WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey assessed demographics

  1. The Demographic Assessment for Health Literacy (DAHL): a new tool for estimating associations between health literacy and outcomes in national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchate, Amresh D; Ash, Arlene S; Gazmararian, Julie A; Wolf, Michael S; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2008-10-01

    To impute limited health literacy from commonly measured socio-demographic data and to compare it to the Short-Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) for estimating the influence of limited health literacy on health status in the elderly. The Prudential Medicare Study assesses the S-TOFHLA score, leading to a "reference standard" classification of 25% of people with inadequate literacy; the National Health Interview Survey has no such assessment. We estimated a regression of S-TOFHLA on sex, age, years of schooling, and race/ethnicity in The Prudential Medicare Study data to derive a Demographic Assessment for Health Literacy (DAHL) score, and imputed inadequate literacy to the 25% with the lowest DAHL scores. Using regression, we then examined associations between several health status measures (including hypertension, diabetes, physical and mental SF-12) and inadequate literacy (imputed or test-based). Estimates of association using imputed inadequate literacy closely approximate those obtained using S-TOFHLA-based inadequate literacy for most outcomes examined. As few population surveys measure health literacy, the DAHL, a readily calculated health literacy proxy score, may be useful for expanding the scope of health literacy research in national survey data.

  2. The AAVSO 2011 Demographic and Background Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Price, C Aaron

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the AAVSO conducted a survey of 615 people who are or were recently active in the 101-year old organization. The survey included questions about their demographic background and variable star interests. Data are descriptively analyzed and compared with prior surveys. Results show an organization of very highly educated, largely male amateur and professional astronomers distributed across 108 countries. Participants tend to be loyal, with the average time of involvement in the AAVSO reported as 14 years. Most major demographic factors have not changed much over time. However, the average age of new members is increasing. Also, a significant portion of the respondents report being strictly active in a non-observing capacity, reflecting the growing mission of the organization. Motivations of participants are more aligned with scientific contribution than with that reported by other citizen science projects. This may help explain why a third of all respondents are an author or co-author of a paper in an ...

  3. Chiropractors in Finland – a demographic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmqvist Stefan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Finnish chiropractic profession is young and not fully accepted by Finnish healthcare authorities. The demographic profile and style of practice has not been described to date. However, as the profession seems to be under rapid development, it would be of interest to stakeholders, both chiropractic and political, to obtain a baseline description of this profession with a view to the development of future goals and strategies for the profession. The purpose of this study was to describe the chiropractic profession in Finland in relation to its demographic background, the demographics of their clinics, practice patterns, interactions with other health care practitioners and some of the professions' plans for the future. Methods A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 2005, in which all 50 members of the Finnish Chiropractic Union were invited to participate. Results In all, 44 questionnaires were returned (response rate 88%. Eighty percent of the respondents were men, and 77% were aged 30 to 44 years old, most of whom graduated after 1990 with either a university-based bachelors' or masters' degree in chiropractic. Solo practice was their main practice pattern. The vast majority described their scope of practice to be based on a musculoskeletal approach, using the Diversified Technique, performing Soft Tissue Therapy and about two-thirds also used an Activator Instrument (mechanical adjusting instrument. The mean number of patient visits reported to have been seen weekly was 59 of which nine were new patients. Most practitioners found this number of patients satisfactory. At the initial consultation, 80% of respondents spent 30–45 minutes with their patients, 75% spent 20–30 minutes with "new old" patients and on subsequent visits 80% of respondents spent 15–30 minutes. Interactions with other health care professions were reasonably good and most of chiropractors intended to remain within the profession

  4. Diversity and Demographics of Zooarchaeologists: Results from a Digital Survey

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    Suzanne E. Pilaar Birch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 25 years ago, a “Zooarchaeology Practitioner Survey” was distributed via conventional mail to individuals in the USA and Canada and received 122 responses over a period of several months in 1991. Now, a revised “Demographics in Zooarchaeology Survey” provides an update to  those data and assesses the current state of the field. The 2014 survey remained open for 3 months and received 288 responses from practitioners worldwide. Global participation was made possible by hosting the survey online. Key findings of the 1991 survey included disparities in employment rank for women despite similar levels of degree level attainment as men, a point which the 2014 survey sought to investigate. This trend appears to persist for those without the PhD and at the highest levels of income for those holding a PhD. In addition, the recent survey asked participants about their racial or ethnic identity in order to evaluate the demographic diversity of the discipline beyond sex, age, and nationality. Data regarding topical and geographic research area were also collected and reflect a subtle bias towards working with mammals and a focus on research questions grounded in prehistory in Europe and North America, followed by Australia and Southwest Asia. Results are compared with those of the earlier survey and membership information from the International Council for Archaeozoology.

  5. Bolivia 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    This document presents the results of the Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), or Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud 1998, conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, La Paz, Bolivia, within the framework of the DHS Program of Macro International. Data were collected from 12,109 households and complete interviews were conducted with 11,187 women aged 15-49. A male survey was also conducted, which collected data from 3780 men aged 15-64. The information collected include the following: 1) general characteristics of the population, 2) fertility, 3) fertility preferences, 4) current contraceptive use, 5) contraception, 6) marital and contraceptive status, 7) postpartum variables, 8) infant mortality, 9) health: disease prevention and treatment, and 10) nutritional status: anthropometric measures.

  6. Nicaragua 1998: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This article presents summary statistics gathered from the 1998 Nicaragua Demographic and Health Survey (Encuesta Nicaraguense de Demografia y Salud 1998, ENDESA-98). Data from the nationally representative ENDESA-98 were collected from 11,528 households. Interviews were conducted with 13,634 women aged 15-49 years and 2912 men aged 15-59 years between December 1, 1997, and May 31, 1998. The statistics presented were on fertility trends, fertility differentials, age-specific fertility, fertility preferences, current contraceptive use, contraception, marital and contraceptive status, differentials in median age at first birth, postpartum variables, and infant mortality. In addition, statistical data on the health and nutritional status of children were also presented.

  7. Smoking Behavior and Demographic Risk Factors in Argentina: A Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Eugenio; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Guil, Valeria; Gregorich, Steven E.; Mejia, Raul; J.Pérez-Stable, Eliseo

    2007-01-01

    Background Demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with smoking behavior were evaluated in a nationwide household survey in Argentina to describe the status of the tobacco epidemic. Methods Face-to-face interviews with adults, age 20 and older, assessed smoking status, frequency, and age of initiation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare social and demographic characteristics. Results Of the 43,863 participants, 38% of men and 24% of women were current smokers, and 20% of current smokers smoked occasionally. For older men and women, smoking was less prevalent and their probability of quitting higher. Men with more than high school education were less likely to be current smokers. Rates for women did not differ by education. Conclusions The lower smoking rates among men with more education suggest that Argentina has begun to transition to the next stage of the tobacco epidemic. Tobacco control policy must direct efforts to change smoking behavior. PMID:18037987

  8. Indicators of nutritional status in Turkish preschool children: results of Turkish Demographic and Health Survey 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçbilek, E; Unalan, T; Coşkun, T

    1996-04-01

    The Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS), conducted in 1993, provided data on the magnitude of malnutrition in a sample of 3152 preschool children from five geographical regions, and on its causal and conditioning factors. Stunting was found to be the dominant form of malnutrition (21 per cent). Altogether 10 per cent of children were underweight and 3 per cent were wasted. There were urban-rural (16 v. 27 per cent, P rank of children, birth spacing, number of children in an individual family, family size, and mother's welfare and hygiene indices. The need for an intersectoral approach for the development of remedial programs to reduce the effect of these factors and for periodic assessment of nutritional status of preschool children is stressed.

  9. Measuring population health: costs of alternative survey approaches in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso

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    Henrike Lietz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA. Objective: The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. Design: All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS and integrated (CDA surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. Results: While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. Conclusions: The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality

  10. Measurement and Socio-Demographic Variation of Social Capital in a Large Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Tarja; Martelin, Tuija; Koskinen, Seppo; Simpura, Jussi; Alanen, Erkki; Harkanen, Tommi; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to describe the variation of individual social capital according to socio-demographic factors, and to develop a suitable way to measure social capital for this purpose. The similarity of socio-demographic variation between the genders was also assessed. Data and methods: The study applied…

  11. Assessment of Established Survey Protocols

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A form and instructions for quickly and briefly assessing a previously (prior to 2013) reviewed or approved survey protocol for use as a National or Regional survey...

  12. Graduate Assessment Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    Determines the degree to which Santa Fe Community College (Florida) is providing quality educational programs and services to its students. Surveys outgoing students to gather their opinions and perceptions of the educational experiences and services they received while attending the college. The survey instrument is divided into three sections:…

  13. A Statistical Assessment of Demographic Bonus towards Poverty Alleviation

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    Jamal Abdul Nasir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The shift of birth and death rates from high to low level in any population is referred as demographic transition. Mechanically, the transition of a society creates more working member of its own population commonly called demographic bonus. This articleempirically explores the realistic soundness of demographic bonus in reducing the poverty level of the society. Three contrasting regions namely Eastern Asia, Central America and Oceania were selected for analytical purposes. The findings indicate that Eastern Asia and Oceania are currently facing the end of their transition whereas theCentral America is lagged behind in transition. Central America due to last runner in transition race is the sustained recipient of its own demographic bonus by the year 2030.On the basis of three mechanisms namely: labour supply, savings and human capital, the Eastern Asian region is found to be successful beneficiary of its own demographic gift which concludes that many million people have escaped from poverty. Under the right policy environment on the above three mechanisms, Eastern Asia experience indicates the realistic contribution of demographic bonus to reduce poverty.

  14. Organ Donation in the 50+ Age Demographic: Survey Results on Decision Rationale and Information Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic.

  15. Statistical Analysis of Demographic and Temporal Differences in LANL's 2014 Voluntary Protection Program Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Adam Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Booth, Steven Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) surveys were conducted in 2013 and 2014 to assess the degree to which workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory feel that their safety is valued by their management and peers. The goal of this analysis is to determine whether the difference between the VPP survey scores in 2013 and 2014 is significant, and to present the data in a way such that it can help identify either positive changes or potential opportunities for improvement. Data for several questions intended to identify the demographic groups of the respondent are included in both the 2013 and 2014 VPP survey results. These can be used to identify any significant differences among groups of employees as well as to identify any temporal trends in these cohorts.

  16. Association between Maternal and Child Dietary Diversity: An Analysis of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey.

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    Dickson Abanimi Amugsi

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between maternal and child dietary diversity in a population-based national sample in Ghana.The data for this analysis are from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. We used data obtained from 1187 dyads comprised of mothers' ages 15-49 and their youngest child (ages 6-36 months. Maternal and child dietary diversity scores (DDS were created based on the mother's recall of her own and her child's consumption of 15 food groups, during the 24 hours prior to the in-home survey. The same food groups were used to compose both maternal and child DDS. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the predicted outcome--child DDS--and maternal DDS, taking into account child age and sex, maternal factors (age, education, occupation, literacy, empowerment, number of antenatal visits as an indicator of health care use, household Wealth Index, and urban/rural place of residence.There was a statistically significant positive association between child and maternal DDS, after adjusting for all other variables. A difference of one food group in mother's consumption was associated with a difference of 0.72 food groups in the child's food consumption (95% CI: 0.63, 0.82. Also, statistically significant positive associations were observed such that higher child DDS was associated with older child age, and with greater women's empowerment.The results show a significant positive association between child and maternal DD, after accounting for the influence of child, maternal and household level factors. Since the likely path of influence is that maternal DDS impacts child DDS, public health efforts to improve child health may be strengthened by promoting maternal DDS due to its potential for a widened effect on the entire family.

  17. European adults’ physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18–65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55–64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity. PMID:27280072

  18. Determinants Of Vaccination Coverage In Malawi: Evidence From The Demographic And Health Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Munthali, Alister C.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify groups of children in Malawi who are less or not reached by vaccination services by using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Malawi in 1992, 1996, 2000 and 2004. These surveys have shown that the proportion of children aged 12–23 months who were fully vaccinated by 12 months of age has been decreasing: it was 67% in 1992, then 55%, 54% and 51% in 1996, 2000 and 2004, respectively. The review has also shown that birth order of the...

  19. Questions About Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge, Practice, and Outcomes: A Review of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viens, Laura; Perin, Doug; Senkomago, Virginia; Neri, Antonio; Saraiya, Mona

    2017-05-01

    United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals and the World Health Organization's Global Monitoring Framework support a strong global commitment to reducing the high burden of cervical and breast cancers among low- and middle-income countries. Strategies include vaccination, screening, and early diagnosis. Population-based surveys, such as those conducted by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program, can collect the information needed to guide cancer control efforts in a standardized comparable manner. We identified and evaluated the breadth of breast and cervical cancer screening information that was collected by the DHS from 1984 through 2015. Then, we determined if these surveys currently provide the specific and measurable data about both the quantity and quality of cancer screening needed to guide national efforts to reduce the overall effects of cervical and breast cancers. We searched the DHS website to identify surveys conducted between the start of the DHS Program in 1984 and November 2015 that included questions about breast and cervical cancer screening. The relevant questions were extracted from the questionnaire, translated into English, and grouped by themes. Of the 90 countries where DHS surveys have been implemented, cervical cancer screening questions were included in 22 countries (24.4%) and breast cancer screening questions in 18 countries (20.0%). The common themes identified were disease knowledge, screening knowledge, screening practice, and screening outcomes. Most countries with survey questionnaires available for review addressed at least one aspect of screening practice (88.9% of cervical and 87.5% of breast), although few countries queried knowledge and outcomes. Questions that assess varied aspects of breast and cervical cancer screening have been incorporated into relatively few DHS surveys. The themes identified could guide the design of a standard set of questions for use in future population-based surveys and enable evaluation

  20. Interpersonal communication and contraception: Insights and evidences from Bangladesh demographic and health survey, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Manoj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of exposure to mass media and interpersonal communication in predicting the current use of contraception in Bangladesh. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out using the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), 2011 data to explore the association between communication and the current use of contraception. After adjusting the related socioeconomic and demographic factors, the mass media did not seem to have any role in predicting contraceptive use behavior while the findings revealed that interpersonal communication [prevalence ratio (PR): 1.0984, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0801-1.1170] is a strong positive predictor of the current contraceptive use. It is a well-known fact that mass media performs only the knowledge function while interpersonal communication performs an additional function of persuasion. This analysis corroborates the statement that the role of interpersonal communication is quite important in predicting contraceptive use.

  1. Access to sanitation and violence against women: evidence from Demographic Health Survey (DHS) data in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Samantha C; Barchi, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Violence against women (VAW) is a serious public health and human rights concern. Literature suggests sanitation conditions in developing countries may be potential neighborhood-level risk factors contributing to VAW, and that this association may be more important in highly socially disorganized neighborhoods. This study analyzed 2008 Kenya Demographic Health Survey's data and found women who primarily practice open defecation (OD), particularly in disorganized communities, had higher odds of experiencing recent non-partner violence. This study provides quantitative evidence of an association between sanitation and VAW that is attracting increasing attention in media and scholarly literature throughout Kenya and other developing countries.

  2. Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian C. O' Neill

    2006-08-09

    This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

  3. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort User Guide: Data Elements A--Demographics. Technical Paper 74A

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This is a support document to the "Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) 2009 Cohort User Guide" report. Developed for users of LSAY, the user guide consolidates information about the LSAY 2009 cohort into one document. This support document provides demographics information for the guide. [For the main report, "Longitudinal Surveys of…

  4. Trends and differentials of adolescent motherhood in Ethiopia: evidences from 2005 Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmu, Eshetu; Dejene, Tariku

    2012-12-01

    Adolescent childbearing has undesirable consequences. Dropping out of school, high rates of abortion, maternal mortality and morbidity are noted consequences of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing. The objective of this study, which is based on the 2005 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data, is to analyze the levels, trends and differentials of adolescent motherhood in Ethiopia. A multilevel logistic regression was fitted to analyze the determinants of adolescent childbearing. Adolescent motherhood in Ethiopia has shown a generally declining trend over time. The decline was more marked in the periods following the adoption of the national population policy in the country. Further, it was lower in urban areas and among women who have secondary and above level of education, but higher among women not working and those engaged in agricultural activities. Housewives and women working in the agricultural sector should be given attention to reduce the risks and consequences of adolescent motherhood.

  5. Back Pain in Poland and Germany: A Survey of Prevalence and Association with Demographic Characters

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    Lea Henn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Back pain is the most common form of pain and leads to high costs in all medical care systems. Objective. The present study examines the prevalence of back pain and its associations with some basic demographics. Methods. Two samples from Poland and Germany (about n=500 each were examined via Internet regarding back pain, gender, age, and body mass index (BMI. Results. Back pain is more common in women than in men (risk ratio about 1.7, and a high BMI constitutes an additional risk factor. Age was not related to back pain prevalence. Conclusion. Congruent results in two countries based on the same measure of back pain lead to the assumption that much of the variety found in estimates of back pain are due to inconsistent assessment. For future research, a definition of common criteria on how to assess back pain would be an asset.

  6. Maternal morbidity and near miss associated with maternal age: the innovative approach of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey

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    Fernando César de Oliveira Jr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of potentially life-threatening maternal conditions and near miss in Brazil according to maternal age. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey database using a validated questionnaire to evaluate maternal morbidity with a focus on age extremes. The study included 5,025 women with at least 1 live birth in the 5-year reference period preceding their interviews. Three age range periods were used: 15-19 years (younger age, 20-34 years (control, and 35-49 years (advanced maternal age. According to a pragmatic definition, any woman reporting eclampsia, hysterectomy, blood transfusion, or admission to the intensive care unit during her pregnancy/childbirth was considered a near-miss case. The associations between age and severe maternal morbidity were further assessed. RESULTS: For the 6,833 reported pregnancies, 73.7% of the women were 20-34 years old, 17.9% were of advanced maternal age, and only 8.4% were of younger age. More than 22% of the women had at least one of the complications appraised, and blood transfusion, which was more prevalent among the controls, was the only variable with a significant difference among the age groups. The overall rate of maternal near miss was 21.1 per 1000 live births. There was a trend of higher maternal near miss with increasing age. The only significant risk factor identified for maternal near miss was a lower literacy level among older women. CONCLUSIONS: There is a trend towards worse results with increasing age. The investigation of the determinants of maternal near miss at the community level using an innovative approach through a demographic health survey is an example suggested for under-resourced settings.

  7. Girl child marriage and its effect on fertility in Pakistan: findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Muazzam, Sana; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Raj, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Child marriage (before 18 years) is prevalent in Pakistan, which disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and low education households. Our study aims to determine the association between early marriage and high fertility and poor fertility health indicators among young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally representative data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, a cross-sectional observational survey, were limited to ever-married women aged 20-24 years (n = 1,560; 15% of 10,023) to identify differences in poor fertility outcomes [high fertility (three or more childbirths); rapid repeat childbirth (marriage. Associations between child marriage and fertility outcomes were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AORs) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence), contraception use, marriage duration and culture-specific factors (husband's desire for more children, son preference). Overall, 50% of ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. Girl child marriage was significantly (p marriage was significantly associated with high fertility (AOR 6.62; 95% CI 3.53-12.43), rapid repeat childbirth (AOR 2.88; 95% CI 1.83-4.54), unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.90; 95% CI 1.75-4.79), and pregnancy termination (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.10-2.78). Girl child marriage affects half of all ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan, and increases their risk for high fertility and poor fertility health indicators, highlighting the need of increasing the age of marriage among women in Pakistan. Efforts to eliminate girl child marriage by strict law enforcement, promoting civil, sexual and reproductive health rights for women can help eliminate girl child marriage in Pakistan.

  8. Academic Achievement Survey and Educational Assessment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The recent "Nationwide academic achievement and study situation survey" was clearly influenced by the idea of "authentic assessment", an educational assessment perspective focused on "quality" and "engagement". However, when "performance assessment", the assessment method corresponding to this…

  9. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

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    Esben Meulengracht Flachs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1 a static year 2005 population, (2 morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3 an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution.

  10. Measuring infertility in populations: constructing a standard definition for use with demographic and reproductive health surveys.

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    Mascarenhas, Maya N; Cheung, Hoiwan; Mathers, Colin D; Stevens, Gretchen A

    2012-08-31

    Infertility is a significant disability, yet there are no reliable estimates of its global prevalence. Studies on infertility prevalence define the condition inconsistently, rendering the comparison of studies or quantitative summaries of the literature difficult. This study analyzed key components of infertility to develop a definition that can be consistently applied to globally available household survey data. We proposed a standard definition of infertility and used it to generate prevalence estimates using 53 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). The analysis was restricted to the subset of DHS that contained detailed fertility information collected through the reproductive health calendar. We performed sensitivity analyses for key components of the definition and used these to inform our recommendations for each element of the definition. Exposure type (couple status, contraceptive use, and intent), exposure time, and outcomes were key elements of the definition that we proposed. Our definition produced estimates that ranged from 0.6% to 3.4% for primary infertility and 8.7% to 32.6% for secondary infertility. Our sensitivity analyses showed that using an exposure measure of five years is less likely to misclassify fertile unions as infertile. Additionally, using a current, rather than continuous, measure of contraceptive use over five years resulted in a median relative error in secondary infertility of 20.7% (interquartile range of relative error [IQR]: 12.6%-26.9%), while not incorporating intent produced a corresponding error in secondary infertility of 58.2% (IQR: 44.3%-67.9%). In order to estimate the global burden of infertility, prevalence estimates using a consistent definition need to be generated. Our analysis provided a recommended definition that could be applied to widely available global household data. We also summarized potential biases that should be considered when making estimates of infertility prevalence using household survey data.

  11. 25-year trends and socio-demographic differences in response rates: Finnish adult health behaviour survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Helakorpi, Satu; Talala, Kirsi; Helasoja, Ville; Martelin, Tuija; Prättälä, Ritva

    2006-01-01

    When estimating population level changes in health indicators, the declining response rate, especially if also the characteristics of non-respondents are changing may bias the outcome. There is evidence that survey response rates are declining in many countries. It is also known that respondents and non-respondents differ in their socio-economic and demographic status as well as in their health and health behaviours. There is no information about the changes in the differences between respondents and non-respondents over time. Our purpose was to investigate the changes over time in the differences between respondents and non-respondents in respect to their sex, age, marital status and educational level. The data from the Finnish Adult Health Behaviour Survey (1978-2002) was used. The response rate declined over the past 25 years for both men and women in all age groups. The decline was faster among men than women, and also faster in younger age groups than older age groups. There is a marked difference in the response rate between married and non-married persons but it did not change over time. Also the response rate between different educational levels differed for both men and women, and this difference increased over the years. The declining response rate and at the same time occurring change in the non-respondent characteristics will decrease the representativeness of the results, limit the comparability of the results with other surveys, increase the bias of the trend estimates and limit the comparability of the results between population groups.

  12. Haemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) Study: survey methodology and population demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, A L; Gregory, M; Nugent, D; Garrido, C; Pilgaard, T; Cooper, D L; Iorio, A

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial factors have a significant impact on the quality of life of persons with haemophilia (PWH). The Haemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) initiative was developed to provide a greater understanding of the psychological components which influence the lives of PWH. This article describes the HERO methodology and the characteristics of respondents. Two online surveys (one for adult PWH ≥18 years and one for parents of children surveys included demographic and treatment characteristics, relationships, sexual intimacy, quality of life, barriers to treatment and sources of information. A total of 675 PWH [age, median (range) 36 (18-86 years)] and 561 parents [39 (23-68 years)] completed the survey. PWH/parents reported haemophilia A (74%/76%), B (13%/16%) or with inhibitors (13%/8%). Spontaneous joint bleeding was reported in 76%/52% of PWH/children with haemophilia A, 67%/47% with haemophilia B and 93%/76% with inhibitors. Median number of bleeds (interquartile range) was 7 (2-20) for PWH and 4 (2-10) for children in the past year. Most PWH and children were treated with factor concentrate. PWH reported arthritis (49%) and HIV/HCV infections (18%/43%) related to haemophilia. Most PWH and parent respondents had received formal education (85%/89%) and were employed full- or part-time (60%/72%). HERO is one of the largest multinational studies focused on psychosocial issues in haemophilia, including historical and treatment information that will allow for multivariate analyses of determinants of health in haemophilia.

  13. Geovisualization to support the exploration of large health and demographic survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koua Etien L

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survey data are increasingly abundant from many international projects and national statistics. They are generally comprehensive and cover local, regional as well as national levels census in many domains including health, demography, human development, and economy. These surveys result in several hundred indicators. Geographical analysis of such large amount of data is often a difficult task and searching for patterns is particularly a difficult challenge. Geovisualization research is increasingly dealing with the exploration of patterns and relationships in such large datasets for understanding underlying geographical processes. One of the attempts has been to use Artificial Neural Networks as a technology especially useful in situations where the numbers are vast and the relationships are often unclear or even hidden. Results We investigate ways to integrate computational analysis based on a Self-Organizing Map neural network, with visual representations of derived structures and patterns in a framework for exploratory visualization to support visual data mining and knowledge discovery. The framework suggests ways to explore the general structure of the dataset in its multidimensional space in order to provide clues for further exploration of correlations and relationships. Conclusion In this paper, the proposed framework is used to explore a demographic and health survey data. Several graphical representations (information spaces are used to depict the general structure and clustering of the data and get insight about the relationships among the different variables. Detail exploration of correlations and relationships among the attributes is provided. Results of the analysis are also presented in maps and other graphics.

  14. Socio-demographic and reproductive health profile of women who experienced signs of obstetric fistula: Results from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sadaf; Zaheer, Sidra

    2017-08-18

    to examine the socio-demographic profile of women experiencing signs of obstetric fistula and factors contributing to the development of this condition in Pakistan. secondary data analysis of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006-07, which for the first time measured signs of obstetric fistula, using a questionnaire at a population level. For the present study, questions directly related to obstetric fistula signs were used to construct a dependent variable. Data were analysed by descriptive and logistic regression analysis, to examine factors associated with development of fistula. among women of reproductive age (n = 9134, aged 15-49 years), some 277 (3.0%, 30 per 1000 women who ever gave birth) experienced obstetric fistula signs, whereas 103 (1.1% of all women) were still experiencing the condition at the time of survey. In a logistic regression model, women from the Punjab region (OR = 5.67, 95%CI = 2.10-15.31), women who delivered by caesarean section (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.06-3.42) and reported having complications during pregnancy were more likely to develop obstetric fistula (OR = 1.96, 95%CI = 1.19-3.16). Obstetric fistula is one of the neglected public and reproductive health concerns in Pakistan. To eliminate this preventable tragedy, there is a need for better emergency obstetric care facilities and the availability of a fistula repair service throughout the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlui, Maznah; Azahar, Nazar; Oche, Oche Mansur; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Objective This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria. Design The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a child...

  16. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlui, Maznah; Azahar, Nazar; Oche, Oche Mansur; Abdul Aziz, Norlaili

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality.Objective: This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria.Design: The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a chil...

  17. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Maznah Dahlui; Nazar Azahar; Oche Mansur Oche; Norlaili Abdul Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria. Design: The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a ch...

  18. A Survey Study to Find out the Relationship between Leadership Styles and Demographic Characteristics of Elementary and Secondary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlah, Ijaz Ahmed; Quraishi, Uzma; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a study aiming to investigate the leadership styles of elementary and secondary school teachers' in Public Sector schools in Lahore, Pakistan. The study also explored if there was any correlation between demographic characteristics of teachers and their leadership styles. A survey was conducted using Task-oriented and…

  19. Proximate Determinants of Fertility in Zambia: Analysis of the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumbi Chola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of proximate determinants in influencing fertility has been well documented worldwide. Bongaarts’ aggregate model of the proximate determinants (which focuses on marriage, contraception, abortion, and sterility has been widely used to analyse the influence of proximate determinants on fertility. In Zambia, however, there is limited understanding of their effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of proximate determinants of fertility in Zambia using Bongaarts’ model. This was a cross-sectional analysis of women’s data from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS. A total of 7,146 women aged 15 to 49 years participated in the ZDHS. Bongaarts’ model was employed in the data analysis. Results showed that, overall, mean age was 27.8 years and rural-urban distribution was 56% and 44%, respectively. Marriage (40% and postpartum infecundity (22% accounted for the largest inhibiting effect on natural fertility from its biological maximum of 19.10. Contraception use accounted for only 3%. Therefore, in order to manage fertility in Zambia, policies and programmes should consider the effects of marriage, postpartum infecundity, and contraception on fertility. Without such targeted interventions, managing and maintaining population growth will remain a challenge in Zambia.

  20. Comparing two survey methods of measuring health-related indicators: Lot Quality Assurance Sampling and Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoke, Sarah C; Mwai, Paul; Jeffery, Caroline; Valadez, Joseph J; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Two common methods used to measure indicators for health programme monitoring and evaluation are the demographic and health surveys (DHS) and lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS); each one has different strengths. We report on both methods when utilised in comparable situations. We compared 24 indicators in south-west Uganda, where data for prevalence estimations were collected independently for the two methods in 2011 (LQAS: n = 8876; DHS: n = 1200). Data were stratified (e.g. gender and age) resulting in 37 comparisons. We used a two-sample two-sided Z-test of proportions to compare both methods. The average difference between LQAS and DHS for 37 estimates was 0.062 (SD = 0.093; median = 0.039). The average difference among the 21 failures to reject equality of proportions was 0.010 (SD = 0.041; median = 0.009); among the 16 rejections, it was 0.130 (SD = 0.010, median = 0.118). Seven of the 16 rejections exhibited absolute differences of 0.10 and 0.20 (mean = 0.261, SD = 0.083). There is 75.7% agreement across the two surveys. Both methods yield regional results, but only LQAS provides information at less granular levels (e.g. the district level) where managerial action is taken. The cost advantage and localisation make LQAS feasible to conduct more frequently, and provides the possibility for real-time health outcomes monitoring. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Female Genital Mutilation in Sierra Leone: Forms, Reliability of Reported Status, and Accuracy of Related Demographic and Health Survey Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owolabi Bjälkander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine forms of female genital mutilation (FGM, assess consistency between self-reported and observed FGM status, and assess the accuracy of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS FGM questions in Sierra Leone. Methods. This cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2010 and April 2012, enrolled 558 females aged 12–47 from eleven antenatal clinics in northeast Sierra Leone. Data on demography, FGM status, and self-reported anatomical descriptions were collected. Genital inspection confirmed the occurrence and extent of cutting. Results. All participants reported FGM status; 4 refused genital inspection. Using the WHO classification of FGM, 31.7% had type Ib; 64.1% type IIb; and 4.2% type IIc. There was a high level of agreement between reported and observed FGM prevalence (81.2% and 81.4%, resp.. There was no correlation between DHS FGM responses and anatomic extent of cutting, as 2.7% reported pricking; 87.1% flesh removal; and 1.1% that genitalia was sewn closed. Conclusion. Types I and II are the main forms of FGM, with labia majora alterations in almost 5% of cases. Self-reports on FGM status could serve as a proxy measurement for FGM prevalence but not for FGM type. The DHS FGM questions are inaccurate for determining cutting extent.

  2. Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Acharya, Pawan; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Hatløy, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence of child stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is among the highest in the world. There is a need to systematically investigate how stunting operates at different levels of determination and identify major factors contributing to the development of stunting. The aim of this study was to look for key determinants of stunting in the DRC. This study used data from the DRC Demographic Health Survey 2013-14 which included anthropometric measurement for 9030 under 5 year children. Height-for-Age Z score was calculated and classified according to the WHO guideline. The association between stunting and bio-demographic characteristics was assessed using logistic regression. Prevalence of stunting was much higher in boys than girls. There was a significant rural urban gap in the prevalence of stunting with rural areas having a larger proportion of children living with stunting than urban. Male children, older than 6 months, preceding birth interval less than 24 months, being from lower wealth quintiles had the highest odds of stunting. Several provinces had in particular high odds of stunting. Early initiation of breastfeeding, mother's age more than 20 years at the time of delivery had lower odds of stunting. The taller the mother the less likely the child was to be stunted. Similarly, mother's BMI, access to safe water, access to hygienic toilet, mother's education were found negatively correlated with child stunting in the bivariate logistic regression, but they lost statistical significance in multivariate analysis together with numbers of children in the family and place of residence. Child stunting is widespread in the DRC and increasing prevalence is worrisome. This study has identified modifiable factors determining high prevalence of stunting in the DRC. Policy implementation should in particular target provinces with high prevalence of stunting and address modifiable determinants such as reducing socioeconomic disparity. Nutrition

  3. Caribbean Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in Caribbean waters conducted during 2000-2001. These surveys were...

  4. Cosmic X-ray Surveys of Distant Active Galaxies: The Demographics, Physics, and Ecology of Growing Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, W N

    2015-01-01

    We review results from cosmic X-ray surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the past ~ 15 yr that have dramatically improved our understanding of growing supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the distant universe. First, we discuss the utility of such surveys for AGN investigations and the capabilities of the missions making these surveys, emphasizing Chandra, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR. Second, we briefly describe the main cosmic X-ray surveys, the essential roles of complementary multiwavelength data, and how AGNs are selected from these surveys. We then review key results from these surveys on the AGN population and its evolution ("demographics"), the physical processes operating in AGNs ("physics"), and the interactions between AGNs and their environments ("ecology"). We conclude by describing some significant unresolved questions and prospects for advancing the field.

  5. Cues-to-Action in Initiating Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender-Related Policies Among Magnet Hospital Chief Nursing Officers: A Demographic Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbaugh, Ralph; Spencer, Gale

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Magnet Chief Nursing Officers' cues-to-action initiating lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT)-specific policies. Homonegativity has a negative effect on employee recruitment and retention and patient satisfaction. Little has been known about what cues-to-action might initiate LGBT inclusive training. Surveys were mailed to 343 Chief Nursing Officers. Cues-to-action survey was used to assess what inspires initiation of LGBT training. Demographic surveys were used to assess what impact variables might have on cues-to-action. Age, sex, religiosity, location, and region had significant effect on cues-to-action. Developing demographically informed training and policies for LGBT equality in health care is suggestive of greater employee and patient satisfaction.

  6. Non-Response in Student Surveys: The Role of Demographics, Engagement and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    What causes a student to participate in a survey? This paper looks at participation across multiple surveys to understand survey non-response; by using multiple surveys we minimize the impact of survey salience. Students at a selective liberal arts college were administered four different surveys throughout the 2002-2003 academic year, and we use…

  7. Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Nepal: 2012 follow-up survey and use of skilled birth attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnu P. Choulagai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimates of disease burden in Nepal are based on cross-sectional studies that provide inadequate epidemiological information to support public health decisions. This study compares the health and demographic indicators at the end of 2012 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS with the baseline conducted at the end of 2010. We also report on the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs and associated factors in the JD-HDSS at the follow-up point. Design: We used a structured questionnaire to survey 3,505 households in the JD-HDSS, Bhaktapur, Nepal. To investigate the use of SBAs, we interviewed 434 women who had delivered a baby within the prior 2 years. We compared demographic and health indicators at baseline and follow-up and assessed the association of SBA services with background variables. Results: Due to rising in-migration, the total population and number of households in the JD-HDSS increased (13,669 and 2,712 in 2010 vs. 16,918 and 3,505 in 2012. Self-reported morbidity decreased (11.1% vs. 7.1%, respectively, whereas accidents and injuries increased (2.9% vs. 6.5% of overall morbidity, respectively. At follow-up, the proportion of institutional delivery (93.1% exceeded the national average (36%. Women who accessed antenatal care and used transport (e.g. bus, taxi, motorcycle to reach a health facility were more likely to access institutional delivery. Conclusions: High in-migration increased the total population and number of households in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban area where most health indicators exceed the national average. Major morbidity conditions (respiratory diseases, fever, gastrointestinal problems, and bone and joint problems remain unchanged. Further investigation of reasons for increased proportion of accidents and injuries are recommended for their timely prevention. More than 90% of our respondents received adequate antenatal care and used institutional delivery, but only 13

  8. Integration of genetic and demographic data to assess population risk in a continuously distributed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; Row, Jeffery R.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.

    2017-01-01

    The identification and demographic assessment of biologically meaningful populations is fundamental to species’ ecology and management. Although genetic tools are used frequently to identify populations, studies often do not incorporate demographic data to understand their respective population trends. We used genetic data to define subpopulations in a continuously distributed species. We assessed demographic independence and variation in population trends across the distribution. Additionally, we identified potential barriers to gene flow among subpopulations. We sampled greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) leks from across their range (≈175,000 Km2) in Wyoming and amplified DNA at 14 microsatellite loci for 1761 samples. Subsequently, we assessed population structure in unrelated individuals (n = 872) by integrating results from multiple Bayesian clustering approaches and used the boundaries to inform our assessment of long-term population trends and lek activity over the period of 1995–2013. We identified four genetic clusters of which two northern ones showed demographic independence from the others. Trends in population size for the northwest subpopulation were statistically different from the other three genetic clusters and the northeast and southwest subpopulations demonstrated a general trend of increasing proportion of inactive leks over time. Population change from 1996 to 2012 suggested population growth in the southern subpopulations and decline, or neutral, change in the northern subpopulations. We suggest that sage-grouse subpopulations in northern Wyoming are at greater risk of extirpation than the southern subpopulations due to smaller census and effective population sizes and higher variability within subpopulations. Our research is an example of incorporating genetic and demographic data and provides guidance on the identification of subpopulations of conservation concern.

  9. Determinants of suboptimal breastfeeding practices in Nigeria: evidence from the 2008 demographic and health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbo, Felix A; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew

    2015-03-18

    In Nigeria, suboptimal breastfeeding practices are contributing to the burden of childhood diseases and mortality. This study identified the determinants of key suboptimal breastfeeding practices among children 0-23 months in Nigeria. Data on 10,225 children under-24 months were obtained from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Socio-economic, health service and individual factors associated with key breastfeeding indicators (early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, predominant breastfeeding and bottle feeding) were investigated using multiple logistic regression analyses. Among infants 0-5 months of age, 14% [95% confidence Interval (CI): 13%, 15%] were exclusively breastfed and 48% [95% CI: 46, 50%] were predominantly breastfed. Among children aged 0-23 months, 38% [95% CI 36, 39%] were breastfed within the first hour of birth, and 15% [95% CI: 14, 17%] were bottle-fed. Early initiation of breastfeeding was associated with higher maternal education, frequent antenatal care (ANC) visits and birth interval but deliveries at a health facility with caesarean section was associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Educated mothers, older mothers and mothers from wealthier households exclusively breastfeed their babies. The risk for bottle feeding was higher among educated mothers and fathers, and women from wealthier households including mothers who made frequent ANC visits. Socio-economic and health service factors were associated with suboptimal breastfeeding practices in Nigeria. To improve the current breastfeeding practices, breastfeeding initiatives should target all mothers - particularly low SES mothers - including, national and sub-national health policies that ensure improved access to maternal health services, and improvements to baby friendly hospital and community initiatives for mothers.

  10. Risk factors for under-5 mortality: evidence from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abir, Tanvir; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore; Page, Andrew Nicolas; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Dibley, Michael John

    2015-08-21

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with mortality in children under 5 years of age using a nationally representative sample of singleton births for the period of 2004-2011. Pooled 2004, 2007 and 2011 cross-sectional data sets of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys were analysed. The surveys used a stratified two-stage cluster sample of 16,722 singleton live-born infants of the most recent birth of a mother within a 3-year period. Outcome measures were neonatal mortality (0-30 days), postneonatal mortality (1-11 months), infant mortality (0-11 months), child mortality (1-4 years) and under-5 mortality (0-4 years). Survival information for 16,722 singleton live-born infants and 522 deaths of children child deaths and 522 under-5 deaths. Multiple variable analysis showed that, over a 7-year period, mortality reduced significantly by 48% for postneonatal deaths, 33% for infant deaths and 29% for under-5 deaths, but there was no significant reduction in neonatal deaths (adjusted OR (AOR) = 0.79, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.06) or child deaths (AOR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.94). The odds of neonatal, postneonatal, infant, child and under-5 deaths decreased significantly among mothers who used contraceptive and mothers who had other children aged 3 years or older. The risk of neonatal, postneonatal, infant, child and under-5 deaths was significantly higher in mothers who reported a previous death of a sibling. Our study suggests that family planning is needed to further reduce the overall rate of under-5 deaths in Bangladesh. To reduce childhood mortality, public health interventions that focus on child spacing and contraceptive use by mothers may be most effective. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef communities in Puerto Rico using the Coral Demographics method

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Demographic method is one of two benthic surveys conducted in Puerto Rico as part of the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP). The coral...

  12. Spatial Distribution of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity among Women and Children: Results from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedir N. Turi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available While undernutrition and infectious diseases are still persistent in developing countries, overweight, obesity, and associated comorbidities have become more prevalent. Uganda, a developing sub-Saharan African country, is currently experiencing the public health paradox of undernutrition and overnutrition. We utilized the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (DHS to examine risk factors and hot spots for underweight, overweight, and obesity among adult females (N = 2,420 and their children (N = 1,099 using ordinary least squares and multinomial logit regression and the ArcGIS Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. Overweight and obese women were significantly more likely to have overweight children, and overweight was correlated with being in the highest wealth class (OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.99–4.35, and residing in an urban (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.34–2.29 but not a conflict prone (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.29–0.78 area. Underweight clustered significantly in the Northern and Northeastern regions, while overweight females and children clustered in the Southeast. We demonstrate that the DHS can be used to assess geographic clustering and burden of disease, thereby allowing for targeted programs and policies. Further, we pinpoint specific regions and population groups in Uganda for targeted preventive measures and treatment to reduce the burden of overweight and chronic diseases in Uganda.

  13. Knowledge on AIDS among female adolescents in Bangladesh: evidence from the Bangladesh demographic and health survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Asaduzzaman

    2002-06-01

    To assess the knowledge on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among female adolescents in Bangladesh, this study used data extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 1996-1997. Of 1,446 ever-married women included in the study, most were currently married (96%), Muslims (92%) and from rural areas (91%). Only one in six adolescents had ever heard of AIDS. Of them, 57% reported AIDS as a fatal disease almost always, while only 22% believed that AIDS could be avoided. Multivariate analysis revealed that knowledge on AIDS was strongly and positively associated with education of female adolescents and their husbands and varied significantly across different parts of the country. Knowledge on AIDS was higher among relatively older and urban residents who had access to television or radio and whose husbands were using condom. Strong efforts are needed to improve awareness and to clarify misconceptions about AIDS. Improved access to education, mass-media, and promotion of condom use could prevent AIDS among female adolescents in Bangladesh.

  14. An Assessment of the 1983 "Biennial Survey."

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Charles R.

    1985-01-01

    Assesses the value of the Government Printing Office's 1983 "Biennial Survey" as a tool to support depository library planning and decision making. The survey data are evaluated in terms of reliability, validity, and utility, and recommendations are offered for improving the design, administration, and analysis of the survey. (CLB)

  15. Male circumcision and its association with HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases: evidence from 18 demographic and health surveys in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Samson

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the association between male circumcision and HIV infection and STDs. The issue is controversial as various studies reported conflicting findings. A cross-sectional comparative study based on the secondary data of 18 Demographic Health Surveys (DHS), carried out in Sub-Saharan Africa starting from 2003, was conducted. From all surveys, information on 70 554 males aged 15 - 59 years was extracted. The association between male circumcision and HIV infection and STD symptoms (genital discharge or genital ulcer/sore) was assessed using binary logistic regression. Adjustment was made for sexual history and basic socio-demographic variables. The weighted prevalence of HIV among men 15 - 59 years was 3.1%. In the bivariate analysis uncircumcised status was significantly associated with risk of HIV, with odds ratio (OR) of 4.12 (95% CI: 3.85 - 4.42). The association was even more significant (4.95 (95% CI: 4.57-5.36)) after adjustment for number of lifetime sexual partners and socio-demographic variables. The risk associated with uncircumcised status is significantly lower among younger men aged 15 - 29 years than those in 30 - 59-year age category. About 5.5% of the study subjects reported either genital discharge or genital sore/ulcer in the preceding 12 months of the surveys. Circumcision status was not significantly associated with either of the symptoms, with adjusted OR of 1.07 (95% CI: 0.99 - 1.15). The study concludes that there is a strong association between uncircumcised status and HIV infection. Hence, male circumcision can be considered as a possible way of reducing the spread of HIV infection in areas where the practice is rare. A comprehensive study to assess the association between circumcision and different types of STDs is recommended.

  16. Assessing the population coverage of a health demographic surveillance system using satellite imagery and crowd-sourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Aurelio; McCann, Robert S; Maire, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Remotely sensed data can serve as an independent source of information about the location of residential structures in areas under demographic and health surveillance. We report on results obtained combining satellite imagery, imported from Bing, with location data routinely collected using the built-in GPS sensors of tablet computers, to assess completeness of population coverage in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Malawi. The Majete Malaria Project Health and Demographic Surveillance System, in Malawi, started in 2014 to support a project with the aim of studying the reduction of malaria using an integrated control approach by rolling out insecticide treated nets and improved case management supplemented with house improvement and larval source management. In order to support the monitoring of the trial a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was established in the area that surrounds the Majete Wildlife Reserve (1600 km2), using the OpenHDS data system. We compared house locations obtained using GPS recordings on mobile devices during the demographic surveillance census round with those acquired from satellite imagery. Volunteers were recruited through the crowdcrafting.org platform to identify building structures on the images, which enabled the compilation of a database with coordinates of potential residences. For every building identified on these satellite images by the volunteers (11,046 buildings identified of which 3424 (ca. 30%) were part of the censused area), we calculated the distance to the nearest house enumerated on the ground by fieldworkers during the census round of the HDSS. A random sample of buildings (85 structures) identified on satellite images without a nearby location enrolled in the census were visited by a fieldworker to determine how many were missed during the baseline census survey, if any were missed. The findings from this ground-truthing effort suggest that a high population coverage was achieved in the

  17. Agression level of the young wrestlers to assess interms of social-demographic (Example of Ankara)

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdi Sancaklı; Ünsal Tazegül; Adnan Ersoy

    2012-01-01

     The aim of the study is to survey the level of aggression of young male wrestlers according to socio-demographic features. For this aim Aggression Scale, created by Tuzgöl(1998), used. The obtained data has been resolved by using spss package program 15 and seen that the data is non parametric. Statistical analysis methods Kruskal-Wallis H Test, Mann-Whitney U Test and Spearman Test have been used. As a result, no significant difference has been emerged (p>0,05) between the vari...

  18. MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH SECTION OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY REPORT OF GHANA, 2008: A COMMENTARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Adu-gyamfi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is basically a commentary on some sections on infant and maternalhealthcare of the 2008 demographic and health survey of Ghana. The attention of bothpolicy makers and academics are drawn to the need to ensure the expansion of thematernal and infant healthcare in Ghana. In same commentary, attention of readershave been drawn to the proclivity of the free maternal health policy to positively shapematernal and infant care in Ghana.

  19. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S.; Requi?o, Marinalva G.; Marasaldi, Renata F.; Filomensky, Tatiana Z.; Hodgins, David C.; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in S?o Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the ...

  20. [Principles and methods of mental health resource assessment in military personnel under conditions of demographic crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorona, A A; Syrkin, L D

    2011-03-01

    The article is devoted to developing the principles and methods of resource assessment of mental health military contingent in terms of demographic decline and reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. From the standpoint of the concept of the mutual influence of the value-semantic components and the level of psychological adaptation resources demonstrates the possibility of evaluating resource capabilities of the psyche of military contingent.

  1. Survey of independent inventors: An overview. [Includes information on demographics, gender, ethnicity, education, income, employment, areas of invention, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalley, P.

    1992-01-01

    Independent inventors are important but little-researched members of the US technical community. The survey reported on here is the first in modern times to attempt to provide a profile of the US independent inventor that goes beyond a single geographical or organizational locale. The report that follows provides an overview of the demographics, practices and concerns of the modern US inventor as represented by the members of leading US inventor organizations. It is by no means comprehensive but seeks to be indicative of the issues raised in the survey each which will be dealt with more comprehensively in future publications.

  2. Agression level of the young wrestlers to assess interms of social-demographic (Example of Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Sancaklı

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to survey the level of aggression of young male wrestlers according to socio-demographic features. For this aim Aggression Scale, created by Tuzgöl(1998, used. The obtained data has been resolved by using spss package program 15 and seen that the data is non parametric. Statistical analysis methods Kruskal-Wallis H Test, Mann-Whitney U Test and Spearman Test have been used. As a result, no significant difference has been emerged (p>0,05 between the variables (age, sports experiment, the highest degree and aggression level, and among the variables. Also according to Spearman Test, used to survey the effects of variables on the level of aggression, no significant difference has been emerged (p>0,05.

  3. Agression level of the young wrestlers to assess interms of social-demographic (Example of Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ersoy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of the study is to survey the level of aggression of young male wrestlers according to socio-demographic features. For this aim Aggression Scale, created by Tuzgöl(1998, used. The obtained data has been resolved by using spss package program 15 and seen that the data is non parametric. Statistical analysis methods Kruskal-Wallis H Test, Mann-Whitney U Test and Spearman Test have been used. As a result, no significant difference has been emerged (p>0,05 between the variables (age, sports experiment, the highest degree and aggression level, and among the variables. Also according to Spearman Test, used to survey the effects of variables on the level of aggression, no significant difference has been emerged (p>0,05. 

  4. Housing materials as predictors of under-five mortality in Nigeria: evidence from 2013 demographic and health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebowale, Stephen Ayo; Morakinyo, Oyewale Mayowa; Ana, Godson Rowland

    2017-01-19

    Nigeria is among countries with high Under-Five Mortality (U5M) rates worldwide. Both maternal and childhood factors have been linked to U5M in the country. However, despite the growing global recognition of the association between housing and quality of life, the role of housing materials as predictors of U5M remain largely unexplored in Nigeria. This study, therefore, investigated the relationship between housing materials and U5M in Nigeria. The study utilised the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data. A representative sample of 40,680 households was selected for the survey. The sample included 18,516 women of reproductive age who had given birth in the past 5 years prior the survey; with attention on the survival status of the index child (the most recent delivery). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, Cox-proportional hazard and Brass 2-parameter models (α = 0.05). The hazard ratio of U5M was 1.46 (C.I = 1.02-1.47, p materials respectively than those in good housing materials. Under-five deaths show a downward trend (slope = -0.4871) relative to the housing materials assessment score. The refined U5M rate was 143.5, 127.0 and 90.8 per 1000 live birth among women who live in houses built with inadequate, moderate and adequate housing materials respectively. Other predictors of U5M were; the size of the child at birth, preceding birth interval, prenatal care provider, residence and education. Under-five death reduces with increasing maternal level of; education, wealth quintile, media exposure and housing material type and mostly experienced by Muslim women (6.0%), rural women (6.5%) and women residence in the North-West geopolitical zones (6.9%). Living in houses built with poor housing materials promoted U5M in Nigeria. Provision of sustainable housing by the government and the maintenance of existing housing stock to healthful conditions will play a significant role in reducing the burden of U5M in Nigeria.

  5. Linking physiological approaches to marine vertebrate conservation: using sex steroid hormone determinations in demographic assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Mangel, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Sex, age and sexual maturation are key biological parameters for aspects of life history and are fundamental information for assessing demographic changes and the reproductive viability and performance of natural populations under exploitation pressures or in response to environmental influences. Much of the information available on the reproductive condition, length at sexual maturity and sex determinations of endangered species has been derived from direct examination of the gonads in dead animals, either intentionally or incidentally caught, or from stranded individuals. However, morphological data, when used alone, do not provide accurate demographic information in sexually monomorphic marine vertebrate species (e.g. sharks, sea turtles, seabirds and cetaceans). Hormone determination is an accurate and non-destructive method that provides indirect information about sex, reproductive condition and sexual maturity of free-ranging individuals. Correlations between sex steroid concentrations and biochemical parameters, gonadal development and state, reproductive behaviour and secondary external features have been already demonstrated in many species. Different non-lethal approaches (e.g. surgical and mark-recapture procedures), with intrinsic advantages and disadvantages when applied on free-ranging organisms, have been proposed to asses sex, growth and reproductive condition. Hormone determination from blood samples will generate valuable additional demographic information needed for stock assessment and biological conservation.

  6. Why do women deliver at home? Multilevel modeling of Ethiopian National Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henock Yebyo

    Full Text Available Despite of the existing intensive efforts to improve maternal health in Ethiopia, the proportion of birth delivered at home remains high and is still the top priority among the national health threats.The study aimed to examine effects of individual women and community-level factors of women's decision on place of delivery in Ethiopia.Data were obtained from the nationally representative 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS which used a two-stage cluster sampling design with rural-urban and regions as strata. The EDHS collected data from a big sample size but our study focused on a sample of 7,908 women whose most recent birth was within five years preceding 2011 and 576 communities in which the women were living in. The data were analyzed using a two-level mixed-effects logistic regression to determine fixed-effects of individual- and community-level factors and random-intercept of between-cluster characteristics.In the current study, 6980 out of 7908 deliveries (88.3% took place at home. Lower educational levels (OR=2.74, 95%CI:1.84,4.70; p<0.0001, making no or only a limited number of ANC visits (OR=3.72,95%CI:2.85, 4.83; p<0.0001, non-exposure to media (OR=1.51, 95%CI 1.13, 2.01; p=0.004, higher parity (OR=2.68, 95%CI:1.96,3.68; p<0.0001, and perceived distance problem to reach health facilities (OR=1.29, 95%CI:1.03,1.62; p=0.022 were positively associated with home delivery. About 75% of the total variance in the odds of giving birth at home was accounted for the between-community differences of characteristics (ICC=0.75, p<0.0001. With regard to community-level characteristics, rural communities (OR=4.67, 95%CI:3.06,7.11; p<0.0001, pastoralist communities (OR=4.53, 95%CI:2.81,7.28; p<0.0001, communities with higher poverty levels (OR=1.49 95%CI:1.08,2.22; p=0.048, with lower levels of ANC utilization (OR=2.01, 95%CI:1.42,2.85; p<0.0001 and problem of distance to a health facility (OR=1.29, 95%CI:1.03,1.62; p=0.004 had a

  7. Demographics of Lower Limb Amputations in the Pakistan Military: A Single Center, Three-Year Prospective Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Saeed B; Mansoor, Sahibzada N; Qureshi, Ali R; Fahim, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  The Pakistan military has been actively engaged in the war against terror for more than a decade. Many officers and soldiers have lost their limbs in this war. But the data on traumatic lower limb amputations in Pakistan is sparse. The aim of this study is to prospectively document the epidemiological profile of lower limb military amputees presenting at the largest rehabilitation centre of Pakistan over a three-year period. Materials & methods  A prospective three-year survey was conducted at the Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Pakistan. One hundred twenty-three consecutive patients with lower limb amputations were enrolled in the survey. The demographic data, etiology, associated injuries, complications profile, and type of prosthesis provided were documented. The data analysis was done using the statistical analysis tool SPSS V 20 (IBM®,NY, USA).  Results  All patients were male. Most had traumatic amputation (119), were between 20–40 years (106), with unilateral amputation (115). Mine blast injury was the leading cause in 73 (59.3%) and most (58.5%) were fitted with modular prosthesis. Transtibial amputation was the commonest level (65), followed by transfemoral (30). The time of surgical amputation was not documented in 87% of the patients. Half of the patients (54%) had associated injuries. Seventy-nine patients had at least one complication with phantom pain being the commonest in 25% cases. Conclusions  This is the largest prospective demographic survey of lower limb amputees in Pakistan military to date. Scores of soldiers and civilians in Pakistan have suffered lower limb amputation. The availability of demographic data can improve the trauma and rehabilitation services for better understanding and management of such cases. There is a need to conduct large scale community-based epidemiological surveys to direct future policies and develop amputee rehabilitation services in the public sector. PMID:27186448

  8. The relevance of socio-demographic and occupational variables for the assessment of work-related stress risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Ferrante, Pierpaolo; Corfiati, Marisa; Di Tecco, Cristina; Rondinone, Bruna M; Bonafede, Michela; Ronchetti, Matteo; Persechino, Benedetta; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2013-12-10

    Work-related stress is widely recognized as one of the major challenges to occupational health and safety. The correlation between work-related stress risk factors and physical health outcomes is widely acknowledged. This study investigated socio-demographic and occupational variables involved in perceived risk of work-related stress. The Italian version of the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool was used in a large survey to examine the relationship between work-related stress risks and workers' demographic and occupational characteristics. Out of 8,527 questionnaires distributed among workers (from 75 organizations) 6,378 were returned compiled (74.8%); a set of mixed effects models were adopted to test single and combined effects of the variables on work-related stress risk. Female workers reported lower scores on control and peer support and more negative perceptions of relationships and change at work than male workers, most of them with full-time contracts. Age, job seniority, and educational level appeared positively correlated with control at work, but negatively with job demands. Fixed-term workers had positive perceptions regarding job demands and relationships, but more difficulties about their role at work than permanent workers. A commuting time longer than one hour and shift work appeared to be associated with higher levels of risk factors for work-related stress (except for role), the latter having more negative effects, increasing with age. The findings suggest that the assessment and management of work-related stress risk should consider specific socio-demographic and occupational risk factors such as gender, age, educational level, job status, shift work, commuting time, job contracts.

  9. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  10. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Data (BASE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) study was a five year study to characterize determinants of indoor air quality and occupant perceptions in...

  11. Baseline assessments for coral reef community structure and demographics on West Maui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Angel, Bernardo; White, Darla; Storlazzi, Curt; Callender, Tova; Maurin, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    The coastal and upslope terrains of West Maui have had a long history of impacts owing to more than a century of human activities. Resource extraction, agriculture, as well as residential and resort development have caused land-based pollution that impairs water quality and adversely impact the adjacent marine ecosystem. Today, West Maui’s coral reefs are chronically impacted by the effects of land-based pollution, mainly sedimentation and nutrients, with documented losses of 30 – 75% in coral cover over the last 20 years. Nonetheless, despite their current status and levels of environmental impact, these coral reef communities represent a key local resource and a counterpoint to the overall low coral reef development levels both island- and state-wide. This is of high relevance because the occurrence of coral-rich assemblages and accreted reef complexes statewide is sparse. Only limited segments along the coastlines of Maui, Hawai‘i, Lana‘i, Moloka‘i, and Kaho‘olawe, harbor mature, fringing coral reefs; and unfortunately, many of them are seriously threatened by terrestrial runoff. This report describes the results of baseline assessment surveys of coral reef benthic structure, coral community demographics, and coral condition. These surveys are intended to provide benchmarks for continued monitoring efforts and provide a gauge for comparing and evaluating the effectiveness of management actions to reduce land-based sources of pollution in priority watersheds on West Maui. Within this context, 12 permanent, long-term monitoring sites were strategically established adjacent to the 7 primary stream drainages (Wahikuli, Honokōwai, Mahinahina, Kahana/Ka‘opala, Honokeana, Honokahua, and Honolua) within the five priority watersheds (Wahikuli, Honokōwai, Kahana, Honokahua, and Honolua). Herein, benthic cover and composition, coral demographics, and coral condition of the monitoring sites are described and contrasted in the “Benthic Characterization

  12. Association between Measures of Women's Empowerment and Use of Modern Contraceptives: An Analysis of Nigeria's Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaolu, Ibitola O; Okafor, Chioma T; Ehiri, Jennifer C; Dreifuss, Heather M; Ehiri, John E

    2016-01-01

    Women's empowerment is hypothesized as a predictor of reproductive health outcomes. It is believed that empowered girls and women are more likely to delay marriage, plan their pregnancies, receive prenatal care, and have their childbirth attended by a skilled health provider. The objective of this study was to assess the association between women's empowerment and use of modern contraception among a representative sample of Nigerian women. This study used the 2003, 2008, and 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data. The analytic sample was restricted to 35,633 women who expressed no desire to have children within 2 years following each survey, were undecided about timing for children, and who reported no desire for more children. Measures of women's empowerment included their ability to partake in decisions pertaining to their healthcare, large household purchases, and visit to their family or relatives. Multivariable regression models adjusting for respondent's age at first birth, religion, education, wealth status, number of children, and geopolitical region were used to measure the association between empowerment and use of modern contraceptives. The proportion of women who participated in decisions to visit their relatives increased from 42.5% in 2003 to 50.6% in 2013. The prevalence of women involved in decision-making related to large household purchases increased from 24.3% in 2003 to 41.1% in 2013, while the proportion of those who partook in decision related to their health care increased from 28.4% in 2003 to 41.9% in 2013. Use of modern contraception was positively associated with women's participation in decisions related to large household purchases [2008: adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.01-1.31] and (2013; aOR = 1.60; 1.40-1.83), health care [2008: (aOR = 1.20; 1.04-1.39) and (2013; aOR = 1.39; 1.22-1.59)], and visiting family or relatives [2013; aOR = 1.58; 1.36-1.83]. The prevalence of modern contraceptive use

  13. Prevalence and socio-demographic characteristics of disability in older adults in China: Findings from China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Li, Zhenzhen; Tang, Zhe; Sun, Fei; Diao, Lijun; Li, Jian; He, Yao; Dong, Birong; Li, Yun

    2017-11-01

    Disability affects older adults' quality of life. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic characteristics of disability in older adults in China. Data was obtained from the China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study (CCGAS). The sample comprised 6864 people aged 60 years and above from seven provinces in China. A door-to-door survey was conducted by formally trained interviewers using a unified questionnaire. Disability was assessed with physical health assessment comprising activities of daily living (ADL), and independent activities of daily living (IADL). For the purpose of this study, we analyzed only disability and some socio-demographic dimensions. The rates were standardized based on China's Sixth National Census population distribution. The disability rate in older adults was 7.0%. The disability rate was significantly higher in women than men, significantly higher in rural areas than urban areas, and higher in northern China than southern China. Urban disability rates ranged from 5.7% to 1.2%. The differences were statistically significant, with Beijing having the highest and Shanghai the lowest disability rates. Disability increased with age. In China, the disability rate in older adults is 7.0%, and increases with age. The disability rate is significantly higher in women, rural area, and northern China. This is the first study to report the epidemiology of disability in older adults in China in recent years and indicates the need for further epidemiological data on disability in China to facilitate long-term care and care policy formulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determinants of utilization of sufficient tetanus toxoid immunization during pregnancy: evidence from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Zelalem T; Chertok, Ilana R Azulay; Teweldeberhan, Asli K

    2013-06-01

    Although the effectiveness of tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization during pregnancy in preventing maternal and neonatal tetanus is well established, in many developing countries, TT immunization programs are underutilized. The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with sufficient TT immunization among postpartum women in Kenya. Population based secondary data analysis was conducted using de-identified data from the 2008-2009 Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) for 1,370 female participants who had a live birth during or within 12 months of the cross-sectional survey. Chi-square test and independent sample t test were conducted to assess bivariate associations and a multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine associations before and after adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and access to care factors. The main factors contributing to having been sufficiently immunized against tetanus were lower birth order, higher household wealth index, women's employment, making joint health-related decisions with a partner, and higher number of antenatal care visits. Implications for health care providers and other professionals involved in development of strategies and interventions aimed at improving immunization rates are discussed.

  15. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S; Requião, Marinalva G; Marasaldi, Renata F; Filomensky, Tatiana Z; Hodgins, David C; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the diagnosis of compulsive buying. Of the 171 participants, 95.9% (n = 164) met criteria for at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder. The results found that male and female compulsive buyers did not differ in problem severity as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale. However, several significant demographic and psychiatric differences were found in a multivariate binary logistic regression. Specifically, male compulsive buyers were more likely to report being non-heterosexual, and reported fewer years of formal education. In regards to psychiatric co-morbidities, male compulsive buyers were more likely to be diagnosed with sexual addiction, and intermittent explosive disorder. Conversely, men had lower scores on the shopping subscale of the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire. The results suggest that male compulsive buyers are more likely to present with co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Treatment planning for compulsive buying disorder would do well to take gender into account to address for potential psychiatric co-morbidities.

  16. Synthesizing Exoplanet Demographics from Radial Velocity and Microlensing Surveys, II: The Frequency of Planets Orbiting M Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Clanton, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to radial velocity surveys, results from microlensing surveys indicate that giant planets with masses greater than the critical mass for core accretion ($\\sim 0.1~M_{\\rm Jup}$) are relatively common around low-mass stars. Using the methodology developed in the first paper, we predict the sensitivity of M-dwarf radial velocity (RV) surveys to analogs of the population of planets inferred by microlensing. We find that RV surveys should detect a handful of super-Jovian ($>M_{\\rm Jup}$) planets at the longest periods being probed. These planets are indeed found by RV surveys, implying that the demographic constraints inferred from these two methods are consistent. We combine the results from both methods to estimate planet frequencies spanning wide regions of parameter space. We find that the frequency of Jupiters and super-Jupiters ($1\\lesssim m_p\\sin{i}/M_{\\rm Jup}\\lesssim 13$) with periods $1\\leq P/{\\rm days}\\leq 10^4$ is $f_{\\rm J}=0.029^{+0.013}_{-0.015}$, a median factor of 4.3 ($1.5-14$ at 95% ...

  17. Demographics for US Census Tracts - 2012 (American Community Survey 2008-2012 Derived Summary Tables)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays data derived from the 2008-2012 American Community Survey (ACS). Values derived from the ACS and used for this map service include: Total...

  18. Demographics for US Census Tracts - 2010 (American Community Survey 2006-2010 Derived Summary Tables)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays data derived from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey (ACS). Values derived from the ACS and used for this map service include: Total...

  19. Anthropological and demographic dimensions of the Kurdish question: Findings from census and survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Zeyneloğlu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Within this study, demographic and anthropological differences between the Kurdish group and the rest of the Turkish population are presented while existing approaches on the Kurdish question based on economic and political factors are critically evaluated. Using results of the 1945 Census an inventory of all language groups in Turkey is given together with their respective ‘literacy rates’ and ‘prevalence of knowledge of Turkish’, which reveal temporal differences in terms of entrance into the demographic transition and give hints as to why some ethnic groups have adopted the Turkish identity while some other groups have remained outside the ‘Turkish core’. Recent data from the TDHS, on the other hand, is used to analyze ‘fertility’ and ‘prevalence of consanguineous marriages’ among the Kurdish population. While Kurds who use Turkish as either main or second language converge to the rest of the population in terms of both fertility decline and the matrilateral swing among consanguineous marriages, among Kurds who do not speak Turkish at all the mentioned rates increase in the opposite direction. The Turkish and Kurdish family structures are evaluated within the framework of Emmanuel Todd’s family types with special consideration on the effects of consanguineous marriages and the patrilateral inclination among these on the status of women.

  20. An Analysis Report of 2014 CALA Self-Assessment Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Anna Xiong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of CALA’s 40th anniversary in 2014, the 2013 Board of Directors appointed a Self-Assessment Task Force to conduct an assessment survey with special focuses on members’ awareness of CALA’s organizational structure and policies, its services to members, the extent of participation in events sponsored by CALA, and the level of satisfaction with CALA leadership. Although only one-fifth of the active members responded to the survey, the answers and feedback have identified areas for organizational improvement and have shown how active members view the current state of CALA. Some essential findings from the survey include: 1 the growth of overseas membership as a demographic trend, 2 a need to recruit student members, 3 a high percentage of CALA members not aware of CALA’s Mission/Vision/Goal, 4 conflicting data on CALA’s leadership, 5 discovery of low ratings (10-30% of respondents on eleven out of twelve rating questions, and 6 strong support for CALA as a representative organization of Chinese American librarians in North America. The findings of the survey will serve as a valuable reference for future strategic planning and for carrying out CALA’s long term goals.

  1. Overweight and obesity among women: analysis of demographic and health survey data from 32 Sub-Saharan African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Subas; Prakash, K C; Doku, David Teye

    2016-01-13

    Overweight and obesity are risk factors for many chronic diseases globally. However, the extent of the problem in low-income countries like Sub-Saharan Africa is unclear. We assessed the magnitude and disparity of both phenomena by place of residence, level of education and wealth quintile using cross-sectional data from 32 countries. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data collected in 32 Sub-Saharan African countries between January 2005 and December 2013 were used. A total of 250651 women (aged 15-49 years) were analyzed. Trained personnel using a standardized procedure measured body weight and height. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing body weight by height squared. Prevalence of overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (≥ 30.0 kg/m(2)) were estimated for each country. Analysis of the relationships of overweight and obesity with place of residence, education and wealth index were carried out using logistic regression. The pooled prevalence of overweight for the region was 15.9% (95% CI, 15.7-16.0) with the lowest in Madagascar 5.6% (95% CI, 5.1-6.1) and the highest in Swaziland 27.7% (95% CI, 26.4-29.0). Similarly, the prevalence of obesity was also lowest in Madagascar 1.1% (95% CI, 0.9-1.4) and highest in Swaziland 23.0 (95% CI, 21.8-24.2). The women in urban residence and those who were classified as rich, with respect to the quintile of the wealth index, had higher likelihood of overweight and obesity. In the pooled results, high education was significantly associated with overweight and obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity varied highly between the countries and wealth index (rich vs. poor) was found to be the strongest predictor in most of the countries. Interventions that will address the socio-cultural barriers to maintaining healthy body size can contribute to curbing the overweight and obesity epidemic in Africa.

  2. Combining demographic and genetic factors to assess population vulnerability in stream species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin L, Landguth; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie W.; Waples, Robin S.; Whited, Diane; Lowe, Winsor H.; Lucotch, John; Neville, Helen; Luikart, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Accelerating climate change and other cumulative stressors create an urgent need to understand the influence of environmental variation and landscape features on the connectivity and vulnerability of freshwater species. Here, we introduce a novel modeling framework for aquatic systems that integrates spatially explicit, individual-based, demographic and genetic (demogenetic) assessments with environmental variables. To show its potential utility, we simulated a hypothetical network of 19 migratory riverine populations (e.g., salmonids) using a riverscape connectivity and demogenetic model (CDFISH). We assessed how stream resistance to movement (a function of water temperature, fluvial distance, and physical barriers) might influence demogenetic connectivity, and hence, population vulnerability. We present demographic metrics (abundance, immigration, and change in abundance) and genetic metrics (diversity, differentiation, and change in differentiation), and combine them into a single vulnerability index for identifying populations at risk of extirpation. We considered four realistic scenarios that illustrate the relative sensitivity of these metrics for early detection of reduced connectivity: (1) maximum resistance due to high water temperatures throughout the network, (2) minimum resistance due to low water temperatures throughout the network, (3) increased resistance at a tributary junction caused by a partial barrier, and (4) complete isolation of a tributary, leaving resident individuals only. We then applied this demogenetic framework using empirical data for a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) metapopulation in the upper Flathead River system, Canada and USA, to assess how current and predicted future stream warming may influence population vulnerability. Results suggest that warmer water temperatures and associated barriers to movement (e.g., low flows, dewatering) are predicted to fragment suitable habitat for migratory salmonids, resulting in the loss

  3. Integrating Breeding Bird Survey and demographic data to estimate Wood Duck population size in the Atlantic Flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Sauer, John; Boomer, G. Scott; Devers, Patrick K.; Garrettson, Pamela R.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) uses data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) to assist in monitoring and management of some migratory birds. However, BBS analyses provide indices of population change rather than estimates of population size, precluding their use in developing abundance-based objectives and limiting applicability to harvest management. Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) are important harvested birds in the Atlantic Flyway (AF) that are difficult to detect during aerial surveys because they prefer forested habitat. We integrated Wood Duck count data from a ground-plot survey in the northeastern U.S. with AF-wide BBS, banding, parts collection, and harvest data to derive estimates of population size for the AF. Overlapping results between the smaller-scale intensive ground-plot survey and the BBS in the northeastern U.S. provided a means for scaling BBS indices to the breeding population size estimates. We applied these scaling factors to BBS results for portions of the AF lacking intensive surveys. Banding data provided estimates of annual survival and harvest rates; the latter, when combined with parts-collection data, provided estimates of recruitment. We used the harvest data to estimate fall population size. Our estimates of breeding population size and variability from the integrated population model (N̄ = 0.99 million, SD = 0.04) were similar to estimates of breeding population size based solely on data from the AF ground-plot surveys and the BBS (N̄ = 1.01 million, SD = 0.04) from 1998 to 2015. Integrating BBS data with other data provided reliable population size estimates for Wood Ducks at a scale useful for harvest and habitat management in the AF, and allowed us to derive estimates of important demographic parameters (e.g., seasonal survival rates, sex ratio) that were not directly informed by data.

  4. Design and methodology of a mixed methods follow-up study to the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveteig, Sarah; Aryeetey, Richmond; Anie-Ansah, Michael; Ahiadeke, Clement; Ortiz, Ladys

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The intended meaning behind responses to standard questions posed in large-scale health surveys are not always well understood. Systematic follow-up studies, particularly those which pose a few repeated questions followed by open-ended discussions, are well positioned to gauge stability and consistency of data and to shed light on the intended meaning behind survey responses. Such follow-up studies require extensive coordination and face challenges in protecting respondent confidentiality during the process of recontacting and reinterviewing participants. Objectives: We describe practical field strategies for undertaking a mixed methods follow-up study during a large-scale health survey. Methods: The study was designed as a mixed methods follow-up study embedded within the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). The study was implemented in 13 clusters. Android tablets were used to import reference data from the parent survey and to administer the questionnaire, which asked a mixture of closed- and open-ended questions on reproductive intentions, decision-making, and family planning. Results: Despite a number of obstacles related to recontacting respondents and concern about respondent fatigue, over 92 percent of the selected sub-sample were successfully recontacted and reinterviewed; all consented to audio recording. A confidential linkage between GDHS data, follow-up tablet data, and audio transcripts was successfully created for the purpose of analysis. Conclusions: We summarize the challenges in follow-up study design, including ethical considerations, sample size, auditing, filtering, successful use of tablets, and share lessons learned for future such follow-up surveys. PMID:28145817

  5. A demographic survey of unwanted horses in Ireland 2005-2010

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    Leadon DP

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Irish Horse Industry expanded during the Celtic Tiger boom years, then contracted in the current economic recession. High value horses were traditionally controlled through sale at public auction, private sales and sales to dealers; these are now also being reduced by decreases in production (> 40%, and increases in retirement, re-homing, euthanasia and disposal through Category 2 plants and abattoirs. The absence or banning of horse abattoirs has been shown to have very significant welfare social and economic consequences in the USA. This study described the currently available data on the demographics of unwanted horses in Ireland from 2005 to 2010. Results The majority of horses euthanised by practicing veterinarians are destroyed on medical grounds but the number euthanised at the request of welfare groups and the state, as well as welfare related calls and the number of horses involved in these calls and subsequent visits is increasing reflecting the increasing involvement of the veterinary profession in equine welfare. Welfare groups have limited resources and do not have a tradition of recording data, but they too have reported increasing calls, visits and numbers of horses per visit. Welfare groups provide significant service to equine welfare and the community. Local Authorities report similar trends. Over 300 horses were found dead or required immediate or subsequent euthanasia following welfare group and local authority visits in 2010, which is of national concern. The majority of local authority interfaces with unwanted horses are with urban (60% rather than rural (40% horses. Mortality figures are poor indicators of non-fatal neglect. More horses were admitted into the care of local authorities than welfare groups, reflecting significant state and taxpayer investment in the control of low value horses. Category 2 plants and abattoirs represent a significant state investment in licensing and control in the

  6. Demographic Survey Of The Spiritual Intelligence In Medical Faculty Of Qom University of Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Marziye Raisi; Hoda Ahmari Tehran; Saeede Heidari; Nahid Mehran

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Spiritual intelligence is a kind of ultimate intelligence that shows the conceptual and valuable issues and to solve the problems associated with it. the foundation of individual beliefs can have important role in various fields especially in the promotion and provision of psychic health . Thus, the aim of this study was to survey the rate of spiritual intelligence among the students of Medical Faculty of Qom University of Medical Sciences and the relation between t...

  7. Demographic data and hemodialysis population dynamics in Qatar: A five year survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fituri Omar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis was initiated in Qatar in 1981, since then the hemodialysis population has been expanding rapidly. This report describes the demographics and outcome of our hemo-dialysis patients during a five years study period. Data of all the patients on regular hemodialysis from January 1 st , 2002 to December 31 st , 2006 were included in this study was collected from the medical records and entered into an especially designed questionnaire. The prevalence of end stage kidney disease in Qatar is 624 patients per million populations with an incidence of 202 patients per million populations per year. Currently, 278 patients are on hemodialysis, 65% of them are Qatari, males represent 51%, whereas 44.6% are between 65-74 years of age. Diabetic nephropathy is the commonest cause of end stage kidney disease (48%, followed by primary glomerulonephritis and hypertensive glomerulopathy. Arteriovenous fistula was the vascular access in 57% of patients. The incidence of Hepatitis B, C and Human immunodeficiency virus had been stable throughhout the study period though our hemodialysis population had increased by 1.5 fold. The first and five years survival rates of our patients were 84 and 53% respectively. Qatar has one of the highest rates of dialysis patients with a good long-term survival report. Peritoneal dialysis remained to be the key solution for the rapidly expanding patients′ pool. Maintenance of national registry of dialysis patients and improving our organ transplant program is an essential goal.

  8. A survey of dental hygienists in the United Kingdom in 2011. Part 1--demographics and working patterns as dental hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, K A; Harris, M; Ross, M K; Arevalo, C

    2012-11-01

    The aims of this survey were to establish the demographic profile of dental hygienists (DHs) and dental hygienist/therapists (DH/Ts) in the United Kingdom in 2011 and their patterns of practice as DHs. A 10% sample of all those registered with the General Dental Council as DHs or DH/Ts in April 2011 were sent a pre-piloted questionnaire, explanatory letter and stamped addressed envelope. The questionnaire contained a total of 100 questions, 24 of which related to demographics and working patterns. All 100 questions were solely on tasks/work performed by DH, none related to other types of work performed by DH/Ts. Three mailings were distributed between May and July 2011. The resulting data were entered into an Excel spreadsheet. Where appropriate, differences between the responses from DHs and DH/Ts were statistically tested with the chi-squared test. Five hundred and sixty-one DHs and DH/Ts were sent the questionnaire, by the third mailing 371 (66.1%) had responded and returned completed questionnaires. The respondents were 288 DHs, 79 DH/Ts and 4 who did not specify which category they were. The mean year of qualification of the DHs was 1990 and for the DH/Ts 2005. One hundred and twenty-four (33%) reported that they worked full-time, 235 (63%) part-time and the remainder that they were not working as DHs or DH/Ts or had retired. The average number of clinical hours worked per week was reported as 24.6 hours for DHs and 25 hours for DH/Ts, but there were regional variations. For DHs the mean percentage of patients treated under NHS contract was 15.5% and for DH/Ts it was 40.2%. Again there were regional variations and in Scotland these figures were 45.5% for DHs and 70% for DH/Ts. Two hundred and forty-eight (69%) of all respondents were either fully or partly self-employed and 221 (62.7%) worked in two or more locations. The results of this study provide a snapshot of the demographics and practice patterns of DHs and DH/Ts in the UK in the summer of 2011. They

  9. Explaining marital patterns and trends in namibia: a regression analysis of 1992, 2000 and 2006 demographic and survey data.

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    Lillian Pazvakawambwa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marriage is a significant event in life-course of individuals, and creates a system that characterizes societal and economic structures. Marital patterns and dynamics over the years have changed a lot, with decreasing proportions of marriage, increased levels of divorce and co-habitation in developing countries. Although, such changes have been reported in African societies including Namibia, they have largely remained unexplained. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: IN THIS PAPER, WE EXAMINED TRENDS AND PATTERNS OF MARITAL STATUS OF WOMEN OF MARRIAGEABLE AGE: 15 to 49 years, in Namibia using the 1992, 2000 and 2006 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS data. Trends were established for selected demographic variables. Two binary logistic regression models for ever-married versus never married, and cohabitation versus married were fitted to establish factors associated with such nuptial systems. Further a multinomial logistic regression models, adjusted for bio-demographic and socio-economic variables, were fitted separately for each year, to establish determinants of type of union (never married, married and cohabitation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate a general change away from marriage, with a shift in singulate mean age at marriage. Cohabitation was prevalent among those less than 30 years of age, the odds were higher in urban areas and increased since 1992. Be as it may marriage remained a persistent nuptiality pattern, and common among the less educated and employed, but lower odds in urban areas. Results from multinomial model suggest that marital status was associated with age at marriage, total children born, region, place of residence, education level and religion. We conclude that marital patterns have undergone significant transformation over the past two decades in Namibia, with a coexistence of traditional marriage framework with co-habitation, and sizeable proportion remaining unmarried to the late 30s. A shift in the

  10. Demographic and Ecological Survey of Dog Population in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Gbeminiyi Richard Otolorin; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Asabe Adamu Dzikwi

    2014-01-01

    Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1 : 7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic...

  11. Vaccination and all-cause child mortality from 1985 to 2011: global evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Mark E; Canning, David

    2015-11-01

    Based on models with calibrated parameters for infection, case fatality rates, and vaccine efficacy, basic childhood vaccinations have been estimated to be highly cost effective. We estimated the association of vaccination with mortality directly from survey data. Using 149 cross-sectional Demographic and Health Surveys, we determined the relationship between vaccination coverage and the probability of dying between birth and 5 years of age at the survey cluster level. Our data included approximately 1 million children in 68,490 clusters from 62 countries. We considered the childhood measles, bacillus Calmette-Guérin, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, polio, and maternal tetanus vaccinations. Using modified Poisson regression to estimate the relative risk of child mortality in each cluster, we also adjusted for selection bias that resulted from the vaccination status of dead children not being reported. Childhood vaccination, and in particular measles and tetanus vaccination, is associated with substantial reductions in childhood mortality. We estimated that children in clusters with complete vaccination coverage have a relative risk of mortality that is 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.77) times that of children in a cluster with no vaccinations. Although widely used, basic vaccines still have coverage rates well below 100% in many countries, and our results emphasize the effectiveness of increasing coverage rates in order to reduce child mortality.

  12. Women's autonomy in negotiating safer sex to prevent HIV: findings from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteraya, Madhu Sudhan; Kimm, Heejin; Song, In Han

    2014-02-01

    Women with greater autonomy have higher HIV-related knowledge and condom use. Inability to negotiate safer sex in high-risk situations might increase HIV infection. This study examined the relationship between women's autonomy and ability to negotiate safer sex practices among married women. The 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey data were used. The data were collected by two-stage stratified cluster sampling and face-to-face interviews. Autonomy was measured in Decision-Making Participation and Assets Ownership, while ability to negotiate safer sex consists of Refusal of Sex and Ask for Condom Use. Among 12,674 women of 15-49 years, married women were analyzed (n = 8,896). Women with greater autonomy in decision-making participation were more likely to negotiate safer sex. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, odds ratios (OR) for refusal of sex was 2.70 (95% CI [2.14, 3.40]) in women with the highest decision-making participation. These women showed higher OR for 'ask for condom use' in high risk situations (2.10, 95% CI [1.81, 2.44]). Assets ownership also demonstrated a positive statistical relationship with asking for a condom use (OR 1.31, 95% CI [1.10, 1.56]). The results point to the importance of women's autonomy on sexual health. It emphasizes women's empowerment-based approach to curbing HIV/AIDS in developing countries.

  13. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of cooking skills in UK adults: cross-sectional analysis of data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Goffe, Louis; Adamson, Ashley J; Halligan, Joel; O'Brien, Nicola; Purves, Richard; Stead, Martine; Stocken, Deborah; White, Martin

    2015-08-05

    Poor cooking skills may be a barrier to healthy eating and a contributor to overweight and obesity. Little population-representative data on adult cooking skills has been published. We explored prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of cooking skills among adult respondents to wave 1 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-9). Socio-demographic variables of interest were sex, age group, occupational socio-economic group and whether or not respondents had the main responsibility for food in their households. Cooking skills were assessed as self-reported confidence in using eight cooking techniques, confidence in cooking ten foods, and ability to prepare four types of dish (convenience foods, a complete meal from ready-made ingredients, a main meal from basic ingredients, and cake or biscuits from basic ingredients). Frequency of preparation of main meals was also reported. Of 509 respondents, almost two-thirds reported cooking a main meal at least five times per week. Around 90 % reported being able to cook convenience foods, a complete meal from ready-made ingredient, and a main dish from basic ingredients without help. Socio-demographic differences in all markers of cooking skills were scattered and inconsistent. Where these were found, women and main food providers were most likely to report confidence with foods, techniques or dishes, and respondents in the youngest age (19-34 years) and lowest socio-economic group least likely. This is the only exploration of the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of adult cooking skills using recent and population-representative UK data and adds to the international literature on cooking skills in developed countries. Reported confidence with using most cooking techniques and preparing most foods was high. There were few socio-demographic differences in reported cooking skills. Adult cooking skills interventions are unlikely to have a large population impact, but may have important individual effects

  14. Curriculum-Based Assessment, Socio-Demographic and Educational Measures as Predictors of Mathematics FCAT: Implications for Emancipatory Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Hudson-Vassell, Michael; Hudson-Vassell, Charisse N.; Garvan, Cynthia W.

    2015-01-01

    Using critical lenses, this study examined the predictive value added of curriculum-based assessment (CBA), with socio-demographic and educational variables on the mathematics portion of Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). Gender, race, socio-economic status, and exceptional student education (ESE) were compared in a de-identified post…

  15. Demographics of Australian horses: results from an internet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, G B; Dagley, K

    2016-03-01

    To obtain information on the types of Australian horses, how they are kept and their activities. An invitation to participate in an opt-in, internet-based survey was sent to 7000 people who had registered an email address to receive information from the Australian Horse Industry Council Inc. There were 3377 (48%) useable responses from owners of 26,548 horses. Most horses were kept on small properties (usually 2-8 ha) in paddocks in rural areas of Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. Most horses were female or geldings and the most common of 54 different activities was breeding. Owners reported 19,291 horses were used in different activities and 6037 (23%) horses were not kept for any stated purpose or activity. Owners used an average of 1.95 horses in 2.9 different types of activities. The most common of the 43 breeds were Thoroughbred, Australian Stock Horse and Australian Quarter Horse. Only 1% of the total numbers of Thoroughbreds and Standardbreds in this survey were used in horse racing, indicating there is a demand for these breeds in non-racing activities. Microchip was the most favoured method of horse identification and 36% favoured compulsory registration of horses. Most respondents reported owning some other animal species. There is a wide variation in horse breeds used in different activities by Australian horse owners. There are regional differences in various management systems. There needs to be considerable improvement in the collection and recording of information to improve the validity and reliability of horse industry data. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. The Demographics of Exoplanetary Companions to M Dwarfs: Synthesizing Results from Microlensing, Radial Velocity, and Direct Imaging Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanton, Christian Dwain

    Over the past 20 years, we have learned that exoplanets are ubiquitous throughout our Galaxy and show a diverse set of demographics, yet there is much work to be done to understand this diversity. Determining the distributions of the fundamental properties of exoplanets will provide vital clues regarding their formation and evolution. This is a difficult task, as exoplanet surveys are not uniformly sensitive to the full range of planet parameter space. Various observational biases and selection effects intrinsic to each of the different discovery techniques constrain the types of planets to which they are sensitive. Herein, I record a collection of the first studies to develop and apply the methodology of synthesizing results from multiple detection techniques to construct a statistically-complete census of planetary companions to M dwarfs that samples a wide region of their parameter space. I present a robust comparison of exoplanet discoveries from microlensing and radial velocity (RV) surveys of M dwarfs which infer giant planet frequencies that differ by more than an order of magnitude and are, prima facie, in direct conflict. I demonstrate that current, state-of-the-art RV surveys are capable of detecting only the high-mass tail of the population of planets beyond the ice line inferred by microlensing studies, engendering a large, apparent difference in giant planet frequency. This comparison further establishes that results from these types of surveys are, in fact, consistent over the region of parameter space wherein their sensitivities overlap. A synthesis of results from microlensing and RV surveys yields planet occurrence rates for M dwarfs that span several orders of magnitude in mass and orbital period. On average, each M dwarf hosts about two planets, and while Jupiter and super-Jupiter companions are relatively rare ( 3%), gas giants, in general, are quite common ( 15%). These occurrence rates are significantly lower than those inferred around FGK

  17. Determining the effective coverage of maternal and child health services in Kenya, using demographic and health survey data sets: tracking progress towards universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguhiu, Peter K; Barasa, Edwine W; Chuma, Jane

    2017-04-01

    Effective coverage (EC) is a measure of health systems' performance that combines need, use and quality indicators. This study aimed to assess the extent to which the Kenyan health system provides effective and equitable maternal and child health services, as a means of tracking the country's progress towards universal health coverage. The Demographic Health Surveys (2003, 2008-2009 and 2014) and Service Provision Assessment surveys (2004, 2010) were the main sources of data. Indicators of need, use and quality for eight maternal and child health interventions were aggregated across interventions and economic quintiles to compute EC. EC has increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 50.9% in 2014, but remains low for the majority of interventions. There is a reduction in economic inequalities in EC with the highest to lowest wealth quintile ratio decreasing from 2.41 in 2003 to 1.65 in 2014, but maternal health services remain highly inequitable. Effective coverage of key maternal and child health services remains low, indicating that individuals are not receiving the maximum possible health gain from existing health services. There is an urgent need to focus on the quality and reach of maternal and child health services in Kenya to achieve the goals of universal health coverage. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Who theorizes age? The "socio-demographic variables" device and age-period-cohort analysis in the rhetoric of survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughiniș, Cosima; Humă, Bogdana

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we argue that quantitative survey-based social research essentializes age, through specific rhetorical tools. We outline the device of 'socio-demographic variables' and we discuss its argumentative functions, looking at scientific survey-based analyses of adult scientific literacy, in the Public Understanding of Science research field. 'Socio-demographics' are virtually omnipresent in survey literature: they are, as a rule, used and discussed as bundles of independent variables, requiring little, if any, theoretical and measurement attention. 'Socio-demographics' are rhetorically effective through their common-sense richness of meaning and inferential power. We identify their main argumentation functions as 'structure building', 'pacification', and 'purification'. Socio-demographics are used to uphold causal vocabularies, supporting the transmutation of the descriptive statistical jargon of 'effects' and 'explained variance' into 'explanatory factors'. Age can also be studied statistically as a main variable of interest, through the age-period-cohort (APC) disambiguation technique. While this approach has generated interesting findings, it did not mitigate the reductionism that appears when treating age as a socio-demographic variable. By working with age as a 'socio-demographic variable', quantitative researchers convert it (inadvertently) into a quasi-biological feature, symmetrical, as regards analytical treatment, with pathogens in epidemiological research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Determinants of health insurance ownership among women in Kenya: evidence from the 2008–09 Kenya demographic and health survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Government of Kenya is making plans to implement a social health insurance program by transforming the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) into a universal health coverage program. The objective of this study was to examine the determinants associated with health insurance ownership among women in Kenya. Methods Data came from the 2008–09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative survey. The sample comprised 8,435 women aged 15–49 years. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to describe the characteristics of the sample and to identify factors associated with health insurance ownership. Results Being employed in the formal sector, being married, exposure to the mass media, having secondary education or higher, residing in households in the middle or rich wealth index categories and residing in a female-headed household were associated with having health insurance. However, region of residence was associated with a lower likelihood of having insurance coverage. Women residing in Central (OR = 0.4; p insured compared to their counterparts in Nairobi province. Conclusions As the Kenyan government transforms the NHIF into a universal health program, it is important to implement a program that will increase equity and access to health care services among the poor and vulnerable groups. PMID:24678655

  20. Socio-demographic and clinical features of Irish iatrogenic hepatitis C patients: a cross-sectional survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A discrete sub-group of iatrogenically-acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals exists in the Irish population on whom limited current research data is available. The aim of this study was to establish a current profile of the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the Irish iatrogenic hepatitis C population and to determine factors predicting symptoms experienced. METHODS: An anonymous, national, cross-sectional survey was conducted to explore this populations\\' self-reported health and social attributes. Data were collected on 290 respondents. RESULTS: Mean time since infection was 26 years. Eighty-four percent (n = 237) of respondents were female (mean age = 55.9 +\\/- 9.6 years). Hepatic and extra-hepatic symptoms were common (62% and 99% respectively). Fatigue and pain were frequent complaints while 89% reported diagnosed co-morbid disease. On logistic regression, female gender, age and co-morbid disease emerged as independent predictors of self-reported symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study describes the current status of the iatrogenically infected patient cohort in Ireland, adding to existing knowledge regarding the clinical course and consequences of HCV infection. Changing healthcare needs were shown by comparison with earlier surveys in this same population, in terms of disease progression, development of co-morbid disease and ageing.

  1. Handwashing in 51 Countries: Analysis of Proxy Measures of Handwashing Behavior in Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Swapna; Loughnan, Libbet; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hernandez, Orlando; Weinger, Merri; Arnold, Fred; Ram, Pavani K

    2017-08-01

    In 2009, a common set of questions addressing handwashing behavior was introduced into nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), providing large amounts of comparable data from numerous countries worldwide. The objective of this analysis is to describe global handwashing patterns using two proxy indicators for handwashing behavior from 51 DHS and MICS surveys conducted in 2010-2013: availability of soap anywhere in the dwelling and access to a handwashing place with soap and water. Data were also examined across geographic regions, wealth quintiles, and rural versus urban settings. We found large disparities for both indicators across regions, and even among countries within the same World Health Organization region. Within countries, households in lower wealth quintiles and in rural areas were less likely to have soap anywhere in the dwelling and at designated handwashing locations than households in higher wealth quintiles and urban areas. In addition, disparities existed among various geographic regions within countries. This analysis demonstrates the need to promote access to handwashing materials and placement at handwashing locations in the dwelling, particularly in poorer, rural areas where children are more vulnerable to handwashing-preventable syndromes such as pneumonia and diarrhea.

  2. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Dahlui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria. Design: The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a child 5 years before the interview and aged 15–49 years who were either permanent residents or visitors present in the household on the night before the survey conducted. The birth weight of the infants was recorded from written records from the hospital cards or the mothers’ recall. Results: The prevalence of LBW in this study was 7.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an adjusted significant odds ratio for mothers from North West region (aOR 10.67; 95% CI [5.83–19.5], twin pregnancy (aOR 5.11; 95% CI [3.11–8.39], primiparous mother (aOR 2.08; 95% CI [1.15–3.77], maternal weight of less than 70 kg (aOR 1.92; 95% CI [1.32–2.78], and manual paternal employment (aOR 1.91; 95% CI [1.08–3.37]. Conclusions: The risk factors for LBW identified in this study are modifiable. In order to reduce this menace in Nigeria, holistic approaches such as health education, maternal nutrition, improvement in socio-economic indices, and increasing the quality and quantity of the antenatal care services are of paramount importance.

  3. Assessing juvenile native fish demographic responses to a steady flow experiment in a large regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Colton G.; Pine, William E.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Dodrill, Michael J.; Yard, Michael D.; Gerig, Brandon S.; Coggins,, Lewis G.; Korman, Josh

    2016-01-01

    The Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, is part of an adaptive management programme which optimizes dam operations to improve various resources in the downstream ecosystem within Grand Canyon. Understanding how populations of federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha respond to these dam operations is a high priority. Here, we test hypotheses concerning temporal variation in juvenile humpback chub apparent survival rates and abundance by comparing estimates between hydropeaking and steady discharge regimes over a 3-year period (July 2009–July 2012). The most supported model ignored flow type (steady vs hydropeaking) and estimated a declining trend in daily apparent survival rate across years (99.90%, 99.79% and 99.67% for 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively). Corresponding abundance of juvenile humpback chub increased temporally; open population model estimates ranged from 615 to 2802 individuals/km, and closed model estimates ranged from 94 to 1515 individuals/km. These changes in apparent survival and abundance may reflect broader trends, or simply represent inter-annual variation. Important findings include (i) juvenile humpback chub are currently surviving and recruiting in the mainstem Colorado River with increasing abundance; (ii) apparent survival does not benefit from steady fall discharges from Glen Canyon Dam; and (iii) direct assessment of demographic parameters for juvenile endangered fish are possible and can rapidly inform management actions in regulated rivers.

  4. Survey: Risk Assessment for Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drissi S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available with the increase in the growth of cloud computing and the changes in technology that have resulted a new ways for cloud providers to deliver their services to cloud consumers, the cloud consumers should be aware of the risks and vulnerabilities present in the current cloud computing environment. An information security risk assessment is designed specifically for that task. However, there is lack of structured risk assessment approach to do it. This paper aims to survey existing knowledge regarding risk assessment for cloud computing and analyze existing use cases from cloud computing to identify the level of risk assessment realization in state of art systems and emerging challenges for future research.

  5. Solid fuel in kitchen and acute respiratory tract infection among under five children: evidence from Nepal demographic and health survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Pawan; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed the association between use of solid fuel in kitchen and ARI among under five children in Nepal. The latest data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011 were used. A total of 4,802 under 5 de-jure children were included in this analysis. Cough accompanied by short/rapid breath and chest problem within 2 weeks before survey was considered as the symptoms of ARI. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the odds of being suffered from ARI among the children from households using solid fuel in comparison to the children from households using cleaner fuel. About 84.6% of the families used solid fuel as a primary fuel. Approximately 4.5% children had symptoms of ARI within 2 weeks before the survey. About 3.4 and 4.9% of children from the families using cleaner fuel and solid fuel respectively had symptoms of ARI within 2 weeks preceding survey. After adjusting for age, sex, birth order, urban/rural residence, ecological zone, development region, economic status, number of family members, mother's smoking status and mother's education, odds of suffering from ARI was 1.79 times higher among the children from the households using solid fuel in comparison to the children from households using cleaner fuel (95% CI 1.02, 3.14). This study found the use of solid fuel in the kitchen has as a risk factor for ARI among under five children in Nepal. Longitudinal studies with direct measurement of indoor air pollution and clinical ARI cases can be future research priority.

  6. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  7. Demographic and Social Correlates of Tobacco, Alcohol and Cannabis Use Among 15-16-Year-Old Students in Albania: Results of the ESPAD Survey

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    Toçi Ervin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – Our aim was to assess the demographic and social factors associated with lifetime use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis among school students aged 15–16 in Albania in order to make information and knowledge available for health promotion specialists working on substance use prevention. DESIGN – This cross-sectional study was conducted in March–May 2011 in the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD. In total, 3189 students born in 1995 participated in the survey. The standardised ESPAD questionnaire was used to collect data about substance use. RESULTS – Our multivariable adjustment analysis showed that being a male and having easy access to cigarettes were the only universal factors significantly increasing the likelihood of ever using tobacco, alcohol or cannabis. Own smoking was strongly and significantly associated with alcohol and cannabis use. The associations of own substance use with peer substance consumption were weak to moderate. CONCLUSIONS – Own smoking seems to be the most important single independent risk factor which strongly and significantly predicted alcohol and cannabis use among Albanian school students. Policy makers need to strengthen the rule of law whereas health promotion professionals should firmly address smoking in adolescence through target interventions.

  8. Less Than One-Third of Caretakers Sought Formal Health Care Facilities for Common Childhood Illnesses in Ethiopia: Evidence from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey

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    Achamyelesh Gebretsadik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Most of the childhood illnesses can be proven with effective interventions. However, countless children die needlessly in developing countries due to the failure of their guardians to seek care timely. The aim of this study was to assess health care seeking behavior of caretakers of children under the age of five years for treatment of common childhood illnesses. Methods. Further analysis of the Ethiopian 2011 demographic and health survey was done. All children under the age of five reported to have been ill from the three common childhood illnesses and their caretakers were included in the analysis. A complex sample logistic regression model was employed to determine factors associated with the health care seeking behavior of caretakers. Result. A total of 2,842 caregivers who reported that their index child had at least one of the three common childhood illnesses in the two weeks preceding the survey were captured, of which 849 (29.87%; 95% CI: 28, 32% sought formal health care facilities. Conclusion and Recommendation. In Ethiopia health care seeking behavior of caretakers for common childhood illnesses is low. Increasing mass media exposure can possibly improve the health seeking behavior of caretakers.

  9. Help-Seeking Behavior for Children with Acute Respiratory Infection in Ethiopia: Results from 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey.

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    Tigist Astale

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory infection is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age in Ethiopia. While facilities have been implemented to address this problem they are underused due to a lack in help-seeking behavior. This study investigates factors related to the help-seeking behavior of mothers for children with acute respiratory infection using data from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey.Data on 11,030 children aged 0-59 months obtained through interviewing women aged 15-49 years throughout Ethiopia was available. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which factors are related to help-seeking behavior for acute respiratory infection.In the two weeks prior to the survey, 773(7% of the children were reported to have symptoms of acute respiratory infection while treatment was sought for only 209 (27.2%. The odds ratio for acute respiratory infection was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0 for rural residence with only 25.2% of these mothers seeking help compared to 46.4% for mothers with an urban residence. Smaller family size, younger mothers' age and having had prenatal care had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for both urban and rural residences. Highest wealth index had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for rural residence only, whereas primary education or higher had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for urban residence.Children from rural areas are more at risk for acute respiratory infection while their mothers are less likely to seek help. Nevertheless, there is also underuse of available services in urban areas. Interventions should target mothers with less education and wealth and older mothers. Expanding prenatal care among these groups would encourage a better use of available facilities and subsequently better care for their children.

  10. Help-Seeking Behavior for Children with Acute Respiratory Infection in Ethiopia: Results from 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey.

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    Astale, Tigist; Chenault, Michelene

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age in Ethiopia. While facilities have been implemented to address this problem they are underused due to a lack in help-seeking behavior. This study investigates factors related to the help-seeking behavior of mothers for children with acute respiratory infection using data from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey. Data on 11,030 children aged 0-59 months obtained through interviewing women aged 15-49 years throughout Ethiopia was available. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which factors are related to help-seeking behavior for acute respiratory infection. In the two weeks prior to the survey, 773(7%) of the children were reported to have symptoms of acute respiratory infection while treatment was sought for only 209 (27.2%). The odds ratio for acute respiratory infection was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0) for rural residence with only 25.2% of these mothers seeking help compared to 46.4% for mothers with an urban residence. Smaller family size, younger mothers' age and having had prenatal care had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for both urban and rural residences. Highest wealth index had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for rural residence only, whereas primary education or higher had a statistically significant odds ratio greater than 1 for urban residence. Children from rural areas are more at risk for acute respiratory infection while their mothers are less likely to seek help. Nevertheless, there is also underuse of available services in urban areas. Interventions should target mothers with less education and wealth and older mothers. Expanding prenatal care among these groups would encourage a better use of available facilities and subsequently better care for their children.

  11. Women's exposure to intimate partner violence and child malnutrition: findings from demographic and health surveys in Bangladesh.

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    Ziaei, Shirin; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2014-07-01

    Domestic violence, in particular intimate partner violence (IPV), has been recognized as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women of reproductive age. The effects of IPV against women on their children's health, especially their nutritional status has received less attention but needs to be evaluated to understand the comprehensive public health implications of IPV. The aim of current study was to investigate the association between women's exposure to IPV and their children's nutritional status, using data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). Logistic regression models were used to estimate association between ever-married women's lifetime exposure to physical and sexual violence by their spouses and nutritional status of their children under 5 years. Of 2042 women in the BDHS survey with at least one child under 5 years of age, 49.4% reported lifetime experience of physical partner violence while 18.4% reported experience of sexual partner violence. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in their children under 5 years was 44.3%, 18.4% and 42.0%, respectively. Women were more likely to have a stunted child if they had lifetime experience of physical IPV [odds ratio n = 2027 (OR)adj, 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-1.79] or had been exposed to sexual IPV (n = 2027 OR(adj), 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02-1.61). The present findings contribute to growing body of evidence showing that IPV can also compromise children's growth, supporting the need to incorporate efforts to address IPV in child health and nutrition programmes and policies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Hierarchical demographic approaches for assessing invasion dynamics of non-indigenous species: An example using northern snakehead (Channa argus)

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    Jiao, Y.; Lapointe, N.W.R.; Angermeier, P.L.; Murphy, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    Models of species' demographic features are commonly used to understand population dynamics and inform management tactics. Hierarchical demographic models are ideal for the assessment of non-indigenous species because our knowledge of non-indigenous populations is usually limited, data on demographic traits often come from a species' native range, these traits vary among populations, and traits are likely to vary considerably over time as species adapt to new environments. Hierarchical models readily incorporate this spatiotemporal variation in species' demographic traits by representing demographic parameters as multi-level hierarchies. As is done for traditional non-hierarchical matrix models, sensitivity and elasticity analyses are used to evaluate the contributions of different life stages and parameters to estimates of population growth rate. We applied a hierarchical model to northern snakehead (Channa argus), a fish currently invading the eastern United States. We used a Monte Carlo approach to simulate uncertainties in the sensitivity and elasticity analyses and to project future population persistence under selected management tactics. We gathered key biological information on northern snakehead natural mortality, maturity and recruitment in its native Asian environment. We compared the model performance with and without hierarchy of parameters. Our results suggest that ignoring the hierarchy of parameters in demographic models may result in poor estimates of population size and growth and may lead to erroneous management advice. In our case, the hierarchy used multi-level distributions to simulate the heterogeneity of demographic parameters across different locations or situations. The probability that the northern snakehead population will increase and harm the native fauna is considerable. Our elasticity and prognostic analyses showed that intensive control efforts immediately prior to spawning and/or juvenile-dispersal periods would be more effective

  13. [Insomnia and total sleep time in France: prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors in a general population survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, F; Richard, J-B; Léger, D

    2013-12-01

    Sleep is considered as a major protective factor for good health and quality of life. The epidemiology of chronic insomnia and other sleep disorders has recently been developed in France. The aim of this study was to evaluate total sleep time and the prevalence of chronic insomnia in the general population aged 15 to 85 years. It was also to investigate factors associated with sleep disorders. Within the framework of the Health Barometer 2010, a French general population survey, 27,653 15 to 85-year-old individuals were questioned about their health behaviors and attitudes, in particular about their sleeping time and habits. The average sleeping time of the 15 to 85-year-old was 7 hours 13 minutes. It was higher for women than for men (7 hours 18 minutes vs 7 hours 07 minutes; Psocio-demographic characteristics. Since the beginning of 1990s, a single-question inquiry on "sleeping problems present during the last 8 days" has been asked in the Health Barometer. The rate of subjects concerned increased from 1995, with a prevalence stabilized at a high level since 2000. Based on these data, we think that the surveillance of sleep disorders is an important public health issue and that prevention and health educational initiatives should be launched in the general population to promote a better quality of sleep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Polio supplementary immunization activities and equity in access to vaccination: evidence from the demographic and health surveys.

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    Helleringer, Stéphane; Abdelwahab, Jalaa; Vandenent, Maya

    2014-11-01

    Every year, large numbers of children are vaccinated against polio during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Such SIAs have contributed to the >99% decline in the incidence of poliovirus cases since the beginning of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. It is not clear, however, how much they have also contributed to reducing poverty-related inequalities in access to oral polio vaccine (OPV). We investigated whether the gap in coverage with 3 doses of OPV between children in the poorest and wealthiest households was reduced by SIA participation. To do so, we used data from 25 demographic and health surveys (DHS) conducted in 20 countries since 2002. We found that, in several countries as well as in pooled analyses, poverty-related inequalities in 3-dose OPV coverage were significantly lower among children who had participated in SIAs over the 2 years before a DHS than among other children. SIAs are an important approach to ensuring equitable access to immunization services and possibly other health services. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Socio-demographic correlates of sexual behaviours: a cross sectional survey of adolescents in Imo State secondary schools.

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    Nwoke, E A; Okafor, J O; Chukwuocha, U M; Nworuh, B O

    2011-03-01

    The study was designed to determine the socio-demographic correlates of sexual behaviours of the adolescents in Imo State secondary schools. Three objectives and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A cross sectional survey design was used and sample size was 3360 (2.2%) adolescents. A structured, validated and reliable questionnaire (r = 0.79) and focus group discussion were used as the instruments for data collection. Data analysis was done using mean and ANOVA statistics. The result generally, showed that the average sexual behaviours of the adolescents were below the decision mean of 2.50 and as such the adolescents were said to be sexually inactive. In Imo State secondary schools, various family sizes did not significantly influence the sexual behaviours of the adolescents (F-cal. 2.39, F-tab. 3.00 & P > 0.05), family structure significantly influenced their sexual behaviours (F-cal. 17.78, F-tab. 3.00 & P abortion and dropping out of school. Thus comprehensive sex education was recommended.

  16. The impact of water and sanitation on childhood mortality in Nigeria: evidence from demographic and health surveys, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Osita K; Agho, Kingsley E; Dibley, Michael J; Hall, John; Page, Andrew N

    2014-09-05

    In Nigeria, approximately 109 million and 66 million people lack access to sanitation facilities and water, respectively. This study aimed to determine whether children under 5 years old without access to improved water and sanitation facilities are at higher risk of death in Nigeria. Pooled 2003, 2008 and 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data were used to examine the impact of water and sanitation on deaths of children aged 0-28 days, 1-11 months, and 12-59 months using Cox regression analysis. Survival information of 63,844 children was obtained, which included 6285 deaths of children under 5 years old; there were 2254 cases of neonatal mortality (0-28 days), 1859 cases of post-neonatal mortality (1-11 months) and 2,172 cases of child mortality (1-4 years old). Over a 10-year period, the odds of neonatal, post-neonatal and child deaths significantly reduced by 31%, 41% and 47% respectively. The risk of mortality from both unimproved water and sanitation was significantly higher by 38% (Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) = 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-1.66) for post-neonatal mortality and 24% (HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04-1.48) for child mortality. The risk of neonatal mortality increased by 6% (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23) but showed no significant effect. The Nigerian government needs to invest more in water and sanitation to reduce preventable child deaths.

  17. Applying Retrospective Demographic Models to Assess Sustainable Use: the Maya Management of Xa'an Palms

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    Andrea Martínez-Ballesté

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Xa'an palm (Sabal yapa has been used to thatch traditional Maya houses for over 3000 years. In the Yucatan Peninsula, this palm has been introduced to pasturelands, maize fields (milpas, and homegardens. These and other traditional management systems are usually believed to be sustainable, but there is as yet little evidence to support this hypothesis. Demographic models have been used for this purpose, mainly focusing on population growth rate (λ. So far, retrospective analysis has not been applied, even though it examines how changes in the the life cycle of a species, caused by different management regimes, affect its λ. In this study, we assess whether ecologically sustainable use of xa'an occurs in homegardens, pasturelands, and milpas, and if so, how it is achieved. We constructed matrix population models for four populations of xa'an that were followed for 3 years, and then conducted a retrospective analysis on them. Management in homegardens seems to be oriented to increasing the availability of xa'an leaves, favoring the survival of seedlings, and increasing the density of harvestable-sized palms. However, in the milpa and the pastureland, the population size structure resembles that of unmanaged populations. Our λ values suggest that the traditional use of xa'an in all the studied management regimes is sustainable. Nevertheless, the processes that lead to sustainable use are different in each system, as shown by our retrospective analysis. Although fecundity contributes positively to λ only in homegardens, permanence and growth maintain palm populations at an equilibrium in the pastureland and in the milpa, respectively. Between-year climatic differences had a smaller impact on λ than management practices, which may vary from one year to another, leading to different balances in the sustainable use of the populations involved. Even though no significant differences were found in λ values, Maya achieve sustainable use of xa

  18. Breastfeeding practices and child growth outcomes in Haiti: an analysis of data from Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidkamp, Rebecca; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Teta, Ismael Ngnie; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Marhone, Joseline Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Haiti's national nutrition policy prioritises breastfeeding, but limited data are available to inform strategy. We examined national trends in early initiation of breastfeeding (ErIBF) and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) over a 10-year period using data from three Haitian Demographic and Health Surveys (1994-1995, 2000 and 2005-2006). We used multivariate regression methods to identify determinants of ErIBF and EBF in the 2005-2006 data set and to examine relationships to growth. There was no change in ErIBF across surveys [1994-1995: 36.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 29.9-43.9; 2000: 49.4%, 95% CI 44.1-54.8; 2005-2006: 43.8%, 95% CI 40.5-47.1]. EBF among 0-5-month-olds increased sharply (1994-18995: 1.1%, 95% CI 0.4-3.2; 2000: 22.4%, 95% CI 16.5-29.5; 2005-2006: 41.2%, 95% CI 35.4-47.2). The proportion of breastfeeding children 0-5 months who received soft, solid or semi-solid foods decreased (1994-1995: 68.5%, 95% CI 57.3-77.9; 2000: 46.3%, 95% CI 39.3-53.4; 2005-2006: 30.9%, 95% CI 25.9-36.5). Child age at time of survey [odds ratio (OR) 1.73; P = 0.027], lower maternal education (OR = 2.14, P = 0.004) and residence in the Artibonite Department (OR 0.31; P = 0.001) were associated with ErIBF among children 0-23 months. Age group and department were significant predictors of EBF among children 0-5 months. ErIBF was associated with higher weight-for-age z-scores [effect size (ES) 0.22; P = 0.033] and height-for-age z-scores (ES 0.20; P = 0.044). There was no statistically significant relationship between EBF and growth. The 10-year ErIBF and EBF trends in Haiti echo global and regional trends. ErIBF and EBF are related practices but with different determinants in the Haitian context. These differences have implications for intervention delivery.

  19. Factors associated with infant mortality in Nepal: a comparative analysis of Nepal demographic and health surveys (NDHS) 2006 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Reeta; Zhao, Yun; Paudel, Susan; Adewuyi, Emmanuel O

    2017-01-10

    Infant mortality is one of the priority public health issues in developing countries like Nepal. The infant mortality rate (IMR) was 48 and 46 per 1000 live births for the year 2006 and 2011, respectively, a slight reduction during the 5 years' period. A comprehensive analysis that has identified and compared key factors associated with infant mortality is limited in Nepal, and, therefore, this study aims to fill the gap. Datasets from Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) 2006 and 2011 were used to identify and compare the major factors associated with infant mortality. Both surveys used multistage stratified cluster sampling techniques. A total of 8707 and 10,826 households were interviewed in 2006 and 2011, with more than 99% response rate in both studies. The survival information of singleton live-born infants born 5 years preceding the two surveys were extracted from the 'childbirth' dataset. Multiple logistic regression analysis using a hierarchical modelling approach with the backward elimination method was conducted. Complex Samples Analysis was used to adjust for unequal selection probability due to the multistage stratified cluster-sampling procedure used in both NDHS. Based on NDHS 2006, ecological region, succeeding birth interval, breastfeeding status and type of delivery assistance were found to be significant predictors of infant mortality. Infants born in hilly region (AOR = 0.43, p = 0.013) and with professional assistance (AOR = 0.27, p = 0.039) had a lower risk of mortality. On the other hand, infants with succeeding birth interval less than 24 months (AOR = 6.66, p = 0.001) and those who were never breastfed (AOR = 1.62, p = 0.044) had a higher risk of mortality. Based on NDHS 2011, birth interval (preceding and succeeding) and baby's size at birth were identified to be significantly associated with infant mortality. Infants born with preceding birth interval (AOR = 1.94, p = 0.022) or succeeding

  20. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef communities in U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) using the Coral Demographics method

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Demographics method is one of two benthic surveys conducted in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) as part of the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program...

  1. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef communities in Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary using the Coral Demographics method

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Demographics method is one of two surveys conducted at Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS) in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the National...

  2. Association of adult tobacco use with household food access insecurity: results from Nepal demographic and health survey, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy, N

    2017-07-24

    Food insecurity is a very common problem in developing countries particularly among the poorer households. Very few studies have tested the association between adult smoking and food insecurity. We analysed the data from a nationally representative sample of 10,826 households in which women and men (in a sub sample of 4121 households) aged 15-49 years were interviewed in Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Data from households in which both men and women were interviewed were analysed for association of household food insecurity access score (HFIAS), with tobacco use among men and women, socio-demographic and spatial factors. Univariate comparisons followed by zero-inflated negative binomial regression analyses were done to determine the association between HFIAS and individual, household and spatial factors. Mean HFIAS score was 3.5 (SD, 4.6) whereas the median was 0 (IQR 0-6). Prevalence of tobacco use among men and women was 50.2% (95% CIs 47.9, 52.6), and 17.3% (95% CIs 15.7, 18.9). HFIAS scores were significantly higher among households where men used tobacco (4.96), and men either smoked or use SLT (3.82) as compared to those without tobacco users (2.79). HFIAS scores were not significantly different by tobacco use status of women. HFIAS score was highest in the poorest households and vice versa. After adjusting for covariates association between HFIAS score and male tobacco use remained significant but effect size decreased when covariates were included into regression models (adjusted OR 1.11). HFIAS score was also associated wealth index (adjusted OR 0.86-0.62) and ecological region (adjusted OR 1.33) and development regions (adjusted OR 1.10-1.21). Tobacco users in poor(er) households should be encouraged to 'quit' their habit. Less affluent sectors of the population also need to be educated about the non-health benefits of quitting, such as improved economic status and reduced food insecurity.

  3. Changing Demographics and Needs Assessment for Learning Centers in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Emily Miller; Hodges, Russ; Hernandez, Elda Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Students entering postsecondary education embody America's growing diversity. Rapid demographics shifts and changing student attendance patterns pose new challenges for higher education. Enrollment trends vary across states and regions with some areas seeing increased student populations while others are experiencing declining enrollments (Center…

  4. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  5. Sexual autonomy and contraceptive use among women in Nigeria: findings from the Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswan, Saritha P; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Petzold, Max G; Fonn, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    The persistent low contraceptive use and high fertility in Nigeria despite improvements in educational achievements calls for an examination of the role of factors, which may moderate the use of modern contraception. This article explores the influence of sexual autonomy on the use of modern contraceptive methods among women and its relative importance compared with other, more traditional, indicators of women's autonomy such as education and occupation. Data from two Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), 2008 and 2013, were used in this study. An index of sexual autonomy was constructed by combining related DHS variables, and its association with current use of modern contraception was examined at each time point as well as over time using multivariate regression analysis. The observed prevalence for use of modern contraception was 2.8 and 2.6 times higher among women who had high sexual autonomy in 2008 and 2013, respectively. The corresponding figures for women with secondary or higher education were 8.2 and 11.8 times higher, respectively, compared with women with no education. But after controlling for wealth index, religion, place of residence, autonomy and experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), the likelihood of use of modern contraception was lowered to about 2.5 (from 8.2) and 2.8 (from 11.8) times during 2008 and 2013, respectively, among women with secondary or higher education. The likelihood of use of modern contraception lowered only to 1.6 (from 2.8) and 1.8 (from 2.6) times among women with high sexual autonomy after controlling for other covariates, respectively, during the same period. Sexual autonomy seems to play an important role in women's use of modern contraceptive methods independent of education and a number of other factors related to women's status. Sexual autonomy needs to be simultaneously promoted alongside increasing educational opportunities to enhance women's ability to use modern contraception.

  6. Complementary feeding practices and child growth outcomes in Haiti: an analysis of data from Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidkamp, Rebecca A; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Teta, Ismael Ngnie; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Marhone, Joseline Pierre

    2015-10-01

    The Haitian National Nutrition Policy identifies the promotion of optimal complementary feeding (CF) practices as a priority action to prevent childhood malnutrition. We analysed data from the nationally representative 2005-2006 Haiti Demographic Health Survey using the World Health Organization 2008 infant and young child feeding indicators to describe feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months and thus inform policy and programme planning. Multivariate regression analyses were used to identify the determinants of CF practices and to examine their association with child growth outcomes. Overall, 87.3% of 6-8-month-olds received soft, solid or semi-solid foods in the previous 24 h. Minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF) and minimum acceptable diet (MAD) were achieved in 29.2%, 45.3% and 17.1% of children aged 6-23 months, respectively. Non-breastfed children were more likely to achieve MDD than breastfed children of the same age (37.3% vs. 25.8%; P < 0.001). The proportion of children achieving MMF varied significantly by age (P < 0.001). Children with overweight mothers were more likely to achieve MDD, MMF and MAD [odds ratio (OR) 2.08, P = 0.012; OR 1.81, P = 0.02; and OR 2.4, P = 0.01, respectively] than children of normal weight mothers. Odds of achieving MDD and MMF increased with household wealth. Among mothers with secondary or more education, achieving MDD or MAD was significantly associated with lower mean weight-for-age z-score and height-for-age z-score (P-value <0.05 for infants and young child feeding indicator × maternal education interaction). CF practices were mostly inadequate and contributed to growth faltering among Haitian children 6-23 months old.

  7. Women empowerment and the current use of long acting and permanent contraceptive: Evidence from 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamuleni, M E; Adebowale, A S

    2014-09-01

    Both contraceptive use and fertility rates are high fertility in Malawi. Status of women remains low and is believed to affect reproductive health decisions including use of Long Acting and Permanent Contraceptives Method (LAPCM). This study seeks to examine the relationship between women empowerment and LAPCM. A measure of women's empowerment is derived from the women's responses to questions on the number of household decisions in which the respondent participates, employment status, type of earnings, women's control over cash earnings and level of education. The study is based on a sub sample of 5,948 married women from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and multinomial logistic regression models (α=5%). The prevalence of current use of LAPCM was 20.0% and increases with increasing empowerment level (pempowerment score of women who are currently using LAPCM were 38.53±6.2 years and 6.80±2.9 respectively. Urban women (22.2%) were more currently using LAPCM than rural women (19.4%) pWomen who belong to Seven Day Adventists/Baptist were 1.51(C.I=1.058-2.153; p=0.023) more likely and Muslims were 0.58(C.I=0.410-0.809; p=0.001) less likely to currently use LAPCM than Catholic women. Being in the richest wealth quintile (OR=1.91; C.I=1.362-2.665; pwomen who have access to FP programmes on media and increases consistently with increasing women empowerment level even when other potential confounding variables were used as control. In Malawi, LAPCM is still underutilized and more than half of the women are not adequately empowered. Women empowerment, wealth quintile and access to FP programmes are key factors influencing the use of LAPCM. Programmes that address these determinants are urgently needed in Malawi.

  8. Neonatal mortality in East Africa and West Africa: a geographic analysis of district-level demographic and health survey data

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    Sue C. Grady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Under-five child mortality declined 47% since 2000 following the implementation of the United Nation’s (UN Millennium Development Goals. To further reduce under-five child mortality, the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs will focus on interventions to address neonatal mortality, a major contributor of under-five mortality. The African region has the highest neonatal mortality rate (28.0 per 1000 live births, followed by that of the Eastern Mediterranean (26.6 and South-East Asia (24.3. This study used the Demographic and Health Survey Birth Recode data (http://dhsprogram.com/data/File-Types-and-Names.cfm to identify high-risk districts and countries for neonatal mortality in two sub-regions of Africa – East Africa and West Africa. Geographically weighted Poisson regression models were estimated to capture the spatially varying relationships between neonatal mortality and dimensions of potential need i care around the time of delivery, ii maternal education, and iii women’s empowerment. In East Africa, neonatal mortality was significantly associated with home births, mothers without an education and mothers whose husbands decided on contraceptive practices, controlling for rural residency. In West Africa, neonatal mortality was also significantly associated with home births, mothers with a primary education and mothers who did not want or plan their last child. Importantly, neonatal mortality associated with home deliveries were explained by maternal exposure to unprotected water sources in East Africa and older maternal age and female sex of infants in West Africa. Future SDG-interventions may target these dimensions of need in priority high-risk districts and countries, to further reduce the burden of neonatal mortality in Africa.

  9. Poor thermal care practices among home births in Nepal: further analysis of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011.

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    Vishnu Khanal

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hypothermia is a major factor associated with neonatal mortality in low and middle income countries. Thermal care protection of newborn through a series of measures taken at birth and during the initial days of life is recommended to reduce the hypothermia and associated neonatal mortality. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of and the factors associated with receiving 'optimum thermal care' among home born newborns of Nepal. METHODS: Data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS 2011 were used for this study. Women who reported a home birth for their most recent childbirth was included in the study. Factors associated with optimum thermal care were examined using Chi-square test followed by logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 2464 newborns were included in the study. A total of 57.6 % were dried before the placenta was delivered; 60.3% were wrapped; 24.5% had not bathing during the first 24 hours, and 63.9% were breastfed within one hour of birth. Overall, only 248 (10.7%; 95% CI (8.8 %, 12.9% newborns received optimum thermal care. Newborns whose mothers had achieved higher education (OR 2.810; 95% CI (1.132, 6.976, attended four or more antenatal care visits (OR 2.563; 95% CI (1.309, 5.017, and those whose birth were attended by skilled attendants (OR 2.178; 95% CI (1.428, 3.323 were likely to receive optimum thermal care. CONCLUSION: The current study showed that only one in ten newborns in Nepal received optimum thermal care. Future newborn survival programs should focus on those mothers who are uneducated; who do not attend the recommended four or more attend antenatal care visits; and those who deliver without the assistance of skilled birth attendants to reduce the risk of neonatal hypothermia in Nepal.

  10. Family History, Diabetes, and Other Demographic and Risk Factors Among Participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002

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    Debra Duquette, MS, CGC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Family history of diabetes has been recognized as an important risk factor of the disease. Family medical history represents valuable genomic information because it characterizes the combined interactions between environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors. This study examined the strength and effect of having a family history of diabetes on the prevalence of self-reported, previously diagnosed diabetes among adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002. Methods The study population included data from 10,283 participants aged 20 years and older. Gender, age, race/ethnicity, poverty income ratio, education level, body mass index, and family history of diabetes were examined in relation to diabetes status. Diabetes prevalence estimates and odds ratios of diabetes were calculated based on family history and other factors. Results The prevalence of diabetes among individuals who have a first-degree relative with diabetes (14.3% was significantly higher than that of individuals without a family history (3.2%, corresponding to a crude odds ratio of five. Both prevalence and odds ratio estimates significantly increased with the number of relatives affected with diabetes. Family history was also associated with several demographic and risk factors. Conclusion Family history of diabetes was shown to be a significant predictor of diabetes prevalence in the adult U.S. population. We advocate the inclusion of family history assessment in public health prevention and screening programs as an inexpensive and valuable source of genomic information and measure of diabetes risk.

  11. Intensive Care Research Coordinators in Australia and New Zealand: a cross-sectional survey of demographics, responsibilities, job satisfaction and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brigit; Eastwood, Glenn M; Raunow, Heike; Howe, Belinda; Rickard, Claire M

    2011-11-01

    The achievement of successful clinical research projects depends on multiple team members including Research Coordinators (RCs), who are the link between the researcher and the trial participants. The RCs main responsibility is to ensure that all research is conducted according to the appropriate protocols, regulations and guidelines. Description of demographics, the role and associated responsibilities and assessment of items of importance to, and satisfaction with, various job related items. An observational web-based cross-sectional study of RCs working in Intensive Care Units (ICU) across Australia and New Zealand. Fifty-six participants completed the survey. Forty percent had more than 6 years experience in ICU research and one-third held a Masters Degree. Most respondents performed research related tasks including ethics submission, patient screening, education and data collection. Autonomy and work hours were the most satisfying job characteristics reported and aspects relating to autonomy were most important for the RCs. Inadequate remuneration was of great concern to the participants. Research Coordinators in Australia and New Zealand have many and varied roles with a significant workload. Unfortunately, the RCs do not feel their employers are adequately remunerating the demand on their time and efforts. The results indicate that RCs enjoy high levels of satisfaction with general conditions and facets of their work and its environment and they remain passionate about their role in the ICU setting. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary Diversity and Meal Frequency Practices among Infant and Young Children Aged 6–23 Months in Ethiopia: A Secondary Analysis of Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011

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    Melkam Aemro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Appropriate complementary feeding practice is essential for growth and development of children. This study aimed to assess dietary diversity and meal frequency practice of infants and young children in Ethiopia. Methods. Data collected in the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS from December 2010 to June 2011 were used for this study. Data collected were extracted, arranged, recoded, and analyzed by using SPSS version 17. A total of 2836 children aged 6–23 months were used for final analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis were done to identify predictors of feeding practices. Result. Children with adequate dietary diversity score and meal frequency were 10.8% and 44.7%, respectively. Children born from the richest households showed better dietary diversity score (OR = 0.256. Number of children whose age less than five years was important predictor of dietary diversity (OR = 0.690. Mothers who had exposure to media were more likely to give adequate meal frequency to their children (OR = 0.707. Conclusion. Dietary diversity and meal frequency practices were inadequate in Ethiopia. Wealth quintile, exposure to media, and number of children were affecting feeding practices. Improving economic status, a habit of eating together, and exposure to media are important to improve infant feeding practices in Ethiopia.

  13. Hawaii veterinarians' bioterrorism preparedness needs assessment survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alan R; Nekorchuk, Dawn M; Holck, Peter S; Hendrickson, Lisa A; Imrie, Allison A; Effler, Paul V

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the objective bioterrorism-related knowledge base and the perceived response readiness of veterinarians in Hawaii to a bioterrorism event, and also to identify variables associated with knowledge-based test performance. An anonymous survey instrument was mailed to all licensed veterinarians residing in Hawaii (N = 229) up to three times during June and July 2004, using numeric identifiers to track non-respondents. The response rate for deliverable surveys was 59% (125 of 212). Only 12% (15 of 123) of respondents reported having had prior training on bioterrorism. Forty-four percent (55 of 125) reported being able to identify a bioterrorism event in animal populations; however, only 17% (21 of 125) felt able to recognize a bioterrorism event in human populations. Only 16% (20 of 123) felt they were able to respond effectively to a bioterrorist attack. Over 90% (106 of 116) expressed their willingness to provide assistance to the state in its response to a bioterrorist event. Veterinarians scored a mean of 70% correct (5.6 out of 8 questions) on the objective knowledge-based questions. Additional bioterrorism preparedness training should be made available, both in the form of continuing educational offerings for practicing veterinarians and as a component of the curriculum in veterinary schools.

  14. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  15. Reproductive and Obstetric Factors Are Key Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Evidence from Demographic and Health Survey (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Taddese Alemu; Melaku Umeta

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is a major public health problem worldwide. In Ethiopia, a nationally representative and consistent evidence is lacking on the prevalence and determinants during pregnancy. We conducted an in-depth analysis of demographic and health survey for the year 2011 which is a representative data collected from all regions in Ethiopia. Considering maternal anemia as an outcome variable, predicting variables from sociodemographic, household, and reproductive/obstetric characteristics were identi...

  16. Factors associated with the introduction of prelacteal feeds in Nepal: findings from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Vishnu; Adhikari, Mandira; Sauer, Kay; Zhao, Yun

    2013-08-08

    A prelacteal feed is any food except mother's milk provided to a newborn before initiating breastfeeding. Prelacteal feeding is a major barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. It is a prevalent practice in Nepal. Little is known about the factors associated with providing prelacteal feeds to the Nepalese newborn. This study explored the factors associated with providing prelacteal feeds to children under three years in Nepal using the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2011. This study utilised the NDHS 2011 child dataset which is a nationally representative study. The rates of providing prelacteal feeds were reported as a proportion. Complex Sample Analysis method was used to account for the cluster design and sample weight of the study. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression were used to analyse the factors associated with providing prelacteal feeds. A sample of 3948 mothers were included in the study. A total of 841 [26.5% (95% CI: 23.1%-30.3%)] weighted proportion) of mothers reported of providing prelacteal feeds to their newborn infants. Plain water (n = 75), sugar/glucose (n = 35), gripe water (n = 3), sugar/salt solution (n = 3), fruit juice (n = 3), infant formula (n = 96), tea (n = 3) and other milk other than breast milk (n = 556) were some of the types of prelacteal feeds reported. The multiple regression analysis showed that the mothers who had no education, were not working, were from the middle wealth quintile, who had not attended four antenatal care visits, were first time mothers and who were from the Terai/Plain region were more likely to provide prelacteal feeds. Given that one in four infants were provided with prelacteal feeds, there is a need to implement breastfeeding promotion programs to increase the practice of exclusive breastfeeding and reduce prelacteal feeding practices. Breastfeeding counseling at antenatal clinics and peer support for exclusive breastfeeding should be included as part

  17. Is Spousal Violence Being "Vertically Transmitted" through Victims? Findings from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012-13.

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    Syeda Kanwal Aslam

    Full Text Available Violence against women is regarded as a major violation of human rights, and several socio-behavioral aspects among victims have been identified as important determinants of spousal violence experience. Pakistani nationally representative contextual evidence is scarce in this regard. We aimed to estimate prevalence of spousal violence, and explore its association with intergenerational transfer, and attitudinal acceptance of violence, among Pakistani ever-married women.Data of 3,687 ever-married women from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-13 was used to perform secondary analysis. Logistic regression analyses were conducted. Association between the different forms of spousal violence and the independent variables: intergenerational transfer of spousal violence (mother also beaten up by father; and attitudinal acceptance of spousal violence (beating is justifies if wife argues with husband were reported as Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI.Overall, more than a third (n=1344, 37.9%of ever-married women reported that they experienced spousal violence. Almost 68% (n=539 of the women who reported that their mothers were also beaten up by their fathers, were victims of spousal violence; and almost 47% (n=603 of the women who agreed that beating was justified if the wife argues with her husband, also suffered spousal violence. Intergenerational transfer (OR =5.71, 95%CI 4.40-7.41, p-value <0.01, and attitudinal acceptance (OR =1.66, 95%CI 1.27-2.15, p-value <0.01 were significantly associated with experience of physical violence even after adjusting for respondents' age at marriage, education level, wealth index, parity, employment status, and empowerment status.Spousal violence continues to haunt the lives of women in Pakistan, and is being transmitted as a learned behavior from mothers to daughters who tend to accept such violation of human rights. Girl children from such unfortunate homes may continue to transmit such

  18. Utilization of maternal health services among young women in Kenya: Insights from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2003

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    Ikamari Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of maternal health services is an effective means for reducing the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality, especially in places where the general health status of women is poor. This study was guided by the following objectives: 1 To determine the relationship between timing of first antenatal care (ANC visit and type of delivery assistance 2 To establish the determinants of timing of first ANC visit and type delivery assistance. Methods Data used were drawn from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with a focus on young women aged 15-24. The dependent variables were: Timing of first ANC visit coded as "None"; "Late" and "Early", and type of delivery assistance coded as "None"; "Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA" and "Skilled professional". Control variables included: education, household wealth, urban-rural residence, ethnicity, parity, age at birth of the last child and marital status. Multivariate ordered logistic regression model was used. Results The study results show that place of residence, household wealth, education, ethnicity, parity, marital status and age at birth of the last child had strong influences on timing of first ANC visit and the type of delivery assistance received. The major finding is an association between early timing of the first ANC visit and use of skilled professionals at delivery. Conclusion This study confirms that timing of first antenatal care is indeed an important entry point for delivery care as young women who initiated antenatal care early were more likely to use skilled professional assistance at delivery than their counterparts who initiated ANC late. The results indicate that a large percentage of young pregnant women do not seek ANC during their first trimester as is recommended by the WHO, which may affect the type of assistance they receive during delivery. It is important that programs aimed at improving maternal health include targeting young women, especially

  19. Atlantic Protected Species Assessment Aerial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of aerial line-transect surveys conducted over continental shelf waters of the southeastern U.S. Surveys have been conducted...

  20. Nutritional status, health conditions and socio-demographic factors in the elderly of Havana, Cuba: data from SABE survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva Coqueiro, R; Rodrigues Barbosa, A; Ferreti Borgatto, A

    2010-12-01

    To assess the association of nutritional status with sex, age, race/color, education, smoking, physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, and hospitalization in older adults residing in the city of Havana, Cuba. This was a cross-sectional, population-based household survey. A total of 1,905 persons (1,197 women and 708 men; ≥ 60 years) were examined between 1999 and 2000, selected by probabilistic sampling. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI): BMI 27.0 kg/m2 = overweight. Multinomial logistic regression analysis (crude and adjusted) was used. The estimation of the prevalence of underweight was 33.0% and that of overweight was 29.6%. The adjusted regression model showed that the probability of underweight was higher in older age groups (OR = 1.63, 70-79 years; OR = 2.05, ≥ 80 years) and among smokers (OR = 1.83). There was negative association between underweight, and hypertension and diabetes. Hypertension (OR = 1.99) was positively associated with overweight. The lower likelihood of overweight was observed among men, smokers, and those aged 80 years and more. The elderly population of Havana presents a vulnerable nutritional status in view of the prevalence of underweight and overweight. Increasing age, smoking, gender, and hypertension are the factors positively associated with vulnerable nutritional status.

  1. Using multi-country household surveys to understand who provides reproductive and maternal health services in low- and middle-income countries: a critical appraisal of the Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, K; Benova, L; Goodman, C; Macleod, D; Lynch, C A; Penn-Kekana, L; Campbell, O M R

    2015-05-01

    The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are a vital data resource for cross-country comparative analyses. This study is part of a set of analyses assessing the types of providers being used for reproductive and maternal health care across 57 countries. Here, we examine some of the challenges encountered using DHS data for this purpose, present the provider classification we used, and provide recommendations to enable more detailed and accurate cross-country comparisons of healthcare provision. We used the most recent DHS surveys between 2000 and 2012; 57 countries had data on family planning and delivery care providers and 47 countries had data on antenatal care. Every possible response option across the 57 countries was listed and categorised. We then developed a classification to group provider response options according to two key dimensions: clinical nature and profit motive. We classified the different types of maternal and reproductive healthcare providers, and the individuals providing care. Documented challenges encountered during this process were limitations inherent in household survey data based on respondents' self-report; conflation of response options in the questionnaire or at the data processing stage; category errors of the place vs. professional for delivery; inability to determine whether care received at home is from the public or private sector; a large number of negligible response options; inconsistencies in coding and analysis of data sets; and the use of inconsistent headings. To improve clarity, we recommend addressing issues such as conflation of response options, data on public vs. private provider, inconsistent coding and obtaining metadata. More systematic and standardised collection of data would aid international comparisons of progress towards improved financial protection, and allow us to better characterise the incentives and commercial nature of different providers. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health

  2. LAND SURVEY AND ASSESSMENT FOR RELOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Chia-Hung; LIN, Han-Liliang; YAO, Chia-Jun

    2012-01-01

    The Construction and Planning Agency, Ministry of the Interior, called for the meeting of “Proper village relocation in response to the ‘Efforts of August 8 Flood Rescue and Reconstruction’” on Aug 19 2009 to confirm the subsequent house reconstruction operations and the activation of initial survey procedure of permanent relocation sites. The “site safety survey group” was established immediately after the meeting to start the safety evaluation and survey of the sites of permanent relocation...

  3. Sexual autonomy and contraceptive use among women in Nigeria: findings from the Demographic and Health Survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswan SP

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Saritha P Viswan,1 T K Sundari Ravindran,1,2 Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala,1,3,4 Max G Petzold,1,5 Sharon Fonn1 1School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India; 3Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 4Department of Mathematics, Physics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 5Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Context: The persistent low contraceptive use and high fertility in Nigeria despite improvements in educational achievements calls for an examination of the role of factors, which may moderate the use of modern contraception. This article explores the influence of sexual autonomy on the use of modern contraceptive methods among women and its relative importance compared with other, more traditional, indicators of women’s autonomy such as education and occupation.Data and methods: Data from two Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS, 2008 and 2013, were used in this study. An index of sexual autonomy was constructed by combining related DHS variables, and its association with current use of modern contraception was examined at each time point as well as over time using multivariate regression analysis.Results: The observed prevalence for use of modern contraception was 2.8 and 2.6 times higher among women who had high sexual autonomy in 2008 and 2013, respectively. The corresponding figures for women with secondary or higher education were 8.2 and 11.8 times higher, respectively, compared with women with no education. But after controlling for wealth index, religion, place of residence, autonomy and experience of intimate partner violence (IPV

  4. Assessment of caries experience in epidemiological surveys: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Agbaje (Jimoh); E.M.E.H. Lesaffre (Emmanuel); D. Declerck (Dominique)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To review aspects of methods for assessing caries experience (CE) in epidemiological surveys. Method: A search of English language literature published between January 2000 and December 2008 was undertaken using 'epidemiology', 'dental caries' and 'assessment' as search

  5. A National Study Assessing the Teaching and Learning of Introductory Astronomy; Part II: Analysis of Student Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, E. E.; Consiglio, D.; Rudolph, A. L.; Brissenden, G.

    2011-09-01

    This is the second in a series of reports on a national study of the teaching and learning of astronomy in general education, non-science major, introductory astronomy courses (Astro 101). We report here on the analysis of how individual student characteristics affect student learning in these classes, and whether the demonstrated positive effect of interactive learning strategies on student learning differs based on these characteristics. This analysis was conducted using data from nearly 2000 students enrolled in 69 Astro 101 classes taught across the country. These students completed a 15-question demographic survey, in addition to completing the 26-question Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI) pre- and post-instruction. The LSCI was used to determine student learning via a normalized gain calculated for each student. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to determine how ascribed characteristics (personal demographic and family characteristics), obtained characteristics (academic achievement and student major), and the use of interactive learning strategies predict student learning in these classes. The results show dramatic improvement in student learning with increased use of interactive learning strategies even after controlling for individual characteristics. In addition, we find that the positive effects of interactive learning strategies are the same for strong and weak students, men and women, across ethnicities, and regardless of primary language. The research strongly suggests all students benefit from interactive learning strategies.

  6. THE SELECTED ASPECTS OF SOCIOLOGICAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTIC OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS PATIENTS. INTRODUCTORY RESULTS OF A SOCIOLOGICAL SURVEY

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    Karina Erenkfeit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study is a sociological description of people suffering from a pneumoconiosis. A sociological pilot survey performed on a group of patients with confirmed pneumoconiosis was conducted. Material and methods: The study was carried out by means of questionnaire in 133 patients. Following features were taken into consideration: age, sex, educational background, profession, type of activity, personal assessment of legislative acts, changes of professional ability after having been diagnosed as having pneumoconiosis, attitude towards offered aid to patients and preferred methods of support. Results: The population of people suffering from pneumoconiosis consists of mainly middle-aged and elderly men (98%. Most of them are pensioners (93%. Diagnosis of pneumoconiosis usually involves the patients going into retirement or a disability pension. The patients complain that they cannot count on government’s support. Rehabilitation and financial help are the major expected forms of support. Conclusions: People suffering from pneumoconiosis should be provided with rehabilitation and legal advices according to the advanced age and health condition. The results of research showed a lack of help in mentioned above issues, which should be a clue recommendation for institutions in charge of helping people suffering from occupational disease.

  7. Can psychosocial and socio-demographic questions help identify sexual risk among heterosexually-active women of reproductive age? Evidence from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Natalie; Cassell, Jackie A; de Visser, Richard; Prah, Philip; Mercer, Catherine H

    2017-01-04

    Contraceptive advice and supply (CAS) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing are increasingly provided in primary care. Most risk assessment tools are based on sexual risk behaviours and socio-demographics, for use online or in specialist services. Combining socio-demographic and psychosocial questions (e.g. religious belief and formative experience) may generate an acceptable tool for targeting women in primary care who would benefit from intervention. We aimed to identify psychosocial and socio-demographic factors associated with reporting key sexual risk behaviours among women in the British general population. We undertook complex survey analysis of data from 4911 hetero-sexually active women aged 16-44 years, who participated in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), a national probability sample survey undertaken 2010-2012. We used multivariable regression to examine associations between the available psychosocial and socio-demographic variables in Natsal-3 and reports of three key sexual behaviours: a) 2+ partners in the last year (2PP); b) non-use of condoms with 2+ partners in the last year (2PPNC); c) non-use of condoms at first sex with most recent sexual partner (FSNC). We adjusted for key socio-demographic factors: age, ethnicity and socio-economic status (measured by housing tenure). Weekly binge drinking (6+ units on one occasion), and first sex before age 16 were each positively associated with all three sexual behaviours after adjustment. Current relationship status, reporting drug use (ever), younger age and living in rented accommodation were also associated with 2+ partners and 2 + partners without condoms after adjustment. Currently being a smoker, older age and respondent ethnicity were associated with FSNC after adjustment for all other variables. Current smoking status, treatment for depression (last year), and living at home with both parents until the age of 14 were each associated with

  8. The Assessment of Children’s Socio-Demographic Features at the Adolescent Outpatient Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kenan Haspolat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we investigated socio-demo­graphic characteristics of adolescents living in our region. Methods: Were analyzed, retrospectively, patients admit­ted Dicle University Faculty of Medicine’ adolescent out­patient clinic. Demographic data, body mass index (BMI, medical history and family background, school status, academic achievement, habits, trauma and psychosocial status were recorded. Results: Of the 244 adolescents, 124/% were females. The average age of cases was 12.99 ± 1.89 years (10-18 years. 48.3% of adolescents were low BMI. The smoking rate of 32.4% (n=79 and was higher in men. In smok­ers, school performance was lower (p = 0.002, and the rate of suicidal idea was higher (p < 0.001. In those with family history of suicide, the rate of suicidal thoughts or attempted suicide was higher (p = 0.005, p = 0.022, re­spectively. Similarly, in cases exposed to physical vio­lence, the rates of attempted suicide or suicidal thoughts were higher (p=0.011, p=0.001, respectively. In addition, in cases exposed to psychological violence the rates of attempted suicide or suicidal thoughts were higher (p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Adolescents, for they can complete this period in a healthy way, health-care services, education units, especially their parents, should be made aware of the adolescence period-specific problems. Additionally, special centers customized adolescents, should be cre­ated and supported by state and private institutions.

  9. The geographic and demographic scope of shared sanitation: an analysis of national survey data from low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnen, Marieke; Rosa, Ghislaine; Fuller, James; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    A large and growing proportion of the world's population rely on shared sanitation facilities that have historically been excluded from international targets due to concerns about acceptability, hygiene and access. In connection with a proposed change in such policy, we undertook this study to describe the prevalence and scope of households that report relying on shared sanitation and to characterise them in terms of selected socio-economic and demographic covariates. We extracted data from the most recent national household surveys of 84 low- and middle-income countries from Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. We describe the prevalence of shared sanitation and explore associations between specified covariates and reliance on shared sanitation using log-binomial regression. While household reliance on any type of shared sanitation is relatively rare in Europe (2.5%) and the Eastern Mediterranean (7.7%), it is not uncommon in the Americas (14.2%), Western Pacific (16.4%) and South-East Asia (31.3%), and it is most prevalent in Africa (44.6%) where many shared facilities do not meet the definition of 'improved' even if they were not shared (17.7%). Overall, shared sanitation is more common in urban (28.6%) than in rural settings (25.9%), even after adjusting for wealth. While results vary geographically, people who rely on shared sanitation tend to be poorer, reside in urban areas and live in households with more young children and headed by people with no formal education. Data from 21 countries suggest that most sharing is with neighbours and other acquaintances (82.0%) rather than the public. The determinants of shared sanitation identified from these data suggest potential confounders that may explain the apparent increased health risk from sharing and should be considered in any policy recommendation. Both geographic and demographic heterogeneity indicate the need for further research to support a change in policies. © 2014

  10. Evaluation of a Brief Survey Instrument for Assessing Subtle Differences in Cognitive Function Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Ashwin A; Schumm, Philip; Kern, David W; McClintock, Martha K; Waite, Linda J; Shega, Joseph W; Huisingh-Scheetz, Megan J; Dale, William

    2015-01-01

    Most measures of cognitive function used in large-scale surveys of older adults have limited ability to detect subtle differences across cognitive domains, and standard clinical instruments are impractical to administer in general surveys. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) can address this need, but has limitations in a survey context. Therefore, we developed a survey adaptation of the MoCA, called the MoCA-SA, and describe its psychometric properties in a large national survey. Using a pretest sample of older adults (n=120), we reduced MoCA administration time by 26%, developed a model to accurately estimate full MoCA scores from the MoCA-SA, and tested the model in an independent clinical sample (n=93). The validated 18-item MoCA-SA was then administered to community-dwelling adults aged 62 to 91 as part of the National Social life Health and Aging Project Wave 2 sample (n=3196). In National Social life Health and Aging Project Wave 2, the MoCA-SA had good internal reliability (Cronbach α=0.76). Using item-response models, survey-adapted items captured a broad range of cognitive abilities and functioned similarly across sex, education, and ethnic groups. Results demonstrate that the MoCA-SA can be administered reliably in a survey setting while preserving sensitivity to a broad range of cognitive abilities and similar performance across demographic subgroups.

  11. Assessment of Flooded Areas Projections and Floods Potential Impacts Applying Remote Sensing Imagery and Demographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, D. A.; Carriello, F.; Fernandes, P. J. F.; Garofolo Lopes, L.; Siqueira Júnior, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Assessing vulnerability and potential impacts associated with extreme discharges requires an accurate topographic description in order to estimate the extension of flooded areas. However, in most populated regions, topographic data obtained by in-situ measurements is not available. In this case, digital elevation models derived from remote sensing date are usually applied. Moreover, this digital elevation models have intrinsic errors that introduce bigger uncertainty in results than the associated to hydrological projections. On the other hand, estimations of flooded areas through remote sensing images provide accurate information, which could be used for the construction of river level-flooded area relationships regarding vulnerability assessment. In this work, this approach is applied for the city of Porto Velho in the Brazilian Amazonia to assess potential vulnerability to floods associated with climate change projections. The approach is validated using census data, provided by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, and information about socio-economical injuries associated to historical floods, provided by the Brazilian Civil Defence. Hydrological projections under climate change are carried out using several downscaling of climate projections as inputs in a hydrological model. Results show more accurate estimation of flood impacts than the obtained using digital elevation models derivate from remote sensing data. This reduces uncertainties in the assessment of vulnerability to floods associated with climate change in the region.

  12. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time Use Survey. Cross-sectional analysis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to document the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time-Use Survey. Respondents reported their main activities, in 10 minute slots, throughout one 24 hour period. Activities were coded into 30 pre-defined codes, including ‘cooking, washing up’. Four measures of time spent cooking were calculated: any time spent cooking, 30 continuous minutes spent cooking, total time spent cooking, and longest continuous time spent cooking. Socio-demographic correlates were: age, employment, social class, education, and number of adults and children in the household. Analyses were stratified by gender. Data from 4214 participants were included. 85% of women and 60% of men spent any time cooking; 60% of women and 33% of men spent 30 continuous minutes cooking. Amongst women, older age, not being in employment, lower social class, greater education, and living with other adults or children were positively associated with time cooking. Few differences in time spent cooking were seen in men. Socio-economic differences in time spent cooking may have been overstated as a determinant of socio-economic differences in diet, overweight and obesity. Gender was a stronger determinant of time spent cooking than other socio-demographic variables. PMID:26004671

  13. Patterns of menthol cigarette use among current smokers, overall and within demographic strata, based on data from four U.S. government surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Geoffrey M; Sulsky, Sandra I; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Marano, Kristin M; Graves, Monica J; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E

    2014-10-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, National Health Interview Survey and Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey provide estimates of the proportions of U.S. smokers who currently use menthol cigarettes, overall and within demographic strata. Among adult past-month, regular and daily smokers, menthol cigarette use ranges from 26% to 30%, with statistically higher proportions of female versus male smokers (8-11 percentage points higher) currently using menthol cigarettes. Compared to adult smokers overall, statistically higher proportions of non-Hispanic Black smokers (72-79%) and statistically lower proportions of non-Hispanic White smokers (19-22%) currently use menthol cigarettes, with no differences among smokers of other race/ethnicity groups (18-20% to 28-30%, depending on the survey). Higher proportions of younger adult past-month, regular and daily smokers (aged 18-25years) currently use menthol cigarettes compared to older adult smokers (aged 26-29years and/or ⩾30years); however, differences are small in magnitude, with the vast majority of adult smokers (70-75%) who currently use menthol cigarettes being aged ⩾30years. Comparisons between youth and adult smokers are provided, although data for youth smokers are less available and provide less consistent patterns of menthol cigarette use.

  14. Graduate Assessment Survey Report, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    This report presents the 2000-2001 results of Santa Fe Community College's (SFCC) (Florida) annual survey of outgoing students' opinions and perceptions of their educational experiences and institutional services. Responses were received from 2,397 students, all of whom were candidates for graduation in associate and certificate programs. The 10…

  15. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Advance Directive Possession: Role of Demographic Factors, Religious Affiliation, and Personal Health Values in a National Survey of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ivy A; Neuhaus, John M; Chiong, Winston

    2016-02-01

    Black and Hispanic older Americans are less likely than white older Americans to possess advance directives. Understanding the reasons for this racial and ethnic difference is necessary to identify targets for future interventions to improve advance care planning in these populations. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether racial and ethnic differences in advance directive possession are explained by other demographic factors, religious characteristics, and personal health values. A general population survey was conducted in a nationally representative sample using a web-enabled survey panel of American adults aged 50 and older (n = 2154). In a sample of older Americans, white participants are significantly more likely to possess advance directives (44.0%) than black older Americans (24.0%, p personal health values. These findings support targeted efforts to mitigate racial disparities in access to advance care planning.

  16. Demographic survey of black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in the Lachuá Eco-region in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Meda, Marleny; Estrada, Alejandro; López, Jorge E

    2008-03-01

    Guatemala harbors three species of primates (Alouatta palliata, Alouatta pigra and Ateles geoffroyi), but the distribution and state of conservation of populations of these species are poorly documented. In the case of A. pigra, populations have been studied recently and documented in several sites in Mexico and Belize, and only in one site in Guatemala (Tikal National Park). In this study, we report first-time population data for A. pigra existing in the Lachuá Eco-region in northwestern Guatemala. Surveys were conducted between September 2002 and April 2003 in the northern portion (32 km2) of the Lachuá National Park (LLNP; 145 km2) and in a fragmented landscape north of the protected area. In this latter area we surveyed a large forest fragment (17.14 km2), "Nueve Cerros", and 26 small forest fragments that ranged in size from 0.01 to 3.9 km2. Surveys resulted in a total count of 414 howler monkeys of which 403 belonged to 80 mixed-sex groups, four were solitary males, two were solitary females and five were found in two male groups. Standardized sampling effort among sites indicated 16.7 monkeys/100 survey hours at LLNP, 35.8 individuals/100 survey hours at "Nueve Cerros" and 71.0+/-62.2 individuals/100 survey hours in the forest fragments. Mean group size varied from 4.07 individuals at LLNP to 5.19 individuals in the forest fragments. Conservation problems for the black howler population surveyed are discussed, along with possible conservation scenarios.

  17. Demographic Data Assessment using Novel 3DCCOM Spatial Hierarchical Clustering: A Case Study of Sonipat Block, Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Malik

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cluster detection is a tool employed by GIS scientists who specialize in the field of spatial analysis. This study employed a combination of GIS, RS and a novel 3DCCOM spatial data clustering algorithm to assess the rural demographic development strategies of Sonepat block, Haryana, India. This Study is undertaken in the rural and rural-based district in India to demonstrate the integration of village-level spatial and non-spatial data in GIS environment using Hierarchical Clustering. Spatial clusters of living standard parameters, including family members, male and female population, sex ratio, total male and female education ratio etc. The paper also envisages future development and usefulness of this community GIS, Spatial data clustering tool for grass-root level planning. Any data that showsgeographic (spatial variability can be subject to cluster analysis.

  18. Assessing the ESSENCE Biosurveillance System: Results of a User Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ESSENCE BIOSURVEILLANCE SYSTEM: RESULTS OF A USER SURVEY by Randi M. Korman March 2011 Thesis Advisor: Ron Fricker Second Reader: James...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Assessing the ESSENCE Biosurveillance System: Results of a User Survey 6. AUTHOR(S) Randi M. Korman 5... Biosurveillance , ESSENCE, NMPHC, Surveillance System, Survey 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY

  19. Preschool Anxiety Disorders: Comprehensive Assessment of Clinical, Demographic, Temperamental, Familial, and Life Stress Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Tolep, Marissa R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret; Traditi, Jennifer; Rose, Suzanne; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined correlates of preschoolers’ anxiety disorders using a comprehensive, multi-method design. Participants included a community sample of 541 three-year-old children, of whom 106 (19.6%) met criteria for at least one anxiety disorder. Child and parental psychopathology and life stress were assessed with clinical interviews. Child temperament and parenting behavior were assessed with laboratory observations. Mothers and fathers reported on their parenting styles. Compared to preschoolers with no anxiety disorder, preschoolers with an anxiety disorder were more likely to meet criteria for comorbid depressive and oppositional defiant disorders and to exhibit greater temperamental behavioral inhibition and lower positive affectivity, and more sleep problems. Children with anxiety disorders also experienced more stressful life events in the previous six months, and their mothers had a higher rate of current anxiety disorders. Compared to children with other anxiety disorders, children with only specific phobia exhibited a somewhat different pattern of associations than children with other anxiety disorders. Overall, the findings suggest that many of the correlates observed in older youth with anxiety disorders are also observed in preschoolers. PMID:23368788

  20. Jungle Giants: Assessing Sustainable Harvesting in a Difficult-to-Survey Species (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natusch, Daniel J D; Lyons, Jessica A; Mumpuni; Riyanto, Awal; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability of wildlife harvests is critical but difficult to assess. Evaluations of sustainability typically combine modelling with the measurement of underlying abundances. For many taxa harvested in developing countries, however, abundances are near-impossible to survey and a lack of detailed ecological information impedes the reliability of models. In such cases, repeated surveys of the attributes of harvested individuals may provide more robust information on sustainability. If the numbers, sizes and other demographic attributes of animals taken for the commercial trade do not change over biologically significant time intervals (decades), there is a prima facie case that the harvest is indeed sustainable. Here, we report the results of examinations of > 4,200 reticulated pythons (Python reticulatus) taken for the commercial leather industry in northern and southern Sumatra, Indonesia. The numbers, mean body sizes, clutch sizes, sizes at maturity and proportion of giant specimens have not decreased between our first surveys (1995) and repeat surveys (2015). Thus, despite assumptions to the contrary, the harvest appears to be sustainable. We use our data to inform the design of future monitoring programs for this species. Our study underpins the need for robust science to inform wildlife trade policy and decision-making, and urges wildlife managers to assess sustainability of difficult-to-survey terrestrial wildlife by drawing inferences directly from the harvest itself.

  1. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in the Gulf of Mexico from 1991 to the present. These are designed as...

  2. Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Assessment Aerial Surveys - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys were conducted during the spring-summer of 2010 and seasonally during 2011-2012 to assess the abundance and spatial distribution of marine mammals and...

  3. Prevalence and determinants of the gender differentials risk factors of child deaths in Bangladesh: evidence from the Bangladesh demographic and health survey, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mosharaf Hossain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of child deaths is a potential indicator to assess the health condition of a country, and represents a major health challenge in Bangladesh. Although the country has performed exceptionally well in decreasing the mortality rate among children under five over the last few decades, mortality still remains relatively high. The main objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and determinants of the risk factors of child mortality in Bangladesh. METHODS: The data were based on a cross-sectional study collected from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS, 2011. The women participants numbered 16,025 from seven divisions of Bangladesh - Rajshahi, Dhaka, Chittagong, Barisal, Khulna, Rangpur and Sylhet. The 2 test and logistic regression model were applied to determine the prevalence and factors associated with child deaths in Bangladesh. RESULTS: In 2011, the prevalence of child deaths in Bangladesh for boys and girls was 13.0% and 11.6%, respectively. The results showed that birth interval and birth order were the most important factors associated with child death risks; mothers' education and socioeconomic status were also significant (males and females. The results also indicated that a higher birth order (7 & more of child (OR=21.421 & 95%CI=16.879-27.186 with a short birth interval ≤ 2 years was more risky for child mortality, and lower birth order with longer birth interval >2 were significantly associated with child deaths. Other risk factors that affected child deaths in Bangladesh included young mothers of less than 25 years (mothers' median age (26-36 years: OR=0.670, 95%CI=0.551-0.815, women without education compared to those with secondary and higher education (OR =0 .711 & .628, 95%CI=0.606-0.833 & 0.437-0.903, mothers who perceived their child body size to be larger than average and small size (OR= 1.525 & 1.068, 95%CI=1.221-1.905 & 0.913-1.249, and mothers who delivered their child by non

  4. Prevalence and determinants of the gender differentials risk factors of child deaths in Bangladesh: evidence from the Bangladesh demographic and health survey, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Mosharaf; Mani, Kulanthayan K C; Islam, Md Rafiqul

    2015-03-01

    The number of child deaths is a potential indicator to assess the health condition of a country, and represents a major health challenge in Bangladesh. Although the country has performed exceptionally well in decreasing the mortality rate among children under five over the last few decades, mortality still remains relatively high. The main objective of this study is to identify the prevalence and determinants of the risk factors of child mortality in Bangladesh. The data were based on a cross-sectional study collected from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS), 2011. The women participants numbered 16,025 from seven divisions of Bangladesh - Rajshahi, Dhaka, Chittagong, Barisal, Khulna, Rangpur and Sylhet. The 2 test and logistic regression model were applied to determine the prevalence and factors associated with child deaths in Bangladesh. In 2011, the prevalence of child deaths in Bangladesh for boys and girls was 13.0% and 11.6%, respectively. The results showed that birth interval and birth order were the most important factors associated with child death risks; mothers' education and socioeconomic status were also significant (males and females). The results also indicated that a higher birth order (7 & more) of child (OR=21.421 & 95%CI=16.879-27.186) with a short birth interval ≤ 2 years was more risky for child mortality, and lower birth order with longer birth interval >2 were significantly associated with child deaths. Other risk factors that affected child deaths in Bangladesh included young mothers of less than 25 years (mothers' median age (26-36 years): OR=0.670, 95%CI=0.551-0.815), women without education compared to those with secondary and higher education (OR =0 .711 & .628, 95%CI=0.606-0.833 & 0.437-0.903), mothers who perceived their child body size to be larger than average and small size (OR= 1.525 & 1.068, 95%CI=1.221-1.905 & 0.913-1.249), and mothers who delivered their child by non-caesarean (OR= 1.687, 95%CI=1

  5. Results of a survey to determine demographic and business management factors associated with size and growth rate of rural mixed-animal veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusk, Amy M; White, Brad J; Goehl, Dan R; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C

    2010-12-15

    To determine potential associations between demographic and business management factors and practice size and growth rate in rural mixed-animal veterinary practices. Cross-sectional survey. 54 mixed-animal practitioners. A cross-sectional survey (96 questions) was electronically disseminated. Responses were collected, and outcomes (number of veterinarians [NV], growth in number of veterinarians [NVG], gross practice income [GPI], growth in gross practice income [GPIG], gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIV], and growth in gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIVG]) were calculated. Bivariate analyses were performed and multivariable models created to determine associations between survey responses and outcomes of interest. Survey respondents were from mixed-animal practices, and most (46/54 [85.2%]) practiced in small communities (business manager. Typically, practices had positive mean growth in NVG (4.4%), GPIG (8.5%), and GPIVG (8.1%), but growth rate was highly variable among practices. Factors associated with growth rate included main species interest, frequency for adjusting prices, use of a marketing plan, service fee structure, and sending a client newsletter. Mixed-animal practices had a large range in size and growth rate. Economic indices were impacted by common business management practices.

  6. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 1995 Cohort--User Guide. Data Elements A: Demographics. Technical Report 49A

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This technical paper contains information about the variables in the LSAY (Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth) Y95 cohort data set. It groups each variable into data elements which identifies common variables within and across waves. Information is provided about each data element including its purpose, values, base populations and relevant…

  7. Development of a survey to assess adolescent perceptions of teen parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W; Nandakumar, Ratna

    2012-01-01

    Initiatives designed to prevent teen pregnancy are often based on adult perceptions of the negative aspects of a teen birth. Qualitative research has revealed that teens may perceive positive rewards associated with teen parenting. These perceptions have not yet been examined through survey research. The theory of reasoned action proposes that individuals assess the costs and rewards prior to engaging in a behavior and provides a framework for the development of a survey instrument designed to measure adolescent thoughts about the costs and rewards of the teen parenting experience. This manuscript describes the development and testing of a quantitative survey instrument designed to measure adolescents' perceptions. Pretesting, piloting, exploratory factor analysis, and a variety of reliability and validity measures were used to determine the value of the measure. The thoughts on teen parenting survey (TTPS) demonstrates an alpha level of .90. The TTPS yields a cumulative score of teen perceptions about the impact of a teen birth during the adolescent years that may be used to assess youth beliefs, correlated with demographic data, used to identify teens at risk for pregnancy/parenting, or provide a pretest/posttest to assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to foster realistic attitudes toward teen parenting.

  8. Assessment of personality and demographic aspects of cohabitation and marital success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, M D; Bentler, P M

    1980-02-01

    The outcomes of 68 marriages of four-year duration were compared on the basis of whether the partners had or had not cohabited premaritally. Background characteristics and personality data were assessed on those couples when there were newly married, and they were followed-up four years later to determine their current marital status, level of satisfaction, difficulty with various problem areas and the number of children born to them. No reliable differences on marital satisfaction or divorce rates between premarital cohabitors and noncohabitors were found. Cohabitors who divorced did so while reporting less marital distress than noncohabitors who divorced. Premarital cohabitors had significantly fewer children than noncohabitors. Degree of difficulty experienced on various problem areas differed between the groups. Certain personality and background variables predicted marital success differently for the two groups. Using the same selected set of six predictor variables, multiple regression equations were generated for cohabitors and noncohabitors. The cohabitors equation (R2 = .56) predicted marital success significantly more effectively than the noncohabitors equation (R2 = .28), When comparing the tri-weight vectors for these two equations, none of the predictor variables had the same influence in both groups. Theoretical implications of the findings were discussed.

  9. Assessing health consumerism on the Web: a demographic profile of information-seeking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, Daniel P; Park, Heeyoung; Fox, Susannah

    2006-08-01

    The growing diversity of the online health information community is increasingly cited as a limiting factor related to the potential of the Internet as an effective health communication channel and information resource. Public-access Internet portals and decreasing costs of personal computers have created a consensus that unequal access to information, or a "Digital Divide," presents a like problem specific to health care consumers. Access to information, however, is an essential part of the consumer-centric framework outlined in the recently proposed U.S. National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) and Health Architecture initiatives. To date little research has been done to differentiate the types of health information sought on the Web by different subgroups, linking user characteristics and health-seeking behaviors. Data from a study of consumer Web search activity in a post-intervention era serves as a natural experiment, and can identify whether a "digitally underserved group" persists in the United States. Such an environment would serve to exclude traditionally underserved groups from the benefits of the planned national heath information infrastructure. This exploratory technology assessment study seeks to differentiate and delineate specific behaviors, or lack of desired behaviors, across targeted health care subgroups. Doing so allows the design of more effective strategies to promote the use of the Web as a health education and health promotion tool, under the envisioned shared decision-making, consumer-centric health information model.

  10. Preliminary geothermal assessment surveys for the State of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.M.; Cox, M.E.; Lienert, B.R.; Kauahikaua, J.P.; Mattice, M.D.

    1980-09-01

    The Geothermal Resource Assessment Program of the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics has conducted a series of geochemical and geophysical surveys in ten separate locations within the State of Hawaii in an effort to identify and assess potential geothermal areas throughout the state. The techniques applied include groundwater chemistry and temperatures, soil mercury surveys, ground radon emanometry, time-domain electromagnetic surveys and Schlumberger resistivity soundings. Although geochemical and geophysical anomalies were identified in nearly all the survey sites, those areas which show most promise, based on presently available data, for a geothermal resource are as follows: Puna, Kailua Kona, and Kawaihae on the island of Hawaii; Haiku-Paia and Olowalu-Ukumehame canyons on Maui; and Lualualei Valley on Oahu. Further surveys are planned for most of these areas in order to further define the nature of the thermal resource present.

  11. [Assessment of socio-demographic factors in alcohol-addicted patients recurrently treated in a detoxification unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrostek Maj, Jan; Kamenczak, Aleksandra; Bock, Romana; Polewka, Andrzej; Krawczyk, Elzbieta

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was the assessment some socio-demographic factors of alcohol dependent patients more times hospitalized in Department of Toxicology in Kraków in the years 1999-2004. The repeatedly hospitalization of 334 patients (298 men and 36 women), aged from 17 to 71 years (mean 45.1 years) due the alcohol problem on the basis of clinic documentation were established. The following socio-demographics traits were taken in analysis: age, sex, marital status, place of living, education, kind of jobs, employment and others sources of money. The patients were admitted from 2 or more 29 times during 6 years. Medical history of addiction of mentioned patients was from 1 to 40 years, mean 25 years. 43.7% persons live single and 53.6% was married. The most patients live in Kraków (80%) and others near the town. The education of them: 15.0% ended high school, 28.7% "medium", 30.5% "low professional" and elementary school--13.8% of them. This factor was similar like regional data. Amount mentioned persons 25.8% worked for salary, 11.7% had own business, and 25.4% was retired, and 29.0% was unemployed. This last factor was worse liked similar from mentioned region. The kind of jobs of persons on the aspect of "social safety" was described. Among the mentioned chronic alcohol addicted persons about 18.8% of them with machines in traffic was worked (bus drivers i.e.) and 7.5% described persons in special jobs was worked (policemen, physician i.e.). The authors were suggested that mentioned factors due health services cost in Poland and propose integration of treatment of alcohol-addicted patients.

  12. Association between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain: Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey - PNDS-2006/07

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain. METHODS: All infants (0-23 months of age) with available birth and postnatal weight data (n = 1763) were selected from the last nationally representative survey with complex probability sampling conducted in Brazil (2006/07). The outcome variable was conditional weight gain (CWG), which represents how much an individual has deviated from his/her expected weight gain, given the birth wei...

  13. Baseline Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Adrenal Incidentaloma from a Single Center in China: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the clinical and endocrinological characteristics of patients with adrenal incidentaloma (AI. Materials and Methods. This retrospective study enrolled 1941 AI patients hospitalized at the Department of Endocrinology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China, between January 1997 and December 2016. The patient gender, age at visits, imaging features, functional status, and histological results were analyzed. Results. Of the 1941 patients, 984 (50.70% were men. The median age was 52 years (interquartile range: 44–69 years. 140 cases had bilateral AI. Endocrine evaluation showed that 1411 (72.69% patients had nonfunctional tumor, 152 (7.83% had subclinical Cushing syndrome (SCS, and 82 (4.33% had primary hyperaldosteronism. A total of 925 patients underwent operation for removal of 496 cortical adenomas (53.62%, 15 adrenal cortical carcinomas (1.62%, and 172 pheochromocytomas (18.59%. The bilateral group had a higher proportion of SCS (18.57% versus 7.10%, P<0.001, P=0.006. A mass size of 46 mm was of great value in distinguishing malignant tumors from the benign tumors, with sensitivity of 88.2% and specificity of 95.5%. Conclusions. We reported the baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with AI in a large series from a single center in China.

  14. Demographic characteristics of patients and their assessment of selected hygienic practices of hospital personnel in the context of safety climate of hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różańska, Anna; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    2015-04-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is a key factor in hospital infection prevention and patient safety. The objectives of this article were to examine patients' observations concerning compliance with selected procedures for hospital hygiene among medical personnel and assess the correlation between patients' key demographic characteristics and their awareness and sense of safety associated with hospitalization. The study was conducted in January 2012 on a sample of 491 subjects by means of a standardized 10-minute computer-assisted telephone interview survey. There was a statistically significant correlation between the sense of safety associated with hospitalization declared by patients and their observation of HH practices among health care personnel. A positive correlation was also found between the respondents experiencing personal complications in the form of health care-associated infections themselves or among their family members and the sense of safety associated with hospital treatment. Performing HH among hospital staff is one of the factors affecting patients' increased sense of safety during their hospitalization; therefore, HH contributes to the perception of good quality of service provided. Knowledge of the risk of HH does not affect the patients' sense of safety, in contrast with their real-life experiences. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinants of moderate-to-severe anaemia among women of reproductive age in Tanzania: analysis of data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilunda, Calistus; Massawe, Siriel; Jackson, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    To identify determinants of moderate-to-severe anaemia among women of reproductive age in Tanzania. We included participants from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey, which collected data on socio-demographic and maternal health and determined haemoglobin levels from blood samples. We performed logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios for associations between socio-demographic, contextual, reproductive and lifestyle factors, and moderate-to-severe anaemia and investigated interactions between certain risk factors. Of 9477 women, 20.1% were anaemic. Pregnancy was significantly associated with anaemia (adjusted OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.43-2.15), but the effect varied significantly by urban/rural residence, wealth and education. The effect of pregnancy was stronger in women without education and those who were in lower wealth groups, with significant interactions observed for each of these factors. Education was associated with a lower anaemia risk, particularly in the poorest group (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.43-0.80), and in pregnant women. The risk of anaemia fell with rising iron supplementation coverage. Lack of toilet facilities increased anaemia risk (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00-1.60), whereas using hormonal contraception reduced it. There was no association with age, urban/rural residence, wealth or type of cooking fuel in adjusted analysis. Pregnant women in Tanzania are particularly at risk of moderate-to-severe anaemia, with the effect modified by urban/rural residence, education and wealth. Prevention interventions should target women with lower education or without proper sanitation facilities, and women who are pregnant, particularly if they are uneducated or in lower wealth groups. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Incidence of pollinosis in Switzerland. Results of a representative demographic survey with consideration of other allergic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, B; Schnyder, U W; Henauer, S A; Heller, A

    1986-07-08

    In a survey carried out between January and April 1985 covering all of Switzerland except the Canton of Ticino and including 2524 males and females (49% and 51% respectively) aged 15 to 74 years, the subjects were interviewed regarding pollinosis symptoms during the pollen season of 1984 and in previous years, and questioned about other allergic symptoms. Individuals with pollinosis or with family members suffering from pollinosis received an additional questionnaire. This first extraterritorial survey of Switzerland showed that every tenth Swiss aged 15 or over suffers from hay fever (incidence 9.6%). In addition, 3% had suffered from pollinosis previously. In the 15-24 age group the incidence was 16%. It fell with advancing age and was only 4.2% in the over-60 age group. No statistically significant differences were found between incidences in town (9%) and country (10%) and between the sexes. Hay fever morbidity in individuals with higher education (14.5%) and in certain occupations (student, apprentice - 21%) and among job levels "manager, senior civil servant, senior employee" (13.8%) was higher than in other categories. This representative survey confirmed that in Switzerland hay fever is commoner than in 1926 and 1958. The symptoms of pollen allergy are known: symptoms predominate in May (53%) and June (62%) including rhinitis in 94%, conjunctivitis in 82% and asthma in 24%. In 11% pollen allergy was already manifest in the first four years of life, in 62% before puberty and in 80% before the age of 20.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Synthesizing Exoplanet Demographics: A Single Population of Long-Period Planetary Companions to M Dwarfs Consistent with Microlensing, Radial Velocity, and Direct Imaging Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Clanton, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We present the first study to synthesize results from five different exoplanet surveys using three independent detection methods: microlensing, radial velocity, and direct imaging. The constraints derived herein represent the most comprehensive picture of the demographics of large-separation (>~ 2 AU) planets orbiting the most common stars in our Galaxy that has been constructed to date. We assume a simple, joint power-law planet distribution function of the form d^2N_{pl}/[dlog(m_p)dlog(a)] = A(m_p/M_{Sat})^{alpha}(a/2.5 AU)^{beta} with an outer cutoff radius of the separation distribution function of a_{out}. Generating populations of planets from these models and mapping them into the relevant observables for each survey, we use actual or estimated detection sensitivities to determine the expected observations for each survey. Comparing with the reported results, we derive constraints on the parameters {alpha, beta, A, a_{out}} that describe a single population of planets that is simultaneously consistent ...

  18. Cognitive Assessment Practices: A Survey of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo-Dynega, Marlene; Dixon, Shauna G.

    2014-01-01

    The present article describes an exploratory study regarding the preferred cognitive assessment practices of current school psychologists. Three hundred and twenty-three school psychologists participated in the survey. The results suggest that the majority of school psychologists endorsed that they base their assessment practices on an underlying…

  19. Associations between intimate partner violence, childcare practices and infant health: findings from Demographic and Health Surveys in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2015-08-25

    Child health is significantly poorer in homes with intimate partner violence (IPV). However, a possible link to parental provision of childcare has been neglected. Utilizing data from Demographic and Health Surveys, this study examined the association between IPV and illness signs in children 0-59 months in Bolivia (n = 3586), Colombia (n = 9955) and Peru (n = 6260), taking into account socio-demographic factors, childcare and severe child physical punishment. Data were collected in the years 2008, 2010 and 2012 for Bolivia, Colombia and Peru respectively. The study found weak but persistent effects of IPV on illness signs in Bolivia (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.14-1.63) and Peru (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.26-1.77), after adjusting for the effects of childcare. These effects were not observed in Colombia. The results call for a mix of qualitative and quantitative research that can map direct, mediating and moderating patterns of relationships between IPV, childcare practices and child health. Can good childcare mitigate the negative effects of IPV? Can poor childcare exacerbate the negative effects of IPV? Such interactions were not observed in the present study, but should be the focus of much more intensive investigation, to help inform child health promotion. Answers could lead to better interventions to improve child health, and perhaps to tackle IPV.

  20. Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P

    2008-11-01

    This survey of biomass resource assessments and assessment capabilities in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies considered various sources: academic and government publications, media reports, and personal communication with contacts in member economies.

  1. Understanding ethnic and other socio-demographic differences in patient experience of primary care: evidence from the English General Practice Patient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M; Barbiere, J M; Henderson, A; Staetsky, L; Paddison, C; Campbell, J; Roland, M

    2011-01-01

    Background Ethnic minorities and some other patient groups consistently report lower scores on patient surveys, but the reasons for this are unclear. This study examined whether low scores of ethnic minority and other socio-demographic groups reflect their concentration in poorly performing primary care practices, and whether any remaining differences are consistent across practices. Methods Using data from the 2009 English General Practice Patient Survey (2 163 456 respondents from 8267 general practices) this study examined associations between patient socio-demographic characteristics and 11 measures of patient-reported experience. Findings South Asian and Chinese patients, younger patients, and those in poor health reported a less positive primary care experience than White patients, older patients and those in better health. For doctor communication, about half of the overall difference associated with South Asian patients (ranging from −6 to −9 percentage points) could be explained by their concentration in practices with low scores, but the other half arose because they reported less positive experiences than White patients in the same practices. Practices varied considerably in the direction and extent of ethnic differences. In some practices ethnic minority patients reported better experience than White patients. Differences associated with gender, Black ethnicity and deprivation were small and inconsistent. Conclusion Substantial ethnic differences in patient experience exist in a national healthcare system providing universal coverage. Improving the experience of patients in low-scoring practices would not only improve the quality of care provided to their White patients but it would also substantially reduce ethnic group differences in patient experience. There were large variations in the experiences reported by ethnic minority patients in different practices: practices with high patient experience scores from ethnic minority patients could be

  2. Socio-demographic factors and psychological distress in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians are known to be at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from mental health related conditions, but most available data relate to the use of mental health services, and little is known about other aspects of social and emotional wellbeing. Using the first available nationally representative data, we examined the prevalence and patterning of psychological distress among Indigenous Australian adults and compared these with corresponding data from the non-Indigenous population. Methods The analysis used weighted data on psychological distress, as measured by a modified Kessler Psychological Distress score (K5), and a range of socio-demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys. Very high psychological distress (VHPD) was defined as a K5 score ≥ 15 (possible range = 5-25). Results Indigenous adults were about three times more likely than non-Indigenous adults to be classified with VHPD: 14.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.9-16.0%) versus 5.5% (95% CI 5.0-5.9%). After adjusting for age, most socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with VHPD in both populations, although the relative odds were generally larger among non-Indigenous people. Indigenous people in remote areas had a lower prevalence of VHPD than their non-remote counterparts, and only marital status, main language, and food insecurity were significantly associated with VHPD in remote areas. Conclusions Higher absolute levels of VHPD combined with smaller socio-demographic gradients in the Indigenous population suggest the importance of risk factors such as interpersonal racism, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence that are experienced by Indigenous Australians with common and/or cross-cutting effects across the socioeconomic spectrum. The lower prevalence of VHPD and lack of association with many socio-demographic variables in

  3. Socio-demographic factors and psychological distress in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults aged 18-64 years: analysis of national survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Joan; Paradies, Yin C

    2012-02-01

    Indigenous Australians are known to be at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from mental health related conditions, but most available data relate to the use of mental health services, and little is known about other aspects of social and emotional wellbeing. Using the first available nationally representative data, we examined the prevalence and patterning of psychological distress among Indigenous Australian adults and compared these with corresponding data from the non-Indigenous population. The analysis used weighted data on psychological distress, as measured by a modified Kessler Psychological Distress score (K5), and a range of socio-demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys. Very high psychological distress (VHPD) was defined as a K5 score ≥ 15 (possible range = 5-25). Indigenous adults were about three times more likely than non-Indigenous adults to be classified with VHPD: 14.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.9-16.0%) versus 5.5% (95% CI 5.0-5.9%). After adjusting for age, most socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with VHPD in both populations, although the relative odds were generally larger among non-Indigenous people. Indigenous people in remote areas had a lower prevalence of VHPD than their non-remote counterparts, and only marital status, main language, and food insecurity were significantly associated with VHPD in remote areas. Higher absolute levels of VHPD combined with smaller socio-demographic gradients in the Indigenous population suggest the importance of risk factors such as interpersonal racism, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence that are experienced by Indigenous Australians with common and/or cross-cutting effects across the socioeconomic spectrum. The lower prevalence of VHPD and lack of association with many socio-demographic variables in remote areas suggests either that the

  4. Association between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain: Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey - PNDS-2006/07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Augusto C. Silveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain. METHODS: All infants (0-23 months of age with available birth and postnatal weight data (n = 1763 were selected from the last nationally representative survey with complex probability sampling conducted in Brazil (2006/07. The outcome variable was conditional weight gain (CWG, which represents how much an individual has deviated from his/her expected weight gain, given the birth weight. Associations were estimated using simple and hierarchical multiple linear regression, considering the survey sampling design, and presented in standard deviations of CWG with their respective 95% of confidence intervals. Hierarchical models were designed considering the UNICEF Conceptual Framework for Malnutrition (basic, underlying and immediate causes. RESULTS: The poorest Brazilian regions (-0.14 [-0.25; -0.04] and rural areas (-0.14 [-0.26;-0.02] were inversely associated with CWG in the basic causes model. However, this association disappeared after adjusting for maternal and household characteristics. In the final hierarchical model, lower economic status (-0.09 [-0.15; -0.03], human capital outcomes (maternal education < 4th grade (-0.14[-0.29; 0.01], higher maternal height (0.02[0.01; 0.03], and fever in the past 2 weeks (-0.13[-0.26; -0.01] were associated with postnatal weight gain. CONCLUSION: The results showed that poverty and lower human capital are still key factors associated with poor postnatal weight gain. The approach used in these analyses was sensitive to characterize inequalities among different socioeconomic contexts and to identify factors associated with CWG in different levels of determination.

  5. What explains gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from the demographic and health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Drissa; Onadja, Yentéma; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Heymann, S Jody; Brewer, Timothy F; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-11-03

    Women are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The determinants of gender inequality in HIV/AIDS may vary across countries and require country-specific interventions to address them. This study aimed to identify the socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics underlying gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in 21 SSA countries. We applied an extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to data from Demographic and Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to quantify the differences in HIV/AIDS prevalence between women and men attributable to socio-demographic factors, sexual behaviours, and awareness of HIV/AIDS. We decomposed gender inequalities into two components: the percentage attributable to different levels of the risk factors between women and men (the "composition effect") and the percentage attributable to risk factors having differential effects on HIV/AIDS prevalence in women and men (the "response effect"). Descriptive analyses showed that the difference between women and men in HIV/AIDS prevalence varied from a low of 0.68 % (P = 0.008) in Liberia to a high of 11.5 % (P HIV/AIDS among women in Uganda and Ghana, respectively, was explained by the different distributions of HIV/AIDS risk factors, particularly age at first sex between women and men. In the majority of countries, however, observed gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS were chiefly explained by differences in the responses to risk factors; the differential effects of age, marital status and occupation on prevalence of HIV/AIDS for women and men were among the significant contributors to this component. In Cameroon, Guinea, Malawi and Swaziland, a combination of the composition and response effects explained gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence. The factors that explain gender inequality in HIV/AIDS in SSA vary by country, suggesting that country-specific interventions are

  6. "CITY 2020+": assessing climate change impacts for the city of Aachen related to demographic change and health - a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Balzer, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Eßer, K.; Ginski, S.; Hahmann, J.; Ketzler, G.; Klemme, M.; Kröpelin, A.; Merbitz, H.; Michael, S.; Sachsen, T.; Siuda, A.; Weishoff-Houben, M.; Brunk, M. F.; Dott, W.; Hofmeister, H.; Pfaffenbach, C.; Roll, C.; Selle, K.

    2011-09-01

    The research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the city of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops strategies, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. The investigation focuses on how urban environment, political structure and residential behaviour can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and their impacts on human health. The interdisciplinary research is organized in three clusters. Within the first cluster, strategies of older people exposed to heat stress, and their networks as well as environmental health risks according to atmospheric conditions are examined. The second cluster addresses governance questions, urban planning and building technologies as well as spatial patterns of the urban heat island. The third cluster includes studies on air quality related to particulate matter and a historical perspective of city development concerning environmental issues and climate variability. However, it turns out that research topics that require an interdisciplinary approach are best addressed not by pre-structuring the work into related sub-projects but through combining them according to shared methodological approaches. Examples illustrating this rather practical approach within ongoing research are presented in this paper.

  7. Using experiments and demographic models to assess rare plant vulnerability to utlity-scale solar energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Pressing challenges for the implementation of solar energy are the effects of construction and operation on protected animal and plant species. Siting and mitigation of solar energy often requires understanding of basic biology and distributions of rare species that are unknown. How can we rapidly collect the information necessary on species- and site-specific population dynamics to effectively design mitigation and conservation measures? We have developed an integrated approach to assessing the vulnerability of a suite of representative rare plant species in the region. We implemented a prioritized series of demographic and experimental studies over the past four years to identify the types of species, populations, and life stages most vulnerable to impact or prone to conservation efforts. We have found substantial variation in vegetative and sexual reproduction between study populations for several rare plants, including between populations that vary in putative impact by development and/or effects of experimental solar arrays. For a subset of species, we designed population viability analysis and applied them to identify sensitive vital rates and compare quasi-extinction probabilities under different climate and impact scenarios. By utilizing practical experiments to test for the effects of real or simulated impacts, we found differences in vital rates between natural and disturbed populations adjacent to and within solar installations. We draw conclusions from our work to guide the analysis of benefits, permitting, and design of utility-scale solar energy facilities.

  8. Synthesizing Exoplanet Demographics: A Single Population of Long-period Planetary Companions to M Dwarfs Consistent with Microlensing, Radial Velocity, and Direct Imaging Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanton, Christian; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2016-03-01

    We present the first study to synthesize results from five different exoplanet surveys using three independent detection methods: microlensing, radial velocity, and direct imaging. The constraints derived herein represent the most comprehensive picture of the demographics of large-separation (≳2 AU) planets orbiting the most common stars in our Galaxy that has been constructed to date. We assume a simple, joint power-law planet distribution function of the form {d}2{N}{{pl}}/(d{log} {m}p d{log} a)={ A }{({m}p/{M}{{Sat}})}α {(a/2.5{{AU}})}β with an outer cutoff radius of the separation distribution function of aout. Generating populations of planets from these models and mapping them into the relevant observables for each survey, we use actual or estimated detection sensitivities to determine the expected observations for each survey. Comparing with the reported results, we derive constraints on the parameters \\{α ,β ,{ A },{a}{{out}}\\} that describe a single population of planets that is simultaneously consistent with the results of microlensing, radial velocity, and direct imaging surveys. We find median and 68% confindence intervals of α =-{0.86}-0.19+0.21 (-{0.85}-0.19+0.21), β ={1.1}-1.4+1.9 ({1.1}-1.3+1.9), { A }={0.21}-0.15+0.20 {{dex}}-2 ({0.21}-0.15+0.20 {{dex}}-2), and {a}{{out}}={10}-4.7+26 AU ({12}-6.2+50 AU) assuming “hot-start” (“cold-start”) planet evolutionary models. These values are consistent with all current knowledge of planets on orbits beyond ∼2 AU around single M dwarfs.

  9. [Assessment of a residency training program in endocrinology and nutrition by physicians: results of a survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Fernández, Jesús; Gutiérrez-Alcántara, Carmen; Palomares-Ortega, Rafael; García-Manzanares, Alvaro; Benito-López, Pedro

    2011-12-01

    The current training program for resident physicians in endocrinology and nutrition (EN) organizes their medical learning. Program evaluation by physicians was assessed using a survey. The survey asked about demographic variables, EN training methods, working time and center, and opinion on training program contents. Fifty-one members of Sociedad Castellano-Manchega de Endocrinología, Nutrición y Diabetes, and Sociedad Andaluza de Endocrinología y Nutrición completed the survey. Forty-percent of them disagreed with the compulsory nature of internal medicine, cardiology, nephrology and, especially, neurology rotations (60%); a majority (>50%) were against several recommended rotations included in the program. The fourth year of residence was considered by 37.8% of respondents as the optimum time for outpatient and inpatient control and monitoring without direct supervision. The recommended monthly number of on-call duties was 3.8±1.2. We detected a positive opinion about extension of residence duration to 4.4±0.5 years. Doctoral thesis development during the residence period was not considered convenient by 66.7% of physicians. Finally, 97.8% of resident physicians would recommend residency in EN to other colleagues. Endocrinologists surveyed disagreed with different training program aspects such as the rotation system, skill acquisition timing, and on-call duties. Therefore, an adaptation of the current training program in EN would be required. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. The US Geological Survey's national coal resource assessment: The results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, L.F.; Kirschbaum, M.A.; Warwick, P.D.; Flores, R.M.; Affolter, R.H.; Hatch, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The US Geological Survey and the State geological surveys of many coal-bearing States recently completed a new assessment of the top producing coal beds and coal zones in five major producing coal regions the Appalachian Basin, Gulf Coast, Illinois Basin, Colorado Plateau, and Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. The assessments, which focused on both coal quality and quantity, utilized geographic information system technology and large databases. Over 1,600,000 million short tons of coal remain in over 60 coal beds and coal zones that were assessed. Given current economic, environmental, and technological restrictions, the majority of US coal production will occur in that portion of the assessed coal resource that is lowest in sulfur content. These resources are concentrated in parts of the central Appalachian Basin, Colorado Plateau, and the Northern Rocky Mountains. ?? Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Surveying Assessment in Experiential Learning: A Single Campus Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Yates

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the methods of experiential assessment in use at a Canadian university and the extent to which they are used. Exploring experiential assessment will allow identification of commonly used methods and facilitate the development of best practices of assessment in the context of experiential learning (EL at an institutional level. The origins of EL are found in the work of Dewey (1938, later modified by Kolb and Fry (1975. Experiential methods include: experiential education, service learning problem-based learning and others such as action learning, enquiry-based learning, and case studies. Faculty currently involved in EL at the participating university were invited to complete an online survey about their teaching and assessment methods. This paper will share the results and analysis of the EL inventory survey.

  12. Demographic and socioeconomic inequalities for self-rated health and happiness in elderly: the situation for Turkey regarding World Values Survey between 1990 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Isil; Mandiracioglu, Aliye

    2015-01-01

    To define the socioeconomic and demographic determinants for self-rated health and happiness for Turkish elderly (≥60) using the World Values Survey (WVS) database. WVS data for Turkey covering 23 years (1990-2013) with five separate cross-sections (1990, 1996, 2001, 2007, 2013) were pooled for analysis (n=870). Dependent variables were self-rated health (SRH) and perception of happiness.Their relation with age, sex, number of children, marital status, income, education, employment status and class perception were evaluated. Chi-square and logistic regression analysis were used. Regression coefficients and their standard errors were derived to calculate odds ratios. Mean age was 66.96±5.78 (60-91), 58.16% were male and 76.32% were married. The majority (61.10%) was at lowest income level and 80.60% had education attainment at primary level or below. Very happy/quite happy were 81.77% while only 46.59% perceived their health as very good/good. The crisis year (2001) increased the risk of bad self-rated health 4.4 times, being a women 2.0 times, while being a widow had a 2.3-fold, low-income 3.0-fold effect. The odds for unhappy status was increased 4.3 times at low-income levels and 8.4 times for the divorced/separate living partners. Happiness state improved after crisis period. SRH and happiness of Turkish elderly bare demographic and socioeconomic inequalities. The inexistence of a partner, being a women, low-income level and major threats for it, like economic crisis, are important drivers for elderly health and happiness. To improve well-being of elderly, better social policies for income is essential and at economic crisis times, support policies should be prioritized for vulnerable groups, including elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Consumer clusters in Denmark based on coarse vegetable intake frequency, explained by hedonics, socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle factors. A cross-sectional national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Tove K; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, Sonni Hansen; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kidmose, Ulla

    2015-08-01

    Vegetable intake seems to play a protective role against major lifestyle diseases. Despite this, the Danish population usually eats far less than the recommended daily intake. The present study focused on the intake of 17 coarse vegetables and the potential barriers limiting their intake. The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n = 1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects, 'beetroot eaters' were characterized as traditional food consumers, and 'high frequency' were individuals with a strong food engagement and high vegetable liking. 'Low frequency' identified more barriers than other consumer clusters and specifically regarded low availability of pre-cut/prepared coarse vegetables on the market as a barrier. Across all clusters a low culinary knowledge was identified as the main barrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Association between biomass fuel use and maternal report of child size at birth - an analysis of 2005-06 India Demographic Health Survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiakumar Nalini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Observational epidemiological studies and a systematic review have consistently shown an association between maternal exposure to biomass smoke and reduced birth weight. Our aim was to further test this hypothesis. Methods We analysed the data from 47,139 most recent singleton births during preceding five years of 2005-06 India Demographic Health Survey (DHS. Information about birth weight from child health card and/or mothers' recall was analysed. Since birth weight was not recorded for nearly 60% of the reported births, maternal self-report of child's size at birth was used as a proxy. Fuel type was classified as high pollution fuels (wood, straw, animal dung, and crop residues kerosene, coal and charcoal, and low pollution fuels (electricity, liquid petroleum gas (LPG, natural gas and biogas. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were developed using SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure in SAS system. We used three logistic regression models in which child factors, maternal factors and demographic factors were added step-by-step to the main exposure variable. Adjusted Odds Ratios (AORs and their 95% CI were calculated. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results Child's birth weight was available for only 19,270 (41% births; 3113 from health card and 16,157 from mothers' recall. For available data, mean birth weight was 2846.5 grams (SD = 684.6. Children born in households using high pollution fuels were 73 grams lighter than those born in households using low pollution fuels (mean birth weight 2883.8 grams versus 2810.7 grams, p Conclusions Use of biomass fuels is associated with child size at birth. Future studies should investigate this association using more direct methods for measurement of exposure to smoke emitted from biomass fuels and birth weight.

  15. Survey and Assessment of Land Ecological Quality in Cixi City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junbao; LIU; Zhiyuan; CHEN; Weifeng; PAN; Shaojuan; XIE

    2013-01-01

    Soil,atmosphere,water and quality of agricultural product constitute the content of land ecological quality.Cixi City,through survey pilot project of basic farmland quality,carried out high precision soil geochemical survey and survey of agricultural products,irrigation water and air quality,and established ecological quality evaluation model of land.Based on the evaluation of soil geochemical quality,we conducted comprehensive quality assessment of atmosphere,water,agricultural products,and assessed the ecological quality of agricultural land in Cixi City.The evaluation results show that the ecological quality of most agricultural land in Cixi City is excellent,and there is ecological risk only in some local areas such as urban periphery.The experimental results provide demonstration and basis for the fine management of basic farmland and ecological protection.

  16. Effectiveness, Teaching, and Assessments: Survey Evidence from Finance Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ming Ming; Kwan, Jing Hui; Kadir, Hazlina Abdul; Abdullah, Mahdhir; Yap, Voon Choong

    2010-01-01

    The present article examines the effectiveness, teaching, assessment methods, and the importance of finance concepts in three undergraduate finance courses in a private university in Malaysia. Approximately 224 undergraduates (finance majors) were surveyed and demonstrated positive attitudes toward the effectiveness of the finance subjects. The…

  17. Assessing competence: The European survey on aging protocol (ESAP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Ballesteros, R.; Zamarron, M.D.; Rudinger, G.; Schroots, J.J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The main goal of this research project was to translate and adapt the European Survey on Ageing Protocol (ESAP) to 7 European countries/cultures. This article presents preliminary results from the ESAP, the basic assessment instrument of EXCELSA (European Longitudinal Study of Aging). Me

  18. Effectiveness, Teaching, and Assessments: Survey Evidence from Finance Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ming Ming; Kwan, Jing Hui; Kadir, Hazlina Abdul; Abdullah, Mahdhir; Yap, Voon Choong

    2010-01-01

    The present article examines the effectiveness, teaching, assessment methods, and the importance of finance concepts in three undergraduate finance courses in a private university in Malaysia. Approximately 224 undergraduates (finance majors) were surveyed and demonstrated positive attitudes toward the effectiveness of the finance subjects. The…

  19. Assessing competence: The European survey on aging protocol (ESAP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Ballesteros, R.; Zamarron, M.D.; Rudinger, G.; Schroots, J.J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The main goal of this research project was to translate and adapt the European Survey on Ageing Protocol (ESAP) to 7 European countries/cultures. This article presents preliminary results from the ESAP, the basic assessment instrument of EXCELSA (European Longitudinal Study of Aging). Me

  20. Survey of Prior Learning Assessment Practices in Pharmacy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjortoft, Nancy F.; Zgarrick, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed nontraditional Pharm.D (NTPD) program directors to determine use of prior learning assessment (PLA). Eighty-four percent of respondents reported using PLA for one or more purposes, including the admissions process and awarding of advanced standing for didactic and experiential courses. Transcript review, faculty-developed exams, and…

  1. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study Summarized Data - HVAC Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues was acquired by examining the building plans, conducting a building walk-through, and speaking with the building owner, manager, and/or operator.

  2. Socio-demographic Correlates of Self-reported Exposure to E-Cigarette Communications and its Association with Public Support for Smoke-Free and Vape-Free Policies: Results From a National Survey of U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy SL; Bigman, Cabral A.; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to e-cigarette communications (e.g., advertisements, news and entertainment media, and interpersonal discussion) may influence support for smoke-free or vape-free policies. This study examined the socio-demographic correlates of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette communications and their relationships with support for restricting vaping and smoking in public venues. Method Online survey data was collected from a representative sample of U.S. adults (n=1,449) between October and December 2013 (mean age=50 years, 51% female, 8% African-American, 10% Hispanic, 6% other races) and weighted to match the U.S. adult population. We fitted multiple regression models, adjusting for demographic variables, to examine associations between support for policies to restrict vaping and smoking in public venues and self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette communications in the preceding month. We fitted separate models to assess associations between policy support and frequency of exposures weighted by whether each category of e-cigarette communications was perceived as positive or negative. Results Higher self-reported exposure to advertising (B=-.022, p=.006), other media (B=-.022, p=.043), and interpersonal discussion (B=-.071, pExposure to e-cigarette communications was associated with lower support for smoking restrictions in bivariate analyses but was not significant after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion Further research is needed to assess whether messages portraying e-cigarettes as a way to circumvent smoking restrictions from advertisements and other media are influencing public support for vape-free policies. These findings provide empirical evidence to inform the policy debate over regulating specific e-cigarette advertising claims. PMID:25015372

  3. Violence Risk Assessment Practices in Denmark: A Multidisciplinary National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Louise Hjort

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With a quadrupling of forensic psychiatric patients in Denmark over the past 20 years, focus on violence risk assessment practices across the country has increased. However, information is lacking regarding Danish risk assessment practice across professional disciplines and clinical settings; little is known about how violence risk assessments are conducted, which instruments are used for what purposes, and how mental health professionals rate their utility and costs. As part of a global survey exploring the application of violence risk assessment across 44 countries, the current study investigated Danish practice across several professional disciplines and settings in which forensic and high-risk mental health patients are assessed and treated. In total, 125 mental health professionals across the country completed the survey. The five instruments that respondents reported most commonly using for risk assessment, risk management planning and risk monitoring were Broset, HCR-20, the START, the PCL-R, and the PCL:SV. Whereas the HCR-20 was rated highest in usefulness for risk assessment, the START was rated most useful for risk management and risk monitoring. No significant differences in utility were observed across professional groups. Unstructured clinical judgments were reported to be faster but more expensive to conduct than using a risk assessment instrument. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  4. Radiological Risk Assessment and Survey of Radioactive Contamination for Foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.R.; Lee, C.W.; Choi, K.S.; and others

    2007-11-15

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs have been investigated by many countries such as EU, Japan, USA. In the case of Japan which is similar to our country for the imported regions of foodstuffs, there were some instances of the excess for regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination among some imported foodstuffs. Concerns about the radioactive contamination of foodstuffs are increased because of the recently special situation (Nuclear test of North Korea). The purpose of this study is a radiological dose assessment and a survey of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in order to reduce the probability of intake of contaminated foodstuffs. Analytical results of the collected samples are below MDA. In this project, the model of radiological dose assessment via the food chain was also developed and radiological dose assessment was conducted based on surveys results of a radioactive contamination for foodstuffs in the Korean open markets since 2002. The results of radiological dose assessment are far below international reference level. It shows that public radiation exposure via food chain is well controlled within the international guide level. However, the radioactive contamination research of imported foodstuffs should be continuous considering the special situation(nuclear test of North Korea). These results are used to manage the radioactive contamination of the imported foodstuffs and also amend the regulation on the maximum permitted levels of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs.

  5. Direct assessment of anchovy by the PELGAS05 acoustic survey

    OpenAIRE

    Masse, Jacques; Beillois, Pierre; Duhamel, Erwan

    2005-01-01

    An acoustic survey was carried out in the bay of Biscay from May 3rd to June 1st on board the French research vessel Thalassa. The objective of PELGAS05 survey was to study the abundance and distribution of pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay. The target species were mainly anchovy and sardine and were considered in a multi-specific context. The results have to be used during ICES working groups in charge of the assessment of sardine, anchovy, mackerel and horse mackerel and in the frame of t...

  6. Factors associated with not using antenatal iron/folic acid supplements in Indonesia: the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana Rialine; Dibley, Michael John

    2015-01-01

    This analysis examined factors associated with non-use of antenatal iron/folic acid supplements in Indonesia. Data from the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys (IDHS) were used, providing survival information for 26,591 most recent deliveries over the five-year period prior to each survey. The main outcome variable was non-use of iron/folic acid supplements. Using logistic regression, we examined the role of external environment, predisposing, enabling, need factors, and previous utilization of other maternal care services in non-use of antenatal iron/folic acid supplements. Mothers from outer Java- Bali Region and rural areas (OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.48-2.03) had increased odds for not using antenatal iron/folic acid supplements. The likelihood for not using the supplements increased with the reduction of household wealth index and parental education. The odds increased amongst mothers with low autonomy on her own health care (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.04-1.49), high birth-rank infants, mothers with low knowledge of obstetric complications and low exposure to mass media. Enabling factors associated with increased odds for non-use of iron/folic acid supplements included mothers reporting money to pay health services (OR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.13- 1.44) and distance to health services (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.02-1.40) were major problems. Our study demonstrated the importance of antenatal care as a distribution channel of the supplements. Increasing community awareness, coverage and access to health services along with strengthening counselling sessions during antenatal care and community participation in health programs are necessary to improve the uptake of iron/folic acid supplements, to increase infant survival in Indonesia.

  7. Factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia: results of Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2002/2003 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titaley Christiana R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care aims to prevent maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. In Indonesia, at least four antenatal visits are recommended during pregnancy. However, this service has been underutilized. This study aimed to examine factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia. Methods We used data from Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS 2002/2003 and 2007. Information of 26,591 singleton live-born infants of the mothers' most recent birth within five years preceding each survey was examined. Twenty-three potential risk factors were identified and categorized into four main groups, external environment, predisposing, enabling, and need factors. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between all potential risk factors and underutilization of antenatal services. The Population Attributable Risk (PAR was calculated for selected significant factors associated with the outcome. Results Factors strongly associated with underutilization of antenatal care services were infants from rural areas and from outer Java-Bali region, infants from low household wealth index and with low maternal education level, and high birth rank infants with short birth interval of less than two years. Other associated factors identified included mothers reporting distance to health facilities as a major problem, mothers less exposed to mass media, and mothers reporting no obstetric complications during pregnancy. The PAR showed that 55% of the total risks for underutilization of antenatal care services were attributable to the combined low household wealth index and low maternal education level. Conclusions Strategies to increase the accessibility and availability of health care services are important particularly for communities in rural areas. Financial support that enables mothers from poor households to use health services will be beneficial. Health promotion programs targeting

  8. Understanding the relationship between access to care and facility-based delivery through analysis of the 2008 Ghana Demographic Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Cheryl A; McLaren, Zoë M; Adanu, Richard M; Lantz, Paula M

    2013-09-01

    To determine the types of access to care most strongly associated with facility-based delivery among women in Ghana. Data relating to the "5 As of Access" framework were extracted from the 2008 Ghana Demographic Health Survey and analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. In all, 55.5% of a weighted sample of 1102 women delivered in a healthcare facility, whereas 45.5% delivered at home. Affordability was the strongest access factor associated with delivery location, with health insurance coverage tripling the odds of facility delivery. Availability, accessibility (except urban residence), acceptability, and social access variables were not significant factors in the final models. Social access variables, including needing permission to seek healthcare and not being involved in decisions regarding healthcare, were associated with a reduced likelihood of facility-based delivery when examined individually. Multivariate analysis suggested that these variables reflected maternal literacy, health insurance coverage, and household wealth, all of which attenuated the effects of social access. Affordability was an important determinant of facility delivery in Ghana-even among women with health insurance-but social access variables had a mediating role. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Urbanisation and geographic variation of overweight and obesity in India: a cross-sectional analysis of the Indian Demographic Health Survey 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Saad T; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Stranges, Saverio

    2015-09-01

    We examined the nationwide geographic variation of overweight and obesity in India, as well as a range of potential correlates of excess body fat. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of the 2005-2006 Indian Demographic Health Survey (IDHS), based on 161,050 individuals (age range 18-54 years). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine odds ratios (OR) of overweight and obesity compared to normal weight with associated correlates. The overall prevalence was 12.4% for overweight, 3.2% for obesity, and 26.5% for underweight. After multivariate adjustment, obesity was nearly thrice more likely in urban areas than in rural (OR 2.73, 95% CI 2.53-2.94). Women were 2.71 times more likely to be obese than men (95% CI 2.50-2.95). Better socioeconomic status was significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Overweight (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.31-1.47) and obesity (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.32-1.61) were most likely to occur in India's Southern zone, when controlled for confounding factors. High-risk estimates for overweight/obesity in urban settings, along with socioeconomic prowess in India and the resulting nutritional transition make a compelling case for public health policy on healthy lifestyles to avert the growing burden of non-communicable diseases associated with overweight/obesity.

  10. Effects of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies on the use of prenatal health services in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicountry analysis of Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Anamaale Tuoyire, Derek

    2016-12-01

    We analysed the extent of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies and how they predict optimal use of prenatal (timing and number of antenatal) care services in 30 African countries. We pooled data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 30 African countries between 2006 and 2015. We described the extent of mistimed and unwanted pregnancies and further used mixed effects logistic and Poisson regression estimation techniques to examine the impacts of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies on the use of prenatal health services. In total, 73.65% of pregnancies in all countries were planned. Mistimed pregnancy ranged from 7.43% in Burkina Faso to 41.33% in Namibia. Unwanted pregnancies were most common in Swaziland (39.54%) and least common in Niger (0.74%). Timely (first trimester) initiation of ANC was 37% overall in all countries; the multicountry average number of ANC visits was optimal [4.1; 95% CI: 4.1-4.2] but with notable disparities between countries. Overall, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies were strongly associated with late ANC attendance and fewer visits women made in the pooled analysis. Unintended pregnancies are critical risks to achieving improved maternal health in respect of early and optimal ANC coverage for women in Africa. Programmes targeted at advancing coverage of ANC in Africa need to deploy contextually appropriate mechanisms to prevent unintended pregnancies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Attitudes Toward Intimate Partner Violence and Associations With Condom Use Among Men in Haiti: An Analysis of the Nationally Representative Demographic Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conserve, Donaldson F; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien S; Surkan, Pamela J

    2016-03-01

    Although men have substantial decision-making power regarding condom use, the majority of HIV knowledge and prevention studies in the general Haitian population have been conducted among youth and women. We investigated attitudes toward intimate partner violence, knowledge of, and use of condoms among 9493 men in Haiti using data from the 2012 nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey. Only 36% of HIV-negative and 44% of HIV-positive men reported using a condom the last time they had had sex. Logistic regression revealed that believing it was justified for a man to hit or beat his wife if she refuses to have sex with him was associated with a lower odds of condom use. The odds of using a condom during last sex was higher among men who reported knowing condoms can prevent HIV and who had been tested for HIV. Given the low rate of condom use among men in Haiti, these findings suggest that interventions promoting HIV knowledge, HIV testing, and gender-violence prevention among men may also increase condom use.

  12. Impact Of Maternal Socio-Economic Determinants On Early Childhood Stunting In Maldives An Analysis Of Maldives Demographic Health Survey 2009

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    Aminath Adeela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Under nutrition is a direct consequence of poverty with its characteristics of low socio-economic status poor living conditions poor maternal education large family size inadequate access to quality food safe water and health services. Recently there have been significant improvements in the overall health of the Maldivian population with an increase in life expectancy and a decline in maternal and infant mortality rates. However infant under nutrition is still a concern. Field testing of WHO growth standards in 2006 in Maldives indicated that more than one third of children under five years were stunted and that children classified as tall hardly reach the WHO standard for mean height. Examining maternal characteristics that may contribute to under nutrition in Maldivian children will assist in designingimplementing population based public health interventions aimed at improving infant and childhood nutrition. This study is based on secondary analysis of data from the Maldives Demographic Health Survey MDHS 2009. The study results showed that height for age z-score was lowest from ages 6 to 29 months. Factors significantly associated with the rate of stunting included size of child at birth height of the mother duration of breastfeeding difficulties in obtaining money needed for medical help for mother absence of a health service provider when obtaining medical help for mother after adjusting for socio-economic factors.

  13. Reproductive and Obstetric Factors Are Key Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Evidence from Demographic and Health Survey (2011

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    Taddese Alemu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a major public health problem worldwide. In Ethiopia, a nationally representative and consistent evidence is lacking on the prevalence and determinants during pregnancy. We conducted an in-depth analysis of demographic and health survey for the year 2011 which is a representative data collected from all regions in Ethiopia. Considering maternal anemia as an outcome variable, predicting variables from sociodemographic, household, and reproductive/obstetric characteristics were identified for analyses. Logistic regression model was applied to identify predictors at P<0.05. The prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was 23%. Maternal age, region, pregnancy trimester, number of under five children, previous history of abortion (termination of pregnancy, breastfeeding practices, and number of antenatal care visits were key independent predictors of anemia during pregnancy. In conclusion, the level of anemia during pregnancy is a moderate public health problem in Ethiopia. Yet, special preventive measures should be undertaken for pregnant women who are older in age and having too many under five children and previous history of abortion. Further evidence is expected to be generated concerning why pregnant mothers from the eastern part of the country and those with better access to radio disproportionately develop anemia more than their counterparts.

  14. Technology assessments in transportation: survey of recent literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S.J.

    1980-03-01

    A survey and an evaluation of recent studies of transportation systems done in a technology-assessment framework were undertaken as the basis for a detailed statement of work for a US Department of Energy technology assessment of transportation energy-conservation strategies. Several bibliographies were searched and numerous professionals in the field of technology assessment were contacted regarding current work. Detailed abstracts were prepared for studies judged to be sufficiently broad in coverage of impacts assessed, yet detailed in coverage of all or part of the nation's transportation systems. Some studies were rich in data but not comprehensive in their analytical approach; brief abstracts were prepared for these. An explanation of the criteria used to screen the studies, as well as abstracts of 37 reports, are provided in this compendium of transportation-technology-assessment literature.

  15. Low Contraceptive Use among Young Females in Uganda: Does Birth History and Age at Birth have an Influence? Analysis of 2011 Demographic and Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagenyi, Allen; Habaasa, Gilbert; Rutaremwa, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally adolescent fertility has been associated with increased risk to maternal and child health morbidity and mortality. The low use of contraception has been associated with high fertility levels, which is remains a public health concern that efforts have been raised to avert this. We examine the influence history of a previous birth and age at first birth would have on young women’s use of contraception. Methods Using the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data, we examine the predictors of contraceptive use on a sample of 3692 young females in Uganda. While controlling for education and age of respondents, logistic regression analyses were run to provide the net effect of the examined predictors on contraceptive use. The study variables included age of respondents, marital status, age at first birth, births in past five years, socioeconomic status, residence, region, education level, religion, occupation and whether the last child was wanted. Results The findings show that only 12% of the adolescents were using contraception at the time of the survey. The key predictors of contraceptive use among young women in Uganda were age at first birth, history of previous birth, current age, and place of residence, education and socioeconomic status. Respondents who had a birth in the 5 years prior to the survey had five times (OR = 5.0, 95% CI = 3.7-6.5) the odds of contraceptive use compared to those who had never had a birth. Further, adolescent females with at least a secondary education were more likely to use contraceptives (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.2-2.0) than those with primary education. The odds of contraceptive use were least among adolescents from Northern region (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.2-0.6) compared to those from central region of Uganda. Muslim adolescent females were more likely to use contraceptives compared to Catholics (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.1-2.3). Conclusion There is great need to address issues that hinder young people from using

  16. Demographic changes and nationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskii, A G

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the different characteristics of the many peoples inhabiting what used to be the Soviet Union and communist Eastern Europe, including Yugoslavia. The differences among these nationalities, or ethnic groups, are illustrated using the example of demographic modernization, showing how different peoples have or have not passed through the demographic transition process. The author looks at ethnic differences in mortality, fertility, natural increase, and migration, as well as economic and social inequalities among ethnic groups. The prospects for inter-ethnic conflict are assessed.

  17. Assessment of Tooth Wear Among Glass Factory Workers: WHO 2013 Oral Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Pulkit; Bhat, Nagesh; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Bapat, Salil; Gupta, Vivek Vardhan

    2015-08-01

    Glass factory workers are often exposed to the hazardous environment that leads to deleterious oral health and subsequently, general health. We planned to determine the effects of the particulates present in the milieu on the tooth wear among workers. To assess tooth wear among glass factory workers in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 936 glass workers in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India from January-June 2014. A survey proforma was designed for tooth wear evaluation with the help of WHO Oral Health Assessment form 2013 (for adults). Information regarding oral health practices, adverse habits and dietary habits, demographic details was gathered and clinical parameters were recorded. The Chi-square test, t-test, One-way Analysis of Variance and a Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. The most prevalent form of erosion was enamel erosion (589, 62.93%) with few subjects of deeper dentinal erosion and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.001). Dental erosion was found to be higher among males compared to females. Years of experience and educational status were identified as best predictors for dental erosion. It was concluded that there was considerable evidence of dental erosion found among the factory workers. Due to ignorance on social, cultural and health aspects, professional approach with regular dental care services for detection of early symptoms and planning of preventive strategies is warranted.

  18. Reliability of a patient survey assessing "Short Form Injury Questionnaire 7" in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini; Soheil Saadat; Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar; Abbas Motevalian; Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili; Mitra Hefazi; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world.The assessment of patterns and severity of injury in high-risk groups is crucial for planning and service development.On a large scale national household survey,we estimated the annual incidence and the patterns of injury,the demographics of the injured people,as well as the service use for all injuries in Iran.The current study aims at assessing the reliability of the questionnaire before carrying out a national survey.Methods: In a pilot study using cluster random sampling approach,73 people were interviewed.The interviewers asked the participants to report all injuries occurred in them and the care provided during the previous 12 months,based on "Short Form Injury Questionnaire 7".About two weeks later,the interview was repeated by another interviewer.Results: In our test-retest reliability,Kappa score was good for three and moderate for four questions.The question on the injured organ had the highest test-retest reliability with a Kappa score of 0.84.Conclusions:The reliability of the questionnaire and the procedure of questioning are confirmed.The questionnire is proper for utilization in large national surveies.

  19. Inter-disciplinary study of flow dynamics and sedimentation stress effects on coral colonies in Faga'alu Bay, American Samoa: comprehensive assessment of coral demographics, March 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The field data described herein are part of the CRCP-funded project aimed at establishing baseline Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) surveys for coral reef benthic...

  20. Which came first, people or pollution? Assessing the disparate siting and post-siting demographic change hypotheses of environmental injustice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohai, Paul; Saha, Robin

    2015-11-01

    Although a large body of quantitative environmental justice research exists, only a handful of studies have examined the processes by which racial and socioeconomic disparities in the location of polluting industrial facilities can occur. These studies have had mixed results, we contend, principally because of methodological differences, that is, the use of the unit-hazard coincidence method as compared to distance-based methods. This study is the first national-level environmental justice study to conduct longitudinal analyses using distance-based methods. Our purposes are to: (1) determine whether disparate siting, post-siting demographic change, or a combination of the two created present-day disparities; (2) test related explanations; and (3) determine whether the application of distance-based methods helps resolve the inconsistent findings of previous research. We used a national database of commercial hazardous waste facilities sited from 1966 to 1995 and examined the demographic composition of host neighborhoods around the time of siting and demographic changes that occurred after siting. We found strong evidence of disparate siting for facilities sited in all time periods. Although we found some evidence of post-siting demographic changes, they were mostly a continuation of changes that occurred in the decade or two prior to siting, suggesting that neighborhood transition serves to attract noxious facilities rather than the facilities themselves attracting people of color and low income populations. Our findings help resolve inconsistencies among the longitudinal studies and builds on the evidence from other subnational studies that used distance-based methods. We conclude that racial discrimination and sociopolitical explanations (i.e., the proposition that siting decisions follow the ‘path of least resistance’) best explain present-day inequities.

  1. Socio-demographic inequalities in the prevalence, diagnosis and management of hypertension in India: analysis of nationally-representative survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Kath A; Agrawal, Sutapa; Davey Smith, George; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a major contributing factor to the current epidemic of cardiovascular disease in India. Small studies suggest high, and increasing, prevalence especially in urban areas, with poor detection and management, but national data has been lacking. The aim of the current study was to use nationally-representative survey data to examine socio-demographic inequalities in the prevalence, diagnosis and management of hypertension in Indian adults. Using data on self-reported diagnosis and treatment, and blood pressure measurement, collected from 12,198 respondents aged 18+ in the 2007 WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health in India, factors associated with prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension were investigated. 22% men and 26% women had hypertension; prevalence increased steeply with body mass index (<18.5 kg/m(2): 18% men, 21% women; 25-29.9 kg/m(2): 35% men, 35% women), was higher in the least poor vs. poorest (men: odds ratio (95%CI) 1.82 (1.20 to 2.76); women: 1.40 (1.08 to 1.81)), urban vs. rural men (1.64 (1.19 to 2.25)), and men recently vs. never using alcohol (1.96 (1.40 to 2.76)). Over half the hypertension in women, and 70% in men, was undetected with particularly poor detection rates in young urban men, and in poorer households. Two-thirds of men and women with detected hypertension were treated. Two-thirds of women treated had their hypertension controlled, irrespective of urban/rural setting or wealth. Adequate blood pressure control was sub-optimal in urban men. Hypertension is very common in India, even among underweight adults and those of lower socioeconomic position. Improved detection is needed to reduce the burden of disease attributable to hypertension. Levels of treatment and control are relatively good, particularly in women, although urban men require more careful attention.

  2. The Role of Empowerment in the Association between a Woman's Educational Status and Infant Mortality in Ethiopia: Secondary Analysis of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Yibeltal Kiflie; Theall, Katherine; Lemma, Wuleta; Hajito, Kifle Woldemichael; Tushune, Kora

    2015-10-01

    Socioeconomic status at national, sub-national, household, and individual levels explains a significant portion of variation in infant mortality. Women's education is among the major determinants of infant mortality. The mechanism through which a woman's own educational status, over her husband's as well as household characteristics, influences infant mortality has not been well studied in developing countries. The objective of this study was to explore the role of woman's empowerment and household wealth in the association between a woman's educational status and infant mortality. The association between a woman's educational status and infant death, and the role of woman's empowerment and household wealth in this relationship, were examined among married women in Ethiopia through a secondary, serial cross-sectional analysis utilizing data on birth history of married women from three rounds of the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the association between woman's education and infant death, and the possible mediation or moderation roles of woman empowerment and household wealth. Female education and empowerment were inversely associated with infant death. The results indicated mediation by empowerment in the education-infant death association, and effect modification by household wealth. Both empowerment and education had strongest inverse association with infant death among women from the richest households. The findings suggest an important role of female empowerment in the education-infant death relation, and the complexity of these factors according to household wealth. Woman empowerment programs may prove effective as a shorter term intervention in reducing infant mortality.

  3. Determinants of fertility in Rwanda in the context of a fertility transition: a secondary analysis of the 2010 Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndahindwa, Vedaste; Kamanzi, Collins; Semakula, Muhammed; Abalikumwe, François; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany; Thomson, Dana R

    2014-12-13

    Major improvements to Rwanda's health system, infrastructure, and social programs over the last decade have led to a rapid fertility transition unique from other African countries. The total fertility rate fell from 6.1 in 2005 to 4.6 in 2010, with a 3-fold increase in contraceptive usage. Despite this rapid national decline, many women still have large numbers of children. This study investigates predictors of fertility during this fertility transition to inform policies that improve individuals' reproductive health and guide national development. We used Poisson regression to separately model number of children born to ever married/cohabitated women (n = 8,309) and never married women (n = 1,220) age 15 to 49 based on 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data. We used backward stepwise regression with a time offset to identify individual and household factors associated with woman's fertility level, accounting for sampling weights, clustering, and stratification. In ever married/cohabitating women, high fertility was significantly associated (p fertility in ever married/cohabitating women was associated with women's education (higher versus no education: IRR = 0.66), household wealth (highest versus lowest quintile: IRR = 0.93), and delayed sexual debut (25+ versus 8-18 years: IRR = 0.49). In never married women, low fertility was associated with education (higher versus no education: IRR = 0.22), household wealth (highest versus lowest quintile: IRR = 0.58), delayed sexual debut (25-49 versus 8-18 years: IRR = 0.43), and having an unmet need for contraception (IRR = 0.69). Although the study design does not allow causal conclusions, these results suggest several strategies to further reduce Rwanda's national fertility rate and support families to achieve their desired fertility. Strategies include policies and programs that promote delayed sexual debut via educational and economic opportunities for women, improved access to reproductive health information

  4. Estimation and Short-Term Prediction of the Course of the HIV Epidemic Using Demographic and Health Survey Methodology-Like Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Blaizot

    Full Text Available Mathematical models have played important roles in the understanding of epidemics and in the study of the impacts of various behavioral or medical measures. However, modeling accurately the future spread of an epidemic requires context-specific parameters that are difficult to estimate because of lack of data. Our objective is to propose a methodology to estimate context-specific parameters using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS-like data that can be used in mathematical modeling of short-term HIV spreading.The model splits the population according to sex, age, HIV status, and antiretroviral treatment status. To estimate context-specific parameters, we used individuals' histories included in DHS-like data and a statistical analysis that used decomposition of the Poisson likelihood. To predict the course of the HIV epidemic, sex- and age-specific differential equations were used. This approach was applied to recent data from Kenya. The approach allowed the estimation of several key epidemiological parameters. Women had a higher infection rate than men and the highest infection rate in the youngest age groups (15-24 and 25-34 years whereas men had the highest infection rate in age group 25-34 years. The immunosuppression rates were similar between age groups. The treatment rate was the highest in age group 35-59 years in both sexes. The results showed that, within the 15-24 year age group, increasing male circumcision coverage and antiretroviral therapy coverage at CD4 ≤ 350/mm3 over the current 70% could have short-term impacts.The study succeeded in estimating the model parameters using DHS-like data rather than literature data. The analysis provides a framework for using the same data for estimation and prediction, which can improve the validity of context-specific predictions and help designing HIV prevention campaigns.

  5. Trends of modern contraceptive use among young married women based on the 2000, 2005, and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys: a multivariate decomposition analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebaw Gebeyehu Worku

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Accessing family planning can reduce a significant proportion of maternal, infant, and childhood deaths. In Ethiopia, use of modern contraceptive methods is low but it is increasing. This study aimed to analyze the trends and determinants of changes in modern contraceptive use over time among young married women in Ethiopia. METHODS: The study used data from the three Demographic Health Surveys conducted in Ethiopia, in 2000, 2005, and 2011. Young married women age 15-24 years with sample sizes of 2,157 in 2000, 1,904 in 2005, and 2,146 in 2011 were included. Logit-based decomposition analysis technique was used for analysis of factors contributing to the recent changes. STATA 12 was employed for data management and analyses. All calculations presented in this paper were weighted for the sampling probabilities and non-response. Complex sampling procedures were also considered during testing of statistical significance. RESULTS: Among young married women, modern contraceptive prevalence increased from 6% in 2000 to 16% in 2005 and to 36% in 2011. The decomposition analysis indicated that 34% of the overall change in modern contraceptive use was due to difference in women's characteristics. Changes in the composition of young women's characteristics according to age, educational status, religion, couple concordance on family size, and fertility preference were the major sources of this increase. Two-thirds of the increase in modern contraceptive use was due to difference in coefficients. Most importantly, the increase was due to change in contraceptive use behavior among the rural population (33% and among Orthodox Christians (16% and Protestants (4%. CONCLUSIONS: Modern contraceptive use among young married women has showed a remarkable increase over the last decade in Ethiopia. Programmatic interventions targeting poor, younger (adolescent, illiterate, and Muslim women would help to maintain the increasing trend in modern

  6. Prevalence and pattern of HIV-related malnutrition among women in sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analysis of demographic health surveys

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    Uthman Olalekan A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The world's highest HIV infection rates are found in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where adult prevalence in most countries exceeds 25%. Food shortages and malnutrition have combined with HIV/AIDS to bring some countries to the brink of crisis. The aim of this study was to describe prevalence of malnutrition among HIV-infected women and variations across socioeconomic status using data from 11 countries in SSA. Methods This study uses meta-analytic procedures to synthesize the results of most recent data sets available from Demographic and Health Surveys of 11 countries in SSA. Pooled prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-and fixed-effects models. Subgroup and leave-one-country-out sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Results Pooling the prevalence estimates of HIV-related malnutrition yielded an overall prevalence of 10.3% (95% CI 7.4% to 14.1% with no statistically significant heterogeneity (I2 = 0.0%, p = .903. The prevalence estimates decreased with increasing wealth index and education attainment. The pooled prevalence of HIV-related malnutrition was higher among women residing in rural areas than among women residing in urban areas; and lower among women that were professionally employed than unemployed or women in agricultural or manual work. Conclusion Prevalence of HIV-related malnutrition among women varies by wealth status, education attainment, occupation, and type of residence (rural/urban. The observed socioeconomic disparities can help provide more information about population subgroups in particular need and high risk groups, which may in turn lead to the development and implementation of more effective intervention programs.

  7. Time trends and inequalities of under-five mortality in Nepal: a secondary data analysis of four demographic and health surveys between 1996 and 2011.

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    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inequalities in progress towards achievement of Millennium Development Goal four (MDG-4 reflect unequal access to child health services. OBJECTIVE: To examine the time trends, socio-economic and regional inequalities of under-five mortality rate (U5MR in Nepal. METHODS: We analyzed the data from complete birth histories of four Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS done in the years 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2011. For each livebirth, we computed survival period from birth until either fifth birthday or the survey date. Using direct methods i.e. by constructing life tables, we calculated yearly U5MRs from 1991 to 2010. Projections were made for the years 2011 to 2015. For each NDHS, U5MRs were calculated according to child's sex, mother's education, household wealth index, rural/urban residence, development regions and ecological zones. Inequalities were calculated as rate difference, rate ratio, population attributable risk and hazard ratio. RESULTS: Yearly U5MR (per 1000 live births had decreased from 157.3 (95% CIs 178.0-138.9 in 1991 to 43.2 (95% CIs 59.1-31.5 in 2010 i.e. 114.1 reduction in absolute risk. Projected U5MR for the year 2015 was 54.33. U5MRs had decreased in absolute terms in all sub groups but relative inequalities had reduced for gender and rural/urban residence only. Wide inequalities existed by wealth and education and increased between 1996 and 2011. For lowest wealth quintile (as compared to highest quintile hazard ratio (HR increased from 1.37 (95% CIs 1.27, 1.49 to 2.54 ( 95% CIs 2.25, 2.86 and for mothers having no education (as compared to higher education HR increased from 2.55 (95% CIs 1.95, 3.33 to 3.75 (95% CIs 3.17, 4.44. Changes in regional inequities were marginal and irregular. CONCLUSIONS: Nepal is most likely to achieve MDG-4 but eductional and wealth inequalities may widen further. National health policies should address to reduce inequalities in U5MR through 'inclusive policies'.

  8. Transitioning Towards Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

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    Ankit eAnand

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The millennium development goals are now replaced by seventeen sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS -2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010, included in the study. It resulted in inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011, Congo Republic (2013-14, Cote d'Ivoire (2011-12, Ethiopia (2011, Gambia (2013, Mali (2012-13, Mozambique (2011, Namibia (2013, Nepal (2011, Niger (2012, Nigeria (2013, Pakistan (2012-13, Sierra Leone (2013, Uganda (2011 and Zambia (2013. The Scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio of child mortality and health outcomes using DHS surveys. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian Countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and Household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity and under-nutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were not

  9. Assessing physics learning identity: Survey development and validation

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    Li, Sissi L.; Demaree, Dedra

    2012-02-01

    Innovative curricula aim to improve content knowledge and the goal of helping students develop practices and skills of authentic scientist through active engagement learning. To students, these classroom practices often seem very different from their previous learning experiences in terms of behavioral expectations, learning attitude, and what learning means. We propose that productive participation in these learning environments require students to modify their identity as learners in addition to refining their science conceptual understanding. In order to measure changes in learning identity, we developed a 49-item survey to assess students' 1) expectations of student and teacher roles, 2) self efficacy towards skills supported in the Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) and 3) attitudes towards social learning. Using principle components exploratory factor analysis, we have established two reliable factors with subscales that measure these student characteristics. This paper presents the survey development, validation and pilot study results.

  10. Using multi-country household surveys to understand who provides reproductive and maternal health services in low- and middle-income countries: a critical appraisal of the Demographic and Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, K; Benova, L; Goodman, C; Macleod, D; Lynch, C A; Penn-Kekana, L; Campbell, O M R

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are a vital data resource for cross-country comparative analyses. This study is part of a set of analyses assessing the types of providers being used for reproductive and maternal health care across 57 countries. Here, we examine some of the challenges encountered using DHS data for this purpose, present the provider classification we used, and provide recommendations to enable more detailed and accurate cross-country comparisons of healthcare provision. Methods We used the most recent DHS surveys between 2000 and 2012; 57 countries had data on family planning and delivery care providers and 47 countries had data on antenatal care. Every possible response option across the 57 countries was listed and categorised. We then developed a classification to group provider response options according to two key dimensions: clinical nature and profit motive. Results We classified the different types of maternal and reproductive healthcare providers, and the individuals providing care. Documented challenges encountered during this process were limitations inherent in household survey data based on respondents’ self-report; conflation of response options in the questionnaire or at the data processing stage; category errors of the place vs. professional for delivery; inability to determine whether care received at home is from the public or private sector; a large number of negligible response options; inconsistencies in coding and analysis of data sets; and the use of inconsistent headings. Conclusions To improve clarity, we recommend addressing issues such as conflation of response options, data on public vs. private provider, inconsistent coding and obtaining metadata. More systematic and standardised collection of data would aid international comparisons of progress towards improved financial protection, and allow us to better characterise the incentives and commercial nature of different providers. Objectif Les enqu

  11. An international survey of polypectomy training and assessment

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    Patel, K.; Rajendran, A.; Faiz, O.; Rutter, M. D.; Rutter, C.; Jover, R.; Koutroubakis, I.; Januszewicz, W.; Ferlitsch, M.; Dekker, E.; MacIntosh, D.; Ng, S. C.; Kitiyakara, T.; Pohl, H.; Thomas-Gibson, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Colonic polypectomy is acknowledged to be a technically challenging part of colonoscopy. Training in polypectomy is recognized to be often inconsistent. This study aimed to ascertain worldwide practice in polypectomy training. Patients and methods An electronic survey was distributed to endoscopic trainees and trainers in 19 countries asking about their experiences of receiving and delivering training. Participants were also asked about whether formal polypectomy training guidance existed in their country. Results Data were obtained from 610 colonoscopists. Of these responses, 348 (57.0 %) were from trainers and 262 (43.0 %) from trainees; 6.6 % of trainers assessed competency once per year or less often. Just over half (53.1 %) of trainees had ever had their polypectomy technique formally assessed by any trainer. Approximately half the trainees surveyed (51.1 %) stated that the principles of polypectomy had only ever been taught to them intermittently. Of those trainees with the most colonoscopy experience, who had performed over 500 procedures, 48.2 % had had training on removing large polyps of over 10 mm; 46.2 % (121 respondents) of trainees surveyed held no record of the polypectomies they had performed. Only four of the 19 countries surveyed had specific guidelines on polypectomy training. Conclusions A significant number of competent colonoscopists have never been taught how to perform polypectomy. Training guidelines worldwide generally give little direction as to how trainees should acquire polypectomy skills. The learning curve for polypectomy needs to be defined to provide reliable guidance on how to train colonoscopists in this skill. PMID:28299354

  12. Assessing attitudes toward farm animal welfare: a national survey of animal science faculty members.

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    Heleski, C R; Mertig, A G; Zanella, A J

    2004-09-01

    A survey to measure attitudes toward farm animal welfare was developed. We targeted animal science faculty because of their influence on animal production in the United States. We initially interviewed 34 faculty members from a large Midwestern public university to assist with questionnaire development. After our written survey was developed, we pilot-tested our questionnaire at this same university. Thereafter, we sent an e-mail advance notice, first survey, and follow-up survey/thank-you to the national population of animal science faculty members. With an n = 446 (response rate = 45%), we observed the following: 51% (for layer birds), 58% (for meat birds), 66% (for swine), 84% (for dairy), 86% (for sheep), and 87% (for beef) of our respondents agreed that the predominant methods used to produce various types of animal products provided appropriate levels of animal welfare. Our findings showed that greater than 90% of respondents support general principles of animal welfare, such as keeping animals free from unnecessary fear and distress. However, specific practices that have been shown to elicit distress (e.g., castration without anesthetic) were deemed a concern by only 32% of the respondents. Various industry practices/outcomes were assessed for level of concern and varied from a high of 83% of respondents agreeing that flooring effects on lameness in intensively farmed animals are a concern, to a low of 16% agreeing that early weaning in pigs is a concern. Summed attitude scores showed significant relationships with the demographic variables of gender (P farm animal welfare issues. Gaining an awareness of various stakeholders' attitudes (e.g., animal scientists, veterinarians, producers, and consumers) toward farm animal welfare will assist animal welfare scientists in knowing which research topics to emphasize and, perhaps, where critical gaps in accessibility of knowledge exist.

  13. Clinical Reasoning: Survey of Teaching Methods, Integration, and Assessment in Entry-Level Physical Therapist Academic Education.

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    Christensen, Nicole; Black, Lisa; Furze, Jennifer; Huhn, Karen; Vendrely, Ann; Wainwright, Susan

    2017-02-01

    Although clinical reasoning abilities are important learning outcomes of physical therapist entry-level education, best practice standards have not been established to guide clinical reasoning curricular design and learning assessment. This research explored how clinical reasoning is currently defined, taught, and assessed in physical therapist entry-level education programs. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was administered to physical therapist program representatives. An electronic 24-question survey was distributed to the directors of 207 programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education. Descriptive statistical analysis and qualitative content analysis were performed. Post hoc demographic and wave analyses revealed no evidence of nonresponse bias. A response rate of 46.4% (n=96) was achieved. All respondents reported that their programs incorporated clinical reasoning into their curricula. Only 25% of respondents reported a common definition of clinical reasoning in their programs. Most respondents (90.6%) reported that clinical reasoning was explicit in their curricula, and 94.8% indicated that multiple methods of curricular integration were used. Instructor-designed materials were most commonly used to teach clinical reasoning (83.3%). Assessment of clinical reasoning included practical examinations (99%), clinical coursework (94.8%), written examinations (87.5%), and written assignments (83.3%). Curricular integration of clinical reasoning-related self-reflection skills was reported by 91%. A large number of incomplete surveys affected the response rate, and the program directors to whom the survey was sent may not have consulted the faculty members who were most knowledgeable about clinical reasoning in their curricula. The survey construction limited some responses and application of the results. Although clinical reasoning was explicitly integrated into program curricula, it was not consistently defined, taught, or

  14. Education in Nephrology Fellowship: A Survey-Based Needs Assessment.

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    Rope, Robert W; Pivert, Kurtis A; Parker, Mark G; Sozio, Stephen M; Merell, Sylvia Bereknyei

    2017-07-01

    Educational needs assessments for nephrology fellowship training are limited. This study assessed fellows' perceptions of current educational needs and interest in novel modalities that may improve their educational experience and quantified educational resources used by programs and fellows. We distributed a seven-question electronic survey to all United States-based fellows receiving complimentary American Society of Nephrology (ASN) membership at the end of the 2015-2016 academic year in conjunction with the ASN Nephrology Fellows Survey. One third (320 of 863; 37%) of fellows in Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited positions responded. Most respondents rated overall quality of teaching in fellowship as either "good" (37%) or "excellent" (44%), and most (55%) second-year fellows felt "fully prepared" for independent practice. Common educational resources used by fellows included UpToDate, Journal of the American Society of Nephrology/Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, and Nephrology Self-Assessment Program; others-including ASN's online curricula-were used less often. Fellows indicated interest in additional instruction in several core topics, including home dialysis modalities, ultrasonography, and pathology. Respondents strongly supported interventions to improve pathology instruction and increase time for physiology and clinical review. In conclusion, current nephrology fellows perceive several gaps in training. Innovation in education and training is needed to better prepare future nephrologists for the growing challenges of kidney care. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. What Campuses Assess When They Assess Their Learning Community Programs: Selected Findings from a National Survey of Learning Community Programs

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    Lardner, Emily

    2014-01-01

    In spring 2013, the Washington Center administered a national survey to find what campuses assessed when they assessed their learning community programs, how they assessed those outcomes, and what they did with the results. Sixty-six campuses responded to the survey. Most campuses assess at least one measure of student success (pass rates, course…

  16. Deeper insight into maternal genetic assessments and demographic history for Egyptian indigenous chicken populations using mtDNA analysis

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    Marwa A. Eltanany

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study principally sought to reveal the demographic expansion of Egyptian indigenous chickens (EIC using representative breeds: Sinai (North, Fayoumi (Middle and Dandarawi (South of Egypt as well as to deeply clarify their genetic diversity, possible matrilineal origin and dispersal routes. A total of 33 partial mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated from EIC and compared with a worldwide reference dataset of 1290 wild and domestic chicken sequences. Study populations had 12 polymorphic variable sites and 7 haplotypes. A lack of maternal substructure between EIC was detected (FST = 0.003. The unimodal mismatch distribution and negative values of Tajima’s D (−0.659 and Fu’s Fs (−0.157 indicated demographic expansion among EIC and pointed to Fayoumi as the oldest EIC population. Egyptian haplotypes were clustered phylogenetically into two divergent clades. Their phylogeography revealed an ancient single maternal lineage of Egyptian chickens likely derived from Indian-Subcontinent. Moreover, a recent maternal commercial heritage possibly originated in Yunnan-Province and/or surrounding areas was admixed restrictedly into Sinai. It is implied that Egypt was an entry point for Indian chicken into Africa and its further dispersal route to Europe. This study provides a clue supporting the previous assumption that urged utilizing consistent founder populations having closely related progenitors for synthetizing a stabilized homogenous crossbreed as a sustainable discipline in breeding program.

  17. The Faculty Self-Reported Assessment Survey (FRAS): differentiating faculty knowledge and experience in assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, David I; Bauerle, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education reform efforts have called for widespread adoption of evidence-based teaching in which faculty members attend to student outcomes through assessment practice. Awareness about the importance of assessment has illuminated the need to understand what faculty members know and how they engage with assessment knowledge and practice. The Faculty Self-Reported Assessment Survey (FRAS) is a new instrument for evaluating science faculty assessment knowledge and experience. Instrument validation was composed of two distinct studies: an empirical evaluation of the psychometric properties of the FRAS and a comparative known-groups validation to explore the ability of the FRAS to differentiate levels of faculty assessment experience. The FRAS was found to be highly reliable (α = 0.96). The dimensionality of the instrument enabled distinction of assessment knowledge into categories of program design, instrumentation, and validation. In the known-groups validation, the FRAS distinguished between faculty groups with differing levels of assessment experience. Faculty members with formal assessment experience self-reported higher levels of familiarity with assessment terms, higher frequencies of assessment activity, increased confidence in conducting assessment, and more positive attitudes toward assessment than faculty members who were novices in assessment. These results suggest that the FRAS can reliably and validly differentiate levels of expertise in faculty knowledge of assessment.

  18. The preliminary assessment of the Social Transition in the North dataset: a comparison of STN survey and enumeration data for selected Northwest Alaskan communities

    OpenAIRE

    Saylor, Brian; Hughes, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Objective. This study compared the results from STN survey data with a mailback health study of the same communities to assess the reliability of the STN data. Study Design. Sample characteristics and respondes to health questions were compared through secondary data analysis. Data from the STN sample was compared to an enumeration study for the same or similar questions, including demographic characteristics and health status indicators, were compared. Methods. The STN study used the sample ...

  19. Factors influencing place of delivery for women in Kenya: an analysis of the Kenya demographic and health survey, 2008/2009

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    Kitui John

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in Kenya increased from 380/100000 live births to 530/100000 live births between 1990 and 2008. Skilled assistance during childbirth is central to reducing maternal mortality yet the proportion of deliveries taking place in health facilities where such assistance can reliably be provided has remained below 50% since the early 1990s. We use the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey data to describe the factors that determine where women deliver in Kenya and to explore reasons given for home delivery. Methods Data on place of delivery, reasons for home delivery, and a range of potential explanatory factors were collected by interviewer-led questionnaire on 3977 women and augmented with distance from the nearest health facility estimated using health facility Global Positioning System (GPS co-ordinates. Predictors of whether the woman’s most recent delivery was in a health facility were explored in an exploratory risk factor analysis using multiple logistic regression. The main reasons given by the woman for home delivery were also examined. Results Living in urban areas, being wealthy, more educated, using antenatal care services optimally and lower parity strongly predicted where women delivered, and so did region, ethnicity, and type of facilities used. Wealth and rural/urban residence were independently related. The effect of distance from a health facility was not significant after controlling for other variables. Women most commonly cited distance and/or lack of transport as reasons for not delivering in a health facility but over 60% gave other reasons including 20.5% who considered health facility delivery unnecessary, 18% who cited abrupt delivery as the main reason and 11% who cited high cost. Conclusion Physical access to health facilities through distance and/or lack of transport, and economic considerations are important barriers for women to delivering in a health facility in Kenya

  20. Socio-demographic inequalities in the prevalence, diagnosis and management of hypertension in India: analysis of nationally-representative survey data.

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    Kath A Moser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major contributing factor to the current epidemic of cardiovascular disease in India. Small studies suggest high, and increasing, prevalence especially in urban areas, with poor detection and management, but national data has been lacking. The aim of the current study was to use nationally-representative survey data to examine socio-demographic inequalities in the prevalence, diagnosis and management of hypertension in Indian adults. METHODS: Using data on self-reported diagnosis and treatment, and blood pressure measurement, collected from 12,198 respondents aged 18+ in the 2007 WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health in India, factors associated with prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension were investigated. RESULTS: 22% men and 26% women had hypertension; prevalence increased steeply with body mass index (<18.5 kg/m(2: 18% men, 21% women; 25-29.9 kg/m(2: 35% men, 35% women, was higher in the least poor vs. poorest (men: odds ratio (95%CI 1.82 (1.20 to 2.76; women: 1.40 (1.08 to 1.81, urban vs. rural men (1.64 (1.19 to 2.25, and men recently vs. never using alcohol (1.96 (1.40 to 2.76. Over half the hypertension in women, and 70% in men, was undetected with particularly poor detection rates in young urban men, and in poorer households. Two-thirds of men and women with detected hypertension were treated. Two-thirds of women treated had their hypertension controlled, irrespective of urban/rural setting or wealth. Adequate blood pressure control was sub-optimal in urban men. CONCLUSION: Hypertension is very common in India, even among underweight adults and those of lower socioeconomic position. Improved detection is needed to reduce the burden of disease attributable to hypertension. Levels of treatment and control are relatively good, particularly in women, although urban men require more careful attention.

  1. Transitioning toward Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ankit; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals are now replaced by 17 sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation, and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information are explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS)-2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010 was included in the study. It resulted in the inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011), Congo Republic (2013-2014), Cote d'Ivoire (2011-2012), Ethiopia (2011), Gambia (2013), Mali (2012-2013), Mozambique (2011), Namibia (2013), Nepal (2011), Niger (2012), Nigeria (2013), Pakistan (2012-2013), Sierra Leone (2013), Uganda (2011), and Zambia (2013). The scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio) of child mortality and health outcomes using DHSs. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were

  2. A multilevel analysis of effect of neighbourhood and individual wealth status on sexual behaviour among women: evidence from Nigeria 2003 Demographic and Health Survey

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    Kongnyuy Eugene J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria is home to more people living with HIV than any other country in the world, except South Africa and India – where an estimated 2.9 million [1.7 million – 4.2 million] people were living with the virus in 2005. Women bear the greatest burden of frequent high-risk pregnancies, raising large families, and increasingly, the AIDS epidemic. Thus, there is a need for better understanding of the determinants of high risk sexual behaviour among women. In this study, we examined factors associated with extra-marital sex among women in Nigeria and investigated how much variation in reported extra-marital sex can be attributed to individual-, and community-level factors. Methods We analyzed data from 6362 sexually active women aged 15 – 49 years who participated in the Nigeria 2003 Demographic and Health Survey using multilevel logistic regression models. Results are presented as odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Results Independent of other factors, compared to women aged 15–24 years, those 25 – 34 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.59; 95% CI: 0.44 – 0.79 and 35 years or older (OR 0.36; 95% CI: 0.24 – 0.54 were less likely to have reported multiple concurrent sex partners in the last 12 years. As expected, women currently or formerly married were less likely to have reported multiple concurrent sex partners than women never married. Women who drank alcohol in the last three months were more likely to have reported multiple concurrent sex partners. Compared to women from richest household, women from poorest and middle household were 83% and 51% more likely to multiple concurrent sex partners in the last 12 month respectively. After individual compositional and contextual factors, community wealth status was statistically significant with sexual behaviour. Conclusion The study has demonstrated that individual and community wealth status are independent predictors of women's sexual behaviour, and that there is

  3. Factors Associated with Ever Being HIV-Tested in Zimbabwe: An Extended Analysis of the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (2010-2011.

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    Kudakwashe Collin Takarinda

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe has a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV burden. It is therefore important to scale up HIV-testing and counseling (HTC as a gateway to HIV prevention, treatment and care.To determine factors associated with being HIV-tested among adult men and women in Zimbabwe.Secondary analysis was done using data from 7,313 women and 6,584 men who completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and provided blood specimens for HIV testing during the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS 2010-11. Factors associated with ever being HIV-tested were determined using multivariate logistic regression.HIV-testing was higher among women compared to men (61% versus 39%. HIV-infected respondents were more likely to be tested compared to those who were HIV-negative for both men [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.53; 95% confidence interval (CI (1.27-1.84] and women [AOR = 1.42; 95% CI (1.20-1.69]. However, only 55% and 74% of these HIV-infected men and women respectively had ever been tested. Among women, visiting antenatal care (ANC [AOR = 5.48, 95% CI (4.08-7.36] was the most significant predictor of being tested whilst a novel finding for men was higher odds of testing among those reporting a sexually transmitted infection (STI in the past 12 months [AOR = 1.86, 95%CI (1.26-2.74]. Among men, the odds of ever being tested increased with age ≥ 20 years, particularly those 45-49 years [AOR = 4.21; 95% CI (2.74-6.48] whilst for women testing was highest among those aged 25-29 years [AOR = 2.01; 95% CI (1.63-2.48]. Other significant factors for both sexes were increasing education level, higher wealth status and currently/formerly being in union.There remains a high proportion of undiagnosed HIV-infected persons and hence there is a need for innovative strategies aimed at increasing HIV-testing, particularly for men and in lower-income and lower-educated populations. Promotion of STI services can be an important gateway for testing more men whilst ANC

  4. A comparison of linear demographic models and fraction of lifetime egg production for assessing sustainability in sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Taylor K; Botsford, Louis W

    2013-06-01

    Conventional methods for management of data-rich fisheries maintain sustainable populations by assuring that lifetime reproduction is adequate for individuals to replace themselves and accounting for density-dependent recruitment. Fishing is not allowed to reduce relative lifetime reproduction, the fraction of current egg production relative to unfished egg production (FLEP), below a sustainable level. Because most shark fisheries are data poor, other representations of persistence status have been used, including linear demographic models, which incorporate life-history characteristics in age-structured models with no density dependence. We tested how well measures of sustainability from 3 linear demographic methods (rebound potential, stochastic growth rate, and potential population increase) reflect actual population persistence by comparing values of these measures with FLEP for 26 shark species. We also calculated the value of fishing mortality (F) that would allow all 26 species to maintain an accepted precautionary threshold for sharks of FLEP = 60%, expressing F as a fraction of natural mortality (M). Values of stochastic growth rate and potential population growth did not covary in rank order with FLEP (p = 0.057 and p = 0.077, respectively) and neither was significantly correlated with FLEP. Ordinal ranking of rebound potential positively covaried with FLEP (p = 0.00013), but the relative rankings of some species were substantially out of order. Adopting a sustainable limit of F = 0.16M would maintain all 26 species above the precautionary minimum value of FLEP (60%). We concluded that shark-fishery and conservation policies should rely on calculation of replacement (i.e., FLEP), and that sharks should be fished at a precautionary level that would protect all stocks (i.e., F< 0.16M).

  5. DEMOGRAPHIC PREDICTORS WITHIN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

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    Bente Florina Maria

    2014-12-01

    Design/methodology/approach- Using a quantitative methodological approach, a survey based on SERVQUAL instrument was applied in order to evaluate local public communication. Data from a sample of 380 citizens within Western Romanian were analyzed. Specific demographic predictors that can influence citizens' satisfaction regarding the quality of communication are analyzed. Findings-By analyzing data it was possible to determine citizen satisfaction and to assess its relationship with different demographic characteristics. The results illustrate that gender does not significantly affect satisfaction, instead age, marital status, residence location (urban versus rural, income, education and occupational status of the respondents significantly affect satisfaction regarding local public communication. In addition, the findings confirm a relationship between the citizens' satisfaction and the age, income, education and occupational status of the respondents. Research limitations/implications- Owing to the budget and time limits, only a one-shot survey was conducted, therefore the comparison between “before” and “after” analysis could not be performed. In addition, further research should investigate the local public communication within national contexts. Practical implications -The adapted SERVQUAL scale may be used by institution managers to objectively assess communication performance and local authority service quality. Originality/value- There continues to be a lack of research regarding the communication process within local public administration and the effect of demographic predictors of communication satisfaction. This paper examines both the perceptions and the expectations of citizens regarding public communication. The results offer insights into residence location, age, income, education and occupational status effects on evaluations of communication satisfaction. Finally, the study contributes to studies of perceived service quality by bearing out

  6. Toward generally accepted forensic assessment practices among clinical neuropsychologists: a survey of professional practice and common test use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuke, Casey; Barr, William; Brodale, Donald L; Rabin, Laura A

    2017-07-04

    This study investigated professional practice and common test use among clinical neuropsychologists engaging in forensic assessment.  Doctorate-level psychologists active in the practice of neuropsychology and on the INS and NAN membership listings (n = 502) were surveyed about their demographics, professional practice, and common test use. Participants who reported engaging in forensic practice (n = 255) were further surveyed about their forensic practice. Forensic participants were more likely to be male and Caucasian, and reported higher ages, more years of professional experience, and a higher prevalence of board certification. While characteristics of their professional and forensic practice varied, forensic participants reported spending most of their professional time conducting neuropsychological assessments with adult clients in a private or group practice setting, focusing on civil referrals and civil legal questions involving older adult issues, developmental issues, head injury, and psychiatric issues. Common test use across neuropsychological assessment domains is presented for board-certified forensic participants (n = 77). An examination of these results reveals that the current pattern of test use is similar to the results of a more general survey of neuropsychological test use.  The findings provide insight into the practice of forensic neuropsychological assessment, and further establish the admissibility of neuropsychological evidence in the United States legal system. Results will be useful for clinical neuropsychologists, field leaders, and legal professionals hoping to gain insight into the role of clinical neuropsychology in civil and criminal legal decision-making.

  7. CTD data - Pre-recruit surveys to aid stock assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual surveys of juvenile fish and ecosystem status have been conducted since 2011 surveying the entire coast of Oregon and southern Washington. Trawl surveys are...

  8. Oral hygiene practices and their socio-demographic correlates among Nepalese adult: evidence from non communicable diseases risk factors STEPS survey Nepal 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Pushpa; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Mehata, Suresh; Vaidya, Abhinav; Jha, Bijay Kumar; Dhimal, Meghnath; Pradhan, Shaili; Dhakal, Purushottam; Pandit, Arpana; Pandey, Achyut Raj; Bista, Bihungum; Pokhrel, Ava Upadhyay; Karki, Khem Bahadur

    2016-09-29

    Oral diseases remain a significant public health problem in Nepal, as do oral health behaviours. Socio-demographic factors play a crucial role in driving oral hygiene practices. This study aims to identify oral hygiene practices and associated socio-demographic factors in Nepalese population. This descriptive, cross-sectional study recruited 4200 adults (15-69 years) through multistage cluster sampling. Data obtained from the WHO NCD STEPS instrument version 2.2 were analysed in STATA 13.0 using complex sample weighted analysis. Prevalence of cleaning teeth at least once a day was 94.9 % (95 % CI: 93.7-95.9), while that of cleaning teeth at least twice a day was 9.9 % (95 % CI: 8.2-11.9). Use of fluoridated toothpaste was seen among 71.4 % (95 % CI: 67.9-74.7) respondents. A 3.9 % (95 % CI: 3.1-5.0) made a dental visit in the last 6 months. The 45-69 years age group had lesser odds of cleaning teeth at least once a day (AOR: 0.4; 95 % CI: 0.2-0.8), in comparison to 15-29 years age group. Women had greater odds of cleaning teeth at least twice a day (AOR: 1.7; 95 % CI: 1.1-2.4) and having visited a dentist in the last 6 months (AOR: 2.2; 95 % CI: 1.2-3.8) compared to men. With reference to rural residents, urban population had higher odds of using fluoridated toothpaste (AOR: 2.3; 95 % CI: 1.4-3.4) and making a dental visit within the last 6 months (AOR: 1.9; 95 % CI:1.1-3.6). Inhabitants of the Terai had five-fold (AOR: 4.9; 95 % CI: 3.1-7.8) greater odds of cleaning teeth once per day than did hill residents. Those with higher education had greater odds than non-formal education holders of cleaning teeth at least once a day (AOR: 9.0; 95 % CI: 2.9-27.7), cleaning teeth at least twice a day (AOR: 5.6; 95 % CI: 2.9-10.6), using fluoridated toothpaste (AOR: 13.9; 95 % CI: 8.4-23.1), and having visited a dentist in the last 6 months (AOR: 2.8; 95 % CI: 1.4-5.4). Cleaning teeth at least once a day is widely prevalent in Nepal and a substantial

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Sequestration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, P. D.; Blondes, M. S.; Brennan, S.; Corum, M.; Merrill, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geological storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) in consultation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and State geological surveys. To conduct the assessment, the USGS developed a probability-based assessment methodology that was extensively reviewed by experts from industry, government and university organizations (Brennan et al., 2010, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127). The methodology is intended to be used at regional to sub-basinal scales and it identifies storage assessment units (SAUs) that are based on two depth categories below the surface (1) 3,000 to 13,000 ft (914 to 3,962 m), and (2) 13,000 ft (3,962 m) and greater. In the first category, the 3,000 ft (914 m) minimum depth of the storage reservoir ensures that CO2 is in a supercritical state to minimize the storage volume. The depth of 13,000 ft (3,962 m) represents maximum depths that are accessible with average injection pressures. The second category represents areas where a reservoir formation has potential storage at depths below 13,000 ft (3,962 m), although they are not accessible with average injection pressures; these are assessed as a separate SAU. SAUs are restricted to formation intervals that contain saline waters (total dissolved solids greater than 10,000 parts per million) to prevent contamination of protected ground water. Carbon dioxide sequestration capacity is estimated for buoyant and residual storage traps within the basins. For buoyant traps, CO2 is held in place in porous formations by top and lateral seals. For residual traps, CO2 is contained in porous formations as individual droplets held within pores by capillary forces. Preliminary geologic models have been developed to estimate CO2 storage capacity in approximately 40 major sedimentary basins within the United States. More than

  10. Assessing the feasibility and sample quality of a national random-digit dialing cellular phone survey of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Daniel A; ZuWallack, Randal S; Dayton, James; Echeverría, Sandra E; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2014-01-01

    The majority of adults aged 18-34 years have only cellular phones, making random-digit dialing of landline telephones an obsolete methodology for surveillance of this population. However, 95% of this group has cellular phones. This article reports on the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey (NYAHS), a pilot study conducted in the 50 US states and Washington, DC, that used random-digit dialing of cellular phones and benchmarked this methodology against that of the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Comparisons of the demographic distributions of subjects in the NYAHS and BRFSS (aged 18-34 years) with US Census data revealed adequate reach for all demographic subgroups. After adjustment for design factors, the mean absolute deviations across demographic groups were 3 percentage points for the NYAHS and 2.8 percentage points for the BRFSS, nationally, and were comparable for each census region. Two-sided z tests comparing cigarette smoking prevalence revealed no significant differences between NYAHS and BRFSS participants overall or by subgroups. The design effects of the sampling weight were 2.09 for the NYAHS and 3.26 for the BRFSS. Response rates for the NYAHS and BRFSS cellular phone sampling frames were comparable. Our assessment of the NYAHS methodology found that random-digit dialing of cellular phones is a feasible methodology for surveillance of young adults.

  11. Socio-demographic factors, comorbidity and diagnostic delay among women diagnosed with cervical, endometrial or ovarian cancer: a nationwide survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard; Christensen, Karl Bang; Ottesen, Bent Smedegaard

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the association between socio-demographic factors, comorbidity and diagnostic delay among gynaecological cancer patients. A questionnaire was sent to 1052 women diagnosed with cervical, endometrial or ovarian cancer between October 2006 and December 2007 in Denmark. Long...... diagnosed with cervical and endometrial cancer as opposed to ovarian cancer, and with working as opposed to being retired. In conclusion, this study found that socio-demographic factors and comorbidity play a role in the probability of experiencing long delays. If delays in diagnosis are to be reduced...

  12. Precast concrete unit assessment through GPR survey and FDTD modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Precast concrete elements are widely used within United Kingdom house building offering ease in assembly and added values as structural integrity, sound and thermal insulation; most common concrete components include walls, beams, floors, panels, lintels, stairs, etc. The lack of respect of the manufacturer instruction during assembling, however, may induce cracking and short/long term loss of bearing capacity. GPR is a well-established not destructive technique employed in the assessment of structural elements because of real-time imaging, quickness of data collecting and ability to discriminate finest structural details. In this work, GPR has been used to investigate two different precast elements: precast reinforced concrete planks constituting the roof slab of a school and precast wood-cement blocks with insulation material pre-fitted used to build a perimeter wall of a private building. Visible cracks affected both constructions. For the assessment surveys, a GSSI 2.0 GHz GPR antenna has been used because of the high resolution required and the small size of the antenna case (155 by 90 by 105mm) enabling scanning up to 45mm from any obstruction. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) numerical modelling was also performed to build a scenario of the expected GPR signal response for a preliminary real-time interpretation and to help solve uncertainties due to complex reflection patterns: simulated radargrams were built using Reflex Software v. 8.2, reproducing the same GPR pulse used for the surveys in terms of wavelet, nominal frequency, sample frequency and time window. Model geometries were derived from the design projects available both for the planks and the blocks; the electromagnetic properties of the materials (concrete, reinforcing bars, air-filled void, insulation and wooden concrete) were inferred from both values reported in literature and a preliminary interpretation of radargrams where internal layer interfaces were clearly recognizable and

  13. Information Needs Assessment for Coastal and Marine Management and Policy: Ecosystem Services Under Changing Climatic, Land Use, and Demographic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Kaitlin A; Granek, Elise F; Lubitow, Amy

    2015-12-01

    Changing climatic, demographic, and land use conditions are projected to alter the provisioning of ecosystem services in estuarine, coastal, and nearshore marine ecosystems, necessitating mitigation and adaptation policies and management. The current paradigm of research efforts occurring in parallel to, rather than in collaboration with, decision makers will be insufficient for the rapid responses required to adapt to and mitigate for projected changing conditions. Here, we suggest a different paradigm: one where research begins by engaging decision makers in the identification of priority data needs (biophysical, economic, and social). This paper uses synthesized interview data to provide insight into the varied demands for scientific research as described by decision makers working on coastal issues in Oregon, USA. The findings highlight the need to recognize (1) the differing framing of ecosystem services by decision makers versus scientists; and (2) the differing data priorities relevant to inland versus coastal decision makers. The findings further serve to highlight the need for decision makers, scientists, and funders to engage in increased communication. This research is an important first step in advancing efforts toward evidence-based decision making in Oregon and provides a template for further research across the US.

  14. Survey of Ambient Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C; Belova, Anna; Brandt, Jørgen; Fann, Neal; Greco, Sue; Guttikunda, Sarath; Heroux, Marie-Eve; Hurley, Fintan; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Medina, Sylvia; Miller, Brian; Pandey, Kiran; Roos, Joachim; Van Dingenen, Rita

    2016-09-01

    Designing air quality policies that improve public health can benefit from information about air pollution health risks and impacts, which include respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and premature death. Several computer-based tools help automate air pollution health impact assessments and are being used for a variety of contexts. Expanding information gathered for a May 2014 World Health Organization expert meeting, we survey 12 multinational air pollution health impact assessment tools, categorize them according to key technical and operational characteristics, and identify limitations and challenges. Key characteristics include spatial resolution, pollutants and health effect outcomes evaluated, and method for characterizing population exposure, as well as tool format, accessibility, complexity, and degree of peer review and application in policy contexts. While many of the tools use common data sources for concentration-response associations, population, and baseline mortality rates, they vary in the exposure information source, format, and degree of technical complexity. We find that there is an important tradeoff between technical refinement and accessibility for a broad range of applications. Analysts should apply tools that provide the appropriate geographic scope, resolution, and maximum degree of technical rigor for the intended assessment, within resources constraints. A systematic intercomparison of the tools' inputs, assumptions, calculations, and results would be helpful to determine the appropriateness of each for different types of assessment. Future work would benefit from accounting for multiple uncertainty sources and integrating ambient air pollution health impact assessment tools with those addressing other related health risks (e.g., smoking, indoor pollution, climate change, vehicle accidents, physical activity).

  15. Using rapid assessment and demographic methods to evaluate the effects of fishing on Heterodontus portusjacksoni off far-eastern Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Ávila, J; Day, R W; Walker, T I

    2010-11-01

    A rapid semi-quantitative ecological risk assessment method (productivity and susceptibility analysis) indicated that, despite its low biological productivity, the Port Jackson shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni is at low risk to all fishing methods in far-eastern Victoria, Australia, under the present fishing practices, because of its low catch susceptibility. The risk to this population, however, would increase if the shark gillnet fishery operating in the region were to retain the species as a by-product. Demographic analysis indicated that the species has medium intrinsic population growth rate and potential rebound in comparison with other chondrichthyan species, juveniles have higher elasticity than mature females and both juvenile and mature females have higher elasticities than hatchlings. Because of its low biological productivity and moderate resilience to the effects of fishing, cautious management measures will be necessary to ensure the sustainable use of H. portusjacksoni if its marketing increases in the future. Information on the dynamics of a population that is valuable to provide management advice can be obtained through demographic methods, but rapid assessment methods can also provide complementary information on the effects of fishing by considering the catch susceptibility of the population to each fishing method.

  16. Assessment of social, demographic determinants and oral hygiene practices in relation to dental caries among the children attending Anganwadis of Hingna, Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Suresh Bhayade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries, dental caries is the most common disease of the early childhood. Its increased prevalence in younger age group have been predictive of oral health problems in future, affecting oral health and development leading to several morbid conditions of oral and general health. Prevalence and incidence of dental caries is highly influenced by a number of risk factors such as gender, age, socioeconomic status, dietary patterns, and oral hygiene habits. Aim: To assess social, demographic determinants and oral hygiene practices in relation to dental caries among the children attending Anganwadis of Hingna, Nagpur. Materials and Methodology: A cross sectional study in 27 Anganwadis of Hingna, Nagpur was carried out over a period of two months and a total of 324 subjects attending the Anganwadis were enrolled. Social, demographic and oral hygiene practices in relation to dental caries were assessed in the study population. Results: Out of 324 subjects, 206 had dental caries and 38 were found to be malnourished. A significant association was found among age, malnutrition, parent′s educational status, oral hygiene practices, total number of siblings, and dental caries. Conclusion: Anganwadis should be addressed routinely on effective oral and general health promoting strategies which must include education of parents, oral and general health issues, risk factors for dental caries, and malnutrition in children below 5 years of age.

  17. Programmatic assessment of student experiences using a longitudinal survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draugalis JR

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to gather longitudinal data on a pharmacy class cohort concerning programmatic components as well as develop a profile of student experiences as they progress through the curriculum.Methods: The Class of 2006 (n = 67 completed a 2 page instrument at the conclusion of the first 3 professional years (PY concerning hours spent in various activities, overall quality of various programmatic components, relationships with others in the college, and employment information. During senior week, a more extensive exit survey was administered.Results: At the conclusion of PY1, 56.5% of the class was working as a pharmacy intern. By PY3 this increased to 88.1% with a decrease to 65.7% in the final year. The hourly range of hours worked followed the same pattern. The rating of Dean’s Office Staff and interactions with faculty members remained constant across all 4 years. In the final exit survey the 2 lowest rated program components were the quality of the interaction with assigned faculty advisor and the availability of professional electives. There was no difference across the professional years for the quality of relationships with staff or faculty; however, the mean rating of the quality of relationships with other students was higher for PY4 when compared to PY1.Conclusions: College faculty, administrators, and committees have used the information gathered from students in program assessment and enhancement efforts. Longitudinal data collection allows for tracking of changes and interventions.

  18. Risk Assessment Techniques and Survey Method for COTS Components

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    The Rational Unified Process a software engineering process is gaining popularity nowadays. RUP delivers best software practices for component software Development life cycle It supports component based software development. Risk is involved in every component development phase .neglecting those risks sometimes hampers the software growth and leads to negative outcome. In Order to provide appropriate security and protection levels, identifying various risks is very vital. Therefore Risk identification plays a very crucial role in the component based software development This report addresses incorporation of component based software development cycle into RUP phases, assess several category of risk encountered in the component based software. It also entails a survey method to identify the risk factor and evaluating the overall severity of the component software development in terms of the risk. Formula for determining risk prevention cost and finding the risk probability is also been included. The overall go...

  19. Assessing the Photometric Calibration of the ASAS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdnikov, L. N.; Dambis, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    We compare bona fide calibrated mean VIC magnitudes of several hundred stars found in the CCD frames taken in 2012 during our photometric observations of 109 Cepheids and RR Lyrae type stars made at the South African Astronomical Observatory to the corresponding mean VIC magnitudes measured in the course of the ASAS survey to assess the quality of ASAS photometry and derive the appropriate transformation equations. We conclude that as far as the only serious caveat due to photometric errors, which range from ˜ 0.05m for relatively bright stars to about ˜ 0.15m for ˜ 14m stars and translates into extra fractional distance error of 0.025-0.07.

  20. National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey of the Nation's Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey presents the results of an unprecedented assessment of the nation’s wetlands. This report is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys, a series of statistically based surveys designed to provide the publi...

  1. A worldwide survey of human male demographic history based on Y-SNP and Y-STR data from the HGDP-CEPH populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Shi (Wentao); Q. Ayub (Qasim); M. Vermeulen (Mark); R.G. Shao (Rong Guang); S.B. Zuniga (Sofia); K. van der Gaag (Kristiaan); P. de Knijff (Peter); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); Y. Xue (Yali); C. Tyler-Smith (Chris)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe have investigated human male demographic history using 590 males from 51 populations in the Human Genome Diversity Project-Centre d'Étude du Polymorphisme Humain worldwide panel, typed with 37 Y-chromosomal Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and 65 Y-chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats and

  2. SWFSC/MMTD/PI: Pacific Islands Cetacean Ecosystem Assessment Survey (PICEAS) 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PICEAS (Pacific Islands Cetacean Ecosystem Assessment Survey) 2005 was an ecosystem survey in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) waters of Palmyra and Johnston...

  3. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Tutuila, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  4. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Pearl & Hermes, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  5. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  6. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Rose, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  7. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Alamagan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  8. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Wake, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  9. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Molokai, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  10. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kingman, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  11. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Rota, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  12. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Swains, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  13. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Saipan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  14. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Tau, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  15. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Lanai, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  16. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Agrihan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  17. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Jarvis, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  18. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Oahu, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  19. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Lisianski, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  20. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Johnston, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  1. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at French Frigate, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  2. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Niihau, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  3. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Sarigan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  4. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Maui, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  5. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Hawaii, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  6. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Maug, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  7. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kure, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  8. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Guam, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  9. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Asuncion, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  10. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Aguijan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  11. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Farallon de Pajaros, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  12. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Tinian, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  13. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Pagan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  14. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kauai, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  15. Social approval of the community assessment model for odor dispersal: results from a citizen survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, John C; Grudens-Schuck, Nancy; Harmon, Jay D; Hoff, Steve J

    2012-08-01

    Odors emitted from US Midwest hog production facilities present farmers, residents, and state regulatory agencies with a set of complex challenges. To predict odor exposure from multiple swine production sources simultaneously, and to determine siting recommendations for proposed new or enlarged hog facilities, researchers at Iowa State University designed the community assessment model for odor dispersion (CAM). A three-county citizen survey conducted in Iowa examined the level of hypothetical social acceptance of the modeling process, and level of trust in CAM results. While 69 % of respondents approved of modeling as a way to determine the most socially appropriate location for production sites, only 35 % would trust the results if potential odor exposure from a new facility were proposed to be built near their home. We analyzed approval of the CAM model, and level of trust, across a number of demographic, attitudinal, and belief factors regarding environmental quality and the hog industry. Overall, trust in CAM was uneven and varied across respondents. Those residents who would not trust CAM tended to be more concerned with environmental quality and less inclined to believe that the hog industry is critically important economically. Those who would not trust CAM results also had significantly more direct experience with odors. Findings point to predominantly positive, yet equivocal acceptance of CAM results among the citizenry, which is not unexpected given conflict typical of siting decisions in industry and waste disposal arenas. Recommendations are offered regarding the interaction of trust, beliefs and attitudes and the utility of CAM.

  16. Validation of the food access survey tool to assess household food insecurity in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Muzi; Gross, Alden L; West, Keith P

    2015-09-07

    Perception-based Likert scale are commonly used to assess household food insecurity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and external construct validity of the 9-item Food Access Survey Tool (FAST) in a population-based randomized controlled trial. Participating women (n = 11,992) were asked to recall the frequencies of nine food insecurity experiences over the past 6 months on a 5-point Likert scale. The Rasch partial credit model was used to study the item category severity and differential item functioning (DIF) by literacy status, respondents' age, land ownership and household sizes. Principal component analysis (PCA), non-parametric methods, and cumulative ordinal logistic regression models were applied to examine the Rasch model assumptions, namely unidimensionality, monotonicity and measurement invariance (non-DIF). All items demonstrated good model fit with acceptable values of fit statistics (infit). PCA as well as other indices (Cronbach's alpha = 0.85, scalability coefficient = 0.48) indicated that all items fit in a single statistical dimension. The ordered responses of nine items displayed monotonic increasing item category severity as expected theoretically. All nine items were flagged with statistically significant DIF between key demographic-and socioeconomic subgroups (p FAST was inversely associated with household wealth, dietary diversity score and maternal body mass index, demonstrating external construct validity. The polytomous FAST is internally and externally valid tool to measure household food insecurity in rural Bangladesh. Validation of this type of studies are recommended for similar Likert food insecurity scales.

  17. Assessing competence: the European Survey on Aging Protocol (ESAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Zamarrón, María Dolores; Rudinger, Georg; Schroots, Johannes J F; Hekkinnen, Eino; Drusini, Andrea; Paul, Constanza; Charzewska, Jadwiga; Rosenmayr, Leopold

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of this research project was to translate and adapt the European Survey on Ageing Protocol (ESAP) to 7 European countries/cultures. This article presents preliminary results from the ESAP, the basic assessment instrument of EXCELSA (European Longitudinal Study of Aging). 672 individuals aged 30-85, selected through quota sampling (by age, gender, education and living conditions), participated in this study, with 96 subjects from each of the 7 European countries. The basic research protocol for assessing competence and its determinants was designed to be administered in a 90-min in-home face-to-face interview. It contains a series of questions, instruments, scales and physical tests assessing social relationships and caregiving, mental abilities, well-being, personality, mastery and perceived control, self-reported health, lifestyles, anthropometry, biobehavioral measures and sociodemographic variables. 84% of ESAP measures are age-dependent and 75% of them discriminate between education levels. Minor differences were found due to gender, and between people living in rural and urban areas. Exploratory factor analysis yielded 10 factors accounting for 67.85% of total variance, one of which was identified as cognitive and physical 'competence'. This factorial structure was tested across countries through concordance coefficients. Finally, using structural equation modeling, our data were fitted into a model of competence. When the sample was split into younger groups (aged 30-49 years) and older ones (50 and more years), the same model was appropriate for our data. The results are discussed in accordance with other findings on psychosocial, biophysical and sociodemographic components of competence, and also in accordance with theories on competence and successful aging. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Assessment of Medication Adherence in Elderly Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases Based on Demographic Factors in Bushehr City in the Year 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The growing global elderly population is in need of more prescription medications. Objectives The present study assessed medication adherence with respect to demographic factors among elderly patients with cardiovascular disease who were admitted to a teaching hospital as well as outpatients referred to treatment centers in Bushehr, Iran. Patients and Methods The present study was a descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study using a simple random sampling method that investigated 125 elderly patients with cardiovascular disease. Data were collected through the Medication Adherence Questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, and Pearson and Cramer’s V correlation analyses, using SPSS version 18. Results Among the patients, 57.6% and 42.4% were female and male, respectively. Moreover, 62.4% had high adherence to their prescribed medications. Frequency of medication use, history of previous hospitalization, and sex were significantly associated with adherence to medication (P < 0.05. Conclusions More than half of elderly patients with cardiovascular disease had high adherence to their medications. Demographic factors including the frequency of daily medication use, history of hospitalization, and female sex were associated with adherence to medication. By considering these factors, doctors and nurses increase medication adherence, especially for older adults.

  19. Influenza knowledge, attitude, and behavior survey for grade school students: design and novel assessment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koep, Tyler H; Huskins, W Charles; Clemens, Christal; Jenkins, Sarah; Pierret, Chris; Ekker, Stephen C; Enders, Felicity T

    2014-12-01

    Despite the fact infectious diseases can spread readily in grade schools, few studies have explored prevention in this setting. Additionally, we lack valid tools for students to self-report knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. As part of an ongoing study of a curriculum intervention to promote healthy behaviors, we developed and evaluated age-appropriate surveys to determine students' understanding of influenza prevention. Surveys were adapted from adolescent and adult influenza surveys and administered to students in grades 2-5 (ages 7-11) at two Rochester public schools. We assessed student understanding by analyzing percent repeatability of 20 survey questions and compared percent "don't know" (DK) responses across grades, gender, and race. Questions thought to be ambiguous after early survey administration were investigated in student focus groups, modified as appropriate, and reassessed. The response rate across all surveys was >87%. Survey questions were well understood; 16 of 20 questions demonstrated strong pre/post repeatability (>70%). Only 1 question showed an increase in DK response for higher grades (p survey questions and improved measures of understanding in the final survey administration. Grade-school students' knowledge, attitudes and behavior toward influenza prevention can be assessed using surveys. Quantitative and qualitative analysis may be used to assess participant understanding and refine survey development for pediatric survey instruments. These methods may be used to assess the repeatability and validity of surveys to assess the impact of health education interventions in young children.

  20. Building demographic literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, K

    1993-01-01

    Students should get in the habit of seeking out the most current projections, estimates, or rates available. Since demographic measures change over time, publications based on the UN's world population projections from 1980 or 1990 may need to be supplemented using the UN's most current, 1992, projections. A 1989 Census Bureau report on the African American Population will not contain data from the 1990 Census or the 1992 Current Population Survey, conducted by the Census Bureau. Some groups collect data with advocacy in mind, as shown by the range of estimates of participants at the 1993 National March on Washington for Lesbian, Gay and Bi Equal Rights and Liberation. The organizers estimated that 1 million people participated; the US Park Police estimated 300,000; and the Washington Blade, a gay newspaper, reported 750,000. A seemingly innocuous choice of phrasing can change the meaning of demographic data. One commonly misreported concept is population doubling time which is not a prediction, but rather a concept designed to accent how fast a population is growing at the present time. At current rates, the population of India would double in size in 34 years, but it is more likely that growth rates will begin to slow down somewhat during that time. Older students may be encouraged to examine the assumptions behind population projections. The UN's long-range projection that world population will grow to 10 billion by 2050 is based on certain assumption about fertility and mortality during the period. With regard to the fastest growing US minority, Hispanics added the largest number of people to the US population during the 1980s, but Asians had the largest percent increase. The time to initiate demographic literacy is in the early grades of school.

  1. Getting satisfaction: drivers of surgical Hospital Consumer Assessment of Health care Providers and Systems survey scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannuzzi, James C; Kahn, Steven A; Zhang, Linlin; Gestring, Mark L; Noyes, Katia; Monson, John R T

    2015-07-01

    Hospital consumer assessment of health care providers and systems (HCAHPS) survey scores formally recognize that patients are central to health care, shifting quality metrics from the physician to patient perspective. This study describes clinical predictors of patient satisfaction in surgical patients. Analysis of a single institution's Surgical Department HCAHPS responses was performed from March 2011-October 2012. The end points were top box satisfaction on two global domains. Multivariable regression was used to determine satisfaction predictors including HCAHPS domains, demographics, and clinical variables such as comorbidities, intensive care unit stay, emergency case, discharge day, floor transfers, complications, and ancillary procedures. In total, 978 surveys were evaluated representing admissions to Acute care and/or Trauma (n = 177, 18.1%), Thoracic (n = 169, 17.3%), Colorectal (n = 107, 10.9%), Transplant (n = 95, 9.7%), Vascular (n = 92, 9.4%), Oncology (n = 88, 9.0%), Plastic (n = 49, 5.0%), and Cardiac (n = 201, 20.6%) divisions. Overall, 658 patients (67.3%) had high satisfaction and 733 (74.9%) gave definite hospital recommendations. Hospital satisfaction was positively associated with an intensive care unit admission (odds ratio [OR] = 1.64, confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-2.23, P = 0.002) and satisfaction with provider and pain domains. Factors associated with decreased satisfaction were race (non-black minority compared with whites; OR = 0.41, CI: 0.21-0.83, P = 0.012), self-reported poor health (OR = 0.43, CI: 0.27-0.68, P nurse-patient interactions. These results help inform future quality improvement and resource allocation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Toward an objective assessment of technical skills: a national survey of surgical program directors in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhayal A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Alkhayal,1 Shahla Aldhukair,2 Nahar Alselaim,1 Salah Aldekhayel,1 Sultan Alhabdan,1 Waleed Altaweel,3 Mohi Elden Magzoub,4 Mohammed Zamakhshary1,21Department of Surgery, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Public Health Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Urology Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medical Education, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: After almost a decade of implementing competency-based programs in postgraduate training programs, the assessment of technical skills remains more subjective than objective. National data on the assessment of technical skills during surgical training are lacking. We conducted this study to document the assessment tools for technical skills currently used in different surgical specialties, their relationship with remediation, the recommended tools from the program directors’ perspective, and program directors’ attitudes toward the available objective tools to assess technical skills.Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey of surgical program directors (PDs. The survey was initially developed using a focus group and was then sent to 116 PDs. The survey contains demographic information about the program, the objective assessment tools used, and the reason for not using assessment tools. The last section discusses the recommended tools to be used from the PDs’ perspective and the PDs’ attitude and motivation to apply these tools in each program. The associations between the responses to the assessment questions and remediation were statistically evaluated.Results: Seventy-one (61% participants responded. Of the respondents, 59% mentioned using only nonstandardized, subjective, direct observation for technical skills assessment. Sixty percent use only summative

  3. The U.S. Geological Survey National Helium Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, S. T.; East, J. A., II

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Congress passed legislation directing the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to complete a national assessment of subsurface helium gas resources. As part of this assessment, the USGS has constructed a database of helium concentration from compositional analyses of produced gas. Though most data of this data is non-proprietary, helium data have been taken from both public and proprietary sources, with a majority taken from the USGS geochemical database (http://energy.usgs.gov/GeochemistryGeophysics/GeochemistryLaboratories/GeochemistryLaboratories-GeochemistryDatabase.aspx#4413382-introduction) and from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) natural gas database. Altogether, there are over 16,000 analyses of natural gas composition compiled. In order to complete the assessment, it was necessary to correlate the well data with geologic reservoir data so that the helium concentrations could be compared with the reservoir and field-level gas production, in place gas volumes, and gas recovery factors. The well data from the compiled database were initially cross-referenced with the proprietary IHS Inc. well database, where possible. The results of that effort were then cross-referenced with three additional databases: the proprietary NRG Associates database of significant oil and gas fields of the United States, the non-proprietary U.S. Department of Energy's gas information system (GASIS), and an internal BLM reservoir and field database. These field and reservoir databases provide the data needed to estimate the in-place helium resources for fields with economic concentrations of helium. In order for helium production to be economic, the gas produced from geologic reservoirs must be greater than 0.3 mole percent (mol%), or in the case of liquefied natural gas processing, greater than 0.04 mol%. The field and reservoir specific estimates of total gas in place volumes, gas recovery factors, and helium concentrations, can be used as inputs for a

  4. Assessing patterns of spatial behavior in health studies: their socio-demographic determinants and associations with transportation modes (the RECORD Cohort Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Camille; Kestens, Yan; Thomas, Frédérique; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thierry, Benoit; Chaix, Basile

    2014-10-01

    Prior epidemiological studies have mainly focused on local residential neighborhoods to assess environmental exposures. However, individual spatial behavior may modify residential neighborhood influences, with weaker health effects expected for mobile populations. By examining individual patterns of daily mobility and associated socio-demographic profiles and transportation modes, this article seeks to develop innovative methods to account for daily mobility in health studies. We used data from the RECORD Cohort Study collected in 2011-2012 in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A sample of 2062 individuals was investigated. Participants' perceived residential neighborhood boundaries and regular activity locations were geocoded using the VERITAS application. Twenty-four indicators were created to qualify individual space-time patterns, using spatial analysis methods and a geographic information system. Three domains of indicators were considered: lifestyle indicators, indicators related to the geometry of the activity space, and indicators related to the importance of the residential neighborhood in the overall activity space. Principal component analysis was used to identify main dimensions of spatial behavior. Multilevel linear regression was used to determine which individual characteristics were associated with each spatial behavior dimension. The factor analysis generated five dimensions of spatial behavior: importance of the residential neighborhood in the activity space, volume of activities, and size, eccentricity, and specialization of the activity space. Age, socioeconomic status, and location of the household in the region were the main predictors of daily mobility patterns. Activity spaces of small sizes centered on the residential neighborhood and implying a large volume of activities were associated with walking and/or biking as a transportation mode. Examination of patterns of spatial behavior by individual socio-demographic characteristics and in

  5. Peer Assessment for Construction Management and Quantity Surveying Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia McLaughlin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Students undertaking the Bachelor of ConstructionManagement degree course at RMIT University, Melbourne,qualify for registration with the Australian Institute ofQuantity Surveyors (AIQS and the Australian Institute ofBuilding (AIB upon graduation. Over the past decade thedegree course has been constantly upgraded and altered inline with recommendations from professional bodies such asthese and other industry partners. In 1994 the Departmentof Building and Construction Economics re-assesseda range of subjects including the first year technologysubjects. Out of the review a problem-based integratedlearning unit was developed and tested. This unit has nowbeen in place for ten years.Quantity surveying and construction management likemost other professions in the construction industryrequire teamwork and advanced consultation skills. Theseskills may be learnt through experience but there isconsiderable evidence that these skills can be taught in theundergraduate years. Therefore in line with team-basedapproaches used in industry and professional constructionsettings, this year a new assessment model - peerassessment - will be applied to the problem-based learningunit. This paper describes the procedures and processesused to introduce the change and examines the theoreticalbase upon which the model was developed.

  6. Assessing Distance Learning Using a Website Survey. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, David W.; Thompson, Robert J.; Poole, Max C.; Kester, Diane D.

    This paper describes efforts at East Carolina University (North Carolina) to develop a survey instrument and related procedures to assess distance learning courses. The survey was conducted during the 1998-99 academic year via the World Wide Web and combined the Student Opinion of Instruction Survey (SOIS) with additional questions that assessed…

  7. A systematic review of childhood maltreatment assessments in population-representative surveys since 1990.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Hovdestad

    Full Text Available Population-representative surveys that assess childhood maltreatment and health are a valuable resource to explore the implications of child maltreatment for population health. Systematic identification and evaluation of such surveys is needed to facilitate optimal use of their data and to inform future research.To inform researchers of the existence and nature of population-representative surveys relevant to understanding links between childhood maltreatment and health; to evaluate the assessment of childhood maltreatment in this body of work.We included surveys that: 1 were representative of the non-institutionalized population of any size nation or of any geopolitical region ≥ 10 million people; 2 included a broad age range (≥ 40 years; 3 measured health; 4 assessed childhood maltreatment retrospectively; and 5 were conducted since 1990. We used Internet and database searching (including CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Social Policy and Practice: January 1990 to March 2014, expert consultation, and other means to identify surveys and associated documentation. Translations of non-English survey content were verified by fluent readers of survey languages. We developed checklists to abstract and evaluate childhood maltreatment content.Fifty-four surveys from 39 countries met inclusion criteria. Sample sizes ranged from 1,287-51,945 and response rates from 15%-96%. Thirteen surveys assessed neglect, 15 emotional abuse; 18 exposure to family violence; 26 physical abuse; 48 sexual abuse. Fourteen surveys assessed more than three types; six of these were conducted since 2010. In nine surveys childhood maltreatment assessments were detailed (+10 items for at least one type of maltreatment. Seven surveys' assessments had known reliability and/or validity.Data from 54 surveys can be used to explore the population health relevance of child maltreatment. Assessment of childhood maltreatment is not comprehensive but

  8. Survey of mental health nurses' attitudes towards risk assessment, risk assessment tools and positive risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, C; Gill, A; Doyle, L; Morrissey, J; Higgins, A

    2016-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Risk assessment and safety planning are a core aspect of the role of the mental health nurse. Conflicting views exist on the value of risk assessment tools. Few studies have examined mental health nurses' attitudes towards risk, including use of tools and the role of positive risk in recovery. WHAT THE PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Mental health nurses view risk assessment as a core dimension of their role and not merely an exercise to fulfil organizational clinical safety and governance obligations. The majority of nurses hold positive attitudes towards therapeutic or positive risk, and consider creative risk taking as vital to people's recovery. The majority of nurses believe that risk assessment tools facilitate professional decision making, however, some are concerned that tools may negatively impact upon therapeutic relationships. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Ongoing education on the use of risk assessment tools is required to minimize views that their use is incompatible with therapeutic engagement, and to enable nurses to develop confidence to engage with positive risk and to allow service users make decisions and take responsibility. Introduction Risk assessment and safety planning are considered core components of the role of the mental health nurse; however, little is known about nurses' attitudes towards risk assessment, use of tools to assess risk or therapeutic risk taking. Aim This study aimed to explore mental health nurses' attitudes towards completing risk assessments, use of tools as an aid, and therapeutic or positive risk. Method An anonymous survey which included 13 attitudinal statements, rated on a five-point Likert scale, was completed by 381 mental health nurses working in adult services in Ireland. Findings Findings indicate strong support for the practice of risk assessment in mental health practice. The vast majority of nurses believe that risk assessment tools facilitate professional

  9. Attitudinal and Demographic Predictors of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine (MMR) Uptake during the UK Catch-Up Campaign 2008–09: Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katrina; Fraser, Graham; Ramsay, Mary; Shanley, Ruth; Cowley, Noel; van Wijgerden, Johan; Toff, Penelope; Falconer, Michelle; Hudson, Michael; Green, John; Kroll, J. Simon; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective Continued suboptimal measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine uptake has re-established measles epidemic risk, prompting a UK catch-up campaign in 2008–09 for children who missed MMR doses at scheduled age. Predictors of vaccine uptake during catch-ups are poorly understood, however evidence from routine schedule uptake suggests demographics and attitudes may be central. This work explored this hypothesis using a robust evidence-based measure. Design Cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire with objective behavioural outcome. Setting and Participants 365 UK parents, whose children were aged 5–18 years and had received <2 MMR doses before the 2008–09 UK catch-up started. Main Outcome Measures Parents' attitudes and demographics, parent-reported receipt of invitation to receive catch-up MMR dose(s), and catch-up MMR uptake according to child's medical record (receipt of MMR doses during year 1 of the catch-up). Results Perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09–2.87) and younger child age (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68–0.89) were the only independent predictors of catch-up MMR uptake in the sample overall. Uptake predictors differed by whether the child had received 0 MMR doses or 1 MMR dose before the catch-up. Receipt of catch-up invitation predicted uptake only in the 0 dose group (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.18–10.05), whilst perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake predicted uptake only in the 1 dose group (OR = 9.61, 95% CI = 2.57–35.97). Attitudes and demographics explained only 28% of MMR uptake in the 0 dose group compared with 61% in the 1 dose group. Conclusions Catch-up MMR invitations may effectively move children from 0 to 1 MMR doses (unimmunised to partially immunised), whilst attitudinal interventions highlighting social benefits of MMR may effectively move children from 1 to 2 MMR doses (partially to fully immunised). Older children may be

  10. Attitudinal and demographic predictors of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR uptake during the UK catch-up campaign 2008-09: cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Continued suboptimal measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine uptake has re-established measles epidemic risk, prompting a UK catch-up campaign in 2008-09 for children who missed MMR doses at scheduled age. Predictors of vaccine uptake during catch-ups are poorly understood, however evidence from routine schedule uptake suggests demographics and attitudes may be central. This work explored this hypothesis using a robust evidence-based measure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire with objective behavioural outcome. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 365 UK parents, whose children were aged 5-18 years and had received <2 MMR doses before the 2008-09 UK catch-up started. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parents' attitudes and demographics, parent-reported receipt of invitation to receive catch-up MMR dose(s, and catch-up MMR uptake according to child's medical record (receipt of MMR doses during year 1 of the catch-up. RESULTS: Perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09-2.87 and younger child age (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68-0.89 were the only independent predictors of catch-up MMR uptake in the sample overall. Uptake predictors differed by whether the child had received 0 MMR doses or 1 MMR dose before the catch-up. Receipt of catch-up invitation predicted uptake only in the 0 dose group (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.18-10.05, whilst perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake predicted uptake only in the 1 dose group (OR = 9.61, 95% CI = 2.57-35.97. Attitudes and demographics explained only 28% of MMR uptake in the 0 dose group compared with 61% in the 1 dose group. CONCLUSIONS: Catch-up MMR invitations may effectively move children from 0 to 1 MMR doses (unimmunised to partially immunised, whilst attitudinal interventions highlighting social benefits of MMR may effectively move children from 1 to 2 MMR doses (partially to fully immunised. Older children may be

  11. Automating the aviation command safety assessment survey as an Enterprise Information System (EIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Held, Jonathan S.; Mingo, Fred J.

    1999-01-01

    The Aviation Command Safety Assessment (ACSA) is a questionnaire survey methodology developed to evaluate a Naval Aviation Command's safety climate, culture, and safety program effectiveness. This survey was a manual process first administered in the fall of 1996. The primary goal of this thesis is to design, develop, and test an Internet-based, prototype model for administering this survey using new technologies that allow automated survey submission and analysis. The result of this thesis i...

  12. 77 FR 10033 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Gender Assessment Surveys, OMB Control Number...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Gender Assessment Surveys, OMB Control Number 1405-xxxx ACTION... Information Collection: Gender Assessment Surveys. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request: New Collection. Originating Office: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation,...

  13. Survey the relationship between mental health statuses with safety behavior, occupational accident and demographic variables among workers: A case study in publication industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khandan,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Physical and mental health of workers is one of the important factors affecting their job performance. The number of fatal occupational accidents in our country is high. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between mental health and safety behaviors, occupational accidents and demographic variables in a publishing industry in one of the central provinces of Iran, 2014. Methods: In this cross-sectional study all operational employees (98 persons were included. Researchers developed a demographics questionnaire, Goldberg general health-28, safety behavior checklist and self-reported accidents were tools to gather the required data. Statistical analysis such as independent T-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation were used for data evaluation by SPSS V20. Results: All workers were men and Mean of age was 41.79 also its standard deviation was 6.77. Studied personnel have been experienced occupational accident in a range of 0-5 cases. As well as, 80.75% of total observed behaviors (800 were safe. The mean score of GHQ test equals to 50.38±10.39 that was over the cut point (23. There was no significant relationship between mental health with safety behaviors (p>0.05. Also, significant level of its correlation with occupational accident was calculated as 0.08. Conclusion: Workers mental health status was unacceptable. Although, work condition based on the occupational accident and safety behavior has not showed caution situation, but the ABC model (Activators-Behaviors-Consequences can help to promote personnel behaviors and control accidents.

  14. Developing an International Survey of Teachers' Assessment Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renken, Maggie; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Cowie, Bronwen

    Professional standards require teachers to be assessment literate - to construct, administer, and score reliable, valid assessments, communicate interpretations and use evidence to adjust teaching to support students. This project investigates student-teachers’ assessment literacy throughout...

  15. Developing an International Survey of Teachers' Assessment Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renken, Maggie; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Cowie, Bronwen

    Professional standards require teachers to be assessment literate - to construct, administer, and score reliable, valid assessments, communicate interpretations and use evidence to adjust teaching to support students. This project investigates student-teachers’ assessment literacy throughout teac...

  16. Gulf of Mexico Protected Species Assessment Aerial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of aerial line-transect surveys conducted over continental shelf waters of the Gulf of Mexico since 1992. The majority of these...

  17. Assessing the potential to combine attitude tracking and health campaign evaluation surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, Lauren P; Pettigrew, Simone; Minto, Carolyn; Slevin, Terry; Strickland, Mark

    2016-04-06

    Issue addressed: Online surveys are becoming increasingly popular in health research because of the low cost and fast completion time. A large proportion of online survey costs are allocated to setup and administration expenses, which suggests that conducting fewer, longer surveys would be a cost-effective approach. The current study assessed whether the incorporation of a health campaign evaluation survey within a longitudinal attitudes and behaviours tracking survey produced different outcomes compared with the separate administration of the evaluation survey.Methods: Data were collected via an online panel, with 688 respondents completing the combined survey and 657 respondents completing the evaluation-only survey. Regression analyses were conducted to examine whether survey type was related to the campaign evaluation results.Results: Those who completed the combined survey perceived the campaign advertisement to be more personally relevant than those completing the evaluation-only survey. There were no differences in results relating to campaign awareness and reported behavioural change as a result of campaign exposure.Conclusions: There were minimal differences between results obtained from combining an attitude/behaviour tracking survey with a campaign evaluation survey. Any priming or order effects were limited to respondents' cognitive responses to the advertisement.So what?: The results suggest that health practitioners with limited resources available for tracking and evaluation research may be able to maximise outcomes by administering fewer, longer surveys.

  18. [Special Issue on SEA Demographics] Response - Language Policy: Using the American Community Survey to Investigate Bilingualism and Biliteracy among Immigrant Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda de Klerk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a response to Mark Pfeifers Cambodian, Hmong, Lao and Vietnamese Americans in the 2005 American Community Survey and elaborates on the utility of the American Community Survey (ACS for studying immigrant groups in the United States of America, and also compares the ACS to the U.S. Census. Neither the Census nor ACS questionnaire is structured to capture the language and literacy skills of immigrant communities in as far as these surveys only collect information about respondents oral language abilities, with a focus on English fluency. Direct, self-reported, and surrogate measures of literacy are discussed, with a proposal to use education level as surrogate for literacy. Using the Vietnamese subpopulation in the ACS, examples are presented of ways to construct composite variables from the ACS raw microdata, to measure respondents bilingualism and biliteracy. When such new variables are used in analysis of immigrant communities, a more complex multilingual picture emerges than is presented normally in Census and ACS data products available to the public.

  19. Milky Way Demographics with the VVV Survey II. Color Transformations and Near-Infrared Photometry for 136 Million Stars in the Southern Galactic Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Soto, M; Gunthardt, G; Minniti, D; Lucas, P; Majaess, D; Irwin, M; Emerson, J P; Gonzalez-Solares, E; Hempel, M; Saito, R K; Gurovich, S; Roman-Lopes, A; Moni-Bidin, C; Santucho, M V; Borissova, J; Kurtev, R; Toledo, I; Geisler, D; Dominguez, M; Beamin, J C

    2013-01-01

    The new multi-epoch near-infrared VVV survey (VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea) is sampling 562 sq. deg of the Galactic bulge and adjacent regions of the disk. Accurate astrometry established for the region surveyed allows the VVV data to be merged with overlapping surveys (e.g., GLIMPSE, WISE, 2MASS, etc.), thereby enabling the construction of longer baseline spectral energy distributions for astronomical targets. However, in order to maximize use of the VVV data, a set of transformation equations are required to place the VVV JHKs photometry onto the 2MASS system. The impetus for this work is to develop those transformations via a comparison of 2MASS targets in 152 VVV fields sampling the Galactic disk. The transformation coefficients derived exhibit a reliance on variables such as extinction. The transformed data were subsequently employed to establish a mean reddening law of E_{J-H}/E_{H-Ks}=2.13 +/- 0.04, which is the most precise determination to date and merely emphasizes the pertinence of the VVV dat...

  20. [Special Issue on SEA Demographics] Response - Language Policy: Using the American Community Survey to Investigate Bilingualism and Biliteracy among Immigrant Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda de Klerk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a response to Mark Pfeifer’s Cambodian, Hmong, Lao and Vietnamese Americans in the 2005 American Community Survey and elaborates on the utility of the American Community Survey (ACS for studying immigrant groups in the United States of America, and also compares the ACS to the U.S. Census. Neither the Census nor ACS questionnaire is structured to capture the language and literacy skills of immigrant communities in as far as these surveys only collect information about respondents’ oral language abilities, with a focus on English fluency. Direct, self-reported, and surrogate measures of literacy are discussed, with a proposal to use education level as surrogate for literacy. Using the Vietnamese subpopulation in the ACS, examples are presented of ways to construct composite variables from the ACS raw microdata, to measure respondents’ bilingualism and biliteracy. When such new variables are used in analysis of immigrant communities, a more complex multilingual picture emerges than is presented normally in Census and ACS data products available to the public.

  1. Recent Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts in a Large-Scale Survey of the U.S. Air Force: Prevalences and Demographic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snarr, Jeffery D.; Heyman, Richard E.; Slep, Amy M. Smith

    2010-01-01

    One-year prevalences of self-reported noteworthy suicidal ideation and nonfatal suicide attempts were assessed in a large sample of U.S. Air Force active duty members (N = 52,780). Participants completed the 2006 Community Assessment, which was conducted online. Over 3% of male and 5.5% of female participants reported having experienced noteworthy…

  2. Assessment of Quality of Sleep and its Relationship with Psychiatric Morbidity and Socio-Demographic Factors in the Patients of Chronic Renal Disease Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Usama Bin; Butt, Batool

    2017-07-01

    To assess the subjective sleep quality and its relationship with the presence of psychiatric morbidity in the patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) and undergoing the procedure of hemodialysis (HD); and analyze the associated socio-demographic factors. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Nephrology Department, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from July to December 2016. Patients of CKD undergoing the HD were included in the final analysis. Quality of sleep was determined by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Psychiatric morbidity was determined by the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). Relationship of education, BMI, gender, age, duration of dialysis, dialysis count per week, marital status, level of family income, psychiatric morbidity, occupation, biochemical markers (urea, creatinine, BUN, albumin, calcium, phosphorous and hemoglobin), tobacco smoking, and use of naswar was determined with the sleep quality. One hundred and forty patients were screened through the PSQI; 44 (31.4%) had good quality of sleep while 96 (68.6%) had poor sleep quality. Statistical analysis revealed that presence of psychiatric morbidity, increasing age, female gender, being unmarried, low family income, and low frequency of dialysis had significant association with the poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality was highly prevalent among the patients of CKD receiving the hemodialysis. The patients with low family income, more age, and with two or less dialysis sessions per week should be screened thoroughly for the sleep problems. Presence of psychiatric morbidity emerged as an independent factor responsible for the poor sleep quality in our target population.

  3. MEDICAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC CONSEQUENCES OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE ASSESSMENT OF COMFORT LEVEL OF WEATHER-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS IN THE VOLGA FEDERAL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri P. Perevedentsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a brief analysis of research on the impact of global climate change on human health. Using Tatarstan as an example, the paper discusses medical and demographic consequences of the extreme heat wave of the summer of 2010. Assessment of the Volga Federal District (VFD bioclimate conducted with the help of certain biometeorological parameters allowed evaluating modern global and regional changes of weather-climatic conditions. The main emphasis was placed on spatial and temporal analysis of both the integral pathogenicity index (I and its individual components for the district territory. In VFD, aggravating weather conditions increase from southwest to northeast. Summer months are associated with comfort weather conditions. In winter, the air temperature pathogenicity index and interdiurnal temperature fluctuations contribute the greatest to I; in summer, the role of cloudiness and humidity pathogenicity indices increases. The contribution of wind speed and interdiurnal pressure fluctuations to I is insignificant in all seasons. Analysis of the frequency distribution of I showed that comfort weather conditions (over 50 % of cases occur in May–August, aggravating weather conditions occur in March-Appril, and harsh weather conditions in more than 50 % of cases occur in January–February and November–December. Calculation of biometeorological indices allows forecasting risk of thermal hazard under extreme meteorological conditions.

  4. Assessing Therapeutic Recreation Manpower: Guidelines for Using the Survey Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Judith E.; Verhoven, Peter J.

    The guide offers a framework for approaching the assessment process of recreation and leisure service delivery to handicapped children and youth by college/university faculty and administrators. Twenty-five questions regarding manpower assessment are answered, including the following: why is manpower assessment important and how is it usually…

  5. Surveying Assessment in Experiential Learning: A Single Campus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Thomas; Wilson, Jay; Purton, Kendra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the methods of experiential assessment in use at a Canadian university and the extent to which they are used. Exploring experiential assessment will allow identification of commonly used methods and facilitate the development of best practices of assessment in the context of experiential learning (EL) at…

  6. Associations between dietary patterns, socio-demographic factors and anthropometric measurements in adult New Zealanders: an analysis of data from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, K L; Jones, B; Ullah, I; McNaughton, S A; Haslett, S J; Stonehouse, W

    2017-04-04

    To investigate associations between dietary patterns, socio-demographic factors and anthropometric measurements in adult New Zealanders. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis in adults 15 years plus (n = 4657) using 24-h diet recall data from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Multivariate regression was used to investigate associations between dietary patterns and age, gender and ethnicity. After controlling for demographic factors, associations between dietary patterns and food insecurity, deprivation, education, and smoking were investigated. Associations between dietary patterns and body mass index and waist circumference were examined adjusting for demographic factors, smoking and energy intake. Two dietary patterns were identified. 'Healthy' was characterised by breakfast cereal, low fat milk, soy and rice milk, soup and stock, yoghurt, bananas, apples, other fruit and tea, and low intakes of pies and pastries, potato chips, white bread, takeaway foods, soft drinks, beer and wine. 'Traditional' was characterised by beef, starchy vegetables, green vegetables, carrots, tomatoes, savoury sauces, regular milk, cream, sugar, tea and coffee, and was low in takeaway foods. The 'healthy' pattern was positively associated with age, female gender, New Zealand European or other ethnicity, and a secondary school qualification, and inversely associated with smoking, food insecurity, area deprivation, BMI and waist circumference. The 'traditional' pattern was positively associated with age, male gender, smoking, food insecurity and inversely associated with a secondary school qualification. A 'Healthy' dietary pattern was associated with higher socio-economic status and reduced adiposity, while the 'traditional' pattern was associated with lower socio-economic status.

  7. The double burden household in sub-Saharan Africa: maternal overweight and obesity and childhood undernutrition from the year 2000: results from World Health Organization Data (WHO) and Demographic Health Surveys (DHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M

    2014-10-31

    Previous studies have characterized an increasing trend of double burden households, or households with individuals experiencing both undernutrition and obesity, in countries undergoing a nutrition transition. Although most prior studies indicate the prevalence of double burden households is highest in middle-income countries, there is some support for an increase in double burden households in sub-Saharan African countries as well. Using data from the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) and the World Health Organization (WHO), the prevalence of double burden households in sub-Saharan African countries was calculated and the associations between prevalence of overweight/obese adults and underweight, stunted and wasted children were evaluated at the country and household (DHS only) levels. Restricted analyses and frequencies were calculated using urban-only datasets. Surveys from 28 African countries were available using WHO data and 26 from the DHS surveys. Only surveys that were conducted after 2000 were included in analyses. Using the WHO datasets, there were inverse associations between the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults and underweight, stunting and wasting in children. Correspondingly, there were positive associations between adult underweight and child underweight, stunting and wasting. These associations were not significant in a smaller sample size using urban-only surveys. The prevalence of double burden households in DHS datasets was low: under 5 percent for obese mothers and underweight, stunted or wasted child pairs with a slightly higher percentage for overweight mothers and children with undernutrition. Restricting the analysis to urban only populations did not increase the frequencies of double burden households significantly. There was a low prevalence of double burden households in recent data from sub-Saharan Africa. Countries that have a high prevalence of child undernutrition correspondingly have a high prevalence of adult

  8. The Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of the Orion A and B Molecular Clouds. II. The Spatial Distribution and Demographics of Dusty Young Stellar Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R.; J. Muzerolle; Kryukova, E.; Hora, J.L.; Allen, L E; Flaherty, K; Hartmann, L.; Myers, P. C.; Pipher, J. L.; Stauffer, J.; Young, E T; Fazio, G. G.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the spatial distribution of dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) identified in the Spitzer Survey of the Orion Molecular clouds, augmenting these data with Chandra X-ray observations to correct for incompleteness in dense clustered regions. We also devise a scheme to correct for spatially varying incompleteness when X-ray data are not available. The local surface densities of the YSOs range from 1 pc$^{-2}$ to over 10,000 pc$^{-2}$, with protostars tending to be in higher density reg...

  9. Needs Assessment Survey: Doing Business with China. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuschke, Daylene M.; Gribbons, Barry C.

    Discusses industry interests in international trade and the need or desire for business training programs involving international trade at the College of the Canyons. A survey was conducted on industry representatives from the Santa Clarita Valley on their need for training on doing business in the Pacific Rim, mainly China. In January 2003, 577…

  10. Preventing intentional food contamination: a survey to assess restaurant preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Kanwat, C P; Qu, Haiyan; Smith, Lillian U; Patterson, Nathaniel J; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    In the age of preparedness, public health agencies are concerned with intentional acts of food contamination in restaurants, in addition to food safety. Food safety consists of applying standard norms of practice and infrastructure, which, if violated, cause food-borne illness. In contrast, food defense requires an institutionalized mindset of informed alertness to unusual variations from the norms, combined with preemptive practices best suited to each restaurant. Therefore, while food safety lends itself to regulation to ensure standard practices, food defense is best served by advisory guidelines for autonomous application, preserving the restaurant industry's core values of hospitality and customer service. To address this challenge, public health agencies need survey tools that can yield action-relevant data on the knowledge and practice gaps in food defense preparedness and on educational messages and support services to be developed for maximum impact potential. This article presents a mail survey instrument, developed using qualitative research to ensure content and face validity. Instrument development involved drafting the survey on the basis of expert consultations, validating its content by using focus groups (representing all restaurant categories and geographic regions), and ensuring face validity through cognitive interviews. The resulting survey remains sensitive to the hospitality industry while encompassing all vulnerable points.

  11. Demographic modelling approach for assessment of environmental conditions which control the population of the invasive Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Mediterranean Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiganova, Tamara; Nival, Paul; Carlotti, Francois; Alekseenko, Elena

    2017-04-01

    , demographic model (MBd) was validated for the Black Sea ecosystem basing on the unique database of long-term field data of ctenophores (including M.l. and B.o.), mesozooplankton, ichtyoplankton, bacteria in the Black Sea (1992-present). Then comparative analysis of the ecosystem conditions for the productive Black Sea and oligrotrophic areas of the north-western Mediterranean Sea favorable for M.l. blooms have been performed using the developed modelling approach. References : Ghabooli Sara, Shiganova Tamara A., Elizabeta Briski, Stefano Piraino, Veronica Fuentes, Delphine Thibault-Botha, Dror L. Angel, Melania E. Cristescu, Hugh J. MacIsaac (2013) Invasion pathway of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Mediterranean Sea. PLOS ONE. Open Access PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 9 November 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 11 | e81067: DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081067 Impact factor 3,534 Shiganova Tamara A., Louis Legendre, Alexander S. Kazmin, Paul Nival 2014. Interactions between invasive ctenophores in the Black Sea: assessment of control mechanisms based on long-term observations. Marine ecology Prog.Ser. Vol. 507: 111-123 doi: 10.3354/meps10806.

  12. Assessing usual dietary intake in complex sample design surveys: the National Dietary Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia dos Santos Barbosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Institute (NCI method allows the distributions of usual intake of nutrients and foods to be estimated. This method can be used in complex surveys. However, the user must perform additional calculations, such as balanced repeated replication (BRR, in order to obtain standard errors and confidence intervals for the percentiles and mean from the distribution of usual intake. The objective is to highlight adaptations of the NCI method using data from the National Dietary Survey. The application of the NCI method was exemplified analyzing the total energy (kcal and fruit (g intake, comparing estimations of mean and standard deviation that were based on the complex design of the Brazilian survey with those assuming simple random sample. Although means point estimates were similar, estimates of standard error using the complex design increased by up to 60% compared to simple random sample. Thus, for valid estimates of food and energy intake for the population, all of the sampling characteristics of the surveys should be taken into account because when these characteristics are neglected, statistical analysis may produce underestimated standard errors that would compromise the results and the conclusions of the survey.

  13. The Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of the Orion A and B Molecular Clouds II: the Spatial Distribution and Demographics of Dusty Young Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Megeath, S T; Muzerolle, J; Kryukova, E; Hora, J L; Allen, L E; Flaherty, K; Hartmann, L; Myers, P C; Pipher, J L; Stauffer, J; Young, E T; Fazio, G G

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the spatial distribution of dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) identified in the Spitzer Survey of the Orion Molecular clouds, augmenting these data with Chandra X-ray observations to correct for incompleteness in dense clustered regions. We also devise a scheme to correct for spatially varying incompleteness when X-ray data are not available. The local surface densities of the YSOs range from 1 pc$^{-2}$ to over 10,000 pc$^{-2}$, with protostars tending to be in higher density regions. This range of densities is similar to other surveyed molecular clouds with clusters, but broader than clouds without clusters. By identifying clusters and groups as continuous regions with surface densities $\\ge10$ pc$^{-2}$, we find that 59% of the YSOs are in the largest cluster, the Orion Nebular Cluster (ONC), while 13% of the YSOs are found in a distributed population. A lower fraction of protostars in the distributed population is evidence that it is somewhat older than the groups and clusters. An examination ...

  14. Classroom Assessment Practices: A Survey of Botswana Primary and Secondary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloi-Keaikitse, Setlhomo

    2012-01-01

    The Classroom Assessment Practices and Skills (CAPS) questionnaire was administered to a sample of 691 primary and secondary school teachers in Botswana, Southern Africa to survey their thoughts about classroom assessment and identify classroom assessment practices teachers perceive to be skilled and those that they used most. The study examined…

  15. Assessing Violence Risk and Psychopathy in Juvenile and Adult Offenders: A Survey of Clinical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Jodi L.; McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Vincent, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed 199 forensic clinicians about the practices that they use in assessing violence risk in juvenile and adult offenders. Results indicated that the use of risk assessment and psychopathy tools was common. Although clinicians reported more routine use of psychopathy measures in adult risk assessments compared with juvenile risks…

  16. The Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of the Orion A and B Molecular Clouds. II. The Spatial Distribution and Demographics of Dusty Young Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R.; Muzerolle, J.; Kryukova, E.; Hora, J. L.; Allen, L. E.; Flaherty, K.; Hartmann, L.; Myers, P. C.; Pipher, J. L.; Stauffer, J.; Young, E. T.; Fazio, G. G.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the spatial distribution of dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) identified in the Spitzer Survey of the Orion Molecular clouds, augmenting these data with Chandra X-ray observations to correct for incompleteness in dense clustered regions. We also devise a scheme to correct for spatially varying incompleteness when X-ray data are not available. The local surface densities of the YSOs range from 1 pc-2 to over 10,000 pc-2, with protostars tending to be in higher density regions. This range of densities is similar to other surveyed molecular clouds with clusters, but broader than clouds without clusters. By identifying clusters and groups as continuous regions with surface densities ≥10 pc-2, we find that 59% of the YSOs are in the largest cluster, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), while 13% of the YSOs are found in a distributed population. A lower fraction of protostars in the distributed population is evidence that it is somewhat older than the groups and clusters. An examination of the structural properties of the clusters and groups shows that the peak surface densities of the clusters increase approximately linearly with the number of members. Furthermore, all clusters with more than 70 members exhibit asymmetric and/or highly elongated structures. The ONC becomes azimuthally symmetric in the inner 0.1 pc, suggesting that the cluster is only ˜2 Myr in age. We find that the star formation efficiency (SFE) of the Orion B cloud is unusually low, and that the SFEs of individual groups and clusters are an order of magnitude higher than those of the clouds. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the young low mass stars in the Orion clouds and the Orion OB 1 association, and we determine upper limits to the fraction of disks that may be affected by UV radiation from OB stars or dynamical interactions in dense, clustered regions.

  17. THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE SURVEY OF THE ORION A AND B MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND DEMOGRAPHICS OF DUSTY YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megeath, S. T.; Kryukova, E. [Ritter Astrophsical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gutermuth, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hora, J. L.; Myers, P. C.; Fazio, G. G. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomical Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Flaherty, K. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hartmann, L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Pipher, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester NY 14627 (United States); Stauffer, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Young, E. T., E-mail: megeath@physics.utoledo.edu [SOFIA-Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We analyze the spatial distribution of dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) identified in the Spitzer Survey of the Orion Molecular clouds, augmenting these data with Chandra X-ray observations to correct for incompleteness in dense clustered regions. We also devise a scheme to correct for spatially varying incompleteness when X-ray data are not available. The local surface densities of the YSOs range from 1 pc{sup −2} to over 10,000 pc{sup −2}, with protostars tending to be in higher density regions. This range of densities is similar to other surveyed molecular clouds with clusters, but broader than clouds without clusters. By identifying clusters and groups as continuous regions with surface densities ≥10 pc{sup −2}, we find that 59% of the YSOs are in the largest cluster, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), while 13% of the YSOs are found in a distributed population. A lower fraction of protostars in the distributed population is evidence that it is somewhat older than the groups and clusters. An examination of the structural properties of the clusters and groups shows that the peak surface densities of the clusters increase approximately linearly with the number of members. Furthermore, all clusters with more than 70 members exhibit asymmetric and/or highly elongated structures. The ONC becomes azimuthally symmetric in the inner 0.1 pc, suggesting that the cluster is only ∼2 Myr in age. We find that the star formation efficiency (SFE) of the Orion B cloud is unusually low, and that the SFEs of individual groups and clusters are an order of magnitude higher than those of the clouds. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the young low mass stars in the Orion clouds and the Orion OB 1 association, and we determine upper limits to the fraction of disks that may be affected by UV radiation from OB stars or dynamical interactions in dense, clustered regions.

  18. A Survey of Functional Behavior Assessment Methods Used by Behavior Analysts in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Anthony C.; Pratt, Leigh A.; Normand, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    To gather information about the functional behavior assessment (FBA) methods behavior analysts use in practice, we sent a web-based survey to 12,431 behavior analysts certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board. Ultimately, 724 surveys were returned, with the results suggesting that most respondents regularly use FBA methods, especially…

  19. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions…

  20. Counselors' Use of Functional Assessment: A Survey of Pennsylvania Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Mildred D.

    As people with disabilities are becoming more included in society, professional counselors are required to develop skills and identify tools to assess, counsel, and advocate for these clients. This article presents Pennsylvania counselors' definition of functional assessment and procedures, techniques, and instruments currently in use. Most…

  1. Mining Branching Rules from Past Survey Data with an Illustration Using a Geriatric Assessment Survey for Older Adults with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Jeske

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We construct a fast data mining algorithm that can be used to identify high-frequency response patterns in historical surveys. Identification of these patterns leads to the derivation of question branching rules that shorten the time required to complete a survey. The data mining algorithm allows the user to control the error rate that is incurred through the use of implied answers that go along with each branching rule. The context considered is binary response questions, which can be obtained from multi-level response questions through dichotomization. The algorithm is illustrated by the analysis of four sections of a geriatric assessment survey used by oncologists. Reductions in the number of questions that need to be asked in these four sections range from 33% to 54%.

  2. Socio-demographic correlates of six indicators of alcohol consumption: survey findings of students across seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    El Ansari, Walid; Sebena, Rene; Stock, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Background This study assessed the prevalence of six alcohol consumption indicators in a sample of university students. We also examined whether students’ sociodemographic and educational characteristics were associated with any of the six alcohol consumption indicators; and whether associations between students’ sociodemographic and educational characteristics and the six alcohol consumption indicators differed by gender. Methods A cross-sectional study of 3706 students enrolled at 7 univers...

  3. Nondestructive Technique Survey for Assessing Integrity of Composite Firing Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, A.

    2000-08-01

    The repeated use and limited lifetime of a composite tiring vessel compel a need to survey techniques for monitoring the structural integrity of the vessel in order to determine when it should be retired. Various nondestructive techniques were researched and evaluated based on their applicability to the vessel. The methods were visual inspection, liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, surface mounted strain gauges, thermal inspection, acoustic emission, ultrasonic testing, radiography, eddy current testing, and embedded fiber optic sensors. It was determined that embedded fiber optic sensor is the most promising technique due to their ability to be embedded within layers of composites and their immunity to electromagnetic interference.

  4. Surveys from inside: An assessment of unit nonresponse bias with internal criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Kohler

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article uses the so called “internal criteria of representativeness” to assess the unit nonresponse bias in five European comparative survey projects. It then goes on investigating several ideas why unit nonresponse bias might vary between surveys and countries. It is proposed that unit nonresponse bias is either caused by country characteristics or survey methodology. The empirical evidence presented speaks more in favour of the latter than of the former. Among the survey characteristics the features that strengthen the leverage to control interviewers’ behaviour have top priority

  5. [Demographic profile of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, I

    1984-04-01

    Sources of demographic data for Venezuela include 11 population censuses conducted between 1873-1981, birth and death registration statistics, and the household sample survey. The average annual rate of population growth increase from 2.8% between 1920-40 to 3-4% thereafter. The population at the 1961 census was 7.52 million. According to preliminary data from the 1981 census, the population of 14.57 million is growing at an annual rate of 2.8%. 41.2% of the population is under 15 years old, implying a huge demand for educational and health services, housing and employment. The dependency rate in 1980 was 81.3% for the country as a whole, 100.4% in rural areas, and 76.0% in urban areas. The young age structure means that the population will continue to grow even if natality rates decline. The crude natality rate was estimated at 47.3/1000 for 1950-55, 36.0 for 1970-75, and 32.9 for 1980-85. Some rural areas still have natality rates of over 47/1000. The total fertility rate declined from 6.5 in 1950-55 to 4.1 in 1980-85. The decline in the natality rate reflects improving quality of life, availability of family planning services, urbanization, and access of women to productive activities and educational centers. The mortality rate was 12.3/1000 in 1950-55, 9.1 in 1960-65, in 1970-75, and has been estimated at 5.5 for 1980-85. Some rural areas have mortality rates of 8.1. The infant mortality rate was 50.2/1000 in 1971 and 34.3 in 1980. Life expectancy at birth is about 69 years. During the 1920s, Venezuela unerwent expansion in infrastructure and technological utilization, generating rapid urbanization. 39.2% of the population was urban in 1941, compared to 78.8% in 1980. The significance of urbanization in Venezuela is due to the rapidity as well as the diffusion of the process. The household sample survey for the 2nd half of 1980 indicated a total of 8.16 million employed and an activity rate of 32.1% overall, 46.4% for males and 17.7% for females. The

  6. PATTERN OF DISTRIBUTION AND DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF BURN INJURIES WITH ASSESSMENT OF VARIOUS FACTORS AFFECTING MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN VINDHYA REGION, SGM HOSPITAL REWA, MADHYA PRADESH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Burn injuries are one of the most devastating injuries resulting into higher morbidity and mortality rates. Its higher incidence in developing countries like India creating a formidable health problem. OBJECTIVE To study the pattern of distribution of burn injuries in relation to various epidemiological, demographic and socio-cultural aspect and their impact assessment on mortality and morbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS It was a prospective 1-year study conducted in all patients (n=499 admitted in Burn Unit of Dept. of Surgery, SGMH, Rewa (M.P., during the period August 2014-July 2015. The data regarding sex, age predisposition, geographical origin, mode and nature of injury were obtained by questionnaire-interview with the patient themselves. Clinical assessment was done in the form of depth and extent of injury. The information obtained was tabulated and analysed, mean, Standard Deviation (SD were calculated where applicable. Chi-square test was used as a test of significance. RESULTS Incidence of burn injury was 6.02% out of total surgical ward admission. Females were 59.31%, while males were 40.68%. Majority 45.9% of patients were from 15-29 years’ age group; 83.5% victims belonged to rural areas and 88.37% patients were below poverty line. Housewives 39.67% followed by students 23.24%; 87.7% was accidental followed by suicidal 9%, homicidal 3.2%. Flame burn 71.74% was commonest and chimney 28.1% was most common source of heat. 54.7% of cases were hospitalized within 5-12 hours of injury. Mean TBSA was 45.3%, it was higher in intentional burns and females. Kitchen 67.53% was the commonest place. 67.13% of burns were superficial to deep. Mean hospital stay was 11.63 days. Overall mortality was 39.47%, septicemia 56.85% was the most common cause of death. CONCLUSION Female sex, accidental, extensive burn, young age, low socioeconomic status, rural area were the factors associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Preventive

  7. U.S. Geological Survey assessments of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources, 2000 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-10-20

    From 2000 to 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted 139 quantitative assessments of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas accumulations within the United States. This report documents those assessments more fully than previously done by providing detailed documentation of both the assessment input and output. This report also compiles the data into spreadsheet tables that can be more readily used to provide analogs for future assessments, especially for hypothetical continuous accumulations.

  8. What factors influence the health status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis measured by the SF-12v2 Health Survey and the Health Assessment Questionnaire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Louise; Sørensen, Jan; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ) is a widely used outcome measure in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), whereas the SF-12v2 Health Survey (SF-12) was introduced recently. We investigated how the HAQ and SF-12 were associated with socio-demographic, lifestyle, and dise......OBJECTIVE: The Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ) is a widely used outcome measure in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), whereas the SF-12v2 Health Survey (SF-12) was introduced recently. We investigated how the HAQ and SF-12 were associated with socio-demographic, lifestyle......, and disease- and treatment-related factors in patients with RA. METHODS: In RA patients from 11 Danish centers, clinical and patient-reported data, including the HAQ and SF-12, were collected. Three multiple linear regression models were estimated, with the HAQ, SF-12 physical component score (PCS), and SF-12...... mental component score (MCS) as outcome and sociodemographic, lifestyle, and RA-related treatment and comorbidity characteristics as explanatory variables. RESULTS: In total, 3156 (85%) of 3704 invited patients participated--75% women, 76% rheumatoid factor-positive, median age 61 years (range 15-93 yrs...

  9. An organizational survey of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. [Organizational survey in preparation for an upcoming Tiger Team Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the management of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), an Organizational Survey (OS), identical to the one that has been used prior to Tiger Team Assessments at other Department Energy facilities, was administered at SPR independent of a Tiger Team Assessment. The OS measured employees' opinions on subjects such as organizational culture, communication, commitment, group cohesion, coordination, safety, environmental issues, and job satisfaction. The result of this work was a quantitative measure of these variables at the SPR site. SPR management intends to utilize these results in their self-assessment process in preparation for an upcoming Tiger Team Assessment. This report presents these results and discusses their interpretation.

  10. Socio-demographic correlates of six indicators of alcohol consumption: survey findings of students across seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Sebena, Rene; Stock, Christiane

    2013-11-06

    This study assessed the prevalence of six alcohol consumption indicators in a sample of university students. We also examined whether students' sociodemographic and educational characteristics were associated with any of the six alcohol consumption indicators; and whether associations between students' sociodemographic and educational characteristics and the six alcohol consumption indicators differed by gender. A cross-sectional study of 3706 students enrolled at 7 universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. A self-administered questionnaire assessed six alcohol consumption measures: length of time of last (most recent) drinking occasion; amount consumed during last drinking occasion; frequency of alcohol consumption; heavy episodic drinking (≥ 5 drinks in a row); problem drinking; and possible alcohol dependence as measured by CAGE. The questionnaire also collected information on seven relevant student sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, academic year of study, current living circumstances - accommodation with parents, whether student was in intimate relationship, socioeconomic status of parents - parental education, income sufficiency) and two academic achievement variables (importance of achieving good grades at university, and one's academic performance in comparison with one's peers). The majority of students (65% of females, 76% of males) reported heavy episodic drinking at least once within the last 2 weeks, and problem drinking was prevalent in 20% of females and 29% of males. Factors consistently positively associated with all six indicators of alcohol consumption were male gender and perceived insufficient income. Other factors such as living away from home, being in 1st or 2nd year of studies, having no intimate partner, and lower academic achievement were associated with some, but not all indicators of alcohol consumption. The high level of alcohol consumption calls for regular/periodic monitoring of student use of alcohol, and

  11. Socio-demographic correlates of six indicators of alcohol consumption: survey findings of students across seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study assessed the prevalence of six alcohol consumption indicators in a sample of university students. We also examined whether students’ sociodemographic and educational characteristics were associated with any of the six alcohol consumption indicators; and whether associations between students’ sociodemographic and educational characteristics and the six alcohol consumption indicators differed by gender. Methods A cross-sectional study of 3706 students enrolled at 7 universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. A self-administered questionnaire assessed six alcohol consumption measures: length of time of last (most recent) drinking occasion; amount consumed during last drinking occasion; frequency of alcohol consumption; heavy episodic drinking (≥ 5 drinks in a row); problem drinking; and possible alcohol dependence as measured by CAGE. The questionnaire also collected information on seven relevant student sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, academic year of study, current living circumstances - accommodation with parents, whether student was in intimate relationship, socioeconomic status of parents - parental education, income sufficiency) and two academic achievement variables (importance of achieving good grades at university, and one’s academic performance in comparison with one’s peers). Results The majority of students (65% of females, 76% of males) reported heavy episodic drinking at least once within the last 2 weeks, and problem drinking was prevalent in 20% of females and 29% of males. Factors consistently positively associated with all six indicators of alcohol consumption were male gender and perceived insufficient income. Other factors such as living away from home, being in 1st or 2nd year of studies, having no intimate partner, and lower academic achievement were associated with some, but not all indicators of alcohol consumption. Conclusions The high level of alcohol consumption calls for regular

  12. Ergonomic assessment among radiology technologists: a survey in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Fernando Lima; Azevedo, Paulo Roberto; Medeiros, Lícia Helena de Oliveira; de Freitas, Iraí Borges; Stamato, Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    This article is the result of an Ergonomic Diagnosis in a study for a Specialization Course in Ergonomics. The research is being done in a public hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where the target system is the radiology sector. For diagnosis purposes, subjective techniques were used, such as an open-ended survey, Corlett questionnaire and techniques for evaluating ergonomic risk such as Owas and Rula. Systematic observation was emphasized using photos and films. Preliminary observations made to the radiographers found that these professionals suffer risks of physical and verbal harassment, as well as sexual harassment. Most of them feel discriminated against in terms of race and accumulate activities demanding a lot of attention, as the medical diagnosis and subsequent procedures will depend on the outcome of this task. They accumulate tension due to the weight of responsibility, since there are cases where the patient has risk of death.

  13. PROBABILITY SURVEYS , CONDITIONAL PROBABILITIES AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    We show that probability-based environmental resource monitoring programs, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program, and conditional probability analysis can serve as a basis for estimating ecological risk over ...

  14. Transfer Credit Assessment: A Survey of Institutional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Assessing credits that transfer students bring to an institution may require a significant amount of institutional resources. The increased mobility of students among post-secondary institutions in British Columbia (BC), and the need to ensure efficient admission processes for both the student and the institution, makes transfer credit assessment…

  15. Guidelines for assessment of work disability: An international survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, W.E.L. de; Rijkenberg, A.M.; Donceel, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Assessments of long-term work disability are carried out by social insurance physicians (SIPs) and are little supported with evidence or instruments. Guidelines are hardly ever used in social insurance medicine. Developments in social insurance medicine might be slow as insurance is diff

  16. PROBABILITY SURVEYS , CONDITIONAL PROBABILITIES AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    We show that probability-based environmental resource monitoring programs, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program, and conditional probability analysis can serve as a basis for estimating ecological risk over ...

  17. Trends in the neuropsychological assessment of ethnic/racial minorities: a survey of clinical neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbulok-Charcape, Milushka M; Rabin, Laura A; Spadaccini, Amanda T; Barr, William B

    2014-07-01

    Despite the importance of diversity variables to the clinical practice of neuropsychology, little is known about neuropsychologists' multicultural assessment practices and perspectives. The current study was the first to survey issues related to neuropsychologists' assessment of minority populations, proficiency in languages other than English, approaches to interpreting the cognitive scores of minorities, and perceived challenges associated with assessing ethnic/racial minority patients. We also surveyed respondents with regard to their own demographic backgrounds, as neuropsychologists who identify as ethnic/racial minorities are reportedly underrepresented in the field. Respondents were 512 (26% usable response rate; 54% female) doctorate-level psychologists affiliated with the International Neuropsychology Society or the National Academy of Neuropsychology who resided in the United States or Canada. Overall, results suggest that lack of appropriate norms, tests, and referral sources are perceived as the greatest challenges associated with assessment of ethnic/racial minorities, that multicultural training is not occurring for some practitioners, and that some are conducting assessments in foreign languages despite limited proficiency. In addition, ethnic/racial minorities appear to be grossly underrepresented in the field of neuropsychology. Findings are discussed in relation to the need for appropriate education and training of neuropsychologists in multicultural issues and the provision of more valid assessments for ethnic/racial minority individuals.

  18. Problems with the Big Five assessment in the World Values Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludeke, Steven G.; Larsen, Erik Gahner

    2017-01-01

    Publicly-available data from the World Values Survey (WVS) is an extremely valuable resource for social scientists, serving as the basis for thousands of research publications. The most recent assessment (Wave 6) was the first to assess Big Five personality traits, and this data has already been...

  19. Assessment of the Measurement Properties of the NHCAHPS Family Survey: A Rasch Scaling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS), a family of survey instruments designed to capture and report people's experiences obtaining health care could soon add satisfaction as a consistent dimension of quality that skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) are required to assess and report. The SNF setting…

  20. 31 CFR 560.537 - Authorization of certain survey or assessment missions in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... assessment missions in Iran. 560.537 Section 560.537 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... certain survey or assessment missions in Iran. (a) Subject to the conditions of paragraphs (b), (c), and... missions in Iran related to the planning or preparation for the provision of humanitarian support to...

  1. Survey assessment on pediatricians' attitudes on head lice management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancelli, Claudia; Prato, Manuela; Montagnani, Carlotta; Pierattelli, Monica; Becherucci, Paolo; Chiappini, Elena; de Martino, Maurizio; Galli, Luisa

    2013-10-03

    Pediculosis capitis is a worldwide health problem. One of the most important factor in effective head lice eradication is to ensure that infestation is adequately recognized and treated. Our survey investigated the knowledge and practice among primary care Italian pediatricians regarding to the prevention and treatment of head lice. The questionnaire was distributed to all the pediatricians registered at the Annual Congress of Practice in Pediatrics held in Florence, Italy, November 11-12, 2011. It includes 10 questions in a multiple choice format, and one answer for each question was provided. The questionnaire was conceived by pediatricians at the Infectious Disease Unit of the Department of Science for the Health of Woman and Child, University of Florence. Questions were designed according to the guidelines by the Italian Pediatric Society (SIP), and international guidelines, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Overall, 364/600 pediatricians (60.7% of physicians registered to the Congress) returned the questionnaire. The majority of them (232/364; 63,7%) believe that parents consult their primary care pediatrician only after the failure of other "remedies". Mostly, they prescribe Malathion (116/364, 31,8%) as first line treatment. Two-hundred-fourty-three (66.7%) of participants consider creams, foams and gels the most effective formulations. Two-hundred-sixty-two of pediatricians interviewed (72.0%) suggest to repeat the treatment after one week, 37/364 (10.2%) after two weeks. The majority of the pediatricians interviewed reported that recurrences occur in less than 30% of cases (279/364; 76,6%). In their own opinion, most of recurrences are the consequence of a reinfestation in the community (259/264; 77%). Three-hundred-thirty-four (91.7%) of them have never prescribed oral therapy for the treatment of head lice. Finally, 289/364 (79.4%) pediatricians believe that no product is effective

  2. Psychodiagnostic test usage: a survey of the society for personality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, C; Sherry, D; Keller, J W

    1985-04-01

    The present survey investigated psychodiagnostic test usage and practices of the Society for Personality Assessment. A brief questionnaire was forwarded to 400 SPA members and 206 responded for a 51.5% rate of return. Projective techniques found popular in previous surveys of Division 12 were the major assessment instruments utilized by SPA members. Exner's comprehensive system was the preferred mode of Rorschach analysis, followed by the Klopfer and Beck systems. The Wechsler Scales and the MMPI were frequently included in conducting a psychological battery. Personality assessment was mainly utilized for diagnostic purposes and as an indicator for type of therapy.

  3. Assessing positive mental health in people with chronic physical health problems: correlations with socio-demographic variables and physical health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluch-Canut, Teresa; Puig-Llobet, Montserrat; Sánchez-Ortega, Aurelia; Roldán-Merino, Juan; Ferré-Grau, Carmen

    2013-10-05

    A holistic perspective on health implies giving careful consideration to the relationship between physical and mental health. In this regard the present study sought to determine the level of Positive Mental Health (PMH) among people with chronic physical health problems, and to examine the relationship between the observed levels of PMH and both physical health status and socio-demographic variables. The study was based on the Multifactor Model of Positive Mental Health (Lluch, 1999), which comprises six factors: Personal Satisfaction (F1), Prosocial Attitude (F2), Self-control (F3), Autonomy (F4), Problem-solving and Self-actualization (F5), and Interpersonal Relationship Skills (F6). The sample comprised 259 adults with chronic physical health problems who were recruited through a primary care center in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Positive mental health was assessed by means of the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire (Lluch, 1999). Levels of PMH differed, either on the global scale or on specific factors, in relation to the following variables: age: global PMH scores decreased with age (r=-0.129; p=0.038); b) gender: men scored higher on F1 (t=2.203; p=0.028) and F4 (t=3.182; p=0.002), while women scored higher on F2 (t -3.086; p=0.002) and F6 (t=-2.744; p=0.007); c) number of health conditions: the fewer the number of health problems the higher the PMH score on F5 (r=-0.146; p=0.019); d) daily medication: polymedication patients had lower PMH scores, both globally and on various factors; e) use of analgesics: occasional use of painkillers was associated with higher PMH scores on F1 (t=-2.811; p=0.006). There were no significant differences in global PMH scores according to the type of chronic health condition. The only significant difference in the analysis by factors was that patients with hypertension obtained lower PMH scores on the factor Autonomy (t=2.165; p=0.032). Most people with chronic physical health problems have medium or high levels of PMH

  4. Demographic and psychological correlates of New Zealanders support for euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol Hj; Duck, Isabelle M; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-01-13

    To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' support towards the legalisation of euthanasia and examine demographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes. 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included an item on people's attitudes towards euthanasia, and information on their demographic and psychological characteristics. The majority of New Zealanders expressed support for euthanasia, which was assessed by asking "Suppose a person has a painful incurable disease. Do you think that doctors should be allowed by law to end the patient's life if the patient requests it?" Non-religious, liberal, younger, employed, non-parents and those living in rural areas were more supportive. Those of Pacific or Asian ethnicity, with lower income and higher deprivation, education and socio-economic status were less supportive. Furthermore, those high on extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism showed more support, while those high on agreeableness and honesty-humility exhibited less support. There is strong public support for euthanasia when people are asked whether doctors should be allowed by law to end the life of a patient with a painful incurable disease upon their request. There are reliable demographic and personality differences in support for euthanasia.

  5. 75 FR 33325 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Assessment of a Marine Geophysical Survey by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Arctic Ocean, August-September 2010 AGENCY: U.S. Geological... Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared a Draft Environmental Assessment (EA) of a Marine Geophysical Survey by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Arctic...

  6. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  7. Assessment of highway condition using combined geophysical surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dera, Abdallah Alhadi

    Four pavement sections were investigated using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and Ultrasonic Surface Wave (USW). The objective of this research was to compare the effectiveness of two non-destructive geophysical tools, GPR and the PSPA, in assessing the condition of the pavements, composed of different construction materials. The GPR data were acquired using a 1.5 GHz antenna along five traverses spaced at two ft. intervals approximately 1000 ft. long. On the other hand, the PSPA data were acquired at the stations spaced at 1000 ft. along the five GPR traverses. Core samples were collected at each site to constrain the interpretation of the acquired geophysical data. The sites include section US 63 about three miles north of Rolla, US 54 in Camdenton County, MO 179 in Jefferson City, and HWY U in Dent County. The types of pavement in these sites were, asphalt concrete overlaying portland cement concrete (AC/PCC), and full-depth asphalt concrete (AC) pavements or full depth bituminous mix (BM). Based on the acquired and analyzed data of the GPR and PSPA, the data of both tools correlated reasonably well. The PSPA technique successfully measured the elastic modulus and the thickness of pavement and detected horizontal flaws (e.g. debonding and delaminations). Similarly, the GPR technique successfully measured the thickness of pavement and detected horizontal flaws (e.g. debonding and delaminations) within the pavement. The research demonstrated that both non-destructive geophysical tools (GPR and PSPA) are effective in assessing the condition of different types of pavement.

  8. Dietary survey methodology of FINDIET 2007 with a risk assessment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinivuo, Heli; Hirvonen, Tero; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Korhonen, Tommi; Valsta, Liisa M

    2010-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey, FINDIET 2007, was carried out in Finland. Food intake data was collected by a 48 h recall interview. Additional food intake data was collected by a repeated 3 d food diary, a barcode-based product diary, a food frequency questionnaire and by a supplementary questionnaire on rarely eaten foods. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the methodology of the national dietary survey and to discuss the particular implications for the applications of food consumption data in risk assessment. The food consumption data of the FINDIET 2007 survey can be used in food risk assessment, due thanks to flexible data processing of individual food consumption, and a risk assessment point of view was taken into account. However, international standardisation projects are needed in order to estimate comparable food intakes.

  9. Demographic cycles, cohort size, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M C

    1989-05-01

    This article examines whether position in the demographic cycle is an important factor in determining earnings and earnings growth. Earnings equations for white males are estimated by using March Current Population Survey data. Position in the demographic cycle is captured by including both measures of own cohort size and the size of surrounding cohorts in the estimated earnings equations. Position in the demographic cycle matters. Increases in own cohort size lead to flatter earnings profiles, whereas increases in the size of surrounding cohorts are associated with steeper earnings profiles. The net effect is that those who enter the labor market before or after the peak of the demographic cycle start out with lower earnings but experience faster earnings growth. This pattern is uniform across all schooling groups: high school dropouts, high school graduates, those with some college, and college graduates.

  10. Survey Methods for Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Historical Masonry Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, M.; Balletti, C.; Faccio, P.; Guerra, F.; Saetta, A.; Vernier, P.

    2017-05-01

    On 20th and 29th of May 2012, two powerful earthquakes struck northern Italy. The epicentres were recorded respectively in Finale Emilia (magnitude 5.9 Ml) and Medolla (magnitude 5.8 Ml) in the province of Modena, though the earthquake was formed by a series of seismic shakes located in the district of the Emilian Po Valley, mainly in the provinces of Modena, Ferrara, Mantova, Reggio Emilia, Bologna and Rovigo. Many monuments in the city of Mantova were hit by the earthquake and, among these, Palazzo Ducale with the well-known Castello di San Giorgio which host the noteworthy "Camera degli Sposi". This building, the most famous of the city, was so damaged that it was closed for more than one year after the earthquake. The emblem of the Palace and Mantova itself, the previously cited "Camera degli Sposi" realized by Andrea Mantegna, was damaged and all the economic and social life of the city was deeply affected. Immediately after the earthquake, the Soprintendenza per i Beni Architettonici e Paesaggistici of Brescia, Cremona and Mantova establish an agreement with the University Iuav of Venice, requiring an analysis and assessment of the damage in order to proceed with the development of an intervention project. This activity turned out to be very important not only from the point of view of the recovery of the architectural and artistic heritage but also because the city's economy is based primarily on tourism. The closure of one of the most important monuments of Mantova has led to a significant and alarming decline in the government income.

  11. SURVEY METHODS FOR SEISMIC VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF HISTORICAL MASONRY BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ballarin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available On 20th and 29th of May 2012, two powerful earthquakes struck northern Italy. The epicentres were recorded respectively in Finale Emilia (magnitude 5.9 Ml and Medolla (magnitude 5.8 Ml in the province of Modena, though the earthquake was formed by a series of seismic shakes located in the district of the Emilian Po Valley, mainly in the provinces of Modena, Ferrara, Mantova, Reggio Emilia, Bologna and Rovigo. Many monuments in the city of Mantova were hit by the earthquake and, among these, Palazzo Ducale with the well-known Castello di San Giorgio which host the noteworthy “Camera degli Sposi”. This building, the most famous of the city, was so damaged that it was closed for more than one year after the earthquake. The emblem of the Palace and Mantova itself, the previously cited “Camera degli Sposi” realized by Andrea Mantegna, was damaged and all the economic and social life of the city was deeply affected. Immediately after the earthquake, the Soprintendenza per i Beni Architettonici e Paesaggistici of Brescia, Cremona and Mantova establish an agreement with the University Iuav of Venice, requiring an analysis and assessment of the damage in order to proceed with the development of an intervention project. This activity turned out to be very important not only from the point of view of the recovery of the architectural and artistic heritage but also because the city's economy is based primarily on tourism. The closure of one of the most important monuments of Mantova has led to a significant and alarming decline in the government income.

  12. Projection models for health-effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume I. Introduction to the SPAHR demographic model for health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.; Grahn, D.; Ginevan, M.E.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. The first volume presents the theory behind the SPAHR health risk projection model and several applications of the model to actual pollution episodes. The elements required for an effective health risk projection model are specified, and the models that have been used to date in health risk projections are outlined. These are compared with the demographic model, whose formulation is described in detail. Examples of the application of air pollution and radiation dose-response functions are included in order to demonstrate the estimation of future mortality and morbidity levels and the range of variation in excess deaths that occurs when populations structure is changed.

  13. Assessing Usefulness of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) for Re-Survey of Cadastral Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. S.; Sharma, J. R.; Rajashekar, S. S.; Rao, D. S. P.; Arepalli, A.; Arora, V.; Kuldeep; Singh, R. P.; Kanaparthi, M.

    2014-11-01

    The Government of India has initiated "National Land Records Modernization Programme (NLRMP)" with emphasis to modernize management of land records, minimize scope of land/property disputes, enhance transparency in the land records maintenance system, and facilitate moving eventually towards guaranteed conclusive titles to immovable properties in the country. One of the major components of the programme is survey/re-survey and updating of all survey and settlement records including creation of original cadastral records wherever necessary. The use of ETS/GPS, Aerial or High Resolution Satellite Images (HRSI) and hybrid method of images are suggested for re-survey in the guidelines. The emerging new satellite technologies enabling earth observation at a spatial resolution of 1.0m or 0.5m or even 0.41m have brought revolutionary changes in the field of cadastral survey. The highresolution satellite imagery (HRSI) is showing its usefulness for cadastral surveys in terms of clear identification of parcel boundaries and other cultural features due to which traditional cadastre and land registration systems have been undergoing major changes worldwide. In the present research study, cadastral maps are derived from ETS/GPS, HRSI of 1.0m and 0.5m and used for comparison. The differences in areas, perimeter and position of parcels derived from HRSI are compared vis-a-vis ETS/GPS boundaries. An assessment has been made on the usefulness of HRSI for re-survey of cadastral maps vis-a-vis conventional ground survey.

  14. Assessing the oral health of an ageing population: methods, challenges and predictors of survey participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Debora C; Brillant, Martha G S; Clovis, Joanne B; McNally, Mary E; Filiaggi, Mark J; Kotzer, Robert D; Lawrence, Herenia P

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the oral health of an ageing population: methods, challenges and predictors of survey participation Objectives To examine predictors of participation and to describe the methodological considerations of conducting a two-stage population-based oral health survey. Methods An observational, cross-sectional survey (telephone interview and clinical oral examination) of community-dwelling adults aged 45–64 and ≥65 living in Nova Scotia, Canada was conducted. Results The survey response rate was 21% for the interview and 13.5% for the examination. A total of 1141 participants completed one or both components of the survey. Both age groups had higher levels of education than the target population; the age 45–64 sample also had a higher proportion of females and lower levels of employment than the target population. Completers (participants who completed interview and examination) were compared with partial completers (who completed only the interview), and stepwise logistic regression was performed to examine predictors of completion. Identified predictors were as follows: not working, post-secondary education and frequent dental visits. Conclusion Recruitment, communications and logistics present challenges in conducting a province-wide survey. Identification of employment, education and dental visit frequency as predictors of survey participation provide insight into possible non-response bias and suggest potential for underestimation of oral disease prevalence in this and similar surveys. This potential must be considered in analysis and in future recruitment strategies. PMID:21916953

  15. DEMOGRAPHIC SECURITY: THEORY, METHODOLOGY, EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Karmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical aspects of demographic security. Reviewed and analyzed the point of view of various scholars to the definition of demographic security. The main directions of statistical analysis of demographic security.

  16. A Survey for Assessment of Role of Pharmacist in Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kapur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Objective: To assess the role of pharmacist in community setting & consumer’s perception in National Capital
    Region.
    Setting: The study was conducted in National Capital Region of India during the year 2003-04.
    Method: Four pharmacy shops were selected for this study which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy
    seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during the study period, were selected for this study and
    interviewed just after they visited the pharmacy.
    Key findings: A total of 77 consumers in the age group of 11 to 72 years were included in the present study, of
    which 66.2% were males and 33.8% were females. It is observed that 46.7% consumers came for prescription
    medicines, 23.4% for over the counter medicines. Close to general physicians’ clinics and proximity to home
    were most important reasons given for visiting particular pharmacy. Majority of the consumers (n=56, 72.7%
    rated the advice given by the pharmacist as very useful, only 1(1.3% rated it as not useful at all and 2 (2.6%
    consumers did not respond. Among consumer groups 31 (40.3% thought that pharmacist has a good balance
    between health and business matter and 35.7% were in opinion that pharmacist is more concerned with making
    money, while 5.2% supported that the pharmacist is also interested in the health of his/her customers. The pharmacists
    were ranked at the top with 28(36.4% by the consumers and favoured pharmacy as the most convenient
    place to get advice about staying healthy.
    Conclusion: Most of the consumers in the present study were of the opinion that pharmacist is concerned with the
    health of the consumers, though he/she is also interested in making money. Many respondents were unaware
    about the difference between pharmacist and doctor, most of them consider

  17. Use of CAHPS patient experience surveys to assess the impact of health care innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinick, Robin M; Quigley, Denise D; Mayer, Lauren A; Sellers, Clarissa D

    2014-09-01

    The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) surveys are the standard for collecting information about patient experience of care in the United States. However, despite their widespread use, including in pay-for-performance and public reporting efforts and various provisions of the Affordable Care Act, knowledge about the use of CAHPS in assessing the impact of quality improvement efforts is limited. A study was conducted to examine the use of patient experience surveys in assessing the impact of innovations implemented in health care settings. Innovation profiles identified on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Health Care Innovations Exchange website that included patient experience (including patient satisfaction) as an outcome (N = 201), were analyzed with a variety of qualitative analysis methods. Fewer than half of the innovations used a patient experience measure, most commonly employing global measures such as an overall rating. Most innovations assessed patient experience at a single time point, with only one third using techniques such as pre-post comparisons, time trends, or comparisons to control groups. Ten domains of measures addressed reports of patient experience, all of which could be assessed by existing CAHPS instruments. Similarly, CAHPS measures are available to assess all of the organizational processes that are addressed by innovations in the profiles and for which patients are the best source of information. While 120 of the innovations that use patient experience measures report using surveys to collect these data, only 6 reported using a CAHPS measure. Although innovations targeting quality improvement are often evaluated using surveys, there is considerable untapped potential for using CAHPS measures or surveys to assess their effectiveness.

  18. Short assessment of the Big Five: robust across survey methods except telephone interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Frieder R; John, Dennis; Lüdtke, Oliver; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G

    2011-06-01

    We examined measurement invariance and age-related robustness of a short 15-item Big Five Inventory (BFI-S) of personality dimensions, which is well suited for applications in large-scale multidisciplinary surveys. The BFI-S was assessed in three different interviewing conditions: computer-assisted or paper-assisted face-to-face interviewing, computer-assisted telephone interviewing, and a self-administered questionnaire. Randomized probability samples from a large-scale German panel survey and a related probability telephone study were used in order to test method effects on self-report measures of personality characteristics across early, middle, and late adulthood. Exploratory structural equation modeling was used in order to test for measurement invariance of the five-factor model of personality trait domains across different assessment methods. For the short inventory, findings suggest strong robustness of self-report measures of personality dimensions among young and middle-aged adults. In old age, telephone interviewing was associated with greater distortions in reliable personality assessment. It is concluded that the greater mental workload of telephone interviewing limits the reliability of self-report personality assessment. Face-to-face surveys and self-administrated questionnaire completion are clearly better suited than phone surveys when personality traits in age-heterogeneous samples are assessed.

  19. Frequency and socio-demographic correlates of eating meals out and take-away meals at home: cross-sectional analysis of the UK national diet and nutrition survey, waves 1-4 (2008-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Goffe, Louis; Brown, Tamara; Lake, Amelia A; Summerbell, Carolyn; White, Martin; Wrieden, Wendy; Adamson, Ashley J

    2015-04-16

    Food prepared out-of-home tends to be less healthful than food prepared at home, with a positive association between frequency of consumption and both fat intake and body fatness. There is little current data on who eats out-of-home food. We explored frequency and socio-demographic correlates of eating meals out and take-away meals at home, using data from a large, UK, population representative study. Data were from waves 1-4 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-12). Socio-demographic variables of interest were gender, age group, and socio-economic position. Self-reported frequency of consuming meals out and take-away meals at home was categorised as: less than once per week and once per week or more. Analyses were performed separately for adults (aged 18 years or older) and children. Data from 2001 adults and 1963 children were included. More than one quarter (27.1%) of adults and one fifth (19.0%) of children ate meals out once per week or more. One fifth of adults (21.1%) and children (21.0%) ate take-away meals at home once per week or more. There were no gender differences in consumption of meals out, but more boys than girls ate take-away meals at home at least weekly. The proportion of participants eating both meals out and take-away meals at home at least weekly peaked in young adults aged 19-29 years. Adults living in more affluent households were more likely to eat meals out at least once per week, but children living in less affluent households were more likely to eat take-away meals at home at least once per week. There was no relationship between socio-economic position and consumption of take-away meals at home in adults. One-fifth to one-quarter of individuals eat meals prepared out-of-home weekly. Interventions seeking to improve dietary intake by reducing consumption of out-of-home food may be more effective if tailored to and targeted at adults aged less than 30 years. It may also be important to develop interventions to help

  20. Characterisation of UK diets according to degree of food processing and associations with socio-demographics and obesity: cross-sectional analysis of UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-12-18

    Food processing alters food from its natural state for safety, convenience, taste or palatability. Previous research suggests that industrially processed foods, and diets high in these products, tend to be less healthful. However, most previous work is based on household, rather than individual-level, data. Little has been reported on the relationship between processed food consumption and markers of health; or on socio-demographic correlates of processed food consumption. Our objective was to describe: the nutritional content of foods classified according to degree of processing; the nutritional content of diets with different relative intakes of processed foods; the socio-demographic characteristics of individuals with different relative intakes of processed foods; and the association between intake of processed foods and body weight. Secondary analysis of data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-12), a large national cross-sectional study of diet. Dietary information was collected using four-day, unweighed, food-diaries. Foods were classified as: unprocessed or minimally processed (MPF; foods with no processing or mostly physical processes applied to single whole foods), processed ingredients (PI; extracted and purified components of single whole foods), or ultra-processed food products (UPF; products produced from industrial combining of MPF and PI). Two thousand one hundred seventy four adults were included. MPF and diets high in these foods, had the most healthful nutritional profile. UPF did not necessarily have the least healthful nutritional profile, but diets high in these foods did. Women, and older adults consumed more energy from MPF, and less from UPF. Those living in lower occupation social class households consumed less energy from MPF, but no more from UPF. Only higher intake of PI was consistently, inversely, associated with body weight. This is the first study to explore correlates of processed food consumption, using individual

  1. A two-part process for assessing the adequacy of hydrographic surveys and nautical chart coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuike, Chukwuma

    IHO Publication C-55 contains information about the progress of hydrographic surveying and nautical charting for littoral states. Listed primarily as percent coverage, it is difficult to use this information to determine: 1) if the current level of surveying or charting is adequate or in need of action, or 2) can be used to compare different locations. An analysis methodology has been developed to assess the adequacy of hydrographic surveying and nautical charting coverage. Indications of chart adequacy as depicted on charts or sailing directions are spatially correlated with significant maritime areas associated with navigational/national interest. However, an analysis based solely on these datasets is limited without access to the current depth information. Publically-available, multi-spectral satellite imagery can be used to derive estimates of bathymetry and provide information in previously unsurveyed areas. Preliminary results show that multi-spectral satellite remote sensing is potentially beneficial as a reconnaissance tool prior to a hydrographic survey.

  2. Untrained consumer assessment of the eating quality of European beef: 2. Demographic factors have only minor effects on consumer scores and willingness to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Gardner, G E; Pethick, D W; Allen, P; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Hocquette, J-F

    2017-08-01

    The beef industry must become more responsive to the changing market place and consumer demands. An essential part of this is quantifying a consumer's perception of the eating quality of beef and their willingness to pay for that quality, across a broad range of demographics. Over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland and France each tasted seven beef samples and scored them for tenderness, juiciness, flavour liking and overall liking. These scores were weighted and combined to create a fifth score, termed the Meat Quality 4 score (MQ4) (0.3×tenderness, 0.1×juiciness, 0.3×flavour liking and 0.3×overall liking). They also allocated the beef samples into one of four quality grades that best described the sample; unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day or premium. After the completion of the tasting panel, consumers were then asked to detail, in their own currency, their willingness to pay for these four categories which was subsequently converted to a proportion relative to the good-every-day category (P-WTP). Consumers also answered a short demographic questionnaire. The four sensory scores, the MQ4 score and the P-WTP were analysed separately, as dependant variables in linear mixed effects models. The answers from the demographic questionnaire were included in the model as fixed effects. Overall, there were only small differences in consumer scores and P-WTP between demographic groups. Consumers who preferred their beef cooked medium or well-done scored beef higher, except in Poland, where the opposite trend was found. This may be because Polish consumers were more likely to prefer their beef cooked well-done, but samples were cooked medium for this group. There was a small positive relationship with the importance of beef in the diet, increasing sensory scores by about 4% in Poland and Northern Ireland. Men also scored beef about 2% higher than women for most sensory scores in most countries. In most countries, consumers were

  3. Examining the Reliability and Validity of the Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Benjamin G.; Tobin, Kevin G.; Schutte, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    The Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey (SAS; Sugai, Horner, & Todd, 2003) is designed to measure perceived Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) implementation and identify priorities for improvement. Despite its longevity, little published research exists documenting its reliability or validity for these purposes.…

  4. Teachers' Reasons for Using Self-Assessment: A Survey Self-Report of Spanish Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panadero, Ernesto; Brown, Gavin; Courtney, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to explore teachers' beliefs about student self-assessment (SSA) and the reasons for their use of it in their classrooms. A representative sample of 944 Spanish teachers (38.8% primary school sector, 54.0% secondary school sector and 7.2% university or adult education sector) were surveyed about SSA. Data were analysed using…

  5. Investigating Faculty Familiarity with Assessment Terminology by Applying Cluster Analysis to Interpret Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    A cluster analysis was conducted with a set of survey data on chemistry faculty familiarity with 13 assessment terms. Cluster groupings suggest a high, middle, and low overall familiarity with the terminology and an independent high and low familiarity with terms related to fundamental statistics. The six resultant clusters were found to be…

  6. Surveying Teens in School to Assess the Prevalence of Problematic Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Russel S.; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Li, Linna; Carlson, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Illicit drug use by school-aged teens can adversely affect their health and academic achievement. This study used a survey administered in schools to assess the prevalence of problematic drug use among teenagers in a Midwestern community. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 11th- and 12th-grade students (N = 3974) in 16…

  7. Investigating Faculty Familiarity with Assessment Terminology by Applying Cluster Analysis to Interpret Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    A cluster analysis was conducted with a set of survey data on chemistry faculty familiarity with 13 assessment terms. Cluster groupings suggest a high, middle, and low overall familiarity with the terminology and an independent high and low familiarity with terms related to fundamental statistics. The six resultant clusters were found to be…

  8. Career Preparedness Survey Outcomes of Food Science Graduates--A Follow-Up Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlscheid, Jeffri; Clark, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Fifty-eight recent graduates (1998-2008) from the joint Washington State University (WSU) and University of Idaho (UI) BiState School of Food Science program and 27 of their employers participated in a survey assessing learning outcomes based on the 2001 Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) core competencies for undergraduate food science…

  9. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new findi...

  10. Novel Tetra-nucleotide Microsatellite DNA Markers for Assessing the Evolutionary Genetics and Demographics of Northern Snakehead (Channa argus) Invading North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Timothy L.; Johnson, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of 19 tetra-nucleotide microsatellite DNA markers in northern snakehead (Channa argus) fish that recently colonized Meadow Lake, New York City, New York. These markers displayed moderate levels of allelic diversity (averaging 6.8 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 74.2%). Demographic analyses suggested that the Meadow Lake collection has not achieved mutation-drift equilibrium. These results were consistent with instances of deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the presence of some linkage disequilibrium. A comparison of individual pair-wise distances suggested the presence of multiple differentiated groups of related individuals. Results of all analyses are consistent with a pattern of multiple, recent introductions. The microsatellite markers developed for C. argus yielded sufficient genetic diversity to potentially: (1) delineate kinship; (2) elucidate fine-scale population structure; (3) define management (eradication) units; (4) estimate dispersal rates; (5) estimate population sizes; and (6) provide unique demographic perspectives of control or eradication effectiveness

  11. Developing and validating a conceptual survey to assess introductory physics students’ understanding of magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-03-01

    Development of validated physics surveys on various topics is important for investigating the extent to which students master those concepts after traditional instruction and for assessing innovative curricula and pedagogies that can improve student understanding significantly. Here, we discuss the development and validation of a conceptual multiple-choice survey related to magnetism suitable for introductory physics courses. The survey was developed taking into account common students’ difficulties with magnetism concepts covered in introductory physics courses found in our investigation and the incorrect choices to the multiple-choice questions were designed based upon those common student difficulties. After the development and validation of the survey, it was administered to introductory physics students in various classes in paper-pencil format before and after traditional lecture-based instruction in relevant concepts. We compared the performance of students on the survey in the algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics courses before and after traditional lecture-based instruction in relevant magnetism concepts. We discuss the common difficulties of introductory physics students with magnetism concepts we found via the survey. We also administered the survey to upper-level undergraduates majoring in physics and PhD students to benchmark the survey and compared their performance with those of traditionally taught introductory physics students for whom the survey is intended. A comparison with the base line data on the validated magnetism survey from traditionally taught introductory physics courses and upper-level undergraduate and PhD students discussed in this paper can help instructors assess the effectiveness of curricula and pedagogies which is especially designed to help students integrate conceptual and quantitative understanding and develop a good grasp of the concepts. In particular, if introductory physics students’ average

  12. Socio-economic factors and use of maternal health services are associated with delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia: secondary analysis of Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys 2002/2003 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana R; Loh, Philips C; Prasetyo, Sabarinah; Ariawan, Iwan; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2014-01-01

    This analysis aims to examine factors associated with delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia. Data were derived from the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey. Information from 12,191 singleton live-born infants aged 0-23 months was used to examine factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Furthermore, information from 3,187 singleton live-born infants aged 0-5 months was used to identify factors associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding. Associations between potential predictors and study outcomes were examined using logistic regression. Our study found that infants from high household wealth-index had significantly increased odds of both delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding. Other factors associated with an increased odds of delayed initiation of breastfeeding included infants from Sumatera region (OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.38-1.95), Caesarean-section deliveries (OR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.39-2.44) and deliveries in government-owned (OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.08-1.76) and non-health facility (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.00-1.43). Other factors associated with an increased odds for non-exclusive breastfeeding included parents who were in the workforce (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.06-1.78) and mothers with obstetric complication at childbirth (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.05-1.74). However, the odds reduced for infants from Eastern Indonesia (OR=0.64, 95% CI: 0.49-0.85). Poor breastfeeding practices are associated with environmental, socio-economic, pregnancy-birthing characteristics and maternal health services factors. Efforts to promote breastfeeding practices should be conducted comprehensively to target population at risk for poor breastfeeding practices.

  13. The changing importance of key factors associated with anaemia in 6- to 59-month-old children in a sub-Saharan African setting where malaria is on the decline: analysis of the Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkulikiyinka, Richard; Binagwaho, Agnes; Palmer, Katie

    2015-12-01

    To estimate the relative contribution of malaria and other potential determinants to current anaemia prevalence in Rwanda. The database for this study was the Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey 2010. Haemoglobin and malaria test results, and additional exposures ascertained through mothers' interviews, were analysed for all eligible children age 6-59 months (n = 4068), in addition to diet data available for the youngest under 5-year-old per household. We examined anaemia-exposure associations through forward logistic regression, first for the overall population (n = 3685), and second, for the subpopulation with diet data (n = 1934). In the overall study population, malaria was strongly associated with anaemia (OR = 6.83, 95% CI: 2.90-16.05), but population impact was modest (population-attributable fraction = 2.5%). Factors associated with lower odds of anaemia were recent de-worming medication (six months; OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.49-0.74), female sex (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.66-0.87), increasing age, residence in North Province and educated mother. Being underweight and recent fever (two weeks) were associated with higher odds. In the subpopulation with diet data, odds were lower with consumption of vitamin A-rich foods (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.50-0.88); and higher in households with many young children. Malaria remains a strong determinant of anaemia for the individual child: transmission control efforts must be maintained. At population level, to further reduce anaemia prevalence, promoting regular vitamin A intake from natural sources and reducing intestinal helminths burden appear the most promising strategies to explore; exploring potential hitherto unidentified sex-linked factors is warranted. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evaluating medically at-risk drivers: a survey of assessment practices in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrkljan, Brenda H; Myers, Anita M; Crizzle, Alexander M; Blanchard, Robin A; Marshall, Shawn C

    2013-12-01

    Assessing medical fitness to drive (FTD) can include both off- and on-road testing, although consistency of practice is unclear. To examine actual practices being used to assess FTD at driver assessment centres (DACs) across Canada. Surveys e-mailed to 90 DACs were returned by 47 assessors. The majority of respondents (89%) were occupational therapists. Assessors reported doing an average of eight FTD assessments per month (range = I to 40) at an average cost of $366 (SD = $225; range = $40 to $985). Referrals came from physicians (96%), other health professionals (70%), and licensing authorities (66%). Clients with stroke, dementia, traumatic brain injury, mild cognitive impairment, and multiple sclerosis composed 62% of estimated caseloads. Assessments took 3 hr on average (range = 1.24 to 4.5 hr); 64% reported they always took clients on road regardless of clinic results. Evidence-based guidelines for training and assessment are clearly needed given the inconsistency in practice.

  15. Assessing the quality of risk factor survey data: lessons from the WHO MONICA Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Dobson, Annette; Kulathinal, Sangita

    2006-02-01

    Survey data quality is a combination of the representativeness of the sample, the accuracy and precision of measurements, data processing and management with several subcomponents in each. The purpose of this paper is to show how, in the final risk factor surveys of the WHO MONICA Project, information on data quality were obtained, quantified, and used in the analysis. In the WHO MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) Project, the information about the data quality components was documented in retrospective quality assessment reports. On the basis of the documented information and the survey data, the quality of each data component was assessed and summarized using quality scores. The quality scores were used in sensitivity testing of the results both by excluding populations with low quality scores and by weighting the data by its quality scores. Detailed documentation of all survey procedures with standardized protocols, training, and quality control are steps towards optimizing data quality. Quantifying data quality is a further step. Methods used in the WHO MONICA Project could be adopted to improve quality in other health surveys.

  16. An Assessment of FY2016 Locally Developed Questions from the DEOMI Organizational Climate Survey: Recommendations and Potential Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-11

    1 An Assessment of FY2016 Locally Developed Questions from the DEOMI Organizational Climate Survey: Recommendations and Potential Implications...Equal Opportunity Management Institute (DEOMI) Organizational Climate Survey (DEOCS). The top 15 questions were ranked across a total of 180,797...Department of Equal Opportunity Management Institute Organizational Climate Survey (DEOCS) for fiscal year 2016 by commanders across the Department

  17. U.S. Geological Survey assessment of reserve growth outside of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.

    2015-12-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of potential additions to oil and gas reserves for the United States by reserve growth in discovered accumulations. These volumes were derived by using a new methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and reviewed by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Committee on Resource Evaluation. This methodology was used to assess reserve growth in individual accumulations (reservoirs, groups of reservoirs, or fields). Selected, large, well-studied, conventional accumulations in the United States that are estimated to contribute most to reserve growth were assessed using analysis of geology and engineering practices. Potential additions to oil and gas reserves for large, discovered, conventional accumulations outside of the United States due to reserve growth were assessed using the U.S. accumulations as analogs. Potential oil and gas volumes were assumed to be added to proven plus probable reserves.

  18. A Survey on Socio-demographic Factors Related to Migrant’s Quality of Life (18-29 Years Old: A Case Study of Hesarak, Karaj, Iran in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghapour Eslam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Given that Iran’s population is Migrant’s young, it is worthwhile (decent to study the quality of life (QOL of this stratum of society. The main objective of this study is to examine socio-demographic factors associated with QOL in a group of Adolescents (18-29 years old of emigrants. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from the structured questionnaire designed for 400 migrants, who were selected using systematic random sampling. Statistical methods of Cronbach’s alpha for assessment (tools reliability, Pearson correlation coefficient for testing hypotheses, analysis of variance to test statistical comparison and regression were used in this study. Results: According to research findings there is a significant relationship between the variables including: age (r = −0.241, housing status (t = 22.90, social class identity (f = 14.95, religious orientation (r = 0.41, social capital (r = 0.12, self-esteem (r = 0.34, and the QOL of migrants. Conclusion: Based on research findings, it can be concluded that the variable of QOL is affected by other variables including: Religious orientation, self-esteem, age, education, and changes in each of these variables will change the QOL of Migrant’s young.

  19. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  20. Surveying clinician perceptions of risk assessment and management practices in mental health service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Timothy; Isobel, Sophie; Derrick, Kate

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to survey multidisciplinary mental health staff on their perceptions of risk assessment and management practices in a local health district in Sydney. The research team developed the risk assessment and management survey (RAMS) which was distributed to staff across the district from November 2013 to January 2014. A total of 340 RAMS were distributed and 164 were returned (48% response rate). There was considerable agreement that risk assessment and management is essential to maintaining safety and delivering good mental health care, and respondents reported high levels of confidence in their judgement when carrying out such practices. Respondents identified organisational pressure in relation to risk assessment and management but also felt supported. However, 65% of respondents considered that there 'is good evidence that risk assessment and management practices are effective in reducing risk in mental health care', when this is not the case. The confidence that clinicians placed in risk assessment and management practices (despite an absence of evidence) is disconcerting. Given the dominance of risk assessment and management, health services mandating such practices have a duty to inform employees of the current evidence base for this approach in reducing risk. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  1. Geographic Information System mapping as a tool to assess nonresponse bias in survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A; Henley, Amanda Clarke; Brouwer, Emily S; Oraefo, Adaora N; Roth, Mary T

    2007-09-01

    Surveys are a useful tool for assessing professional practice patterns, although declining response rates have caused concern over external validity. This is particularly relevant to Web-based surveys, where response rates traditionally have been lower than with paper mail surveys. In a 2005 survey of North Carolina community pharmacy managers using a Web-based data collection instrument, we achieved an overall response rate of 23%. To explore nonresponse bias using accepted methods and to test whether Geographic Information System mapping is a useful tool for assessing response bias. Cross-sectional survey of 1593 community pharmacy managers in North Carolina using a Web-based tool. Nonresponse bias was assessed quantitatively by comparing early responders with late responders (ie, wave analysis) and by comparing respondents with nonrespondents with regard to known pharmacy, pharmacist, and population characteristics. Significant variables from these analyses were then mapped using ArcGIS 9.1. Pharmacy type was identified as a predictor of response, with independent pharmacies less likely to respond than chain pharmacies (odds ratio 0.75; 95% confidence interval 0.59-0.95). This conclusion was consistent in the wave analysis and the analysis of known population characteristics. Other county-level variables such as the number of physicians per capita, income, and the percentage of residents eligible for Medicaid showed trends but were not statistically significant (Ppharmacy type but trends were more difficult to detect for statistically insignificant trends. The best way to avoid nonresponse bias is to improve response rates. When this is not possible, Geographic Information System mapping has some utility for assessing nonresponse bias, and for aggregating known population characteristics based on location. It is most useful in conjunction with other accepted techniques such as wave analysis and analysis of known population characteristics.

  2. Assessing the roles of impulsivity, food-related cognitions, BMI, and demographics in the dual pathway model of binge eating among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Lewis, Robin J

    2015-08-01

    The dual pathway model is a widely accepted model of binge eating that focuses on the role of sociocultural factors, negative affect, and dietary restraint. However, less is known about demographic (e.g., gender and ethnicity) differences in the model and the role of other variables in the model. To further our understanding of the dual pathway model of binge eating, the current study examined the role of demographics (i.e., gender, race, BMI, parental education and obesity), impulsivity, and food-related cognitions in the dual pathway model. A sample of college students completed a battery of measures. Multi-group structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the dual pathway model separately for men and women. Results supported the dual pathway model of binge eating among men and women, and also supported food-related cognitions as an important variable prior to binge eating. In other words, body shame was associated with more dietary restraint and negative affect, and in turn, dietary restraint and negative affect were associated with increased negative food-related cognitions. Then, food-related cognitions predicted binge eating. Additionally impulsivity was related to body shame, negative affect, and food-related cognitions, but was unrelated to binge eating after controlling for the other variables. Racial differences existed among women in BMI and body shame, but there were no racial differences among men. Our results suggest that the dual pathway model adequately explains binge eating among men and women, but that food-related cognitions may be an imporant anteceden to binge eating.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the hospital-level consumer assessment of health plans survey (R) instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.A. Arah; A.H.A. ten Asbroek; D.M.J. Delnoij; J.S. de Koning; P.J.A. Stam; A.H. Poll; B. Vriens; P.F. Schmidt; N.S. Klazinga

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the reliability and validity of a translated version of the American Hospital-level Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey (R) (H-CAHPS) instrument for use in Dutch health care. Data Sources/Study Setting. Primary survey data from adults aged 18 years or more who were recen

  4. Environmental assessment survey of the vegetation surrounding a Lower Wilcox Group coal gas well site

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, John W.

    2004-01-01

    This environmental assessment was conducted to examine the impacts on vegetation of the drilling and operation of a coal gas well located along Hwy 134 about 5 miles (8 km) east of Fairbanks, La. The drill site is 85 meters north of Hwy 134 and operations at the well were performed by EnerVest Operating LLC. The site (privately owned) was formerly a mixed hardwood/pine forest that was clear-cut in 1998 and planted with loblolly pine. Once completed, the well site, with its associated pipeline covered about 1,560 m2 (11.5 percent of the survey area). This survey was conducted in coordination with Peter D. Warwick, Research Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey, and Jim York, contract geologist for EnerVest Operating, LLC.

  5. Food Consumption and Handling Survey for Quantitative Microbiological Consumer Phase Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Jurgen; Swart, Arno

    2016-07-01

    In the consumer phase of a typical quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA), mathematical equations identify data gaps. To acquire useful data we designed a food consumption and food handling survey (2,226 respondents) for QMRA applications that is especially aimed at obtaining quantitative data. For a broad spectrum of food products, the survey covered the following topics: processing status at retail, consumer storage, preparation, and consumption. Questions were designed to facilitate distribution fitting. In the statistical analysis, special attention was given to the selection of the most adequate distribution to describe the data. Bootstrap procedures were used to describe uncertainty. The final result was a coherent quantitative consumer phase food survey and parameter estimates for food handling and consumption practices in The Netherlands, including variation over individuals and uncertainty estimates.

  6. The quality of demographic data on older Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Randall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing appropriate and equitable policies for older people in Africa requires accurate and reliable data. It is unclear whether existing data can accurately assess older African population structures, let alone provide the detailed information needed to inform policy decision-making. Objective: To evaluate the quality of nationally representative data on older Africans through examining the accuracy of age data collected from different sources. Methods: To measure the accuracy of age reporting overall we calculate Whipple's Index, and a modified Whipple's Index for older adults, using the single year age-sex distributions from (a the household roster of 17 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS, (b the censuses of 12 of these countries, and (c the Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS for Ethiopia and Niger. We compare reported sex ratios by age. Results: The quality of age data is very poor for most countries outside Southern Africa, especially for older adults. In some Sahelian countries DHS surveys appear to omit a considerable proportion of older women. Data on population structure of older people by age and sex produced by the DHS and the census are inconsistent and contradictory. Conclusions: Different field methodological approaches generate contradictory data on older Africans. With the exception of Southern Africa, it is impossible to assess accurately the basic demographic structure of the older population. The data available are so problematic that any conclusions about age-related health and welfare and their evolution over time and space are potentially compromised. This has ramifications for policymakers and practitioners who demand, fund, and depend on large-scale demographic data sources. Contribution: The paper highlights a number of problems with data on older Africans, beyond the well-known issues of age heaping. In doing so it contributes to general understanding of the limitations of existing demographic data

  7. Use of North American Breeding Bird Survey data in avian conservation assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Kenneth V.; Blancher, Peter J.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Panjabi, Arvind O.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation resources are limited, and prioritizing species based on their relative vulnerability and risk of extinction is a fundamental component of conservation planning. In North America, the conservation consortium Partners in Flight (PIF) has developed and implemented a data-driven species assessment process, at global and regional scales, based on quantitative vulnerability criteria. This species assessment process has formed the biological basis for PIF's continental and regional planning and has informed the ranking and legal listing of bird species for conservation protection by state, provincial, and national agencies in Canada, the U.S., and Mexico. Because of its long time series, extensive geographic and species coverage, standardized survey methods, and prompt availability of results, the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) has been an invaluable source of data, allowing PIF to assign objective vulnerability scores calibrated across more than 460 landbird species. BBS data have been most valuable for assessing long-term population trends (PT score). PIF has also developed methods for estimating population size by extrapolating from BBS abundance indices, allowing the assignment of categorical population size (PS) scores for landbird species. At regional scales, BBS relative abundance indices have allowed PIF to assess the area importance (i.e. stewardship responsibility) of each Bird Conservation Region (BCR) for each species, using measures of both relative density and percent of total population in each BCR. Besides direct applicability to assessment scores, PIF has recently used BBS trend data to create new metrics of conservation urgency (e.g., ‘half-life'), as well as for setting population objectives for tracking progress toward meeting conservation goals. Future directions include integrating BBS data with other sources (e.g., eBird) to assess additional species and nonbreeding season measures, working closely with BBS coordinators to

  8. National survey of clinical communication assessment in medical education in the United Kingdom (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background All medical schools in the UK are required to be able to provide evidence of competence in clinical communication in their graduates. This is usually provided by summative assessment of clinical communication, but there is considerable variation in how this is carried out. This study aimed to gain insight into the current assessment of clinical communication in UK medical schools. Methods The survey was sent via e-mail to communication leads who then were asked to consult with all staff within their medical school involved in the assessment of communication. Results Results were obtained from 27 out of 33 schools (response rate 82%) and a total of 34 courses. The average number of assessments per year was 2.4 (minimum 0, maximum 10). The Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) was the most commonly used method of assessment (53%). Other assessments included MCQ and workplace based assessments. Only nine courses used a single method of assessment. Issues raised included, logistics and costs of assessing mainly by OSCE, the robustness and reliability of such exams and integration with other clinical skills. Conclusions It is encouraging that a variety of assessment methods are being used within UK medical schools and that these methods target different components of clinical communication skills acquisition. PMID:24417939

  9. Development of a Survey to Assess the Acceptability of an Innovative Contraception Practice among Rural Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Improved access to effective contraceptive methods is needed in Canada, particularly in rural areas, where unintended pregnancy rates are high and specific sexual health services may be further away. A rural pharmacist may be the most accessible health care professional. Pharmacy practice increasingly incorporates cognitive services. In Canada many provinces allow pharmacists to independently prescribe for some indications, but not for hormonal contraception. To assess the acceptability for the implementation of this innovative practice in Canada, we developed and piloted a survey instrument. We chose questions to address the components for adoption and change described in Rogers’ “diffusion of innovations” theory. The proposed instrument was iteratively reviewed by 12 experts, then focus group tested among eight pharmacists or students to improve the instrument for face validity, readability, consistency and relevancy to community pharmacists in the Canadian context. We then pilot tested the survey among urban and rural pharmacies. 4% of urban and 35% of rural pharmacies returned pilot surveys. Internal consistency on repeated re-phrased questions was high (Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.901. We present our process for the development of a survey instrument to assess the acceptability and feasibility among Canadian community pharmacists for the innovative practice of the independent prescribing of hormonal contraception.

  10. Factors controlling volume errors through 2D gully erosion assessment: guidelines for optimal survey design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carlos; Pérez, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of gully erosion volumes is essential for the quantification of soil losses derived from this relevant degradation process. Traditionally, 2D and 3D approaches has been applied for this purpose (Casalí et al., 2006). Although innovative 3D approaches have recently been proposed for gully volume quantification, a renewed interest can be found in literature regarding the useful information that cross-section analysis still provides in gully erosion research. Moreover, the application of methods based on 2D approaches can be the most cost-effective approach in many situations such as preliminary studies with low accuracy requirements or surveys under time or budget constraints. The main aim of this work is to examine the key factors controlling volume error variability in 2D gully assessment by means of a stochastic experiment involving a Monte Carlo analysis over synthetic gully profiles in order to 1) contribute to a better understanding of the drivers and magnitude of gully erosion 2D-surveys uncertainty and 2) provide guidelines for optimal survey designs. Owing to the stochastic properties of error generation in 2D volume assessment, a statistical approach was followed to generate a large and significant set of gully reach configurations to evaluate quantitatively the influence of the main factors controlling the uncertainty of the volume assessment. For this purpose, a simulation algorithm in Matlab® code was written, involving the following stages: - Generation of synthetic gully area profiles with different degrees of complexity (characterized by the cross-section variability) - Simulation of field measurements characterised by a survey intensity and the precision of the measurement method - Quantification of the volume error uncertainty as a function of the key factors In this communication we will present the relationships between volume error and the studied factors and propose guidelines for 2D field surveys based on the minimal survey

  11. Pubertal assessment: a national survey of attitudes, knowledge and practices of the US pediatric trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Aditi; Ravichandran, Yagnaram; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Perez-Colon, Sheila

    2017-07-06

    Background and objective Sex maturity rating (SMR), defines different levels of sexual maturity, based on the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Periodic assessment of pubertal maturation by physicians is crucial for timely identification of puberty-related disorders. With this pilot study, we aimed to assess the attitudes, knowledge and practices of pubertal assessment by current US pediatric trainees. Methods An anonymous online survey questionnaire was sent to categorical pediatric residents at different levels of training and pediatric chief residents across the US. Results We received responses from 2496 pediatric residents from all over the US. We found that 96% of trainees understand the importance of assessing SMR, 62% feel confident in assessing it and 55% feel comfortable assessing the need for an endocrinology referral. Only 33% of trainees performed external genital exams during all regular clinic visits while 26.9% never performed them during sick visits and 6% never assessed SMR during any of the patient visits. Higher levels of training and having completed an endocrinology rotation were associated with improvement in comfort level, practice and knowledge of trainees regarding pubertal assessment. Conclusion This study revealed that the current clinical practices of performing external genital exams and SMR among pediatric residents need improvement. Stronger reinforcement from continuity clinic preceptors and/or online and clinic based resources for SMR assessment for trainees may improve adherence to the recommended guidelines.

  12. A Survey to Assess Family Physicians’ Motivation to Teach Undergraduates in Their Practices

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Germany, family physicians (FPs) are increasingly needed to participate in undergraduate medical education. Knowledge of FPs' motivation to teach medical students in their practices is lacking. PURPOSE: To describe a novel questionnaire that assesses the motivation of FPs to teach undergraduates in their practices and to show the results of a subsequent survey using this instrument. METHODS: The questionnaire was developed based on a review of the literature. Previously used em...

  13. Graduate Medical Education in Humanism and Professionalism: A Needs Assessment Survey of Pediatric Gastroenterology Fellows

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, Katharine C.; Kesselheim, Jennifer C.; Herrick, Daniel B; WOOLF, Alan D.; Leichtner, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The deterioration of humanism and professionalism during graduate medical training is an acknowledged concern, and programs are required to provide professionalism education for pediatric fellows. We conducted a needs assessment survey in a national sample of 138 first- and second-year gastroenterology fellows (82% response rate). Most believed that present humanism and professionalism education met their needs, but this education was largely informal (eg, role modeling). Areas for formal edu...

  14. Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators among young people aged 15-24 years in Zambia: an in-depth analysis of the 2001-2002 and 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembo, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    HIV and AIDS still pose a major public health problem to most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia included. The objective of the paper is to determine changes in selected sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators between 2001-2002 and 2007. We used the Demographic and Health Survey Indicators Database for the computation of the selected indicators. We further used STATA 10.0 to compute significance tests to test for statistical difference in the indicators. The results indicate some changes in sexual behaviour, as indicated by an increase in abstinence, use of condoms and the decrease in multiple partnerships. The overall percentage of abstinence among never-married young men and women aged 15-24 years in Zambia increased significantly by 15.2% (p=.000) and 5.9% (p=.001) respectively, between 2001-2002 and 2007. A statistically significant increase of 6.6% (p=.029) was observed in the percentage of young women who reported having used a condom during the last time they had had premarital sex. A statistically significant decrease of 11.0% (p=.000) and 1.4% (p=.000) was observed among young men and women, respectively, who reported having multiple partners in the preceding 12 months. The factorial decomposition using multivariate analysis reveals that the indicators which contributed to the statistically significant 2.6% decline in HIV prevalence among young women aged 15-24 years in Zambia include proportion reporting condom use during premarital sex (+6.6%), abstinence (+5.9%), sex before age 15 (-4.5%), premarital sex (-2.6%), sex before age 18 (-2.4%) and proportion reporting multiple partnerships (-1.4%). Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young people in Zambia. Further research focusing on factors that predispose young women in Zambia to higher risk of infection from HIV is required. The results from this paper should be useful in the design of programmes to control the

  15. Quality Assessment Survey at the School of Civil Engineering at Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    As part of an improved quality assessment procedure at the School of Civil Engineering at Aalborg University, an online survey has been undertaken among all students. Due to external requirements and a wish for more structured feedback, an online questionnaire was presented to all students under...... the study board of civil engineering. The questionnaire was jointly developed for all study boards at Aalborg University. The questionnaire forms an investigation of students' satisfaction and evaluation of the overall structure of the education including self-reported performance assessment. The paper...

  16. Venous Thromboembolism – Risk Assessment Tool and Thromboprophylaxis Policy: A National Survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, MI

    2017-01-01

    Venous Thromboembolic (VTE) events in hospitalised patients are associated with significant mortality and morbidity and a major economic burden on the health service. It is well established in the literature that active implementation of a mandatory risk assessment tool and thromboprophylaxis policy reduces the incidence of hospital associated thrombosis (HAT). This study examines the utilization of a VTE risk assessment tool and thromboprophylaxis (TP) policy in Irish hospitals that manage acute admissions. A national survey was distributed to forty acute hospitals throughout Ireland. The response rate was 78% (31\\/40). The results showed that only 26% (n=8\\/31) of acute hospitals in Ireland have a local implemented TP policy. Six (75%) of these eight had a risk assessment tool in conjunction with the TP policy. All respondents who did not report to have a TP policy and risk assessment tool agreed that they should implement VTE prevention policy at their hospital. Based on the data from this survey and evidence from the effectiveness of the VTE prevention programme introduced in the United Kingdom, there is a need for a national risk assessment and thromboprophylaxis policy in Ireland. This change in practice would have the potential to prevent or reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with hospital acquired thrombosis

  17. Pregnancy intention, demographic differences, and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2011-08-01

    We explore the psychosocial, demographic, and maternal characteristics across wanted, mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies. Data from 1321 women from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Durham, NC, are analyzed. Psychosocial correlates were obtained through prenatal surveys; electronic medical records were used to ascertain maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Sixty-two percent of the women indicated an unintended pregnancy, with 44% (578) mistimed and 18% (245) unwanted. Only 38% of the pregnancies were characterized as wanted. Women with unwanted and with mistimed pregnancies were similar demographically, but they differed significantly on psychosocial profiles and maternal characteristics. Women with mistimed and with wanted pregnancies differed in demographics and psychosocial profiles. Wanted pregnancies had the healthiest, mistimed an intermediate, and unwanted the poorest psychosocial profile. Women with unwanted pregnancies had the highest depression, perceived stress, and negative paternal support scores (ppsychosocial profiles had higher odds of being in the unwanted category. Controlling for psychosocial and demographic variables, perceived stress and positive paternal support remained significant predictors of belonging to the unwanted and mistimed groups. Fully characterizing pregnancy intention and its relationship to psychosocial profiles may provide a basis for identifying women with highest risk during pregnancy and early motherhood. Women with unwanted and mistimed pregnancies may appear similar demographically but are different psychosocially. Women with unwanted pregnancies have multiple risk factors and would benefit from targeted interventions.

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: assessing detection probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Amanda; Peel, David; Kelly, Natalie

    2017-02-08

    Aerial surveys are conducted for various fauna to assess abundance, distribution, and habitat use over large spatial scales. They are traditionally conducted using light-aircraft with observers recording sightings in real time. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer an alternative with many potential advantages, including eliminating human-risk. To be effective, this emerging platform needs to provide detection rates of animals comparable to traditional methods. UAVs can also acquire new types of information, and this new data requires a re-evaluation of traditional analyses used in aerial surveys; including estimating the probability of detecting animals. We conducted 17 replicate UAV surveys of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) while simultaneously obtaining a 'census' of the population from land-based observations, to assess UAV detection probability. The ScanEagle UAV, carrying a digital SLR camera, continuously captured images (with 75% overlap) along transects covering the visual range of land-based observers. We also used ScanEagle to conduct focal follows of whale pods (n = 12, mean duration = 40 min), to assess a new method of estimating availability. A comparison of the whale detections from the UAV to the land-based census provided an estimated UAV detection probability of 0.33 (CV = 0.25) (incorporating both availability and perception biases), which was not affected by environmental covariates (Beaufort sea state, glare and cloud cover). According to our focal follows, the mean availability was 0.63 (CV = 0.37), with pods including mother/calf pairs having a higher availability (0.86, CV = 0.20) than those without (0.59, CV = 0.38). The follows also revealed (and provided a potential correction for) a downward bias in group size estimates from the UAV surveys, which resulted from asynchronous diving within whale pods, and a relatively short observation window of 9 s. We have shown that UAVs are an effective alternative to traditional methods

  19. New Approaches to Demographic Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Donald J.; Lu, Yao; Qi, Yaqiang

    2013-01-01

    As population scientists have expanded the range of topics they study, increasingly considering the interrelationship between population phenomena and social, economic, and health conditions, they have expanded the kinds of data collected and have brought to bear new data collection techniques and procedures, often borrowed from other fields. These new approaches to demographic data collection are the concern of this essay. We consider three main topics: new developments in sampling procedures; new developments in fieldwork procedures; and new developments in the kind of information collected in demographic and social surveys. We conclude with some comments on data sharing in the social research community and a list of major Chinese surveys publicly available to researchers. Where possible we illustrate our points with Chinese examples. PMID:23844330

  20. Assessing historical fish community composition using surveys, historical collection data, and species distribution models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Labay

    Full Text Available Accurate establishment of baseline conditions is critical to successful management and habitat restoration. We demonstrate the ability to robustly estimate historical fish community composition and assess the current status of the urbanized Barton Creek watershed in central Texas, U.S.A. Fish species were surveyed in 2008 and the resulting data compared to three sources of fish occurrence information: (i historical records from a museum specimen database and literature searches; (ii a nearly identical survey conducted 15 years earlier; and (iii a modeled historical community constructed with species distribution models (SDMs. This holistic approach, and especially the application of SDMs, allowed us to discover that the fish community in Barton Creek was more diverse than the historical data and survey methods alone indicated. Sixteen native species with high modeled probability of occurrence within the watershed were not found in the 2008 survey, seven of these were not found in either survey or in any of the historical collection records. Our approach allowed us to more rigorously establish the true baseline for the pre-development fish fauna and then to more accurately assess trends and develop hypotheses regarding factors driving current fish community composition to better inform management decisions and future restoration efforts. Smaller, urbanized freshwater systems, like Barton Creek, typically have a relatively poor historical biodiversity inventory coupled with long histories of alteration, and thus there is a propensity for land managers and researchers to apply inaccurate baseline standards. Our methods provide a way around that limitation by using SDMs derived from larger and richer biodiversity databases of a broader geographic scope. Broadly applied, we propose that this technique has potential to overcome limitations of popular bioassessment metrics (e.g., IBI to become a versatile and robust management tool for determining

  1. [Assessment of surveys of adolescents about smoking and the use of alcohol and cannabis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalbí, Joan R; Suelves, Josep M; Saltó, Esteve; Cabezas, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring health-related behaviors in adolescence requires instruments capable of providing valid data The objective of this paper is to review and assess existing information sources on smoking and alcohol and cannabis use by age and sex among adolescents in Spain. A search was carried out for studies with repeated observations over time, and their methods and characteristics reviewed. For each study, the number of surveys, their frequency and their sample size are assessed, as well as the instrument used, the available indicators, and the availability, accessibility and comparability of the information. Five sources of information providing data over extended periods of time with accessible data are identified: the National survey on drug use in secondary-school children (Encuesta estatal sobre uso de drogas en estudiantes de secundaria; ESTUDES); the Health behavior in school-aged children study (ECERSHBSC); the Monitoring system for risk factors associated with non-transmissible diseases in young people (Sistema de Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo Asociados a Enfermedades No Transmisibles dirigido a poblacion juvenil; SIVFRENT-J); the Study of risk factors in secondary school children (Estudio de factores de riesgo en estudiantes de secundaria; FRESC); and the Monitoring study of health behaviors in adolescents (Estudio de monitorizacion de las conductas de salud de los adolescents; EMCSAT). Two of the surveys cover the whole of Spain, one is regional, and two are city-specific. All use solid methods and representative sampling techniques. In some, changes have occurred that make comparison of the evolution of some indicators difficult. Report accessibility is variable; comparability is limited for some surveys. Some provide almost no stratified data. There are valuable sources of data, but all have shortcomings. Changing the measurement instrument in a survey for comparison with others raises dilemmas as to the internal comparability of series.

  2. The demographic cycle and optimal schooling choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, B P; Berger, M C

    1996-10-01

    A model is developed that enables the authors to estimate the effects of demographic cycles on both earnings and schooling. The model is tested using data from the 1991 Korean Occupational Wage Survey. The results indicate that cohorts following large birth cohorts in the cycle choose relatively less formal schooling compared to pre-peak cohorts, and that post-peak cohorts also have lower incomes. This result concerning South Korea is consistent with findings from previous studies concerning the United States.

  3. A Promising Tool to Assess Long Term Public Health Effects of Natural Disasters: Combining Routine Health Survey Data and Geographic Information Systems to Assess Stunting after the 2001 Earthquake in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Rydberg

    Full Text Available Research on long-term health effects of earthquakes is scarce, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which are disproportionately affected by disasters. To date, progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of tools to accurately measure these effects. Here, we explored whether long-term public health effects of earthquakes can be assessed using a combination of readily available data sources on public health and geographic distribution of seismic activity.We used childhood stunting as a proxy for public health effects. Data on stunting were attained from Demographic and Health Surveys. Earthquake data were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey's ShakeMaps, geographic information system-based maps that divide earthquake affected areas into different shaking intensity zones. We combined these two data sources to categorize the surveyed children into different earthquake exposure groups, based on how much their area of residence was affected by the earthquake. We assessed the feasibility of the approach using a real earthquake case--an 8.4 magnitude earthquake that hit southern Peru in 2001.Our results indicate that the combination of health survey data and disaster data may offer a readily accessible and accurate method for determining the long-term public health consequences of a natural disaster. Our work allowed us to make pre- and post-earthquake comparisons of stunting, an important indicator of the well-being of a society, as well as comparisons between populations with different levels of exposure to the earthquake. Furthermore, the detailed GIS based data provided a precise and objective definition of earthquake exposure. Our approach should be considered in future public health and disaster research exploring the long-term effects of earthquakes and potentially other natural disasters.

  4. A Promising Tool to Assess Long Term Public Health Effects of Natural Disasters: Combining Routine Health Survey Data and Geographic Information Systems to Assess Stunting after the 2001 Earthquake in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydberg, Henny; Marrone, Gaetano; Strömdahl, Susanne; von Schreeb, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Research on long-term health effects of earthquakes is scarce, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which are disproportionately affected by disasters. To date, progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of tools to accurately measure these effects. Here, we explored whether long-term public health effects of earthquakes can be assessed using a combination of readily available data sources on public health and geographic distribution of seismic activity. We used childhood stunting as a proxy for public health effects. Data on stunting were attained from Demographic and Health Surveys. Earthquake data were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey's ShakeMaps, geographic information system-based maps that divide earthquake affected areas into different shaking intensity zones. We combined these two data sources to categorize the surveyed children into different earthquake exposure groups, based on how much their area of residence was affected by the earthquake. We assessed the feasibility of the approach using a real earthquake case--an 8.4 magnitude earthquake that hit southern Peru in 2001. Our results indicate that the combination of health survey data and disaster data may offer a readily accessible and accurate method for determining the long-term public health consequences of a natural disaster. Our work allowed us to make pre- and post-earthquake comparisons of stunting, an important indicator of the well-being of a society, as well as comparisons between populations with different levels of exposure to the earthquake. Furthermore, the detailed GIS based data provided a precise and objective definition of earthquake exposure. Our approach should be considered in future public health and disaster research exploring the long-term effects of earthquakes and potentially other natural disasters.

  5. Concepts of Confidence in Tendency Survey Research: An Assessment with Multi-group Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białowolski, Piotr

    In this paper, we investigate the link between the formal definition of confidence in tendency surveys and its measurement. We advocate for the use of reflective measures in an assessment of the confidence level in both consumer and industrial indicators. Based on the data from Poland's tendency survey research, we use a multi-group confirmatory factor analytical approach to demonstrate that the set of indicators proposed by the European Commission methodology that is currently used might be not appropriate to measure the concept of confidence consistently, both within and between periods. The conclusion is true for the confidence indicator in the area of consumer tendency surveys and for the tendency survey in the manufacturing industry. We search for possible amendments that help either to find the sources of instability for the indicators proposed by the guidelines of the European Commission or to select a different set of indicators for the concept of confidence. However, we determine that the differences between the newly proposed indicator that describe industrial confidence and the indicators based on the European Commission methodology are small in terms of correlations and predictive validity.

  6. ILearning and EHomeStudy: Multimedia Training and Assessments for Field Survey Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Loftis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Survey data collection projects strive to collect high quality data from survey respondents. The quality of the data collected is greatly dependent upon the effectiveness of field interviewers (FIs to conduct inperson screenings and interviews. Training FIs and subsequently assessing their knowledge of project protocol, methods and interviewing techniques is critical to the overall success of any data collection effort. For large surveys, as the number of FIs increase, the cost of inperson training can become prohibitively large. As a cost effective solution to increase the quality of the field data, we developed a suite of web and media based training and assessment tools called iLearning and eHomeStudy for training field staff. Besides saving the project costs associated with inperson training, we are also able to provide refresher trainings throughout the year. This application also enables FIs to view standardized training courses at their convenience and at their own pace. This paper describes the technical details, key features and benefits of this application suite, and also it includes some details on user satisfaction and future directions.

  7. ILearning and EHomeStudy: Multimedia Training and Assessments for Field Survey Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Loftis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Survey data collection projects strive to collect high quality data from survey respondents. The quality of the data collected is greatly dependent upon the effectiveness of field interviewers (FIs to conduct inperson screenings and interviews. Training FIs and subsequently assessing their knowledge of project protocol, methods and interviewing techniques is critical to the overall success of any data collection effort. For large surveys, as the number of FIs increase, the cost of inperson training can become prohibitively large. As a cost effective solution to increase the quality of the field data, we developed a suite of web and media based training and assessment tools called iLearning and eHomeStudy for training field staff. Besides saving the project costs associated with inperson training, we are also able to provide refresher trainings throughout the year. This application also enables FIs to view standardized training courses at their convenience and at their own pace. This paper describes the technical details, key features and benefits of this application suite, and also it includes some details on user satisfaction and future directions.

  8. Accuracy assessment of GPS and surveying technique in forest road mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Abdi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest road networks provide access to the forest as a source of timber production and tourism services. Moreover, it is considered the main tool to protect forests from fire and smuggling. The prerequisite of road management and maintenance planning is to have spatial distribution and map of the roads. But newly constructed or some other forest road segments are not available in national maps. Therefore, mapping these networks is raised as a priority for a forest manager. The aim of this study was to assess accuracy of routine methods in road mapping. For this purpose, Patom district forest road was selected and road network map was extracted from the National Cartographic Center maps as the ground truth or base map. The map of the network was acquired using two methods, a GPS receiver and survey technique. Selecting 70 sample points on the network and considering the National Cartographic Center map as base map, accuracy was determined for two methods. The results showed that while the survey method was more accurate at the beginning of the path (first 500 meters, accumulation of errors resulted in higher rates of error in this method (up to 263 meters compared to GPS. Mann-Whitney test revealed significant differences in accuracy of two methods and mean accuracies were 38.86 and 147.90 for GPS and surveying respectively. The results showed that for samples 1-15 there was no significant difference between the survey and GPS data but for samples 28-42 and 56-70 statistically significant difference were existed between the survey and GPS data. Regression analysis showed that the relation between GPS and surveying accuracies and distance were best defined by cubic (R2 adj = 0.65 and linear (R2 adj = 0.83 regression models respectively. Applying 10 and 5 meters buffers around base map, 68 and 41% of GPS and 44 and 21% of surveying derived road were overlapped with buffer zones. The time required to complete the survey was found to increase the

  9. Optimal clinical assessment strategies for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN): a systematic review and Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary, J Matt; Goldstein, David; Boyle, Frances; Cox, Keith; Grimison, Peter; Kiernan, Matthew C; Krishnan, Arun V; Lewis, Craig R; Webber, Kate; Baron-Hay, Sally; Horvath, Lisa; Park, Susanna B

    2017-06-07

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a prominent side effect of the treatment of cancer. Despite this frequent complication, there has been no comprehensive review and quality appraisal of CIPN assessments. The purpose of this study is to provide a definitive quality appraisal of CIPN assessment strategies for clinical use. Relevant studies were identified through database searches of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane. CIPN assessment strategies from included articles were extracted and initially rated by an oncologist and neurophysiologist according to criteria related to assessment depth, comprehensiveness, appropriateness, and reliability. The six highest scoring assessment strategies were the focus of a two-round Delphi survey of a working party of 32 physicians, nurses, and consumers to achieve consensus on the highest rated assessments for each criterion. The database search yielded 117 distinct CIPN assessments that were extracted from 2373 articles. Three patient-reported outcome surveys and three clinician-based assessments were included in the Delphi survey. No consensus was generated regarding the best overall CIPN assessment, although good (≥70%) consensus was achieved regarding the best assessment within each criterion. The Participant Neurotoxicity Questionnaire (PNQ) was rated the highest overall and patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessment, while the Total Neuropathy Score clinical version (TNSc) was the highest rated clinician-based assessment. A diverse range of CIPN assessments currently exists. While several assessments assess CIPN symptoms with adequate comprehensiveness, depth, language, and feasibility, the consensus 'gold standard' clinical assessment remains to be established.

  10. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  11. Socio-Demographic Characteristics, Partner Characteristics, Socioeconomic Variables, and Intimate Partner Violence in Women with Schizophrenia in South-South Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afe, Taiwo Opekitan; Emedoh, Thomas C; Ogunsemi, Olawale O; Adegohun, Abosede Adekeje

    2017-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common among patients with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia. Few surveys have explored IPV among this specific group of patients and the demographic characteristics of victims in Nigeria. The aim of this survey was to explore socio-demographic, socioeconomic characteristics of victims and partners. A cross-sectional randomized survey of 79 women with schizophrenia from a major adult psychiatric outpatient in South-south Nigeria was done. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) was used to establish the diagnosis of schizophrenia among the participants and a purposely designed questionnaire to assess IPV. The mean age of the participants was 38.3 ± 2.8 years; the majority (73%) reported at least one form of IPV. Verbal abuse was the most (71%) prevalent form of IPV. Our findings highlight a need for proper attention to demographics of both victims and their male partners by clinicians.

  12. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  13. The demographics of human and malaria movement and migration patterns in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The quantification of parasite movements can provide valuable information for control strategy planning across all transmission intensities. Mobile parasite carrying individuals can instigate transmission in receptive areas, spread drug resistant strains and reduce the effectiveness of control strategies. The identification of mobile demographic groups, their routes of travel and how these movements connect differing transmission zones, potentially enables limited resources for interventions to be efficiently targeted over space, time and populations. Methods National population censuses and household surveys provide individual-level migration, travel, and other data relevant for understanding malaria movement patterns. Together with existing spatially referenced malaria data and mathematical models, network analysis techniques were used to quantify the demographics of human and malaria movement patterns in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Movement networks were developed based on connectivity and magnitudes of flow within each country and compared to assess relative differences between regions and demographic groups. Additional malaria-relevant characteristics, such as short-term travel and bed net use, were also examined. Results Patterns of human and malaria movements varied between demographic groups, within country regions and between countries. Migration rates were highest in 20–30 year olds in all three countries, but when accounting for malaria prevalence, movements in the 10–20 year age group became more important. Different age and sex groups also exhibited substantial variations in terms of the most likely sources, sinks and routes of migration and malaria movement, as well as risk factors for infection, such as short-term travel and bed net use. Conclusion Census and survey data, together with spatially referenced malaria data, GIS and network analysis tools, can be valuable for identifying, mapping and quantifying regional connectivities

  14. ASSESSMENT OF HYDROMORPHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF URBAN STREAMS WITH URBAN RIVER SURVEY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Marek Hamerla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper some aspects of potential use of the Urban River Survey (URS method for hydro-morphological assessment of urban river channels/corridors in Poland are discussed, includingthe URS aspects and criteria. The URS aspects/criteria take into account the specificity of urban watercourse omitted both in the RHS (River Habitat Survey which is more prevalent in Europe, and in Polish MHR method. The URS can be used to classify urban watercourses according to their ecological status, as well as in building scenarios of possible reclamation/restoration activities. The watercourse monitoring with the use of URS can be an important element of the local urban catchment management.

  15. Customer satisfaction survey to improve the European cystic fibrosis external quality assessment scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwouts, Sarah; Dequeker, Elisabeth

    2011-08-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis European Network, coordinated from within the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, is the provider of the European cystic fibrosis external quality assessment (EQA) scheme. The network aimed to seek feedback from laboratories that participated in the cystic fibrosis scheme in order to improve services offered. In this study we analysed responses to an on-line customer satisfaction survey conducted between September and November 2009. The survey was sent to 213 laboratories that participated in the cystic fibrosis EQA scheme of 2008; 69 laboratories (32%) responded. Scores for importance and satisfaction were obtained from a five-point Likert scale for 24 attributes. A score of one corresponded to very dissatisfied/very unimportant and five corresponded to very satisfied/very important. Means were calculated and placed in a two-dimensional grid (importance-satisfaction analysis). Means were subtracted from each other to obtain gap values (gap-analysis). No attribute had a mean score below 3.63. The overall mean of satisfaction was 4.35. Opportunities for improvement enclosed clarity, usefulness and completeness of the general report and individual comments, and user-friendliness of the electronic datasheet. This type of customer satisfaction survey was a valuable instrument to identify opportunities to improve the cystic fibrosis EQA scheme. It should be conducted on a regular basis to reveal new opportunities in the future and to assess effectiveness of actions taken. Moreover, it could be a model for other EQA providers seeking feedback from participants. Overall, the customer satisfaction survey provided a powerful quality of care improvement tool.

  16. Measuring satisfaction: factors that drive hospital consumer assessment of healthcare providers and systems survey responses in a trauma and acute care surgery population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Steven A; Iannuzzi, James C; Stassen, Nicole A; Bankey, Paul E; Gestring, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Hospital quality metrics now reflect patient satisfaction and are measured by Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) surveys. Understanding these metrics and drivers will be integral in providing quality care as this process evolves. This study identifies factors associated with patient satisfaction as determined by HCAHPS survey responses in trauma and acute care surgery patients. HCAHPS survey responses from acute care surgery and trauma patients at a single institution between 3/11 and 10/12 were analyzed. Logistic regression determined which responses to individual HCAHPS questions predicted highest hospital score (a rating of 9-10/10). Demographic and clinical variables were also analyzed as predictors of satisfaction. Subgroup analysis for trauma patients was performed. In 70.3 per cent of 182 total survey responses, a 9-10/10 score was given. The strongest predictors of highest hospital ranking were respect from doctors (odds ratio [OR] = 24.5, confidence interval [CI]: 5.44-110.4), doctors listening (OR: 9.33, CI: 3.7-23.5), nurses' listening (OR = 8.65, CI: 3.62-20.64), doctors' explanations (OR = 8.21, CI: 3.5-19.2), and attempts to control pain (OR = 7.71, CI: 3.22-18.46). Clinical factors and outcomes (complications, intensive care unit/hospital length of stay, mechanism of injury, and having an operation) were nonsignificant variables. For trauma patients, Injury Severity Score was inversely related to score (OR = 0.93, CI: 0.87-0.98). Insurance, education, and disposition were also tied to satisfaction, whereas age, gender, and ethnicity were nonsignificant. In conclusion, patient perception of interactions with the healthcare team was most strongly associated with satisfaction. Complications did not negatively influence satisfaction. Insurance status might potentially identify patients at risk of dissatisfaction. Listening to patients, treating them with respect, and explaining the care plan are integral to a

  17. Nurses' perceptions of pain assessment and management practices in neonates: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölkki, Tarja; Korhonen, Anne; Laukkala, Helena

    2017-08-22

    This study aimed to describe pain assessment and management practices for neonates based on nurses' perceptions in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in Finland. Of all nurses (N = 422) working in the NICUs in the country's five university hospitals, 294 responded to a questionnaire. The data were analysed by statistical methods. Nurses agreed that pain assessment is important, but over half of them reported being able to assess pain in a reliable way without using pain assessment scales. Physiological parameters and changes in neonate's behaviour were reported as routinely observed, but many specific facial expressions indicative of pain were less often observed. Only a few pain assessment scales were known, and they were not routinely used in clinical practice. Most nurses reported using physical methods and giving oral sucrose along with non-nutritive sucking. Counselling parents to continue breastfeeding or guiding them to use skin-to-skin care or music was rarely reported as used to alleviate infants' pain. Educational interventions for nurses are needed to improve pain assessment and management practices in the NICUs. In addition, there is a need for national guidelines in order to ensure the equal treatment to all neonates. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  18. Validation of the Spanish Translation of the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Aragones, MD, MSCI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC survey is a patient-centered instrument for evaluating the quality and patient-centeredness of chronic illness care received according to the Chronic Care Model paradigm. This study validates the Spanish translation of the PACIC in an urban, Spanish-speaking population.MethodsOne hundred Spanish-speaking patients with diabetes completed the translated PACIC and sociodemographic and cultural questionnaires. Test-retest reliability was assessed in a subset of 20 patients who completed the questionnaire 2 to 4 months later. Internal consistency was evaluated with Cronbach α. PACIC score and subscale associations with sociodemographic characteristics were examined.ResultsTest-retest reliability for the overall translated PACIC scale was 0.77. Scores were not associated with patient sociodemographic characteristics, including age, country of birth, years living in the United States, or education level (P >.05.ConclusionThe Spanish translation of the PACIC survey demonstrated high reliability, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. Scores showed no association with sociodemographic or cultural characteristics. The Spanish version can reliably be used to assess care delivered according to the Chronic Care Model in a heterogeneous Spanish-speaking population.

  19. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Lisa A; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes. © 2015 L. A. Corwin et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Assessment of surgical competence in North American graduate periodontics programs: a survey of current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiabi, Edmond; Taylor, K Lynn

    2010-08-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to document the methods utilized by North American graduate periodontics programs in assessing their residents' surgical skills. A survey of clinical skills assessment was mailed to directors of all fifty-eight graduate periodontics programs in Canada and the United States. Thirty-four programs (59 percent) responded. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. The results demonstrate that the most common practice for providing feedback and documenting residents' surgical skills in the programs surveyed was daily one-on-one verbal feedback given by an instructor. The next two most commonly reported methods were a standard checklist developed at program level and a combination of a checklist and verbal comments. The majority of the programs reported that the instructors met collectively once per term to evaluate the residents' progress. The results suggest that graduate periodontics programs provide their residents frequent opportunities for daily practice with verbal feedback from instructors. However, assessment strategies identified in other health professions as beneficial in fostering the integration of clinical skills practices are not employed.

  1. Assessing fear of hypoglycemia among adults with type 1 diabetes – psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey II questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Graue

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoglycemia is common in type 1 diabetes, but the overall frequency of both mild and severe hypoglycemia is difficult to estimate. The Hypoglycemia Fear Survey II (HFS-II is often used to assess the fear of hypoglycemia. Material and methods: The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the HFS-II for adults, including the behavior (HFS-B and worry (HFS-W subscales, among 235 adults in Norway with type 1 diabetes. We assessed associations between HFS-II scores and other rating scales and demographic and clinical variables. Results: The Norwegian version of HFS-II had an acceptable factor structure in relation to HFS-W, whereas the structure within HFS-B was more questionable. The expected relationships between HFS-II subscales and measures of related constructs administered concurrently demonstrated adequate convergent and discriminant validity. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were satisfactory. Conclusion: Access to reliable and valid self-report instruments enables the early detection of psychosocial problems. HFS-W performs well, whereas HFS-B needs to be further examined and developed.

  2. U.S. Geological Survey 2010 Petroleum Resource Assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA): GIS Play Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The 2010 updated assessment of NPRA evaluated each of the 24 plays based on the availability of new geologic data available from exploration activities and...

  3. Perceptions and use of passive intervertebral motion assessment of the spine: a survey among physiotherapists specializing in manual therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijffel, E. van; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Lindeboom, R.; Bossuyt, P.M.; Lucas, C.

    2009-01-01

    Manual therapists commonly use passive intervertebral motion (PIVM) assessment within physical examination. Data describing the use and interpretation of this manual diagnostic procedure, as well as therapists' perception of related importance and confidence, are lacking. A survey was conducted

  4. Perceptions and use of passive intervertebral motion assessment of the spine: A survey among physiotherapists specializing in manual therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Trijffel; R.A.B. Oostendorp; R. Lindeboom; P.M.M. Bossuyt; C. Lucas

    2009-01-01

    Manual therapists commonly use passive intervertebral motion (PIVM) assessment within physical examination. Data describing the use and interpretation of this manual diagnostic procedure, as well as therapists' perception of related importance and confidence. are lacking. A survey was conducted amon

  5. Perceptions and use of passive intervertebral motion assessment of the spine: a survey among physiotherapists specializing in manual therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijffel, E. van; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Lindeboom, R.; Bossuyt, P.M.; Lucas, C.

    2009-01-01

    Manual therapists commonly use passive intervertebral motion (PIVM) assessment within physical examination. Data describing the use and interpretation of this manual diagnostic procedure, as well as therapists' perception of related importance and confidence, are lacking. A survey was conducted amon

  6. The SDSS-IV in 2014: A Demographic Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Britt; Kinemuchi, Karen; Zasowski, Gail; Lucatello, Sara; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Tremonti, Christy A.; Myers, Adam D.; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Gillespie, Bruce; Ho, Shirley; Gallagher, John S.

    2015-08-01

    Many astronomers now participate in large international scientific collaborations, and it is important to examine whether these structures foster a healthy scientific climate that is inclusive and diverse. The Committee on the Participation of Women in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (CPWS) was formed to evaluate the demographics and gender climate within SDSS-IV, one of the largest and most geographically distributed astronomical collaborations. In 2014 April, the CPWS administered a voluntary demographic survey to establish a baseline for the incipient SDSS-IV, which began observations in 2014 July. We received responses from 250 participants (46% of the active membership). Half of the survey respondents were located in the United States or Canada and 30% were based in Europe. Approximately 65% were faculty or research scientists and 31% were postdocs or graduate students. Eleven percent of survey respondents considered themselves to be an ethnic minority at their current institution. Twenty-five percent of the SDSS-IV collaboration members are women, a fraction that is consistent with the U.S. astronomical community, but substantially higher than the fraction of women in the International Astronomical Union (16%). Approximately equal fractions of men and women report holding positions of leadership in the collaboration. When binned by academic age and career level, men and women also assume leadership roles at approximately equal rates, in a way that increases steadily for both genders with increasing seniority. In this sense, SDSS-IV has been successful in recruiting leaders that are representative of the collaboration. That said, it is clear that more progress needs to be made toward achieving gender balance and increasing diversity in the field of astronomy, and there is still room for improvement in the membership and leadership of SDSS-IV. For example, at the highest level of SDSS-IV leadership, women disproportionately assume roles related to education and

  7. [Demographic information in crisis: one point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelos, J B

    1990-01-01

    assess socioeconomic mortality differentials. The 2nd table presents a classification of processes of creation, survival, and extinction of the labor force from the perspective of the individual, domestic unit, and institution. High priority should be given to establishment of an interinstitutional group that would study the congruence of the 3 major sources of demographic information: censuses, vital statistics, and surveys.

  8. [Assessment of cancer RCP meetings in Rhône-Alpes: a survey on the ground].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descotes, J-L; Guillem, P; Bondil, P; Colombel, M; Chabloz, C

    2010-10-01

    The results of a local survey sent to urologists, oncologists and radiotherapeutists working in Rhône-Alpes have been reported to assess the value of multidisciplinary oncological meetings (RCP) in Urology. The results of this short study have been analyzed and compared to the national results published by the Inspection Générale des Affaires Sociales report. Meanwhile, we have created a professional electronic directory collecting all RCP of Rhône-Alpes, which will be accessible soon. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Demographic and Behavioral Characteristics of Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Robert Jack; Brady, E. Michael; Thaxton, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The number of lifelong learning institutes (LLIs) is growing across the United States and it is important for educational planners and administrators to know about current demographic and behavioral characteristics of program participants. A 14-question survey was administered via SurveyMonkey to members who use computers in eight Osher Lifelong…

  10. An assessment of human-elephant conflict and associated ecological and demographic factors in Nilambur, Western Ghats of Kerala, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Rohini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Elephant conservation carries cost in the form of human-elephant conflict and affects the wellbeing of people living near ecologically important areas.  Conflicts impart serious challenges towards the survival of Asian Elephants, which are categorized as Endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.  Issues of wildlife conservation are least addressed in areas with less restricted categories of protection.  Hence an attempt was made to evaluate the intensity of elephant conflict and factors associated with its occurrence in villages with forest fringes of North and South Forest Divisions of Nilambur, Kerala, southern India.  It was hypothesized that variables such as number of houses, area of village, livestock population, forest frontage, and presence of water source along the forest boundary abutting the village to be the underlying correlates of conflict.  Field studies were conducted fortnightly from June 2014 to May 2015, by visiting farms and households of 17 selected forest fringe villages.  Observational methods, questionnaire surveys and secondary data collection were employed for this purpose.  A total of 277 incidents of crop depredation, 12 incidents of property damage, three human injuries, and one human death due to conflict were recorded during this period.  Crop raiding was highest during post monsoon season and it was low during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons.  Multiple linear regression results suggest that forest frontage and livestock population were significant predictors of conflict incidence.  Information regarding the prime causes of conflict will be helpful for planning strategies for the establishment of appropriate mitigation methods.  The present study serves as baseline information which will be helpful for formulating prospective management plans.

  11. Self-assessed efficacy of a clinical musculoskeletal anatomy workshop: A preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Navarro-Zarza, José E; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Canoso, Juan J; Kalish, Robert A; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    To survey the efficacy of a practical workshop on clinical musculoskeletal anatomy held in five American countries. A self-assessment competence questionnaire sent to participants 1-3 months after the workshop. Results were compared to the results of a practical, instructor-assessed, pre-workshop test. The response rate of participants was 76.4%. The overall, self-assessed competence score for anatomical items that had been included in the pre-test was 76.9 (scale 0-100) as compared to an overall score of 48.1 in the practical, pre-workshop test (p<0.001). For items that were addressed in the workshop, but not included in the pre-test, self-assessed competence was rated at 62.9. Differences in anatomical knowledge between individuals from different countries and professional groups noted in the practical pre-test were no longer present in the post-test self-assessment. From this preliminary data and supporting evidence from the literature we believe that our anatomy workshop provides an effective didactic tool for increasing competence in musculoskeletal anatomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Leadership development in a professional medical society using 360-degree survey feedback to assess emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Paul J; Robbins, Benjamin; Schwaitzberg, Steven D; Harmon, Larry

    2016-12-30

    The current research evaluated the potential utility of a 360-degree survey feedback program for measuring leadership quality in potential committee leaders of a professional medical association (PMA). Emotional intelligence as measured by the extent to which self-other agreement existed in the 360-degree survey ratings was explored as a key predictor of leadership quality in the potential leaders. A non-experimental correlational survey design was implemented to assess the variation in leadership quality scores across the sample of potential leaders. A total of 63 of 86 (76%) of those invited to participate did so. All potential leaders received feedback from PMA Leadership, PMA Colleagues, and PMA Staff and were asked to complete self-ratings regarding their behavior. Analyses of variance revealed a consistent pattern of results as Under-Estimators and Accurate Estimators-Favorable were rated significantly higher than Over-Estimators in several leadership behaviors. Emotional intelligence as conceptualized in this study was positively related to overall performance ratings of potential leaders. The ever-increasing roles and potential responsibilities for PMAs suggest that these organizations should consider multisource performance reviews as these potential future PMA executives rise through their organizations to assume leadership positions with profound potential impact on healthcare. The current findings support the notion that potential leaders who demonstrated a humble pattern or an accurate pattern of self-rating scored significantly higher in their leadership, teamwork, and interpersonal/communication skills than those with an aggrandizing self-rating.

  13. Integrated geophysical surveys to assess the structural conditions of a karstic cave of archaeological importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Leucci

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geophysical survey using both the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT and ground-penetrating radar (GPR methods was undertaken over a cave of great archaeological interest in southern Italy. The survey was performed to assess the stability of the carbonate rock roof of the cave. A geophysical survey was preferred to boreholes and geotechnical tests, in order to avoid the risk of mass movements. The interpretation of integrated data from ERT and GPR resulted in an evaluation of some of the electromagnetic (EM characteristics (such as the EM wave velocity and the detection of discontinuities (fractures in the carbonate rock. It is well known that rock fractures constitute a serious problem in cave maintenance, and progressive cracking within the bed rock is considered to be one of the main causes of collapse. An analysis of the back-scattered energy was also required for the GPR data interpretation. Cracks within the bedrock were detected to a depth of about 2 m by using GPR, which allowed for the identification of the loosened zone around the cave.

  14. Measuring stigma among abortion providers: assessing the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa A; Debbink, Michelle; Hassinger, Jane; Youatt, Emily; Eagen-Torkko, Meghan; Harris, Lisa H

    2014-01-01

    We explored the psychometric properties of 15 survey questions that assessed abortion providers' perceptions of stigma and its impact on providers' professional and personal lives referred to as the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey (APSS). We administered the survey to a sample of abortion providers recruited for the Providers' Share Workshop (N = 55). We then completed analyses using Stata SE/12.0. Exploratory factor analysis, which resulted in 13 retained items and identified three subscales: disclosure management, resistance and resilience, and discrimination. Stigma was salient in abortion provider's lives: they identified difficulties surrounding disclosure (66%) and felt unappreciated by society (89%). Simultaneously, workers felt they made a positive contribution to society (92%) and took pride in their work (98%). Paired t-test analyses of the pre- and post-Workshop APSS scores showed no changes in the total score. However, the Disclosure Management subscale scores were significantly lower (indicating decreased stigma) for two subgroups of participants: those over the age of 30 and those with children. This analysis is a promising first step in the development of a quantitative tool for capturing abortion providers' experiences of and responses to pervasive abortion stigma.

  15. Socio-Demographic Factors, Social Support, Quality of Life, and HIV/AIDS in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Cornelius, Llewellyn J; Okundaye, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the access to biomedical interventions for people living with HIV/AIDS in the developing world has not been adequately matched with the requisite psychosocial treatments to help improve the effectiveness of biomedical interventions. Therefore, in this study the author seeks to determine whether socio-demographic characteristics and social support are associated with quality of life in individuals diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. A convenience sample of 300 HIV/AIDS support group members was obtained via cross-sectional design survey. The Medical Outcome Studies (MOS) HIV Health Survey, the MOS Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS), and demographic questionnaire instruments were used to assess quality of life, social support, and demographic information respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that there was a positive association between overall social support and overall quality of life (r = .51). It also showed that being younger, male, attending support group meetings for over a year, and having ≥ 13 years of schooling related to higher quality of life. Implications of the findings for practice, policy, and research in Ghana and the rest of the developing world are discussed.

  16. Experienced drug users assess the relative harms and benefits of drugs: a web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin Lester; Nutt, David John

    2013-01-01

    A web-based survey was used to consult the opinions of experienced drug users on matters related to drug harms. We identified a rare sample of 93 drug users with personal experience with 11 different illicit drugs that are widely used in the UK. Asked to assess the relative harms of these drugs, they ranked alcohol and tobacco as the most harmful, and three "Class A" drugs (MDMA, LSD, and psilocybin) and one class B (cannabis) were ranked as the four least harmful drugs. When asked to assess the relative potential for benefit of the 11 drugs, MDMA, LSD, psilocybin, and cannabis were ranked in the top four; and when asked why these drugs are beneficial, rather than simply report hedonic properties, they referred to potential therapeutic applications (e.g., as tools to assist psychotherapy). These results provide a useful insight into the opinions of experienced drug users on a subject about which they have a rare and intimate knowledge.

  17. 23 CFR 1340.4 - Population, demographic, and time/day requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Population, demographic, and time/day requirements. 1340... TRANSPORTATION UNIFORM CRITERIA FOR STATE OBSERVATIONAL SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT USE § 1340.4 Population, demographic... following minimum population, demographic, and time/day requirements: (a) Population of interest. (1...

  18. 77 FR 31028 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking/Tobacco Use Information...: Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking/Tobacco Use Information from the National Cancer... clients at the end of usual service--a survey that includes three customer service and twelve demographic...

  19. Locatable mineral assessment tracts for the U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan, Carma A.; Horton, John D.; Parks, Heather L.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Denning, Paul D.; Giles, Stuart A.; Hall, Susan M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Hearn, Carter B.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Lund, Karen; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Robinson, Jr., Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Rytuba, James J.; Smith, Steven M.; Stillings, Lisa; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Vikre, Peter G.; Wallis, John C.; Wilson, Anna B.; Zientek, Michael L.; Zurcher, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming SFAs, as well as additional areas in Nevada (termed the “Nevada additions”) proposed by the State of Nevada. Landscape-scale conservation efforts by the BLM, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), State agencies, private land owners, and other partners are striving to conserve the breeding sagebrush habitat for the greater sage-grouse across these areas.Accompanying report (Chapter A): Day, W.C., Hammarstrom, J.M., Zientek, M.L., and Frost, T.P., eds., 2016, Overview with methods and procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey mineral-resource assessment of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089, 211 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20165089.To quickly view the data, please access the ScienceBase interactive map viewer via the "Map" link in the upper-right corner of this page. Additional data functionality is described within the "Data_access_README.pdf" file that can be viewed or downloaded from the Attached Files area below.

  20. Survey of self-assessed preparedness for clinical practice in one Croatian medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Sarah M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Croatian higher education system is in the process of reforming its medical curricula to comply with European Union standards. We conducted a survey of students enrolled at the University of Zagreb (Croatia asking them to rate their perception of preparedness for clinical practice prior to initiation of the reform process. The purpose of the survey was to identify self-perceived deficiencies in education and to establish a reference point for the later assessment of ongoing educational reform. Findings One-hundred and forty seven (N = 147 graduates reported the levels of perceived preparedness on 30 items grouped into 8 educational domains. Main domains were: understanding science, practical skills/patient management, holistic care, prevention, interpersonal skills, confidence/coping skills, collaboration, and self-directed learning. For each item, graduates self assessed their preparedness on a scale ranging from 1 to 4, with 1 = "Very inadequate", 2 = "Somewhat inadequate", 3 = "Somewhat adequate", and 4 = "Very adequate". In 7 out of 8 domains the achieved median score was ≥ 3. Students expressed low confidence (defined when ≥ 25% of respondents supplied a rating for the survey question as: "very inadequate" or "somewhat inadequate" with interpersonal skills (discussing terminal disease, counseling distraught patients, balancing professional and personal life, and in performing certain basic semi-invasive or invasive procedures. Conclusion Zagreb medical graduates identified several deficiencies within educational domains required for standard clinical practice. Ongoing educational efforts need to be directed towards the correction of these deficiencies in order to achieve standards required by the European Union.

  1. Response to climate risks among smallholder farmers in Malawi: A multivariate probit assessment of the role of information, household demographics, and farm characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalmers Mulwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Why do many smallholder farmers fail to adopt what appear to be relatively simple agronomic or management practices which can help them cope with climate-induced stressors? Using household and plot level data collected in 2011, we implement a multivariate probit model to assess the determinants of farmer adaptation behavior to climatic risks and the relative contribution of information, credit and education on the probability of adopting specific practices in response to adverse changes in weather patterns. We find that plot characteristics, credit constraints and availability of climate-related information explain the adoption of several of these practices. In relative terms, we also find that even when financial limitations are binding, making climate-related information available can still motivate farmers to adapt. Policy implications are that the deepening of extension access with information on the appropriate adaptation strategies is crucial to help farmers make adaptation choices. The need to foster credit markets for easy accessibility and affordability by farmers or otherwise strengthening access to assets is also important.

  2. Neonatal nurses' perceptions of pain assessment and management in NICUs: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Delaney, Colleen; Vazquez, Victoria

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this survey was to investigate neonatal nurses' perceptions of knowledge and practice in pain assessment and management. A convenience sample consisted of 237 neonatal nurses with a membership in National Association of Neonatal Nurses (NANN) and neonatal nurses in Connecticut who were not NANN members. A researcher-developed questionnaire, including 36 questions with Likert scale and 2 open-ended questions, was used. The nurses were knowledgeable, and about 50% felt that they received adequate training and continuing education on pain. Participants reported the use of pain assessment tools (81%) and felt confident in uses of pharmacologic (83%) and nonpharmacologic interventions (79%). More than half felt that the pain tool used in their unit was appropriate for neonates (65%) and was an accurate measure (60%). Fewer than half reported that pain was well managed (44%) and that their pain protocols were research evidence based (43%). Nurses' perceptions of well-managed pain were significantly correlated with training, use of appropriate and accurate pain tools, and clear and research-based protocols. Barriers to effective pain management emerged as resistance to change, lack of knowledge, perceived fear of side effects of pain medication and incorrect interpretation of pain signals, lack of time, and lack of trust in the pain assessment tools. Gaps exist in knowledge, evidence, and practice in neonatal assessment and management.

  3. National survey of Canadian occupational therapists' assessment and treatment of cognitive impairment post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Barrett-Bernstein, Sheila; Bibas, Gabrielle; Poulin, Valérie

    2011-08-01

    This study examined variations in management of cognitive impairment post-stroke among occupational therapists and factors associated with variations in practice. Canada-wide cross-sectional telephone survey. Clinicians' practices were examined using standard patient cases (vignettes). Acute care, inpatient rehabilitation and community-based sites providing stroke rehabilitation in all Canadian provinces. Occupational therapists (n=663) working in stroke rehabilitation as identified through provincial licensing bodies. Type and frequency of cognition-related problem identification, assessment and intervention use. Respectively, 69%, 83% and 31% of occupational therapists responding to the acute care, inpatient rehabilitation and community-based vignettes recognised cognition as a potential problem. Standardised assessment use was prevalent: 70% working in acute care, 77% in inpatient rehabilitation and 58% in community-based settings indicated using standardised assessments: 81%, 83% and 50%, respectively, indicated using general cognitive interventions. The Mini-Mental State Examination was often used incorrectly to monitor patient change. Executive function, a critical component of post-stroke assessment, was rarely addressed. Interventions were most often general (e.g. incorporated in activities of daily living) rather than specific (e.g. cueing, memory aids, computer-based retraining). © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  4. The Impact of Extrinsic Demographic Factors on Cantonese Speech Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    This study modeled the associations between extrinsic demographic factors and children's speech acquisition in Hong Kong Cantonese. The speech of 937 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;4 to 6;7 in Hong Kong was assessed using a standardized speech test. Demographic information regarding household income, paternal education, maternal education,…

  5. Demographic variables in coal miners’ safety attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-wen; Wu, Xiang; Ci, Hui-Peng; Qin, Shu-Qi; Liu, Jia-Long

    2017-03-01

    To change unsafe behavior through adjusting people’s safety attitudes has become an important measure to prevent accidents. Demographic variables, as influential factors of safety attitude, are fundamental and essential for the research. This research does a questionnaire survey among coal mine industry workers, and makes variance analysis and correlation analysis of the results in light of age, length of working years, educational level and experiences of accidents. The results show that the coal miners’ age, length of working years and accident experiences correlate lowly with safety attitudes, and those older coal miners with longer working years have better safety attitude, as coal miners without experiences of accident do.However, educational level has nothing to do with the safety attitude. Therefore, during the process of safety management, coal miners with different demographic characteristics should be put more attention to.

  6. IUD Expulsion and its Socio-demographic Determinants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To identify the determinant of the occurrence of IUD expulsionMaterials & Methods Based on 25 733 IUD uses from the Chinese Two-per-Thou-sand Fertility Survey data, this study examines the patterns and differentials of IUDexpulsion rate by characteristics of women, and identifies the socio-demographic deter-minants of IUD expulsion. A Life Table method was used to calculate the cumulativeexpulsion rate and a random-effects discrete-time survival model was employed to as-sess the impact of potential determinants simultaneously on the risk of expelling anIUD.Results Three major findings are observed in this study. First, IUD expulsion wasthe second main reason, after pregnancy during IUD use, for IUD discontinuationduring the first four years of IUD insertion; the expulsion rates were 6. 4%, 9. 1%,10. 8 %, and 12. 0% at 12, 24, 36and 48months, respectively. Second, there was aclustering of IUD expulsion: some women experienced repeated IUD expulsions.Third, some socio-demographic characteristics and fertility history were associatedwith the occurrence of IUD expulsion. In particular, the expulsion rate was highamong young women, among those with two or more children and among those livingin rural areas.Conclusion The above mentioned factors shoald be addressed in order to decrease theIUD expulsion rate and enhance the reprocluctive he alth of women.

  7. Assessing, treating and preventing community acquired pneumonia in older adults: findings from a community-wide survey of emergency room and family physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb Mark

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory infections, like pneumonia, represent an important threat to the health of older Canadians. Our objective was to determine, at a community level, family and emergency room physicians' knowledge and beliefs about community acquired pneumonia (CAP in older adults and to describe their self-reported assessment, management and prevention strategies. Methods All active ER and family physicians in Brant County received a mailed questionnaire. An advance notification letter and three follow-up mailings were used to maximize physician participation rate. The questionnaire collected information about physicians' assessment, management, and prevention strategies for CAP in older adults (≥60 years of age plus demographic, training, and practice characteristics. The analysis highlights differences in approaches between office-based and emergency department physicians. Results Seventy-seven percent of physicians completed and returned the survey. Although only 16% of physicians were very confident in assessing CAP in older adults, more than half reported CAP to be a very important health concern in their practices. In-service training for family physicians was associated with increased confidence in CAP assessment and more frequent use of diagnostic tests. Family physicians who reported always requesting chest x-rays were also more likely to request pulse oximetry (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.40 to 22.5 and recommend both follow-up x-rays (OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.7 to 16.6 and pneumococcal vaccination (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0. Conclusion The findings of this study provide a snapshot of how non-specialists from a non-urban Ontario community assess, manage and prevent CAP in older adults and highlight differences between office-based and emergency department physicians. This information can guide researchers and clinicians in their efforts to improve the management and prevention of CAP in older adults.

  8. Assessing Pesticide Impact on Human Health in Nebraska: A Survey of Fire Departments. Department Report No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Edward F.; And Others

    A mail survey of Nebraska fire departments/districts was conducted during summer 1983 to assess the human and physical resources available to them with special emphasis on equipment and protective clothing needed in pesticide-related emergencies. It also assessed general preparedness for responding to agrichemical emergencies, particularly those…

  9. Demographic Trends: Impact on Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia N. Y.; Cheah, Horn Mun

    2010-01-01

    Background: Singapore is experiencing great demographic change. These demographic trends show fewer young people and declining birth rates, greater longevity for ageing generations and an increase in the number of non-Singaporean residents. Statistics also show that more than half of the total population increase in the last decades was…

  10. Economic Growth, Demographic Change and Rural-Urban Migration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Fu-ning; LI Qing; XIANG Jing; ZHU Jing

    2013-01-01

    Is China able to maintain fast growth after three decades? This paper tries to answer this question by:1) arguing that factors contributed to sustained long-run growth at supply side; 2) focusing on contributions of demographic dividend especially that of rural-urban migration; and 3) analyzing rural demographic change with information collected through village-wide household survey. Policy alternatives to realize remaining potential demographic dividend are proposed based on the analysis of changing rural demographic structure.

  11. Phase I Archaeological Survey of Parcel ED-3 and Historic Assessement of the Happy Valley Worker Camp Roane County, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New South Associates

    2009-08-17

    Parcel ED-3 was the location of a portion of 'Happy Valley', a temporary worker housing area occupied from 1943 to 1947 during the construction of the K-25 Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The project was carried out under subcontract for the Department of Energy. The survey report will be used in the preparation of an Environmental Assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). New South Associates conducted a Phase I Archaeological Survey of Parcel ED-3 at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation in Roane County, Tennessee. The survey was conducted in two parts. The first survey was carried out in 2008 and covered an area measuring approximately 110 acres. The second survey took place in 2009 and focused on 72 acres west of the first survey area. The objective of the surveys was to identify any archaeological remains associated with Happy Valley and any additional sites on the property and to assess these sites for National Register eligibility. New South Associates also conducted a historic assessment to gather information on Happy Valley. This historic assessment was used in conjunction with the archaeological survey to evaluate the significance of the Happy Valley site. Archaeological remains of Happy Valley were located throughout the parcel, but no additional sites were located. The official state site number for Happy Valley is 40RE577. During the two surveys a total of 13 artifact concentrations, 14 isolated finds, and 75 structural features were located. Due to the Happy Valley's stron gassociation with the Manhattan Project, the site is recommended eligible for the National Register of Historic Places under Criterion A.

  12. A global quantitative survey of hemostatic assessment in postpartum hemorrhage and experience with associated bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andra H; Cooper, David L; Paidas, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Coagulopathy may be a serious complicating or contributing factor to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), and should be promptly recognized to ensure proper bleeding management. This study aims to evaluate the approaches of obstetrician-gynecologists worldwide towards assessing massive PPH caused by underlying bleeding disorders. A quantitative survey was completed by 302 obstetrician-gynecologists from 6 countries (the UK, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Japan). The survey included questions on the use of hematologic laboratory studies, interpretation of results, laboratory's role in coagulation assessments, and experience with bleeding disorders. Overall, the most common definitions of "massive" PPH were >2,000 mL (39%) and >1,500 mL (34%) blood loss. The most common criteria for rechecking a "stat" complete blood count and for performing coagulation studies were a drop in blood pressure (73%) and ongoing visible bleeding (78%), respectively. Laboratory coagulation (prothrombin time/activated partial thromboplastin time [PT/aPTT]) and factor VIII/IX assays were performed on-site more often than were mixing studies (laboratory coagulation studies, 93%; factor VIII/IX assays, 63%; mixing studies, 22%). Most commonly consulted sources of additional information were colleagues within one's own specialty (68%) and other specialists (67%). Most respondents had consulted with a hematologist (78%; least, Germany [56%]; greatest, UK [98%]). The most common reason for not consulting was hematologist unavailability (44%). The most commonly reported thresholds for concern with PT and aPTT were 13 to 20 seconds (36%) and 30 to 45 seconds (50%), respectively. Most respondents reported having discovered an underlying bleeding disorder (58%; least, Japan [35%]; greatest, Spain [74%]). Global survey results highlight similarities and differences between countries in how PPH is assessed and varying levels of obstetrician-gynecologist experience with identification of underlying

  13. Patient Experience Assessment is a Requisite for Quality Evaluation: A Discussion of the In-Center Hemodialysis Consumer Assessment of Health Care Providers and Systems (ICH CAHPS) Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2016-01-01

    Patient experience surveys provide a critical and unique perspective on the quality of patient-centered healthcare delivery. These surveys provide a mechanism to systematically express patients' voice on topics valued by patients to make decisions about choices in care. They also provide an assessment to healthcare organizations about their service that cannot be obtained from any other source. Regulatory agencies have mandated the assessment of patients' experience as part of healthcare value based purchasing programs and weighted the results to account for up to 30% of the total scoring. This is a testimony to the accepted importance of this metric as a fundamental assessment of quality. After more than a decade of rigorous research, there is a significant body of growing evidence supporting specifically the validity and use of the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) surveys, including a version specific to in-center hemodialysis (ICH CAHPS). This review will focus on the ICH CAHPS survey including a review of its development, content, administration, and also a discussion of common criticisms. Although it is suggested that the survey assesses activities and experiences that are not modifiable by the healthcare organization (or the dialysis facility in our case) emerging evidence suggests otherwise. Dialysis providers have an exclusive opportunity to lead the advancement of understanding the implications and serviceability of the evaluation of the patient experience in health care. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A survey to assess family physicians' motivation to teach undergraduates in their practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus May

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Germany, family physicians (FPs are increasingly needed to participate in undergraduate medical education. Knowledge of FPs' motivation to teach medical students in their practices is lacking. PURPOSE: To describe a novel questionnaire that assesses the motivation of FPs to teach undergraduates in their practices and to show the results of a subsequent survey using this instrument. METHODS: The questionnaire was developed based on a review of the literature. Previously used empirical instruments assessing occupational values and motivation were included. A preliminary version was pretested in a pilot study. The resulting 68-item questionnaire was sent to 691 FPs involved in undergraduate medical education. Reliability was assessed and subgroups were analyzed with regard to differences in motivation. RESULTS: A total of 523 physicians in n = 458 teaching practices participated (response rate 75.7%. 'Helping others' and 'interest' were revealed as the predominant motives. Responses showed a predominantly intrinsic motivation of the participating FPs. Their main incentives were an ambition to work as a medical preceptor, to generally improve undergraduate education and to share knowledge. Material compensation was of minor importance. Time restraints were indicated as a barrier by some FPs, but were not a general concern. CONCLUSION: German FPs involved in medical education have altruistic attitudes towards teaching medical students in their practices. Motivational features give an important insight for the recruitment of FP preceptors as well as for their training in instructional methods.

  15. A Survey to Assess Family Physicians’ Motivation to Teach Undergraduates in Their Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Marcus; Mand, Peter; Biertz, Frank; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Kruschinski, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Background In Germany, family physicians (FPs) are increasingly needed to participate in undergraduate medical education. Knowledge of FPs’ motivation to teach medical students in their practices is lacking. Purpose To describe a novel questionnaire that assesses the motivation of FPs to teach undergraduates in their practices and to show the results of a subsequent survey using this instrument. Methods The questionnaire was developed based on a review of the literature. Previously used empirical instruments assessing occupational values and motivation were included. A preliminary version was pretested in a pilot study. The resulting 68-item questionnaire was sent to 691 FPs involved in undergraduate medical education. Reliability was assessed and subgroups were analyzed with regard to differences in motivation. Results A total of 523 physicians in n = 458 teaching practices participated (response rate 75.7%). ‘Helping others’ and ‘interest’ were revealed as the predominant motives. Responses showed a predominantly intrinsic motivation of the participating FPs. Their main incentives were an ambition to work as a medical preceptor, to generally improve undergraduate education and to share knowledge. Material compensation was of minor importance. Time restraints were indicated as a barrier by some FPs, but were not a general concern. Conclusion German FPs involved in medical education have altruistic attitudes towards teaching medical students in their practices. Motivational features give an important insight for the recruitment of FP preceptors as well as for their training in instructional methods. PMID:23029272

  16. Risky business: factor analysis of survey data - assessing the probability of incorrect dimensionalisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cees van der Eijk

    Full Text Available This paper undertakes a systematic assessment of the extent to which factor analysis the correct number of latent dimensions (factors when applied to ordered-categorical survey items (so-called Likert items. We simulate 2400 data sets of uni-dimensional Likert items that vary systematically over a range of conditions such as the underlying population distribution, the number of items, the level of random error, and characteristics of items and item-sets. Each of these datasets is factor analysed in a variety of ways that are frequently used in the extant literature, or that are recommended in current methodological texts. These include exploratory factor retention heuristics such as Kaiser's criterion, Parallel Analysis and a non-graphical scree test, and (for exploratory and confirmatory analyses evaluations of model fit. These analyses are conducted on the basis of Pearson and polychoric correlations. We find that, irrespective of the particular mode of analysis, factor analysis applied to ordered-categorical survey data very often leads to over-dimensionalisation. The magnitude of this risk depends on the specific way in which factor analysis is conducted, the number of items, the properties of the set of items, and the underlying population distribution. The paper concludes with a discussion of the consequences of over-dimensionalisation, and a brief mention of alternative modes of analysis that are much less prone to such problems.

  17. Risky business: factor analysis of survey data - assessing the probability of incorrect dimensionalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eijk, Cees; Rose, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This paper undertakes a systematic assessment of the extent to which factor analysis the correct number of latent dimensions (factors) when applied to ordered-categorical survey items (so-called Likert items). We simulate 2400 data sets of uni-dimensional Likert items that vary systematically over a range of conditions such as the underlying population distribution, the number of items, the level of random error, and characteristics of items and item-sets. Each of these datasets is factor analysed in a variety of ways that are frequently used in the extant literature, or that are recommended in current methodological texts. These include exploratory factor retention heuristics such as Kaiser's criterion, Parallel Analysis and a non-graphical scree test, and (for exploratory and confirmatory analyses) evaluations of model fit. These analyses are conducted on the basis of Pearson and polychoric correlations. We find that, irrespective of the particular mode of analysis, factor analysis applied to ordered-categorical survey data very often leads to over-dimensionalisation. The magnitude of this risk depends on the specific way in which factor analysis is conducted, the number of items, the properties of the set of items, and the underlying population distribution. The paper concludes with a discussion of the consequences of over-dimensionalisation, and a brief mention of alternative modes of analysis that are much less prone to such problems.

  18. Assessing Nephrological Competence among Geriatricians: A Proof of Concept Internet Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is highly prevalent in the elderly and negatively impacts survival and health status. Thus, nephrological competence is mandatory for a skilled geriatrician. The present study aimed to assess nephrological competence in a sample of geriatricians recruited through a web survey. To this aim, a 12-items questionnaire was produced by an expert panel of nephrologists and geriatricians and was available online for members of the Italian Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics (SIGG. Two-hundred-eighty-seven geriatricians volunteered to fill in the questionnaire. The majority of them indirectly estimated the glomerular filtration rate (GFR using mainly the Cockroft-Gault (C-G formula. Selected nephrological exams, such as urinary Na and serum D-vitamin measurements, did not qualify as routine exams although the majority of geriatricians supplemented their patients with fat-soluble secosteroids. Ten percent of geriatricians asked for nephrological consultation only for stage 5 CKD patients and 30,9% only for stage 4 or 5. Erythropoietin supplementation was common practice for the majority of geriatricians, while only one third of them systematically used a procedure intended to prevent the contrast induced nephropathy (CIN. Finally, an alleged 50% adherence to the international guidelines for the management of CKD patients emerged from the questionnaire. Overall, results from this survey strongly recommend promoting nephrological education among geriatricians. Didactic standards for in training geriatricians need to be updated and the cooperation between geriatrics and nephrological societies promoted.

  19. Reliability, precision, and measurement in the context of data from ability tests, surveys, and assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, W P Jr [LivingCapitalMetrics.com 5252 Annunciation St, New Orleans, Louisiana 70115 (United States); Elbaum, B [University of Miami, Florida (United States); Coulter, A, E-mail: william@livingcapitalmetrics.co, E-mail: elbaum@miami.ed, E-mail: acoulter@lsuhsc.ed [Louisiana State University, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Reliability coefficients indicate the proportion of total variance attributable to differences among measures separated along a quantitative continuum by a testing, survey, or assessment instrument. Reliability is usually considered to be influenced by both the internal consistency of a data set and the number of items, though textbooks and research papers rarely evaluate the extent to which these factors independently affect the data in question. Probabilistic formulations of the requirements for unidimensional measurement separate consistency from error by modelling individual response processes instead of group-level variation. The utility of this separation is illustrated via analyses of small sets of simulated data, and of subsets of data from a 78-item survey of over 2,500 parents of children with disabilities. Measurement reliability ultimately concerns the structural invariance specified in models requiring sufficient statistics, parameter separation, unidimensionality, and other qualities that historically have made quantification simple, practical, and convenient for end users. The paper concludes with suggestions for a research program aimed at focusing measurement research more on the calibration and wide dissemination of tools applicable to individuals, and less on the statistical study of inter-variable relations in large data sets.

  20. A rapid assessment survey of invasive species of macrobenthic invertebrates in Korean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Sung-Tae; Hong, Jae-Sang; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2017-06-01

    Introduced species are a growing and imminent threat to living marine resources in parts of the world's oceans. The present study is a rapid assessment survey of invasive macrobenthic invertebrate species in Korean ports. We surveyed over 40 ports around Korea during the period of May 2010 March 2013. Among the sampling sites were concrete walls, docks and associated floats, bumpers, tires, and ropes which might harbor non-native species. We found 15 invasive species as follows: one Sponge, two Bryozoans, three Mollusks, one Polychaete, four Cirripedes, and four Ascidians. Three morphologically similar species, namely X. atrata, M. galloprovincialis, and X. securis were further examined for distinctions in their morphology. Although they could be reasonably distinguished based on shell shapes, significant overlap was noted so that additional analysis may be required to correctly distinguish them. Although many of the introduced species have already spread to all three coastal areas, newly arrived invasive species showed a relatively restricted range, with a serpulid polychaete Ficopomatus enigmaticus and a mytilid bivalve Xenostrobus securis found only at a few sites on the East Coast. An exception is for Balanus perforatus, which has rapidly colonized the East coast of Korea following its introduction into the region. Successful management of invasive macrobenthic invertebrates should be established in order to contain the spread of these newly arrived species.

  1. Small business needs assessment: a comparison of dental educators' responses with SBDC survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, R W; Callan, R S; Blalock, J S; Turner, J E; Trombly, R M

    2001-09-01

    A primary focus of dental education is to teach students the knowledge, skills, and values essential for practicing dentistry. However, the preparation of dentists to manage a business is frequently cited as inadequate. A survey was prepared to assess teachers' opinions of business instructional topics: challenges; desired training; employee benefits; learning resources; importance of business topics; and appropriateness of time allocations. The purpose of this project is to compare opinions of teachers of dental practice management with key management aspects reported for service businesses by the Small Business Development Center (SBDC). Practice management teachers from forty-eight (89 percent) schools responded to the survey. They indicated that several challenges confronting dentists are similar to other service businesses. Dentists, however, rank customer relations appreciably higher. In order of importance of teaching topics, the practice management teachers rank ethics and personnel management as a high priority and planning as a low priority. Awareness of the similarities and differences in the perceptions of practice management teachers and businesspeople may result in instructional improvements.

  2. Assessment of a Static Multibeam Sonar Scanner for 3d Surveying in Confined Subaquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, E.; Charbonnier, P.; Foucher, P.; Grussenmeyer, P.; Guillemin, S.; Samat, O.; Pagès, C.

    2016-06-01

    Mechanical Scanning Sonar (MSS) is a promising technology for surveying underwater environments. Such devices are comprised of a multibeam echosounder attached to a pan & tilt positioner, that allows sweeping the scene in a similar way as Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS). In this paper, we report on the experimental assessment of a recent MSS, namely, the BlueView BV5000, in a confined environment: lock number 50 on the Marne-Rhin canal (France). To this aim, we hung the system upside-down to scan the lock chamber from the surface, which allows surveying the scanning positions, up to an horizontal orientation. We propose a geometric method to estimate the remaining angle and register the scans in a coordinate system attached to the site. After reviewing the different errors that impair sonar data, we compare the resulting point cloud to a TLS model that was acquired the day before, while the lock was completely empty for maintenance. While the results exhibit a bias that can be partly explained by an imperfect setup, the maximum difference is less than 15 cm, and the standard deviation is about 3.5 cm. Visual inspection shows that coarse defects of the masonry, such as stone lacks or cavities, can be detected in the MSS point cloud, while smaller details, e.g. damaged joints, are harder to notice.

  3. Teaching and assessment of communication skills in undergraduate dental education - a survey in German-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüttermann, S; Sobotta, A; Hahn, P; Kiessling, C; Härtl, A

    2017-08-01

    Teaching communication is perceived to be of importance in dental education. Several reports have been published worldwide in the educational literature describing modifications of the dental curriculum by implementing the teaching of communication skills. Surveys which evaluate the current state of training and assessment of communication skills in dental education in different countries exist already in some countries, but little information is available about German-speaking countries. In a cross-sectional study with the aim of a census, all 36 dental schools in Germany (30), Austria (3), and Switzerland (3) were surveyed. The present survey revealed that at 26 of the 34 dental schools (76%), communication skills training has been implemented. Training of communication skills mainly takes place between the 6th and the 9th semester. Ten schools were able to implement a partly longitudinal curriculum, while the other sites only offer stand-alone courses. Of the 34 dental schools, six assess communication skills in a summative way. Three of those schools also use formative assessments for their students. Another seven sites only use formative assessment. From the various formats of assessment, OSCE is mentioned most frequently. The necessity to train and assess communication skills has reached German-speaking dental schools. The present survey allows an overview of the training and assessment of communication skills in undergraduate dental education in German-speaking Europe. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Graduate medical education in humanism and professionalism: a needs assessment survey of pediatric gastroenterology fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Katharine C; Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Herrick, Daniel B; Woolf, Alan D; Leichtner, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    The deterioration of humanism and professionalism during graduate medical training is an acknowledged concern, and programs are required to provide professionalism education for pediatric fellows. We conducted a needs assessment survey in a national sample of 138 first- and second-year gastroenterology fellows (82% response rate). Most believed that present humanism and professionalism education met their needs, but this education was largely informal (eg, role modeling). Areas for formal education desired by >70% included competing demands of clinical practice versus research, difficult doctor-patient relationships, depression/burnout, angry parents, medical errors, work-life balance, and the patient illness experience. These results may guide curricula to formalize humanism and professionalism education in pediatric gastroenterology fellowships.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey Methodology Development for Ecological Carbon Assessment and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Stackpoole, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ecological carbon sequestration refers to transfer and storage of atmospheric carbon in vegetation, soils, and aquatic environments to help offset the net increase from carbon emissions. Understanding capacities, associated opportunities, and risks of vegetated ecosystems to sequester carbon provides science information to support formulation of policies governing climate change mitigation, adaptation, and land-management strategies. Section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 mandates the Department of the Interior to develop a methodology and assess the capacity of our nation's ecosystems for ecological carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas (GHG) flux mitigation. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) LandCarbon Project is responding to the Department of Interior's request to develop a methodology that meets specific EISA requirements.

  6. Using key informant methods in organizational survey research: assessing for informant bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, L C; Preski, S

    1997-02-01

    Specification of variables that reflect organizational processes can add an important dimension to the investigation of outcomes. However, many contextual variables are conceptualized at a macro unit of analysis and may not be amenable to direct measurement. In these situations, proxy measurement is obtained by treating organizational members as key informants who report about properties of the work group or organization. Potential sources of bias when using key informant methods in organizational survey research are discussed. Statistical procedures for assessment of rater-trait interaction as a type of informant bias are illustrated using data from a study in which multiple key informants were sampled to obtain proxy measurement of the organizational climate for caring among baccalaureate schools of nursing.

  7. A Survey on Terrain Assessment Techniques for Autonomous Operation of Planetary Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Pradel, D. L.; Gao, Y.

    A key challenge in autonomous planetary surface exploration is the extraction of meaningful information from sensor data, which would allow a good interpretation of the nearby terrain, and a reasonable assessment of more distant areas. In the last decade, the desire to increase the autonomy of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs), particularly in terms of off-road navigation, has significantly increased the interest in the field of automated terrain classification. Although the field is relatively new, its advances and goals are scattered across different robotic platforms and applications. The objective of this paper is to present a survey of the field from a planetary exploration perspective, bringing together the underlying techniques, existing approaches and relevant applications under a common framework. The aim is to provide a comprehensive overview to the newcomer in the field, and a structured reference for the practitioners.

  8. A survey of medical students to assess their exposure to and knowledge of renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weale Andrew R

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the field of renal transplantation there is a lack of qualified and trainee surgeons and a shortage of donated organs. Any steps to tackle these issues should, in part, be aimed at future doctors. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to final year students at a single medical school in the UK to assess their exposure to and knowledge of renal transplantation. Results Although 46% of responding students had examined a transplant recipient, only 14% had ever witnessed the surgery. Worryingly, 9% of students believed that xenotransplantation commonly occurs in the UK and 35% were unable to name a single drug that a recipient may need to take. Conclusions This survey demonstrates a lack of exposure to, and knowledge of, the field of renal transplantation. Recommendations to address the problems with the recruitment of surgeons and donation of organs, by targeting medical students are made.

  9. Comparison of the Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire and the Short-Form International Physical Activity Questionnaire: An Analysis of Health Survey for England Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Scholes

    Full Text Available The Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire (PASBAQ, used within the Health Survey for England (HSE at 5-yearly intervals, is not included annually due to funding and interview-length constraints. Policy-makers and data-users are keen to consider shorter instruments such as the Short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ for the annual survey. Both questionnaires were administered in HSE 2012, enabling comparative assessment in a random sample of 1252 adults.Relative agreement using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa (PABAK statistics was estimated for: sufficient aerobic activity (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] ≥150 minutes/week; inactivity (MVPA<30 minutes/week; and excessive sitting (≥540 minutes/weekday. Cross-sectional associations with health outcomes were compared across tertiles of MVPA and tertiles of sitting time using logistic regression with tests for linear trend.Compared with PASBAQ data, IPAQ-assessed estimates of sufficient aerobic activity and inactivity were higher and lower, respectively; estimates of excessive sitting were higher. Demographic patterns in prevalence were similar. Agreement using PABAK statistics was fair-to-moderate for sufficient aerobic activity (0.32-0.49, moderate-to-substantial for inactivity (0.42-0.74, and moderate-to-substantial for excessive sitting (0.49-0.75. As with the PASBAQ, IPAQ-assessed MVPA and sitting each showed graded associations with mental well-being (women: P for trend = 0.003 and 0.004, respectively and obesity (women: P for trend = 0.007 and 0.014, respectively.Capturing habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour through brief questionnaires is complex. Differences in prevalence estimates can reflect differences in questionnaire structure and content rather than differences in reported behaviour. Treating all IPAQ-assessed walking as moderate-intensity contributed to the differences in prevalence estimates

  10. Quality assurance manual for the environmental survey and site assessment program, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-21

    The purpose of this manual is to provide Program policy and oversight for the maintenance of Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) within the Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. This manual describes administrative systems, as well as specific quality control procedures, which apply to all functional groups in ESSAP. The sites surveyed under this program are primarily those where residual contamination from previous operations may pose a potential risk to the environment or to the health and safety of those in the immediate vicinity. Other major activities include environmental assessments, training related to decommissioning survey activities, effluent sampling and monitoring, special laboratory analyses, program appraisals and document reviews, consulting on environment-related topics, and technical assistance for guideline development. The methodology for performance of particular field and laboratory activities is presented in the ESSAP Survey Procedures Manual and the Laboratory Procedures Manual.

  11. Associations of commuting to school and work with demographic variables and with weight status in eight European countries: The ENERGY-cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Velde, Saskia J; Haraldsen, Eli; Vik, Frøydis N; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Natasa; Kovacs, Eva; Moreno, Luis A; Dössegger, Alain; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes; Bere, Elling

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to assess the prevalence of different modes of commuting to school and work for 10-12year-olds and their parents; to assess the associations with demographic variables (country, sex, parental education and ethnicity) and with weight status in eight European countries. As part of the ENERGY project a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010 in which modes of commuting and socio-demographic variables for children (N=7903) and one of their parents (n=6455) were measured by questionnaires. Children's weight and height were objectively measured; parents self-reported their weight and height. Logistic multilevel regression analyses assessed the associations between mode of commuting and overweight. Differences between countries and differences in mode of commuting according to demographic variables were tested using χ(2)-test and Marascuilo's Post-hoc analysis. There were marked differences between countries, especially regarding cycling to school, which was common in The Netherlands and Norway and rare in Greece and Spain. Demographic variables were associated with mode of commuting in children and parents. Mode of commuting was not associated with being overweight in children, after adjustment for demographic variables. Bicycling to work, but not other modes of commuting, was significantly inversely associated with being overweight among parents (OR=0.74 (95%CI 0.57-0.97)). Interventions targeting active commuting may promote cycling, and should take into account the differences regarding demographic variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongracic Jacqueline A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ≥ 10; item reduction ≥ 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.

  13. Needs assessment for simulation training in neuroendoscopy: a Canadian national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Dubrowski, Adam; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, dramatic changes in surgical education have increased interest in simulation-based training for complex surgical skills. This is particularly true for endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), given the potential for serious intraoperative errors arising from surgical inexperience. However, prior to simulator development, a thorough assessment of training needs is essential to ensure development of educationally relevant platforms. The purpose of this study was to conduct a national needs assessment addressing specific goals of instruction, to guide development of simulation platforms, training curricula, and assessment metrics for ETV. Canadian neurosurgeons performing ETV were invited to participate in a structured online questionnaire regarding the procedural steps for ETV, the frequency and significance of intraoperative errors committed while learning the technique, and simulation training modules of greatest potential educational benefit. Descriptive data analysis was completed for both quantitative and qualitative responses. Thirty-two (55.2%) of 58 surgeons completed the survey. All believed that virtual reality simulation training for ETV would be a valuable addition to clinical training. Selection of ventriculostomy site, navigation within the ventricles, and performance of the ventriculostomy ranked as the most important steps to simulate. Technically inadequate ventriculostomy and inappropriate fenestration site selection were ranked as the most frequent/significant errors. A standard ETV module was thought to be most beneficial for resident training. To inform the development of a simulation-based training program for ETV, the authors have conducted a national needs assessment. The results provide valuable insight to inform key design elements necessary to construct an educationally relevant device and educational program.

  14. Socio-Demographic Moderators of Environment-Physical Activity Associations: Results From the International Prevalence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lilian G; Conway, Terry L; Bauman, Adrian; Kerr, Jacqueline; Elder, John P; Arredondo, Elva M; Sallis, Jim F

    2017-08-03

    Associations between the built environment and physical activity (PA) may vary by socio-demographic factors. However, such evidence from international studies is limited. This study tested moderating effects of socio-demographic factors on associations between perceived environment and self-report total PA among adults from the International Prevalence Study. Between 2002-2003, adults from nine countries (N=10,258) completed surveys assessing total PA (IPAQ-short), perceived environment, and socio-demographics (age, gender, and education). Total PA was dichotomized as meeting/not meeting a) high PA levels and b) minimum PA guidelines (PAG). Logistic models tested environment by socio-demographic interactions (24 total). Education and gender moderated the association between safety from crime and meeting high PA levels (interaction p<0.05), with inverse associations found only among the high-education group and men. Education and gender also moderated associations of safety from crime and the presence of transit stops with meeting minimum PAG (interaction p<0.05), with positive associations found for safety from crime only among women and presence of transit stops only among men and the high-education group. The limited number of moderating effects found provides support for population-wide environment-PA associations. International efforts to improve built environments are needed to promote health-enhancing PA, and maintain environmental sustainability.

  15. Tidal disruption event demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2016-09-01

    We survey the properties of stars destroyed in tidal disruption events (TDEs) as a function of black hole (BH) mass, stellar mass and evolutionary state, star formation history and redshift. For M_{BH} ≲ 10^7 M_{⊙}, the typical TDE is due to a M* ˜ 0.3 M⊙ M-dwarf, although the mass function is relatively flat for M_{ast } ≲ M_{⊙}. The contribution from older main-sequence stars and sub-giants is small but not negligible. From MBH ≃ 107.5-108.5 M⊙, the balance rapidly shifts to higher mass stars and a larger contribution from evolved stars, and is ultimately dominated by evolved stars at higher BH masses. The star formation history has little effect until the rates are dominated by evolved stars. TDE rates should decline very rapidly towards higher redshifts. The volumetric rate of TDEs is very high because the BH mass function diverges for low masses. However, any emission mechanism which is largely Eddington-limited for low BH masses suppresses this divergence in any observed sample and leads to TDE samples dominated by MBH ≃ 106.0-107.5 M⊙ BHs with roughly Eddington peak accretion rates. The typical fall-back time is relatively long, with 16 per cent having tfb plausible if tfb has any relation to the transient rise time. For almost any BH mass function, systematic searches for fainter, faster time-scale TDEs in smaller galaxies, and longer time-scale TDEs in more massive galaxies are likely to be rewarded.

  16. Uranium resource assessment by the Geological Survey; methodology and plan to update the national resource base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Warren Irvin; McCammon, Richard B.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the Memorandum of Understanding {MOU) of September 20, 1984, between the U.S. Geological Survey of the U.S. Department of Interior and the Energy Information Administration {EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy {DOE), the U.S. Geological Survey began to make estimates of the undiscovered uranium endowment of selected areas of the United States in 1985. A modified NURE {National Uranium Resource Evaluation) method will be used in place of the standard NURE method of the DOE that was used for the national assessment reported in October 1980. The modified method, here named the 'deposit-size-frequency' {DSF) method, is presented for the first time, and calculations by the two methods are compared using an illustrative example based on preliminary estimates for the first area to be evaluated under the MOU. The results demonstrate that the estimate of the endowment using the DSF method is significantly larger and more uncertain than the estimate obtained by the NURE method. We believe that the DSF method produces a more realistic estimate because the principal factor estimated in the endowment equation is disaggregated into more parts and is more closely tied to specific geologic knowledge than by the NURE method. The DSF method consists of modifying the standard NURE estimation equation, U=AxFxTxG, by replacing the factors FxT by a single factor that represents the tonnage for the total number of deposits in all size classes. Use of the DSF method requires that the size frequency of deposits in a known or control area has been established and that the relation of the size-frequency distribution of deposits to probable controlling geologic factors has been determined. Using these relations, the principal scientist {PS) first estimates the number and range of size classes and then, for each size class, estimates the lower limit, most likely value, and upper limit of the numbers of deposits in the favorable area. Once these probable estimates have been refined