porosity are also presented. The estimates are based on site-specific studies when available, combined with technical literature

  3. Analysis report for WIPP colloid model constraints and performance assessment parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E.; Sassani, David Carl

    2014-03-01

    An analysis of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) colloid model constraints and parameter values was performed. The focus of this work was primarily on intrinsic colloids, mineral fragment colloids, and humic substance colloids, with a lesser focus on microbial colloids. Comments by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concerning intrinsic Th(IV) colloids and Mg-Cl-OH mineral fragment colloids were addressed in detail, assumptions and data used to constrain colloid model calculations were evaluated, and inconsistencies between data and model parameter values were identified. This work resulted in a list of specific conclusions regarding model integrity, model conservatism, and opportunities for improvement related to each of the four colloid types included in the WIPP performance assessment.

  4. Parameters assessment of the inductively-coupled circuit for wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, Yu N.; Vasileva, O. V.; Budko, A. A.; Lefebvre, S.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a wireless power transfer model through the example of inductively-coupled coils of irregular shape in software package COMSOL Multiphysics is studied. Circuit parameters, such as inductance, coil resistance and self-capacitance were defined through electromagnetic energy by the finite-element method. The study was carried out according to Helmholtz equation. Spatial distribution of current per unit depending on frequency and the coupling coefficient for analysis of resonant frequency and spatial distribution of the vector magnetic potential at different distances between coils were presented. The resulting algorithm allows simulating the wireless power transfer between the inductively coupled coils of irregular shape with the assessment of the optimal parameters.

  5. [Assessment of voice acoustic parameters in female teachers with diagnosed occupational voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Fiszer, Marta; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2005-01-01

    Laryngovideostroboscopy is the method most frequently used in the assessment of voice disorders. However, the employment of quantitative methods, such as voice acoustic analysis, is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic activities as well as for objective medical certification of larynx pathologies. The aim of this study was to examine voice acoustic parameters in female teachers with occupational voice diseases. Acoustic analysis (IRIS software) was performed in 66 female teachers, including 35 teachers with occupational voice diseases and 31 with functional dysphonia. The teachers with occupational voice diseases presented the lower average fundamental frequency (193 Hz) compared to the group with functional dysphonia (209 Hz) and to the normative value (236 Hz), whereas other acoustic parameters did not differ significantly in both groups. Voice acoustic analysis, when applied separately from vocal loading, cannot be used as a testing method to verify the diagnosis of occupational voice disorders.

  6. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 3, Model parameters: Sandia WIPP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-29

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter.

  7. Impact factors and the optimal parameter of acoustic structure quantification in the assessment of liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Liu, Guang-Jian; Liao, Bing; Huang, Guang-Liang; Liang, Jin-Yu; Zhou, Lu-Yao; Wang, Fen; Li, Wei; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Wei; Lu, Ming-De

    2015-09-01

    The aims of the present study are to assess the impact factors on acoustic structure quantification (ASQ) ultrasound and find the optimal parameter for the assessment of liver fibrosis. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent ASQ examinations to evaluate impact factors in ASQ image acquisition and analysis. An additional 113 patients with liver diseases underwent standardized ASQ examinations, and the results were compared with histologic staging of liver fibrosis. We found that the right liver displayed lower values of ASQ parameters than the left (p = 0.000-0.021). Receive gain experienced no significant impact except gain 70 (p = 0.193-1.000). With regard to different diameter of involved vessels in regions of interest, the group ≤2.0 mm differed significantly with the group 2.1-5.0 mm (p = 0.000-0.033) and the group >5.0 mm (p = 0.000-0.062). However, the region of interest size (p = 0.438-1.000) and depth (p = 0.072-0.764) had no statistical impact. Good intra- and inter-operator reproducibilities were found in both image acquisitions and offline image analyses. In the liver fibrosis study, the focal disturbance ratio had the highest correlation with histologic fibrosis stage (r = 0.67, p the assessment of liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of Hematological and Biochemical parameters with extended D-Ribose ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frelich Angela

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract D-ribose, a naturally occurring pentose carbohydrate, has been shown to replenish high- energy phosphates following myocardial ischemia and high intensity, repetitive exercise. Human studies have mainly involved short-term assessment, including potential toxicity. Reports describing adverse effects of D-ribose with prolonged ingestion have been lacking. Therefore, this study assessed the toxicity of extended consumption of D-ribose in healthy adults. Nineteen subjects ingested 20 grams/Day (10 grams, twice a Day of ribose with serial measurements of biochemical and hematological parameters at Days 0, 7, and 14. No significant toxic changes over the 14-day assessment period occurred in complete blood count, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alanine amiotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. However, D-ribose did produce an asymptomatic, mild hypoglycemia of short duration. Uric acid levels increased at Day 7, but decreased to baseline values by Day 14. D-ribose consumption for 14 days appears not to produce significant toxic changes in both hematological and biochemical parameters in healthy human volunteers.

  9. Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models: Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Fellows, Robert J.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

    2004-12-02

    This Annual Progress Report describes the work performed and summarizes some of the key observations to date on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report describes activities undertaken to collect samples of soils from three regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and perform analyses to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Section 3 summarizes information gathered regarding agricultural practices and common and unusual crops grown in each of these three areas. Section 4 describes progress in studying radionuclide uptake in several representative crops from the three soil types in controlled laboratory conditions. Section 5 describes a range of international coordination activities undertaken by Project staff in order to support the underlying data needs of the Project. Section 6 provides a very brief summary of the status of the GENII Version 2 computer program, which is a “client” of the types of data being generated by the Project, and for which the Project will be providing training to the US NRC staff in the coming Fiscal Year. Several appendices provide additional supporting information.

  10. Portable kit for the assessment of gait parameters in daily telerehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giansanti, Daniele; Morelli, Sandra; Maccioni, Giovanni; Grigioni, Mauro

    2013-03-01

    When designing a complete process of daily telerehabilitation, it should be borne in mind that patients should be furnished with properly designed methodologies for executing specific motion tasks and the assessment of the relevant parameters. In general, such a process should comprehend three basic elements in both the hospital and the home: (a) instrumented walkways, (b) walking aids or supports, and (c) equipment for the assessment of parameters. The objective, with gait being the focus, of this study was thus to design a simple, portable kit-as an alternative to the complex and expensive instruments currently used-to be easily interfaced or integrated with the instrumented walkways and aids/supports both for self-monitoring while patients are exercising with their own aids and for clinical reporting. The proposed system is a portable kit that furnishes useful parameters with feedback to both the patient and the trainer/therapist. Capable of being integrated with the most common mechanical tools used in motion rehabilitation (handrail, scales, walkways, etc.), it constantly monitors and quantitatively assesses progress in rehabilitation care. It is composed of one step counter, photo-emitter detectors, one central unit for collecting and processing the telemetrically transmitted data, and a software interface. The system has been successfully validated on 16 subjects at the second level of the Tinetti test in a clinical application for both home and the hospital. The portable kit can be used with different rehabilitation tools and on varying ground rugosity. Advantages include (a) very low cost, when compared with optoelectronic solutions or other portable devices, (b) very high accuracy, also for subjects with imbalance problems, compared with other commercial solutions, and (c) integration (compatibility) with any rehabilitative tool.

  11. Life cycle assessment and residue leaching: The importance of parameter, scenario and leaching data selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegrini, E., E-mail: elia@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Butera, S. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Kosson, D.S. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Box 1831 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Van Zomeren, A. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Department of Environmental Risk Assessment, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Van der Sloot, H.A. [Hans van der Sloot Consultancy, Dorpsstraat 216, 1721 BV Langedijk (Netherlands); Astrup, T.F. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Relevance of metal leaching in waste management system LCAs was assessed. • Toxic impacts from leaching could not be disregarded. • Uncertainty of toxicity, due to background activities, determines LCA outcomes. • Parameters such as pH and L/S affect LCA results. • Data modelling consistency and coverage within an LCA are crucial. - Abstract: Residues from industrial processes and waste management systems (WMSs) have been increasingly reutilised, leading to landfilling rate reductions and the optimisation of mineral resource utilisation in society. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic methodology allowing for the analysis of systems and products and can be applied to waste management systems to identify environmental benefits and critical aspects thereof. From an LCA perspective, residue utilisation provides benefits such as avoiding the production and depletion of primary materials, but it can lead to environmental burdens, due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system boundaries. The importance of data quality and parameter selection in the overall LCA results was evaluated, and an innovative method to assess metal transport into the environment was applied, in order to determine emissions to the soil and water compartments for use in an LCA. It was found that toxic impacts as a result of leaching were dominant in systems including only MSWI BA utilisation, while leaching appeared negligible in larger scenarios including the entire waste system. However, leaching could not be disregarded a priori, due to large uncertainties characterising other activities in the scenario (e.g. electricity production). Based on the analysis of relevant parameters relative to leaching, and on general results

  12. U.S. Naval Unit Behavioral Health Needs Assessment Survey, Overview of Survey Items and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    all Soldiers. The BHNAS and MHAT surveys have yielded valuable information regarding the effects of combat and deployment on service members...and Barriers to Care • Amount of Sleep and Sleep Deficit • Sleep Difficulties • Military Specialty • Positive Effects of Assignment • Contribution...nonopioid prescription painkillers was added; (3) the definition of “constantly and frequent” was omitted in the question; and (4) the NUBHNAS

  13. Practice parameters facilitating adoption of advanced technologies for enhancing neuropsychological assessment paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; McMahan, Timothy; Kane, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Clinical neuropsychologists have long underutilized computer technologies for neuropsychological assessment. Given the rapid advances in technology (e.g. virtual reality; tablets; iPhones) and the increased accessibility in the past decade, there is an on-going need to identify optimal specifications for advanced technologies while minimizing potential sources of error. Herein, we discuss concerns raised by a joint American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology/National Academy of Neuropsychology position paper. Moreover, we proffer parameters for the development and use of advanced technologies in neuropsychological assessments. We aim to first describe software and hardware configurations that can impact a computerized neuropsychological assessment. This is followed by a description of best practices for developers and practicing neuropsychologists to minimize error in neuropsychological assessments using advanced technologies. We also discuss the relevance of weighing potential computer error in light of possible errors associated with traditional testing. Throughout there is an emphasis on the need for developers to provide bench test results for their software's performance on various devices and minimum specifications (documented in manuals) for the hardware (e.g. computer, monitor, input devices) in the neuropsychologist's practice. Advances in computerized assessment platforms offer both opportunities and challenges. The challenges can appear daunting but are a manageable and require informed consumers who can appreciate the issues and ask pertinent questions in evaluating their options.

  14. Assessment of water quality of a river-dominated estuary with hydrochemical parameters: A statistical approach.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padma, P.; Sheela, V.S.; Suryakumari, S.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nair, S.M.; Kumar, N.C.

    stream_size 64084 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Water_Qual_Expos_Health_5_197.pdf.txt stream_source_info Water_Qual_Expos_Health_5_197.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... Water Qual Expo Health DOI 10.1007/s12403-014-0115-9 ORIGINAL PAPER Assessment of Water Quality of a River-Dominated Estuary with Hydrochemical Parameters: A Statistical Approach P. Padma · V. S. Sheela · S. Suryakumari · K. V. Jayalakshmy · S. M. Nair...

  15. Correlation of radiographic and MRI parameters to morphological and biochemical assessment of intervertebral disc degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Benneker, Lorin M.; Heini, Paul F.; Anderson, Suzanne E.; Alini, Mauro; Ito, Keita

    2004-01-01

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a common finding in MRI scans and X-rays. However, their correlation to morphological and biochemical changes is not well established. In this study, radiological and MRI parameters of DDD were assessed and compared with morphological and biochemical findings of disc degeneration. Thirty-nine human lumbar discs (L1–S1), age 19–86 years, were harvested from eight cadavers. Within 48 h postmortem, MRIs in various spin-echo sequences and biplanar radiographs of...

  16. Assessment of frequency and duration of point counts when surveying for golden eagle presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Ben R.; Boal, Clint W.; Tsai, Jo-Szu; Fuller, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the utility of the recommended golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) survey methodology in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2013 Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance. We conducted 800-m radius, 1-hr point-count surveys broken into 20-min segments, during 2 sampling periods in 3 areas within the Intermountain West of the United States over 2 consecutive breeding seasons during 2012 and 2013. Our goal was to measure the influence of different survey time intervals and sampling periods on detectability and use estimates of golden eagles among different locations. Our results suggest that a less intensive effort (i.e., survey duration shorter than 1 hr and point-count survey radii smaller than 800 m) would likely be inadequate for rigorous documentation of golden eagle occurrence pre- or postconstruction of wind energy facilities. Results from a simulation analysis of detection probabilities and survey effort suggest that greater temporal and spatial effort could make point-count surveys more applicable for evaluating golden eagle occurrence in survey areas; however, increased effort would increase financial costs associated with additional person-hours and logistics (e.g., fuel, lodging). Future surveys can benefit from a pilot study and careful consideration of prior information about counts or densities of golden eagles in the survey area before developing a survey design. If information is lacking, survey planning may be best served by assuming low detection rates and increasing the temporal and spatial effort.

  17. Dementia and driving : A survey of clinical practice in aged care assessment teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, G.K; Withaar, F.K.; Bashford, G.M

    Current clinical practice in Aged Care Assessment Teams (ACATs) in NSW and ACT regarding assessment of fitness to drive in clients with a diagnosis of dementia was examined. Of 42 ACATs with a geriatrician on staff, 38 (90.5%) responded to a telephone survey. Results showed that assessment of driver

  18. Assessing Violence Risk and Psychopathy in Juvenile and Adult Offenders: A Survey of Clinical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Jodi L.; McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Vincent, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed 199 forensic clinicians about the practices that they use in assessing violence risk in juvenile and adult offenders. Results indicated that the use of risk assessment and psychopathy tools was common. Although clinicians reported more routine use of psychopathy measures in adult risk assessments compared with juvenile risks…

  19. Mining Branching Rules from Past Survey Data with an Illustration Using a Geriatric Assessment Survey for Older Adults with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Jeske

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We construct a fast data mining algorithm that can be used to identify high-frequency response patterns in historical surveys. Identification of these patterns leads to the derivation of question branching rules that shorten the time required to complete a survey. The data mining algorithm allows the user to control the error rate that is incurred through the use of implied answers that go along with each branching rule. The context considered is binary response questions, which can be obtained from multi-level response questions through dichotomization. The algorithm is illustrated by the analysis of four sections of a geriatric assessment survey used by oncologists. Reductions in the number of questions that need to be asked in these four sections range from 33% to 54%.

  20. National Survey on Internal Quality Control Practice for Lipid Parameters in Laboratories of China from 2014 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Haijian; He, Falin; Zhong, Kun; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Zhiguo

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the situation of Internal Quality Control (IQC) practice for total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol from 2014 to 2016 in laboratories in China and provide improvement measurements. A web-based External Quality Assessment (EQA) system was used to collect IQC data of lipid parameters in laboratories which continuously participated in the national EQA programs in China from 2014 to 2016. Pass rate of the coefficients of variation (CVs) of two level quality controls in four lipid parameters were calculated according to six quality specifications for precision to evaluate the current status of precision level of the four lipid parameters and their change over time in China. 533, 512, 504, and 466 laboratories continuously reported the data of level one for total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and 212, 210, 208 and 198 laboratories reported the level two, respectively. The percentage of laboratories meeting the quality specification varied based on different criteria. Non-significant change can be found in the pass rate of CVs over time. The number of laboratories using a closed system increased over time, but still only accounted for a small proportion. There is no significant difference in the pass rate of CVs between closed and open systems. Triglycerides currently have a fairly good performance in China. While the performance of laboratories on total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol has yet to be improved.

  1. The Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey: data and dose assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, W L; Noshkin, V E; Conrado, C L; Eagle, R J; Brunk, J L; Jokela, T A; Mount, M E; Phillips, W A; Stoker, A C; Stuart, M L; Wong, K M

    1997-07-01

    Fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests, especially from those conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds between 1946 and 1958, contaminated areas of the Northern Marshall Islands. A radiological survey at some Northern Marshall Islands was conducted from September through November 1978 to evaluate the extent of residual radioactive contamination. The atolls included in the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS) were Likiep, Ailuk, Utirik, Wotho, Ujelang, Taka, Rongelap, Rongerik, Bikar, Ailinginae, and Mejit and Jemo Islands. The original test sites, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, were also visited on the survey. An aerial survey was conducted to determine the external gamma exposure rate. Terrestrial (soil, food crops, animals, and native vegetation), cistern and well water samples, and marine (sediment, seawater, fish and clams) samples were collected to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in the atoll environment. Samples were processed and analyzed for 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am. The dose from the ingestion pathway was calculated using the radionuclide concentration data and a diet model for local food, marine, and water consumption. The ingestion pathway contributes 70% to 90% of the estimated dose. Approximately 95% of the dose is from 137Cs. 90Sr is the second most significant radionuclide via ingestion. External gamma exposure from 137Cs accounts for about 10% to 30% of the dose. 239+240Pu and 241Am are the major contributors to dose via the inhalation pathway; however, inhalation accounts for only about 1% of the total estimated dose, based on surface soil levels and resuspension studies. All doses are computed for concentrations decay corrected to 1996. The maximum annual effective dose from manmade radionuclides at these atolls ranges from .02 mSv y(-1) to 2.1 mSv y(-1). The background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 2.4 mSv y(-1). The combined dose from both background and bomb related radionuclides ranges from slightly

  2. A Survey of Functional Behavior Assessment Methods Used by Behavior Analysts in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Anthony C.; Pratt, Leigh A.; Normand, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially…

  3. International survey on attitudes toward ethics in health technology assessment: An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arellano, L.E.; Willett, J.M.; Borry, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this exploratory study was to survey international health technology assessment (HTA) professionals to determine attitudes toward ethics in HTA. Methods: An exploratory, quantitative, cross-sectional study design was developed. The sample population (n = 636) was

  4. Assessment of intrinsic small signal parameters of submicron SiC MESFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Mohammad; Ahmed, Muhammad Mansoor; Rafique, Umair; Ahmed, Umer Farooq

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a technique has been developed to estimate intrinsic small signal parameters of submicron SiC MESFETs, designed for high power microwave applications. In the developed technique, small signal parameters are extracted by involving drain-to-source current, Ids instead of Schottky barrier depletion layer expression. It has been demonstrated that in SiC MESFETs, the depletion layer gets modified due to intense transverse electric field and/or self-heating effects, which are conventionally not taken into account. Thus, assessment of AC small signal parameters by employing depletion layer expression loses its accuracy for devices meant for high power applications. A set of expressions for AC small signal elements has been developed using Ids and its dependence on device biasing has been discussed. The validity of the proposed technique has been demonstrated using experimental data. Dr. Ahmed research interests are in Microelectronics, Microwave and RF Engineering and he has supervised numerous MS and PhD research projects. He authored over 100 research papers in the field of microelectronics. Dr. Ahmed is a fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), UK.; a Chartered Engineer (CEng) from the UK Engineering Council and holds the title of European Engineer (Eur Ing) from the European Federation of National Engineering Association (FEANI), Brussels. He is a life member of PEC (Pak); EDS & MTTS (USA).

  5. Assessment of chronic kidney disease using skin texture as a key parameter: for South Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udhayarasu, Madhanlal; Ramakrishnan, Kalpana; Periasamy, Soundararajan

    2017-12-01

    Periodical monitoring of renal function, specifically for subjects with history of diabetic or hypertension would prevent them from entering into chronic kidney disease (CKD) condition. The recent increase in numbers may be due to food habits or lack of physical exercise, necessitates a rapid kidney function monitoring system. Presently, it is determined by evaluating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that is mainly dependent on serum creatinine value and demographic parameters and ethnic value. Attempted here is to develop ethnic parameter based on skin texture for every individual. This value when used in GFR computation, the results are much agreeable with GFR obtained through standard modification of diet in renal disease and CKD epidemiology collaboration equations. Once correlation between CKD and skin texture is established, classification tool using artificial neural network is built to categorise CKD level based on demographic values and parameter obtained through skin texture (without using creatinine). This network when tested gives almost at par results with the network that is trained with demographic and creatinine values. The results of this Letter demonstrate the possibility of non-invasively determining kidney function and hence for making a device that would readily assess the kidney function even at home.

  6. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhi, Hassan, E-mail: h_alradhi@yahoo.com [Global Engineering Bureau, P.O Box 33130, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain (Bahrain); Sharples, Stephen, E-mail: steve.sharples@liverpool.ac.uk [School of Architecture, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO{sub 2} emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO{sub 2} emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco{sub 2}), embodied energy (Eco{sub 2}) and operational energy (OPco{sub 2}). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80-90%). However, embodied CO{sub 2} emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO{sub 2} emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco{sub 2} emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO{sub 2} emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle

  7. The corneoscleral shell of the eye: potentials of assessing biomechanical parameters in normal and pathological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Iomdina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews modern methods of evaluating the biomechanical properties of the corneoscleral shell of the eye that can be used both in the studies of the pathogenesis of various ophthalmic pathologies and in clinical practice. The biomechanical parameters of the cornea and the sclera have been shown to be diagnostically significant in assessing the risk of complications and the effectiveness of keratorefractive interventions, in the diagnosis and the prognosis of keratoconus, progressive myopia, or glaucoma. In clinical practice, a special device, Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA, has been used on a large scale. The analyzer is used to assess two parameters that characterize viscoelastic properties of the cornea — corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF. Reduced levels of CH and CRF have been noted after eximer laser surgery, especially that administered to patients who demonstrate a regression in the refraction effect or suffer from keratoconus. This fact justifies the use of these biomechanical parameters as additional diagnostic criteria in the evaluation of the state of the cornea. At the same time, ORA data are shown to reflect the biomechanical response to the impact of the air pulse not only from the cornea alone but also from the whole corneoscleral capsule. This is probably the cause of reduced CH in children with progressive myopia and a weakened supportive function of the sclera, as well as such reduction in glaucomatous adult patients. It is hypothesized that a low CH value is a result of remodeling of the connective tissue matrix of the corneoscleral shell of the eye and can be an independent factor testifying to a risk of glaucoma progression. Reduced CH in primary open-angle glaucoma occurs in parallel with the development of pathological structural changes of the optic disc, and deterioration of visual fields, which is an evidence of a specific character and sensitivity of this parameter. The

  8. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhi, Hassan; Sharples, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO 2 emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO 2 emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO 2 emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco 2 ), embodied energy (Eco 2 ) and operational energy (OPco 2 ). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80–90%). However, embodied CO 2 emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70–90% of the total CO 2 emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco 2 emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO 2 emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO 2 emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO 2 emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO 2 emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: ► Life cycle carbon assessment of façade parameters. ► Greatest environmental impact occurs

  9. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Intraocular Pressure and Dynamic Corneal Response Parameters Assessed by the Corvis ST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo T. Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of dynamic corneal response parameters measured by the Corvis ST (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany. Methods. One eye randomly selected from 32 healthy volunteers was examined by the Corvis ST. Three different devices were used in an alternated random order for taking three measurements at each device in each subject. Standard intraocular pressure (IOP, the biomechanical-compensated IOP (bIOP, and DCR parameters were evaluated. The within-subject standard deviation (ζw and coefficient of variation (CV were assessed. Results. Regarding pressure indices, the ζw was below 1 mmHg for repeatability (0.98 for IOP and 0.89 for bIOP and the CV was 6.6% for IOP and 6.1% for bIOP. For reproducibility, the ζw was around 1 mmHg (1.12 for IOP and 1.05 for bIOP and the CV was 7.6% for IOP and 7.1% for bIOP. Most of DCR indices presented CV for repeatability below 4%. For reproducibility, the CV of most of the indices were below 6%. The deformation amplitude (DA ratio in 1 mm and integrated radius were below 4% (1.2% and 3.8%, resp.. Conclusions. The Corvis ST showed good precision (repeatability and reproducibility for IOP measurements and for DCR in healthy eyes.

  10. Survey and review of near-field performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to describe the performance assessment (PA) context in which near-field models have been developed and applied. An overview is given of a number of PA studies. Although the focus is on near-field models, the overview covers the full context in which the PAs have been performed, including the purpose of the studies and regulatory context. Special emphasis has been given to the scenarios analyzed in the assessments; the scenarios set the framework for model development and application. Another aspect to consider in a study of near-field modeling from the perspective of total PA is the linking between near-field and far-field assessment. (R.P.) 6 tabs

  11. Urinary Dialkyl Phosphate Concentrations and Lung Function Parameters in Adolescents and Adults: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between lung function parameters and organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposures in agricultural occupations, but to our knowledge associations have not been evaluated in general populations. We examined associations between OP metabolite dialkyl phosphates (DAPs) and lung function using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Cycle 1. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25%-75%) were measured for 4,446 CHMS participants. Urinary concentrations of six DAP metabolites (DMP, DMTP, DMDTP, DEP, DETP, and DEDTP), smoking status, and other predictors of lung function were also measured in the CHMS-Cycle 1. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between total DAP concentrations (ΣDAPs) and lung function in adolescents (12-19 years) and adults (20-79 years). In adults, estimates from multiple regression analyses suggested that a 1-unit increase on natural logarithmic scale (171% increase on the original scale) in the creatinine-corrected urinary concentration (nanomoles per gram creatinine) of ΣDAP was associated with a 32.6-mL (95% CI: -57.2, -8.1) reduction in FVC, 32.6-mL (95% CI: -59.0, -6.3) reduction in FEV1, 0.2% (95% CI: -0.6, 0.2) reduction in FEV1/FVC ratio, and 53.1-mL/sec (95% CI: -113.9, 7.7) reduction in FEF25%-75%. In adolescents, associations between ΣDAP and FEV1 were closer to the null and positive for FVC, whereas associations with FEV1/FVC and FEF25%-75% were negative, as in adults. However, none of the associations were significant in adolescents. The negative association between ΣDAP and lung function in adult participants suggests a detrimental effect of OP pesticides on lung function in the adult general population. Further studies using prospective designs are warranted to confirm the findings reported in this study. Ye M, Beach J, Martin JW

  12. Validity and reliability of a nutrition knowledge survey for assessment in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Jared R; Moyer-Mileur, Laurie J; Wilkinson, Robert D; Slater, Hillarie; Jordan, Kristine C

    2010-03-01

    Limited surveys are available to assess the nutrition knowledge of children. The goals of this study were to test the validity and reliability of a computer nutrition knowledge survey for elementary school students and to evaluate the impact of the "Fit Kids 'r' Healthy Kids" nutrition intervention via the knowledge survey. During survey development, a sample (n=12) of health educators, elementary school teachers, and registered dietitians assessed the survey. The target population consisted of first- through fourth-grade students from Salt Lake City, UT, metropolitan area schools. Participants were divided into reliability (n=68), intervention (n=74), and control groups (n=59). The reliability group took the survey twice (2 weeks apart); the intervention and control groups also took the survey twice, but at pre- and post-intervention (4 weeks later). Only students from the intervention group participated in four weekly nutrition classes. Reliability was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients for knowledge scores. Results demonstrated appropriate content validity, as indicated by expert peer ratings. Test-retest reliability correlations were found to be significant for the overall survey (r=0.54; PNutrition knowledge was assessed upon program completion with paired samples t tests. Students from the intervention group demonstrated improvement in nutrition knowledge (12.2+/-1.9 to 13.5+/-1.6; Pnutrition survey demonstrated content validity and test-retest reliability for first- through fourth-grade elementary school children. Also, the study results imply that the Fit Kids 'r' Healthy Kids intervention promoted gains in nutrition knowledge. Overall, the computer survey shows promise as an appealing medium for assessing nutrition knowledge in children. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing soil and plant parameters affecting uranium availability and plant uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the assessment of the potential impact of contaminants in soils and the requirement for the implementation of corrective actions, it is important to determine the contaminant's mobility and bioavailability and to identify the processes and parameters ruling it. Mobility and bioavailability of contaminants are among others affected by the physicochemical characteristics of the environment itself and plant properties. This is also the case for uranium (U), reported to be the most frequent radionuclide contaminant in ground and surface water and soils. The actual failure of the available transfer factor (TF) data and their broad relation to soil type to be an appropriate measure for food chain transfer in assessment models, calls for a more mechanistic understanding of the individual processes affecting bioavailability. The objectives of this study were (1) to test if Diffusive Gradient in Thin film (DGT) measured concentrations adequately assess U bioavailability and (2) to evaluate if differences in U uptake by plants can be explained by variation in root-mediated changes in selected soil properties and assess the role of organic acids in this process

  14. Survey and selection of assessment methodologies for GAVE options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weterings, R.

    1999-05-01

    The Dutch government is interested in the possibilities for a market introduction of new gaseous and liquid energy carriers. To this purpose the GAVE-programme was recently set up. This study is carried out within the framework of the GAVE-programme and aims at the selection of methodologies for assessing the technological, economic, ecological and social perspectives of these new energy options (so-called GAVE-options). Based on the results of these assessments the Dutch ministries of Housing, Planning and Environment (VROM) and Economic Affairs (EZ) will decide at the end of 1999 about starting demonstration projects of promising energy carriers

  15. Trading Time with Space - Development of subduction zone parameter database for a maximum magnitude correlation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2017-04-01

    Subduction zones are generally the sources of the earthquakes with the highest magnitudes. Not only in Japan or Chile, but also in Pakistan, the Solomon Islands or for the Lesser Antilles, subduction zones pose a significant hazard for the people. To understand the behavior of subduction zones, especially to identify their capabilities to produce maximum magnitude earthquakes, various physical models have been developed leading to a large number of various datasets, e.g. from geodesy, geomagnetics, structural geology, etc. There have been various studies to utilize this data for the compilation of a subduction zone parameters database, but mostly concentrating on only the major zones. Here, we compile the largest dataset of subduction zone parameters both in parameter diversity but also in the number of considered subduction zones. In total, more than 70 individual sources have been assessed and the aforementioned parametric data have been combined with seismological data and many more sources have been compiled leading to more than 60 individual parameters. Not all parameters have been resolved for each zone, since the data completeness depends on the data availability and quality for each source. In addition, the 3D down-dip geometry of a majority of the subduction zones has been resolved using historical earthquake hypocenter data and centroid moment tensors where available and additionally compared and verified with results from previous studies. With such a database, a statistical study has been undertaken to identify not only correlations between those parameters to estimate a parametric driven way to identify potentials for maximum possible magnitudes, but also to identify similarities between the sources themselves. This identification of similarities leads to a classification system for subduction zones. Here, it could be expected if two sources share enough common characteristics, other characteristics of interest may be similar as well. This concept

  16. Quantitative ultrasound assessment of breast tumor response to chemotherapy using a multi-parameter approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayyon, Hadi; Sannachi, Lakshmanan; Gangeh, Mehrdad; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Tran, William; Trudeau, Maureen E; Pritchard, Kathleen; Ghandi, Sonal; Verma, Sunil; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2016-07-19

    This study demonstrated the ability of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters in providing an early prediction of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Using a 6-MHz array transducer, ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data were collected from 58 LABC patients prior to NAC treatment and at weeks 1, 4, and 8 of their treatment, and prior to surgery. QUS parameters including midband fit (MBF), spectral slope (SS), spectral intercept (SI), spacing among scatterers (SAS), attenuation coefficient estimate (ACE), average scatterer diameter (ASD), and average acoustic concentration (AAC) were determined from the tumor region of interest. Ultrasound data were compared with the ultimate clinical and pathological response of the patient's tumor to treatment and patient recurrence-free survival. Multi-parameter discriminant analysis using the κ-nearest-neighbor classifier demonstrated that the best response classification could be achieved using the combination of MBF, SS, and SAS, with an accuracy of 60 ± 10% at week 1, 77 ± 8% at week 4 and 75 ± 6% at week 8. Furthermore, when the QUS measurements at each time (week) were combined with pre-treatment (week 0) QUS values, the classification accuracies improved (70 ± 9% at week 1, 80 ± 5% at week 4, and 81 ± 6% at week 8). Finally, the multi-parameter QUS model demonstrated a significant difference in survival rates of responding and non-responding patients at weeks 1 and 4 (p=0.035, and 0.027, respectively). This study demonstrated for the first time, using new parameters tested on relatively large patient cohort and leave-one-out classifier evaluation, that a hybrid QUS biomarker including MBF, SS, and SAS could, with relatively high sensitivity and specificity, detect the response of LABC tumors to NAC as early as after 4 weeks of therapy. The findings of this study also suggested that incorporating pre-treatment QUS parameters of a tumor improved the

  17. A SURVEY OF THE PARAMETER SPACE OF THE COMPRESSIBLE LIQUID DROP MODEL AS APPLIED TO THE NEUTRON STAR INNER CRUST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, W. G.; Gearheart, M.; Li Baoan

    2013-01-01

    We present a systematic survey of the range of predictions of the neutron star inner crust composition, crust-core transition densities and pressures, and density range of the nuclear 'pasta' phases at the bottom of the crust provided by the compressible liquid drop model in light of the current experimental and theoretical constraints on model parameters. Using a Skyrme-like model for nuclear matter, we construct baseline sequences of crust models by consistently varying the density dependence of the bulk symmetry energy at nuclear saturation density, L, under two conditions: (1) that the magnitude of the symmetry energy at saturation density J is held constant, and (2) J correlates with L under the constraint that the pure neutron matter (PNM) equation of state (EoS) satisfies the results of ab initio calculations at low densities. Such baseline crust models facilitate consistent exploration of the L dependence of crustal properties. The remaining surface energy and symmetric nuclear matter parameters are systematically varied around the baseline, and different functional forms of the PNM EoS at sub-saturation densities implemented, to estimate theoretical 'error bars' for the baseline predictions. Inner crust composition and transition densities are shown to be most sensitive to the surface energy at very low proton fractions and to the behavior of the sub-saturation PNM EoS. Recent calculations of the energies of neutron drops suggest that the low-proton-fraction surface energy might be higher than predicted in Skyrme-like models, which our study suggests may result in a greatly reduced volume of pasta in the crust than conventionally predicted.

  18. A SURVEY OF THE PARAMETER SPACE OF THE COMPRESSIBLE LIQUID DROP MODEL AS APPLIED TO THE NEUTRON STAR INNER CRUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, W. G.; Gearheart, M.; Li Baoan, E-mail: william.newton@tamuc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429-3011 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    We present a systematic survey of the range of predictions of the neutron star inner crust composition, crust-core transition densities and pressures, and density range of the nuclear 'pasta' phases at the bottom of the crust provided by the compressible liquid drop model in light of the current experimental and theoretical constraints on model parameters. Using a Skyrme-like model for nuclear matter, we construct baseline sequences of crust models by consistently varying the density dependence of the bulk symmetry energy at nuclear saturation density, L, under two conditions: (1) that the magnitude of the symmetry energy at saturation density J is held constant, and (2) J correlates with L under the constraint that the pure neutron matter (PNM) equation of state (EoS) satisfies the results of ab initio calculations at low densities. Such baseline crust models facilitate consistent exploration of the L dependence of crustal properties. The remaining surface energy and symmetric nuclear matter parameters are systematically varied around the baseline, and different functional forms of the PNM EoS at sub-saturation densities implemented, to estimate theoretical 'error bars' for the baseline predictions. Inner crust composition and transition densities are shown to be most sensitive to the surface energy at very low proton fractions and to the behavior of the sub-saturation PNM EoS. Recent calculations of the energies of neutron drops suggest that the low-proton-fraction surface energy might be higher than predicted in Skyrme-like models, which our study suggests may result in a greatly reduced volume of pasta in the crust than conventionally predicted.

  19. Assessment of mental health and illness by telephone survey: experience with an Alberta mental health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Scott B; Adair, Carol E; Williams, Jeanne Va; Brant, Rollin; Wang, Jian Li; Casebeer, Ann; Beauséjour, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Mental health is an emerging priority for health surveillance. It has not been determined that the existing data sources can adequately meet surveillance needs. The objective of this project was to explore the use of telephone surveys as a means of collecting supplementary surveillance information. A computer-assisted telephone interview was administered to 5,400 subjects in Alberta. The interview included a set of brief, validated measures for evaluating mental disorder prevalence and related variables. The individual subject response rate was 78 percent, but a substantial number of refusals occurred at the initial household contact. The age and sex distribution of the study sample differed from that of the provincial population prior to weighting. Prevalence proportions did not vary substantially across administrative health regions. There is a potential role for telephone data collection in mental health surveillance, but these results highlight some associated methodological challenges. They also draw into question the importance of regional variation in mental disorder prevalence--which might otherwise have been a key advantage of telephone survey methodologies.

  20. Surveys from inside: An assessment of unit nonresponse bias with internal criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Kohler

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article uses the so called “internal criteria of representativeness” to assess the unit nonresponse bias in five European comparative survey projects. It then goes on investigating several ideas why unit nonresponse bias might vary between surveys and countries. It is proposed that unit nonresponse bias is either caused by country characteristics or survey methodology. The empirical evidence presented speaks more in favour of the latter than of the former. Among the survey characteristics the features that strengthen the leverage to control interviewers’ behaviour have top priority

  1. PROBABILITY SURVEYS , CONDITIONAL PROBABILITIES AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    We show that probability-based environmental resource monitoring programs, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program, and conditional probability analysis can serve as a basis for estimating ecological risk over ...

  2. Assessment of various parameters in the estimation of differential renal function using technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lythgoe, M.F.; Gordon, I.; Khader, Z.; Smith, T.; Anderson, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Differential renal function (DRF) is an important parameter that should be assessed from virtually every dynamic renogram. With the introduction of technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine ( 99m Tc-MAG3), a tracer with a high renal extraction, the estimation of DRF might hopefully become accurate and reproducible both between observers in the same institution and also between institutions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different parameters on the estimation of DRF. To this end we investigated two groups of children: group A, comprising 35 children with a single kidney (27 of whom had poor renal function), and group B, comprising 20 children with two kidneys and normal global function who also had an associated 99m Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan ( 99m Tc-DMSA). The variables assessed for their effect on the estimation of DRF were: different operators, the choice of renal regions of interest (ROIs), the applied background subtraction, and six different techniques for analysis of the renogram. The six techniques were based on: linear regression of the slopes in the Rutland-Patlak plot, matrix deconvolution, differential method, integral method, linear regression of the slope of the renograms, and the area under the curve of the renogram. The estimation of DRF was less dependent upon both observer and method in patients with two normally functioning kidneys than in patients with a single kidney. The inter-observer comparison among children in either group was not dependent on either ROI or background subtraction. However, in patients with poor renal function the method of choice for the estimation of DRF was dependent on background subtraction, though not ROI. In children with two kidneys and normal renal function, the estimation of DRF from the 24 techniques gave similar results. Methods that produced DRF values closest to expected results, from either group of children, were the Rutland-Patlak plot and matrix deconvolution methods. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation and Parameter Analysis of Burn up Calculations for the Assessment of Radioactive Waste - 13187

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Ivan; Aksyutina, Yuliya; Tietze-Jaensch, Holger [Product Quality Control Office for Radioactive Waste (PKS) at the Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety Research, IEK-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Burn up calculations facilitate a determination of the composition and nuclear inventory of spent nuclear fuel, if operational history is known. In case this information is not available, the total nuclear inventory can be determined by means of destructive or, even on industrial scale, nondestructive measurement methods. For non-destructive measurements however only a few easy-to-measure, so-called key nuclides, are determined due to their characteristic gamma lines or neutron emission. From these measured activities the fuel burn up and cooling time are derived to facilitate the numerical inventory determination of spent fuel elements. Most regulatory bodies require an independent assessment of nuclear waste properties and their documentation. Prominent part of this assessment is a consistency check of inventory declaration. The waste packages often contain wastes from different types of spent fuels of different history and information about the secondary reactor parameters may not be available. In this case the so-called characteristic fuel burn up and cooling time are determined. These values are obtained from a correlations involving key-nuclides with a certain bandwidth, thus with upper and lower limits. The bandwidth is strongly dependent on secondary reactor parameter such as initial enrichment, temperature and density of the fuel and moderator, hence the reactor type, fuel element geometry and plant operation history. The purpose of our investigation is to look into the scaling and correlation limitations, to define and verify the range of validity and to scrutinize the dependencies and propagation of uncertainties that affect the waste inventory declarations and their independent verification. This is accomplished by numerical assessment and simulation of waste production using well accepted codes SCALE 6.0 and 6.1 to simulate the cooling time and burn up of a spent fuel element. The simulations are benchmarked against spent fuel from the real reactor

  4. A Survey for Assessment of Role of Pharmacist in Community

    OpenAIRE

    P Kapur; M Aqil; M S Alam; S Karim; Himanshu Sharma; P Jinda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of pharmacist in community setting & consumer’s perception in National Capital
    Region.
    Setting: The study was conducted in National Capital Region of India during the year 2003-04.
    Method: Four pharmacy shops were selected for this study which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy
    seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during ...

  5. Using the critical incident survey to assess hospital service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, B; Connor, G; Barnhart, T

    1993-01-01

    This survey was designed to determine "standards of excellence" in hospital services as defined by (a) former patients, (b) physicians, (c) hospital employees, and (d) corporate insurance subscribers. One hundred forty-seven (147) patients, 188 employees, and 20 corporate subscribers were interviewed by telephone, and 52 physicians were interviewed in their offices. The interview consisted of a single question: "Can you think of a time when, as a patient/employee/employer/physician, you had a particularly satisfying or dissatisfying experience with a local hospital?" Reported incidents were reviewed, and 239 "critical incidents" were identified. These incidents were classified into 12 descriptive categories relating to the underlying factors in the incident reports. Six focus groups were later held with participants segregated by the population pool they represented. These groups were asked to develop definitions of "excellence" in hospital service quality and standards for service which would "exceed expectations." The focus groups created 122 standards of excellence, which were classified into 43 categories. Overall, the largest percentages of corporate, physician, and employee critical incidents were classified as "Administrative Policy" issues. Patients most often reported "Nurturing" incidents as critical to their perceptions of hospital service quality.

  6. Further assessment of survey results from the beaches around Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Fry, F.A.

    1984-02-01

    Contaminated material continues to be found on the beaches, estuaries and salt marshes. An initial apparent fall in the frequency of discovery of highly contaminated samples has not been sustained. In the last week of surveys reported here, a change was noted in the type of contaminated material found. Results averaged on the entire period from 19 November 1983 to 13 February 1984 suggest that about 2 items every kilometre might be found giving a reading in excess of 1 mR/L βγ and 1 item every few kilometres giving a reading in excess of 10 mR/h βγ, with actual contact dose rates possible of about a hundred times higher than apparent instrument readings. A member of the public could pick up an item contaminated in excess of the 10 mR/h βγ or 1000 cps criterion and hold it for sufficiently long to sustain an appreciable dose to the skin surface. These and laboratory studies of contaminated materials confirmed the Board's views that the only situations of concern are those of prolonged handling of debris and contamination of the skin, rather than intake by ingestion or inhalation. (U.K.)

  7. Assessment of cervical cancer with a parameter-free intravoxel incoherent motion imaging algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Anton S.; Wurnig, Moritz C.; Boss, Andreas; Ghafoor, Soleen [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Perucho, Jose A.; Khong, Pek Lan; Lee, Elaine Y. P. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of a parameter-free intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) approach in cervical cancer, to assess the optimal b-value threshold, and to preliminarily examine differences in the derived perfusion and diffusion parameters for different histological cancer types. After Institutional Review Board approval, 19 female patients (mean age, 54 years; age range, 37–78 years) gave consent and were enrolled in this prospective magnetic resonance imaging study. Clinical staging and biopsy results were obtained. Echo-planar diffusion weighted sequences at 13 b-values were acquired at 3 tesla field strength. Single-sliced region-of-interest IVIM analysis with adaptive b-value thresholds was applied to each tumor, yielding the optimal fit and the optimal parameters for pseudodiffusion (D*), perfusion fraction (Fp) and diffusion coefficient (D). Monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated for comparison with D. Biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 10 patients and adenocarcinoma in 9. The b-value threshold (median [interquartile range]) depended on the histological type and was 35 (22.5–50) s/mm{sup 2} in squamous cell carcinoma and 150 (100–150) s/mm{sup 2} in adenocarcinoma (p < 0.05). Comparing squamous cell vs. adenocarcinoma, D* (45.1 [25.1–60.4] × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s vs. 12.4 [10.5–21.2] × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) and Fp (7.5% [7.0–9.0%] vs. 9.9% [9.0–11.4%]) differed significantly between the subtypes (p < 0.02), whereas D did not (0.89 [0.75–0.94] × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s vs. 0.90 [0.82–0.97] × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.27). The residuals did not differ (0.74 [0.60–0.92] vs. 0.94 [0.67–1.01], p = 0.32). The ADC systematically underestimated the magnitude of diffusion restriction compared to D (p < 0.001). The parameter-free IVIM approach is feasible in cervical cancer. The b-value threshold and perfusion-related parameters depend on the tumor histology type.

  8. Discussion of skill improvement in marine ecosystem dynamic models based on parameter optimization and skill assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chengcheng; Shi, Honghua; Liu, Yongzhi; Li, Fen; Ding, Dewen

    2016-07-01

    Marine ecosystem dynamic models (MEDMs) are important tools for the simulation and prediction of marine ecosystems. This article summarizes the methods and strategies used for the improvement and assessment of MEDM skill, and it attempts to establish a technical framework to inspire further ideas concerning MEDM skill improvement. The skill of MEDMs can be improved by parameter optimization (PO), which is an important step in model calibration. An efficient approach to solve the problem of PO constrained by MEDMs is the global treatment of both sensitivity analysis and PO. Model validation is an essential step following PO, which validates the efficiency of model calibration by analyzing and estimating the goodness-of-fit of the optimized model. Additionally, by focusing on the degree of impact of various factors on model skill, model uncertainty analysis can supply model users with a quantitative assessment of model confidence. Research on MEDMs is ongoing; however, improvement in model skill still lacks global treatments and its assessment is not integrated. Thus, the predictive performance of MEDMs is not strong and model uncertainties lack quantitative descriptions, limiting their application. Therefore, a large number of case studies concerning model skill should be performed to promote the development of a scientific and normative technical framework for the improvement of MEDM skill.

  9. International online survey to assess current practice in equine anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfender, F D; Doherr, M G; Driessen, B; Hartnack, S; Johnston, G M; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R

    2015-01-01

    Multicentre Confidential Enquiries into Perioperative Equine Fatalities (CEPEF) have not been conducted since the initial CEPEF Phases 1-3, 20 years ago. To collect data on current practice in equine anaesthesia and to recruit participants for CEPEF-4. Online questionnaire survey. An online questionnaire was prepared and the link distributed internationally to veterinarians possibly performing equine anaesthesia, using emails, posters, flyers and an editorial. The questionnaire included 52 closed, semiclosed and open questions divided into 8 subgroups: demographic data, anaesthetist, anaesthesia management (preoperative, technical equipment, monitoring, drugs, recovery), areas of improvements and risks and motivation for participation in CEPEF-4. Descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests for comparison of categorical variables were performed. A total of 199 questionnaires were completed by veterinarians from 14 different countries. Of the respondents, 43% worked in private hospitals, 36% in private practices and 21% in university teaching hospitals. In 40 institutions (23%) there was at least one diplomate of the European or American colleges of veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia on staff. Individual respondents reported routinely employ the following anaesthesia monitoring modalities: electrocardiography (80%), invasive arterial blood pressures (70%), pulse oximetry (60%), capnography (55%), arterial blood gases (47%), composition of inspired and expired gases (45%) and body temperature (35%). Drugs administered frequently or routinely as part of a standard protocol were: acepromazine (44%), xylazine (68%), butorphanol (59%), ketamine (96%), diazepam (83%), isoflurane (76%), dobutamine (46%), and, as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, phenylbutazone (73%) or flunixin meglumine (66%). Recovery was routinely assisted by 40%. The main factors perceived by the respondents to affect outcome of equine anaesthesia were the preoperative health status of the

  10. Assessing Tillage Effects on Soil Hydraulic Properties via Inverse Parameter Estimation using Tension Infiltrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwen, Andreas; Bodner, Gernot; Loiskandl, Willibald

    2010-05-01

    Hydraulic properties are key factors controlling water and solute movement in soils. While several recent studies have focused on the assessment of the spatial variability of hydraulic properties, the temporal dynamics are commonly not taken into account, primarily because its measurement is costly and time-consuming. However, there is extensive empirical evidence that these properties are subject to temporal changes, particularly in the near-saturated range where soil structure strongly influences water flow. One main source of temporal variability is soil tillage. It can improve macroporosity by loosening the soil and thereby changing the pore-size distribution. Since these modifications are quite unstable over time, the pore space partially collapses after tillage. This effect should be largest for conventional tillage (CT), where the soil is ploughed after harvest every year. Assessing the effect of different tillage treatments on the temporal variability of hydraulic properties requires adequate measurement techniques. Tension infiltrometry has become a popular and convenient method providing not only the hydraulic conductivity function but also the soil rentention properties. The inverse estimation of parameters from infiltration measurements remains challenging, despite some progress since the first approach of Šimůnek et al. (1998). Measured data like the cumulative infiltration, the initial and final volumetric water content, as well as independently measured retention data from soil core analysis with laboratory methods, have to be considered to find an optimum solution describing the soil's pore space. In the present study we analysed tension infiltration measurements obtained several times between August 2008 and December 2009 on an arable field in the Moravian Basin, Lower Austria. The tillage treatments were conventional tillage including ploughing (CT), reduced tillage with chisel only (RT), and no-tillage treatment using a direct seeding

  11. Accuracy assessment of a mobile terrestrial lidar survey at Padre Island National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Samsung; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Brock, John C.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Reynolds, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    The higher point density and mobility of terrestrial laser scanning (light detection and ranging (lidar)) is desired when extremely detailed elevation data are needed for mapping vertically orientated complex features such as levees, dunes, and cliffs, or when highly accurate data are needed for monitoring geomorphic changes. Mobile terrestrial lidar scanners have the capability for rapid data collection on a larger spatial scale compared with tripod-based terrestrial lidar, but few studies have examined the accuracy of this relatively new mapping technology. For this reason, we conducted a field test at Padre Island National Seashore of a mobile lidar scanner mounted on a sport utility vehicle and integrated with a position and orientation system. The purpose of the study was to assess the vertical and horizontal accuracy of data collected by the mobile terrestrial lidar system, which is georeferenced to the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988. To accomplish the study objectives, independent elevation data were collected by conducting a high-accuracy global positioning system survey to establish the coordinates and elevations of 12 targets spaced throughout the 12 km transect. These independent ground control data were compared to the lidar scanner-derived elevations to quantify the accuracy of the mobile lidar system. The performance of the mobile lidar system was also tested at various vehicle speeds and scan density settings (e.g. field of view and linear point spacing) to estimate the optimal parameters for desired point density. After adjustment of the lever arm parameters, the final point cloud accuracy was 0.060 m (east), 0.095 m (north), and 0.053 m (height). The very high density of the resulting point cloud was sufficient to map fine-scale topographic features, such as the complex shape of the sand dunes.

  12. The Impact of Economic Parameter Uncertainty Growth on Regional Energy Demand Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vasilyevna Mazurova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the forecasting studies based on the energy demand and prices in the region in terms of the complex interconnections between economy (and energy and the growth of uncertainty of the future development of the country and territories. The authors propose a methodological approach, which combines the assessment of the price elasticity of energy demand with the optimization of energy and fuel regional supply. In this case, the price elasticity of demand is determined taking into account the comparison of cost-effectiveness of using different types of fuel and energy by different consumers. The originality of the proposed approach consists in simulating the behaviour of suppliers’ (energy companies and large customers’ (power plants, boiler rooms, industry, transport, population depending on energy price changes, the existing and new technologies, energy-saving activities and restrictions on fuel supplies. To take into account the uncertainty of future economic and energy conditions, some parameters such as prospective technical and economic parameters, price, technological parameters are set as the intervals of possible values with different probability levels. This approach allows making multivariate studies with different combinations of the expected conditions and receiving as a result the range of the projected values of studied indicators. The multivariate calculations show that the fuel demand has a nonlinear dependence on the consumer characteristics, pricing, projection horizon, and the nature of the future conditions uncertainty. The authors have shown that this effect can be significant and should be considered in the forecasts of the development of fuel and energy sector. The methodological approach and quantitative evaluation can be used to improve the economic and energy development strategies of the country and regions

  13. APPLICATION OF LASER SCANNING SURVEYING TO ROCK SLOPES RISK ASSESSMENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Corsetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods for understanding rock instability mechanisms and for evaluating potential destructive scenarios are of great importance in risk assessment analysis dedicated to the establishment of appropriate prevention and mitigation actions. When the portion of the unstable rock mass is very large, effective actions to counteract the risks are complex and expensive. In these conditions, an optimal risk management cannot ignore procedures able to faster and accurately acquire i geometrical data for modeling the geometry of the rock walls and implementing reliable forecasting models and ii monitoring data able to describe the magnitude and the direction of deformation processes. These data contributes to the prediction of the behavior of a landslide if the measurements are acquired frequently and reliable numerical models can be implemented. Innovative geomatic techniques, based on GPS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning Surveying (TLS, automated total station and satellite and ground SAR Interferometry, have been recently applied to define the geometry and monitoring the displacements of unstable slopes. Among these, TLS is mainly adopted to generate detailed 3D models useful to reconstruct rock wall geometry by contributing to the estimation of geo-mechanical parameters, that is orientation, persistence and apparent spacing of rock discontinuities. Two examples of applications of TLS technique to the analysis of a large front in a quarry and of a rock shoulder of a dam are presented.

  14. Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Sulzner

    Full Text Available The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus, a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health.

  15. Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzner, Kathryn; Kreuder Johnson, Christine; Bonde, Robert K; Auil Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James; Nielsen, Klaus; Luttrell, M Page; Osterhaus, A D M E; Aguirre, A Alonso

    2012-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health.

  16. Assessment of IRI-2016 profile parameters over Indian low latitude station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nilesh C.; Karia, Sheetal P.; Pathak, Kamlesh N.

    2018-05-01

    The present study reports the assessment of the bottom-side profile thickness (B0), shape (B1) and F2-peak height (hmF2) parameters IRI-2016 model over the Indian region by using digisonde observations. The digisonde data from a low latitude station Ahmedabad, (located at the crest of the northern equatorial anomaly) during three months June-2012, July-2012 and December-2012 are considered for this study. Simultaneous comparison is made on the performance of three different options `Gul-1987', `Bil-2000' and the `ABT-2009' for the bottom-side profile, three different options`AMTB2013 (AMT)', `SHU-2015 (SHU)', and `BSE-1979 (BSE)' for the hmF2 estimation in the latest available IRI-2016 to that obtained from digisonde measurements. Further, the diurnal characteristics of the B0 and B1 from digisonde measurements are also compared with those from the IRI-2016 model using the three different options.

  17. Assessment of Characteristic Function Modulus of Vibroacoustic Signal Given a Limit State Parameter of Diagnosed Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukov, V. N.; Naumenko, A. P.; Kudryavtseva, I. S.

    2018-01-01

    Improvement of distinguishing criteria, determining defects of machinery and mechanisms, by vibroacoustic signals is a recent problem for technical diagnostics. The work objective is assessment of instantaneous values by methods of statistical decision making theory and risk of regulatory values of characteristic function modulus. The modulus of the characteristic function is determined given a fixed parameter of the characteristic function. It is possible to determine the limits of the modulus, which correspond to different machine’s condition. The data of the modulus values are used as diagnostic features in the vibration diagnostics and monitoring systems. Using such static decision-making methods as: minimum number of wrong decisions, maximum likelihood, minimax, Neumann-Pearson characteristic function modulus limits are determined, separating conditions of a diagnosed object.

  18. Assessment of rotation thromboelastometry parameters in patients with essential thrombocythemia at diagnosis and after hydroxyurea therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treliński, Jacek; Okońska, Marta; Robak, Marta; Chojnowski, Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    Patients with essential thrombocythemia suffer from thrombotic complications that are the main source of mortality. Due to its complex pathogenesis, no existing single laboratory method is able to identify the patients at highest risk for developing thrombosis. Twenty patients with essential thrombocythemia at diagnosis, 15 healthy volunteers and 20 patients treated with hydroxyurea were compared with regard to certain rotation thromboelastometry parameters. Clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), α-angle, and maximum clot firmness (MCF) were assessed by using the INTEM, EXTEM, FIBTEM, and NATEM tests. Patients with essential thrombocythemia at diagnosis demonstrated significantly higher mean platelet count and markedly lower mean red blood count than controls. CT and CFT readings were found to be markedly lower in essential thrombocythemia patients at diagnosis than in the control group according to the EXTEM test. Patients at diagnosis had markedly lower CT values (EXTEM, FIBTEM) than patients on hydroxyurea therapy. Alpha angle values were markedly higher in essential thrombocythemia patients at diagnosis than in controls, according to the EXTEM, FIBTEM and NATEM tests. MCF readings were significantly higher in essential thrombocythemia patients at diagnosis than in controls according to EXTEM, INTEM, FIBTEM, and NATEM tests. Patients on hydroxyurea therapy had markedly lower MCF values according to EXTEM test than patients at diagnosis. Patients with essential thrombocythemia demonstrate a prothrombotic state at the time of diagnosis, which is reflected in changes by certain rotation thromboelastometry parameters. The hydroxyurea therapy induces downregulation of the prothrombotic features seen in essential thrombocythemia patients at diagnosis.

  19. Assessment of Abdominal Fat Using High-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Radaideh, Ali; Tayyem, Reema; Al-Fayomi, Kholoud; Nimer, Nisreen; Malkawi, Amer; Al-Zu Bi, Rana; Agraib, Lana; Athamneh, Imad; Hijjawi, Nawal

    2016-12-01

    To measure the abdominal subcutaneous fat (SF) and visceral fat (VF) volumes using high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate their association with selected anthropometric and biochemical parameters among obese and nonobese apparently healthy participants. A cross-sectional study was conducted by recruiting 167 healthy participants. Abdominal scans were acquired at 3T MRI, and the SF and VF were segmented and their volumes were calculated. Selected anthropometric and biochemical measurements were also determined. A significant difference (P abdominal fat volumes, leptin, resistin, adiponectin and waist circumference. Waist circumferences were measured by tape and MRI. Findings revealed that MRI-measured fat volumes were different between males and females and had a significant (P fat volumes were found to correlate moderately with interleukin-6 and weakly with cholesterol, serum triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein. Except for cholesterol, all measured biochemical variables and abdominal fat volumes in the current study were significantly associated with body mass index. All anthropometric and biochemical parameters showed weak-to-strong associations with the MRI-measured fat volumes. Abdominal fat distribution was different between males and females and their correlations with some lipid profiles were found to be sex dependent. These findings revealed that MRI can be used as an alternative tool for obesity assessment. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact Assessment of Effective Parameters on Drivers' Attention Level to Urban Traffic Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mojtaba; Rahimi, Amir Masoud; Roshankhah, Sheida

    2016-03-01

    Traffic signs are one of the oldest safety and traffic control equipments. Drivers' reaction to installed signs is an important issue that could be studied using statistical models developed for target groups. There are 527 questionnaires have been filled up randomly in 45 days, some by drivers passing two northern cities of Iran and some by e-mail. Therefore, minimum sample size of 384 is fulfilled. In addition, Cronbach Alpha of more than 90 % verifies the questionnaire's validity. Ordinal logistic regression is used for 5-level answer variables. This relatively novel method predicts probability of different cases' considering other effective independent variables. There are 18 parameters of factor, man, vehicle, and environment are assessed and 5 parameters of number of accidents in last 5 years, occupation, driving time, number of accidents per day, and driving speed are eventually found as the most important ones. Age and gender, that are considered as key factors in other safety and accident studies, are not recognized as effective ones in this paper. The results could be useful for safety planning programs.

  1. A new parameter to simultaneously assess antioxidant activity for multiple phenolic compounds present in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Xue, Xuejia; Li, Huan; Tay-Chan, Su Chin; Ong, Seng Poon; Tian, Edmund Feng

    2017-08-15

    In this work, we established a new methodology to simultaneously assess the relative reaction rates of multiple antioxidant compounds in one experimental set-up. This new methodology hypothesizes that the competition among antioxidant compounds towards limiting amount of free radical (in this article, DPPH) would reflect their relative reaction rates. In contrast with the conventional detection of DPPH decrease at 515nm on a spectrophotometer, depletion of antioxidant compounds treated by a series of DPPH concentrations was monitored instead using liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF). A new parameter, namely relative antioxidant activity (RAA), has been proposed to rank these antioxidants according to their reaction rate constants. We have investigated the applicability of RAA using pre-mixed standard phenolic compounds, and also extended this application to two food products, i.e. red wine and green tea. It has been found that RAA correlates well with the reported k values. This new parameter, RAA, provides a new perspective in evaluating antioxidant compounds present in food and herbal matrices. It not only realistically reflects the antioxidant activity of compounds when co-existing with competitive constituents; and it could also quicken up the discovery process in the search for potent yet rare antioxidants from many herbs of food/medicinal origins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. MR flow velocity measurement using 2D phase contrast, assessment of imaging parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akata, Soichi; Fukushima, Akihiro; Abe, Kimihiko; Darkanzanli, A.; Gmitro, A.F.; Unger, E.C.; Capp, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) phase contrast technique using balanced gradient pulses is utilized to measure flow velocities of cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Various imaging parameters affect the accuracy of flow velocity measurements to varying degrees. Assessment of the errors introduced by changing the imaging parameters are presented and discussed in this paper. A constant flow phantom consisting of a pump, a polyethylene tube and a flow meter was assembled. A clinical 1.5 Tesla MR imager was used to perform flow velocity measurements. The phase contrast technique was used to estimate the flow velocity of saline through the phantom. The effects of changes in matrix size, flip angle, flow compensation, and velocity encoding (VENC) value were tested in the pulse sequence. Gd-DTPA doped saline was used to study the effect of changing T1 on the accuracy of flow velocity measurement. Matrix size (within practical values), flip angle, and flow compensation had minimum impact on flow velocity measurements. T1 of the solution also had no effect on the accuracy of measuring the flow velocity. On the other hand, it was concluded that errors as high as 20% can be expected in the flow velocity measurements if the VENC value is not properly chosen. (author)

  3. MR flow velocity measurement using 2D phase contrast, assessment of imaging parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akata, Soichi; Fukushima, Akihiro; Abe, Kimihiko [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan); Darkanzanli, A.; Gmitro, A.F.; Unger, E.C.; Capp, M.P.

    1999-11-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) phase contrast technique using balanced gradient pulses is utilized to measure flow velocities of cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Various imaging parameters affect the accuracy of flow velocity measurements to varying degrees. Assessment of the errors introduced by changing the imaging parameters are presented and discussed in this paper. A constant flow phantom consisting of a pump, a polyethylene tube and a flow meter was assembled. A clinical 1.5 Tesla MR imager was used to perform flow velocity measurements. The phase contrast technique was used to estimate the flow velocity of saline through the phantom. The effects of changes in matrix size, flip angle, flow compensation, and velocity encoding (VENC) value were tested in the pulse sequence. Gd-DTPA doped saline was used to study the effect of changing T1 on the accuracy of flow velocity measurement. Matrix size (within practical values), flip angle, and flow compensation had minimum impact on flow velocity measurements. T1 of the solution also had no effect on the accuracy of measuring the flow velocity. On the other hand, it was concluded that errors as high as 20% can be expected in the flow velocity measurements if the VENC value is not properly chosen. (author)

  4. Life cycle assessment and residue leaching: the importance of parameter, scenario and leaching data selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, E; Butera, S; Kosson, D S; Van Zomeren, A; Van der Sloot, H A; Astrup, T F

    2015-04-01

    Residues from industrial processes and waste management systems (WMSs) have been increasingly reutilised, leading to landfilling rate reductions and the optimisation of mineral resource utilisation in society. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic methodology allowing for the analysis of systems and products and can be applied to waste management systems to identify environmental benefits and critical aspects thereof. From an LCA perspective, residue utilisation provides benefits such as avoiding the production and depletion of primary materials, but it can lead to environmental burdens, due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system boundaries. The importance of data quality and parameter selection in the overall LCA results was evaluated, and an innovative method to assess metal transport into the environment was applied, in order to determine emissions to the soil and water compartments for use in an LCA. It was found that toxic impacts as a result of leaching were dominant in systems including only MSWI BA utilisation, while leaching appeared negligible in larger scenarios including the entire waste system. However, leaching could not be disregarded a priori, due to large uncertainties characterising other activities in the scenario (e.g. electricity production). Based on the analysis of relevant parameters relative to leaching, and on general results of the study, recommendations are provided regarding the use of leaching data in LCA studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Some relevant parameters for assessing fire hazards of combustible mine materials using laboratory scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Charles D; Perera, Inoka E; Harteis, Samuel P; Teacoach, Kara A; DeRosa, Maria I; Thomas, Richard A; Smith, Alex C

    2018-04-15

    When combustible materials ignite and burn, the potential for fire growth and flame spread represents an obvious hazard, but during these processes of ignition and flaming, other life hazards present themselves and should be included to ensure an effective overall analysis of the relevant fire hazards. In particular, the gases and smoke produced both during the smoldering stages of fires leading to ignition and during the advanced flaming stages of a developing fire serve to contaminate the surrounding atmosphere, potentially producing elevated levels of toxicity and high levels of smoke obscuration that render the environment untenable. In underground mines, these hazards may be exacerbated by the existing forced ventilation that can carry the gases and smoke to locations far-removed from the fire location. Clearly, materials that require high temperatures (above 1400 K) and that exhibit low mass loss during thermal decomposition, or that require high heat fluxes or heat transfer rates to ignite represent less of a hazard than materials that decompose at low temperatures or ignite at low levels of heat flux. In order to define and quantify some possible parameters that can be used to assess these hazards, small-scale laboratory experiments were conducted in a number of configurations to measure: 1) the toxic gases and smoke produced both during non-flaming and flaming combustion; 2) mass loss rates as a function of temperature to determine ease of thermal decomposition; and 3) mass loss rates and times to ignition as a function of incident heat flux. This paper describes the experiments that were conducted, their results, and the development of a set of parameters that could possibly be used to assess the overall fire hazard of combustible materials using small scale laboratory experiments.

  6. Assessment of the Measurement Properties of the NHCAHPS Family Survey: A Rasch Scaling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS), a family of survey instruments designed to capture and report people's experiences obtaining health care could soon add satisfaction as a consistent dimension of quality that skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) are required to assess and report. The SNF setting…

  7. Proceedings of the scientific meeting on `parameters for assessing the mobility of trace substances in the environment`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Masami; Fujinawa, Katsuyuki [eds.

    1996-04-01

    This issue is the collection of the paper presented at the title meeting on `parameters for assessing the mobility of trace substances in the environment`. The 18 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. Proceedings of the scientific meeting on 'parameters for assessing the mobility of trace substances in the environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masami; Fujinawa, Katsuyuki

    1996-04-01

    This issue is the collection of the paper presented at the title meeting on 'parameters for assessing the mobility of trace substances in the environment'. The 18 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  9. Applying probabilistic well-performance parameters to assessments of shale-gas resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy

    2010-01-01

    In assessing continuous oil and gas resources, such as shale gas, it is important to describe not only the ultimately producible volumes, but also the expected well performance. This description is critical to any cost analysis or production scheduling. A probabilistic approach facilitates (1) the inclusion of variability in well performance within a continuous accumulation, and (2) the use of data from developed accumulations as analogs for the assessment of undeveloped accumulations. In assessing continuous oil and gas resources of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey analyzed production data from many shale-gas accumulations. Analyses of four of these accumulations (the Barnett, Woodford, Fayetteville, and Haynesville shales) are presented here as examples of the variability of well performance. For example, the distribution of initial monthly production rates for Barnett vertical wells shows a noticeable change with time, first increasing because of improved completion practices, then decreasing from a combination of decreased reservoir pressure (in infill wells) and drilling in less productive areas. Within a partially developed accumulation, historical production data from that accumulation can be used to estimate production characteristics of undrilled areas. An understanding of the probabilistic relations between variables, such as between initial production and decline rates, can improve estimates of ultimate production. Time trends or spatial trends in production data can be clarified by plots and maps. The data can also be divided into subsets depending on well-drilling or well-completion techniques, such as vertical in relation to horizontal wells. For hypothetical or lightly developed accumulations, one can either make comparisons to a specific well-developed accumulation or to the entire range of available developed accumulations. Comparison of the distributions of initial monthly production rates of the four shale-gas accumulations that were

  10. A practical method to assess model sensitivity and parameter uncertainty in C cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaies, Sylvain; Roulstone, Ian; Nichols, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    The carbon cycle combines multiple spatial and temporal scales, from minutes to hours for the chemical processes occurring in plant cells to several hundred of years for the exchange between the atmosphere and the deep ocean and finally to millennia for the formation of fossil fuels. Together with our knowledge of the transformation processes involved in the carbon cycle, many Earth Observation systems are now available to help improving models and predictions using inverse modelling techniques. A generic inverse problem consists in finding a n-dimensional state vector x such that h(x) = y, for a given N-dimensional observation vector y, including random noise, and a given model h. The problem is well posed if the three following conditions hold: 1) there exists a solution, 2) the solution is unique and 3) the solution depends continuously on the input data. If at least one of these conditions is violated the problem is said ill-posed. The inverse problem is often ill-posed, a regularization method is required to replace the original problem with a well posed problem and then a solution strategy amounts to 1) constructing a solution x, 2) assessing the validity of the solution, 3) characterizing its uncertainty. The data assimilation linked ecosystem carbon (DALEC) model is a simple box model simulating the carbon budget allocation for terrestrial ecosystems. Intercomparison experiments have demonstrated the relative merit of various inverse modelling strategies (MCMC, ENKF) to estimate model parameters and initial carbon stocks for DALEC using eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 and leaf area index observations. Most results agreed on the fact that parameters and initial stocks directly related to fast processes were best estimated with narrow confidence intervals, whereas those related to slow processes were poorly estimated with very large uncertainties. While other studies have tried to overcome this difficulty by adding complementary

  11. Key parameters of the sediment surface morphodynamics in an estuary - An assessment of model solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, D. M. R.; Boski, T.

    2018-05-01

    Large-scale geomorphological evolution of an estuarine system was simulated by means of a hybrid estuarine sedimentation model (HESM) applied to the Guadiana Estuary, in Southwest Iberia. The model simulates the decadal-scale morphodynamics of the system under environmental forcing, using a set of analytical solutions to simplified equations of tidal wave propagation in shallow waters, constrained by empirical knowledge of estuarine sedimentary dynamics and topography. The key controlling parameters of the model are bed friction (f), current velocity power of the erosion rate function (N), and sea-level rise rate. An assessment of sensitivity of the simulated sediment surface elevation (SSE) change to these controlling parameters was performed. The model predicted the spatial differentiation of accretion and erosion, the latter especially marked in the mudflats within mean sea level and low tide level and accretion was mainly in a subtidal channel. The average SSE change mutually depended on both the friction coefficient and power of the current velocity. Analysis of the average annual SSE change suggests that the state of intertidal and subtidal compartments of the estuarine system vary differently according to the dominant processes (erosion and accretion). As the Guadiana estuarine system shows dominant erosional behaviour in the context of sea-level rise and sediment supply reduction after the closure of the Alqueva Dam, the most plausible sets of parameter values for the Guadiana Estuary are N = 1.8 and f = 0.8f0, or N = 2 and f = f0, where f0 is the empirically estimated value. For these sets of parameter values, the relative errors in SSE change did not exceed ±20% in 73% of simulation cells in the studied area. Such a limit of accuracy can be acceptable for an idealized modelling of coastal evolution in response to uncertain sea-level rise scenarios in the context of reduced sediment supply due to flow regulation. Therefore, the idealized but cost

  12. Using repeat electrical resistivity surveys to assess heterogeneity in soil moisture dynamics under contrasting vegetation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jonathan; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Bradford, John; Soulsby, Chris

    2018-04-01

    As the relationship between vegetation and soil moisture is complex and reciprocal, there is a need to understand how spatial patterns in soil moisture influence the distribution of vegetation, and how the structure of vegetation canopies and root networks regulates the partitioning of precipitation. Spatial patterns of soil moisture are often difficult to visualise as usually, soil moisture is measured at point scales, and often difficult to extrapolate. Here, we address the difficulties in collecting large amounts of spatial soil moisture data through a study combining plot- and transect-scale electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys to estimate soil moisture in a 3.2 km2 upland catchment in the Scottish Highlands. The aim was to assess the spatio-temporal variability in soil moisture under Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris) and heather moorland shrubs (Calluna vulgaris); the two dominant vegetation types in the Scottish Highlands. The study focussed on one year of fortnightly ERT surveys. The surveyed resistivity data was inverted and Archie's law was used to calculate volumetric soil moisture by estimating parameters and comparing against field measured data. Results showed that spatial soil moisture patterns were more heterogeneous in the forest site, as were patterns of wetting and drying, which can be linked to vegetation distribution and canopy structure. The heather site showed a less heterogeneous response to wetting and drying, reflecting the more uniform vegetation cover of the shrubs. Comparing soil moisture temporal variability during growing and non-growing seasons revealed further contrasts: under the heather there was little change in soil moisture during the growing season. Greatest changes in the forest were in areas where the trees were concentrated reflecting water uptake and canopy partitioning. Such differences have implications for climate and land use changes; increased forest cover can lead to greater spatial variability, greater

  13. Assessing study skills among university students: an Iranian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didarloo, Alireza; Khalkhali, Hamid Reza

    2014-05-05

    Numerous studies have revealed that study skills have a constructive role on the academic performance of students, in addition to educational quality, student' intelligence, and their affective characteristics. This study aims to examine study skills and the factors influencing them among the health sciences students of Urmia University of Medical Sciences in Iran. This was a cross-sectional study carried out from May to November 2013. A total of 340 Urmia health sciences students were selected using a simple sampling method. Data were collected using the Study Skills Assessment Questionnaire of Counseling Center of Houston University and analyzed with descriptive and analytical statistics. The mean and standard deviation of the students' study skills were 172.5±23.2, out of a total score of 240. Around 1.2% of the study skills were weak; 86.8%, moderate; and 12%, good. Among the study skills, the scores of time management, and memory and concentration were better than the others. Also, there was a significant positive correlation between study skills scores and the students' family housing status and academic level (Pstudy skills, these were not sufficient and far from good. Improving and promoting the study skills of university students require the designing and implementing of education programs for study strategies. Therefore, decision makers and planners in the educational areas of universities should consider the topic described above.

  14. Geochemical sensitivity analysis: Identification of important geochemical parameters for performance assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.; Guzowski, R.; Rechard, R.; Erickson, K.

    1986-01-01

    The EPA Standard for geologic disposal of high level waste requires demonstration that the cumulative discharge of individual radioisotopes over a 10,000 year period at points 5 kilometers from the engineered barrier system will not exceed the limits prescribed in 40 CFR Part 191. The roles of the waste package, engineered facility, hydrogeology and geochemical processes in limiting radionuclide releases all must be considered in calculations designed to assess compliance of candidate repositories with the EPA Standard. In this talk, they will discuss the geochemical requirements of calculations used in these compliance assessments. In addition, they will describe the complementary roles of (1) simple models designed to bound the radionuclide discharge over the widest reasonable range of geochemical conditions and scenarios and (2) detailed geochemical models which can provide insights into the actual behavior of the radionuclides in the ground water. Finally, they will discuss development of sensitivity/uncertainty techniques designed to identify important site-specific geochemical parameters and processes using data from a basalt formation

  15. Evaluation of uncertainty associated with parameters for long-term safety assessments of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Minase, Naofumi; Iida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Tadao; Nakayama, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of our data acquisition on quantifying uncertainties associated with parameters for safety assessment on groundwater scenarios for geological disposal of radioactive wastes. First, sources of uncertainties and the resulting priority in data acquisition were briefed. Then, the current status of data acquisition for quantifying the uncertainties in assessing solubility, diffusivity in bentonite buffer and distribution coefficient on rocks is introduced. The uncertainty with the solubility estimation is quantified from that associated with thermodynamic data and that in estimating groundwater chemistry. The uncertainty associated with the diffusivity in bentonite buffer is composed of variations of relevant factors such as porosity of the bentonite buffer, montmorillonite content, chemical composition of pore water and temperature. The uncertainty of factors such as the specific surface area of the rock, pH, ionic strength, carbonate concentration in groundwater compose uncertainty of the distribution coefficient of radionuclides on rocks. Based on these investigations, problems to be solved in future studies are summarized. (author)

  16. Using climate derivatives for assessment of meteorological parameter relationships in RCM and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timuhins, Andrejs; Bethers, Uldis; Bethers, Peteris; Klints, Ilze; Sennikovs, Juris; Frishfelds, Vilnis

    2017-04-01

    In a changing climate it is essential to estimate its impacts on different economic fields. In our study we tried to create a framework for climate change assessment and climate change impact estimation for the territory of Latvia and to create results which are also understandable for non-scientists (stakeholder, media and public). This approach allowed us to more carefully assess the presentation and interpretation of results and their validation, for public viewing. For the presentation of our work a website was created (www.modlab.lv/klimats) containing two types of documents in a unified framework, meteorological parameter analysis of different easily interpretable derivative values. Both of these include analysis of the current situation as well as illustrate the projection for future time periods. Derivate values are calculated using two data sources: the bias corrected regional climate data and meteorological observation data. Derivative documents contain description of derived value, some interesting facts and conclusions. Additionally, all results may be viewed in temporal and spatial graphs and maps, for different time periods as well as different seasons. Bias correction (Sennikovs and Bethers, 2009) for the control period 1961-1990 is applied to RCM data series. Meteorological observation data of the Latvian Environment, Geology, and Meteorology Agency and ENSEMBLES project daily data of 13 RCM runs for the period 1960-2100 are used. All the documents are prepared in python notebooks, which allow for flexible changes. At the moment following derivative values have been published: forest fire risk index, wind energy, phenology (Degree days), road condition (friction, ice conditions), daily minimal meteorological visibility, headache occurrence rate, firs snow date and meteorological parameter analysis: temperature, precipitation, wind speed, relative humidity, and cloudiness. While creating these products RCM ability to represent the actual climate was

  17. Survey Methods for Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Historical Masonry Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, M.; Balletti, C.; Faccio, P.; Guerra, F.; Saetta, A.; Vernier, P.

    2017-05-01

    On 20th and 29th of May 2012, two powerful earthquakes struck northern Italy. The epicentres were recorded respectively in Finale Emilia (magnitude 5.9 Ml) and Medolla (magnitude 5.8 Ml) in the province of Modena, though the earthquake was formed by a series of seismic shakes located in the district of the Emilian Po Valley, mainly in the provinces of Modena, Ferrara, Mantova, Reggio Emilia, Bologna and Rovigo. Many monuments in the city of Mantova were hit by the earthquake and, among these, Palazzo Ducale with the well-known Castello di San Giorgio which host the noteworthy "Camera degli Sposi". This building, the most famous of the city, was so damaged that it was closed for more than one year after the earthquake. The emblem of the Palace and Mantova itself, the previously cited "Camera degli Sposi" realized by Andrea Mantegna, was damaged and all the economic and social life of the city was deeply affected. Immediately after the earthquake, the Soprintendenza per i Beni Architettonici e Paesaggistici of Brescia, Cremona and Mantova establish an agreement with the University Iuav of Venice, requiring an analysis and assessment of the damage in order to proceed with the development of an intervention project. This activity turned out to be very important not only from the point of view of the recovery of the architectural and artistic heritage but also because the city's economy is based primarily on tourism. The closure of one of the most important monuments of Mantova has led to a significant and alarming decline in the government income.

  18. SURVEY METHODS FOR SEISMIC VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF HISTORICAL MASONRY BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ballarin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available On 20th and 29th of May 2012, two powerful earthquakes struck northern Italy. The epicentres were recorded respectively in Finale Emilia (magnitude 5.9 Ml and Medolla (magnitude 5.8 Ml in the province of Modena, though the earthquake was formed by a series of seismic shakes located in the district of the Emilian Po Valley, mainly in the provinces of Modena, Ferrara, Mantova, Reggio Emilia, Bologna and Rovigo. Many monuments in the city of Mantova were hit by the earthquake and, among these, Palazzo Ducale with the well-known Castello di San Giorgio which host the noteworthy “Camera degli Sposi”. This building, the most famous of the city, was so damaged that it was closed for more than one year after the earthquake. The emblem of the Palace and Mantova itself, the previously cited “Camera degli Sposi” realized by Andrea Mantegna, was damaged and all the economic and social life of the city was deeply affected. Immediately after the earthquake, the Soprintendenza per i Beni Architettonici e Paesaggistici of Brescia, Cremona and Mantova establish an agreement with the University Iuav of Venice, requiring an analysis and assessment of the damage in order to proceed with the development of an intervention project. This activity turned out to be very important not only from the point of view of the recovery of the architectural and artistic heritage but also because the city's economy is based primarily on tourism. The closure of one of the most important monuments of Mantova has led to a significant and alarming decline in the government income.

  19. Measuring inequalities in health from survey data using self-assessed social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacak, Valerio

    2018-03-01

    Asking participants to assess their social class may be an efficient approach to examining inequalities in heath from survey data. The present study investigated this possibility empirically by testing whether subjective class identification is related to overall health. I used pooled cross-sectional data from the 2012 and the 2014 General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey carried out among adults in the United States. The association between health and class was estimated separately by gender, race and age. The association follows a gradient pattern where health deteriorates with lower class position even after controlling for indicators typically used in research that examines class differences in health-educational attainment, family income and occupational prestige. The results largely hold when the data are stratified by gender, race and age. These findings demonstrate the empirical value of subjective class identification for assessing social inequalities in health from survey data.

  20. Bangladesh Model/Survey Note : Assessment of Implementation of Public Procurement Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The report provides an assessment of the status of implementation of public procurement regulations 2003. The objective was to assess the performance of the system using a two-way approach. The report summarizes the major findings of the assessment carried out through a Bank-Government joint collaboration survey with sample data of two financial years (FY2006 and FY2007) from the key secto...

  1. Lecture Hall and Learning Design: A Survey of Variables, Parameters, Criteria and Interrelationships for Audio-Visual Presentation Systems and Audience Reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, J. Karl

    Variables and parameters affecting architectural planning and audiovisual systems selection for lecture halls and other learning spaces are surveyed. Interrelationships of factors are discussed, including--(1) design requirements for modern educational techniques as differentiated from cinema, theater or auditorium design, (2) general hall…

  2. A Survey for Assessment of Role of Pharmacist in Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kapur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Objective: To assess the role of pharmacist in community setting & consumer’s perception in National Capital
    Region.
    Setting: The study was conducted in National Capital Region of India during the year 2003-04.
    Method: Four pharmacy shops were selected for this study which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy
    seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during the study period, were selected for this study and
    interviewed just after they visited the pharmacy.
    Key findings: A total of 77 consumers in the age group of 11 to 72 years were included in the present study, of
    which 66.2% were males and 33.8% were females. It is observed that 46.7% consumers came for prescription
    medicines, 23.4% for over the counter medicines. Close to general physicians’ clinics and proximity to home
    were most important reasons given for visiting particular pharmacy. Majority of the consumers (n=56, 72.7%
    rated the advice given by the pharmacist as very useful, only 1(1.3% rated it as not useful at all and 2 (2.6%
    consumers did not respond. Among consumer groups 31 (40.3% thought that pharmacist has a good balance
    between health and business matter and 35.7% were in opinion that pharmacist is more concerned with making
    money, while 5.2% supported that the pharmacist is also interested in the health of his/her customers. The pharmacists
    were ranked at the top with 28(36.4% by the consumers and favoured pharmacy as the most convenient
    place to get advice about staying healthy.
    Conclusion: Most of the consumers in the present study were of the opinion that pharmacist is concerned with the
    health of the consumers, though he/she is also interested in making money. Many respondents were unaware
    about the difference between pharmacist and doctor, most of them consider

  3. Short assessment of the Big Five: robust across survey methods except telephone interviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Frieder R.; John, Dennis; Lüdtke, Oliver; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined measurement invariance and age-related robustness of a short 15-item Big Five Inventory (BFI–S) of personality dimensions, which is well suited for applications in large-scale multidisciplinary surveys. The BFI–S was assessed in three different interviewing conditions: computer-assisted or paper-assisted face-to-face interviewing, computer-assisted telephone interviewing, and a self-administered questionnaire. Randomized probability samples from a large-scale German panel survey a...

  4. Assessment of color parameters of composite resin shade guides using digital imaging versus colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanel, Kivanc; Caglar, Alper; Özcan, Mutlu; Gulsah, Kamran; Bagis, Bora

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the color parameters of resin composite shade guides determined using a colorimeter and digital imaging method. Four composite shade guides, namely: two nanohybrid (Grandio [Voco GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany]; Premise [KerrHawe SA, Bioggio, Switzerland]) and two hybrid (Charisma [Heraeus Kulzer, GmbH & Co. KG, Hanau, Germany]; Filtek Z250 [3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany]) were evaluated. Ten shade tabs were selected (A1, A2, A3, A3,5, A4, B1, B2, B3, C2, C3) from each shade guide. CIE Lab values were obtained using digital imaging and a colorimeter (ShadeEye NCC Dental Chroma Meter, Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan). The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc test. Overall, the mean ΔE values from different composite pairs demonstrated statistically significant differences when evaluated with the colorimeter (p 6.8). For all shade pairs evaluated, the most significant shade mismatches were obtained between Grandio-Filtek Z250 (p = 0.021) and Filtek Z250-Premise (p = 0.01) regarding ΔE mean values, whereas the best shade match was between Grandio-Charisma (p = 0.255) regardless of the measurement method. The best color match (mean ΔE values) was recorded for A1, A2, and A3 shade pairs in both methods. When proper object-camera distance, digital camera settings, and suitable illumination conditions are provided, digital imaging method could be used in the assessment of color parameters. Interchanging use of shade guides from different composite systems should be avoided during color selection. © 2010, COPYRIGHT THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2010, WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  5. Effects of chronic mild stress on parameters of bone assessment in adult male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício L. Valente

    Full Text Available Abstract: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease of high prevalence and has great impact on quality of life, because the effects on bone structure increase the risk of fractures, what may be very debilitating. Based on the observation that patients with depression have lower bone mineral density than healthy individuals, many studies have indicated that stress could be an aggravating factor for bone loss. This study evaluates the effect of a protocol of chronic mild stress (CMS on parameters of bone assessment in male and female rats. Five 5-monh-old rats of each sex underwent a schedule of stressor application for 28 days. Stressors included cold, heat, restraint, cage tilt, isolation, overnight illumination, and water and food deprivation. Five rats of each sex were kept under minimum intervention as control group. The animals were weighed at beginning and end of the period, and after euthanasia had their bones harvested. Femur, tibia and lumbar vertebrae were analyzed by bone densitometry. Biomechanical tests were performed in femoral head and diaphysis. Trabecular bone volume was obtained from histomorphometric analysis of femoral head and vertebral body, as well as of femoral midshaft cross-sectional measures. Not all parameters analyzed showed effect of CMS. However, tibial and L4 vertebral bone mineral density and cross-sectional cortical/medullar ratio of femoral shaft were lower in female rats submitted to the CMS protocol. Among male rats, the differences were significant for femoral trabecular bone volume and maximum load obtained by biomechanical test. Thus, it could be confirmed that CMS can affect the balance of bone homeostasis in rats, what may contribute to the establishment of osteopenia or osteoporosis.

  6. Quality assessment of truffle-inoculated seedlings in Italy: proposing revised parameters for certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domizia Donnini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: the main aims of this study were to evaluate the quality of truffle-inoculated seedlings produced by commercial nurseries in Italy and to identify their minimum requisites in terms of plant age, health, homogeneity, and cut-off percentage of inoculated Tuber and non-Tuber ectomycorrhizae, based on the analysis of an extensive sample of seedlings subjected to quality control and certification.Area of study: truffle-inoculated seedlings produced by Italian commercial nurseries.Material and Methods: analysis of truffle-inoculated seedlings for health and quality standards; recording of presence of inoculated Tuber spp. and other concurrent fungi according to the official Italian method for certification; selective amplification of ectomycorrhizal DNA by PCR species-specific primers.Main results: We showed that mycorrhization levels in truffle-inoculated seedlings increased with time after truffle-spore inoculation. The highest mean percentage of the inoculated Tuber spp., but also the highest presence of contaminants, were recorded after three years. The mycorrhization level of Tuber melanosporum and T. aestivum was higher in Corylus and Ostrya seedlings than in Q. ilex and Q. pubescens, but the latter two host species showed the lowest presence of other ectomycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhization level distribution in truffle-inoculated seedlings of suitable batches differed very little from the distribution in only all suitable seedlings. Truffle seedlings with other Tuber spp. were very few and even absent after three years. The general quality of Italian truffle-inoculated seedlings is high but can be improved even further by revising the parameters used for their certification.Research highlights: Mycorrhization assessment in truffle-inoculated seedlings produced by commercial nurseries and a revision of the parameters of quality standards following several years of certification in Italy.Keywords: Truffle cultivation; truffle

  7. Assessing the applicability of WRF optimal parameters under the different precipitation simulations in the Greater Beijing Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Zhenhua; Duan, Qingyun; Wang, Chen; Ye, Aizhong; Miao, Chiyuan; Gong, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Forecasting skills of the complex weather and climate models have been improved by tuning the sensitive parameters that exert the greatest impact on simulated results based on more effective optimization methods. However, whether the optimal parameter values are still work when the model simulation conditions vary, which is a scientific problem deserving of study. In this study, a highly-effective optimization method, adaptive surrogate model-based optimization (ASMO), was firstly used to tune nine sensitive parameters from four physical parameterization schemes of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to obtain better summer precipitation forecasting over the Greater Beijing Area in China. Then, to assess the applicability of the optimal parameter values, simulation results from the WRF model with default and optimal parameter values were compared across precipitation events, boundary conditions, spatial scales, and physical processes in the Greater Beijing Area. The summer precipitation events from 6 years were used to calibrate and evaluate the optimal parameter values of WRF model. Three boundary data and two spatial resolutions were adopted to evaluate the superiority of the calibrated optimal parameters to default parameters under the WRF simulations with different boundary conditions and spatial resolutions, respectively. Physical interpretations of the optimal parameters indicating how to improve precipitation simulation results were also examined. All the results showed that the optimal parameters obtained by ASMO are superior to the default parameters for WRF simulations for predicting summer precipitation in the Greater Beijing Area because the optimal parameters are not constrained by specific precipitation events, boundary conditions, and spatial resolutions. The optimal values of the nine parameters were determined from 127 parameter samples using the ASMO method, which showed that the ASMO method is very highly-efficient for optimizing WRF

  8. Input Uncertainty and its Implications on Parameter Assessment in Hydrologic and Hydroclimatic Modelling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S.; Sharma, A.

    2005-12-01

    present. SIMEX is based on theory that the trend in alternate parameters can be extrapolated back to the notional error free zone. We illustrate the utility of SIMEX in a synthetic rainfall-runoff modelling scenario and an application to study the dependence of uncertain distributed sea surface temperature anomalies with an indicator of the El Nino Southern Oscillation, the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). The errors in rainfall data and its affect is explored using Sacramento rainfall runoff model. The rainfall uncertainty is assumed to be multiplicative and temporally invariant. The model used to relate the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) to the SOI is assumed to be of a linear form. The nature of uncertainty in the SSTA is additive and varies with time. The SIMEX framework allows assessment of the relationship between the error free inputs and response. Cook, J.R., Stefanski, L. A., Simulation-Extrapolation Estimation in Parametric Measurement Error Models, Journal of the American Statistical Association, 89 (428), 1314-1328, 1994.

  9. Cardiovascular parameters to assess the severity of acute pulmonary embolism with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dian-Jiang Zhao; Da-Qing Ma; Wen He; Jian-Jun Wang; Yan Xu; Chun-Shuang Guan (Dept. of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)), e-mail: madaqing@263.net

    2010-05-15

    Background: Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has been established as a first-line test in the acute pulmonary embolism (APE) diagnostic algorithm, but the assessment of the severity of APE by this method remains to be explored. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and severity in patients with APE without underlying cardiopulmonary disease using helical computed tomography (CT). Material and Methods: Seventy-three patients (35 men and 38 women) were divided into two groups according to the clinical findings: severe APE (n=22) and non-severe APE (n=51). Pulmonary artery CT obstruction index was calculated according to the location and degree of clots in the pulmonary arteries. Cardiovascular parameters including RV short axis and left ventricular (LV) short axis, RV short axis to LV short axis (RV/LV) ratio, main pulmonary artery, azygous vein, and superior vena cava diameters were measured. Leftward bowing of the interventricular septum, reflux of contrast medium into the inferior vena cava and azygous vein, and bronchial artery dilatation were also recorded. The results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test, x2 test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az). Results: CT obstruction index in patients with severe APE (median 43%) was higher than that of patients with non-severe APE (median 20%). Comparison of cardiovascular parameters between patients with severe and non-severe pulmonary embolism showed significant differences in RV short axis, LV short axis, RV/LV ratio, RV wall thickness, main pulmonary artery diameter, azygous vein diameter, leftward bowing of the interventricular septum, and bronchial artery dilatation. The correlation between CT obstruction indexes and cardiovascular parameters was significant. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was highest between RV/LV ratio and CT obstruction index. Az values were

  10. An algorithm to assess methodological quality of nutrition and mortality cross-sectional surveys: development and application to surveys conducted in Darfur, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudhon, Claudine; de Radiguès, Xavier; Dale, Nancy; Checchi, Francesco

    2011-11-09

    Nutrition and mortality surveys are the main tools whereby evidence on the health status of populations affected by disasters and armed conflict is quantified and monitored over time. Several reviews have consistently revealed a lack of rigor in many surveys. We describe an algorithm for analyzing nutritional and mortality survey reports to identify a comprehensive range of errors that may result in sampling, response, or measurement biases and score quality. We apply the algorithm to surveys conducted in Darfur, Sudan. We developed an algorithm based on internationally agreed upon methods and best practices. Penalties are attributed for a list of errors, and an overall score is built from the summation of penalties accrued by the survey as a whole. To test the algorithm reproducibility, it was independently applied by three raters on 30 randomly selected survey reports. The algorithm was further applied to more than 100 surveys conducted in Darfur, Sudan. The Intra Class Correlation coefficient was 0.79 for mortality surveys and 0.78 for nutrition surveys. The overall median quality score and range of about 100 surveys conducted in Darfur were 0.60 (0.12-0.93) and 0.675 (0.23-0.86) for mortality and nutrition surveys, respectively. They varied between the organizations conducting the surveys, with no major trend over time. Our study suggests that it is possible to systematically assess quality of surveys and reveals considerable problems with the quality of nutritional and particularly mortality surveys conducted in the Darfur crisis.

  11. Assessment of impact of acoustic and nonacoustic parameters on performance and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellert, Volker; Weber, Reinhard; Nocke, Christian

    2004-05-01

    It is of interest to estimate the influence of the environment in a specific work place area on the performance and well-being of people. Investigations have been carried out for the cabin environment of an airplane and for class rooms. Acoustics is only one issue of a variety of environmental factors, therefore the combined impact of temperature, humidity, air quality, lighting, vibration, etc. on human perception is the subject of psychophysical research. Methods for the objective assessment of subjective impressions have been developed for applications in acoustics for a long time, e.g., for concert hall acoustics, noise evaluation, and sound design. The methodology relies on questionnaires, measurement of acoustic parameters, ear-related signal processing and analysis, and on correlation of the physical input with subjective output. Methodology and results are presented from measurements of noise and vibration, temperature and humidity in aircraft simulators, and of reverberation, coloring, and lighting in a primary school, and of the environmental perception. [The work includes research with M. Klatte, A. Schick from the Psychology Department of Oldenburg University, and M. Meis from Hoerzentrum Oldenburg GmbH and with the European Project HEACE (for partners see www.heace.org).

  12. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic assessment of fast reactor cooling by water of super critical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranaev, Yu. D.; Glebov, A. P.; Ukraintsev, V. F.; Kolesov, V. V.

    2007-01-01

    Necessity of essential improvement of competitiveness for reactors on light water determines development of new generation power reactors on water of super critical parameters. The main objective of these projects is reaching of high efficiency coefficients while decreasing of investment to NPP and simplification of thermal scheme and high safety level. International programme of IV generation in which super critical reactors present is already started. In the frame of this concept specific Super Critical Fast Reactor with tight lattice of pitch is developing by collaboration of the FEI and IATE. In present article neutronic and thermal hydraulic assessment of fast reactor with plutonium MOX fuel and a core with a double-path of super critical water cooling is presented (SCFR-2X). The scheme of double path of coolant via the core in which the core is divided by radius on central and periphery parts with approximately equal number of fuel assemblies is suggested. Periferia part is cooling while down coming coolant movement. At the down part of core into the mix chamber flows from the periphery assemblies joining and come to the inlet of the central part which is cooling by upcoming flow. Eight zone of different content of MOX fuel are used (4 in down coming and 4 in upcoming) sub zones. Calculation of fuel burn-up and approximate scheme of refueling is evaluated. Calculation results are presented and discussed

  13. Automated Soil Physical Parameter Assessment Using Smartphone and Digital Camera Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Aitkenhead

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we present work on using different types of soil profile imagery (topsoil profiles captured with a smartphone camera and full-profile images captured with a conventional digital camera to estimate the structure, texture and drainage of the soil. The method is adapted from earlier work on developing smartphone apps for estimating topsoil organic matter content in Scotland and uses an existing visual soil structure assessment approach. Colour and image texture information was extracted from the imagery. This information was linked, using geolocation information derived from the smartphone GPS system or from field notes, with existing collections of topography, land cover, soil and climate data for Scotland. A neural network model was developed that was capable of estimating soil structure (on a five-point scale, soil texture (sand, silt, clay, bulk density, pH and drainage category using this information. The model is sufficiently accurate to provide estimates of these parameters from soils in the field. We discuss potential improvements to the approach and plans to integrate the model into a set of smartphone apps for estimating health and fertility indicators for Scottish soils.

  14. Spatial probabilistic approach on landslide susceptibility assessment from high resolution sensors derived parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, S N A; Latif, Z Abd; Pradhan, B

    2014-01-01

    Landslide occurrence depends on various interrelating factors which consequently initiate to massive mass of soil and rock debris that move downhill due to the gravity action. LiDAR has come with a progressive approach in mitigating landslide by permitting the formation of more accurate DEM compared to other active space borne and airborne remote sensing techniques. The objective of this research is to assess the susceptibility of landslide in Ulu Klang area by investigating the correlation between past landslide events with geo environmental factors. A high resolution LiDAR DEM was constructed to produce topographic attributes such as slope, curvature and aspect. These data were utilized to derive second deliverables of landslide parameters such as topographic wetness index (TWI), surface area ratio (SAR) and stream power index (SPI) as well as NDVI generated from IKONOS imagery. Subsequently, a probabilistic based frequency ratio model was applied to establish the spatial relationship between the landslide locations and each landslide related factor. Factor ratings were summed up to obtain Landslide Susceptibility Index (LSI) to construct the landslide susceptibility map

  15. Short assessment of the Big Five: robust across survey methods except telephone interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Frieder R; John, Dennis; Lüdtke, Oliver; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G

    2011-06-01

    We examined measurement invariance and age-related robustness of a short 15-item Big Five Inventory (BFI-S) of personality dimensions, which is well suited for applications in large-scale multidisciplinary surveys. The BFI-S was assessed in three different interviewing conditions: computer-assisted or paper-assisted face-to-face interviewing, computer-assisted telephone interviewing, and a self-administered questionnaire. Randomized probability samples from a large-scale German panel survey and a related probability telephone study were used in order to test method effects on self-report measures of personality characteristics across early, middle, and late adulthood. Exploratory structural equation modeling was used in order to test for measurement invariance of the five-factor model of personality trait domains across different assessment methods. For the short inventory, findings suggest strong robustness of self-report measures of personality dimensions among young and middle-aged adults. In old age, telephone interviewing was associated with greater distortions in reliable personality assessment. It is concluded that the greater mental workload of telephone interviewing limits the reliability of self-report personality assessment. Face-to-face surveys and self-administrated questionnaire completion are clearly better suited than phone surveys when personality traits in age-heterogeneous samples are assessed.

  16. The development and initial assessment of the strategy and leadership systems capability evaluation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Cheryl D; Bokowy, Kay L; Horblyuk, Ruslan; Zisman, Robert S; McLeod, Lori D; Brown, T Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Hospital management and leadership systems are associated with organizational success and quality care. The Strategy and Leadership Systems Capability Evaluation (CE) survey was developed by GE Healthcare to assess management and leadership systems at health care institutions, serve as a benchmark for improvement, and measure progress. To assess the psychometric properties of the 29-item CE survey, including the factor structure, scoring algorithm, reliability, and discriminant validity, an online survey was completed by 3450 employees at 15 US hospitals. Of these employees, 609 worked at a hospital where a leadership and management intervention occurred after the initial survey administration. Data were also collected on job level, number of hospital beds, hospital ownership, location, community type, and the implementation of hospital interventions. Item response frequencies showed no floor or ceiling effects and limited missing data. Interitem correlations were strong without obvious redundancies, and factor analysis suggested a unidimensional scale. The resulting scale had strong internal consistency and was able to discriminate among known groups. The CE survey was developed to evaluate management and leadership systems at health care institutions. This study provides psychometric evidence in support of the reliability, validity, and scoring structure of this survey.

  17. Assessment of nutrition, supplementation and body composition parameters on the example of professional volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolska, Joanna; Witczak, Katarzyna; Mańczuk, Angelika; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2014-01-01

    Volleyball is a team game belonging to a group of sports disciplines that involve indirect fighting. Adequate energy coverage in athletes is a crucial issue. It depends primarily on the type, intensity and duration of physical activity related to the sports discipline practiced and to the training cycle duration. The average energy requirement in sportsmen is 50% higher than that of adults. The aim of the study was to characterize the mode of nutrition, including dietary supplements and to assess somatic indices in female volleyball players of the AZS Bialystok team. The study involved 17 women. Research tools included a questionnaire consisting of 24-hour recall, a questionnaire survey concerning supplement intake and body composition analysis performed using a bioimpedance analyzer InBody 220. Data analysis indicates that the anthropometric characteristics and body composition of the AZS Bialystok players meet the recommendations associated with the somatic features in volleyball. Daily diet of the volleyball players were of low-energy with regard to the recommendations for physically active people, with very low supply of carbohydrates and dietary fiber, excessive proportion of saturated fatty acids and dietary cholesterol, and too low content of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Supply of vitamins and minerals was found to be alarmingly low, especially of iron and calcium; diet supplementation was insufficient. No significant abnormalities were noted in body composition of the study athletes. However, they are recommended to increase muscle mass and slightly reduce body fat. Results of diet evaluation show the need for education in the field of nutrition and the necessity of further research into dietary habits among sportsmen.

  18. Quality control in public participation assessments of water quality: the OPAL Water Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, N L; Turner, S D; Goldsmith, B; Gosling, L; Davidson, T A

    2016-07-22

    Public participation in scientific data collection is a rapidly expanding field. In water quality surveys, the involvement of the public, usually as trained volunteers, generally includes the identification of aquatic invertebrates to a broad taxonomic level. However, quality assurance is often not addressed and remains a key concern for the acceptance of publicly-generated water quality data. The Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) Water Survey, launched in May 2010, aimed to encourage interest and participation in water science by developing a 'low-barrier-to-entry' water quality survey. During 2010, over 3000 participant-selected lakes and ponds were surveyed making this the largest public participation lake and pond survey undertaken to date in the UK. But the OPAL approach of using untrained volunteers and largely anonymous data submission exacerbates quality control concerns. A number of approaches were used in order to address data quality issues including: sensitivity analysis to determine differences due to operator, sampling effort and duration; direct comparisons of identification between participants and experienced scientists; the use of a self-assessment identification quiz; the use of multiple participant surveys to assess data variability at single sites over short periods of time; comparison of survey techniques with other measurement variables and with other metrics generally considered more accurate. These quality control approaches were then used to screen the OPAL Water Survey data to generate a more robust dataset. The OPAL Water Survey results provide a regional and national assessment of water quality as well as a first national picture of water clarity (as suspended solids concentrations). Less than 10 % of lakes and ponds surveyed were 'poor' quality while 26.8 % were in the highest water quality band. It is likely that there will always be a question mark over untrained volunteer generated data simply because quality assurance is uncertain

  19. Somatosensory evoked potentials in the assessment of peripheral neuropathies: Commented results of a survey among French-speaking practitioners and recommendations for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizot-Koutlidis, R; André-Obadia, N; Antoine, J-C; Attarian, S; Ayache, S S; Azabou, E; Benaderette, S; Camdessanché, J-P; Cassereau, J; Convers, P; d'Anglejean, J; Delval, A; Durand, M-C; Etard, O; Fayet, G; Fournier, E; Franques, J; Gavaret, M; Guehl, D; Guerit, J-M; Krim, E; Kubis, N; Lacour, A; Lozeron, P; Mauguière, F; Merle, P-E; Mesrati, F; Mutschler, V; Nicolas, G; Nordine, T; Pautot, V; Péréon, Y; Petiot, P; Pouget, J; Praline, J; Salhi, H; Trébuchon, A; Tyvaert, L; Vial, C; Zola, J-M; Zyss, J; Lefaucheur, J-P

    2015-05-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) are increasingly performed for the assessment of peripheral neuropathies, but no practical guidelines have yet been established in this specific application. To determine the relevant indication criteria and optimal technical parameters for SSEP recording in peripheral neuropathy investigation. A survey was conducted among the French-speaking practitioners with experience of SSEP recording in the context of peripheral neuropathies. The results of the survey were analyzed and discussed to provide recommendations for practice. SSEPs appear to be a second-line test when electroneuromyographic investigation is not sufficiently conclusive, providing complementary and valuable information on central and proximal peripheral conduction in the somatosensory pathways. Guidelines for a standardized recording protocol, including the various parameters to be measured, are proposed. We hope that these proposals will help to recognize the value of this technique in peripheral neuropathy assessment in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuchal Skinfold Thickness: A Novel Parameter for Assessment of Body Composition in Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkenburg, Anthe S.; Hoffmann, Anika; Reichel, Julia; Lohle, Kristin; Eveslage, Maria; Warmuth-Metz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Context: Hypothalamic obesity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and relapse/progression have a major impact on prognosis in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma (CP). We analyzed nuchal skinfold thickness (NST) on magnetic resonance imaging performed for follow-up monitoring as a novel parameter for body composition (BC) and CVD in CP. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify the association of NST with body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (WHtR), functional capacity, and blood pressure (BP) in CP and controls. Design: This was a cross-sectional and longitudinal prospective study in CP patients. Setting: The study was conducted at HIT-Endo, KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2000/2007. Patients: Participants included 94 CP patients and 75 controls. Interventions: There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measures: Association of NST with BC and BP in 43 CP and 43 controls was measured. Results: NST correlated with BMI SD score (SDS; r = 0.78; P < .001; n = 169) and WHtR (r = 0.85; P < .001; n = 86) in the total cohort and CP patients (NST-BMI SDS: r = 0.77, P < .001, n = 94); NST-WHtR: r = 0.835, P < .001, n=43) and controls (NST-BMI SDS: r = 0.792, P < .001, n = 75; NST-WHtR: r = 0.671, P < .001, n = 43). In CP, systolic BP correlated with NST (r = 0.575, P < .001), BMI SDS (r = 0.434, P = .004), and WHtR (r = 0.386, P = .011). Similar results were observed for diastolic BP in CP. In multivariate analyses, NST had a predictive value for hypertension in postpubertal CP and controls (odds ratio 6.98, 95% confidence interval [1.65, 29.5], P = .008). During a longitudinal follow-up, changes in NST correlated with changes in BMI SDS (P < .001) and WHtR (P = .01) but not with changes in BP and functional capacity. Conclusions: Because monitoring of magnetic resonance imaging and BC is essential for follow-up in CP, NST could serve as a novel and clinically relevant parameter for longitudinal assessment of BC and CVD risk in CP. PMID:27680877

  1. Comparison of the DOE and the EPA risk assessment methodologies and default parameters for the air exposure pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Z.; Eckart, R.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) each publish radiological health effects risk assessment methodologies. Those methodologies are in the form of computer program models or extensive documentation. This research paper compares the significant differences between the DOE and EPA methodologies and default parameters for the important air exposure pathway. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the fundamental differences in methodology and parameter values between the DOE and the EPA. This study reviewed the parameter values and default values that are utilized in the air exposure pathway and revealed the significant differences in risk assessment results when default values are used in the analysis of an actual site. The study details the sources and the magnitude of the parameter departures between the DOE and the EPA methodologies and their impact on dose or risk

  2. Google Street View as an alternative method to car surveys in large-scale vegetation assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, Ernesto; Silva, Joaquim S; Catry, Filipe X; Rocha, Miguel; Moreira, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Car surveys (CS) are a common method for assessing the distribution of alien invasive plants. Google Street View (GSV), a free-access web technology where users may experience a virtual travel along roads, has been suggested as a cost-effective alternative to car surveys. We tested if we could replicate the results from a countrywide survey conducted by car in Portugal using GSV as a remote sensing tool, aiming at assessing the distribution of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. wildlings on roadsides adjacent to eucalypt stands. Georeferenced points gathered along CS were used to create road transects visible as lines overlapping the road in GSV environment, allowing surveying the same sampling areas using both methods. This paper presents the results of the comparison between the two methods. Both methods produced similar models of plant abundance, selecting the same explanatory variables, in the same hierarchical order of importance and depicting a similar influence on plant abundance. Even though the GSV model had a lower performance and the GSV survey detected fewer plants, additional variables collected exclusively with GSV improved model performance and provided a new insight into additional factors influencing plant abundance. The survey using GSV required ca. 9 % of the funds and 62 % of the time needed to accomplish the CS. We conclude that GSV may be a cost-effective alternative to CS. We discuss some advantages and limitations of GSV as a survey method. We forecast that GSV may become a widespread tool in road ecology, particularly in large-scale vegetation assessments.

  3. Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 1: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R.; Lattier, C.

    1998-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records Package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information

  4. Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R.; Lattier, C.

    1998-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information

  5. Relative density: the key to stocking assessment in regional analysis—a forest survey viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin D. MacLean

    1979-01-01

    Relative density is a measure of tree crowding compared to a reference level such as normal density. This stand attribute, when compared to management standards, indicates adequacy of stocking. The Pacific Coast Forest Survey Unit assesses the relative density of each stand sampled by summing the individual density contributions of each tree tallied, thus quantifying...

  6. Examining the Reliability and Validity of the Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Benjamin G.; Tobin, Kevin G.; Schutte, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    The Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey (SAS; Sugai, Horner, & Todd, 2003) is designed to measure perceived Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) implementation and identify priorities for improvement. Despite its longevity, little published research exists documenting its reliability or validity for these purposes.…

  7. Surveying Teens in School to Assess the Prevalence of Problematic Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Russel S.; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Li, Linna; Carlson, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Illicit drug use by school-aged teens can adversely affect their health and academic achievement. This study used a survey administered in schools to assess the prevalence of problematic drug use among teenagers in a Midwestern community. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 11th- and 12th-grade students (N = 3974) in 16…

  8. Psychometric Properties of the School Attitude Assessment Survey-Revised with International Baccalaureate High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedrick, Robert F.; Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Suldo, Shannon M.; Ferron, John M.

    2015-01-01

    In two studies (ns = 312 and 1,149) with 9- to 12-grade students in pre-International Baccalaureate (IB) and IB Diploma programs, we evaluated the reliability, factor structure, measurement invariance, and criterion-related validity of the scores from the School Attitude Assessment Survey-Revised (SAAS-R). Reliabilities of the five SAAS-R subscale…

  9. Survey Tools for Faculty to Quickly Assess Multidisciplinary Team Dynamics in Capstone Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnosky, Ryan; Fairchild, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Many engineering faculty have limited skills and/or assessment tools to evaluate team dynamics in multidisciplinary team-based capstone courses. Rapidly deployable tools are needed here to provide proactive feedback to teams to facilitate deeper learning. Two surveys were developed based on industrial and organizational psychology theories around…

  10. Beyond Sexual Assault Surveys: A Model for Comprehensive Campus Climate Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Stepleton, Kate; Cusano, Julia; O'Connor, Julia; Gandhi, Khushbu; McGinty, Felicia

    2018-01-01

    The White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault identified campus climate surveys as "the first step" for addressing campus sexual violence. Through a process case study, this article presents one model for engaging in a comprehensive, action-focused campus climate assessment process. Rooted in principles of…

  11. Short-Term Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Subjective and Actigraphy-Assessed Sleep Parameters in Severely Depressed Inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Hoogerhoud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep disturbances are a key feature of major depression. Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT may improve polysomnography-assessed sleep characteristics, but its short-term effects on actigraphy-assessed and subjective sleep characteristics are unknown. We therefore aimed to assess the effects of ECT on subjective and objective sleep parameters in a proof-of-principle study. Methods. We assessed subjective and objective sleep parameters in 12 severely depressed patients up to 5 consecutive days during their ECT course, corresponding to a total of 43 nights (including 19 ECT sessions. The 12 patients were 83% female and on average 62 (standard deviation (SD 14 years old and had an average MADRS score of 40 at baseline (SD 21. Results. Subjective and objective sleep parameters were not directly affected by ECT. The subjective sleep efficiency parameter was similar on the day after ECT and other days. ECT did not affect the number of errors in the Sustained Attention to Response Task. Patients subjectively underestimated their total sleep time by 1.4 hours (P<0.001 compared to actigraphy-assessed sleep duration. Conclusion. ECT did not affect subjective and actigraphy-assessed sleep in the short term. Depressed patients profoundly underestimated their sleep duration.

  12. The ESO Diffuse Interstellar Bands Large Exploration Survey (EDIBLES) . I. Project description, survey sample, and quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nick L. J.; Cami, Jan; Farhang, Amin; Smoker, Jonathan; Monreal-Ibero, Ana; Lallement, Rosine; Sarre, Peter J.; Marshall, Charlotte C. M.; Smith, Keith T.; Evans, Christopher J.; Royer, Pierre; Linnartz, Harold; Cordiner, Martin A.; Joblin, Christine; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Foing, Bernard H.; Bhatt, Neil H.; Bron, Emeric; Elyajouri, Meriem; de Koter, Alex; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Javadi, Atefeh; Kaper, Lex; Khosroshadi, Habib G.; Laverick, Mike; Le Petit, Franck; Mulas, Giacomo; Roueff, Evelyne; Salama, Farid; Spaans, Marco

    2017-10-01

    The carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are largely unidentified molecules ubiquitously present in the interstellar medium (ISM). After decades of study, two strong and possibly three weak near-infrared DIBs have recently been attributed to the C60^+ fullerene based on observational and laboratory measurements. There is great promise for the identification of the over 400 other known DIBs, as this result could provide chemical hints towards other possible carriers. In an effort tosystematically study the properties of the DIB carriers, we have initiated a new large-scale observational survey: the ESO Diffuse Interstellar Bands Large Exploration Survey (EDIBLES). The main objective is to build on and extend existing DIB surveys to make a major step forward in characterising the physical and chemical conditions for a statistically significant sample of interstellar lines-of-sight, with the goal to reverse-engineer key molecular properties of the DIB carriers. EDIBLES is a filler Large Programme using the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope at Paranal, Chile. It is designed to provide an observationally unbiased view of the presence and behaviour of the DIBs towards early-spectral-type stars whose lines-of-sight probe the diffuse-to-translucent ISM. Such a complete dataset will provide a deep census of the atomic and molecular content, physical conditions, chemical abundances and elemental depletion levels for each sightline. Achieving these goals requires a homogeneous set of high-quality data in terms of resolution (R 70 000-100 000), sensitivity (S/N up to 1000 per resolution element), and spectral coverage (305-1042 nm), as well as a large sample size (100+ sightlines). In this first paper the goals, objectives and methodology of the EDIBLES programme are described and an initial assessment of the data is provided.

  13. Assessment of Coronal Radiographic Parameters of the Spine in the Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Karami

    2016-10-01

    Preoperative coronal balance is very important to make a balanced spine after surgery. Other parameters like Lenke classification or main thoracic overcorrection did not affect postoperative coronal decompensation.

  14. Quantitative assessment of Aluminium cast Alloys` structural parameters to optimize ITS properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kuchariková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with evaluation of eutectic Si (its shape, size, and distribution, dendrite cell size and dendrite arm spacing in aluminium cast alloys which were cast into different moulds (sand and metallic. Structural parameters were evaluated using NIS-Elements image analyser software. This software is imaging analysis software for the evaluation, capture, archiving and automated measurement of structural parameters. The control of structural parameters by NIS Elements shows that optimum mechanical properties of aluminium cast alloys strongly depend on the distribution, morphology, size of eute ctic Si and matrix parameters.

  15. PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF ASTEROIDS ESTIMATED FROM THE WISE 3-BAND DATA AND NEOWISE POST-CRYOGENIC SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Nugent, C. R. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Tholen, D. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Monterey, CA 93933 (United States); Wright, E. L., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    Enhancements to the science data processing pipeline of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission, collectively known as NEOWISE, resulted in the detection of >158,000 minor planets in four infrared wavelengths during the fully cryogenic portion of the mission. Following the depletion of its cryogen, NASA's Planetary Science Directorate funded a four-month extension to complete the survey of the inner edge of the Main Asteroid Belt and to detect and discover near-Earth objects (NEOs). This extended survey phase, known as the NEOWISE Post-Cryogenic Survey, resulted in the detection of {approx}6500 large Main Belt asteroids and 86 NEOs in its 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m channels. During the Post-Cryogenic Survey, NEOWISE discovered and detected a number of asteroids co-orbital with the Earth and Mars, including the first known Earth Trojan. We present preliminary thermal fits for these and other NEOs detected during the 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-Cryogenic Surveys.

  16. Static analysis of the thermochemical hydrogen production IS process for assessment of the operation parameters and the chemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Seiji; Onuki, Kaoru; Nomura, Mikihiro; Nakao, Shin-ichi

    2006-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis of the operation parameters and the chemical properties in the thermochemical hydrogen production IS process (iodine-sulfur process) was carried out for a static flow sheet. These parameters were evaluated by hydrogen production thermal efficiency, the mass flow rate or heat exchange based on the heat/mass balance. The most important parameters were the concentration of HI after electro-electrodialysis (EED) and the apparent transport number of protons of the cation exchange membrane in the EED cell. HI concentration operation should be operated carefully because the parameters for optimum thermal efficiency and for the optimum flow rate and heat exchange were different. For the chemical properties, composition at the inlet of the HI decomposition procedure and HI x pseudo-azeotropic composition had great effects. The HI concentration after the EED should be optimized for each composition. The order of priority for the assessment of the operation parameters and chemical properties was determined by the evaluation. (author)

  17. Optical assessment of colored dissolved organic matter and its related parameters in dynamic coastal water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Varunan, Theenathayalan; Nagendra Jaiganesh, S. N.; Sahay, Arvind; Chauhan, Prakash

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of the curve of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and differentiation between marine and terrestrially derived CDOM pools in coastal environments are hampered by a high degree of variability in the composition and concentration of CDOM, uncertainties in retrieved remote sensing reflectance and the weak signal-to-noise ratio of space-borne instruments. In the present study, a hybrid model is presented along with empirical methods to remotely determine the amount and type of CDOM in coastal and inland water environments. A large set of in-situ data collected on several oceanographic cruises and field campaigns from different regional waters was used to develop empirical methods for studying the distribution and dynamics of CDOM, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and salinity. Our validation analyses demonstrated that the hybrid model is a better descriptor of CDOM absorption spectra compared to the existing models. Additional spectral slope parameters included in the present model to differentiate between terrestrially derived and marine CDOM pools make a substantial improvement over those existing models. Empirical algorithms to derive CDOM, DOC and salinity from remote sensing reflectance data demonstrated success in retrieval of these products with significantly low mean relative percent differences from large in-situ measurements. The performance of these algorithms was further assessed using three hyperspectral HICO images acquired simultaneously with our field measurements in productive coastal and lagoon waters on the southeast part of India. The validation match-ups of CDOM and salinity showed good agreement between HICO retrievals and field observations. Further analyses of these data showed significant temporal changes in CDOM and phytoplankton absorption coefficients with a distinct phase shift between these two products. Healthy phytoplankton cells and macrophytes were recognized to directly contribute to the

  18. Assessing Nutritional Parameters of Brown Bear Diets among Ecosystems Gives Insight into Differences among Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alfaro, Claudia; Coogan, Sean C P; Robbins, Charles T; Fortin, Jennifer K; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    Food habit studies are among the first steps used to understand wildlife-habitat relationships. However, these studies are in themselves insufficient to understand differences in population productivity and life histories, because they do not provide a direct measure of the energetic value or nutritional composition of the complete diet. Here, we developed a dynamic model integrating food habits and nutritional information to assess nutritional parameters of brown bear (Ursus arctos) diets among three interior ecosystems of North America. Specifically, we estimate the average amount of digestible energy and protein (per kilogram fresh diet) content in the diet and across the active season by bears living in western Alberta, the Flathead River (FR) drainage of southeast British Columbia, and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). As well, we estimate the proportion of energy and protein in the diet contributed by different food items, thereby highlighting important food resources in each ecosystem. Bear diets in Alberta had the lowest levels of digestible protein and energy through all seasons, which might help explain the low reproductive rates of this population. The FR diet had protein levels similar to the recent male diet in the GYE during spring, but energy levels were lower during late summer and fall. Historic and recent diets in GYE had the most energy and protein, which is consistent with their larger body sizes and higher population productivity. However, a recent decrease in consumption of trout (Oncorhynchus clarki), whitebark pine nuts (Pinus albicaulis), and ungulates, particularly elk (Cervus elaphus), in GYE bears has decreased the energy and protein content of their diet. The patterns observed suggest that bear body size and population densities are influenced by seasonal availability of protein an energy, likely due in part to nutritional influences on mass gain and reproductive success.

  19. Assessing Nutritional Parameters of Brown Bear Diets among Ecosystems Gives Insight into Differences among Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia López-Alfaro

    Full Text Available Food habit studies are among the first steps used to understand wildlife-habitat relationships. However, these studies are in themselves insufficient to understand differences in population productivity and life histories, because they do not provide a direct measure of the energetic value or nutritional composition of the complete diet. Here, we developed a dynamic model integrating food habits and nutritional information to assess nutritional parameters of brown bear (Ursus arctos diets among three interior ecosystems of North America. Specifically, we estimate the average amount of digestible energy and protein (per kilogram fresh diet content in the diet and across the active season by bears living in western Alberta, the Flathead River (FR drainage of southeast British Columbia, and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE. As well, we estimate the proportion of energy and protein in the diet contributed by different food items, thereby highlighting important food resources in each ecosystem. Bear diets in Alberta had the lowest levels of digestible protein and energy through all seasons, which might help explain the low reproductive rates of this population. The FR diet had protein levels similar to the recent male diet in the GYE during spring, but energy levels were lower during late summer and fall. Historic and recent diets in GYE had the most energy and protein, which is consistent with their larger body sizes and higher population productivity. However, a recent decrease in consumption of trout (Oncorhynchus clarki, whitebark pine nuts (Pinus albicaulis, and ungulates, particularly elk (Cervus elaphus, in GYE bears has decreased the energy and protein content of their diet. The patterns observed suggest that bear body size and population densities are influenced by seasonal availability of protein an energy, likely due in part to nutritional influences on mass gain and reproductive success.

  20. Assessing Nutritional Parameters of Brown Bear Diets among Ecosystems Gives Insight into Differences among Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alfaro, Claudia; Coogan, Sean C. P.; Robbins, Charles T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.; Nielsen, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Food habit studies are among the first steps used to understand wildlife-habitat relationships. However, these studies are in themselves insufficient to understand differences in population productivity and life histories, because they do not provide a direct measure of the energetic value or nutritional composition of the complete diet. Here, we developed a dynamic model integrating food habits and nutritional information to assess nutritional parameters of brown bear (Ursus arctos) diets among three interior ecosystems of North America. Specifically, we estimate the average amount of digestible energy and protein (per kilogram fresh diet) content in the diet and across the active season by bears living in western Alberta, the Flathead River (FR) drainage of southeast British Columbia, and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). As well, we estimate the proportion of energy and protein in the diet contributed by different food items, thereby highlighting important food resources in each ecosystem. Bear diets in Alberta had the lowest levels of digestible protein and energy through all seasons, which might help explain the low reproductive rates of this population. The FR diet had protein levels similar to the recent male diet in the GYE during spring, but energy levels were lower during late summer and fall. Historic and recent diets in GYE had the most energy and protein, which is consistent with their larger body sizes and higher population productivity. However, a recent decrease in consumption of trout (Oncorhynchus clarki), whitebark pine nuts (Pinus albicaulis), and ungulates, particularly elk (Cervus elaphus), in GYE bears has decreased the energy and protein content of their diet. The patterns observed suggest that bear body size and population densities are influenced by seasonal availability of protein an energy, likely due in part to nutritional influences on mass gain and reproductive success. PMID:26083536

  1. Assessing healthcare professionals' experiences of integrated care: do surveys tell the full story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Matthew D; Campbell, Jared M; Lisy, Karolina; Aromataris, Edoardo C

    2017-09-01

    Integrated care is the combination of different healthcare services with the goal to provide comprehensive, seamless, effective and efficient patient care. Assessing the experiences of healthcare professionals (HCPs) is an important aspect when evaluating integrated care strategies. The aim of this rapid review was to investigate if quantitative surveys used to assess HCPs' experiences with integrated care capture all the aspects highlighted as being important in qualitative research, with a view to informing future survey development. The review considered all types of health professionals in primary care, and hospital and specialist services, with a specific focus on the provision of integrated care aimed at improving the patient journey. PubMed, CINAHL and grey literature sources were searched for relevant surveys/program evaluations and qualitative research studies. Full text articles deemed to be of relevance to the review were appraised for methodological quality using abridged critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted from included studies using standardized data extraction templates. Findings from included studies were grouped into domains based on similarity of meaning. Similarities and differences in the domains covered in quantitative surveys and those identified as being important in qualitative research were explored. A total of 37 studies (19 quantitative surveys, 14 qualitative studies and four mixed-method studies) were included in the review. A range of healthcare professions participated in the included studies, the majority being primary care providers. Common domains identified from quantitative surveys and qualitative studies included Communication, Agreement on Clear Roles and Responsibilities, Facilities, Information Systems, and Coordination of Care and Access. Qualitative research highlighted domains identified by HCPs as being relevant to their experiences with integrated care that have not

  2. Information on Hydrologic Conceptual Models, Parameters, Uncertainty Analysis, and Data Sources for Dose Assessments at Decommissioning Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Gee, Glendon W.; Nicholson, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    This report addresses issues related to the analysis of uncertainty in dose assessments conducted as part of decommissioning analyses. The analysis is limited to the hydrologic aspects of the exposure pathway involving infiltration of water at the ground surface, leaching of contaminants, and transport of contaminants through the groundwater to a point of exposure. The basic conceptual models and mathematical implementations of three dose assessment codes are outlined along with the site-specific conditions under which the codes may provide inaccurate, potentially nonconservative results. In addition, the hydrologic parameters of the codes are identified and compared. A methodology for parameter uncertainty assessment is outlined that considers the potential data limitations and modeling needs of decommissioning analyses. This methodology uses generic parameter distributions based on national or regional databases, sensitivity analysis, probabilistic modeling, and Bayesian updating to incorporate site-specific information. Data sources for best-estimate parameter values and parameter uncertainty information are also reviewed. A follow-on report will illustrate the uncertainty assessment methodology using decommissioning test cases

  3. Information on Hydrologic Conceptual Models, Parameters, Uncertainty Analysis, and Data Sources for Dose Assessments at Decommissioning Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer D, Philip; Gee W, Glendon

    2000-01-01

    This report addresses issues related to the analysis of uncertainty in dose assessments conducted as part of decommissioning analyses. The analysis is limited to the hydrologic aspects of the exposure pathway involving infiltration of water at the ground surface, leaching of contaminants, and transport of contaminants through the groundwater to a point of exposure. The basic conceptual models and mathematical implementations of three dose assessment codes are outlined along with the site-specific conditions under which the codes may provide inaccurate, potentially nonconservative results. In addition, the hydrologic parameters of the codes are identified and compared. A methodology for parameter uncertainty assessment is outlined that considers the potential data limitations and modeling needs of decommissioning analyses. This methodology uses generic parameter distributions based on national or regional databases, sensitivity analysis, probabilistic modeling, and Bayesian updating to incorporate site-specific information. Data sources for best-estimate parameter values and parameter uncertainty information are also reviewed. A follow-on report will illustrate the uncertainty assessment methodology using decommissioning test cases

  4. Developing and validating a conceptual survey to assess introductory physics students’ understanding of magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-03-01

    Development of validated physics surveys on various topics is important for investigating the extent to which students master those concepts after traditional instruction and for assessing innovative curricula and pedagogies that can improve student understanding significantly. Here, we discuss the development and validation of a conceptual multiple-choice survey related to magnetism suitable for introductory physics courses. The survey was developed taking into account common students’ difficulties with magnetism concepts covered in introductory physics courses found in our investigation and the incorrect choices to the multiple-choice questions were designed based upon those common student difficulties. After the development and validation of the survey, it was administered to introductory physics students in various classes in paper-pencil format before and after traditional lecture-based instruction in relevant concepts. We compared the performance of students on the survey in the algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics courses before and after traditional lecture-based instruction in relevant magnetism concepts. We discuss the common difficulties of introductory physics students with magnetism concepts we found via the survey. We also administered the survey to upper-level undergraduates majoring in physics and PhD students to benchmark the survey and compared their performance with those of traditionally taught introductory physics students for whom the survey is intended. A comparison with the base line data on the validated magnetism survey from traditionally taught introductory physics courses and upper-level undergraduate and PhD students discussed in this paper can help instructors assess the effectiveness of curricula and pedagogies which is especially designed to help students integrate conceptual and quantitative understanding and develop a good grasp of the concepts. In particular, if introductory physics students’ average

  5. Developing and validating a conceptual survey to assess introductory physics students’ understanding of magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    Development of validated physics surveys on various topics is important for investigating the extent to which students master those concepts after traditional instruction and for assessing innovative curricula and pedagogies that can improve student understanding significantly. Here, we discuss the development and validation of a conceptual multiple-choice survey related to magnetism suitable for introductory physics courses. The survey was developed taking into account common students’ difficulties with magnetism concepts covered in introductory physics courses found in our investigation and the incorrect choices to the multiple-choice questions were designed based upon those common student difficulties. After the development and validation of the survey, it was administered to introductory physics students in various classes in paper–pencil format before and after traditional lecture-based instruction in relevant concepts. We compared the performance of students on the survey in the algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics courses before and after traditional lecture-based instruction in relevant magnetism concepts. We discuss the common difficulties of introductory physics students with magnetism concepts we found via the survey. We also administered the survey to upper-level undergraduates majoring in physics and PhD students to benchmark the survey and compared their performance with those of traditionally taught introductory physics students for whom the survey is intended. A comparison with the base line data on the validated magnetism survey from traditionally taught introductory physics courses and upper-level undergraduate and PhD students discussed in this paper can help instructors assess the effectiveness of curricula and pedagogies which is especially designed to help students integrate conceptual and quantitative understanding and develop a good grasp of the concepts. In particular, if introductory physics students’ average

  6. Development of fault parameters for use in risk assessment modeling in the Pasco Basin, Columbia Plateau, South Central Washington: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caggiano, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Preliminary data on strain rate, seismicity, and estimated earthquake source parameters suggest limitations on the extent of postulated faulting and its impact on a nuclear waste repository in Columbia River basalt. Structural relief of dated basalt flows, attitude of Pliocene sediments, geodetic surveys, size and distribution of earthquakes, and focal mechanism solutions indicate that deformation of basalt under north-south compression was under way in the Miocene and has continued on existing structures at an average rate of much less than 1 mm/yr in the Pasco Basin. Lengths and displacements of mapped faults suggest limits on the postulated fault that could intersect a repository and produce an earthquake of about magnitude 6.5. Using a credible earthquake permits calculation of preliminary source parameters for risk assessment modeling during a single episode of slip on the postulated new fault and indicates displacement of less than or equal to 1, m on a steeply dipping fault of less than or equal to 50 km length could occur. Preliminary source parameter calculations suggest that displacements of less than or equal to 2 cm may occur during microearthquakes in swarms. The area of fault rupture may be tens of square meters up to a few square kilometers, suggesting slip on joints. Seismic moments for postulated earthquakes in the interconnecting fault and microearthquake scenarios compare favorably with reported values for similar-sized earthquakes in different media and suggest that the estimated fault parameters are reasonable until an adequate tectonic model has been developed

  7. Assessment of spatio-temporal gait parameters from trunk accelerations during human walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, W; Hof, AL

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of an analysis of spatio-temporal gait parameters based upon accelerometry. To this purpose, acceleration patterns of the trunk and their relationships with spatio-temporal gait parameters were analysed in healthy subjects. Based on model predictions of the body's

  8. Quantification of remodeling parameter sensitivity - assessed by a computer simulation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J.S.; Mosekilde, Li.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    We have used a computer simulation model to evaluate the effect of several bone remodeling parameters on vertebral cancellus bone. The menopause was chosen as the base case scenario, and the sensitivity of the model to the following parameters was investigated: activation frequency, formation bal....... However, the formation balance was responsible for the greater part of total mass loss....

  9. Jungle Giants: Assessing Sustainable Harvesting in a Difficult-to-Survey Species (Python reticulatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J D Natusch

    Full Text Available Sustainability of wildlife harvests is critical but difficult to assess. Evaluations of sustainability typically combine modelling with the measurement of underlying abundances. For many taxa harvested in developing countries, however, abundances are near-impossible to survey and a lack of detailed ecological information impedes the reliability of models. In such cases, repeated surveys of the attributes of harvested individuals may provide more robust information on sustainability. If the numbers, sizes and other demographic attributes of animals taken for the commercial trade do not change over biologically significant time intervals (decades, there is a prima facie case that the harvest is indeed sustainable. Here, we report the results of examinations of > 4,200 reticulated pythons (Python reticulatus taken for the commercial leather industry in northern and southern Sumatra, Indonesia. The numbers, mean body sizes, clutch sizes, sizes at maturity and proportion of giant specimens have not decreased between our first surveys (1995 and repeat surveys (2015. Thus, despite assumptions to the contrary, the harvest appears to be sustainable. We use our data to inform the design of future monitoring programs for this species. Our study underpins the need for robust science to inform wildlife trade policy and decision-making, and urges wildlife managers to assess sustainability of difficult-to-survey terrestrial wildlife by drawing inferences directly from the harvest itself.

  10. Jungle Giants: Assessing Sustainable Harvesting in a Difficult-to-Survey Species (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natusch, Daniel J D; Lyons, Jessica A; Mumpuni; Riyanto, Awal; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability of wildlife harvests is critical but difficult to assess. Evaluations of sustainability typically combine modelling with the measurement of underlying abundances. For many taxa harvested in developing countries, however, abundances are near-impossible to survey and a lack of detailed ecological information impedes the reliability of models. In such cases, repeated surveys of the attributes of harvested individuals may provide more robust information on sustainability. If the numbers, sizes and other demographic attributes of animals taken for the commercial trade do not change over biologically significant time intervals (decades), there is a prima facie case that the harvest is indeed sustainable. Here, we report the results of examinations of > 4,200 reticulated pythons (Python reticulatus) taken for the commercial leather industry in northern and southern Sumatra, Indonesia. The numbers, mean body sizes, clutch sizes, sizes at maturity and proportion of giant specimens have not decreased between our first surveys (1995) and repeat surveys (2015). Thus, despite assumptions to the contrary, the harvest appears to be sustainable. We use our data to inform the design of future monitoring programs for this species. Our study underpins the need for robust science to inform wildlife trade policy and decision-making, and urges wildlife managers to assess sustainability of difficult-to-survey terrestrial wildlife by drawing inferences directly from the harvest itself.

  11. A constrained reconstruction technique of hyperelasticity parameters for breast cancer assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrabian, Hatef; Samani, Abbas [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Campbell, Gordon, E-mail: asamani@uwo.c [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)

    2010-12-21

    In breast elastography, breast tissue usually undergoes large compression resulting in significant geometric and structural changes. This implies that breast elastography is associated with tissue nonlinear behavior. In this study, an elastography technique is presented and an inverse problem formulation is proposed to reconstruct parameters characterizing tissue hyperelasticity. Such parameters can potentially be used for tumor classification. This technique can also have other important clinical applications such as measuring normal tissue hyperelastic parameters in vivo. Such parameters are essential in planning and conducting computer-aided interventional procedures. The proposed parameter reconstruction technique uses a constrained iterative inversion; it can be viewed as an inverse problem. To solve this problem, we used a nonlinear finite element model corresponding to its forward problem. In this research, we applied Veronda-Westmann, Yeoh and polynomial models to model tissue hyperelasticity. To validate the proposed technique, we conducted studies involving numerical and tissue-mimicking phantoms. The numerical phantom consisted of a hemisphere connected to a cylinder, while we constructed the tissue-mimicking phantom from polyvinyl alcohol with freeze-thaw cycles that exhibits nonlinear mechanical behavior. Both phantoms consisted of three types of soft tissues which mimic adipose, fibroglandular tissue and a tumor. The results of the simulations and experiments show feasibility of accurate reconstruction of tumor tissue hyperelastic parameters using the proposed method. In the numerical phantom, all hyperelastic parameters corresponding to the three models were reconstructed with less than 2% error. With the tissue-mimicking phantom, we were able to reconstruct the ratio of the hyperelastic parameters reasonably accurately. Compared to the uniaxial test results, the average error of the ratios of the parameters reconstructed for inclusion to the middle

  12. A constrained reconstruction technique of hyperelasticity parameters for breast cancer assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, Hatef; Campbell, Gordon; Samani, Abbas

    2010-12-01

    In breast elastography, breast tissue usually undergoes large compression resulting in significant geometric and structural changes. This implies that breast elastography is associated with tissue nonlinear behavior. In this study, an elastography technique is presented and an inverse problem formulation is proposed to reconstruct parameters characterizing tissue hyperelasticity. Such parameters can potentially be used for tumor classification. This technique can also have other important clinical applications such as measuring normal tissue hyperelastic parameters in vivo. Such parameters are essential in planning and conducting computer-aided interventional procedures. The proposed parameter reconstruction technique uses a constrained iterative inversion; it can be viewed as an inverse problem. To solve this problem, we used a nonlinear finite element model corresponding to its forward problem. In this research, we applied Veronda-Westmann, Yeoh and polynomial models to model tissue hyperelasticity. To validate the proposed technique, we conducted studies involving numerical and tissue-mimicking phantoms. The numerical phantom consisted of a hemisphere connected to a cylinder, while we constructed the tissue-mimicking phantom from polyvinyl alcohol with freeze-thaw cycles that exhibits nonlinear mechanical behavior. Both phantoms consisted of three types of soft tissues which mimic adipose, fibroglandular tissue and a tumor. The results of the simulations and experiments show feasibility of accurate reconstruction of tumor tissue hyperelastic parameters using the proposed method. In the numerical phantom, all hyperelastic parameters corresponding to the three models were reconstructed with less than 2% error. With the tissue-mimicking phantom, we were able to reconstruct the ratio of the hyperelastic parameters reasonably accurately. Compared to the uniaxial test results, the average error of the ratios of the parameters reconstructed for inclusion to the middle

  13. A state-of-practice survey of policy, plan, and program assessment in Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Bram F.

    2004-01-01

    Since the introduction of the 1999 Canadian Cabinet Directive on the environmental assessment of policies, plans, and programs (PPPs), higher-order environmental assessment has been receiving increased attention in Canada. However, while practices and systems are advancing at the federal level, there has been very little attention given to recent developments in PPP assessment at the provincial level. This paper presents the results of a Canada-wide survey of PPP assessment principles and practices in 10 Canadian provincial EA jurisdictions. The findings indicate that there exists considerable variability in the provisions for and practice of PPP assessment amongst Canadian provinces, with only Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Quebec identifying recent practice experience. Included amongst the main barriers to effective implementation at the provincial level are the lack of legislative requirements for strategic EA, and the limited understanding of the nature and benefits of higher-order impact assessment

  14. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students’ perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes. PMID:26466990

  15. Consumer assessment of healthcare providers and systems surgical care survey: benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kristine A; Rhee, John S; Brereton, Jean M; Zema, Carla L; Witsell, David L

    2012-10-01

    To describe the feasibility and initial results of the implementation of a continuous quality improvement project using the newly available Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Surgical Care Survey (S-CAHPS), in a small cohort of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery practices. Prospective observational study using a newly validated health care consumer survey. Two community-based and 2 university-based otolaryngology-head and neck surgery outpatient clinic practices. Fourteen board-certified otolaryngology, head and neck surgeons from 4 practice sites voluntarily participated in this project. All adult patients scheduled for surgery during a 12-month period were asked to complete the S-CAHPS survey through an electronic data capture (EDC) system 7 to 28 days after surgery. The surgeons were not directly involved in administration or collection of survey data. Three sites successfully implemented the S-CAHPS project. A 39.9% response rate was achieved for the cohort of surgical patients entered into the EDC system. While most patients rated their surgeons very high (mean of 9.5 or greater out of 10), subanalysis revealed there is variability among sites and surgeons in communication practices. From these data, a potential surgeon Quality Improvement report was developed that highlights priority areas to improve surgeon-patient rapport. The S-CAHPS survey can be successfully implemented in most otolaryngology practices, and our initial work holds promise for how the survey can be best deployed and analyzed for the betterment of both the surgeon and the patient.

  16. Development of a survey to assess adolescent perceptions of teen parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W; Nandakumar, Ratna

    2012-01-01

    Initiatives designed to prevent teen pregnancy are often based on adult perceptions of the negative aspects of a teen birth. Qualitative research has revealed that teens may perceive positive rewards associated with teen parenting. These perceptions have not yet been examined through survey research. The theory of reasoned action proposes that individuals assess the costs and rewards prior to engaging in a behavior and provides a framework for the development of a survey instrument designed to measure adolescent thoughts about the costs and rewards of the teen parenting experience. This manuscript describes the development and testing of a quantitative survey instrument designed to measure adolescents' perceptions. Pretesting, piloting, exploratory factor analysis, and a variety of reliability and validity measures were used to determine the value of the measure. The thoughts on teen parenting survey (TTPS) demonstrates an alpha level of .90. The TTPS yields a cumulative score of teen perceptions about the impact of a teen birth during the adolescent years that may be used to assess youth beliefs, correlated with demographic data, used to identify teens at risk for pregnancy/parenting, or provide a pretest/posttest to assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to foster realistic attitudes toward teen parenting.

  17. Assessing robustness of designs for random effects parameters for nonlinear mixed-effects models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffull, Stephen B; Hooker, Andrew C

    2017-12-01

    Optimal designs for nonlinear models are dependent on the choice of parameter values. Various methods have been proposed to provide designs that are robust to uncertainty in the prior choice of parameter values. These methods are generally based on estimating the expectation of the determinant (or a transformation of the determinant) of the information matrix over the prior distribution of the parameter values. For high dimensional models this can be computationally challenging. For nonlinear mixed-effects models the question arises as to the importance of accounting for uncertainty in the prior value of the variances of the random effects parameters. In this work we explore the influence of the variance of the random effects parameters on the optimal design. We find that the method for approximating the expectation and variance of the likelihood is of potential importance for considering the influence of random effects. The most common approximation to the likelihood, based on a first-order Taylor series approximation, yields designs that are relatively insensitive to the prior value of the variance of the random effects parameters and under these conditions it appears to be sufficient to consider uncertainty on the fixed-effects parameters only.

  18. Assessment of the microbial parameters along the production phases at a dairy plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelovski Ljupco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to detect the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in raw milk, to assess the hygiene parameters during the milk processing and to evaluate the safety of the fi nal dairy products using standard ISO methods. Staphylococcus aureus showed highest prevalence of the pathogen microorganisms (85%, followed by Escherichia coli (46% and Listeria monocytogenes (9.8 in bulk tank milk samples. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the tested samples.The swab samples taken from employees and working surfaces, water samples and pasteurized milk samples detected inadequate sanitary procedures during the phase of milk processing. Analysis of the swabs from employees hands revealed 1 positive sample for enumeration for Enterobacteriaceae and 7 samples with higher total viable count that did not comply withthe legislative, while the analysis of the swabs from working surfaces detected 5 samples positive for Enterobacteriaceae and 4 samples with higher total viable count that did not comply with the same legislative. The analysis of the water samples detected 2 samples with higher total viable count on 22°C, 2 samples for total viable count on 37°C and 1 sample for coliform bacteria that did not comply with the national legislative. None of the samples showed presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, sulphite reducing clostridia and intestinal enterococci. The analysis ofthe pasteurized milk confi rmed 3 samples with presence of Enterobacteriacae, 1 sample for coagulase-positive staphylococci and 2 samples with high total viable count at 30°C that did not comply with the national legislative. The analysis of fermented milk products and cheese samples confirmed the need for immediate corective measures and subsequently, improved sanitation procedures. The testing detected 9 samples of

  19. Detection Of Irradiated Fruits And Assessment Of Quality Parameters Of The Stone Fruits During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Magide, A.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to detect the irradiated fruits and assess the quality parameters of plums (Prunus domestica L., cv. Pioneer) and peaches (Prunus persica Bausch, cv. Swilling) fruits treated with gamma irradiation. This investigation was carried out during 2010 and 2011 seasons. The fruits were harvested at commercial maturity, irradiated with the doses 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 kGy, stored under refrigerated conditions (0±1°C, RH 80%) then evaluated at intervals of 7, 10 and 21 days (the end cold storage period) followed by 5 days of storage under market condition (20±2°C, RH 80%). Electron spin resonance (ESR) was carried out for determination of free radicals by using dried layers of plum and peach kernels. Fruit characters included weight loss %, fruit firmness (kgf), discarded fruits %, soluble solid contents (SSC, ºBrix), total titratable acidity (TA%), respiration rate and sensory evaluation tastes. ESR results proved the possibility of identification of irradiated fruits by using dried stone kernels. The results showed that ESR intensities were sensitive for all applied doses even at low doses of 0.5 or 1.0 kGy which was applied for dis infestations, to extend the shelf-life of fruits or to detect the irradiated stored fresh samples was carried out at the 7th, 10th and 21st days. The linear relationship resulted between ESR intensity and applied doses showed high significant correlation coefficient (R2) for the irradiated samples. However, ESR intensity was decreased gradually during long storage period but can identify clearly the irradiated samples. Irradiation treatment at 0.5 kGy for P ioneer p lums and at 0.5 or 0.75 kGy for S willing p eaches was effective in slowing the rate of losing of fruits weight and decreasing the discarded fruits percentage. Furthermore, it has significant effects on reducing respiration rate, maintaining higher soluble solid contents and decreasing total titratable acidity. Referring to sensory

  20. Assessment of an Isolation Condenser of an Integral Reactor in View of Uncertainties in Engineering Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    As main outcomes, a ranking of parameters' importance and an estimate of the failure probability, from a design target point of view, were achieved by sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo simulations based on a response surface model.

  1. Parameter-Based Assessment of Disturbed and Intact Components of Visual Attention in Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogon, Johanna; Finke, Kathrin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Müller, Hermann J.; Schneider, Werner X.; Stenneken, Prisca

    2014-01-01

    People with developmental dyslexia (DD) have been shown to be impaired in tasks that require the processing of multiple visual elements in parallel. It has been suggested that this deficit originates from disturbed visual attentional functions. The parameter-based assessment of visual attention based on Bundesen's (1990) theory of visual…

  2. Development and evaluation of CAHPS survey items assessing how well healthcare providers address health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmer, Beverly A; Brach, Cindy; Hays, Ron D

    2012-09-01

    The complexity of health information often exceeds patients' skills to understand and use it. To develop survey items assessing how well healthcare providers communicate health information. Domains and items for the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) Item Set for Addressing Health Literacy were identified through an environmental scan and input from stakeholders. The draft item set was translated into Spanish and pretested in both English and Spanish. The revised item set was field tested with a randomly selected sample of adult patients from 2 sites using mail and telephonic data collection. Item-scale correlations, confirmatory factor analysis, and internal consistency reliability estimates were estimated to assess how well the survey items performed and identify composite measures. Finally, we regressed the CAHPS global rating of the provider item on the CAHPS core communication composite and the new health literacy composites. A total of 601 completed surveys were obtained (52% response rate). Two composite measures were identified: (1) Communication to Improve Health Literacy (16 items); and (2) How Well Providers Communicate About Medicines (6 items). These 2 composites were significantly uniquely associated with the global rating of the provider (communication to improve health literacy: PLiteracy composite accounted for 90% of the variance of the original 16-item composite. This study provides support for reliability and validity of the CAHPS Item Set for Addressing Health Literacy. These items can serve to assess whether healthcare providers have communicated effectively with their patients and as a tool for quality improvement.

  3. An algorithm to assess methodological quality of nutrition and mortality cross-sectional surveys: development and application to surveys conducted in Darfur, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudhon Claudine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition and mortality surveys are the main tools whereby evidence on the health status of populations affected by disasters and armed conflict is quantified and monitored over time. Several reviews have consistently revealed a lack of rigor in many surveys. We describe an algorithm for analyzing nutritional and mortality survey reports to identify a comprehensive range of errors that may result in sampling, response, or measurement biases and score quality. We apply the algorithm to surveys conducted in Darfur, Sudan. Methods We developed an algorithm based on internationally agreed upon methods and best practices. Penalties are attributed for a list of errors, and an overall score is built from the summation of penalties accrued by the survey as a whole. To test the algorithm reproducibility, it was independently applied by three raters on 30 randomly selected survey reports. The algorithm was further applied to more than 100 surveys conducted in Darfur, Sudan. Results The Intra Class Correlation coefficient was 0.79 for mortality surveys and 0.78 for nutrition surveys. The overall median quality score and range of about 100 surveys conducted in Darfur were 0.60 (0.12-0.93 and 0.675 (0.23-0.86 for mortality and nutrition surveys, respectively. They varied between the organizations conducting the surveys, with no major trend over time. Conclusion Our study suggests that it is possible to systematically assess quality of surveys and reveals considerable problems with the quality of nutritional and particularly mortality surveys conducted in the Darfur crisis.

  4. Prediction uncertainty assessment of a systems biology model requires a sample of the full probability distribution of its parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Mourik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-parameter models in systems biology are typically ‘sloppy’: some parameters or combinations of parameters may be hard to estimate from data, whereas others are not. One might expect that parameter uncertainty automatically leads to uncertain predictions, but this is not the case. We illustrate this by showing that the prediction uncertainty of each of six sloppy models varies enormously among different predictions. Statistical approximations of parameter uncertainty may lead to dramatic errors in prediction uncertainty estimation. We argue that prediction uncertainty assessment must therefore be performed on a per-prediction basis using a full computational uncertainty analysis. In practice this is feasible by providing a model with a sample or ensemble representing the distribution of its parameters. Within a Bayesian framework, such a sample may be generated by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm that infers the parameter distribution based on experimental data. Matlab code for generating the sample (with the Differential Evolution Markov Chain sampler and the subsequent uncertainty analysis using such a sample, is supplied as Supplemental Information.

  5. National survey of clinical communication assessment in medical education in the United Kingdom (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Anita; Salisbury, Helen; Doherty, Eva M; Wiskin, Connie

    2014-01-13

    All medical schools in the UK are required to be able to provide evidence of competence in clinical communication in their graduates. This is usually provided by summative assessment of clinical communication, but there is considerable variation in how this is carried out. This study aimed to gain insight into the current assessment of clinical communication in UK medical schools. The survey was sent via e-mail to communication leads who then were asked to consult with all staff within their medical school involved in the assessment of communication. Results were obtained from 27 out of 33 schools (response rate 82%) and a total of 34 courses. The average number of assessments per year was 2.4 (minimum 0, maximum 10). The Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) was the most commonly used method of assessment (53%). Other assessments included MCQ and workplace based assessments. Only nine courses used a single method of assessment. Issues raised included, logistics and costs of assessing mainly by OSCE, the robustness and reliability of such exams and integration with other clinical skills. It is encouraging that a variety of assessment methods are being used within UK medical schools and that these methods target different components of clinical communication skills acquisition.

  6. Assessment of obese children and adolescents: a survey of pediatric obesity-management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Joey C

    2011-09-01

    This article provides descriptive information on the assessments conducted in stage 3 or 4 pediatric obesity-management programs associated with National Association of Children's Hospital and Related Institutions hospitals enrolled in FOCUS on a Fitter Future. Eighteen institutions completed a survey that considered the following assessments: patient/family medical history; physical examination; blood pressure; body size and composition; blood chemistry; aerobic fitness; resting metabolic rate; muscle strength and flexibility; gross motor function; spirometry; sedentary behavior and physical activity; dietary behavior and nutrition; and psychological assessments. Frequency distributions were determined for each question. Overall, the results indicate that most programs that participated in this survey were following 2007 Expert Committee assessment recommendations; however, a variety of measurement tools were used. The variation in assessment tools, protocols, etc is partially caused by the program diversity dictated by personnel, both in terms of number and duties. It also shows the challenges in standardizing methodologies across clinics if we hope to establish a national registry for pediatric obesity clinics. In addition to providing a better understanding of the current assessment practices in pediatric obesity-management programs, the results provided herein should assist other clinics/hospitals that are developing pediatric obesity programs.

  7. Environmental impact assessment - baseline noise survey and noise impact assessment for Aurora Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, S.

    1996-01-01

    A noise impact assessment was conducted at Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine site to comply with Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) Noise Control Directive ID 94-4. Noise assessments were conducted near a major noise source, i.e. the hydraulic and electric shovels. Noise levels at 50 meters away from the source varied from 72.3 to 79.7 dBA. The worst case noise level was 75 dBA measured at 100 meters away from a hydraulic shovel. This assessment was used to calculate the predicted design sound level from a noise source at the nearest or most impacted occupied dwelling. Two cabins located near the access road and along Kearl Lake respectively, were identified as the most impacted and nearest dwellings to the mine site. The predicted sound level at one cabin was 43 dBA, and 55 dBA at the other. Fort McKay was also assessed because it is the nearest community to the mine site. The sound level at Fort McKay was predicted to be 34 dBA. These results indicate that the sound level from Aurora Mine is not in compliance with the AEUB Noise Control Directive. Attenuation measures are required to reduce the noise to acceptable level at Cabin A and B. Predicted sound level at Fort McKay is lower than the permitted sound level

  8. Comparing Social Media Data and Survey Data in Assessing the Attractiveness of Beijing Olympic Forest Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Together with the emerging popularity of big data in numerous studies, increasing theoretical discussions of the challenges and limitations of such data sources exist. However, there is a clear research gap in the empirical comparison studies on different data sources. The goal of this paper is to use “attractiveness” as a medium to examine the similarity and differences of Social media data (SMD and survey data in academic research, based on a case study of the Beijing Olympic Forest Park, in Beijing, China. SMD was extracted from two social media platforms and two surveys were conducted to assess the attractiveness of various locations and landscape elements. Data collection, keyword extraction and keyword prioritization were used and compared in the data gathering and analysis process. The findings revealed that SMD and survey data share many similarities. Both data sources confirm that natural ambience is more appreciated than cultural elements, particularly the naturalness of the park. Spaces of practical utility are more appreciated than facilities designed to have cultural meanings and iconic significance. Despite perceived similarities, this study concludes that SMD exhibits exaggerated and aggregated bias. This resulted from the intrinsic character of SMD as volunteered and unstructured data selected through an emotional process rather than from a rational synthesis. Exciting events were reported more often than daily experiences. Reflecting upon the strength and weakness of SMD and survey data, this study would recommend a combined landscape assessment process, which first utilizes SMD to build up an assessment framework, then applies conventional surveys for supplementary and detailed information. This would ultimately result in comprehensive understanding.

  9. Optimizing Support Vector Machine Parameters with Genetic Algorithm for Credit Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, Jonson; Mawengkang, Herman; Zamzami, Elviawaty

    2017-12-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) is a popular classification method known to have strong generalization capabilities. SVM can solve the problem of classification and linear regression or nonlinear kernel which can be a learning algorithm for the ability of classification and regression. However, SVM also has a weakness that is difficult to determine the optimal parameter value. SVM calculates the best linear separator on the input feature space according to the training data. To classify data which are non-linearly separable, SVM uses kernel tricks to transform the data into a linearly separable data on a higher dimension feature space. The kernel trick using various kinds of kernel functions, such as : linear kernel, polynomial, radial base function (RBF) and sigmoid. Each function has parameters which affect the accuracy of SVM classification. To solve the problem genetic algorithms are proposed to be applied as the optimal parameter value search algorithm thus increasing the best classification accuracy on SVM. Data taken from UCI repository of machine learning database: Australian Credit Approval. The results show that the combination of SVM and genetic algorithms is effective in improving classification accuracy. Genetic algorithms has been shown to be effective in systematically finding optimal kernel parameters for SVM, instead of randomly selected kernel parameters. The best accuracy for data has been upgraded from kernel Linear: 85.12%, polynomial: 81.76%, RBF: 77.22% Sigmoid: 78.70%. However, for bigger data sizes, this method is not practical because it takes a lot of time.

  10. Assessment of the use in adults of four vaccines: a population survey in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vizzotti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is one of the most effective strategies for disease prevention. Argentina initiated the transition from child vaccination to family vaccination through the incorporation of an adult schedule. One of the difficulties with this last group is to assess the percentage of use (PU of the vaccines. With the aim of determining the PU of adult vaccines in Argentina, a vaccination module was included in the National Survey of Risk Factors carried out in 2013 by the National Ministry of Health. The sampling had a stratified multistage design. A total of 32 365 people = 18 year-old were surveyed about the use of four vaccines included in the National Vaccination Calendar: hepatitis B, tetanus, influenza, and pneumococcus. The entire population was surveyed for tetanus and hepatitis B while certain groups at risk were evaluated for influenza and pneumococcus, according to current recommendations. PU varied according to the vaccine analyzed: tetanus 49.8%, hepatitis B 21.7%, influenza 51.6% and pneumococcus 16.2%. The main information sources on adult vaccination were media (television, internet, etc. followed by health personnel (70.8% and 27.9%, respectively. The survey is a suitable tool to assess the use of vaccines by adults, identify low coverage populations, and to plan and implement strategies to improve coverage

  11. Development of a Survey to Assess the Acceptability of an Innovative Contraception Practice among Rural Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Improved access to effective contraceptive methods is needed in Canada, particularly in rural areas, where unintended pregnancy rates are high and specific sexual health services may be further away. A rural pharmacist may be the most accessible health care professional. Pharmacy practice increasingly incorporates cognitive services. In Canada many provinces allow pharmacists to independently prescribe for some indications, but not for hormonal contraception. To assess the acceptability for the implementation of this innovative practice in Canada, we developed and piloted a survey instrument. We chose questions to address the components for adoption and change described in Rogers’ “diffusion of innovations” theory. The proposed instrument was iteratively reviewed by 12 experts, then focus group tested among eight pharmacists or students to improve the instrument for face validity, readability, consistency and relevancy to community pharmacists in the Canadian context. We then pilot tested the survey among urban and rural pharmacies. 4% of urban and 35% of rural pharmacies returned pilot surveys. Internal consistency on repeated re-phrased questions was high (Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.901. We present our process for the development of a survey instrument to assess the acceptability and feasibility among Canadian community pharmacists for the innovative practice of the independent prescribing of hormonal contraception.

  12. Assessment of burnout in veterinary medical students using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educational Survey: a survey during two semesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigerwe, Munashe; Boudreaux, Karen A; Ilkiw, Jan E

    2014-11-28

    Burnout among veterinary students can result from known stressors in the absence of a support system. The objectives of this study were to evaluate use of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educator Survey (MBI-ES) to assess burnout in veterinary students and evaluate the factors that predict the MBI-ES scores. The MBI-ES was administered to first (Class of 2016) and second year (Class of 2015) veterinary medical students during the 2012-2013 academic year in the fall and spring semesters. Factor analysis and test reliability for the survey were determined. Mean scores for the subscales determining burnout namely emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and lack of personal accomplishment (PA) were calculated for both classes in the 2 semesters. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate other factors that predict the MBI-ES scores. A non-probability sampling method was implemented consisting of a voluntary sample of 170 and 123 students in the fall and spring semesters, respectively. Scores for EE, DP and PA were not different between the 2 classes within the same semester. Mean ± SD scores for EE, DP and PA for the fall semester were 22.9 ± 9.6, 5.0 ± 4.8 and 32.3 ± 6.7, respectively. Mean ± SD scores for EE, DP and PA the spring semester were 27.8 ± 10.7, 6.5 ± 6.1and 31.7 ± 6.8, respectively. The EE score was higher in spring compared to fall while DP and PA scores were not different between the 2 semesters. Living arrangements specifically as to whether or not a student lived with another veterinary medical students was the only variable significantly associated with the MBI-ES scores. Students in this study had moderate levels of burnout based on the MBI-ES scores. The MBI-ES was an acceptable instrument for assessing burnout in veterinary medical students. The EE scores were higher in the spring semester as compared to the fall semester. Thus students in the first and second years of veterinary school under the current curriculum

  13. Factors controlling volume errors through 2D gully erosion assessment: guidelines for optimal survey design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carlos; Pérez, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of gully erosion volumes is essential for the quantification of soil losses derived from this relevant degradation process. Traditionally, 2D and 3D approaches has been applied for this purpose (Casalí et al., 2006). Although innovative 3D approaches have recently been proposed for gully volume quantification, a renewed interest can be found in literature regarding the useful information that cross-section analysis still provides in gully erosion research. Moreover, the application of methods based on 2D approaches can be the most cost-effective approach in many situations such as preliminary studies with low accuracy requirements or surveys under time or budget constraints. The main aim of this work is to examine the key factors controlling volume error variability in 2D gully assessment by means of a stochastic experiment involving a Monte Carlo analysis over synthetic gully profiles in order to 1) contribute to a better understanding of the drivers and magnitude of gully erosion 2D-surveys uncertainty and 2) provide guidelines for optimal survey designs. Owing to the stochastic properties of error generation in 2D volume assessment, a statistical approach was followed to generate a large and significant set of gully reach configurations to evaluate quantitatively the influence of the main factors controlling the uncertainty of the volume assessment. For this purpose, a simulation algorithm in Matlab® code was written, involving the following stages: - Generation of synthetic gully area profiles with different degrees of complexity (characterized by the cross-section variability) - Simulation of field measurements characterised by a survey intensity and the precision of the measurement method - Quantification of the volume error uncertainty as a function of the key factors In this communication we will present the relationships between volume error and the studied factors and propose guidelines for 2D field surveys based on the minimal survey

  14. Assessing the Magnitude of Non-Consent Biases in Linked Survey and Administrative Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W. Sakshaug

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Administrative records are increasingly being linked to survey records to highten the utility of the survey data. Respondent consent is usually needed to perform exact record linkage; however, not all respondents agree to this request and several studies have found significant differences between consenting and non-consenting respondents on the survey variables. To the extent that these survey variables are related to variables in the administrative data, the resulting administrative estimates can be biased due to non-consent. Estimating non-consent biases for linked administrative estimates is complicated by the fact that administrative records are typically not available for the non-consenting respondents. The present study can overcome this limitation by utilizing a unique data source, the German Panel Study "Labour Market and Social Security" (PASS, and linking the consent indicator to the administrative records (available for the entire sample. This situation permits the estimation of non-consent biases for administrative variables and avoids the need to link the survey responses. The impact of non-consent bias can be assessed relative to other sources of bias (nonresponse, measurement for several administrative estimates. The results show that non-consent biases are present for few estimates, but are generally small relative to other sources of bias.

  15. The US Department of Energy hydrogen baseline survey: assessing knowledge and opinions about hydrogen technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christy Cooper; Tykey Truett; R L Schmoyer

    2006-01-01

    To design and maintain its education program, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program conducted a statistically-valid national survey to measure knowledge and opinions of hydrogen among key target audiences. The Hydrogen Baseline Knowledge Survey provides a reference for designing the DOE hydrogen education strategy and will be used in comparisons with future surveys to measure changes in knowledge and opinions over time. The survey sampled four U.S. populations: (1) public; (2) students; (3) state and local government officials; and (4) potential large-scale hydrogen end-users in three business categories. Questions measured technical understanding of hydrogen and opinions about hydrogen safety. Other questions assessed visions of the likelihood of future hydrogen applications and sources of energy information. Several important findings were discovered, including a striking lack of technical understanding across all survey groups, as well as a strong correlation between technical knowledge and opinions about safety: those who demonstrated an understanding of hydrogen technologies expressed the least fear of its safe use. (authors)

  16. Surveying and assessing the hazards associated with the processing of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1980-01-01

    The control of uranium during the milling process has not received extensive attention. The results of several surveys of surface contamination, airborne contamination and external radiation made at South African processing facilities are presented and compared with derived norms for permissible exposure to uranium dust. The routine urine sampling results are used as an indicator of personnel exposures. Results of sampling identify the main sources of airborne activity and indicate the contribution of general surface contamination levels to airborne levels. The use of surface contamination levels together with frequent air sampling for assessing the environmental conditions is illustrated. It is concluded that infrequent grab air sampling alone is not adequate for assessing the hazards during uranium processing. Detailed surveys are required and proper area and personnel access control are indicated. (H.K.)

  17. STUDY OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN AMNIOTIC FLUID FOR ASSESSMENT OF FOETAL MATURITY IN CASES OF NORMAL PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of foetal maturity had been proven of value in evaluating the foetal condition. Accurate assessment of foetal maturity is essential for the proper timing of delivery in various risk pregnancies. Amniotic Fluid analysis for foetal maturity had been of proven value. In the present study, study of biochemical parameters in amniotic fluid in respect of Creatinine, Uric Acid, Urea, Total Proteins, and Electrolytes i.e. Sodium, Potassium and Chloride has been done, along with Serum Electrolytes. Standard methodologies were adopted. The observations in the present study correlated with the works of Chadick et al and Pitkin and Zwirek. The levels of Creatinine, Uric Acid and Urea in Amniotic Fluid showed elevation, while Total Proteins and Serum Sodium showed a decline, as gestation progressed. The Serum and Amniotic Fluid Potassium and Chloride levels remain almost constant throughout the pregnancy. Thus, it is observed that the use of multiple parameters is desirable for accurate assessment of foetal maturity.

  18. Assessing models for parameters of the Ångström-Prescott formula in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Xu, Yinlong; Zhong, Xiuli

    2012-01-01

    against the calibrated ones. Models 1, 6 and 7 showed an advantage in keeping the physical meaning of their modeled parameters due to the small magnitude of and the use of the relation of (a + b) versus other variables as a constraint, respectively. All models tended to perform best in zone II and poorest...... () (models 1–2), altitude (model 7), altitude and (model 3), altitude, and latitude (model 4), altitude and latitude (model 5) and annual average air temperature (model 6). It was found that model 7 performed best, followed by models 6, 1, 3, 2 and 4. The better performance of models 7 and 6 and the fact....... This also suggests that applicability of a Rs model is not proportional to its complexity. The common feature of the better performing models suggests that accurate modeling of parameter a is more important than that of b. Therefore, priority should be given to parameter models having higher accuracy for a...

  19. Assessing first-order emulator inference for physical parameters in nonlinear mechanistic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooten, Mevin B.; Leeds, William B.; Fiechter, Jerome; Wikle, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach for estimating physical parameters in nonlinear models that relies on an approximation to the mechanistic model itself for computational efficiency. The proposed methodology is validated and applied in two different modeling scenarios: (a) Simulation and (b) lower trophic level ocean ecosystem model. The approach we develop relies on the ability to predict right singular vectors (resulting from a decomposition of computer model experimental output) based on the computer model input and an experimental set of parameters. Critically, we model the right singular vectors in terms of the model parameters via a nonlinear statistical model. Specifically, we focus our attention on first-order models of these right singular vectors rather than the second-order (covariance) structure.

  20. Assessing composition and structure of soft biphasic media from Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Yue; Fatemi, Mostafa; Insana, Michael F.

    2017-03-01

    Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative (KVFD) model parameters have been used to describe viscoelastic properties of soft tissues. However, translating model parameters into a concise set of intrinsic mechanical properties related to tissue composition and structure remains challenging. This paper begins by exploring these relationships using a biphasic emulsion materials with known composition. Mechanical properties are measured by analyzing data from two indentation techniques—ramp-stress relaxation and load-unload hysteresis tests. Material composition is predictably correlated with viscoelastic model parameters. Model parameters estimated from the tests reveal that elastic modulus E 0 closely approximates the shear modulus for pure gelatin. Fractional-order parameter α and time constant τ vary monotonically with the volume fraction of the material’s fluid component. α characterizes medium fluidity and the rate of energy dissipation, and τ is a viscous time constant. Numerical simulations suggest that the viscous coefficient η is proportional to the energy lost during quasi-static force-displacement cycles, E A . The slope of E A versus η is determined by α and the applied indentation ramp time T r. Experimental measurements from phantom and ex vivo liver data show close agreement with theoretical predictions of the η -{{E}A} relation. The relative error is less than 20% for emulsions 22% for liver. We find that KVFD model parameters form a concise features space for biphasic medium characterization that described time-varying mechanical properties. The experimental work was carried out at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. Methodological development, including numerical simulation and all data analysis, were carried out at the school of Life Science and Technology, Xi’an JiaoTong University, 710049, China.

  1. Influences of geological parameters to probabilistic assessment of slope stability of embankment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Qui T.; Le, Tuan D.; Konečný, Petr

    2018-04-01

    This article considers influences of geological parameters to slope stability of the embankment in probabilistic analysis using SLOPE/W computational system. Stability of a simple slope is evaluated with and without pore–water pressure on the basis of variation of soil properties. Normal distributions of unit weight, cohesion and internal friction angle are assumed. Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to perform analysis of critical slip surface. Sensitivity analysis is performed to observe the variation of the geological parameters and their effects on safety factors of the slope stability.

  2. Assessing the impact of azadirachtin application to soil on ureaseactivity and its kinetic parameters

    OpenAIRE

    KIZILKAYA, RIDVAN; SAMOFALOVA, IRAIDA; MUDRYKH, NATALYA; MİKAİLSOY, FARİZ; AKÇA, İZZET; SUSHKOVA, SVETLANA; MINKINA, TATIANA

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The kinetic parameters of soil urease have attracted considerable attention; however, little information is available on its kinetic parameters and behaviors in response to azadirachtin application to the soil. A short (14-day) field experiment was conducted using Albic Luvisol soil (loam texture; pH 6.70; electrical conductivity 0.81 dS m-1; CaCO3 content 0.04%; total organic carbon 0.99%) as the experimental soil in the Perm region of the Russian Federation to investigate the effe...

  3. Environmental Assessment/Baseline Survey to Establish New Drop Zone (DZ) in Cadiz, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    International Airport LATN Low Altitude Tactical Navigation MACA Military Airspace Collision Avoidance µg/m3 microgram per cubic meter MSL mean...Environmental Assessment and Baseline Survey 3-3 To Establish New Drop Zone in Cadiz, OH The 911 AW has a Military Airspace Collision Avoidance ( MACA ) plan...in Cadiz, OH The 911 AW flight safety would revise their existing MACA plan to include activities at the new drop zone. The MACA includes placing a

  4. Poverty and Inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Literature Survey and Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Delfin Go; Denis Nikitin; Xiongjian Wang; Heng-fu Zou

    2011-01-01

    This paper surveys the literature and assesses the magnitude, persistence, and depth of poverty and inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa using empirical analysis. Our analysis explores linkages between three key facts about development in Sub-Saharan Africa: poor economic growth, poor performance in terms of public health indicators, and resilient high-income inequality. Most of the differential between growth rates in Sub-Saharan Africa and other developing countries can be explained by two meas...

  5. Analysis and radiological assessment of survey results and samples from the beaches around Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Fry, F.A.

    1983-12-01

    After radioactive sea debris had been found on beaches near the BNFL, Sellafield, plant, NRPB was asked by the Department of the Environment to analyse some of the samples collected and to assess the radiological hazard to members of the public. A report is presented containing an analysis of survey reports for the period 19 November - 4 December 1983 and preliminary results of the analysis of all samples received, together with the Board's recommendations. (author)

  6. Assessing the relative importance of parameter and forcing uncertainty and their interactions in conceptual hydrological model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockler, E. M.; Chun, K. P.; Sapriza-Azuri, G.; Bruen, M.; Wheater, H. S.

    2016-11-01

    Predictions of river flow dynamics provide vital information for many aspects of water management including water resource planning, climate adaptation, and flood and drought assessments. Many of the subjective choices that modellers make including model and criteria selection can have a significant impact on the magnitude and distribution of the output uncertainty. Hydrological modellers are tasked with understanding and minimising the uncertainty surrounding streamflow predictions before communicating the overall uncertainty to decision makers. Parameter uncertainty in conceptual rainfall-runoff models has been widely investigated, and model structural uncertainty and forcing data have been receiving increasing attention. This study aimed to assess uncertainties in streamflow predictions due to forcing data and the identification of behavioural parameter sets in 31 Irish catchments. By combining stochastic rainfall ensembles and multiple parameter sets for three conceptual rainfall-runoff models, an analysis of variance model was used to decompose the total uncertainty in streamflow simulations into contributions from (i) forcing data, (ii) identification of model parameters and (iii) interactions between the two. The analysis illustrates that, for our subjective choices, hydrological model selection had a greater contribution to overall uncertainty, while performance criteria selection influenced the relative intra-annual uncertainties in streamflow predictions. Uncertainties in streamflow predictions due to the method of determining parameters were relatively lower for wetter catchments, and more evenly distributed throughout the year when the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency of logarithmic values of flow (lnNSE) was the evaluation criterion.

  7. International survey for good practices in forecasting uncertainty assessment and communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Lionel; Piotte, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Achieving technically sound flood forecasts is a crucial objective for forecasters but remains of poor use if the users do not understand properly their significance and do not use it properly in decision making. One usual way to precise the forecasts limitations is to communicate some information about their uncertainty. Uncertainty assessment and communication to stakeholders are thus important issues for operational flood forecasting services (FFS) but remain open fields for research. French FFS wants to publish graphical streamflow and level forecasts along with uncertainty assessment in near future on its website (available to the greater public). In order to choose the technical options best adapted to its operational context, it carried out a survey among more than 15 fellow institutions. Most of these are providing forecasts and warnings to civil protection officers while some were mostly working for hydroelectricity suppliers. A questionnaire has been prepared in order to standardize the analysis of the practices of the surveyed institutions. The survey was conducted by gathering information from technical reports or from the scientific literature, as well as 'interviews' driven by phone, email discussions or meetings. The questionnaire helped in the exploration of practices in uncertainty assessment, evaluation and communication. Attention was paid to the particular context within which every insitution works, in the analysis drawn from raw results. Results show that most services interviewed assess their forecasts uncertainty. However, practices can differ significantly from a country to another. Popular techniques are ensemble approaches. They allow to take into account several uncertainty sources. Statistical past forecasts analysis (such as the quantile regressions) are also commonly used. Contrary to what was expected, only few services emphasize the role of the forecaster (subjective assessment). Similar contrasts can be observed in uncertainty

  8. Contribution to Risk Analysis of a Standard Brewery: Application of a Hygiene Assessment System Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Raposo, António; Salazar, Jairo; Pérez, Esteban; Sanjuán, Esther; Carrascosa, Conrado; Saavedra, Pedro; Millán, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    "Beer is a food product with a high consumption in Gran Canaria and the brewery industry is also present in this island. In order to carry out this study, it was designed a survey to assist in the assessment of risks from the facilities and infrastructures of the brewery, the raw materials used in the beer production and the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) plan. An initial assessment of various aspects of the industry has been conducted at the beginning of hygienic-sani...

  9. Venous Thromboembolism – Risk Assessment Tool and Thromboprophylaxis Policy: A National Survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, MI

    2017-01-01

    Venous Thromboembolic (VTE) events in hospitalised patients are associated with significant mortality and morbidity and a major economic burden on the health service. It is well established in the literature that active implementation of a mandatory risk assessment tool and thromboprophylaxis policy reduces the incidence of hospital associated thrombosis (HAT). This study examines the utilization of a VTE risk assessment tool and thromboprophylaxis (TP) policy in Irish hospitals that manage acute admissions. A national survey was distributed to forty acute hospitals throughout Ireland. The response rate was 78% (31\\/40). The results showed that only 26% (n=8\\/31) of acute hospitals in Ireland have a local implemented TP policy. Six (75%) of these eight had a risk assessment tool in conjunction with the TP policy. All respondents who did not report to have a TP policy and risk assessment tool agreed that they should implement VTE prevention policy at their hospital. Based on the data from this survey and evidence from the effectiveness of the VTE prevention programme introduced in the United Kingdom, there is a need for a national risk assessment and thromboprophylaxis policy in Ireland. This change in practice would have the potential to prevent or reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with hospital acquired thrombosis

  10. Standardisation of resource-based parameters to assess the welfare status of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper identified resources for pigs, i.e. environment-based factors affecting pig welfare. Lists of resources have been described for both on-farm rearing conditions and for 'transport and slaughter conditions'. On-farm parameters include general information, density, flooring/bedding,

  11. Assessing FPAR Source and Parameter Optimization Scheme in Application of a Diagnostic Carbon Flux Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D P; Ritts, W D; Wharton, S; Thomas, C; Monson, R; Black, T A

    2009-02-26

    The combination of satellite remote sensing and carbon cycle models provides an opportunity for regional to global scale monitoring of terrestrial gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem production. FPAR (the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the plant canopy) is a critical input to diagnostic models, however little is known about the relative effectiveness of FPAR products from different satellite sensors nor about the sensitivity of flux estimates to different parameterization approaches. In this study, we used multiyear observations of carbon flux at four eddy covariance flux tower sites within the conifer biome to evaluate these factors. FPAR products from the MODIS and SeaWiFS sensors, and the effects of single site vs. cross-site parameter optimization were tested with the CFLUX model. The SeaWiFs FPAR product showed greater dynamic range across sites and resulted in slightly reduced flux estimation errors relative to the MODIS product when using cross-site optimization. With site-specific parameter optimization, the flux model was effective in capturing seasonal and interannual variation in the carbon fluxes at these sites. The cross-site prediction errors were lower when using parameters from a cross-site optimization compared to parameter sets from optimization at single sites. These results support the practice of multisite optimization within a biome for parameterization of diagnostic carbon flux models.

  12. Assessing different parameters estimation methods of Weibull distribution to compute wind power density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Kasra; Alavi, Omid; Mostafaeipour, Ali; Goudarzi, Navid; Jalilvand, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effectiveness of six numerical methods is evaluated to determine wind power density. • More appropriate method for computing the daily wind power density is estimated. • Four windy stations located in the south part of Alberta, Canada namely is investigated. • The more appropriate parameters estimation method was not identical among all examined stations. - Abstract: In this study, the effectiveness of six numerical methods is evaluated to determine the shape (k) and scale (c) parameters of Weibull distribution function for the purpose of calculating the wind power density. The selected methods are graphical method (GP), empirical method of Justus (EMJ), empirical method of Lysen (EML), energy pattern factor method (EPF), maximum likelihood method (ML) and modified maximum likelihood method (MML). The purpose of this study is to identify the more appropriate method for computing the wind power density in four stations distributed in Alberta province of Canada namely Edmonton City Center Awos, Grande Prairie A, Lethbridge A and Waterton Park Gate. To provide a complete analysis, the evaluations are performed on both daily and monthly scales. The results indicate that the precision of computed wind power density values change when different parameters estimation methods are used to determine the k and c parameters. Four methods of EMJ, EML, EPF and ML present very favorable efficiency while the GP method shows weak ability for all stations. However, it is found that the more effective method is not similar among stations owing to the difference in the wind characteristics.

  13. Parameter selection for Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel to be used in the Yucca Mountain Viability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillmore, D.L.

    1998-06-01

    This report contains the chemical, physical, and radiological parameters that were chosen to represent the Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel in the Yucca Mountain Viability Assessment. It also contains the selected packaging requirements for the various fuel types and the criticality controls that were used. The data is reported for representative fuels in groups of fuels that were selected for the analysis. The justification for the selection of each parameter is given. The data reported was not generated under any Q.A. Program

  14. SR-Can. Data and uncertainty assessment. Migration parameters for the bentonite buffer in the KBS-3 concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochs, Michael; Talerico, Caterina

    2004-08-01

    SKB is currently preparing license applications related to the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel and an encapsulation plant. The present report is one of several specific data reports feeding into the interim reporting for the latter application; it is concerned with the derivation and recommendation of radionuclide migration input parameters for a MX-80 bentonite buffer to PA models. Recommended values for the following parameters as well as the associated uncertainties are derived and documented for a total of 38 elements and oxidation states: diffusion-available porosity (ε); effective diffusivity (D e ); distribution coefficient (K d ). Because of the conditional nature of these parameters, particularly of K d , they were derived specifically for the conditions expected to be relevant for PA consequence calculations. K d values were generally evaluated for the specific porewater composition and solid/water ratio representative for MX-80 compacted to 1,590 kg/m 3 . Because of the highly conditional nature of K d , this was done for several porewater compositions which reflect possible variations in geochemical boundary conditions. D e and ε were derived as a function of density. Parameter derivation was based on systematic datasets available in the literature and/or on thermodynamic models. Associated uncertainties were assessed for a given set of PA conditions and as a function of variability in these conditions. In a final step, apparent diffusivity (D a ) values were calculated from the recommended parameters and compared with independent experimental measurements to arrive at selfconsistent sets of migration parameters

  15. Slope Stability Assessment Using Trigger Parameters and SINMAP Methods on Tamblingan-Buyan Ancient Mountain Area in Buleleng Regency, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Sinarta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mapping of soil movement was examined by comparing an extension of the deterministic Soil Stability Index Mapping (SINMAP method, and an overlay method with trigger parameters of soil movement. The SINMAP model used soil parameters in the form of the cohesion value (c, internal friction angle (φ, and hydraulic conductivity (ks for the prediction of soil movement based on the factor of safety (FS, while the indirect method used a literature review and field observations. The weightings of soil movement trigger parameters in assessments were based on natural physical aspects: (1 slope inclination = 30%; (2 rock weathering = 15%; (3 geological structure = 20%; (4 rainfall = 15%; (5 groundwater potential = 7%; (6 seismicity = 3%; and (7 vegetation = 10%. The research area was located in the Buleleng district, in particular in the ancient mountain area of Buyan-Tamblingan, in the Sukasada sub-district. The hazard mapping gave a high and very high hazard scale. The SINMAP model gave a validation accuracy of 14.29%, while the overlay method with seven trigger parameters produced an accuracy of 71.43%. Based on the analysis of the very high and high hazard class and the validation of the landslide occurrence points, the deterministic method using soil parameters and water absorption gave a much lower accuracy than the overlay method with a study of soil motion trigger parameters.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey input-data forms for the assessment of the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.

    2017-10-24

    In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an updated assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin (Permian Basin Province) in southwestern Texas (Marra and others, 2017). The Spraberry Formation was assessed using both the standard continuous (unconventional) and conventional methodologies established by the USGS for three assessment units (AUs): (1) Lower Spraberry Continuous Oil Trend AU, (2) Middle Spraberry Continuous Oil Trend AU, and (3) Northern Spraberry Conventional Oil AU. The revised assessment resulted in total estimated mean resources of 4,245 million barrels of oil, 3,112 billion cubic feet of gas, and 311 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The purpose of this report is to provide supplemental documentation of the input parameters used in the USGS 2017 Spraberry Formation assessment.

  17. Site specificity of biosphere parameter values in performance assessments of near-surface repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, Th.; Volckaert, G.; Vandecasleele

    1993-01-01

    The contribution is dealing with the performance assessment model for near surface repositories in Belgium. It consists of four submodels called: site, aquifer, biosphere and dose. For some characteristic radionuclides, results of the study are shown for a typical site, and differences in doses assessed with the generic approach discussed. Shortcomings are indicated

  18. Assessing historical fish community composition using surveys, historical collection data, and species distribution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labay, Ben; Cohen, Adam E; Sissel, Blake; Hendrickson, Dean A; Martin, F Douglas; Sarkar, Sahotra

    2011-01-01

    Accurate establishment of baseline conditions is critical to successful management and habitat restoration. We demonstrate the ability to robustly estimate historical fish community composition and assess the current status of the urbanized Barton Creek watershed in central Texas, U.S.A. Fish species were surveyed in 2008 and the resulting data compared to three sources of fish occurrence information: (i) historical records from a museum specimen database and literature searches; (ii) a nearly identical survey conducted 15 years earlier; and (iii) a modeled historical community constructed with species distribution models (SDMs). This holistic approach, and especially the application of SDMs, allowed us to discover that the fish community in Barton Creek was more diverse than the historical data and survey methods alone indicated. Sixteen native species with high modeled probability of occurrence within the watershed were not found in the 2008 survey, seven of these were not found in either survey or in any of the historical collection records. Our approach allowed us to more rigorously establish the true baseline for the pre-development fish fauna and then to more accurately assess trends and develop hypotheses regarding factors driving current fish community composition to better inform management decisions and future restoration efforts. Smaller, urbanized freshwater systems, like Barton Creek, typically have a relatively poor historical biodiversity inventory coupled with long histories of alteration, and thus there is a propensity for land managers and researchers to apply inaccurate baseline standards. Our methods provide a way around that limitation by using SDMs derived from larger and richer biodiversity databases of a broader geographic scope. Broadly applied, we propose that this technique has potential to overcome limitations of popular bioassessment metrics (e.g., IBI) to become a versatile and robust management tool for determining status of

  19. Assessing health-related quality of life in urology - a survey of 4500 German urologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmick, A; Juergensen, M; Rohde, V; Katalinic, A; Waldmann, A

    2017-06-19

    Urological diseases and their treatment may negatively influence continence, potency, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Although current guidelines recommend HRQOL assessment in clinical urology, specific guidance on how to assess HRQOL is frequently absent. We evaluated whether and how urologists assess HRQOL and how they determine its practicality. A random sample of 4500 (from 5200 identified German urologists) was drawn and invited to participate in a postal survey (an initial letter followed by one reminder after six weeks). The questionnaire included questions on whether and how HRQOL is assessed, general attitudes towards the concept of HRQOL, and socio-demographics. Due to the exploratory character of the study we produced mainly descriptive statistics. Chi 2 -tests and logistic regression were used for subgroup-analysis. 1557 urologists (85% male, with a mean age of 49 yrs.) participated. Most of them (87%) considered HRQOL assessment as 'important' in daily work, while only 7% reported not assessing HRQOL. Patients with prostate carcinoma, incontinence, pain, and benign prostate hyperplasia were the main target groups for HRQOL assessment. The primary aim of HRQOL assessment was to support treatment decisions, monitor patients, and produce a 'baseline measurement'. Two-thirds of urologists used questionnaires and interviews to evaluate HRQOL and one-quarter assessed HRQOL by asking: 'How are you?'. The main barriers to HRQOL assessment were anticipated questionnaire costs (77%), extensive questionnaire length (52%), and complex analysis (51%). The majority of German urologists assess HRQOL as part of their clinical routine. However, knowledge of HRQOL assessment, analysis, and interpretation seems to be limited in this group. Therefore, urologists may benefit from a targeted education program. The clinical trial was registered with the code VfD_13_003629 at the German Healthcare Research Registry ( www.versorgungsforschung-deutschland.de ).

  20. Assessment of Rock Magnetic Parameters for Fly Ash Pollution Screening in Topsoil of the Deccan Trap Basalt Area, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, U.; Basavaiah, N.; Das, P. K.; Deenadayalan, K.

    2012-04-01

    Rock magnetic parameters of highly magnetic topsoil of the Deccan Trap basalt area are evaluated for their suitability for efficient environmental magnetic pollution screening. Parameters, such as magnetic susceptibility (χ), frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility (κ fd%), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), soft isothermal remanent magnetization (Soft IRM), as well as thermo-magnetic analysis (κ-T) are compared and assessed for best depiction of topsoil contamination due to ash deposition around the Nashik thermal power station (NTPS). Fifty-five topsoil samples, collected along north-south and west-east stretching transects of 24 km length, are the basis for evaluation of the specific ash distribution pattern around the plant and its adjacent ash pond. Similar decline of the magnetic signals with increasing distance from the point source is observed in the concentration dependent magnetic parameters and can be modeled. The magnetic grain size parameters instead reveal increasing trends with increasing distance. Verwey-transition and Hopkinson peak obtained from κ-T analyses demonstrate to be important parameters to prove fly ash accumulation in soils of basaltic origin. The importance of magnetic parameters for indirect tracing of pollutants, such as heavy metals, is shown by Pb, Zn and Cu data, revealing similar distribution pattern as obtained from the concentration dependent magnetic parameters. Confirmation of the presence of a very high amount of ash particles in the vicinity of the NTPS and a low number of particles in more distant areas is provided by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on quantitatively extracted magnetic particles at 5.5 km and 11.9 km distance in eastern direction. The investigation demonstrates that the majority of the rock magnetic parameters has the potential to be successfully applied in environmental magnetic studies in areas with high magnetic background

  1. Evaluation of biophysical skin parameters and assessment of hair growth in patients with acne treated with isotretinoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmieć, Małgorzata L; Pajor, Anna; Broniarczyk-Dyła, Grażyna

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of the severe forms of acne vulgaris remains a challenge. Isotretinoin is a drug often used in these cases. Retinoids affect the mechanisms that play a role in the pathogenesis of acne, reduce the production of sebum and sizes of the sebaceous glands. However, isotretinoin appears to have undesirable side effects in the skin, mucous membranes and hair. THE AIM OF THIS STUDY WAS TO ASSESS THE EFFECT OF ACNE VULGARIS TREATMENT WITH ISOTRETINOIN ON BIOPHYSICAL SKIN PARAMETERS: skin sebum and stratum corneum hydration levels, transepidermal water loss values, pH, erythema and hair growth parameters: total number, density and proportion of anagen hair. THE STUDY INCLUDED THIRTY PATIENTS WITH ACNE TYPES: papulopustular, conglobata and phlegmonosa. Patients were treated with isotretinoin at a dose of 0.5-1.0 mg/kg/day for a period of 4-7 months. The measurements of skin biophysical parameters were performed before and after the treatment using Sebumeter SM815, Corneometer CM825, Tewameter TM300, MX Mexameter MX18 and Skin-pH-Meter PH908. Hair growth parameters were evaluated with FotoFinder Dermoscope using the TrichoScan Professional V3.0.8.76 software. The results of biophysical skin parameter measurements after the treatment showed a reduction in the severity of seborrhea. However, the skin was dry, which confirmed a lowered degree of stratum corneum hydration and an increase in transepidermal water loss values. Moreover, severity of erythema, an increase in pH value, and variations in selected hair growth parameters: decrease in total count, density and proportion of anagen hair were demonstrated. The reduction in the skin sebum levels was observed after the treatment. There was dryness of the skin, which was confirmed by biophysical skin parameter measurements. Changes in the hair growth parameters showed telogen effluvium hair loss.

  2. National sample survey to assess the new case disease burden of leprosy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Katoch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A national sample survey of leprosy was undertaken in partnership with Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR institutions, National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP, Panchayati Raj members, and treated leprosy patients to detect new cases of leprosy in India. The objectives of the survey were to estimate the new leprosy case load; record both Grade 1 and Grade 2 disabilities in the new cases; and to assess the magnitude of stigma and discrimination prevalent in the society. A cluster based, cross-sectional survey involving all States was used for the door-to-door survey using inverse sampling methodology. Rural and urban clusters were sampled separately. The population screened for detecting 28 new cases in rural and 30 in urban clusters was enumerated, recorded and analyzed. Data capture and analysis in different schedules were the main tools used. For quality control three tiers of experts were utilized for the confirmation of cases and disabilities. Self-stigma was assessed in more than half of the total new patients detected with disabilities by the approved questionnaire. A different questionnaire was used to assess the stigma in the community. A population of 14,725,525 (10,302,443 rural; 4,423,082 urban was screened and 2161 new cases - 1300 paucibacillary (PB and 861 multibacillary (MB were detected. New case estimates for leprosy was 330,346 (95% Confidence limits, 287,445-380,851. Disabilities observed in these cases were 2.05/100,000 population and 13.9 per cent (302/2161 in new cases. Self-stigma in patients with disabilities was reduced, and the patients were well accepted by the spouse, neighbour, at workplace and in social functions.

  3. Comparison of the Carbon System Parameters at the Global CO2 Survey Crossover Locations in the North and South Pacific Ocean, 1990-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feely, Richard A [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Lamb, Marilyn F. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Greeley, Dana J. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Wanninkhof, Rik [NOAA, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML)

    1999-10-01

    As a collaborative program to measure global ocean carbon inventories and provide estimates of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (C02) uptake by the oceans. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy have sponsored the collection of ocean carbon measurements as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment and Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study cruises. The cruises discussed here occurred in the North and South Pacific from 1990 through 1996. The carbon parameters from these 30 crossover locations have been compared to ensure that a consistent global data set emerges from the survey cruises. !'he results indicate that for dissolved inorganic carbon. fugacity of C02• and pH. the a~:,rreements at most crossover locations are well within the design specifications for the global CO) survey: whereas. in the case of total alkaliniry. the agreement between crossover locations is not as close.

  4. Assessment and control of the gold leaching parameters at Kiena Mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschenes, G.; Fulton, M. [CANMET, Mining and Mineral Sciences Labs., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Lafontaine, M. [Kiena Mines, McWatters Mines Inc., Operation Val d' Or, Val d' Or, PQ (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Kiena Mines process a free milling gold ore containing 4.21 g/t Au, 3.1% pyrite and 0.4% pyrrhotite. The throughput has been increased by 40% by tight control of the leaching parameters. The limiting factor of the process is the retention time in the leach circuit. A study was initiated to evaluate the level of control of parameters (grinding size, dissolved oxygen, pH, free cyanide and lead nitrate) to optimize the circuit efficiency. It was found that oxygen and lead nitrate addition are important to maintain gold extraction, while decreasing processing costs. The results indicated that some control levels could be modified. Some results are discussed in relation to models developed. An implementation strategy was elaborated. A decrease of reagent costs is expected after implementation of these changes. (author)

  5. Assessment and control of the gold leaching parameters at Kiena Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschenes, G.; Fulton, M.; Lafontaine, M.

    1999-01-01

    Kiena Mines process a free milling gold ore containing 4.21 g/t Au, 3.1% pyrite and 0.4% pyrrhotite. The throughput has been increased by 40% by tight control of the leaching parameters. The limiting factor of the process is the retention time in the leach circuit. A study was initiated to evaluate the level of control of parameters (grinding size, dissolved oxygen, pH, free cyanide and lead nitrate) to optimize the circuit efficiency. It was found that oxygen and lead nitrate addition are important to maintain gold extraction, while decreasing processing costs. The results indicated that some control levels could be modified. Some results are discussed in relation to models developed. An implementation strategy was elaborated. A decrease of reagent costs is expected after implementation of these changes. (author)

  6. Assessment of Optimum Value for Dip Angle and Locking Rate Parameters in Makran Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, A.; Abolghasem, A. M.; Abedini, N.; Mousavi, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Makran subduction zone is one of the convergent areas that have been studied by spatial geodesy. Makran zone is located in the South Eastern of Iran and South of Pakistan forming the part of Eurasian-Arabian plate's border where oceanic crust in the Arabian plate (or in Oman Sea) subducts under the Eurasian plate ( Farhoudi and Karig, 1977). Due to lack of historical and modern tools in the area, a sampling of sparse measurements of the permanent GPS stations and temporary stations (campaign) has been conducted in the past decade. Makran subduction zone from different perspectives has unusual behaviour: For example, the Eastern and Western parts of the region have very different seismicity and also dip angle of subducted plate is in about 2 to 8 degrees that this value due to the dip angle in other subduction zone is very low. In this study, we want to find the best possible value for parameters that differs Makran subduction zone from other subduction zones. Rigid block modelling method was used to determine these parameters. From the velocity vectors calculated from GPS observations in this area, block model is formed. These observations are obtained from GPS stations that a number of them are located in South Eastern Iran and South Western Pakistan and a station located in North Eastern Oman. According to previous studies in which the locking depth of Makran subduction zone is 38km (Frohling, 2016), in the preparation of this model, parameter value of at least 38 km is considered. With this function, the amount of 2 degree value is the best value for dip angle but for the locking rate there is not any specified amount. Because the proposed model is not sensitive to this parameter. So we can not expect big earthquakes in West of Makran or a low seismicity activity in there but the proposed model definitely shows the Makran subduction layer is locked.

  7. Statistical parameters as a means to a priori assess the accuracy of solar forecasting models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voyant, Cyril; Soubdhan, Ted; Lauret, Philippe; David, Mathieu; Muselli, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose to determinate and to test a set of 20 statistical parameters in order to estimate the short term predictability of the global horizontal irradiation time series and thereby to propose a new prospective tool indicating the expected error regardless the forecasting methods used. The mean absolute log return, which is a tool usually used in econometrics but never in global radiation prediction, proves to be a very good estimator. Some examples of the use of this tool are exposed, showing the interest of this statistical parameter in concrete cases of predictions or optimizations. This study gives a judgment for engineers and researchers on the installation or management of solar plants and could help in minimizing the energy crisis allowing to improve the renewable energy part of the energy mix. - Highlights: • Use of statistical parameter never used for the global radiation forecasting. • A priori index allowing to optimize easily and quickly a clear sky model. • New methodology allowing to quantify the prediction error regardless the predictor used. • The prediction error depends more on the location and the time series type than the machine Learning method used.

  8. Assessment of Coronal Radiographic Parameters of the Spine in the Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mohsen; Maleki, Arash; Mazda, Keyvan

    2016-10-01

    To determine the most important preoperative factors that affect postoperative coronal parameters of scoliotic curves. All Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) patients included in the study were classified according to Lenke and King Classification. The fusion levels were selected according to the rigidity of the existing curves (correction less than 50%), tilt of T1 and shoulders, sagittal angle of the curves and with considering stable and neutral end vertebra. The radiographic coronal parameters: shoulders tilt angle, iliolumbar angle and coronal balance were measured in all patients before, after, and in the last follow-up visit. One hundred twenty patients after mean of 25 months follow-up (18-40 months) were included in the study. Before operation, abnormal coronal balance (more than 2 cm shift) was noticed in 46 patents (38%) and in the last visit, was noted in 22 patients (18%). Multivariate regression analysis revealed a significant predictive value of the preoperative coronal balance on the last visit coronal balance ( P value=0.01). Preoperative coronal balance is very important to make a balanced spine after surgery. Other parameters like Lenke classification or main thoracic overcorrection did not affect postoperative coronal decompensation.

  9. Assessment of quantitative FDG PET data in primary colorectal tumours: which parameters are important with respect to tumour detection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, Ludwig G.; Pan, Leyun; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Klippel, Sven; Schoenleben, Klaus; Haberkorn, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    The impact of quantitative parameters on the differentiation of primary colorectal tumours from normal colon tissue was assessed. Dynamic PET data (DPET) were acquired, and compartment and non-compartment modelling applied. The discriminant power of single parameters and the combination of PET parameters was assessed. All lesions were confirmed by histology. FDG DPET studies were acquired in 22 patients with colorectal tumours prior to surgery. Five of these patients also had liver metastases at the time of the PET study. The SUV 56-60 min p.i. was included in the evaluation. A two-tissue compartment model was applied and the parameters k 1 -k 4 as well as the fractional blood volume (V B ) were obtained. The FDG influx was calculated from the compartment data. Non-compartment modelling was used to calculate the fractal dimension (FD) of the time-activity data. FD, SUV, influx and k 3 were the most important single parameters for lesion differentiation. The highest accuracy was achieved for FD (88.78%). The overall tracer uptake was mainly dependent on k 3 and not on k 1 or V B . The support vector machines (SVM) algorithm was used to predict the classification based on the combination of individual PET parameters. The overall accuracy was 97.3%, with only one false positive case and no false negative results. The analysis of the subgroup of five patients with primary tumours and synchronous metastases revealed no significant differences for the individual PET parameters. However, V B tended to be lower while k 1 and k 2 were higher in patients with synchronous metastases. The SVM classification analysis predicted the presence of metastases based on the PET data of the primary tumour in three of five patients. Quantitative FDG PET studies provide very accurate data for the differentiation of primary colorectal tumours from normal tissue. The use of quantitative data has the advantage that the detection of a colorectal tumour is not primarily dependent on the

  10. Rapid Assessment of Small Changes to Major Gun and Projectile Dynamic Parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erline, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Navy's 5-in 54-cal. (5"/54) gun system Mark (Mk) 45 was subjected to first-order dynamic analysis tools that allowed rapid assessment of ballistic dispersion of a typical naval high explosive projectile...

  11. Pre-analytical Factors Influence Accuracy of Urine Spot Iodine Assessment in Epidemiological Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggui, Radhouene; El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila

    2018-03-26

    Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is commonly used to assess iodine status of subjects in epidemiological surveys. As pre-analytical factors are an important source of measurement error and studies about this phase are scarce, our objective was to assess the influence of urine sampling conditions on UIC, i.e., whether the child ate breakfast or not, urine void rank of the day, and time span between last meal and urine collection. A nationwide, two-stage, stratified, cross-sectional study including 1560 children (6-12 years) was performed in 2012. UIC was determined by the Sandell-Kolthoff method. Pre-analytical factors were assessed from children's mothers by using a questionnaire. Association between iodine status and pre-analytical factors were adjusted for one another and socio-economic characteristics by multivariate linear and multinomial regression models (RPR: relative prevalence ratios). Skipping breakfast prior to morning urine sampling decreased UIC by 40 to 50 μg/L and the proportion of UIC analytical factors is a key step toward improving accuracy and comparability of survey results for assessing iodine status from spot urine samples. These recommendations have to be evaluated by future research.

  12. Speech pathologists' current practice with cognitive-communication assessment during post-traumatic amnesia: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Joanne; Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth; Togher, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    To investigate speech pathologists' current practice with adults who are in post-traumatic amnesia (PTA). Speech pathologists with experience of adults in PTA were invited to take part in an online survey through Australian professional email/internet-based interest groups. Forty-five speech pathologists responded to the online survey. The majority of respondents (78%) reported using informal, observational assessment methods commencing at initial contact with people in PTA or when patients' level of alertness allowed and initiating formal assessment on emergence from PTA. Seven respondents (19%) reported undertaking no assessment during PTA. Clinicians described using a range of techniques to monitor cognitive-communication during PTA, including static, dynamic, functional and impairment-based methods. The study confirmed that speech pathologists have a key role in the multidisciplinary team caring for the person in PTA, especially with family education and facilitating interactions with the rehabilitation team and family. Decision-making around timing and means of assessment of cognitive-communication during PTA appeared primarily reliant on speech pathologists' professional experience and the culture of their workplace. The findings support the need for further research into the nature of cognitive-communication disorder and resolution over this period.

  13. Performance assessment model development and parameter acquisition for analysis of the transport of natural radionuclides in a Mediterranean watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueero, Almudena

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology developed to construct a model for predicting the behaviour of the natural radioisotopes of U, Th and Ra in a Mediterranean watershed. The methodology includes the development of the performance assessment model, obtaining water flow and radiological parameters based on experimental data and analysis of results. The model, which accounts for both water flows and mass balances of the radionuclides in a semi-natural environment, provides assessments of radionuclide behaviour in grassland and agricultural soils, rivers and reservoirs, including the processes of radionuclide migration through land and water and interactions between both. From field and laboratory data, it has been possible to obtain parameters for the driving processes considered in the model, water fluxes, source term definition, soil to plant transfer factors and distribution coefficient values. Ranges of parameter values obtained have shown good agreement with published literature data. This general methodological approach was developed to be extended to other radionuclides for the modelling of a biosphere watershed in the context of performance assessment of a High Level Waste (HLW) repository under Mediterranean climate conditions, as well as for forecasting radionuclide transport under similar Mediterranean conditions that will occur in the future in other areas. The application of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis was intended to identify key uncertainties with the aim of setting priorities for future research. The model results for the activity concentration in the reservoir indicate that for 238 U and 230 Th the most relevant parameter is the initial concentrations of the radionuclides in the reservoir sediments. However, for 226 Ra the most important parameter is the precipitation rate over the whole watershed

  14. [Assessment of a residency training program in endocrinology and nutrition by physicians: results of a survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Fernández, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Alcántara, Carmen; Palomares-Ortega, Rafael; García-Manzanares, Alvaro; Benito-López, Pedro

    2011-12-01

    The current training program for resident physicians in endocrinology and nutrition (EN) organizes their medical learning. Program evaluation by physicians was assessed using a survey. The survey asked about demographic variables, EN training methods, working time and center, and opinion on training program contents. Fifty-one members of Sociedad Castellano-Manchega de Endocrinología, Nutrición y Diabetes, and Sociedad Andaluza de Endocrinología y Nutrición completed the survey. Forty-percent of them disagreed with the compulsory nature of internal medicine, cardiology, nephrology and, especially, neurology rotations (60%); a majority (>50%) were against several recommended rotations included in the program. The fourth year of residence was considered by 37.8% of respondents as the optimum time for outpatient and inpatient control and monitoring without direct supervision. The recommended monthly number of on-call duties was 3.8±1.2. We detected a positive opinion about extension of residence duration to 4.4±0.5 years. Doctoral thesis development during the residence period was not considered convenient by 66.7% of physicians. Finally, 97.8% of resident physicians would recommend residency in EN to other colleagues. Endocrinologists surveyed disagreed with different training program aspects such as the rotation system, skill acquisition timing, and on-call duties. Therefore, an adaptation of the current training program in EN would be required. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclide documentation. Element specific parameter values used in the biospheric models of the safety assessments SR 97 and SAFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Sara; Bergstroem, Ulla

    2002-05-01

    In this report the element and nuclide specific parameter values used in the biospheric models of the safety assessments SR 97 and SAFE are presented. The references used are presented and where necessary the process of estimation of data is described. The parameters treated in this report are distribution coefficients in soil, organic soil and suspended matter in freshwater and brackish water, root uptake factors for pasturage, cereals, root crops and vegetables, bioaccumulation factors for freshwater fish, brackish water fish, freshwater invertebrates and marine water plants, transfer coefficients for transfer to milk and meat, translocation factors and dose coefficients for external exposure, ingestion (age-dependent values) and inhalation (age-dependent values). The radionuclides treated are those which could be of interest in the two safety assessments. Physical data such as half-lives and type of decay are also presented

  16. Nuclide documentation. Element specific parameter values used in the biospheric models of the safety assessments SR 97 and SAFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sara; Bergstroem, Ulla [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    In this report the element and nuclide specific parameter values used in the biospheric models of the safety assessments SR 97 and SAFE are presented. The references used are presented and where necessary the process of estimation of data is described. The parameters treated in this report are distribution coefficients in soil, organic soil and suspended matter in freshwater and brackish water, root uptake factors for pasturage, cereals, root crops and vegetables, bioaccumulation factors for freshwater fish, brackish water fish, freshwater invertebrates and marine water plants, transfer coefficients for transfer to milk and meat, translocation factors and dose coefficients for external exposure, ingestion (age-dependent values) and inhalation (age-dependent values). The radionuclides treated are those which could be of interest in the two safety assessments. Physical data such as half-lives and type of decay are also presented.

  17. ILearning and EHomeStudy: Multimedia Training and Assessments for Field Survey Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Loftis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Survey data collection projects strive to collect high quality data from survey respondents. The quality of the data collected is greatly dependent upon the effectiveness of field interviewers (FIs to conduct inperson screenings and interviews. Training FIs and subsequently assessing their knowledge of project protocol, methods and interviewing techniques is critical to the overall success of any data collection effort. For large surveys, as the number of FIs increase, the cost of inperson training can become prohibitively large. As a cost effective solution to increase the quality of the field data, we developed a suite of web and media based training and assessment tools called iLearning and eHomeStudy for training field staff. Besides saving the project costs associated with inperson training, we are also able to provide refresher trainings throughout the year. This application also enables FIs to view standardized training courses at their convenience and at their own pace. This paper describes the technical details, key features and benefits of this application suite, and also it includes some details on user satisfaction and future directions.

  18. Survey Development to Assess College Students' Perceptions of the Campus Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Morgan F; Colby, Sarah; Greene, Geoffrey W; Pickett, Mackenzie; Franzen-Castle, Lisa; Olfert, Melissa D; Shelnutt, Karla; Brown, Onikia; Horacek, Tanya M; Kidd, Tandalayo; Kattelmann, Kendra K; White, Adrienne A; Zhou, Wenjun; Riggsbee, Kristin; Yan, Wangcheng; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2017-11-01

    We developed and tested a College Environmental Perceptions Survey (CEPS) to assess college students' perceptions of the healthfulness of their campus. CEPS was developed in 3 stages: questionnaire development, validity testing, and reliability testing. Questionnaire development was based on an extensive literature review and input from an expert panel to establish content validity. Face validity was established with the target population using cognitive interviews with 100 college students. Concurrent-criterion validity was established with in-depth interviews (N = 30) of college students compared to surveys completed by the same 30 students. Surveys completed by college students from 8 universities (N = 1147) were used to test internal structure (factor analysis) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha). After development and testing, 15 items remained from the original 48 items. A 5-factor solution emerged: physical activity (4 items, α = .635), water (3 items, α = .773), vending (2 items, α = .680), healthy food (2 items, α = .631), and policy (2 items, α = .573). The mean total score for all universities was 62.71 (±11.16) on a 100-point scale. CEPS appears to be a valid and reliable tool for assessing college students' perceptions of their health-related campus environment.

  19. Australian cardiac rehabilitation exercise parameter characteristics and perceptions of high-intensity interval training: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Amanda L; Hing, Wayne; Climstein, Mike; Coombes, Jeff S; Furness, James; Jayasinghe, Rohan; Byrnes, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    Purpose This study explored current demographics, characteristics, costs, evaluation methods, and outcome measures used in Australian cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs. It also determined the actual usage and perceptions of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Methods A cross-sectional observational web-based survey was distributed to 328 Australian CR programs nationally. Results A total of 261 programs completed the survey (79.6% response rate). Most Australian CR programs were located in a hospital setting (76%), offered exercise sessions once a week (52%) for 6–8 weeks (49%) at moderate intensity (54%) for 46–60 min (62%), and serviced 101–500 clients per annum (38%). HIIT was reported in only 1% of programs, and 27% of respondents believed that it was safe while 42% of respondents were unsure. Lack of staff (25%), monitoring resources (20%), and staff knowledge (18%) were the most commonly reported barriers to the implementation of HIIT. Overall, Australian CR coordinators are unsure of the cost of exercise sessions. Conclusion There is variability in CR delivery across Australia. Only half of programs reassess outcome measures postintervention, and cost of exercise sessions is unknown. Although HIIT is recommended in international CR guidelines, it is essentially not being used in Australia and clinicians are unsure as to the safety of HIIT. Lack of resources and staff knowledge were perceived as the biggest barriers to HIIT implementation, and there are inconsistent perceptions of prescreening and monitoring requirements. This study highlights the need to educate health professionals about the benefits and safety of HIIT to improve its usage and patient outcomes. PMID:29750058

  20. Assessment of cerebrospinal fluid system dynamics : novel infusion protocol, mathematical modelling and parameter estimation for hydrocephalus investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Kennet

    2011-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) have a disturbance in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) system. The treatment is neurosurgical – a shunt is placed in the CSF system. The infusion test is used to assess CSF system dynamics and to aid in the selection of patients that will benefit from shunt surgery. The infusion test can be divided into three parts: a mathematical model, an infusion protocol and a parameter estimation method. A non-linear differential equation is used...

  1. Quality Assessment Survey at the School of Civil Engineering at Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    the study board of civil engineering. The questionnaire was jointly developed for all study boards at Aalborg University. The questionnaire forms an investigation of students' satisfaction and evaluation of the overall structure of the education including self-reported performance assessment. The paper......As part of an improved quality assessment procedure at the School of Civil Engineering at Aalborg University, an online survey has been undertaken among all students. Due to external requirements and a wish for more structured feedback, an online questionnaire was presented to all students under...... discusses the structure of the questionnaire and presents the results. Finally, suggestions for improvements regarding the questionnaire and further quality assessment are included. The response rate was 40%. Overall, the results showed a general satisfaction with the studies although substantial variance...

  2. Evaluation of Effecting Parameters on Optimum Arrangement of Urban Land Uses and Assessment of Their Compatibility Using Adjacency Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezi, S.; Mesgari, M. S.; Kaviary, F.

    2015-12-01

    Todays, stability of human life is threatened by a set of parameters. So sustainable urban development theory is introduced after the stability theory to protect the urban environment. In recent years, sustainable urban development gains a lot of attraction by different sciences and totally becomes a final target for urban development planners and managers to use resources properly and to establish a balanced relationship among human, community, and nature. Proper distribution of services for decreasing spatial inequalities, promoting the quality of living environment, and approaching an urban stability requires an analytical understanding of the present situation. Understanding the present situation is the first step for making a decision and planning effectively. This paper evaluates effective parameters affecting proper arrangement of land-uses using a descriptive-analytical method, to develop a conceptual framework for understanding of the present situation of urban land-uses, based on the assessment of their compatibility. This study considers not only the local parameters, but also spatial parameters are included in this study. The results indicate that land-uses in the zone considered here are not distributed properly. Considering mentioned parameters and distributing service land-uses effectively cause the better use of these land-uses.

  3. Assessment of Radioactivity Inventory - a key parameter in the clearance for recycling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Arne; Lundgren, Klas

    2014-01-01

    Decommissioning studies for nuclear power reactors are to be performed in order to assess the decommissioning costs and the waste volumes, as well as to provide data for the licensing and construction of the LILW repositories. An important part of this work is to estimate the amount of radioactivity in the different types of decommissioning waste. Studsvik has performed these assessments for all Swedish NPPs as well as other nuclear facilities in Sweden using thorough on-site sampling and robust calculations developed by Studsvik's team of senior experts. Precision has been found to be relatively high close to the reactor cores, but then declines as distance from the core increases. The decommissioning waste from a LWR can be separated into different categories such as: - Material affected by the neutron flux from the reactor core, - Process systems, - Waste handling systems, - Contaminated structures. The determined specific activities for different systems (or part of systems) are combined with data on weights and contaminated surface areas in order to assess the total activity. A key issue in the assessments has been efforts to reduce the uncertainties. Combining the unique knowledge in assessment of radioactivity inventories, the large data bank the waste processing represents and the knowledge and records from the laboratories, the activity determination codes can be validated and the waste processing analysis supported with additional data. (authors)

  4. Methodology for assessing the lighting of pedestrian crossings based on light intensity parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczuk Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible preventive measures that could improve safety at crossings is to assess the state of illumination of the lighting installation located in the transition area for pedestrians. The City of Warsaw has undertaken to comprehensively assess the pedestrian crossings to determine the level of road safety and the condition of lighting. The lighting conditions related to pedestrian crossings without traffic lights in three central districts of the city were investigated. The conducted field research and the work of the team of experts lead to the development of tools to assess the level of risk due to the lighting conditions measured at night. The newly developed and used method of assessment and the experience gained should provide a valuable contribution to the development of uniform risk assessment rules for pedestrian crossings in Poland. The authors of this paper have attempted to systematize the description of the method of evaluation of the lighting installed in the area of pedestrian crossings.

  5. Assessing local structure motifs using order parameters for motif recognition, interstitial identification, and diffusion path characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Nils E. R.; Horton, Matthew K.; Jain, Anubhav; Haranczyk, Maciej

    2017-11-01

    Structure-property relationships form the basis of many design rules in materials science, including synthesizability and long-term stability of catalysts, control of electrical and optoelectronic behavior in semiconductors as well as the capacity of and transport properties in cathode materials for rechargeable batteries. The immediate atomic environments (i.e., the first coordination shells) of a few atomic sites are often a key factor in achieving a desired property. Some of the most frequently encountered coordination patterns are tetrahedra, octahedra, body and face-centered cubic as well as hexagonal closed packed-like environments. Here, we showcase the usefulness of local order parameters to identify these basic structural motifs in inorganic solid materials by developing classification criteria. We introduce a systematic testing framework, the Einstein crystal test rig, that probes the response of order parameters to distortions in perfect motifs to validate our approach. Subsequently, we highlight three important application cases. First, we map basic crystal structure information of a large materials database in an intuitive manner by screening the Materials Project (MP) database (61,422 compounds) for element-specific motif distributions. Second, we use the structure-motif recognition capabilities to automatically find interstitials in metals, semiconductor, and insulator materials. Our Interstitialcy Finding Tool (InFiT) facilitates high-throughput screenings of defect properties. Third, the order parameters are reliable and compact quantitative structure descriptors for characterizing diffusion hops of intercalants as our example of magnesium in MnO2-spinel indicates. Finally, the tools developed in our work are readily and freely available as software implementations in the pymatgen library, and we expect them to be further applied to machine-learning approaches for emerging applications in materials science.

  6. Assessing Local Structure Motifs Using Order Parameters for Motif Recognition, Interstitial Identification, and Diffusion Path Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils E. R. Zimmermann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Structure–property relationships form the basis of many design rules in materials science, including synthesizability and long-term stability of catalysts, control of electrical and optoelectronic behavior in semiconductors, as well as the capacity of and transport properties in cathode materials for rechargeable batteries. The immediate atomic environments (i.e., the first coordination shells of a few atomic sites are often a key factor in achieving a desired property. Some of the most frequently encountered coordination patterns are tetrahedra, octahedra, body and face-centered cubic as well as hexagonal close packed-like environments. Here, we showcase the usefulness of local order parameters to identify these basic structural motifs in inorganic solid materials by developing classification criteria. We introduce a systematic testing framework, the Einstein crystal test rig, that probes the response of order parameters to distortions in perfect motifs to validate our approach. Subsequently, we highlight three important application cases. First, we map basic crystal structure information of a large materials database in an intuitive manner by screening the Materials Project (MP database (61,422 compounds for element-specific motif distributions. Second, we use the structure-motif recognition capabilities to automatically find interstitials in metals, semiconductor, and insulator materials. Our Interstitialcy Finding Tool (InFiT facilitates high-throughput screenings of defect properties. Third, the order parameters are reliable and compact quantitative structure descriptors for characterizing diffusion hops of intercalants as our example of magnesium in MnO2-spinel indicates. Finally, the tools developed in our work are readily and freely available as software implementations in the pymatgen library, and we expect them to be further applied to machine-learning approaches for emerging applications in materials science.

  7. Assessment of hemato-biochemical parameters on exposure to low level of deltamethrin in mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Tewari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, sub-acute toxicity of deltamethrin on hematological and biochemical blood parameters of male albino Swiss mice was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Generally, the maximum permissible residue level (MRL of deltamethrin for food products lies between 0.01 to 0.5 mg/kg body weight. So the mice were exposed orally with two doses of pesticide i.e. 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg body weight. The doses were given on a daily basis for a period of 15 days and 30 days respectively. Ground nut oil was used as control treatment. Samples of blood were collected at the end of the treatment. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated by quantitative analysis of the serum enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALKP, total bilirubin (TBIL and serum urea. Alterations of hematological parameters were analysed by total leukocyte, differential leukocyte count and hemoglobin levels. Results: Significant increase in the levels of hepatic enzymes (ALT, AST, ALKP were observed for both doses, but no considerable differences were found by histological analysis. The hematological parameters showed significant alterations for 0.5 mg/kg body weight dose which is indicated by leukocytosis, lymphocytosis and neutropenia in long duration study. Conclusions: The results indicated that even very low dose of deltamethrin can promote hematological and hepatic alterations. Thus it is imperative to do further studies on the detrimental effect of the low levels of pyrethroid commonly present in our food, which further necessitate the reduction of maximum permissible levels of residual synthetic pyrethroid levels in foods and feed.

  8. A comparison of region-based and pixel-based CEUS kinetics parameters in the assessment of arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisan, E.; Raffeiner, B.; Coran, A.; Rizzo, G.; Ciprian, L.; Stramare, R.

    2014-03-01

    Inflammatory rheumatic diseases are leading causes of disability and constitute a frequent medical disorder, leading to inability to work, high comorbidity and increased mortality. The gold-standard for diagnosing and differentiating arthritis is based on patient conditions and radiographic findings, as joint erosions or decalcification. However, early signs of arthritis are joint effusion, hypervascularization and synovial hypertrophy. In particular, vascularization has been shown to correlate with arthritis' destructive behavior, more than clinical assessment. Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) examination of the small joints is emerging as a sensitive tool for assessing vascularization and disease activity. The evaluation of perfusion pattern rely on subjective semi-quantitative scales, that are able to capture the macroscopic degree of vascularization, but are unable to detect the subtler differences in kinetics perfusion parameters that might lead to a deeper understanding of disease progression and a better management of patients. Quantitative assessment is mostly performed by means of the Qontrast software package, that requires the user to define a region of interest, whose mean intensity curve is fitted with an exponential function. We show that using a more physiologically motivated perfusion curve, and by estimating the kinetics parameters separately pixel per pixel, the quantitative information gathered is able to differentiate more effectively different perfusion patterns. In particular, we will show that a pixel-based analysis is able to provide significant markers differentiating rheumatoid arthritis from simil-rheumatoid psoriatic arthritis, that have non-significant differences in clinical evaluation (DAS28), serological markers, or region-based parameters.

  9. The effect of wind and eruption source parameter variations on tephra fallout hazard assessment: an example from Vesuvio (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonio, Giovanni; Costa, Antonio; Scollo, Simona; Neri, Augusto

    2015-04-01

    Uncertainty in the tephra fallout hazard assessment may depend on different meteorological datasets and eruptive source parameters used in the modelling. We present a statistical study to analyze this uncertainty in the case of a sub-Plinian eruption of Vesuvius of VEI = 4, column height of 18 km and total erupted mass of 5 × 1011 kg. The hazard assessment for tephra fallout is performed using the advection-diffusion model Hazmap. Firstly, we analyze statistically different meteorological datasets: i) from the daily atmospheric soundings of the stations located in Brindisi (Italy) between 1962 and 1976 and between 1996 and 2012, and in Pratica di Mare (Rome, Italy) between 1996 and 2012; ii) from numerical weather prediction models of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Furthermore, we modify the total mass, the total grain-size distribution, the eruption column height, and the diffusion coefficient. Then, we quantify the impact that different datasets and model input parameters have on the probability maps. Results shows that the parameter that mostly affects the tephra fallout probability maps, keeping constant the total mass, is the particle terminal settling velocity, which is a function of the total grain-size distribution, particle density and shape. Differently, the evaluation of the hazard assessment weakly depends on the use of different meteorological datasets, column height and diffusion coefficient.

  10. Preliminary parameter assessments of a spiral FFAG accelerator for proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.L.; Azaryan, N.S.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerator was invented in the 1950-60s but never progressed beyond the model stage. Starting from 2000, new interest in this type of accelerator arose. Given advantages of the FFAG over the synchrotron, cyclotron and linac, there are many possible applications of the accelerator. Among them, we are mostly interested in acceleration of protons and light ions for hadron therapy. In this connection a preliminary set of parameters of the facility was estimated and, in particular, the magnetic sector shape and corresponding dynamical properties of the magnetic field of the accelerator were calculated. In addition, preliminary considerations about the RF system design are given.

  11. Non-destructive Assessment of Relief Marking Parameters of Heat Shrinkable Installation Parts for Aviation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratov Aleksandr P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explains a new method of relief marking of heat-shrinkable tubing and sleeves made of polymer materials with “shape memory effect.” Method of instrument evaluation of relief marking stereometry of installation parts for aviation equipment, made of polyvinyl chloride, polyethyleneterephthalate and polystyrene was developed and the results were explained. Parameters of pin-point relief marking and compliance of point forms to the Braille font standard were determined with the use of the non-destructive method based on the color of interference pattern with precision of 0.02 mm.

  12. Assessing market uncertainty by means of a time-varying intermittency parameter for asset price fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rypdal, Martin; Sirnes, Espen; Løvsletten, Ola; Rypdal, Kristoffer

    2013-08-01

    Maximum likelihood estimation techniques for multifractal processes are applied to high-frequency data in order to quantify intermittency in the fluctuations of asset prices. From time records as short as one month these methods permit extraction of a meaningful intermittency parameter λ characterising the degree of volatility clustering. We can therefore study the time evolution of volatility clustering and test the statistical significance of this variability. By analysing data from the Oslo Stock Exchange, and comparing the results with the investment grade spread, we find that the estimates of λ are lower at times of high market uncertainty.

  13. Maternal healthcare needs assessment survey at Rabia Balkhi Hospital in Kabul, Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Homa; Karzai, Fatima; Macri, Charles J; Amir, Azizullah; Laube, Douglas

    2008-06-01

    Since the Department of Health and Human Services chose Rabia Balkhi Hospital (RBH) in Kabul, Afghanistan, as a site for intervention in 2002, the status of women's health there has been of interest. This study created a tool to assess accessibility and quality of care of women admitted from May to July, 2005. A 39-item questionnaire was created in English and translated into Dari. Hospital staff administered the survey to 292 women admitted to RBH for obstetric and gynecological complaints. Approximately 40% of the women traveled between 1 and 5 hours to reach RBH. Only 54% (158/292) of women reported having their blood pressure monitored during their pregnancy. About one-third of women reported that they had never received an immunization. This survey tool ascertained that women who received care at RBH traveled great lengths to reach the facility. Preventative measures such as blood pressure checks and immunizations are areas that need improvement.

  14. Assessing Measurement Error in Medicare Coverage From the National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindi, Renee; Cohen, Robin A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Using linked administrative data, to validate Medicare coverage estimates among adults aged 65 or older from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and to assess the impact of a recently added Medicare probe question on the validity of these estimates. Data sources Linked 2005 NHIS and Master Beneficiary Record and Payment History Update System files from the Social Security Administration (SSA). Study design We compared Medicare coverage reported on NHIS with “benchmark” benefit records from SSA. Principal findings With the addition of the probe question, more reports of coverage were captured, and the agreement between the NHIS-reported coverage and SSA records increased from 88% to 95%. Few additional overreports were observed. Conclusions Increased accuracy of the Medicare coverage status of NHIS participants was achieved with the Medicare probe question. Though some misclassification remains, data users interested in Medicare coverage as an outcome or correlate can use this survey measure with confidence. PMID:24800138

  15. Assessment of parameters of gas centrifuge and separation cascade basing on integral characteristics of separation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisevich, Valentin, E-mail: VDBorisevich@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe Shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Borshchevskiy, Michael, E-mail: Michael_mephi@mail.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe Shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Andronov, Igor, E-mail: andronov@imp.kiae.ru [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Senchenkov, Sergey, E-mail: senchenkov@imp.kiae.ru [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We developed the calculation method to assess a feed flow rate into a gas centrifuge. • It is based on the knowledge of the integral characteristics of a separation plant. • Our method is verified by comparison with the results of the independent one. • The method also allows to specify other features of the separation cascade work. - Abstract: A calculation technique to assess a feed flow rate into a single GC, a total number of centrifuges in a separation cascade and to determine its likely configurations basing on the known integral characteristics of a centrifugal plant is developed. Evaluation of characteristics of the industrial gas centrifuge TC-12 and separation cascades of the NEF plant performed by two independent calculation techniques demonstrates their satisfactory agreement. This methodology would help to some extent the nuclear inspectors in evaluating and assessing the capability of an enrichment facility, and discovering any use for undeclared purposes.

  16. Assessment of Different Metal Screw Joint Parameters by Using Multiple Criteria Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Čereška

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares screw joints made of different materials, including screws of different diameters. For that purpose, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 mm diameter steel screws and various parts made of aluminum (Al, steel (Stl, bronze (Brz, cast iron (CI, copper (Cu and brass (Br are considered. Multiple criteria decision making (MCDM methods such as evaluation based on distance from average solution (EDAS, simple additive weighting (SAW, technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS and complex proportional assessment (COPRAS are utilized to assess reliability of screw joints also considering cost issues. The entropy, criterion impact loss (CILOS and integrated determination of objective criteria weights (IDOCRIW methods are utilized to assess weights of decision criteria and find the best design alternative. Numerical results confirm the validity of the proposed approach.

  17. Customer satisfaction survey to improve the European cystic fibrosis external quality assessment scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwouts, Sarah; Dequeker, Elisabeth

    2011-08-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis European Network, coordinated from within the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, is the provider of the European cystic fibrosis external quality assessment (EQA) scheme. The network aimed to seek feedback from laboratories that participated in the cystic fibrosis scheme in order to improve services offered. In this study we analysed responses to an on-line customer satisfaction survey conducted between September and November 2009. The survey was sent to 213 laboratories that participated in the cystic fibrosis EQA scheme of 2008; 69 laboratories (32%) responded. Scores for importance and satisfaction were obtained from a five-point Likert scale for 24 attributes. A score of one corresponded to very dissatisfied/very unimportant and five corresponded to very satisfied/very important. Means were calculated and placed in a two-dimensional grid (importance-satisfaction analysis). Means were subtracted from each other to obtain gap values (gap-analysis). No attribute had a mean score below 3.63. The overall mean of satisfaction was 4.35. Opportunities for improvement enclosed clarity, usefulness and completeness of the general report and individual comments, and user-friendliness of the electronic datasheet. This type of customer satisfaction survey was a valuable instrument to identify opportunities to improve the cystic fibrosis EQA scheme. It should be conducted on a regular basis to reveal new opportunities in the future and to assess effectiveness of actions taken. Moreover, it could be a model for other EQA providers seeking feedback from participants. Overall, the customer satisfaction survey provided a powerful quality of care improvement tool.

  18. Assessment of the Body Composition and Parameters of the Cardiovascular Risk in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate cardiovascular risk parameters, body mass index (BMI centiles for sex and age, and body fat percentage using the electric bioimpedance method in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. 30 children with JIA participated in the study. A control group included 20 children. Patients were well matched for the age and sex. The body mass and body fat percentage were determined using the segmental body composition analyser; the BMI centiles were determined. All patients had the following parameters determined: lipid profile, hsCRP, homocysteine, and IL-6. The intima media thickness (IMT was measured. Patients with JIA had significantly lower body weight, BMI, and the BMI centile compared to the control group. The IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with JIA compared to the control group. There were no differences between two groups with regard to the lipid profile, % content of the fat tissue, homocysteine levels, hsCRP, and IMT. Further studies are necessary to search for reasons for lower BMI and BMI centile in children with JIA and to attempt to answer the question of whether lower BMI increases the cardiovascular risk in these patients, similarly as in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.

  19. Biochemical adaptations in middle-distance runners: an assessment of blood and anthropometric parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Di Majo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the mechanism underlying the physiological adaptation of purely aerobic workout, we investigated the effect of 2 months of training on nine males (17-22 year-old middle distance running agonistic athletes. Blood sample was collected in the morning to analyze: hematological parameters, lipid profile, liver function enzymes [glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT] and skeletal and myocardial markers of muscle damage [creatin kinase (CK and creatin kinase MB (CK-MB]. Endurance training, as it implies high oxygen consumption, should increase reactive oxygen species, but it has been shown that exercise leads to increased activation of antioxidant defenses. In fact, serum levels of γ-GT enzyme and total CK were not increased. On the other hand, a statistical significant reduction of CKMB has been observed. There were not variations in hematological parameters. As far as the anthropometric value is concerned, after two months of training there was a change in weight (P<0.0001. Finally, any oxidative and biological stress was highlighted in the middle distance runners but, since this is a preliminary study, it would be of interest to replicate the study on a larger sample.

  20. Assessment and modeling of the groundwater hydrogeochemical quality parameters via geostatistical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Shawgar; Madani, Hassan; Katibeh, Homayoon; Fatehi Marj, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    Geostatistical methods are one of the advanced techniques used for interpolation of groundwater quality data. The results obtained from geostatistics will be useful for decision makers to adopt suitable remedial measures to protect the quality of groundwater sources. Data used in this study were collected from 78 wells in Varamin plain aquifer located in southeast of Tehran, Iran, in 2013. Ordinary kriging method was used in this study to evaluate groundwater quality parameters. According to what has been mentioned in this paper, seven main quality parameters (i.e. total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium (Na+), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl-) and sulfate (SO4 2-)), have been analyzed and interpreted by statistical and geostatistical methods. After data normalization by Nscore method in WinGslib software, variography as a geostatistical tool to define spatial regression was compiled and experimental variograms were plotted by GS+ software. Then, the best theoretical model was fitted to each variogram based on the minimum RSS. Cross validation method was used to determine the accuracy of the estimated data. Eventually, estimation maps of groundwater quality were prepared in WinGslib software and estimation variance map and estimation error map were presented to evaluate the quality of estimation in each estimated point. Results showed that kriging method is more accurate than the traditional interpolation methods.

  1. Quantitatively Plotting the Human Face for Multivariate Data Visualisation Illustrated by Health Assessments Using Laboratory Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe a new data visualisation system by plotting the human face to observe the comprehensive effects of multivariate data. Methods. The Graphics Device Interface (GDI+ in the Visual Studio.NET development platform was used to write a program that enables facial image parameters to be recorded, such as cropping and rotation, and can generate a new facial image according to Z values from sets of normal data (Z>3 was still counted as 3. The measured clinical laboratory parameters related to health status were obtained from senile people, glaucoma patients, and fatty liver patients to illustrate the facial data visualisation system. Results. When the eyes, nose, and mouth were rotated around their own axes at the same angle, the deformation effects were similar. The deformation effects for any abnormality of the eyes, nose, or mouth should be slightly higher than those for simultaneous abnormalities. The facial changes in the populations with different health statuses were significant compared with a control population. Conclusions. The comprehensive effects of multivariate may not equal the sum of each variable. The 3Z facial data visualisation system can effectively distinguish people with poor health status from healthy people.

  2. Assessment of beating parameters in human induced pluripotent stem cells enables quantitative in vitro screening for cardiotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirenko, Oksana, E-mail: oksana.sirenko@moldev.com [Molecular Devices LLC, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Cromwell, Evan F., E-mail: evan.cromwell@moldev.com [Molecular Devices LLC, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Crittenden, Carole [Molecular Devices LLC, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Wignall, Jessica A. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Wright, Fred A. [Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes show promise for screening during early drug development. Here, we tested a hypothesis that in vitro assessment of multiple cardiomyocyte physiological parameters enables predictive and mechanistically-interpretable evaluation of cardiotoxicity in a high-throughput format. Human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes were exposed for 30 min or 24 h to 131 drugs, positive (107) and negative (24) for in vivo cardiotoxicity, in up to 6 concentrations (3 nM to 30 uM) in 384-well plates. Fast kinetic imaging was used to monitor changes in cardiomyocyte function using intracellular Ca{sup 2+} flux readouts synchronous with beating, and cell viability. A number of physiological parameters of cardiomyocyte beating, such as beat rate, peak shape (amplitude, width, raise, decay, etc.) and regularity were collected using automated data analysis. Concentration–response profiles were evaluated using logistic modeling to derive a benchmark concentration (BMC) point-of-departure value, based on one standard deviation departure from the estimated baseline in vehicle (0.3% dimethyl sulfoxide)-treated cells. BMC values were used for cardiotoxicity classification and ranking of compounds. Beat rate and several peak shape parameters were found to be good predictors, while cell viability had poor classification accuracy. In addition, we applied the Toxicological Prioritization Index (ToxPi) approach to integrate and display data across many collected parameters, to derive “cardiosafety” ranking of tested compounds. Multi-parameter screening of beating profiles allows for cardiotoxicity risk assessment and identification of specific patterns defining mechanism-specific effects. These data and analysis methods may be used widely for compound screening and early safety evaluation in drug development. - Highlights: • Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are promising in vitro models. • We tested if evaluation

  3. Assessment of beating parameters in human induced pluripotent stem cells enables quantitative in vitro screening for cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirenko, Oksana; Cromwell, Evan F.; Crittenden, Carole; Wignall, Jessica A.; Wright, Fred A.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes show promise for screening during early drug development. Here, we tested a hypothesis that in vitro assessment of multiple cardiomyocyte physiological parameters enables predictive and mechanistically-interpretable evaluation of cardiotoxicity in a high-throughput format. Human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes were exposed for 30 min or 24 h to 131 drugs, positive (107) and negative (24) for in vivo cardiotoxicity, in up to 6 concentrations (3 nM to 30 uM) in 384-well plates. Fast kinetic imaging was used to monitor changes in cardiomyocyte function using intracellular Ca 2+ flux readouts synchronous with beating, and cell viability. A number of physiological parameters of cardiomyocyte beating, such as beat rate, peak shape (amplitude, width, raise, decay, etc.) and regularity were collected using automated data analysis. Concentration–response profiles were evaluated using logistic modeling to derive a benchmark concentration (BMC) point-of-departure value, based on one standard deviation departure from the estimated baseline in vehicle (0.3% dimethyl sulfoxide)-treated cells. BMC values were used for cardiotoxicity classification and ranking of compounds. Beat rate and several peak shape parameters were found to be good predictors, while cell viability had poor classification accuracy. In addition, we applied the Toxicological Prioritization Index (ToxPi) approach to integrate and display data across many collected parameters, to derive “cardiosafety” ranking of tested compounds. Multi-parameter screening of beating profiles allows for cardiotoxicity risk assessment and identification of specific patterns defining mechanism-specific effects. These data and analysis methods may be used widely for compound screening and early safety evaluation in drug development. - Highlights: • Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are promising in vitro models. • We tested if evaluation of

  4. Assessing the impact of caring for a child with Dravet syndrome: Results of a caregiver survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jonathan D; Whittington, Melanie D; Kim, Chong H; VanderVeen, Gina R; Knupp, Kelly G; Gammaitoni, Arnold

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe and quantify the impact of caring for a child with Dravet syndrome (DS) on caregivers. We surveyed DS caregivers at a single institution with a large population of patient with DS. Survey domains included time spent/difficulty performing caregiving tasks (Oberst Caregiving Burden Scale, OCBS); caregiver health-related quality of life (EuroQoL 5D-5L, EQ-5D); and work/activity impairment (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire, WPAI). Modified National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) questions were included to assess logistical challenges associated with coordinating medical care. Thirty-four primary caregivers responded, and 30/34 respondents completed the survey. From OCBS, providing transportation, personal care, and additional household tasks required the greatest caregiver time commitment; arranging for child care, communication, and managing behavioral problems presented the greatest difficulty. EuroQoL 5D-5L domains with the greatest impact on caregivers (0=none, 5=unable/extreme) were anxiety/depression (70% of respondents≥slight problems, 34%≥moderate) and discomfort/pain (57% of respondents≥slight problems, 23%≥moderate). The mean EQ-5D general health visual analogue scale (VAS) score (0=death; 100=perfect health) was 67 (range, 11-94). Respondents who scored caregiver health. On the WPAI, 26% of caregivers missed >1day of work in the previous week, with 43% reporting substantial impact (≥6, scale=1-10) on work productivity; 65% reported switching jobs, quitting jobs, or losing a job due to caregiving responsibilities. National Health Interview Survey responses indicated logistical burdens beyond the home; 50% of caregivers made ≥10 outpatient visits in the past year with their child with DS. Caring for patients with DS exerts physical, emotional, and time burdens on caregivers. Supportive services for DS families are identified to highlight an unmet need for DS treatments. Copyright

  5. Clinimetric properties of a novel feedback device for assessing gait parameters in stroke survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, M.; van Alphen, B.; van de Port, I.G.; van Dieen, J.H.; Michael, K.; Outermans, J.C.; Wittink, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Community-dwelling stroke survivors tend to become less physically active over time. There is no 'gold standard' to measure walking activity in this population. Assessment of walking activity generally involves subjective or observer-rated instruments. Objective measuring with an

  6. Individualized Sampling Parameters for Behavioral Observations: Enhancing the Predictive Validity of Competing Stimulus Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Toole, Lisa M.; Gutshall, Katharine A.; Bowman, Lynn G.

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have used pretreatment analyses, termed competing stimulus assessments, to identify items that most effectively displace the aberrant behavior of individuals with developmental disabilities. In most studies, there appeared to have been no systematic basis for selecting the sampling period (ranging from 30 s to 10 min) in which items…

  7. Assessing organisational culture for quality and safety improvement: a national survey of tools and tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, R; Konteh, F H; Davies, H T O

    2009-04-01

    There is growing international interest in managing organisational culture as a lever for healthcare improvement. This has prompted a practical need to understand what instruments and tools exist for assessing cultures in healthcare contexts. The present study was undertaken to determine the culture assessment tools being used in the English NHS and assess their fitness for purpose. Postal questionnaire survey of clinical governance leads in 275 English NHS organisations, with a response rate of 77%. A third of the organisations were currently using a culture assessment instrument to support their clinical governance activity. Although we found a high degree of satisfaction with existing instruments, in terms of ease of use and relevance, there is an immediate practical need to develop new and better bespoke culture assessment tools to bridge the gap between the cultural domains covered by extant instruments and the broader range of concerns of clinical governance managers. There is growing interest in understanding and shaping local cultures in healthcare, which is not yet matched by widespread use of available instruments. Even though extant tools cover many of the most important cultural attributes identified by clinical governance managers, the over-riding focus of tools in use is on safety rather than a holistic assessment of the dimensions of healthcare quality and performance.

  8. Comparison of nutritional status assessment parameters in predicting length of hospital stay in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, J; Alves, P; Amaral, T F

    2014-06-01

    Undernutrition has been associated with an increased length of hospital stay which may reflect the patient prognosis. The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the association between nutritional status and handgrip strength at hospital admission with time to discharge in cancer patients. An observational prospective study was conducted in an oncology center. Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 and handgrip strength were conducted in a probabilistic sample of 130 cancer patients. The association between baseline nutritional status, handgrip strength and time to discharge was evaluated using survival analysis with discharge alive as the outcome. Nutritional risk ranged from 42.3 to 53.1% depending on the tool used. According to Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment severe undernutrition was present in 22.3% of the sample. The association between baseline data and time to discharge was stronger in patients with low handgrip strength (adjusted hazard ratio, low handgrip strength: 0.33; 95% confidence interval: 0.19-0.55), compared to undernourished patients evaluated by the other tools; Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment: (adjusted hazard ratio, severe undernutrition: 0.45; 95% confidence interval: 0.27-0.75) and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002: (adjusted hazard ratio, with nutritional risk: 0.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.37-0.80). An approximate 3-fold decrease in probability of discharge alive was observed in patients with low handgrip strength. Decreasing handgrip strength tertiles allowed to discriminate between patients who will have longer hospital stay, as well as undernutrition and nutritional risk assessed by Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Using generalizability analysis to estimate parameters for anatomy assessments: A multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Jessica N; Seifert, Mark F; Brooks, William S; Fraser-Cotlin, Laura; Thorp, Laura E; Williams, James M; Wilson, Adam B

    2017-03-01

    With integrated curricula and multidisciplinary assessments becoming more prevalent in medical education, there is a continued need for educational research to explore the advantages, consequences, and challenges of integration practices. This retrospective analysis investigated the number of items needed to reliably assess anatomical knowledge in the context of gross anatomy and histology. A generalizability analysis was conducted on gross anatomy and histology written and practical examination items that were administered in a discipline-based format at Indiana University School of Medicine and in an integrated fashion at the University of Alabama School of Medicine and Rush University Medical College. Examination items were analyzed using a partially nested design s×(i:o) in which items were nested within occasions (i:o) and crossed with students (s). A reliability standard of 0.80 was used to determine the minimum number of items needed across examinations (occasions) to make reliable and informed decisions about students' competence in anatomical knowledge. Decision study plots are presented to demonstrate how the number of items per examination influences the reliability of each administered assessment. Using the example of a curriculum that assesses gross anatomy knowledge over five summative written and practical examinations, the results of the decision study estimated that 30 and 25 items would be needed on each written and practical examination to reach a reliability of 0.80, respectively. This study is particularly relevant to educators who may question whether the amount of anatomy content assessed in multidisciplinary evaluations is sufficient for making judgments about the anatomical aptitude of students. Anat Sci Educ 10: 109-119. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Left atrial strain: a new parameter for assessment of left ventricular filling pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Matteo; Mandoli, Giulia Elena; Loiacono, Ferdinando; Dini, Frank Lloyd; Henein, Michael; Mondillo, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain accurate diagnosis, treatment and prognostication in many cardiac conditions, there is a need for assessment of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. While systole depends on ejection function of LV, diastole and its disturbances influence filling function and pressures. The commonest condition that represents the latter is heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in which LV ejection is maintained, but diastole is disturbed and hence filling pressures are raised. Significant diastolic dysfunction results in raised LV end-diastolic pressure, mean left atrial (LA) pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, all referred to as LV filling pressures. Left and right heart catheterization has traditionally been used as the gold standard investigation for assessing these pressures. More recently, Doppler echocardiography has taken over such application because of its noninvasive nature and for being patient friendly. A number of indices are used to achieve accurate assessment of filling pressures including: LV pulsed-wave filling velocities (E/A ratio, E wave deceleration time), pulmonary venous flow (S wave and D wave), tissue Doppler imaging (E' wave and E/E' ratio) and LA volume index. LA longitudinal strain derived from speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is also sensitive in estimating intracavitary pressures. It is angle-independent, thus overcomes Doppler limitations and provides highly reproducible measures of LA deformation. This review examines the application of various Doppler echocardiographic techniques in assessing LV filling pressures, in particular the emerging role of STE in assessing LA pressures in various conditions, e.g., HF, arterial hypertension and atrial fibrillation.

  11. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Survey Tool Assessing Inpatient Consult Service Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavsky, Eli M; Chang, Yuchiao

    2017-12-01

    Subspecialty consultation in inpatient medicine is increasing, and enhancing performance of consultation services may have a broad-reaching impact. Multisource feedback is an important tool in assessing competence and improving performance. A mechanism for primary team resident feedback on performance of consult services has not been described. We developed and evaluated an instrument designed to assess internal medicine (IM) subspecialty inpatient consult service performance. We hypothesized that the instrument would be feasible to administer and provide important information to fellowship directors. The instrument was administered in 2015 and 2016 at a single academic center. All IM residents were invited to evaluate 10 IM subspecialty consult services on 4 items and an overall satisfaction rating. The instrument allowed for free-text feedback to fellows. Program directors completed another survey assessing the impact of the consult service evaluation. A total of 113 residents responded (47 in 2015 and 66 in 2016, for a combined response rate of 35%). Each of the 4 items measured (communication, professionalism, teaching, and pushback) correlated significantly with the overall satisfaction rating in univariate and multivariate analyses. There were no differences in ratings across postgraduate year or year of administration. There was considerable variation in ratings among the services evaluated. The 7 program directors who provided feedback found the survey useful and made programmatic changes following evaluation implementation. A primary team resident evaluation of inpatient medicine subspecialty consult services is feasible, provides valuable information, and is associated with changes in consult service structure and curricula.

  12. Assessment of surgical competence in North American graduate periodontics programs: a survey of current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiabi, Edmond; Taylor, K Lynn

    2010-08-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to document the methods utilized by North American graduate periodontics programs in assessing their residents' surgical skills. A survey of clinical skills assessment was mailed to directors of all fifty-eight graduate periodontics programs in Canada and the United States. Thirty-four programs (59 percent) responded. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. The results demonstrate that the most common practice for providing feedback and documenting residents' surgical skills in the programs surveyed was daily one-on-one verbal feedback given by an instructor. The next two most commonly reported methods were a standard checklist developed at program level and a combination of a checklist and verbal comments. The majority of the programs reported that the instructors met collectively once per term to evaluate the residents' progress. The results suggest that graduate periodontics programs provide their residents frequent opportunities for daily practice with verbal feedback from instructors. However, assessment strategies identified in other health professions as beneficial in fostering the integration of clinical skills practices are not employed.

  13. The Accuracy Assessment of Determining the Axis of Railway Track Basing on the Satellite Surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Władysław; Specht, Cezary; Chrostowski, Piotr; Palikowska, Katarzyna

    2012-09-01

    In 2009, at the Gdansk University of Technology there have been carried out, for the first time, continuous satellite surveying of railway track by the use of the relative phase method based on geodesic active network ASG-EUPOS and NAVGEO service. Still continuing research works focused on the GNSS multi-receivers platform evaluation for projecting and stock-taking. In order to assess the accuracy of the railway track axis position, the values of deviations of transverse position XTE (Cross Track Error) were evaluated. In order to eliminate the influence of random measurement errors and to obtain the coordinates representing the actual shape of the track, the XTE variable was analyzed by signal analysis methods (Chebyshev low-pass filtering and fast Fourier transform). At the end the paper presents the module of the computer software SATTRACK which currently has been developing at the Gdansk University of Technology. The program serves visualization, assessment and design process of railway track, adapted to the technique of continuous satellite surveying. The module called TRACK STRAIGHT is designed to assess the straight sections. A description of its operation as well as examples of its functions has been presented.

  14. Quality assessment of water cycle parameters in REMO by radar-lidar synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hennemuth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison study of water cycle parameters derived from ground-based remote-sensing instruments and from the regional model REMO is presented. Observational data sets were collected during three measuring campaigns in summer/autumn 2003 and 2004 at Richard Aßmann Observatory, Lindenberg, Germany. The remote sensing instruments which were used are differential absorption lidar, Doppler lidar, ceilometer, cloud radar, and micro rain radar for the derivation of humidity profiles, ABL height, water vapour flux profiles, cloud parameters, and rain rate. Additionally, surface latent and sensible heat flux and soil moisture were measured. Error ranges and representativity of the data are discussed. For comparisons the regional model REMO was run for all measuring periods with a horizontal resolution of 18 km and 33 vertical levels. Parameter output was every hour. The measured data were transformed to the vertical model grid and averaged in time in order to better match with gridbox model values. The comparisons show that the atmospheric boundary layer is not adequately simulated, on most days it is too shallow and too moist. This is found to be caused by a wrong partitioning of energy at the surface, particularly a too large latent heat flux. The reason is obviously an overestimation of soil moisture during drying periods by the one-layer scheme in the model. The profiles of water vapour transport within the ABL appear to be realistically simulated. The comparison of cloud cover reveals an underestimation of low-level and mid-level clouds by the model, whereas the comparison of high-level clouds is hampered by the inability of the cloud radar to see cirrus clouds above 10 km. Simulated ABL clouds apparently have a too low cloud base, and the vertical extent is underestimated. The ice water content of clouds agree in model and observation whereas the liquid water content is unsufficiently derived from cloud radar reflectivity in the present study

  15. Enhancing hair follicle regeneration by nonablative fractional laser: Assessment of irradiation parameters and tissue response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yueh-Feng; Wang, Shiou-Han; Wu, Pei-Shan; Fan, Sabrina Mai-Yi; Chiu, Hsien-Yi; Tsai, Tsung-Hua; Lin, Sung-Jan

    2015-04-01

    Identification of methods to enhance anagen entry can be helpful for alopecia. Recently, nonablative laser has been proposed as a potential treatment for alopecia. However, how the laser parameters affect stem cell activity, hair cycles and the associated side effects have not been well characterized. Here we examine the effects of irradiation parameters of 1,550-nm fractional laser on hair cycles. The dorsal skin of eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice with hair follicles in synchronized telogen was shaved and irradiated with a 1,550-nm fractional erbium-glass laser (Fraxel RE:STORE (SR1500) Laser System, Solta Medical, U.S.A.) with varied beam energies (5-35 mJ) and beam densities (500-3500 microthermal zones/cm(2) ). The cutaneous changes were evaluated both grossly and histologically. Hair follicle stem cell activity was detected by BrdU incorporation and changes in gene expression were quantified by real-time PCR. Direct thermal injury to hair follicles could be observed early after irradiation, especially at higher beam energy. Anagen induction in the irradiated skin showed an all-or-non change. Anagen induction and ulcer formation were affected by the combination of beam energy and density. The lowest beam energy of 5 mJ failed to promote anagen entry at all beam densities tested. As beam energy increased from 10 mJ to 35 mJ, we found a decreasing trend of beam density that could induce anagen entry within 7-9 days with activation of hair follicle stem cells. Beam density above the pro-regeneration density could lead to ulcers and scarring followed by anagen entry in adjacent skin. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, revealed that transient moderate inflammation was associated with anagen induction and intense prolonged inflammation preceded ulcer formation. To avoid side effects of hair follicle injury and scarring, appropriate combination of beam energy and density is required. Parameters outside the therapeutic

  16. Geophysical surveying in the Sacramento Delta for earthquake hazard assessment and measurement of peat thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, M. S.; Kundariya, N.; Hayashi, K.; Srinivas, A.; Burnham, M.; Oikawa, P.

    2017-12-01

    Near surface geophysical surveys were conducted in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta for earthquake hazard assessment and to provide estimates of peat thickness for use in carbon models. Delta islands have experienced 3-8 meters of subsidence during the past century due to oxidation and compaction of peat. Projected sea level rise over the next century will contribute to an ongoing landward shift of the freshwater-saltwater interface, and increase the risk of flooding due to levee failure or overtopping. Seismic shear wave velocity (VS) was measured in the upper 30 meters to determine Uniform Building Code (UBC)/ National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) site class. Both seismic and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were employed to estimate peat thickness. Seismic surface wave surveys were conducted at eight sites on three islands and GPR surveys were conducted at two of the sites. Combined with sites surveyed in 2015, the new work brings the total number of sites surveyed in the Delta to twenty.Soil boreholes were made at several locations using a hand auger, and peat thickness ranged from 2.1 to 5.5 meters. Seismic surveys were conducted using the multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method and the microtremor array method (MAM). On Bouldin Island, VS of the surficial peat layer was 32 m/s at a site with pure peat and 63 m/s at a site peat with higher clay and silt content. Velocities at these sites reached a similar value, about 125 m/s, at a depth of 10 m. GPR surveys were performed at two sites on Sherman Island using 100 MHz antennas, and indicated the base of the peat layer at a depth of about 4 meters, consistent with nearby auger holes.The results of this work include VS depth profiles and UBC/NEHRP site classifications. Seismic and GPR methods may be used in a complementary fashion to estimate peat thickness. The seismic surface wave method is a relatively robust method and more effective than GPR in many areas with high clay

  17. Survey of shielding calculation parameters in radiotherapy rooms used in the country and its impact in the existing calculation methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japiassu, Fernando Parois

    2013-01-01

    When designing radiotherapy treatment rooms, the dimensions of barriers are established on the basis of American calculation methodologies specifically; NCRP Report N° 49, NCRP Report N° 51, and more recently, NCRP Report N° 151. Such barrier calculations are based on parameters reflecting predictions of treatments to be performed within the room; which, in tum, reftect a specific reality found in a country. There exists, however, a variety of modern radiotherapy techniques, such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT); Total Body Irradiation (TBl) and radiosurgery (SRS); where patierits are treated in a much different way than during more conventional treatrnents, which are not taken into account the traditional shielding calculation methodology. This may lead to a faulty design of treattnent rooms. In order to establish a comparison between the methodology used to calculate shielding design and the reality of treatments performed in Brazil, two radiotherapy facilitie were selected, both of them offering traditional and modern treatment techniqued as described above. Data in relation with reatments perfotmed over a period of six (6)months of operations in both institutions were collected. Based on tlis informaton, a new set of realistic parameters required for shielding design was estãblished, whicb in turn allowed for a nwe caculation of barrier thickness for both facilities. The barrier thickness resultaing from this calculation was then compared with the barrier thickness propose as part of the original shielding design, approved by the regulatory authority. First, concerning the public facility, the thickness of all primary barriers proposed in the shielding design was actually larger than the thickness resulting from calculations based on realistic parameters. Second, concerning the private facility, the new data show that the thickness of three out of the four primary barriers described in the project is larger than the thickness oresulting from

  18. Cole–Cole Parameter Characterization of Urea and Potassium for Improving Dialysis Treatment Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Damsgaard; Meaney, Paul M.; Epstien, Neil R.

    2012-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the characteristics of the dielectric properties of urea and ions such as potassium and sodium, which are the principal molecules studied during dialysis treatment. The method involves measuring the electrical properties of varying concentrations of the constituent...... solutions over a broad frequency range and estimating the associated Cole–Cole parameters. We utilized concentrations above those expected in vivo to achieve a more accurate characterization. In these studies, we found that the conductivity was essentially constant with respect to urea concentration but had...... a strong, nearly linear correlation with potassium. In addition, the alpha factor had a distinct, monotonically varying relationship for both urea and potassium with significantly different initial slopes. Utilizing these two curves, simple inversion algorithms are possible to compute the solute...

  19. Using GPS and GRACE data to assess Solid Earth elastic parameters at regional scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Borghi, A.; Aoudia, A.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a way to combine GPS and GRACE data for regional scale cross check and validation especially of the most commonly used PREM (Preliminary Earth Reference Model). In form of h and k Love numbers, global PREM is very often used to simulate elastic rebound due to present-day ice mass loss......, to derive the mass distribution produced by the observed GRACE time series, and it is also used for atmospheric loading correction both in GPS and in GRACE dealiasing products. GRACE data provide load estimates, usually given as water equivalent mass distribution, from which one derives the Earth elastic...... response, by convolution with suitable elastic green functions, relying on selected Earth model and related layering and elastic parameters. We calculate at regional scale the time series of monthly uplift associated with the mass redistribution observed by GRACE implementing the high resolution technique...

  20. Dosimetry-adjusted reactor physics parameters for pressure vessel neutron exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, W.N.; Kellogg, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    The ASTM E706 master matrix standard describes a series of 20 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard practices, guides, and methods for use in the prediction of neutron-induced changes in light water reactor (LWR) pressure vessel (PV) and support structure steels throughout a PV's service life. Some of these are existing ASTM standards, some are ASTM standards that have been modified, and some are new ASTM standards. These standards are periodically revised to assume their applicability during the 40-yr (32 effective full-power years) design license period for a nuclear power plant. They are now under review by two new ASTM plant life extension task groups: E10.05.11 on physics dosimetry and E10.02.11 on metallurgy. A brief review on the current application of these standards and a discussion of the status of work to verify the accuracy of derived physics-dosimetry parameter values is presented in this paper

  1. Assessment of some biochemical and hematological parameters in treated with the organophosphorus insecticide cyanox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElMahdy, A.A.; Fayz, V.; Hassanin, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of single acute oral doses of 29 and 58 mg/kg of cyanox (an organophosphorus pesticide) on selected biochemical and hematological parameters in male rats were investigated. This compound inhibited blood acetylcholine esterase (AChE) significantly, over 72 hours post-treatment with the higher dose level. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was significantly depressed, 48 hr after treatment with 58 mg/kg. Serum bilirubin was elevated significantly after 48 and 24 hr of treatment with 29 and 58 mg/kg, respectively. Serum cholesterol increased significantly over 48 hr post-treatment with both dose levels.Hypertriglyceridemia was noticed only in the higher dose group. Serum total lipids were increased significantly at both dose levels. A slight treatment-related effect was observed in serum creatinine level. The hematological investigations revealed the occurrence of macrocytic normochromic anemia that was more evident in the lower dose group

  2. Selected examples of practical approaches for the assessment of model reliability - parameter uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, E.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1987-02-01

    The uncertainty analysis of model predictions has to discriminate between two fundamentally different types of uncertainty. The presence of stochastic variability (Type 1 uncertainty) necessitates the use of a probabilistic model instead of the much simpler deterministic one. Lack of knowledge (Type 2 uncertainty), however, applies to deterministic as well as to probabilistic model predictions and often dominates over uncertainties of Type 1. The term ''probability'' is interpreted differently in the probabilistic analysis of either type of uncertainty. After these discriminations have been explained the discussion centers on the propagation of parameter uncertainties through the model, the derivation of quantitative uncertainty statements for model predictions and the presentation and interpretation of the results of a Type 2 uncertainty analysis. Various alternative approaches are compared for a very simple deterministic model

  3. Assessment of corneal biomechanical parameters in myopes and emmetropes using the Corvis ST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rachel; Chang, Robert T; Wong, Ian Y H; Lai, Jimmy S M; Lee, Jacky W Y; Singh, Kuldev

    2016-03-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated conflicting results regarding the relationship between corneal biomechanical properties and refractive error. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the corneal biomechanical parameters of myopes and emmetropes. Ninety-four subjects with varying degrees of myopia (aged 29 to 74 years, spherical equivalent [SE] -0.5 to -17.5 D) and 25 emmetropes (aged 19 to 75 years, SE: -0.5 to +0.5 D) presenting at the Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong were recruited sequentially for this prospective study. All patients were phakic with no history of coexisting ocular disease. The corneal biomechanical parameters of the right eye of each subject were analysed using the Corvis ST non-contact tonometer. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured using both the Corvis ST and the Topcon Non-Contact Tonometer CT-80. Refractive error was measured by non-cycloplegic subjective and objective refractometry. High myopes (SE greater than -6.00 D) demonstrated greater mean outward applanation velocities (p < 0.001) and peak distance measurements (p = 0.009) compared to both low to moderate myopes (SE -0.50 to -6.00 D) and emmetropes. Both outward applanation velocity and peak distance were moderately correlated with refractive error (p ≤ 0.001), strongly correlated with IOP and weakly correlated with central corneal thickness. There were no statistically significant differences in age, IOP or central corneal thickness among emmetropes, low to moderate myopes or high myopes. Within this study of Chinese subjects, high myopes demonstrate greater corneal mean outward applanation velocity on Corvis ST testing, than emmetropes. In particular, those with high myopia (SE greater than -6.00 D) show a distinct corneal biomechanical profile relative to those with either emmetropia or low to moderate myopia using the Corvis ST. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  4. Recommended core items to assess e-cigarette use in population-based surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Hitchman, Sara C; Brose, Leonie S; Bauld, Linda; Glasser, Allison M; Villanti, Andrea C; McNeill, Ann; Abrams, David B; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-01-01

    Background: A consistent approach using standardized items to assess e-cigarette use in both youth and adult populations will aid cross-survey and cross-national comparisons of the effect of e-cigarette (and tobacco) policies and improve our understanding of the population health impact of e-cigarette use. Focusing on adult behavior, we propose a set of e-cigarette use items, discuss their utility and potential adaptation, and highlight e-cigarette constructs that researchers should avoid wit...

  5. Parameter variation and scenario analysis in impact assessments of emerging energy technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Breunig, Hanna Marie

    2015-01-01

    There is a global need for energy technologies that reduce the adverse impacts of societal progress and that address today's challenges without creating tomorrow's problems. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) can support technology developers in achieving these prerequisites of sustainability by providing a systems perspective. However, modeling the early-stage scale up and impacts of technology systems may lead to unreliable or incomplete results due to a lack of representative technical, s...

  6. OPACOS: OVRO POST-AGB CO (1-0) EMISSION SURVEY. I. DATA AND DERIVED NEBULAR PARAMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Contreras, C. [Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    We have performed interferometric observations of the {sup 12}CO (J = 1-0) emission in a sample of 27 objects spanning different evolutionary stages from the late asymptotic giant branch (late-AGB), through the post-AGB (pAGB) phase, and to the planetary nebula (PN) stage, but dominated by pAGB objects and young PNs ({>=}81%). In this paper (the first in a series) we present our maps and main nebular properties derived for the whole sample. Observations were performed with the Caltech Millimeter Array at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. The angular resolution obtained in our survey ranges between 2.''3 and 10.''7. The {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O (J = 1-0) transitions as well as the 2.6 mm continuum emission have also been observed in several objects. The detection statistics in the {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, C{sup 18}O transitions and 2.6 mm continuum are 89%, 83%, 0%, and 37%, respectively. We report first detections of {sup 12}CO (J = 1-0) emission in 13 targets and confirm emission from several previous marginal detections. The molecular envelope probed by {sup 12}CO (J = 1-0) emission is extended for 18 (out of 24) sources; envelope asymmetries and/or velocity gradients are found in most extended objects. Our data have been used to derive accurate target coordinates and systemic velocities and to characterize the envelope size, morphology, and kinematics. We also provide an estimate of the total molecular mass and the fraction of it contained in fast flows, lower limits to the linear momentum and to the isotopic {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratio, as well as the AGB mass-loss rate and timescale for sources with extended CO emission.

  7. The LAMOST spectroscopic survey of stars in the Kepler field of view: Activity indicators and stellar parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenda-Żakowicz, Joanna; Frasca, Antonio; De Cat, Peter; Catanzaro, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    We summarize the results of the completed first round of the LAMOST-Kepler project, and describe the status of its on-going second round. As a result of the first round of this project, the atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, and [Fe/H]), the spectral classification (spectral type and luminosity class), and the radial velocities (RV) have been measured for 51,385 stars. For 4031 stars, we were able to measure the projected rotational velocity, while the minimum detectable v sin i was 120 km s-1. For 8821 stars with more than one observation, we computed the χ-square probability that the detected RV variations have a random occurrence. Finally, we classified 442 stars as chromospherically active on the basis of the analysis of their Hα and Ca II-IRT fluxes. All our results have been obtained from the low-resolution (R ˜ 1800) spectroscopic observations acquired with the LAMOST instrument. Based on observations collected with the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) located at the Xinglong Observatory, China.

  8. Post-Newtonian evolution of massive black hole triplets in galactic nuclei - II. Survey of the parameter space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Matteo; Haardt, Francesco; Sesana, Alberto; Barausse, Enrico

    2018-04-01

    Massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) are expected to form at the centre of merging galaxies during the hierarchical assembly of the cosmic structure, and are expected to be the loudest sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the low frequency domain. However, because of the dearth of energy exchanges with background stars and gas, many of these MBHBs may stall at separations too large for GW emission to drive them to coalescence in less than a Hubble time. Triple MBH systems are then bound to form after a further galaxy merger, triggering a complex and rich dynamics that can eventually lead to MBH coalescence. Here we report on the results of a large set of numerical simulations, where MBH triplets are set in spherical stellar potentials and MBH dynamics is followed through 2.5 post-Newtonian order in the equations of motion. From our full suite of simulated systems we find that a fraction ≃ 20 - 30 % of the MBH binaries that would otherwise stall are led to coalesce within a Hubble time. The corresponding coalescence timescale peaks around 300 Myr, while the eccentricity close to the plunge, albeit small, is non-negligible (≲ 0.1). We construct and discuss marginalised probability distributions of the main parameters involved and, in a companion paper of the series, we will use the results presented here to forecast the contribution of MBH triplets to the GW signal in the nHz regime probed by Pulsar Timing Array experiments.

  9. SR-Can. Data and uncertainty assessment. Migration parameters for the bentonite buffer in the KBS-3 concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochs, Michael; Talerico, Caterina [BMG Engineering Ltd, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-08-01

    SKB is currently preparing license applications related to the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel and an encapsulation plant. The present report is one of several specific data reports feeding into the interim reporting for the latter application; it is concerned with the derivation and recommendation of radionuclide migration input parameters for a MX-80 bentonite buffer to PA models. Recommended values for the following parameters as well as the associated uncertainties are derived and documented for a total of 38 elements and oxidation states: diffusion-available porosity ({epsilon}); effective diffusivity (D{sub e}); distribution coefficient (K{sub d}). Because of the conditional nature of these parameters, particularly of K{sub d}, they were derived specifically for the conditions expected to be relevant for PA consequence calculations. K{sub d} values were generally evaluated for the specific porewater composition and solid/water ratio representative for MX-80 compacted to 1,590 kg/m{sup 3}. Because of the highly conditional nature of K{sub d}, this was done for several porewater compositions which reflect possible variations in geochemical boundary conditions. D{sub e} and {epsilon} were derived as a function of density. Parameter derivation was based on systematic datasets available in the literature and/or on thermodynamic models. Associated uncertainties were assessed for a given set of PA conditions and as a function of variability in these conditions. In a final step, apparent diffusivity (D{sub a}) values were calculated from the recommended parameters and compared with independent experimental measurements to arrive at selfconsistent sets of migration parameters.

  10. Reproducibility of radionuclide gastroesophageal reflux studies using quantitative parameters and potential role of quantitative assessment in follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S.; Khursheed, K.; Nasir, W.; Saeed, M.A.; Fatmi, S.; Jafri, S.; Asghar, S.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide gastroesophageal reflux studies have been widely used in the assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in infants and children. Various qualitative and quantitative parameters have been used for the interpretation of reflux studies but there is little consensus on the use of these parameters in routine gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphic studies. Aim of this study was to evaluate the methodological issues underlying the qualitative and quantitative assessment of gastroesophageal reflux and to determine the potential power of the reflux index calculation in follow-up assessment of the reflux positive patients. Methods: Total 147 patients suffering from recurrent lower respiratory tract infection, asthma and having strong clinical suspicion of GER were recruited in the study. Dynamic scintigraphic study was acquired for 30 minutes after oral administration of 99mTc phytate. Each study was analyzed three times by two nuclear medicine physicians. Clinical symptoms were graded according to predefined criteria and there correlation with severity reflux was done. Time activity curves were generated by drawing ROIs from esophagus. Reflux index was calculated by the standard formula and cut off value of 4% was used for RI calculation. Reflux indices were used for follow-up assessments in reflux positive patients. Kappa statistics and chi square test were used to evaluate the agreement and concordance between qualitative and quantitative parameters. Results: Tlae over all incidence of reflux in total study population was 63.94 %( 94 patients). The kappa value for both qualitative and quantitative parameters showed good agreement for intra and inter-observer reproducibility (kappa value > 0.75). Concordance between visual analysis and time activity curves was not observed. Reflux index and visuat interpretation shows concordance in the interpretation. The severity of clinical symptoms was directly related to the severity of the reflux observed in the

  11. Outpatient and Ambulatory Surgery Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (OAS CAHPS) survey for ambulatory surgical centers - Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of ambulatory surgical center ratings for the Outpatient and Ambulatory Surgery Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (OAS CAHPS) survey....

  12. Parameters affecting of Akkuyu’s safety assessment for severe core damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavun Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have looked at all past core meltdowns (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents and postulated the fourth one might be taking place in the future most probably in a newly built reactors anywhere of the earth in any type of NPP. The probability of this observation is high considering the nature of the machine and human interaction. Operation experience is a very significant parameter as well as the safety culture of the host nation. The concerns is not just a lack of experience with industry with the new comers, but also the infrastructure and established institutions who will be dealing with the Emergencies. Lack of trained and educated Emergency Response Organizations (ERO is a major concern. The culture on simple fire drills even makes the difference when a severe condition occurs in the industry. The study assumes the fourth event will be taking place at the Akkuyu NGS and works backwards as required by the “what went wrong ” scenarios and comes up with interesting results. The differences studied in depth to determine the impact to the severe accidents. The all four design have now core catchers. We have looked at the operator errors’like in TMI; Operator errors combined with design deficiencies(like in Chernobyl and natural disasters( like in Fukushima and found operator errors to be more probable event on the Akkuyu’s postulated next incident. With respect to experiences of the operators we do not have any data except for long and successful operating history of the Soviet design reactors up until the Chernobyl incident. Since the Akkuyu will be built, own and operated by the Russians we have found no alarming concerns at the moment. At the moment, there is no body be able to operate those units in Turkey. Turkey is planning to build the required manpower during the transition period. The resolution of the observed parameters lies to work and educate, train of the host nation and exercise together.

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of the Hamra Basin, Libya, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The Hamra Basin Province encompasses approximately 244,100 square kilometers (94,250 square miles) and is entirely within Libya. One composite total petroleum system (TPS) was defined for this assessment; it extends from Libya westward into adjacent parts of Algeria and southern Tunisia. The Hamra Basin part of the TPS was subdivided into four assessment units for the purpose of resource assessment. The assessment units cover only 172,390 square kilometers of the Hamra Basin Province; the remaining area has little potential for undiscovered petroleum resources because of the absence of petroleum source rocks. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 784 million barrels of crude oil, 4,748 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 381 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Hamra Basin of northwestern Libya. Most of the undiscovered crude oil and natural gas are interpreted to be in deeper parts of the Hamra Basin.

  14. Practitioner survey of the state of health integration in environmental assessment: The case of northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Bram; Bronson, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    Based on a case study of health integration in Canadian northern EA, this paper further demonstrates the lack of consistent integration of health in EA practice. A survey was administered to northern EA and health practitioners, administrators and special interest groups to assess current northern health assessment practices, the scope of health in EA, EA performance with regard to health assessment and the perceived barriers to health integration. Results suggest that health is currently recognized as an important component of northern EA and is addressed in the majority of cases; however, health is addressed primarily during the pre-decision stages of EA and less often during post-decision follow-up and monitoring. Moreover, when health is addressed, attention is limited to the physical components of health and health impacts due to physical environmental change, with considerably less attention given to the social aspects of health. Results also suggest dissent between EA practitioners, health practitioners and other interests concerning the overall state of health in EA; however, there is consensus on the key challenges to improved integration, namely differences in understanding of the scope of health and expectations of EA to assess health impacts; limited coordination between EA and health practitioners; limited scope and requirements of current EA legislation for health assessment; and the lack of supporting EA methods and frameworks

  15. Integrated geophysical surveys to assess the structural conditions of a karstic cave of archaeological importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Leucci

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geophysical survey using both the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT and ground-penetrating radar (GPR methods was undertaken over a cave of great archaeological interest in southern Italy. The survey was performed to assess the stability of the carbonate rock roof of the cave. A geophysical survey was preferred to boreholes and geotechnical tests, in order to avoid the risk of mass movements. The interpretation of integrated data from ERT and GPR resulted in an evaluation of some of the electromagnetic (EM characteristics (such as the EM wave velocity and the detection of discontinuities (fractures in the carbonate rock. It is well known that rock fractures constitute a serious problem in cave maintenance, and progressive cracking within the bed rock is considered to be one of the main causes of collapse. An analysis of the back-scattered energy was also required for the GPR data interpretation. Cracks within the bedrock were detected to a depth of about 2 m by using GPR, which allowed for the identification of the loosened zone around the cave.

  16. Survey-assessed quality and organizational factors related to quality in Pursuing Perfection hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwartz, Michael; Cramer, Irene E; Holmes, Sally K; Cohen, Alan B; Restuccia, Joseph D; VanDeusen Lukas, Carol; Sullivan, Jennifer L; Charns, Martin P

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Pursuing Perfection (P2) program was to encourage organizations to push quality improvement to new levels of excellence. As part of an evaluation of P2, we surveyed employees at the 7 participating P2 organizations to (1) assess their perceptions of patient care quality and improvement progress and (2) examine perceived performance on organizational and workgroup characteristics associated with quality. Many survey questions were drawn from existing conceptual models and survey instruments. We used factor analysis to create new scales from questions that were not part of established scales. We used correlation coefficients and multivariable models to examine relationships among variables. Variables most strongly associated with perceived quality included standardized and simplified care processes resulting in coordinated care and smooth handoffs, a clear sense of organizational direction and clear action plans, and communication with staff about reasons for change and improvement progress made. Of those variables with a strong relationship to quality, ones with relatively low mean ratings included workgroup coordination; sufficient resources and support for improvement; training; and efficient use of people, time, and energy. These are important areas on which management should focus to improve employee ratings of quality.

  17. The patients’ perspective: Results of a survey assessing knowledge about and attitudes toward depression in PD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Hegeman Richard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Irene Hegeman Richard1, Kori A LaDonna1, Rosanne Hartman2, Carol Podgorski1, Roger Kurlan1, SAD-PD Study Group31University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA; 2Canisius College, Buffalo, NY, USA; 3Please see Appendix for members of the SAD-PD Study GroupAbstract: We report results of a survey assessing patients’ knowledge about and attitudes towards depression in Parkinson’s disease (PD. 345 patients from 8 tertiary care centers responded (43% response rate. Overall, patients were relatively knowledgeable about depression and its occurrence in PD. However, many patients believed that depression is a normal reaction to the illness. While many respondents would be reluctant to initiate a discussion of depression during a clinical evaluation, most would feel comfortable talking about depression with their physician if he or she asked them questions about their mood. Based on the results of this survey, we recommend the following approach for physicians: (1 inform PD patients that, although a frequent occurrence, depression need not be accepted as a “normal reaction” to PD; and (2 routinely inquire about depressive symptoms rather than waiting for the patient to spontaneously report them.Keywords: depression, Parkinson’s disease, survey

  18. Assessment of distribution and abundance estimates for Mariana swiftlets (Aerodramus bartschi) via examination of survey methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathan C.; Haig, Susan M.; Mosher, Stephen M.

    2018-01-01

    We described past and present distribution and abundance data to evaluate the status of the endangered Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi), a little-known echolocating cave swiftlet that currently inhabits 3 of 5 formerly occupied islands in the Mariana archipelago. We then evaluated the survey methods used to attain these estimates via fieldwork carried out on an introduced population of Mariana Swiftlets on the island of O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands, to derive better methods for future surveys. We estimate the range-wide population of Mariana Swiftlets to be 5,704 individuals occurring in 15 caves on Saipan, Aguiguan, and Guam in the Marianas; and 142 individuals occupying one tunnel on O'ahu. We further confirm that swiftlets have been extirpated from Rota and Tinian and have declined on Aguiguan. Swiftlets have remained relatively stable on Guam and Saipan in recent years. Our assessment of survey methods used for Mariana Swiftlets suggests overestimates depending on the technique used. We suggest the use of night vision technology and other changes to more accurately reflect their distribution, abundance, and status.

  19. Leadership development in a professional medical society using 360-degree survey feedback to assess emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Paul J; Robbins, Benjamin; Schwaitzberg, Steven D; Harmon, Larry

    2017-09-01

    The current research evaluated the potential utility of a 360-degree survey feedback program for measuring leadership quality in potential committee leaders of a professional medical association (PMA). Emotional intelligence as measured by the extent to which self-other agreement existed in the 360-degree survey ratings was explored as a key predictor of leadership quality in the potential leaders. A non-experimental correlational survey design was implemented to assess the variation in leadership quality scores across the sample of potential leaders. A total of 63 of 86 (76%) of those invited to participate did so. All potential leaders received feedback from PMA Leadership, PMA Colleagues, and PMA Staff and were asked to complete self-ratings regarding their behavior. Analyses of variance revealed a consistent pattern of results as Under-Estimators and Accurate Estimators-Favorable were rated significantly higher than Over-Estimators in several leadership behaviors. Emotional intelligence as conceptualized in this study was positively related to overall performance ratings of potential leaders. The ever-increasing roles and potential responsibilities for PMAs suggest that these organizations should consider multisource performance reviews as these potential future PMA executives rise through their organizations to assume leadership positions with profound potential impact on healthcare. The current findings support the notion that potential leaders who demonstrated a humble pattern or an accurate pattern of self-rating scored significantly higher in their leadership, teamwork, and interpersonal/communication skills than those with an aggrandizing self-rating.

  20. Assessment and monitoring of flow limitation and other parameters from flow/volume loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueck, R

    2000-01-01

    Flow/volume (F/V) spirometry is routinely used for assessing the type and severity of lung disease. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and timed vital capacity (FEV1) provide the best estimates of airflow obstruction in patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema. Computerized spirometers are now available for early home recognition of asthma exacerbation in high risk patients with severe persistent disease, and for recognition of either infection or rejection in lung transplant patients. Patients with severe COPD may exhibit expiratory flow limitation (EFL) on tidal volume (VT) expiratory F/V (VTF/V) curves, either with or without applying negative expiratory pressure (NEP). EFL results in dynamic hyperinflation and persistently raised alveolar pressure or intrinsic PEEP (PEEPi). Hyperinflation and raised PEEPi greatly enhance dyspnea with exertion through the added work of the threshold load needed to overcome raised pleural pressure. Esophageal (pleural) pressure monitoring may be added to VTF/V loops for assessing the severity of PEEPi: 1) to optimize assisted ventilation by mask or via endotracheal tube with high inspiratory flow rates to lower I:E ratio, and 2) to assess the efficacy of either pressure support ventilation (PSV) or low level extrinsic PEEP in reducing the threshold load of PEEPi. Intraoperative tidal volume F/V loops can also be used to document the efficacy of emphysema lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) via disappearance of EFL. Finally, the mechanism of ventilatory constraint can be identified with the use of exercise tidal volume F/V loops referenced to maximum F/V loops and static lung volumes. Patients with severe COPD show inspiratory F/V loops approaching 95% of total lung capacity, and flow limitation over the entire expiratory F/V curve during light levels of exercise. Surprisingly, patients with a history of congestive heart failure may lower lung volume towards residual volume during exercise

  1. Assessment of Safety Parameters for Radiological Explosion Based on Gaussian Dispersion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Alok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Hyungjoon; Kim, Hong Suk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    These sources if used with explosive (called RDD - radiological dispersion device), can cause dispersion of radioactive material resulting in public exposure and contamination of the environment. Radiological explosion devices are not weapons for the mass destruction like atom bombs, but can cause the death of few persons and contamination of large areas. The reduction of the threat of radiological weapon attack by terrorist groups causing dispersion of radioactive material is one of the priority tasks of the IAEA Nuclear Safety and Security Program.Emergency preparedness is an essential part for reducing and mitigating radiological weapon threat. Preliminary assessment of dispersion study followed by radiological explosion and its quantitative effect will be helpful for the emergency preparedness team for an early response. The effect of the radiological dispersion depends on various factors like radioisotope, its activity, physical form, amount of explosive used and meteorological factors at the time of an explosion. This study aim to determine the area affected by the radiological explosion as pre assessment to provide feedback to emergency management teams for handling and mitigation the situation after an explosion. Most practical scenarios of radiological explosion are considered with conservative approach for the assessment of the area under a threat for emergency handling and management purpose. Radioisotopes under weak security controls can be used for a radiological explosion to create terror and socioeconomic threat for the public. Prior assessment of radiological threats is helpful for emergency management teams to take prompt decision about evacuation of the affected area and other emergency handling actions. Comparable activities of Co-60 source used in radiotherapy and Sr-90 source of disused and orphaned RTGs with two different quantities of TNT were used for the scenario development of radiological explosion. In the Basic Safety Standard (BSS

  2. Assessment of Safety Parameters for Radiological Explosion Based on Gaussian Dispersion Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Alok; Yu, Hyungjoon; Kim, Hong Suk

    2014-01-01

    These sources if used with explosive (called RDD - radiological dispersion device), can cause dispersion of radioactive material resulting in public exposure and contamination of the environment. Radiological explosion devices are not weapons for the mass destruction like atom bombs, but can cause the death of few persons and contamination of large areas. The reduction of the threat of radiological weapon attack by terrorist groups causing dispersion of radioactive material is one of the priority tasks of the IAEA Nuclear Safety and Security Program.Emergency preparedness is an essential part for reducing and mitigating radiological weapon threat. Preliminary assessment of dispersion study followed by radiological explosion and its quantitative effect will be helpful for the emergency preparedness team for an early response. The effect of the radiological dispersion depends on various factors like radioisotope, its activity, physical form, amount of explosive used and meteorological factors at the time of an explosion. This study aim to determine the area affected by the radiological explosion as pre assessment to provide feedback to emergency management teams for handling and mitigation the situation after an explosion. Most practical scenarios of radiological explosion are considered with conservative approach for the assessment of the area under a threat for emergency handling and management purpose. Radioisotopes under weak security controls can be used for a radiological explosion to create terror and socioeconomic threat for the public. Prior assessment of radiological threats is helpful for emergency management teams to take prompt decision about evacuation of the affected area and other emergency handling actions. Comparable activities of Co-60 source used in radiotherapy and Sr-90 source of disused and orphaned RTGs with two different quantities of TNT were used for the scenario development of radiological explosion. In the Basic Safety Standard (BSS

  3. Assessment of Urinary-5-Hydroxyindolacetic Acid as A Diagnostic Parameter in Early Detection of Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair B Kamal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal surgical emergency especially in children and young adults. The diagnosis of appendicitis is difficult because half the cases are incorrectly identified. Serotonin was defined as a good diagnostic marker for many inflammations including appendicitis and it is metabolite into 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA to be excreted in urine. 5-HIAA is suggested to be of diagnostic importance in the detection of this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic importance of urinary-5-HIAA as an added parameter to Alvarado score. Methods: Seventy patients (35 females and 35 males with acute appendicitis (35 were mild and 35 severe-perforated and gangrenous were included in this study and 70 healthy individuals were taken as a control group. Urinary-5-HIAA was estimated in all patients and control group using ELISA method. Results: Sensitivity for the mild group is 94.2%, specificity 100% and diagnostic accuracy is 97.4%, while the sensitivity for the severe group is 37%. It was found that there is a highly significant difference between mild and control groups (P<0.05. The diagnostic accuracy for the mild group is 97.4% and for the severe is 68.5%. Conclusion: We conclude that urinary-5-HIAA is a high sensitive test for early detection of acute appendicitis.

  4. Assessment of the basic parameters of the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Brunner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a 4 GeV superconducting proton linac (the SPL is now part of the long term plan of CERN, and the construction of Linac4, its low-energy front end, has begun. For mid-2012 the existing conceptual design of the SPL has to be refined and transformed into a project proposal. As a first step, basic parameters like rf frequency, accelerating gradient, and operating temperature of the superconducting cavities have been reassessed, taking into account the experience accumulated in the world during the recent years, especially for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS in Oakridge and the International Linear Collider (ILC projects. The conclusions confirm the validity of the initial choices, namely, the rf frequency of 704.4 MHz and the cooling temperature of ≈2  K. However, the assumed gradients are estimated as optimistic: additional tests are necessary during the coming years to properly define the values to be used in the SPL design. This analysis is documented and its results are explained in this report.

  5. Safety assessment of Hibiscus sabdariffa after maternal exposure on male reproductive parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda, Aline; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea L; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) is a species widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of some disorders. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa (HS) on the development of the male reproductive tract in rats following in utero exposure. Pregnant rats received 250 or 500 mg/kg of HS extract or vehicle from gestational day 12 until day 21 of lactation. Both doses of HS increased the body weight of male offspring at weaning, without compromising the puberty onset parameters. At puberty, there was a significant increase in the vas deferens absolute weight and a significant reduction in the relative weight of kidney at higher dose. These animals also presented a significant reduction in the sperm number in the caput/corpus of epididymis after exposure to both doses and a reduction in the sperm number in the cauda epididymis for the lower dose. At adulthood, the highest dose significantly reduced the sperm production in relation to controls and both doses provoked a reduction in the relative sperm number in the epididymis without affecting the sperm morphology. These findings demonstrated that maternal exposure to H. sabdariffa can adversely influence the male reproductive system in rats.

  6. Plantar fascia coronal length: a new parameter for plantar fascia assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ahmet Sinan; Demircay, Emre; Cakmak, Gokhan; Sahin, M Sukru; Tuncay, I Cengiz; Altun, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    The effects of gender and various anthropometric variables were previously reported as significant predictors of plantar fascia thickness. Although a strong correlation between either the bo